Science.gov

Sample records for air emissions wastewater

  1. Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehabi, Arman; Stokes, Jennifer R.; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-06-01

    Both centralized and decentralized wastewater systems have distinct engineering, financial and societal benefits. This paper presents a framework for analyzing the environmental effects of decentralized wastewater systems and an evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with two currently operating systems in California, one centralized and one decentralized. A comparison of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and criteria air pollutants from the systems shows that the scale economies of the centralized plant help lower the environmental burden to less than a fifth of that of the decentralized utility for the same volume treated. The energy and emission burdens of the decentralized plant are reduced when accounting for high-yield wastewater reuse if it supplants an energy-intensive water supply like a desalination one. The centralized facility also reduces greenhouse gases by flaring methane generated during the treatment process, while methane is directly emitted from the decentralized system. The results are compelling enough to indicate that the life-cycle environmental impacts of decentralized designs should be carefully evaluated as part of the design process.

  2. Using oily wastewater emulsified fuel in boiler: energy saving and reduction of air pollutant emissions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Lee, Wen-Jhy

    2008-01-01

    The limited data for using emulsified oil have demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing flue gas pollutant emissions. The presence of a high concentration of toxic organic compounds in industrial wastewaters always presents significant problems. Therefore, this study was undertaken by using wastewater with COD of 9600 mg/L and total petroleum hydrocarbons-gasoline 440 mg/L for making an emulsified oil (wastewater content 20% with 0.1% surfactant) to evaluate the extent of reductions in both criteria pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For comparison, two other systems (heavy oil fuel and water-emulsified oil) were also conducted. The wastewater-emulsified oil fuel results in significant reductions in particulate matter (PM), NO(x), SO2, and CO as compared to heavy oil fuel and similar to those from water/oil emulsified fuel; for PM, it is better in wastewater-emulsified oil. The reductions of total PAH flue gas emissions are 38 and 30% for wastewater- and water-emulsified fuel, respectively; they are 63 and 44% for total BaP(eq), respectively. In addition to reducing flue gas pollutant emissions, the results also demonstrate that the use of wastewater-emulsified fuel in boiler operation provides several advantages: (1) safe disposal of industrial wastewater; and (2) energy savings of about 13%. Thus, wastewater/oil-emulsified fuel is highly suitable for use in boilers.

  3. Emissions of NH3, CO2 and H2S during swine wastewater management: Characterization of transient emissions after air-liquid interface disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanes-Vidal, V.; Guàrdia, M.; Dai, X. R.; Nadimi, E. S.

    2012-07-01

    Air contaminants emitted from stored animal wastewater affect human health and the environment. Measurements of gaseous emissions from undisturbed animal wastewater are abundant in the literature. However, in-barn wastewater management is characterized by the frequent occurrence of surface liquid disturbances. Information about emissions during and after wastewater disturbances is scarce. This study evaluates emissions of NH3, CO2 and H2S under transient conditions after wastewater disturbances (caused by slurry addition, water addition and mixing), and describes the mechanisms involved until reaching steady-state conditions. All three disturbances modified the gas emission patterns. Emissions of NH3 immediately decreased after the disturbances (-61% after slurry and water addition and by -91% after mixing), and then gradually increased during 90-200 min. Emissions of CO2 increased during the disturbances (40% during slurry and water addition and 1515% during mixing), and then decreased during up to 30 min after the disturbance. H2S emissions sharply increased during all three disturbances and then decreased for 2 min to 20 min. Emissions under transient conditions were related to the formation of a pH profile. Transient emissions should be considered in gas emission studies as they may represent an important part of the cumulative gas emissions during slurry storage.

  4. Emission of poly and perfluoroalkyl substances, UV-filters and siloxanes to air from wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Shoeib, Mahiba; Schuster, Jasmin; Rauert, Cassandra; Su, Ky; Smyth, Shirley-Anne; Harner, Tom

    2016-11-01

    The potential of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to act as sources of poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), volatile methyl siloxanes (VMSs) and organic UV-filters to the atmosphere was investigated. Target compounds included: PFASs (fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctane sulfonamides/sulfonamidoethanols (FOSAs/FOSEs), perfluroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and perfluroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs)), cyclic VMSs (D3 to D6), linear VMSs (L3 to L5) and eight UV-filters. Emissions to air were assessed at eight WWTPs using paired sorbent-impregnated polyurethane foam passive air samplers, deployed during summer 2013 and winter 2014. Samplers were deployed on-site above the active tank and off-site as a reference. Several types of WWTPs were investigated: secondary activated sludge in urban areas (UR-AS), secondary extended aeration in towns (TW-EA) and facultative lagoons in rural areas (RU-LG). The concentrations of target compounds in air were ∼1.7-35 times higher on-site compared to the corresponding off-site location. Highest concentrations in air were observed at UR-AS sites while the lowest were at RU-LG. Higher air concentrations (∼2-9 times) were observed on-site during summer compared to winter, possibly reflecting enhanced volatilization due to higher wastewater temperatures or differences in influent wastewater concentrations. A significant positive correlation was obtained between concentrations in air and WWTP characteristics (influent flow rate and population in the catchment of the WWTP); whereas a weak negative correlation was obtained with hydraulic retention time. Emissions to air were estimated using a simplified dispersion model. Highest emissions to air were seen at the UR-AS locations. Emissions to air (g/year/tank) were highest for VMSs (5000-112,000) followed by UV-filters (16-2000) then ΣPFASs (10-110).

  5. Emission of bacteria and fungi in the air from wastewater treatment plants - a review.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewska, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    An increase in global population, coupled with intensive development of industry and agriculture, has resulted in the generation and accumulation of large amounts of waste around the world. The spread of pathogenic microorganisms, endotoxins, odours and dust particles in the air is an inevitable consequence of waste production and waste management. Thus, the risk of infections associated with wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has become of a particular importance in recent decades. Sewage and unstable sludge contain various pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and human and animal parasites. These microorganisms can be transmitted to the ambient air in wastewater droplets, which are generated during aeration or mechanical moving of the sewage. Bioaerosols generated during wastewater treatment may therefore pose a potential health hazard to workers of these plants or to habitants of their surroundings. The degree of human exposure to airborne bacteria, fungi, endotoxin and other allergens may vary significantly depending upon the type and the capacity of a plant, kind of the facilities, performed activities and meteorological conditions.

  6. A public health evaluation of air emissions from a wastewater treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.M.; West, M.; Ashworth, M.R.; Luton, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) was created by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and liability Act (CERCLA) to carry out the health-related provisions of CERCLA in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency. In 1990, ATSDR gained the additional responsibility of conducting public health assessments at Dept of Defense facilities, including Army, Navy, Air Force, and Defense Logistics Agency sites on the National Priorities List. In compliance with CERCLA and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and in response to community concerns and ATSDR recommendations, Tinker Air Force Base conducted air monitoring at the on-base Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP). Ambient air, process, and source samples were collected. Air samples were analyzed for volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. ATSDR evaluated the air monitoring data to address the public health implications of potential exposures. Areas of concern included a residential area adjacent to the IWTP and a proposed child development center. This paper discusses the modifications the Air Force implemented at the IWTP, ATSDR`s public health evaluation, and the cooperative efforts of federal agencies to mitigate public health exposures.

  7. Air Emissions Factors and Quantification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emissions factors are used in developing air emissions inventories for air quality management decisions and in developing emissions control strategies. This area provides technical information on and support for the use of emissions factors.

  8. Treatment of hydraulic fracturing wastewater by wet air oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yan, Xiuyi; Zhou, Jinghui; Ma, Jiuli

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas production is characterized by high salinity and high chemical oxygen demand (COD). We applied a combination of flocculation and wet air oxidation technology to optimize the reduction of COD in the treatment of hydraulic fracturing wastewater. The experiments used different values of flocculant, coagulant, and oxidizing agent added to the wastewater, as well as different reaction times and treatment temperatures. The use of flocculants for the pretreatment of fracturing wastewater was shown to improve treatment efficiency. The addition of 500 mg/L of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and 20 mg/L of anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) during pretreatment resulted in a COD removal ratio of 8.2% and reduced the suspended solid concentration of fracturing wastewater to 150 mg/L. For a solution of pretreated fracturing wastewater with 12 mL of added H2O2, the COD was reduced to 104 mg/L when reacted at 300 °C for 75 min, and reduced to 127 mg/L when reacted at the same temperature for 45 min while using a 1 L autoclave. An optimal combination of these parameters produced treated wastewater that met the GB 8978-1996 'Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard' level I emission standard.

  9. Microbial monitoring and performance evaluation for H2S biological air emissions control at a wastewater lift station in South Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kim D; Yadavalli, Naga; Karre, Anand K; Paca, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A pilot-scale biological sequential treatment system consisting of a biotrickling filter and two biofilters was installed at Waste Water Lift Station # 64 in Brownsville, Texas, USA to evaluate the performance of the system being loaded with variable concentrations of wastewater hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emissions. In this study, the effectiveness of sulfur oxidizing bacteria along with the distribution of various sulfur species and their correlation with the performance of the biofilters was evaluated. The biofilters were packed with engineered media consisting of plastic cylinders with compacted organic material which was supplied by Met-Pro Environmental Air Solutions (formerly Bio·Reaction Industries). The overall performance of the pilot-scale biological sequential treatment system with an Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT) of 60s and the overall performance of the biofilter unit with an EBRT of 35s developed a removal efficiency of > 99% at H(2)S levels up to 500 ppm. A decrease in performance over time was observed in the first and second sections of the first biofilter unit with the third section of the biofilter unit ultimately becoming the most robust unit removing most of the pollutant. The second biofilter unit was not needed and subsequently removed from the system. The number of CFUs in sulfur oxidizing T.thioparus selective media grew significantly in all four sections of the biofilter over the two months of pilot operation of the biological unit. The sulfur oxidizer growth rates appeared to be highest at low total sulfur content and at slightly acidic pH levels. This study has implications for improving the understanding of the distribution of sulfur oxidizing bacteria throughout the length of the biofilter columns, which can be used to further optimize performance and estimate breakthrough at these very high H(2)S input loadings.

  10. Air Emissions Monitoring for Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Operating permits document how air pollution sources will demonstrate compliance with emission limits and also how air pollution sources will monitor, either periodically or continuously, their compliance with emission limits and all other requirements.

  11. Methane emission during municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Daelman, Matthijs R J; van Voorthuizen, Ellen M; van Dongen, Udo G J M; Volcke, Eveline I P; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2012-07-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants emit methane. Since methane is a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change, the abatement of the emission is necessary to achieve a more sustainable urban water management. This requires thorough knowledge of the amount of methane that is emitted from a plant, but also of the possible sources and sinks of methane on the plant. In this study, the methane emission from a full-scale municipal wastewater facility with sludge digestion was evaluated during one year. At this plant the contribution of methane emissions to the greenhouse gas footprint were slightly higher than the CO₂ emissions related to direct and indirect fossil fuel consumption for energy requirements. By setting up mass balances over the different unit processes, it could be established that three quarters of the total methane emission originated from the anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge. This amount exceeded the carbon dioxide emission that was avoided by utilizing the biogas. About 80% of the methane entering the activated sludge reactor was biologically oxidized. This knowledge led to the identification of possible measures for the abatement of the methane emission.

  12. Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment processes

    PubMed Central

    Law, Yingyu; Ye, Liu; Pan, Yuting; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from wastewater treatment plants vary substantially between plants, ranging from negligible to substantial (a few per cent of the total nitrogen load), probably because of different designs and operational conditions. In general, plants that achieve high levels of nitrogen removal emit less N2O, indicating that no compromise is required between high water quality and lower N2O emissions. N2O emissions primarily occur in aerated zones/compartments/periods owing to active stripping, and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, rather than heterotrophic denitrifiers, are the main contributors. However, the detailed mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated, despite strong evidence suggesting that both nitrifier denitrification and the chemical breakdown of intermediates of hydroxylamine oxidation are probably involved. With increased understanding of the fundamental reactions responsible for N2O production in wastewater treatment systems and the conditions that stimulate their occurrence, reduction of N2O emissions from wastewater treatment systems through improved plant design and operation will be achieved in the near future. PMID:22451112

  13. Basic Information about Air Emissions Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site is about types of air emissions monitoring and the Clean Air Act regulations, including Ambient Air Quality Monitoring, Stationary Source Emissions Monitoring, and Continuous Monitoring Systems.

  14. Gaseous and bioaerosol emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Seetha, N; Bhargava, Renu; Gurjar, B R

    2013-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are identified as potential emission sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and bioaerosols. This paper reviews and analyse the potential sources of GHGs and bioaerosols from different unit operations and processes of WWTPs. Aeration tanks of activated sludge process (ASP) are found to be the most important sources of GHGs as well as bioaerosol emissions. Nitrification and denitrification processes are found to be important sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. To minimize the N2O emissions from WWTPs, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration should be kept greater than 2 mg/L in nitrification process, whereas purely anoxic condition (0 mg/L DO) is required in denitrification process. Diffused aeration emits fewer microbes into the air than surface aerators. It is observed that fixed-film processes emit microbes by two orders of magnitude less than aeration tanks. The various WWTPs discussed in this study used different methods of treatment sample collection and species of microorganisms studied. It is realised that the standardisation of the microorganisms to be analysed and methods of sample collection needs to be done. It is also found that from the microbiological point of view, there is no clean air in the vicinity of a WWTP.

  15. Thermal emissivity of leaves from trees cultivated using processed wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Drakatos, P.A.; Kalavrouziotis, I.K.; Skuras, D.G.; Drakatos, S.P.

    1997-07-01

    Wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plans were discharged on experimental plantations of the species Nerium oleander, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus tremula. An emissiometer was used to measure the thermal emissitivity of the leaves of the different species. Comparison of thermal emissitivity between control and treatment leaves showed significant differences. There are clear indications that, land disposal of wastewater and sludge affects emissivity of different plant-species.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands treating dairy wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Vimy M.

    In Nova Scotia, constructed wetland systems are widely considered as effective treatment systems for agricultural wastewater. Although research has examined the water quality treatment attributes, there has been limited focus on the air quality effects of these systems. Six operational pilot-scale constructed wetlands were built with flow-through chambers for quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Truro, NS. Utilized within this facility were three gas analyzers to monitor GHG emissions (CO2, N 2O, CH4) and the gaseous fluxes could then be determined using the mass balance micrometeorological technique. Prior to data collection, the site underwent testing to ensure valid conclusions and replicated responses from the wetland systems. Those wetlands receiving wastewater at a typical HLR (10.6 mm d-1) and with ample vegetation displayed the best concentration reductions. During the growing season (GS), average CO 2 consumption was large (approximately -44 g CO2m -2 d-1) for wetlands with dense vegetation (approximately 100% cover) at the typical loading rate. For those wetlands at higher loading rates, CO2 emissions were observed to be as high as +9.2 g CO 2m-2 d-1. Wetlands with typical loading rates and healthy aquatic vegetation produced average CH4 fluxes of approximately 43 g CO2 eq. m-2d-1, while higher loaded systems with little vegetation approached 90 g CO 2 eq. m-2d-1. During the non-growing season (NGS), all vegetated wetlands exhibited higher CH4 emissions than the non-vegetated systems (˜15 to 20% higher). Vegetation maturity played a strong role in the GHG balance. The average CO2consumption for wetlands with established vegetation was ˜ -36 g CO2 m -2 d-1 during the GS. Wetland 4, which had been newly transplanted in 2004, had the highest single day CO2 consumption of -152 g CO2m-2 d-1 . Methane emissions from wetlands with two-year-old vegetation followed the same pattern but were approximately half of the emissions recorded from 2003. The

  17. Field measurement of greenhouse gas emission rates and development of emission factors for wastewater treatment. Final report, September 1994-March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, B.; LaCosse, J.

    1997-09-01

    The report gives results of field testing to develop more reliable greenhouse gas (GHG) emission estimates for Wastewater treatment (WWT) lagoons. Field tests of emissions were conducted for WWT lagoons that use anaerobic processes to treat large volumes of wastewater with large biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings. Air emissions and wastewater were measured at anaerobic lagoons at three meat processing plants and two publicly owned treatment works. The overall emission rates of CH4, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, ammonia (NH3), and chlorofluorocarbons were measured from each source using an open-path monitoring approach. The emitted compounds were identified and quantified by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Emission factors were developed for CH4 and NH3 as a function of the plant production rate, wastewater parameters (e.g., influent BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loadings), and WWT system performance (e.g., BOD and COD removal rates).

  18. Ports Primer: 7.2 Air Emissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Near-port communities are often disproportionately impacted by air emissions due to port operations, goods movement operations and other industries that may be co-located with ports. Air emissions at ports also impact regional air quality.

  19. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from municipal wastewater treatment - results from a long-term study.

    PubMed

    Daelman, M R J; van Voorthuizen, E M; van Dongen, L G J M; Volcke, E I P; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2013-01-01

    Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a fully covered municipal wastewater treatment plant were measured on-line during 16 months. At the plant under study, nitrous oxide contributed three-quarters to the plant's carbon footprint, while the methane emission was slightly larger than the indirect carbon dioxide emission related to the plant's electricity and natural gas consumption. This contrasted with two other wastewater treatment plants, where more than 80% of the carbon footprint came from the indirect carbon dioxide emission. The nitrous oxide emission exhibited a seasonal dynamic, of which the cause remains unclear. Three types of air filter were investigated with regard to their effectiveness to remove methane from the off-gas.

  20. Isolation and identification of pathogenic microorganisms at wastewater-irrigated fields: ratios in air and wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Teltsch, B.; Kedmi, S.; Bonnet, L.; Borenzstajn-Rotem, Y.; Katzenelson, E.

    1980-06-01

    Samples of air and corresponding wastewater samples were taken at wastewater spray-irrigated fields. The concentrations of salmonellae and enteroviruses present in these samples were determined and compared with those of coliforms, and the ratios between them were calculated. The most common Salmonella serotype in the air was Salmonella ohio, whereas in the wastewater, Salmonella anatum was the most common. Enteroviruses isolated and identified were poliovirus, echovirus, and coxsackievirus type B. From the ratios of salmonellas to coliforms and enteroviruses to coliforms in the air, as compared to these ratios in the wastewater, it was concluded that the suitability of coliforms as an indication of airborne contamination caused by spray irrigation is questionable.

  1. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  2. Wet-air oxidation cleans up black wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Sterling Organics produces the analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen) at its Dudley, England, plant. The wastewater from the batch process contains intermediates such as para-aminophenol (PAP) and byproducts such as thiosulfates, sulfites and sulfides. To stay ahead of increasingly strict environmental legislation, Sterling Organics installed a wet-air oxidation system at the Dudley facility in August 1992. The system is made by Zimpro Environmental Inc. (Rothschild, Wis.). Zimpro's wet-air oxidation system finds a way around the limitations of purely chemical or physical processes. In the process, compressed air at elevated temperature and pressure oxidizes the process intermediates and byproducts and removes the color from the wastewater.

  3. Potential application of Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4 in mitigating ammonia emissions from dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    Neerackal, George M; Ndegwa, Pius M; Joo, Hung-Soo; Wang, Xiang; Frear, Craig S; Harrison, Joseph H; Beutel, Marc W

    2016-04-01

    This research examined the potential mitigation of NH3 emissions from dairy manure via an enhanced aerobic bio-treatment with bacterium Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4. The studies were conducted in aerated batch reactors using air and pure oxygen. Aeration with air and oxygen removed approximately 40% and 100% total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), respectively. Intermittent oxygenation (every 2 or 4 h) reduced oxygen consumption by 95%, while attaining nearly identical TAN removal to continuous aeration. The results revealed that adequate oxygen supply and supplementing dairy wastewater with carbon are essential for this bioprocess. Based on the nitrogen mass balance, only 4% of TAN was released as NH3 gas, while the majority was retained in either the microbial biomass (58%) or converted to nitrogen gas (36%). The mass balance results reveal high potential for environmentally friendly bio-treatment of dairy wastewater using A. faecalis strain No. 4 with respect to NH3 emissions.

  4. Autonomous Mobile Platform for Monitoring Air Emissions from Industrial and Municipal Waste Water Ponds.

    PubMed

    Fu, Long; Huda, Quamrul; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Lucas; Hashisho, Zaher

    2017-02-02

    Significant amounts of volatile organic compounds and greenhouse gases are generated from wastewater lagoons and tailings ponds in Alberta. Accurate measurements of these air pollutants and greenhouse gases are needed to support management and regulatory decisions. A mobile platform was developed to measure air emissions from tailings pond in the oil sands region of Alberta. The mobile platform was tested in 2015 in a municipal wastewater treatment lagoon. With a flux chamber and a CO2/CH4 sensor on board, the mobile platform was able to measure CO2 and CH4 emissions over two days at two different locations in the pond. Flux emission rates of CO2 and CH4 that were measured over the study period suggest the presence of aerobic and anaerobic zones in the wastewater treatment lagoon. The study demonstrated the capabilities of the mobile platform in measuring fugitive air emissions and identified the potential for the applications in air and water quality monitoring programs. Implications The Mobile Platform demonstrated in this study has the ability to measure greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fugitive sources such as municipal wastewater lagoons. This technology can be used to measure emission fluxes from tailings pond with better detection of spatial and temporal variations of fugitive emissions. Additional air and water sampling equipment could be added to the mobile platform for a broad range of air and water quality studies in the oil sands region of Alberta.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturchio, N. C.; Bellucci, F.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Heraty, L.; Kozak, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are considered the seventh highest contributor of greenhouse gases (GHG) to the atmosphere. For instance, USEPA recently reported (http://epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/downloads10/US-GHG-Inventory-2010_Chapter8-Waste.pdf) that U.S. wastewater treatment released 24.3 Tg CO2e (i.e. CO2 GHG equivalents) via CH4 and 4.9 Tg CO2e via N20 during 2008. Emissions of GHG from wastewater treatment sources are often modeled using algorithms that rely on surrogates such as five-day Biological or Chemical Oxygen Demand [B(C)OD5] for CH4 and protein content of diets for N2O. Unfortunately, empirical validation of these models using field data is lacking. To fill this gap, we measured annual CH4 and N20 emissions from three wastewater treatment plants in the Chicago region that differ in size and design. Plants ranged from serving 0.17 to 2.3 million people, treating from 27 to 751 millions of gallons of wastewater per day, and having BOD5 from 101 to 220 mg/L. Primary settling tanks, exhausts, and aeration basins were the main sources of CH4 emissions, whereas N2O was mainly emitted by aeration basins at the three plants investigated. During 2009, per capita emissions for CH4 and N2O (for every thousand people) ranged from 61 to 1130 kg/yr and from 12 to 226 Kg/yr, respectively. These wide variations were in part due to chemistry of influent waters and plant design. We found that IPCC and USEPA algorithms were good predictors of CH4 emissions but they largely underestimated N20 emissions. Despite the differences in plant design and per capita emissions, we found that all three plants have a similar CH4:N2O flux ratio. If this flux ratio proves to be a general characteristic of wastewater treatment plants, it could provide a more accurate alternative to current models for estimation of N2O emissions.

  6. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Requirements for Wastewater Systems 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... of Part 63—Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems For each . . . You must . . . And you must . . . 1. Wastewater stream a. Discharge to onsite or offsite wastewater treatment...

  7. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements for Wastewater Systems 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... of Part 63—Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems For each . . . You must . . . And you must . . . 1. Wastewater stream a. Discharge to onsite or offsite wastewater treatment...

  8. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the liquid injection incineration of petrochemical industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, I-Ching; Chang, Juu-En; Lai, Soon-Onn; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-09-05

    This study investigated the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from stack flue gas and air pollution control device (APCD) effluent of the liquid injection incinerator (LII) disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater, and PAH removal efficiencies of wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) and wet scrubber (WSB). The PAH carcinogenic potency were investigated with the benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP(eq)). The remarkably high total-BaP(eq) concentration (220 microgNm(-3)) in the stack flue gas was much higher than those of several published emission sources, and indicated the possible influence on its surrounding environment. The total-PAH emission factors of the WESP, WSB and stack flue gas were 78.9, 95.7 and 30,900 microgL(-1) wastewater, respectively. The removal efficiencies of total-PAHs were 0.254, 0.309 and 0.563% for WESP, WSB and overall, respectively, suggesting that the use of both WESP and WSB shows insignificant PAH removal efficiencies, and 99.4% of total-PAHs was directly emitted to the ambient air through the stack flue gas. This finding suggested that the better incineration efficiencies, and APCD removal efficiencies for disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater are necessary in future.

  9. Emission factor for atmospheric ammonia from a typical municipal wastewater treatment plant in South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunlin; Geng, Xuesong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Boguang

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3), a common alkaline gas found in air, plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry, such as in the formation of secondary particles. However, large uncertainties remain in the estimation of ammonia emissions from nonagricultural sources, such as wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, the ammonia emission factors from a large WWTP utilizing three typical biological treatment techniques to process wastewater in South China were calculated using the US EPA's WATER9 model with three years of raw sewage measurements and information about the facility. The individual emission factors calculated were 0.15 ± 0.03, 0.24 ± 0.05, 0.29 ± 0.06, and 0.25 ± 0.05 g NH3 m(-3) sewage for the adsorption-biodegradation activated sludge treatment process, the UNITANK process (an upgrade of the sequencing batch reactor activated sludge treatment process), and two slightly different anaerobic-anoxic-oxic treatment processes, respectively. The overall emission factor of the WWTP was 0.24 ± 0.06 g NH3m(-3) sewage. The pH of the wastewater influent is likely an important factor affecting ammonia emissions, because higher emission factors existed at higher pH values. Based on the ammonia emission factor generated in this study, sewage treatment accounted for approximately 4% of the ammonia emissions for the urban area of South China's Pearl River Delta (PRD) in 2006, which is much less than the value of 34% estimated in previous studies. To reduce the large uncertainty in the estimation of ammonia emissions in China, more field measurements are required.

  10. Noise Emission from Laboratory Air Blowers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Windham, Betty

    1978-01-01

    Product noise ratings for a number of laboratory air blowers are reported and several recommendations for reducing laboratory noise from air blowers are given. Relevant noise ratings and methods for measuring noise emission of appliances are discussed. (BB)

  11. Catalytic wet air oxidation of high concentration pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Wei; Wang, Xiaocong; Li, Daosheng; Ren, Yongzheng; Liu, Dongqi; Kang, Jianxiong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the pretreatment of a high concentration pharmaceutical wastewater by catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) process. Different experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of the catalyst type, operating temperature, initial system pH, and oxygen partial pressure on the oxidation of the wastewater. Results show that the catalysts prepared by the co-precipitation method have better catalytic activity compared to others. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) conversion increased with the increase in temperature from 160 to 220 °C and decreased with the increase in pH. Moreover, the effect of the oxygen partial pressure on the COD conversion was significant only during the first 20 min of the reaction. Furthermore, the biodegradability of the wastewater improved greatly after CWAO, the ratio of BOD5/COD increased less than 0.1-0.75 when treated at 220 °C (BOD: biochemical oxygen demand).

  12. Kinetics of wet air oxidation (WAO) of alcaloide factory wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kunukcu, Y Kaçar

    2005-01-01

    Wet air oxidation (WAO) of Afyon alcaloide factory wastewater, a typical high strength industrial wastewater, was carried out. The process was performed in a specifically designed titanium bubble reactor at temperatures in the range of 140-160 degrees C. The kinetics of WAO of alcaloide factory wastewater was modeled by assuming two distinct steps. The rates of destruction were measured with respect to reduction in COD. The oxidation reaction was found to be first order with respect to COD concentration and also second order with respect to oxygen concentration in both steps. The values of activation energies were found to be in the range of 4.93 x 10(4)-7.85 x 10(4) kJ/kmol.

  13. Study on mechanism of wet air oxidation of emulsification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wen W; Zeng, Xin P; Xiao, Yao M; Gu, Guo W

    2009-04-01

    Wet air oxidation (WAO) can effectively be used to treat high-concentration, non-biodegradable emulsification wastewater that contains nonionic matters. Gas chromatograph analysis of emulsification wastewater after oxidation indicated that a catalyst increased production of fatty acids but could not promote its oxidation between 160 and 180 degrees C. When the temperature was greater than or equal to 220 degrees C, the catalyst not only increased production of fatty acids initially but effectively promoted its oxidation in later stages and significantly reduced the concentration of residual surfactants. Experiments proved that fatty acids (especially acetic acid) were the primary intermediate products and that oxidation of these acids was the rate-limiting step. During the process of catalytic WAO of emulsification wastewater, active oxygen molecules attacked organic matters resulting in production of fatty acids, ketone, alcohol, hydrocarbon, and oligo-polyether through radical chain reactions.

  14. Air pollutants emissions from waste treatment and disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the atmospheric pollution created by some waste treatment and disposal facilities in the State of Kuwait. Air monitoring was conducted in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, an industrial wastewater treatment plant established in a petroleum refinery, and at a landfill site used for disposal of solid wastes. Such plants were selected as models for waste treatment and disposal facilities in the Arabian Gulf region and elsewhere. Air measurements were made over a period of 6 months and included levels of gaseous emissions as well as concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Samples of gas and bioaerosols were collected from ambient air surrounding the treatment facilities. The results obtained from this study have indicated the presence of VOCs and other gaseous pollutants such as methane, ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide in air surrounding the waste treatment and disposal facilities. In some cases the levels exceeded the concentration limits specified by the air quality standards. Offensive odors were also detected. The study revealed that adverse environmental impact of air pollutants is a major concern in the industrial more than in the municipal waste treatment facilities but sitting of municipal waste treatment and disposal facilities nearby the urban areas poses a threat to the public health.

  15. Wet air oxidation of epoxy acrylate monomer industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaoxia; Liu, Zhengqian; Huang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Beiping

    2010-06-15

    Epoxy acrylate monomer industrial wastewater contained highly concentrated and toxic organic compounds. The wet air oxidation (WAO) and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) were used to eliminate pollutants in order to examine the feasibility of the WAO/CWAO as a pre-treatment method for the industrial wastewater. The results showed that in the WAO 63% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 41% total organic carbon (TOC) removals were achieved and biological oxygen demand (BOD(5))/COD ratio increased from 0.13 to 0.72 after 3h reaction at 250 degrees C, 3.5MPa and the initial concentration of 100g(COD)/L. Among homogenous catalysts (Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Mn(2+) salts), Cu(2+) salt exhibited better performance. CuO catalyst was used in the CWAO of the wastewater, COD and TOC conversion were 77 and 54%, and good biodegradability was achieved. The results proved that the CWAO was an effective pre-treatment method for the epoxy acrylate monomer industrial wastewater.

  16. Global Scale Methane Emissions from On-Site Wastewater Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. C.; Guan, K.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Pit latrines and other on-site sanitation methods are important forms of wastewater management at the global scale, providing hygienic and low-cost sanitation for more than 1.7 billion people in developing and middle-income regions. Latrines have also been identified as major sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) from the anaerobic decomposition of organic waste in pits. Understanding the greenhouse gas footprint of different wastewater systems is essential for sustainable water resource development and management. Despite this importance, CH4 emissions from decentralized wastewater treatment have received little attention in the scientific literature, and the rough calculations underlying government inventories and integrated assessment models do not accurately capture variations in emissions within and between countries. In this study, we improve upon earlier efforts and develop the first spatially explicit approach to quantifying latrine CH4 emissions, combining a high-resolution geospatial analysis of population, urbanization, and water table (as an indicator of anaerobic decomposition pathways) with CH4 emissions factors from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Country-level health and sanitation surveys were used to determine latrine utilization in 2000 and predict usage in 2015. 18 representative countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America were selected for this analysis to illustrate regional variations in CH4 emissions and to include the greatest emitting nations. Our analysis confirms that pit latrines are a globally significant anthropogenic CH4 source, emitting 4.7 Tg CH4 yr-1 in the countries considered here. This total is projected to decrease ~25% by 2015, however, driven largely by rapid urbanization in China and decreased reliance on latrines in favor of flush toilets. India has the greatest potential for large growth in emissions in the post-2015 period, since public health campaigns to end open defecation

  17. Spatially resolved air-water emissions tradeoffs improve regulatory impact analyses for electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Sun, Xiaodi; Behrer, A Patrick; Azevedo, Inês L; Mauter, Meagan S

    2017-02-21

    Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) generate air, water, and solids emissions that impose substantial human health, environmental, and climate change (HEC) damages. This work demonstrates the importance of accounting for cross-media emissions tradeoffs, plant and regional emissions factors, and spatially variation in the marginal damages of air emissions when performing regulatory impact analyses for electric power generation. As a case study, we assess the benefits and costs of treating wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater at US CFPPs using the two best available treatment technology options specified in the 2015 Effluent Limitation Guidelines (ELGs). We perform a life-cycle inventory of electricity and chemical inputs to FGD wastewater treatment processes and quantify the marginal HEC damages of associated air emissions. We combine these spatially resolved damage estimates with Environmental Protection Agency estimates of water quality benefits, fuel-switching benefits, and regulatory compliance costs. We estimate that the ELGs will impose average net costs of $3.01 per cubic meter for chemical precipitation and biological wastewater treatment and $11.26 per cubic meter for zero-liquid discharge wastewater treatment (expected cost-benefit ratios of 1.8 and 1.7, respectively), with damages concentrated in regions containing a high fraction of coal generation or a large chemical manufacturing industry. Findings of net cost for FGD wastewater treatment are robust to uncertainty in auxiliary power source, location of chemical manufacturing, and binding air emissions limits in noncompliant regions, among other variables. Future regulatory design will minimize compliance costs and HEC tradeoffs by regulating air, water, and solids emissions simultaneously and performing regulatory assessments that account for spatial variation in emissions impacts.

  18. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  19. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  20. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  1. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  2. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requirements for Wastewater Systems 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... of Part 63—Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems As required in § 63.11498, you must comply with the requirements for wastewater systems as shown in the following table....

  3. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Requirements for Wastewater Systems 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... of Part 63—Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems As required in § 63.11498, you must comply with the requirements for wastewater systems as shown in the following table....

  4. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Wastewater Systems 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... of Part 63—Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems As required in § 63.11498, you must comply with the requirements for wastewater systems as shown in the following table....

  5. FIELD MEASUREMENT OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION RATES AND DEVELOPMENT OF EMISSION FACTORS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field testing to develop more reliable green house gas (GHG) emission estimates for Wastewater treatment (WWT) lagoons. (NOTE: Estimates are available for the amount of methane (CH4) emitted from certain types of waste facilities, but there is not adeq...

  6. Volatile organic compound emissions from wastewater treatment plants in Taiwan: legal regulations and costs of control.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Hsu, Shu-Kang; Chou, Ming-Shean

    2008-09-01

    This study assessed volatile organic compound (VOC) emission characteristics from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in five Taiwanese industrial districts engaged in numerous manufacturing processes, including petrochemical, science-based industry (primarily semiconductors, photo-electronics, electronic products and biological technology), as well as multiple manufacturing processes (primarily pharmaceuticals and paint manufacturing). The most aqueous hydrocarbons dissolved in the wastewater of Taiwanese WWTPs were acetone, acrylonitrile, methylene chloride, and chloroform for the petrochemical districts; acetone, chloroform, and toluene for the science-based districts; and chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons for the multiple industrial districts. The aqueous pollutants in the united WWTPs were closely related to the characteristics of the manufacturing plants in the districts. To effectively prevent VOC emissions from the primary treatment section of petrochemical WWTPs, the updated regulations governing VOC emissions were issued by the Taiwanese Environmental Protection Administration in September 2005, legally mandating a seal cover system incorporating venting and air purification equipment. Cost analysis indicates that incinerators with regenerative heat recovery are optimal for treating high VOC concentrations, exceeding 10,000 ppm as CH(4), from the oil separation basins. However, the emission concentrations, ranging from 100 to 1,000 ppm as CH(4) from the other primary treatment facilities and bio-treatment stages, should be collected and then injected into the biological oxidation basins via existing or new blowers. The additional capital and operating costs required to treat the VOC emissions of 1,000 ppm as CH(4) from primary treatment facilities are less than USD 0.1 for per m(3) wastewater treatment capacity.

  7. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  8. Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

    1999-03-01

    The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  10. Results of the air emission research study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air quality was monitored in beef mono-slope barns. The objectives of the study were 1) to gather baseline data for the levels of gas emissions and particulate matter from beef mono-slope facilities, 2) evaluate the effect of two different manure handling systems on air quality, and 3) provide infor...

  11. Predicting odour emissions from wastewater treatment plants by means of odour emission factors.

    PubMed

    Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Del Rosso, Renato; Céntola, Paolo

    2009-04-01

    In this study, the results of odour concentration measurements on different wastewater treatment plants are presented and used in order to estimate the odour emission factors relevant to single odour sources. An odour emission factor is a representative value that relates the quantity of odour released to the atmosphere to a specific activity index, which in this case was the plant treatment capacity, resulting in an odour emission factor expressed in odour units per cubic metre of treated sewage. The results show that the major odour source of a wastewater treatment plant is represented by the primary sedimentation (with an OEF equal to 1.9 x 10(5)ou(E) m(-3)). In general, the highest OEFs are observed in correspondence of the first steps of the wastewater depuration cycle (OEF between 1.1 x 10(4)ou(E) m(-3) and 1.9 x 10(5)ou(E) m(-3)) and tend to decrease along the depuration process (OEF between 7.4 x 10(3)ou(E) m(-3) and 4.3 x 10(4)ou(E) m(-3)). In general, the OEFs calculated according to this approach represent a model for a rough prediction of odour emissions independently from the specific characteristics of the different plants.

  12. Control of odour emission in wastewater treatment plants by direct and undirected measurement of odour emission capacity.

    PubMed

    Zarra, T; Giuliani, S; Naddeo, V; Belgiorno, V

    2012-01-01

    Odour emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered to be the main causes of disturbance noticed by the exposed population and have relevant impacts on both tourism economy and land costs. Odour impact from WWTPs is generated by primary and secondary odour emissions. Primary odour emissions are related especially to the wastewater type and variability discharged into the sewer and directed to the WWTP, and to the wastewater collection and sewage system. Secondary odours are related to the treatment units of the plant. Several studies describe the key role of primary odour emissions and how they are strongly related to odour impacts of WWTPs. In this way, a opportune characterization of the emission capacity of primary odour could be an effective way to control odour emission in the WWTPs. In this study the odour emission capacity (OEC) of different domestic sewers was described and investigated; a correlation between the OEC and the main physical-chemical parameters of wastewater quality was also carried out. Results of this study identify the optimum conditions for sampling and measuring OEC in wastewaters and define its dependence by wastewater quality. These results can contribute to setting the standards for the maximum odourant content of wastewater that are discharged into the publicly owned sewage system.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parravicini, Vanessa; Svardal, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Operating wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) represent a source of greenhouse gases (GHG). Direct GHG emissions include emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) that can be biologically produced during wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. This is also highlighted in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2006) guidelines used for national GHG inventories. Indirect GHG emissions occur at WWTPs mainly by the consumption of electricity, fossil fuel for transportation and by the use of chemicals (e.g. coagulants). In this study, the impact of direct and indirect GHG emissions was quantified for two model WWTPs of 50.000 person equivalents (p.e.) using carbon footprint analyses. It was assumed that at one WWTP sewage sludge is digested anaerobically, at the other one it is aerobically stabilised in the activated sludge tank. The carbon footprint analyses were performed using literature emission factors. A new estimation model based on measurements at eight Austrian WWTPs was used for the assessment of N2O direct emissions (Parravicini et al., 2015). The results of the calculations show that, under the selected assumptions, the direct N2O emission from the activated sludge tank can dominate the carbon footprint of WWTP with a poor nitrogen removal efficiency. Through an improved operation of nitrogen removal several advantages can be gained: direct N2O emissions can be reduced, the energy demand for aeration can be decreased and a higher effluent quality can be achieved. Anaerobic digesters and anaerobic sludge storage tanks can become a relevant source of direct CH4 emissions. Minimising of CH4 losses from these sources improves the carbon footprint of the WWTP also increasing the energy yield achievable by combusting this renewable energy carrier in a combined heat and power unit. The estimated carbon footprint of the model WWTPs lies between 20 and 40 kg CO2e/p.e./a. This corresponds to 0.2 to 0.4% of the CO2e average emission caused yearly

  14. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  16. Incinerator air emissions: Inhalation exposure perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, H.W.

    1995-12-01

    Incineration is often proposed as the treatment of choice for processing diverse wastes, particularly hazardous wastes. Where such treatment is proposed, people are often fearful that it will adversely affect their health. Unfortunately, information presented to the public about incinerators often does not include any criteria or benchmarks for evaluating such facilities. This article describes a review of air emission data from regulatory trial burns in a large prototype incinerator, operated at design capacity by the US Army to destroy chemical warfare materials. It uses several sets of criteria to gauge the threat that these emissions pose to public health. Incinerator air emission levels are evaluated with respect to various toxicity screening levels and ambient air levels of the same pollutants. Also, emission levels of chlorinated dioxins and furans are compared with emission levels of two common combustion sources. Such comparisons can add to a community`s understanding of health risks associated with an incinerator. This article focuses only on the air exposure/inhalation pathway as related to human health. It does not address other potential human exposure pathways or the possible effects of emissions on the local ecology, both of which should also be examined during a complete analysis of any major new facility.

  17. Chloroform in Indoor Air and Wastewater: The Role of Residential Washing Machines.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Jennifer L; Corsi, Richard L; Kemp, Jeff

    1996-07-01

    A residential washing machine was studied in order to determine the extent of chloroform formation following the application of a laundry bleach containing sodium hypochlorite. A dynamic model was also developed to estimate chloroform formation, mass transfer, and gaseous emissions during a typical wash cycle. A series of 22 experiments was completed to determine model parameters, including chemical reaction and mass transfer rate coefficients, as well as headspace air exchange rates. Three additional experiments were completed to evaluate model performance. Experimental and model results suggest that washing machine environments are very conducive to chloroform formation, with chloroform levels frequently exceeding 1 mg/L in washwater. Chloroform stripping efficiencies were observed to be greater than those previously reported for ethanol, but less than those reported for radon. Mass emissions of chloroform to indoor air during a ten-minute wash cycle were predicted to be between 5.3 and 9.8 mg. On a unit activity basis, chloroform emissions associated with hypochlorite-containing bleach addition to washing machines far exceeded emissions from showers. Each source was estimated to emit similar quantities of chloroform on an annual basis. Finally, it was estimated that the use of hypochlorite-containing laundry bleaches may contribute a significant fraction of chloroform mass loadings to municipal wastewater.

  18. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Part 63—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020... your wastewater streams. For each . . . You must . . . 1. Wastewater tank used to store a Group...

  19. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Part 63—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020... your wastewater streams. For each . . . You must . . . 1. Wastewater tank used to store a Group...

  20. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Part 63—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020... your wastewater streams. For each . . . You must . . . 1. Wastewater tank used to store a Group...

  1. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Part 63—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020... your wastewater streams. For each . . . You must . . . 1. Wastewater tank used to store a Group...

  2. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Part 63—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020... your wastewater streams. For each . . . You must . . . 1. Wastewater tank used to store a Group...

  3. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David Patrick

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  4. Pay attention to non-wastewater emission pathways of pharmaceuticals into environments.

    PubMed

    Bu, Qingwei; Shi, Xiao; Yu, Gang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Wang, Jianbing

    2016-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been widely detected in the aquatic environment and demonstrated to be potential risks to humans and the environment. Understanding emission pathways of pharmaceuticals is essential to the control of pharmaceutical contamination for environmental management. The present study is aimed at testing the hypothesis that non-wastewater pathway is also significant to the emission of pharmaceuticals into the environment. To this end, we compared the actual production with the amount of 12 antibiotics obtained by back calculation from sewage concentrations in Beijing, Guangzhou and Chongqing. The results showed that for over a half of investigated antibiotics, the emission through non-wastewater pathways accounted for approximately 30-80% of the total emission, varying with individual antibiotics. It was revealed that non-wastewater emission pathways could be of significance for pharmaceuticals emitted into the environment, of which disposed by household waste could be among the most important non-wastewater pathways.

  5. Odour emission inventory of German wastewater treatment plants--odour flow rates and odour emission capacity.

    PubMed

    Frechen, F-B

    2004-01-01

    Wastewater Treatment plants can cause odour emissions that may lead to significant odour annoyance in their vicinity. Thus, over the past 20 years, several measurements were taken of the odour emissions that occur at WWTPs of different sizes, treatment technology, plant design and under different operating conditions. The specific aspects of odour sampling and measurement have to be considered. I presented some of the results of my odour emission measurements 11 years ago. However, it is now necessary to update the figures by evaluating newer measurement results obtained from measurements taken from 1994 to 2003. These are presented in this paper. Also, the paper highlights the odour emission capacity (OEC) measurement technique which characterises liquids and can be used to assess the results achieved by different types of treatment in the liquid phase, e.g. in a sewerage system. In addition, the OEC is a suitable parameter to set standards for the odorant content of industrial wastewaters that are discharged into the publicly owned sewerage system.

  6. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    PubMed

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel.

  7. EMISSIONS OF METALS, CHROMIUM AND NICKEL SPECIES, AND ORGANICS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to provide data to support regulations on municipal wastewater sludge incineration, emissions of metals, hexavalent chromium, nickel subsulfide, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/PCDFs), semivolatile and volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide (CO)...

  8. Long-term trends and opportunities for managing regional water supply and wastewater greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Hall, Murray R; West, Jim; Sherman, Bradford; Lane, Joe; de Haas, David

    2011-06-15

    Greenhouse gas emissions are likely to rise faster than growth in population and more than double for water supply and wastewater services over the next 50 years in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. New sources of water supply such as rainwater tanks, recycled water, and desalination currently have greater energy intensity than traditional sources. In addition, direct greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs and wastewater treatment and handling have potentially the same magnitude as emissions from the use of energy. Centralized and decentralized water supply and wastewater systems are considered for a scenario based upon a government water supply strategy for the next 50 years. Many sources of data have large uncertainties which are estimated following the IPCC Good Practice Guidelines. Important sources of emissions with large uncertainties such as rainwater tanks and direct emissions were identified for further research and potential mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  10. Updated national emission of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from wastewater treatment plants in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Ok; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Yu-Mi; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2017-01-01

    A nationwide emission estimate of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is required to understand the source-receptor relationship of PFASs and to manage major types of WWTPs. In this study, the concentrations of 13 PFASs (8 perfluorocarboxylic acids, 3 perfluoroalkane sulfonates, and 2 intermediates) in wastewater and sludge from 81 WWTPs in South Korea were collected. The emission pathways of PFASs were redefined, and then the national emission of PFASs from WWTPs was rigorously updated. In addition to the direct calculations, Monte Carlo simulations were also used to calculate the likely range of PFAS emissions. The total (Σ13PFAS) emission (wastewater + sludge) calculated from the direct calculation with mean concentrations was 4.03 ton/y. The emissions of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.19 ton/y) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 1.01 ton/y) were dominant. The Monte Carlo simulations suggested that the realistic national emission of Σ13PFASs is between 2 ton/y and 20 ton/y. Combined WWTPs treating municipal wastewater from residential and commercial areas were identified as a major emission source, contributing 65% to the total PFAS emissions. The Han and Nakdong Rivers were the primary contaminated rivers, receiving 89% of the total PFAS discharge from WWTPs. The results and methodologies in this study can be useful to establish a management policy for PFASs.

  11. The Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Cost Implications of Municipal Water Supply & Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Winter, Thelma

    All man-made structures and materials have a design life. Across the United States there is a common theme for our water and wastewater treatment facilities and infrastructure. The design life of many of our mid 20 th century water and wastewater infrastructures in the United States have reached or are reaching life expectancy limits (ASCE, 2010). To compound the financial crisis of keeping up with the degradation, meeting and exceeding quality standards has never been more important in order to protect local fresh water supplies. This thesis analyzes the energy consumption of a municipal water and wastewater treatment system from a Lake Erie intake through potable treatment and back through wastewater treatment then discharge. The system boundary for this thesis includes onsite energy consumed by the treatment system and distribution/reclamation system as well as the energy consumed by the manufacturing of treatment chemicals applied during the study periods. By analyzing energy consumption, subsequent implications from greenhouse gas emissions and financial expenditures were quantified. Through the segregation of treatment and distribution processes from non-process energy consumption, such as heating, lighting, and air handling, this study identified that the potable water treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.42E+08 kBtu, spent 5,812,144 for treatment and distribution, and emitted 28,793 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. Likewise, the wastewater treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.45E+08 kBtu, spent 3,331,961 for reclamation and treatment, and emitted 43,780 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. The area with the highest energy usage, financial expenditure, and greenhouse gas emissions for the potable treatment facility and distribution system was from the manufacturing of the treatment chemicals, 1.10E+08 kBtu, 3.7 million, and 17,844 metric tons of CO2 equivalent, respectively. Of the onsite energy (1.4E-03 kWh per gallon

  12. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

  13. OFFICE EQUIPMENT: DESIGN, INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS, AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on office equipment design; indoor air emissions of organics, ozone, and particulates from office equipment; and pollution prevention approaches for reducing these emissions. Since much of the existing emissions data from office equipme...

  14. Quantifying Uncontrolled Air Emissions from Two Florida Landfills

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill gas emissions, if left uncontrolled, contribute to air toxics, climate change, trospospheric ozone, and urban smog. Measuring emissions from landfills presents unique challenges due to the large and variable source area, spatial and temporal variability of emissions, and...

  15. Biogenic organic emissions, air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    Living organisms produce copious amounts of a diverse array of metabolites including many volatile organic compounds that are released into the atmosphere. These compounds participate in numerous chemical reactions that influence the atmospheric abundance of important air pollutants and short-lived climate forcers including organic aerosol, ozone and methane. The production and release of these organics are strongly influenced by environmental conditions including air pollution, temperature, solar radiation, and water availability and they are highly sensitive to stress and extreme events. As a result, releases of biogenic organics to the atmosphere have an impact on, and are sensitive to, air quality and climate leading to potential feedback couplings. Their role in linking air quality and climate is conceptually clear but an accurate quantitative representation is needed for predictive models. Progress towards this goal will be presented including numerical model development and assessments of the predictive capability of the Model of Emission of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). Recent studies of processes controlling the magnitude and variations in biogenic organic emissions will be described and observations of their impact on atmospheric composition will be shown. Recent advances and priorities for future research will be discussed including laboratory process studies, long-term measurements, multi-scale regional studies, global satellite observations, and the development of a next generation model for simulating land-atmosphere chemical exchange.

  16. AIR EMISSION INVENTORIES IN NORTH AMERICA: A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although emission inventories are the foundation of air quality management and have supported substantial improvements in North American air quality, they have a number of shortcomings that can potentially lead to ineffective air quality management strategies. New technologies fo...

  17. A rational procedure for estimation of greenhouse-gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Hugh D; Sahely, Halla R; MacLean, Heather L; Bagley, David M

    2005-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment may lead to the emission of greenhouse gases. The current Intergovenmental Panel on Climate Change (Geneva, Switzerland) approach attributes only methane emissions to wastewater treatment, but this approach may overestimate greenhouse gas emissions from the highly aerobic processes primarily used in North America. To better estimate greenhouse gas emissions, a procedure is developed that can be used either with plant-specific data or more general regional data. The procedure was evaluated using full-scale data from 16 Canadian wastewater treatment facilities and then applied to all 10 Canadian provinces. The principal greenhouse gas emitted from municipal wastewater treatment plants was estimated to be carbon dioxide (CO2), with very little methane expected. The emission rates ranged from 0.005 kg CO2-equivalent/m3 treated for primary treatment facilities to 0.26 kg CO2-equivalent/m3 for conventional activated sludge, with anaerobic sludge digestion to over 0.8 kg CO2-equivalent/m3 for extended aeration with aerobic digestion. Increasing the effectiveness of biogas generation and use will decrease the greenhouse gas emissions that may be assigned to the wastewater treatment plant.

  18. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  19. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  20. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  1. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  2. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  4. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  5. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream...

  6. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or...

  8. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream...

  9. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  10. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream...

  11. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  12. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  14. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or...

  17. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  18. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  19. Hydrogen/Air Fuel Nozzle Emissions Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.

    2001-01-01

    The use of hydrogen combustion for aircraft gas turbine engines provides significant opportunities to reduce harmful exhaust emissions. Hydrogen has many advantages (no CO2 production, high reaction rates, high heating value, and future availability), along with some disadvantages (high current cost of production and storage, high volume per BTU, and an unknown safety profile when in wide use). One of the primary reasons for switching to hydrogen is the elimination of CO2 emissions. Also, with hydrogen, design challenges such as fuel coking in the fuel nozzle and particulate emissions are no longer an issue. However, because it takes place at high temperatures, hydrogen-air combustion can still produce significant levels of NOx emissions. Much of the current research into conventional hydrocarbon-fueled aircraft gas turbine combustors is focused on NOx reduction methods. The Zero CO2 Emission Technology (ZCET) hydrogen combustion project will focus on meeting the Office of Aerospace Technology goal 2 within pillar one for Global Civil Aviation reducing the emissions of future aircraft by a factor of 3 within 10 years and by a factor of 5 within 25 years. Recent advances in hydrocarbon-based gas turbine combustion components have expanded the horizons for fuel nozzle development. Both new fluid designs and manufacturing technologies have led to the development of fuel nozzles that significantly reduce aircraft emissions. The goal of the ZCET program is to mesh the current technology of Lean Direct Injection and rocket injectors to provide quick mixing, low emissions, and high-performance fuel nozzle designs. An experimental program is planned to investigate the fuel nozzle concepts in a flametube test rig. Currently, a hydrogen system is being installed in cell 23 at NASA Glenn Research Center's Research Combustion Laboratory. Testing will be conducted on a variety of fuel nozzle concepts up to combustion pressures of 350 psia and inlet air temperatures of 1200 F

  20. Study on emission characteristics and reduction strategy of nitrous oxide during wastewater treatment by different processes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shichang; Bao, Zhiyuan; Sun, Dezhi

    2015-03-01

    Given the inexorable increase in global wastewater treatment, increasing amounts of nitrous oxide are expected to be emitted from wastewater treatment plants and released to the atmosphere. It has become imperative to study the emission and control of nitrous oxide in the various wastewater treatment processes currently in use. In the present investigation, the emission characteristics and the factors affecting the release of nitrous oxide were studied via full- and pilot-scale experiments in anoxic-oxic, sequencing batch reactor and oxidation ditch processes. We propose an optimal treatment process and relative strategy for nitrous oxide reduction. Our results show that both the bio-nitrifying and bio-denitrifying treatment units in wastewater treatment plants are the predominant sites for nitrous oxide production in each process, while the aerated treatment units are the critical sources for nitrous oxide emission. Compared with the emission of nitrous oxide from the anoxic-oxic (1.37% of N-influent) and sequencing batch reactor (2.69% of N-influent) processes, much less nitrous oxide (0.25% of N-influent) is emitted from the oxidation ditch process, which we determined as the optimal wastewater treatment process for nitrous oxide reduction, given the current technologies. Nitrous oxide emissions differed with various operating parameters. Controlling the dissolved oxygen concentration at a proper level during nitrification and denitrification and enhancing the utilization rate of organic carbon in the influent for denitrification are the two critical methods for nitrous oxide reduction in the various processes considered.

  1. Estimation of methane emissions from a wastewater treatment plant in Valence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ars, Sébastien; Yver Kwok, Camille; Bousquet, Philippe; Broquet, Grégoire; Ciais, Philippe; Wu, Lin

    2014-05-01

    Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas emitted; its 20 year global-warming potential is about 56 to 72 depending on authors. One of its sources is the treatment of wastewaters and more particularly anaerobic digestion processes and sludge treatment. To reduce methane emissions from wastewater treatment plants, it is necessary to precisely quantify the amount emitted globally by the plant but also for each step of the process. Fixing the potential leaks and collecting the methane emitted by the different processes allows to reduce methane emissions and costs as methane can be sold or used on-site as an energy source. Moreover improve methods to estimate flow from atmospheric measurements of methane will reduce uncertainties in the inversion models. Several measurement campaigns have been realized in the wastewater treatment plant of Valence, France. This plant treats up to 2800 m3/h of polluted water through a biological treatment. To quantify methane emissions from this wastewater treatment plant, a dual tracer method had been used. It consists in releasing acetylene collocated with the methane source and in measuring both concentrations in the emitted plumes. In parallel, an atmospheric local scale model was used to compare with the experimental results. The higher concentration of methane's emissions was observed around the wastewater arrival. Plant's emissions are in the same range as estimations from the CITEPA French inventory. Measurements during the campaign are well correlated with the model results.

  2. EMISSIONS OF ORGANIC AIR TOXICS FROM OPEN ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A detailed literature search was performed to collect and collate available data reporting emissions of toxic organic substances into the air from open burning sources. Availability of data varied according to the source and the class of air toxics of interest. Volatile organic compound (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) data were available for many of the sources. Data on semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) that are not PAHs were available for several sources. Carbonyl and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) data were available for only a few sources. There were several sources for which no emissions data were available at all. Several observations were made including: 1) Biomass open burning sources typically emitted less VOCs than open burning sources with anthropogenic fuels on a mass emitted per mass burned basis, particularly those where polymers were concerned; 2) Biomass open burning sources typically emitted less SVOCs and PAHs than anthropogenic sources on a mass emitted per mass burned basis. Burning pools of crude oil and diesel fuel produced significant amounts of PAHs relative to other types of open burning. PAH emissions were highest when combustion of polymers was taking place; and 3) Based on very limited data, biomass open burning sources typically produced higher levels of carbonyls than anthropogenic sources on a mass emitted per mass burned basis, probably due to oxygenated structures r

  3. Use of floating balls for reducing bacterial aerosol emissions from aeration in wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hsueh Fen; Kuo, Yu Mei; Chien, Chih Ching; Chen, Chih Chieh

    2010-03-15

    The microorganism emissions from aeration in the wastewater treatment process may adversely affect air quality and human health. To control the liquid-to-air transport of microorganisms, commercially available balls were used and their control efficiencies were evaluated by a lab-scale aeration system. Escherichia coli as the test agent were aerosolized by the aeration system and size-fractionated E. coli-containing aerosol samples were collected by using an Andersen six-stage impactor with eosin methylene blue agar for subsequent culturing and enumeration of colonies. Aerosol samples were obtained without any control measure and with balls of four diameters (1.9, 2.9, 3.4 and 4.8 cm) in one, three and five layers covering the bubbling liquid surface. Experimental results showed that the control efficiencies of balls on bacterial aerosols varied from over 50% to nearly 100% under various control settings and substantially increased as the ball size decreased and the number of applied layers increased.

  4. Homogeneous catalytic wet-air oxidation for the treatment of textile wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, L. Chen, G.; Hu, X.; Yue, P.L.

    2000-04-01

    An extensive series of experiments was performed to identify suitable catalysts to increase the reaction rate of wet-air oxidation of textile wastewater t relatively mild temperatures an pressures. Wastewater types treated included natural-fiber desizing wastewater, synthetic-fiber desizing wastewater, and printing and dyeing wastewater. Experimental results indicated that all catalysts tested in this investigation significantly increased the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) removal rates and total COD and TOC removals. Of all catalysts tested, copper salts were the most effective. Anions in the slat solutions played a role in the catalytic process. Nitrate ions were more effective than sulfate ions. Similarly, copper nitrates were more effective than copper sulfates. A mixture of salts containing different metals performed better than any single salt.

  5. Characteristics of greenhouse gas emission in three full-scale wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Li, Lin; Liu, Junxin

    2014-02-01

    Three full-scale wastewater treatment processes, Orbal oxidation ditch, anoxic/anaerobic/aerobic (reversed A2O) and anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic (A2O), were selected to investigate the emission characteristics of greenhouse gases (GHG), including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Results showed that although the processes were different, the units presenting high GHG emission fluxes were remarkably similar, namely the highest CO2 and N2O emission fluxes occurred in the aerobic areas, and the highest CH4 emission fluxes occurred in the grit tanks. The GHG emission amount of each unit can be calculated from its area and GHG emission flux. The calculation results revealed that the maximum emission amounts of CO2, CH4 and N2O in the three wastewater treatment processes appeared in the aerobic areas in all cases. Theoretically, CH4 should be produced in anaerobic conditions, rather than aerobic conditions. However, results in this study showed that the CH4 emission fluxes in the forepart of the aerobic area were distinctly higher than in the anaerobic area. The situation for N2O was similar to that of CH4: the N2O emission flux in the aerobic area was also higher than that in the anoxic area. Through analysis of the GHG mass balance, it was found that the flow of dissolved GHG in the wastewater treatment processes and aerators may be the main reason for this phenomenon. Based on the monitoring and calculation results, GHG emission factors for the three wastewater treatment processes were determined. The A2O process had the highest CO2 emission factor of 319.3 g CO2/kg COD(removed), and the highest CH4 and N2O emission factors of 3.3 g CH4/kg COD(removed) and 3.6 g N2O/kg TN(removed) were observed in the Orbal oxidation ditch process.

  6. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2013-05-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, store d, and potentially emitted . These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989a). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2012, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]) . These minor sources include d about 140 stack sources and no diffuse sources . T here were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley Lab operations . Emissions from minor sources were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building- specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA -approved computer code s, CAP88-PC and COMPLY , to calculate doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) at any offsite point where there is a residence, school, business, or office. Because radionuclides are used at three noncontiguous locations (the main site, Berkeley West Bio center, and Joint BioEnergy Institute), three different MEIs were identified.

  7. Evaporation and air-stripping to assess and reduce ethanolamines toxicity in oily wastewater.

    PubMed

    Libralato, G; Ghirardini, A Volpi; Avezzù, F

    2008-05-30

    Toxicity from industrial oily wastewater remains a problem even after conventional activated sludge treatment process, because of the persistence of some toxicant compounds. This work verified the removal efficiency of organic and inorganic pollutants and the effects of evaporation and air-stripping techniques on oily wastewater toxicity reduction. In a lab-scale plant, a vacuum evaporation procedure at three different temperatures and an air-stripping stage were tested on oily wastewater. Toxicity reduction/removal was observed at each treatment step via Microtox bioassay. A case study monitoring real scale evaporation was also done in a full-size wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To implement part of a general project of toxicity reduction evaluation, additional investigations took into account the monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and triethanolamine (TEA) role in toxicity definition after the evaporation phase, both as pure substances and mixtures. Only MEA and TEA appeared to contribute towards effluent toxicity.

  8. Ozone emissions from a "personal air purifier".

    PubMed

    Phillips, T J; Bloudoff, D P; Jenkins, P L; Stroud, K R

    1999-01-01

    Ozone emissions were measured above a "personal air purifier" (PAP) designed to be worn on a lapel, shirt pocket, or neck strap. The device is being marketed as a negative ion generator that purifies the air. However, it also produces ozone within the person's immediate breathing zone. In order to assess worst-case potential human exposure to ozone at the mouth and nose, we measured ozone concentrations in separate tests at 1, 3, 5, and 6 in. above each of two PAPs in a closed office. One PAP was new, and one had been used slightly for 3 months. Temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, room ozone concentration, and outdoor ozone concentration also were measured concurrently during the tests. Average ozone levels measured directly above the individual PAPs ranged from 65-71 ppb at 6 in. above the device to 268-389 ppb at 1 in. above the device. Ozone emission rates from the PAPs were estimated to be 1.7-1.9 microg/minute. When house dust was sprinkled on the top grid of the PAPs, one showed an initial peak of 522 ppb ozone at 1 in., and then returned to the 200-400 ppb range. Room ozone levels increased by only 0-5 ppb during the tests. Even when two PAPs were left operating over a weekend, room ozone levels did not noticeably increase beyond background room ozone levels. These results indicate that this "PAP," even without significant background ozone, can potentially elevate the user's exposures to ozone levels greater than the health-based air quality standards for outdoor air in California (0.09 ppm, 1-hour average) and the United States (0.08 ppm, 8-hour average).

  9. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  14. Economic feasibility study for intensive and extensive wastewater treatment considering greenhouse gases emissions.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, M; Hernández-Sancho, F; Sala-Garrido, R; Cirelli, G

    2013-07-15

    Economic feasibility assessments represent a key issue for selecting which wastewater treatment processes should be implemented. The few applications that exist focus on the positive economic value of externalities, overlooking the existence of negative externalities. However, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) consume a significant amount of energy, contributing to climate change. In this context, as a pioneering approach, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) have been incorporated as a negative externality of wastewater treatment. Within this framework, this study aims to compare the economic feasibility of five technologies, both intensive and extensive, for small communities. The results show that both the investment and operation costs are higher for intensive than for extensive technologies. Moreover, significant differences in the value of negative externalities were observed. This study demonstrates that from an economic perspective, constructed wetland is the most suitable option for treating wastewater in small agglomerations.

  15. Options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions during wastewater treatment for agricultural use.

    PubMed

    Fine, Pinchas; Hadas, Efrat

    2012-02-01

    Treatment of primarily-domestic sewage wastewater involves on-site greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to energy inputs, organic matter degradation and biological nutrient removal (BNR). BNR causes both direct emissions and loss of fertilizer value, thus eliminating possible reduction of emissions caused by fertilizer manufacture. In this study, we estimated on-site GHG emissions under different treatment scenarios, and present options for emission reduction by changing treatment methods, avoiding BNR and by recovering energy from biogas. Given a typical Israeli wastewater strength (1050mg CODl(-1)), the direct on-site GHG emissions due to energy use were estimated at 1618 and 2102g CO(2)-eq m(-3), respectively, at intermediate and tertiary treatment levels. A potential reduction of approximately 23-55% in GHG emissions could be achieved by fertilizer preservation and VS conversion to biogas. Wastewater fertilizers constituted a GHG abatement potential of 342g CO(2)-eq m(-3). The residual component that remained in the wastewater effluent following intermediate (oxidation ponds) and enhanced (mechanical-biological) treatments was 304-254g CO(2)-eq m(-3) and 65-34g CO(2)-eq m(-3), respectively. Raw sludge constituted approximately 47% of the overall wastewater fertilizers load with an abatement potential of 150g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (385kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)). Inasmuch as anaerobic digestion reduced it to 63g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (261kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)), the GHG abatement gained through renewable biogas energy (approx. 428g CO(2)-eq m(-3)) favored digestion. However, sludge composting reduced the fertilizer value to 17g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (121kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)) or less (if emissions, off-site inputs and actual phytoavailability were considered). Taking Israel as an example, fully exploiting the wastewater derived GHG abatement potential could reduce the State overall GHG emissions by almost 1%. This demonstrates the possibility of optional carbon credits which

  16. Emission of pesticides into the air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den, Berg; Kubiak, R.; Benjey, W.G.; Majewski, M.S.; Yates, S.R.; Reeves, G.L.; Smelt, J.H.; Van Der Linden, A. M. A.

    1999-01-01

    During and after the application of a pesticide in agriculture, a substantial fraction of the dosage may enter the atmosphere and be transported over varying distances downwind of the target. The rate and extent of the emission during application, predominantly as spray particle drift, depends primarily on the application method (equipment and technique), the formulation and environmental conditions, whereas the emission after application depends primarily on the properties of the pesticide, soils, crops and environmental conditions. The fraction of the dosage that misses the target area may be high in some cases and more experimental data on this loss term are needed for various application types and weather conditions. Such data are necessary to test spray drift models, and for further model development and verification as well. Following application, the emission of soil fumigants and soil incorporated pesticides into the air can be measured and computed with reasonable accuracy, but further model development is needed to improve the reliability of the model predictions. For soil surface applied pesticides reliable measurement methods are available, but there is not yet a reliable model. Further model development is required which must be verified by field experiments. Few data are available on pesticide volatilization from plants and more field experiments are also needed to study the fate processes on the plants. Once this information is available, a model needs to be developed to predict the volatilization of pesticides from plants, which, again, should be verified with field measurements. For regional emission estimates, a link between data on the temporal and spatial pesticide use and a geographical information system for crops and soils with their characteristics is needed.

  17. Clean Air Markets - Part 75 Emissions Monitoring Policy Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about monitoring mass sulfur dioxide and mass carbon dioxide emissions, nitrogen oxide emission rate, and heat input by units affected by the Acid Rain Program and the Clean Air Interstate Rule.

  18. Secondary Aluminum Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing sources at secondary aluminum production facilities. Includes rule history, summary, federal register citations and implementation information.

  19. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of epichlorohydrin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    To assist groups interested in inventorying air emissions of various potentially toxic substances, EPA is preparing a series of documents such as this to compile available information on sources and emissions of these substances. This document deals specifically with epichlorohydrin. Its intended audience includes Federal, State and local air pollution personnel and others interested in locating potential emitters of epichlorohydrin in making gross estimates of air emissions therefrom. This document presents information on 1) the types of sources that may emit epichlorohydrin; 2) process variations and release points that may be expected within these sources; and 3) available emissions information indicating the potential for epichlorohydrin release into the air from each operation.

  20. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources.

  1. Allocating Damage Compensation in a Federalist System: Lessons from Spatially Resolved Air Emissions in the Marcellus.

    PubMed

    Behrer, A Patrick; Mauter, Meagan S

    2017-04-04

    The benefits and impacts of unconventional natural gas development are realized at different spatial scales, calling into question the appropriate jurisdictional level at which to set and enforce environmental policy. This paper evaluates impact fee allocation under Pennsylvania Act 13, which authorizes Commonwealth payments to Pennsylvania counties to offset damages from unconventional natural gas extraction in exchange for consolidated state-level regulatory authority. We evaluate the adequacy of damage compensation allocation for impacts that are spatially and temporally removed from the well site, using the air emissions associated with natural gas wastewater transport as a case study. Wastewater transport from wells eligible for 2011 impact fee disbursement calculations generated an estimated $11.6 million in air emission damages from 2004 to 2013, with 35% of damages occurring out-of-state and an average of 94% of damages occurring out-of-county. We find that compensatory payments from Pennsylvania Act 13, which are based upon the number of wells drilled in a county in a single year, inadequately account for spatially and temporally distributed impacts from wastewater transport. This case study of Pennsylvania Act 13 highlights potential issues associated with central regulators using compensatory payments as a means of resolving jurisdictional conflict. In cases where the central regulator benefits from the polluting activity, we argue that there is incentive to focus compensation on local damages and undervalue regional and spatially distributed damages in compensation algorithms.

  2. Effect of wind tunnel air velocity on VOC flux rates from CAFO manure and wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind tunnels and flux chambers are often used to estimate volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from animal feeding operations (AFOs) without regard to air velocity or sweep air flow rates. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of wind tunnel air velocity on VOC emission ...

  3. Removing hydrogen sulfide from wastewater treatment facilities` air process streams with a biotrickling filter

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, R.L.; Caballero, R.C.

    1997-12-31

    Control of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and odor emissions has been a major consideration for many wastewater treatment plants. Many different methods have been and are currently being used for H{sub 2}S and odor control. Most of the current methods involve absorption of H{sub 2}S and odors into a liquid solution or adsorption onto a solid matrix. These methods are either expensive or if not operated correctly can be inefficient. The Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts have developed a biological method to remove odors and H{sub 2}S from different off-gas streams at its main wastewater treatment plant, the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant (JWPCP). This treatment method, which is known as a biotrickling filter, uses a packed contactor device in which the air to be treated is blown through the packing. The H{sub 2}S and odor is removed by a scrubbing solution containing bacteria that is trickled down from the top of the contactor. Different types of column packing media were tested, with a rock-based media being the most effective. The rock media allowed the biotrickling filter to get over 98 percent removal of inlet H{sub 2}S, as long as H{sub 2}S loadings did not exceed 39 g-H{sub 2}S/m{sup 3}-hr (1.1 g-H{sub 2}S/ft{sup 3}-hr). Odor panel analyses indicated that inlet odors were reduced by 99 percent by the biotrickling filter. Due to the success of the research work, a full scale biotrickling filter is being put into operation at the JWPCP. The unit will replace existing caustic scrubbers and will be much less expensive to operate. Current costs to operate a caustic scrubber at the JWPCP is about $1,150 per million m{sup 3} ($33.00 per million ft3) of air treated. The biotrickling filter operational costs would be about one-fifth or $240 per million m{sup 3} ($7.00 per million ft{sup 3}) of air treated.

  4. Nitrous oxide emissions from an aerobic granular sludge system treating low-strength ammonium wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingming; Yang, Sen; Wang, Mingyu; Wang, Xin-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is a promising technology in wastewater treatment process. Its special microorganism structure could make the emissions of greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) more complicated. This study investigated the N2O emissions from a batch-fed aerobic granular sludge system during nitrification of low-strength synthetic ammonium wastewater. The N2O emission was 2.72 ± 0.52% of the oxidized ammonium during the whole anoxic-oxic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) cycle. Under nitrification batch test with sole ammonium substrate (50 mg N/L), N2O emission factor was 1.82% (N2ON/NH4(+)-Nox) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was the responsible microorganism. The presence of high ammonium concentration (or high ammonium oxidation rate (AOR)) and accumulation of nitrite would lead to significant N2O emissions. AOB denitrification pathway was speculated to contribute more to the N2O emissions under nitrification conditions. While under simultaneous nitrification and denitrification condition with carbon source of 500 mg COD/L, the N2O emission factor increased to 2.76%. Both AOB and heterotrophic denitrifiers were responsible for N2O emission and heterotrophic denitrification enhances N2O emission. Step feeding of organic carbon source declined N2O emission factor to 1.60%, which underlined the role of storage substance consumption in N2O generation during denitrification.

  5. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater were measured with closed-chamber technique using a photoacoustic multigas analyzer. Theory behind the technique was discussed and the technique was demonstrated with actual field data. Nitrous ...

  6. ESTIMATES OF GLOBAL GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM INDUSTRIAL AND DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the findings of field tests and provides emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from wastewater treatment (WWT). It also includes country-specific activity data on industrial and domestic WWT which were used to develop country-specific em...

  7. Greenhouse Gas (CH4, CO2 and N2O) Emission Levels by Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) Ponds in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossete, A. L. M.; Sundefeld Junior, G.; Aparicio, C.; Baldi, G. G.; Montes, C. R.; Piveli, R. P.; Melfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    This study measured greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by Facultative Ponds on Wastewater Treatment Plants. The most studied GHGs include CO2, CH4and N2O. The level of GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) emissions by WWTPs in Australian-type stabilization ponds was measured in the city of Lins (22º21'S, 49º50'W), state of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. GHG collection was carried outusing a collection chamber installed at the center of the facultative pond's final third. The effluent's pH and temperature (ET) were registered by probes, and meteorological information regarding air temperature (AT) and solar radiation (SR) were obtained from INMET, Brazil. GHG collection was carried out for 72 consecutive hours in June 2014, on an hourly basis, once every 5 minutes, for the first 30 minutes, and once every 10 minutes from 30 to 50 minutesand subsequently analyzed by gas chromatograph (GC).After three days of data collection, the average AT, SR, ET and pH values were, respectively, 18oC, 2583kJm-2, 23oC and 8.2. Average values for GHG emission levels (CH4, CO2 and N2O) were 79.01; 100.65 and 0.0 mg m-2 h-1, respectively. GHG emission levels were divided into light periods (morning, afternoon and evening)in order to verify the periods with the highest GHG emissions.The highest CH4 emission levels were measured between morning and early afternoon. The maximum CO2 emissions were observed from evening to early morning. N2O emissions were constant and values were close to the ones found in the atmosphere, which shows the emission of N2O by facultative ponds does not contribute to greenhouse gases emissions.The results enabled us to characterize and quantify GHG emission levels per Facultative Pond on Wastewater Treatment Plant. Acknowledgment to FAPESP and SABESP, Brazil.

  8. Emission factors of air toxics from semiconductor manufacturing in Korea.

    PubMed

    Eom, Yun-Sung; Hong, Ji-Hyung; Lee, Suk-Jo; Lee, Eun-Jung; Cha, Jun-Seok; Lee, Dae-Gyun; Bang, Sun-Ae

    2006-11-01

    The development of local, accurate emission factors is very important for the estimation of reliable national emissions and air quality management. For that, this study is performed for pollutants released to the atmosphere with source-specific emission tests from the semiconductor manufacturing industry. The semiconductor manufacturing industry is one of the major sources of air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs); thus, understanding the emission characteristics of the emission source is a very important factor in the development of a control strategy. However, in Korea, there is a general lack of information available on air emissions from the semiconductor industry. The major emission sources of air toxics examined from the semiconductor manufacturing industry were wet chemical stations, coating applications, gaseous operations, photolithography, and miscellaneous devices in the wafer fabrication and semiconductor packaging processes. In this study, analyses of emission characteristics, and the estimations of emission data and factors for air toxics, such as acids, bases, heavy metals, and volatile organic compounds from the semiconductor manufacturing process have been performed. The concentration of hydrogen chloride from the packaging process was the highest among all of the processes. In addition, the emission factor of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) for the packaging process was higher than that of the wafer fabrication process. Emission factors estimated in this study were compared with those of Taiwan for evaluation, and they were found to be of similar level in the case of TVOCs and fluorine compounds.

  9. Treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater by wet air oxidation--A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.H.; Ho, S.J.

    1997-12-31

    Treatment of high concentration chemical wastewater obtained from a petrochemical company by wet air oxidation (WAO) is studied. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of the mixer speed, operating pressure, initial pH of wastewater and temperature on the pollutant (chemical oxygen demand or COD) removal. Both air and oxygen were tested to determine their respective effect on the COD removal. Results showed that over 50% of COD removal can be easily realized in an hour of WAO treatment. Also considered in the present study was the catalytic WAO treatment of the high concentration wastewater. Copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}), cobalt oxide (Co{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and zinc oxide (ZnO) were employed as the catalysts. The COD removal efficiency of the catalytic WAO process was found to vary significantly with the catalyst utilized with CuSO{sub 4} being the most effective.

  10. 77 FR 1267 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Group IV Polymers and Resins MACT standards, the typical control devices used to reduce organic HAP... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide...

  11. Projection of hazardous air pollutant emissions to future years.

    PubMed

    Strum, Madeleine; Cook, Rich; Thurman, James; Ensley, Darrell; Pope, Anne; Palma, Ted; Mason, Richard; Michaels, Harvey; Shedd, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    Projecting a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission inventory to future years can provide valuable information for air quality management activities such as prediction of program successes and helping to assess future priorities. We have projected the 1999 National Emission Inventory for HAPs to numerous future years up to 2020 using the following tools and data: the Emissions Modeling System for Hazardous Air Pollutants (EMS-HAP), the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM), emission reduction information resulting from national standards and economic growth data. This paper discusses these projection tools, the underlying data, limitations and the results. The results presented include total HAP emissions (sum of pollutants) and toxicity-weighted HAP emissions for cancer and respiratory noncancer effects. Weighting emissions by toxicity does not consider fate, transport, or location and behavior of receptor populations and can only be used to estimate relative risks of direct emissions. We show these projections, along with historical emission trends. The data show that stationary source programs under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and mobile source programs which reduce hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions, as well as toxic emission performance standards for reformulated gasoline, have contributed to and are expected to continue to contribute to large declines in air toxics emissions, in spite of economic and population growth. We have also analyzed the particular HAPs that dominate the source sectors to better understand the historical and future year trends and the differences across sectors.

  12. 40 CFR 265.231 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.231 Section 265.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.231 Air emission standards. The owner or operator...

  13. 40 CFR 265.202 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.202 Section 265.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.202 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage...

  14. 40 CFR 264.200 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.200 Section 264.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.200 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous...

  15. 40 CFR 264.179 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.179 Section 264.179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Use and Management of Containers § 264.179 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall...

  16. 40 CFR 265.202 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.202 Section 265.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.202 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage...

  17. 40 CFR 265.178 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.178 Section 265.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.178 Air emission standards. The owner...

  18. 40 CFR 264.200 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.200 Section 264.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.200 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous...

  19. 40 CFR 265.178 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.178 Section 265.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.178 Air emission standards. The owner...

  20. 40 CFR 264.232 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.232 Section 264.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Surface Impoundments § 264.232 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all...

  1. 40 CFR 264.179 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.179 Section 264.179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Use and Management of Containers § 264.179 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall...

  2. 40 CFR 265.231 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.231 Section 265.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.231 Air emission standards. The owner or operator...

  3. 40 CFR 264.232 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.232 Section 264.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Surface Impoundments § 264.232 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all...

  4. 40 CFR 264.200 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.200 Section 264.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.200 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous...

  5. 40 CFR 264.232 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.232 Section 264.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Surface Impoundments § 264.232 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all...

  6. 40 CFR 265.202 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.202 Section 265.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.202 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage...

  7. 40 CFR 265.178 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.178 Section 265.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.178 Air emission standards. The owner...

  8. 40 CFR 264.179 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.179 Section 264.179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Use and Management of Containers § 264.179 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall...

  9. 40 CFR 265.231 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.231 Section 265.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.231 Air emission standards. The owner or operator...

  10. Recent advances in mathematical modeling of nitrous oxides emissions from wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-12-15

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) can be emitted from wastewater treatment contributing to its greenhouse gas footprint significantly. Mathematical modeling of N2O emissions is of great importance toward the understanding and reduction of the environmental impact of wastewater treatment systems. This article reviews the current status of the modeling of N2O emissions from wastewater treatment. The existing mathematical models describing all the known microbial pathways for N2O production are reviewed and discussed. These included N2O production by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) through the hydroxylamine oxidation pathway and the AOB denitrification pathway, N2O production by heterotrophic denitrifiers through the denitrification pathway, and the integration of these pathways in single N2O models. The calibration and validation of these models using lab-scale and full-scale experimental data is also reviewed. We conclude that the mathematical modeling of N2O production, while is still being enhanced supported by new knowledge development, has reached a maturity that facilitates the estimation of site-specific N2O emissions and the development of mitigation strategies for a wastewater treatment plant taking into the specific design and operational conditions of the plant.

  11. Methane emissions by management and treatment of municipal wastewater in Mexico 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes Figueroa, M. G.; Güereca, L. P.; Noyola, A.; Herndon, S.; Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Fortner, E.; Knighton, W. B.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    Management and treatment of wastewater has been identified as a major source of greenhouse gases (GHG). In wastewater treatment (WWT) systems without mechanical ventilation, methanogenic bacteria activate anaerobic decomposition of degradable organics, producing methane (CH4) as a byproduct. Methane produced during the management and treatment of wastewater is estimated to constitute between 8 and 11% to overall CH4 emissions, but a lack of quantitative methane emissions data from specific WWT processes prevents the design of effective mitigation strategies. We are developing a detailed WWT sector CH4 emissions inventory for Mexico. CH4 emissions have been estimated from the 2010 baseline year, using the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. These estimates considered WWT plant infrastructures, volumes of waste treated, and the quality of input and output water and temperature. It is important to note that ambient temperature is one of the main factors influencing methane production, which in tropical and subtropical regions is close to optimal for mesophylic methanogenesis (35 °C), resulting in high biological activity and CH4 emissions from anaerobic systems compared to temperate latitudes. Mexico was divided into three regions: north, central and south in order to take into account these temperature variations. In order to evaluate methane emission inventories, direct measurements of WWT facility CH4 emission rates were performed during the SLCF-Mexico project in early 2013. The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory performed emissions measurements at four wastewater treatment facilities in Mexico. Quantum cascade laser instruments were used to monitor CH4 and N2O, while a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer monitored organics such as methanethiol. At three facilities, tracer release methods were used to quantify CH4 emission rates from anaerobic digestors. An Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer was also used to monitor particulate emissions from

  12. Air Contamination by Mercury, Emissions and Transformations-a Review.

    PubMed

    Gworek, Barbara; Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Baczewska, Aneta H; Brągoszewska, Paulina; Bemowska-Kałabun, Olga; Wrzosek-Jakubowska, Justyna

    2017-01-01

    The present and future air contamination by mercury is and will continue to be a serious risk for human health. This publication presents a review of the literature dealing with the issues related to air contamination by mercury and its transformations as well as its natural and anthropogenic emissions. The assessment of mercury emissions into the air poses serious methodological problems. It is particularly difficult to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic emissions and re-emissions from lands and oceans, including past emissions. At present, the largest emission sources include fuel combustion, mainly that of coal, and "artisanal and small-scale gold mining" (ASGM). The distinctly highest emissions can be found in South and South-East Asia, accounting for 45% of the global emissions. The emissions of natural origin and re-emissions are estimated at 45-66% of the global emissions, with the largest part of emissions originating in the oceans. Forecasts on the future emission levels are not unambiguous; however, most forecasts do not provide for reductions in emissions. Ninety-five percent of mercury occurring in the air is Hg(0)-GEM, and its residence time in the air is estimated at 6 to 18 months. The residence times of its Hg(II)-GOM and that in Hgp-TPM are estimated at hours and days. The highest mercury concentrations in the air can be found in the areas of mercury mines and those of ASGM. Since 1980 when it reached its maximum, the global background mercury concentration in the air has remained at a relatively constant level.

  13. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Stirrup, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory.

  14. Olive mill wastewater treatment in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Bermek, Hakan; Catal, Tunc; Akan, S Süha; Ulutaş, Mehmet Sefa; Kumru, Mert; Özgüven, Mine; Liu, Hong; Özçelik, Beraat; Akarsubaşı, Alper Tunga

    2014-04-01

    Olive mill wastewaters create significant environmental issues in olive-processing countries. One of the most hazardous groups of pollutants in these wastewaters is phenolic compounds. Here, olive mill wastewater was used as substrate and treated in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells. Olive mill wastewater yielded a maximum voltage of 381 mV on an external resistance of 1 kΩ. Notable decreases in the contents of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, tyrosol, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were detected. Chemical oxygen demand removal rates were 65 % while removal of total phenolics by the process was lower (49 %). Microbial community analysis during the olive mill wastewater treating MFC has shown that both exoelectrogenic and phenol-degrading microorganisms have been enriched during the operation. Brevundimonas-, Sphingomonas- and Novosphingobium-related phylotypes were enriched on the anode biofilm, while Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteriodetes dominated the cathode biofilm. As one of the novel studies, it has been demonstrated that recalcitrant olive mill wastewaters could be treated and utilized for power generation in microbial fuel cells.

  15. Dissolved air flotation (DAF) for primary and tertiary treatment of municipal wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Koivunen, J; Heinonen-Tanski, H

    2008-01-01

    Tertiary treatment of municipal wastewater by dissolved air flotation was studied on a pilot-scale. The effects of coagulant dose, flocculation pattern, dispersion water recycle ratio and hydraulic surface load on process performance were evaluated. The treatment of primary effluents by dissolved air flotation was investigated to assess the suitability of this process for the treatment of heavily polluted effluents and wastewater treatment plant by-passes. The tertiary dissolved air flotation process typically achieved 90-99% reductions in the numbers of enteric microbes (total coliforms, enterococci and F-RNA coliphages). The average reductions of total phosphorus and chemical oxygen demand were 55-81% and 28-39%, respectively. Increasing the polyaluminium chloride coagulant dose from 2 to 10 mgAl(3+) l(-1) and the dispersion water recycle ratio from 11 to 22% improved the efficiency of the process. Changes in the flocculation conditions (range of G-values 10-55 s(-1); retention time 4-8 min) and hydraulic surface load (5 or 10 m h(-1)) did not clearly affect the process efficiency. The dissolved air flotation process decreased the numbers of enteric microbes and reduced total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids from the primary treated wastewaters on average by 98-99.8%, 90%, 47% and 77%, respectively. The dissolved air flotation process was demonstrated to be a suitable method for efficient tertiary treatment of wastewaters, as well as for the elimination of peak pollution loads or by-pass wastewaters during the treatment plant overloading situations.

  16. 76 FR 22565 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank Vessel Loading Operations... Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank Vessel Loading Operations; Pharmaceuticals Production; and the Printing... NESHAP include: National Emissions Standards for Group I Polymers and Resins (Butyl Rubber...

  17. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols Production... pollutants: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols...

  18. Estimates of global greenhouse gas emissions from industrial and domestic wastewater treatment. Final report, September 1994-March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Doorn, M.R.J.; Strait, R.P.; Barnard, W.R.; Eklund, B.

    1997-09-01

    The report summarizes the findings of field tests and provides emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitorus oxide (N2O) from wastewater treatment (WWT). It also includes country-specific activity data on industrial and domestic WWT which were used to develop country-specific emission estimates for CH4 and N2O. The report concludes that WWT is unlikely to be a significant source of volatile organic carbon and carbon dioxide emissions. The biggest contributor to industrial CH4 emissions from WWT is the pulp and paper industry in developing and Eastern European countries. The second principal contributor to CH4 emissions from WWT is the meat and poultry industry. Russia is believed to be the largest contributor. CH4 emissions from untreated domestic wastewater may be many times higher than those of treated wastewater. The report provides rough estimates for global N2O emissions from WWT.

  19. Wastewater Characterization Survey, Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    USAFOEHL REPORT 89-009EQO0105BWA WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION SURVEY, LAUGHLIN AFB TX CHARLES W. ATTEBERY, 1Lt, USAF, BSC o ROBERT D. BINOVI, Lt Col...including foreign nations. This report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. CHARLES W. ATTEBERY, ILt, USAF, BSC -SI-1kLTN R. BI...AS RPT C DTIC USERS UnclassWi ed 22a NAME Of RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b TELEPHONEA~nude Agia Co) 2.OFICS’ML Charles W. Attebery, ILt, USAF, BSC (512

  20. Multi-objective optimisation of wastewater treatment plant control to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2014-05-15

    This study investigates the potential of control strategy optimisation for the reduction of operational greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment in a cost-effective manner, and demonstrates that significant improvements can be realised. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, NSGA-II, is used to derive sets of Pareto optimal operational and control parameter values for an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, with objectives including minimisation of greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs and effluent pollutant concentrations, subject to legislative compliance. Different problem formulations are explored, to identify the most effective approach to emissions reduction, and the sets of optimal solutions enable identification of trade-offs between conflicting objectives. It is found that multi-objective optimisation can facilitate a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions without the need for plant redesign or modification of the control strategy layout, but there are trade-offs to consider: most importantly, if operational costs are not to be increased, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is likely to incur an increase in effluent ammonia and total nitrogen concentrations. Design of control strategies for a high effluent quality and low costs alone is likely to result in an inadvertent increase in greenhouse gas emissions, so it is of key importance that effects on emissions are considered in control strategy development and optimisation.

  1. Evaluation of constructed wetlands by wastewater purification ability and greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Gui, P; Inamori, R; Matsumura, M; Inamori, Y

    2007-01-01

    Domestic wastewater is a significant source of nitrogen and phosphorus, which cause lake eutrophication. Among the wastewater treatment technologies, constructed wetlands are a promising low-cost means of treating point and diffuse sources of domestic wastewater in rural areas. However, the sustainable operation of constructed wetland treatment systems depends upon a high rate conversion of organic and nitrogenous loading into their metabolic gaseous end products, such as N2O and CH4. In this study, we examined and compared the performance of three typical types of constructed wetlands: Free Water Surface (FWS), Subsurface Flow (SF) and Vertical Flow (VF) wetlands. Pollutant removal efficiency and N2O and CH4 emissions were assessed as measures of performance. We found that the pollutant removal rates and gas emissions measured in the wetlands exhibited clear seasonal changes, and these changes were closely associated with plant growth. VF wetlands exhibited stable removal of organic pollutants and NH3-N throughout the experiment regardless of season and showed great potential for CH4 adsorption. SF wetlands showed preferable T-N removal performance and a lower risk of greenhouse gas emissions than FWS wetlands. Soil oxidation reduction potential (ORP) analysis revealed that water flow structure and plant growth influenced constructed wetland oxygen transfer, and these variations resulted in seasonal changes of ORP distribution inside wetlands that were accompanied by fluctuations in pollutant removal and greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Identifying key sources of uncertainty in the modelling of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates sources of uncertainty in the modelling of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment, through the use of local and global sensitivity analysis tools, and contributes to an in-depth understanding of wastewater treatment modelling by revealing critical parameters and parameter interactions. One-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis is used to screen model parameters and identify those with significant individual effects on three performance indicators: total greenhouse gas emissions, effluent quality and operational cost. Sobol's method enables identification of parameters with significant higher order effects and of particular parameter pairs to which model outputs are sensitive. Use of a variance-based global sensitivity analysis tool to investigate parameter interactions enables identification of important parameters not revealed in one-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis. These interaction effects have not been considered in previous studies and thus provide a better understanding wastewater treatment plant model characterisation. It was found that uncertainty in modelled nitrous oxide emissions is the primary contributor to uncertainty in total greenhouse gas emissions, due largely to the interaction effects of three nitrogen conversion modelling parameters. The higher order effects of these parameters are also shown to be a key source of uncertainty in effluent quality.

  3. Techniques for modeling hazardous air pollutant emissions from landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, R.J.; Vigil, S.A.; Melcer, H.

    1998-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency`s Landfill Air Estimation Model (LAEEM), combined with either the AP-42 or CAA landfill emission factors, provide a basis to predict air emissions, including hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), from municipal solid waste landfills. This paper presents alternative approaches for estimating HAP emissions from landfills. These approaches include analytical solutions and estimation techniques that account for convection, diffusion, and biodegradation of HAPs. Results from the modeling of a prototypical landfill are used as the basis for discussion with respect to LAEEM results

  4. Wastewater treatment process impact on energy savings and greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Mamais, D; Noutsopoulos, C; Dimopoulou, A; Stasinakis, A; Lekkas, T D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the energy consumption of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), to apply a mathematical model to evaluate their carbon footprint, and to propose energy saving strategies that can be implemented to reduce both energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Greece. The survey was focused on 10 WWTPs in Greece with a treatment capacity ranging from 10,000 to 4,000,000 population equivalents (PE). Based on the results, annual specific energy consumption ranged from 15 to 86 kWh/PE. The highest energy consumer in all the WWTPs was aeration, accounting for 40-75% of total energy requirements. The annual GHG emissions varied significantly according to the treatment schemes employed and ranged between 61 and 161 kgCO₂e/PE. The highest values of CO₂emissions were obtained in extended aeration systems and the lowest in conventional activated sludge systems. Key strategies that the wastewater industry could adopt to mitigate GHG emissions are identified and discussed. A case study is presented to demonstrate potential strategies for energy savings and GHG emission reduction. Given the results, it is postulated that the reduction of dissolved oxygen (DO) set points and sludge retention time can provide significant energy savings and decrease GHG emissions.

  5. Estimation of glycol air emissions from aircraft deicing

    SciTech Connect

    McCready, D.

    1998-12-31

    Ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG)-based fluids (collectively referred to as glycol) are recognized as effective in removing and preventing snow and ice contamination on aircraft before take-off. Although much work has been done to develop an understanding of the potential impact of spent fluid run-off to water bodies, little attention has been paid to the potential environmental impact, if any, due to air emissions. In order to determine potential impact from air emissions, it is necessary to develop a protocol for estimating the glycol emissions during deicing operations. This paper presents two approaches for estimating glycol air emissions from aircraft deicing fluids (ADF) and aircraft anti-icing fluids (AAF). The first simple approach is based on emission factors and the quantity of fluid applied. The second approach estimates emissions for a typical deicing event based on site-specific parameters. Sample calculations are presented. The predicted glycol evaporation rates are quite low. Calculated emissions from ethylene glycol-based fluids are lower than emissions from PG-based fluids. The calculated air emissions for a typical event are less than a pound for EG-based fluids. The emission rate from PG-based fluids can be two times greater.

  6. Plant-integrated measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-09-15

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contribute to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to its spatial and temporal variation in emissions, whole plant characterization of GHG emissions from WWTPs face a number of obstacles. In this study, a tracer dispersion method was applied to quantify plant-integrated, real-time emissions of methane and nitrous oxides. Two mobile cavity ring-down spectroscopy sampling devices were used to record downwind gas concentrations emitted from a municipal WWTP situated in Copenhagen, Denmark. This plant is equipped to remove biological nitrogen and employs anaerobic digestion for sludge stabilization. Over the course of nine measurement campaigns, a wide range of emissions were detected: methane from 4.99 kg h(-1) up to 92.3 kg h(-1) and nitrous oxide from below the detection limit (0.37 kg h(-1)) up to 10.5 kg h(-1). High emissions were observed during periods experiencing operational problems, such as during foaming events in anaerobic digesters and during sub-optimal operation of biological nitrogen removal in the secondary treatment of wastewater. Methane emissions detected during measurement campaigns corresponded to 2.07-32.7% of the methane generated in the plant. As high as 4.27% of nitrogen entering the WWTP was emitted as nitrous oxide under the sub-optimal operation of biological treatment processes. The study shows that the unit process configuration, as well as the operation of the WWTP, determines the rate of GHG emission. The applied plant-integrated emission measurement method could be used to ease the burden of quantifying GHG emissions from WWTPs for reporting purposes and could contribute to the development of more accurate depictions of environmental performance of WWTPs.

  7. Assessment on motor vehicle emissions and air quality in Beijing

    SciTech Connect

    Lixin Fu; Jiming Hao; Kebin He; Dongquan He

    1996-12-31

    It is occasionally reported that hourly ozone concentrations exceed the National Air Quality Standard (NAQS) of China in recent years in Beijing, which indicates that motor vehicle emissions are more and more important to the total air quality in urban area of Beijing. A deep investigation was carried out to collect the information on road status, vehicle number and types, fuel consumption, traffic condition, and vehicle management in Beijing, so that the real world emission factors (CO, HC, NO{sub x}) could be calculated by MOBILE5a model. The calculated results were comparable with limited testing data from other former researches. With a detailed survey on emissions from other sources such as oil refueling, plants HC emission, and other stationary sources, the emission inventory are established and further projected for the future years, thus the emission contribution rates are obtained for motor vehicle emissions. The results are given for different seasons and different areas in Beijing.

  8. Comparison of air emissions from waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Licata, A.; Minott, D.H.

    1996-09-01

    Landfilling remains the predominate disposal method for managing municipal solid waste (MSW) in the US. According to the US EPA, in 1993 landfilling accounted for 62% of the management alternative for disposing of MSW while recycling and combustion account for 22% and 15% respectively. Recent actions such as limits on flow control and EPA`s proposed Most Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rules for Municipal Waste Combustors (MWCs) most likely will increase the amount of MSW that will be landfilled. The air emissions from landfill operations have in general been ignored and unregulated. This paper will make a comparison of air emissions from a landfill (Fresh Kills Landfill in NYC) and a modern MSW. The paper will present the emissions from landfill operations including uncontrolled emissions, residual and secondary emissions from gas control systems, and emissions from diesel equipment at the landfill. The MWC emissions will include boiler pollutants and a comparison to fossil-fuel fired power plants.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from surface flow and subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    VanderZaag, A C; Gordon, R J; Burton, D L; Jamieson, R C; Stratton, G W

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural wastewater treatment is important for protecting water quality in rural ecosystems, and constructed wetlands are an effective treatment option. During treatment, however, some C and N are converted to CH(4), N(2)O, respectively, which are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs). The objective of this study was to assess CH(4), N(2)O, and CO(2) emissions from surface flow (SF) and subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands. Six constructed wetlands (three SF and three SSF; 6.6 m(2) each) were loaded with dairy wastewater in Truro, Nova Scotia, Canada. From August 2005 through September 2006, GHG fluxes were measured continuously using transparent steady-state chambers that encompassed the entire wetlands. Flux densities of all gases were significantly (p < 0.01) different between SF and SSF wetlands changed significantly with time. Overall, SF wetlands had significantly (p < 0.01) higher emissions of CH(4) N(2)O than SSF wetlands and therefore had 180% higher total GHG emissions. The ratio of N(2)O to CH(4) emissions (CO(2)-equivalent) was nearly 1:1 in both wetland types. Emissions of CH(4)-C as a percentage of C removal varied seasonally from 0.2 to 27% were 2 to 3x higher in SF than SSF wetlands. The ratio of N(2)O-N emitted to N removed was between 0.1 and 1.6%, and the difference between wetland types was inconsistent. Thus, N(2)O emissions had a similar contribution to N removal in both wetland types, but SSF wetlands emitted less CH(4) while removing more C from the wastewater than SF wetlands.

  10. Pretreatment of Afyon alcaloide factory's wastewater by wet air oxidation (WAO).

    PubMed

    Kaçar, Y; Alpay, E; Ceylan, V K

    2003-03-01

    In this study, pretreatment of Afyon (Turkey) alcaloide factory wastewater, a typical high strength industrial wastewater (chemical oxygen demand (COD)=26.65 kgm(-3), biological oxygen demand (BOD(5))=3.95 kgm(-3)), was carried out by wet air oxidation process. The process was performed in a 0.75 litre specially designed bubble reactor. Experiments were conducted to see the advantages of one-stage and two-stage oxidation and the effects of pressure, pH, temperature, catalyst type, catalyst loading and air or oxygen as gas source on the oxidation of the wastewater. In addition, BOD(5)/COD ratios of the effluents, which are generally regarded as an important index of biodegradability of a high-strength industrial wastewater, were determined at the end of some runs. After a 2h oxidation (T=150 degrees C, P=0.65 MPa, airflowrate=1.57 x 10(-5)m(3)s(-1), pH=7.0), the BOD(5)/COD ratio was increased from 0.15 to above 0.5 by using the salts of metals such as Co(2+),Fe(2+),Fe(2+)+Ni(2+),Cu(2+)+Mn(2+) as catalyst.

  11. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: ORGANIC AIR EMISSIONS FROM WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organic chemicals contained in wastes processed during waste management operations can volatilize into the atmosphere and cause toxic or carcinogenic effects or contribute to ozone formation. Because air emissions from waste management operations pose a threat to human health...

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in Region 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) are applicable requirements under the Title V operating permit program. This is a resource for permit writers and reviewers to learn about the rules and explore other helpful tools.

  13. Emission estimates for air pollution transport models.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.

    1998-10-09

    The results of studies of energy consumption and emission inventories in Asia are discussed. These data primarily reflect emissions from fuel combustion (both biofuels and fossil fuels) and were collected to determine emissions of acid-deposition precursors (SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) and greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHC) appropriate to RAINS-Asia regions. Current work is focusing on black carbon (soot), volatile organic compounds, and ammonia.

  14. CRITERIA AND AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FROM IN-USE, LOW EMISSION VEHICLES (LEVS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented a program to identify tailpipe emissions of criteria and air toxic contaminants from in-use, light-duty Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs). EPA recruited twenty-five LEVs in 2002, and measured emissions on a chassis dynamometer usin...

  15. Air Monitoring, Measuring, and Emissions Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Measurement research is advancing the ability to determine the composition of sources of air pollution, conduct exposure assessments, improve monitoring capabilities and support public health research.

  16. Air Pollution Emissions | Air Quality Planning & Standards | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    Air pollution comes from many different sources: stationary sources such as factories, power plants, and smelters and smaller sources such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution.

  17. Wastewater characterization survey, O'Hare International Airport (IAP), Air Reserve Station, Illinois. Final report, 13-24 April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, A.M.; Fields, M.K.; Davis, R.P.

    1993-02-01

    A wastewater characterization survey was conducted by members of the Armstrong Laboratory Occupational and Environmental Health Directorate Water Quality Function from 13-24 April 1992 at O'Hare International Airport (IAP)-Air Reserve Station, Illinois. The purpose of this survey was to identify and characterize the wastewater. Results of the sampling showed the use of industrial chemicals is being well controlled. The base should be commended for good shop practices to minimize the disposal of industrial waste through the sanitary sewerage system.... O'Hare International Airport (IAP)-Air Reserve Station, Illinois, Wastewater characterization.

  18. Nitrous oxide abatement potential from the wastewater sector and the monetary value of the emissions credits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Hamburg, S. P.; Pryor, D.

    2009-12-01

    As an illustration of the monetary opportunities afforded by greenhouse gas emissions markets, we estimated the potential value of greenhouse gas credits generated in the wastewater sector by switching from secondary to tertiary treatment. Our methodology for estimating emissions is a modification of that used by the Environmental Protection Agency for the U.S. greenhouse gas inventories. Focusing on N2O, we found that tertiary treatment in some situations will result in a net decrease in emissions, though the full range of reported emission factors for treatment plants and effluent in receiving waters could result in a net increase as well. Implementation of tertiary treatment across the U.S. could reduce emissions by up to 800,000 tonnes of N2O per year, generating greenhouse gas emissions credits worth up to 10 billion per year (assuming a market price of 10-40/tonne CO2 equivalents). In practice, it will be important to account for potential increases in CO2 emissions associated with the additional power consumption and chemical use required by tertiary treatment that would reduce the net climatic benefit. The net credits would reduce the cost of operating and maintaining tertiary treatment plants and provide an incentive for managers to optimize operating conditions for N2O reductions, a critical benefit of raising awareness of the link between tertiary treatment and N2O emissions. We outline a strategy for minimizing the uncertainty in quantifying N2O reductions in the hopes of accelerating implementation of a N2O crediting system for tertiary wastewater treatment plants.

  19. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1998-06-01

    Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

  20. Source Emissions in Multipollutant Air Quality Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activities and natural processes that emit pollutants into the ambient atmosphere are the underlying cause of all air quality problems. In a technical sense, we refer to these activities and processes as pollutant sources. Although air quality management is usually concerne...

  1. Feed management for beef feedlots to reduce air emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This power point presentation gives an overview of air emissions from beef cattle feedyards as well as nutritional and management techniques that might decrease these emissions. Topics include greenhouse gases (methane, nitrous oxide), ammonia, particulate matter and odors. This was presented as on...

  2. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  3. EMISSIONS OF ORGANIC AIR TOXICS FROM OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed literature search was performed to collect and collate available data reporting emissions of toxic organic substances into the air from open burning sources. Availability of data varied according to the source and the class of air toxics of interest. Volatile organic c...

  4. Integration of microalgae systems at municipal wastewater treatment plants: implications for energy and emission balances.

    PubMed

    Menger-Krug, Eve; Niederste-Hollenberg, Jutta; Hillenbrand, Thomas; Hiessl, Harald

    2012-11-06

    Integrating microalgae systems (MAS) at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to produce of bioenergy offers many potential synergies. Improved energy balances provide a strong incentive for WWTPs to integrate MAS, but it is crucial that WWTPs maintain their barrier function to protect water resources. We perform a prospective analysis of energy and emission balances of a WWTP with integrated MAS, based on a substance flow analysis of the elements carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). These elements are the main ingredients of wastewater, and the key nutrients for algae growth. We propose a process design which relies solely on resources from wastewater with no external input of water, fertilizer or CO(2). The whole process chain, from cultivation to production of bioelectricity, takes place at the WWTP. Our results show that MAS can considerably improve energy balances of WWTPs without any external resource input. With optimistic assumptions, they can turn WWTPs into net energy producers. While intensive C recycling in MAS considerably improves the energy balance, we show that it also impacts on effluent quality. We discuss the importance of nonharvested biomass for effluent quality and highlight harvesting efficiency as key factor for energy and emission balances of MAS at WWTP.

  5. Industrial Wastewater Management Practices in Air Force Logistics Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    inadequate 0 & M programs was the failure of the DOD and the Air Force to issue clear and specific guidance (2:22). The DOD and each service is responsible for...Discharge Monitoring Reports ( DMR ) submitted to regulatory agencies covering the preceding twelve months of operation were used to judge plant...environmental management has been defined by Coopers and Lybrand, an environmental consulting services firm, as . . . the process used by environmental

  6. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction portable temporary radioactive air emission units - August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    FRITZ, D.W.

    1999-07-22

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of three types of portable/temporary radionuclide airborne emission units (PTRAEUs). These three types are portable ventilation-filter systems (Type I), mobile sample preparation facilities (Type II), and mobile sample screening and analysis facilities (Type 111). Approval of the NOC application is intended to allow construction and operation of the three types of PTRAEUs without prior project-specific approval. Environmental cleanup efforts on the Hanford Site often require the use of PTRAEUs. The PTRAEUs support site characterization activities, expedited response actions (ERAs), sampling and monitoring activities, and other routine activities. The PTRAEUs operate at various locations around the Hanford Site. Radiation Air Emissions Program, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, requires that the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) be notified before construction of any new emission that would release airborne radioactivity. The WDOH also must receive notification before any modification of an existing source. This includes changes in the source term or replacement of emission control equipment that might significantly contribute to the offsite maximum dose from a licensed facility. During site characterization activities, ERAs, sampling and monitoring activities, and other routine activities, the PTRAEUs might require startup immediately. The notification period hampers efforts to complete such activities in an effective and timely manner. Additionally, notification is to be submitted to the WDOH when the PTRAEUs are turned off. The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) potentially could generate several notifications monthly. The WDOH would be required to review and provide approval on each NOC as well as review the notices of discontinued sources. The WDOH regulation also allows facilities the opportunity to request a

  7. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE`s Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP`s worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

  8. Emissions of NO and N2O in wetland microcosms for swine wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shunan; Liu, Feng; Xiao, Runlin; Li, Yong; Zhou, Juan; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emitted from wetland systems contribute an important proportion to the global warming effect. In this study, four wetland microcosms vegetated with Myriophyllum elatinoides (WM), Alternanthera philoxeroides (WA), Eichhornia crassipes (WE), or without vegetation (NW) were compared to investigate the emissions of NO and N2O during nitrogen (N) removal process when treating swine wastewater. After 30-day incubation, TN removal rates of 96.4, 74.2, 97.2, and 47.3 % were observed for the WM, WA, WE, and NW microcosms, respectively. Yet, no significant difference was observed in WM and WE (p > 0.05). The average NO and N2O emissions in WE was significantly higher than those in WM, WA, and NW (p < 0.05). In addition, the emission of N2O in WE accounted for 2.10 % of initial TN load and 2.17 % of the total amount of TN removal, compared with less than 1 % in the other microcosms. These findings indicate that wetland vegetated with M. elatinoides may be an optimal system for swine wastewater treatment, based on its higher removal of N and lower emissions of NO and N2O.

  9. Effect of timed secondary-air injection on automotive emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, K. P.

    1973-01-01

    A single cylinder of an automotive V-8 engine was fitted with an electronically timed system for the pulsed injection of secondary air. A straight-tube exhaust minimized any mixing other than that produced by secondary-air pulsing. The device was operated over a range of engine loads and speeds. Effects attributable to secondary-air pulsing were found, but emission levels were generally no better than using the engine's own injection system. Under nontypical fast-idle, no-load conditions, emission levels were reduced by roughly a factor of 2.

  10. Impacts of Lowered Urban Air Temperatures on Precursor Emission and Ozone Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Taha, Haider; Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    1998-09-01

    Meteorological, photochemical, building-energy, and power plant simulations were performed to assess the possible precursor emission and ozone air quality impacts of decreased air temperatures that could result from implementing the "cool communities" concept in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Two pathways are considered. In the direct pathway, a reduction in cooling energy use translates into reduced demand for generation capacity and, thus, reduced precursor emissions from electric utility power plants. In the indirect pathway, reduced air temperatures can slow the atmospheric production of ozone as well as precursor emission from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. The simulations suggest small impacts on emissions following implementation of cool communities in the SoCAB. In summer, for example, there can be reductions of up to 3% in NOx emissions from in-basin power plants. The photochemical simulations suggest that the air quality impacts of these direct emission reductions are small. However, the indirect atmospheric effects of cool communities can be significant. For example, ozone peak concentrations can decrease by up to 11% in summer and population-weighted exceedance exposure to ozone above the California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards can decrease by up to 11 and 17%, respectively. The modeling suggests that if these strategies are combined with others, such as mobile-source emission control, the improvements in ozone air quality can be substantial.

  11. Impact of mine wastewaters on greenhouse gas emissions from northern peatlands used for mine water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Katharina; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Klöve, Björn; Hynynen, Jenna; Maljanen, Marja

    2015-04-01

    The amount of wastewaters generated during mining operations is increasing along with the increasing number of operation mines, which poses great challenges for mine water management and purification. Mine wastewaters contain high concentrations of nitrogen compounds such as nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) originating from remnant explosives as well as sulfate (SO42-) originating from the oxidation of sulfidic ores. At a mine site in Finnish Lapland, two natural peatlands have been used for cost-effective passive wastewater treatment. One peatland have been used for the treatment of drainage waters (TP 1), while the other has been used for the treatment of process-based wastewaters (TP 4). In this study, the impact of mine water derived nitrogen compounds as well as SO42- on the emission of the potent greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from those treatment peatlands was investigated. Contaminant concentrations in the input and output waters of the treatment peatlands were monitored which allowed for the calculation of contaminant-specific retention efficiencies. Treatment peatlands showed generally good retention efficiencies for metals and metalloids (e.g. nickel, arsenic, antimony, up to 98% reduction in concentration) with rather low input-concentrations (i.e., in the μg/l-range). On the other hand, retention of contaminants with high input-concentrations (i.e., in mg/l-range) such as NO3-, NH4+ and SO42- was much lower (4-41%, 30-60% and -42-30%, respectively), indicating the limited capability of the treatment peatlands to cope with such high input concentrations. NO3- and NH4+ concentrations were determined in surface and pore water from TP 4 in July 2013 as well as in surface water from TP 1 and TP 4 in October 2013. Up to 720 μM NO3- and up to 600 μM NH4+ were detected in surface water of TP 4 in July 2013. NO3- and NH4+ concentrations in surface waters were highest near the mine wastewater distribution ditch and decreased with

  12. Seasonal and diurnal variability of N2O emissions from a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Daelman, Matthijs R J; van Voorthuizen, Ellen M; van Dongen, Udo G J M; Volcke, Eveline I P; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2015-12-01

    During nitrogen removal in conventional activated sludge processes, nitrous oxide can be emitted. With a global warming potential of 298 CO2-equivalents it is an important greenhouse gas that affects the sustainability of wastewater treatment. The present study reports nitrous oxide emission data from a 16 month monitoring campaign on a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment. The emission demonstrated a pronounced diurnal and seasonal variability. This variability was compared with the variability of a number of process variables that are commonly available on a municipal wastewater treatment plant. On a seasonal timescale, the occurrence of peaks in the nitrite concentration correlated strongly with the emission. The diurnal trend of the emission coincided with the diurnal trend of the nitrite and nitrate concentrations in the tank, suggesting that suboptimal oxygen concentrations may induce the production of nitrous oxide during both nitrification and denitrification. This study documents an unprecedented dataset that could serve as a reference for further research.

  13. Working Toward Policy-Relevant Air Quality Emissions Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.

    2010-12-01

    Though much work has been done to develop accurate chemical emission inventories, few publicly available inventories are appropriate for realistic policy analysis. Emissions from the electricity and transportation sectors, in particular, respond in complex ways to policy, technology, and energy use change. Many widely used inventories, such as the EPA National Emissions Inventory, are well-suited for modeling current air quality, but do not have the specificity needed to address "what if?" questions. Changes in electricity demand, fuel prices, new power sources, and emission controls all influence the emissions from regional power production, requiring a plant-by-plant assessment to capture the spatially explicit impacts. Similarly, land use, freight distribution, or driving behavior will yield differentiated transportation emissions for urban areas, suburbs, and rural highways. We here present results from three recent research projects at the University of Wisconsin—Madison, where bottom-up emission inventories for electricity, freight transport, and urban vehicle use were constructed to support policy-relevant air quality research. These three studies include: 1) Using the MyPower electricity dispatch model to calculate emissions and air quality impacts of Renewable Portfolio Standards and other carbon-management strategies; 2) Using advanced vehicle and commodity flow data from the Federal Highway Administration to evaluate the potential to shift commodities from truck to rail (assuming expanded infrastructure), and assess a range of alternative fuel suggestions; and 3) Working with urban planners to connect urban density with vehicle use to evaluate the air quality impacts of smart-growth in major Midwest cities. Drawing on the results of these three studies, and on challenges overcome in their execution, we discuss the current state of policy-relevant emission dataset generation, as well as techniques and attributes that need to be further refined in order

  14. Probing the radio emission from air showers with polarization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bardenet, R.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Foerster, N.; Fox, B. D.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PeÂķala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Preda, T.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Straub, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcǎu, O.; Thao, N. T.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The emission of radio waves from air showers has been attributed to the so-called geomagnetic emission process. At frequencies around 50 MHz this process leads to coherent radiation which can be observed with rather simple setups. The direction of the electric field induced by this emission process depends only on the local magnetic field vector and on the incoming direction of the air shower. We report on measurements of the electric field vector where, in addition to this geomagnetic component, another component has been observed that cannot be described by the geomagnetic emission process. The data provide strong evidence that the other electric field component is polarized radially with respect to the shower axis, in agreement with predictions made by Askaryan who described radio emission from particle showers due to a negative charge excess in the front of the shower. Our results are compared to calculations which include the radiation mechanism induced by this charge-excess process.

  15. A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Garcia, G.; Moreira, M.T.

    2012-11-15

    The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM no. 1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin Registered-Sign , making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N{sub 2}O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO{sub 2} emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model has been developed for the estimation of GHG emissions in WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model was consistent with both ASM no. 1 and AS/AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O emissions are 8 times more relevant than the one associated with electricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions are as important as electricity if 20% of it is non-biogenic.

  16. Removal of hydrocarbons from petrochemical wastewater by dissolved air flotation.

    PubMed

    Galil, N I; Wolf, D

    2001-01-01

    The dissolved air flotation (DAF) method has an important role in the removal of hydrocarbons, as well as in the protection of the biological treatment, which usually follows the DAF. The aims of this study were to evaluate the removal efficiencies of suspended solids, general organic matter, hydrocarbons and phenols by DAF, as influenced by the flocculant type, aluminum sulfate (alum) or a cationic polyelectrolyte. Laboratory batch experiments included chemical flocculation followed by DAF, controlling the flocculant dose and the air to solids ratio. The characterization of the influent and effluent was based on general analysis of organic matter (COD), suspended solids, hydrocarbons and phenols. The influent to all experiments was supplied daily from the outlet of a full scale oil-water gravitational separation unit at a petrochemical complex in Haifa, Israel. The influent contained hydrocarbons in the range of 20 to 77 mg/L. Usually less than 10% were found in "free" form, 70 to 80% were emulsified and 10 to 20% were dissolved. The DAF process enabled us to reduce the general hydrocarbon content by 50 to 90%. The effluent was characterized by stable and uniform levels of suspended solids, and oil, almost without depending on the influent concentrations. The results indicate that the chemical flocculation followed by DAF removed efficiently the emulsified phase, which could be aggregated and separated to the surface. However, it was found that the process could also remove substantial amounts of dissolved organic matter. This mechanism could be explained by the hydrophobic characteristics of some of the substances, which could bind to the solid surfaces. It was found that aggregates created by the flocculation with the cationic polyelectrolite (C-577) could remove up to 40% from the dissolved hydrocarbon. Alum flocs also indicated removal of soluble materials, mainly phenols. The results obtained in this study indicated the possibility to improve the protection

  17. Comparison of different modeling approaches to better evaluate greenhouse gas emissions from whole wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Corominas, Lluís; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Snip, Laura; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2012-11-01

    New tools are being developed to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). There is a trend to move from empirical factors to simple comprehensive and more complex process-based models. Thus, the main objective of this study is to demonstrate the importance of using process-based dynamic models to better evaluate GHG emissions. This is tackled by defining a virtual case study based on the whole plant Benchmark Simulation Model Platform No. 2 (BSM2) and estimating GHG emissions using two approaches: (1) a combination of simple comprehensive models based on empirical assumptions and (2) a more sophisticated approach, which describes the mechanistic production of nitrous oxide (N(2) O) in the biological reactor (ASMN) and the generation of carbon dioxide (CO(2) ) and methane (CH(4) ) from the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1). Models already presented in literature are used, but modifications compared to the previously published ASMN model have been made. Also model interfaces between the ASMN and the ADM1 models have been developed. The results show that the use of the different approaches leads to significant differences in the N(2) O emissions (a factor of 3) but not in the CH(4) emissions (about 4%). Estimations of GHG emissions are also compared for steady-state and dynamic simulations. Averaged values for GHG emissions obtained with steady-state and dynamic simulations are rather similar. However, when looking at the dynamics of N(2) O emissions, large variability (3-6 ton CO(2) e day(-1) ) is observed due to changes in the influent wastewater C/N ratio and temperature which would not be captured by a steady-state analysis (4.4 ton CO(2) e day(-1) ). Finally, this study also shows the effect of changing the anaerobic digestion volume on the total GHG emissions. Decreasing the anaerobic digester volume resulted in a slight reduction in CH(4) emissions (about 5%), but significantly decreased N(2) O emissions in

  18. Assessment of N2O emission from a photobioreactor treating ammonia-rich swine wastewater digestate.

    PubMed

    Mezzari, Melissa P; da Silva, Márcio L B; Nicoloso, Rodrigo S; Ibelli, Adriana M G; Bortoli, Marcelo; Viancelli, Aline; Soares, Hugo M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the interactions between naturally occurring bacteria and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris within a lab scale photobioreactor treating ammonia-rich swine wastewater digestate effluent. Nitrification and denitrification were assessed by targeting ammonia monoxygenases (amoA), nitrate (narG), nitrite (nirS), nitric oxide (norB) and nitrous oxide (nosZ) reductases genes. Oxygen produced from microalgae photosynthesis stimulated nitrification. Under limiting carbon availability (i.e., <1.44 for mg TOC/mg NO2-N and 1.72 for mg TOC/mg NO3-N), incomplete denitrification led to accumulation of NO2 and NO3. Significant N2O emission (up to 118 μg N2O-N) was linked to NO2 metabolism in Chlorella. The addition of acetate as external carbon source recovered heterotrophic denitrification activity suppressing N2O emission. Effluent methane concentrations trapped within photobioreactor was removed concomitantly with ammonia. Overall, closed photobioreactors can be built to effectively remove nitrogen and mitigate simultaneously greenhouse gases emissions that would occur otherwise in open microalgae-based wastewater treatment systems.

  19. 76 FR 13851 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... hazardous air pollutant emission standards reflecting the application of the maximum achievable control...), we established that the application of measurement technology to mercury cell rooms is not... requirements, determines is achievable through application of measures, processes, methods, systems...

  20. Integrated catalytic wet air oxidation and biological treatment of wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jianxiong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Daosheng; Wang, Xiaocong; Song, Jing; Liu, Dongqi

    This study investigated the feasibility of coupling a catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), with CuO/Al 2O 3 as catalyst, and an anaerobic/aerobic biological process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production. Results showed that the CWAO enhanced the biodegradability (BOD 5/COD) from 0.10 to 0.80. The oxidized effluents with COD of 10,000 mg l -1 was subjected to subsequent continuous anaerobic/aerobic oxidation, and 99.3% of total COD removal was achieved. The quality of the effluent obtained met the discharge standards of water pollutants for pharmaceutical industry Chemical Synthesis Products Category (GB21904-2008), and thereby it implies that the integrated CWAO and anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment may offer a promising process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production.

  1. EMISSION OF PESTICIDES INTO THE AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    During and after the application of pesticide in agriculture, a substantial fraction of the dosage may enter the atmosphere and be transported over varying distances downwind of the target. The rate and extent of the emission during application depends primarily on the applicat...

  2. Perspectives on greenhouse gas emission estimates based on Australian wastewater treatment plant operating data.

    PubMed

    de Haas, D W; Pepperell, C; Foley, J

    2014-01-01

    Primary operating data were collected from forty-six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located across three states within Australia. The size range of plants was indicatively from 500 to 900,000 person equivalents. Direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions were calculated using a mass balance approach and default emission factors, based on Australia's National Greenhouse Energy Reporting (NGER) scheme and IPCC guidelines. A Monte Carlo-type combined uncertainty analysis was applied to the some of the key emission factors in order to study sensitivity. The results suggest that Scope 2 (indirect emissions due to electrical power purchased from the grid) dominate the emissions profile for most of the plants (indicatively half to three quarters of the average estimated total emissions). This is only offset for the relatively small number of plants (in this study) that have significant on-site power generation from biogas, or where the water utility purchases grid electricity generated from renewable sources. For plants with anaerobic digestion, inventory data issues around theoretical biogas generation, capture and measurement were sometimes encountered that can skew reportable emissions using the NGER methodology. Typically, nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions dominated the Scope 1 (direct) emissions. However, N(2)O still only accounted for approximately 10 to 37% of total emissions. This conservative estimate is based on the 'default' NGER steady-state emission factor, which amounts to 1% of nitrogen removed through biological nitrification-denitrification processing in the plant (or indicatively 0.7 to 0.8% of plant influent total nitrogen). Current research suggests that true N(2)O emissions may be much lower and certainly not steady-state. The results of this study help to place in context research work that is focused on direct emissions from WWTPs (including N(2)O, methane and carbon dioxide of non-biogenic origin). For example, whereas non-biogenic CO(2

  3. Integrated assessment of brick kiln emission impacts on air quality.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoang Anh; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents monitoring results of daily brick kiln stack emission and the derived emission factors. Emission of individual air pollutant varied significantly during a firing batch (7 days) and between kilns. Average emission factors per 1,000 bricks were 6.35-12.3 kg of CO, 0.52-5.9 kg of SO(2) and 0.64-1.4 kg of particulate matter (PM). PM emission size distribution in the stack plume was determined using a modified cascade impactor. Obtained emission factors and PM size distribution data were used in simulation study using the Industrial Source Complex Short-Term (ISCST3) dispersion model. The model performance was successfully evaluated for the local conditions using the simultaneous ambient monitoring data in 2006 and 2007. SO(2) was the most critical pollutant, exceeding the hourly National Ambient Air Quality Standards over 63 km(2) out of the 100-km(2) modelled domain in the base case. Impacts of different emission scenarios on the ambient air quality (SO(2), PM, CO, PM dry deposition flux) were assessed.

  4. Spatial analysis on China's regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions: emission pattern and regional disparity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei

    2014-08-01

    China has suffered from serious air pollution and CO2 emission. Challenges of emission reduction policy not only come from technology advancement, but also generate from the fact that, China has pronounced disparity between regions, in geographical and socioeconomic. How to deal with regional disparity is important to achieve the reduction target effectively and efficiently. This research conducts a spatial analysis on the emission patterns of three air pollutants named SO2, NOx and PM2.5, and CO2, in China's 30 provinces, applied with spatial auto-correlation and multi regression modeling. We further analyze the regional disparity and inequity issues with the approach of Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Results highlight that: there is evident cluster effect for the regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions. While emission amount increases from western regions to eastern regions, the emission per GDP is in inverse trend. The Lorenz curve shows an even larger unequal distribution of GDP/emissions than GDP/capita in 30 regions. Certain middle and western regions suffers from a higher emission with lower GDP, which reveal the critical issue of emission leakage. Future policy making to address such regional disparity is critical so as to promote the emission control policy under the “equity and efficiency” principle.

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment and water reclamation plants in southern California.

    PubMed

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Pataki, Diane E; Tseng, Linda Y; Tsai, Cheng-Yao; Rosso, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N₂O) is a long-lived and potent greenhouse gas produced during microbial nitrification and denitrification. In developed countries, centralized water reclamation plants often use these processes for N removal before effluent is used for irrigation or discharged to surface water, thus making this treatment a potentially large source of N₂O in urban areas. In the arid but densely populated southwestern United States, water reclamation for irrigation is an important alternative to long-distance water importation. We measured N₂O concentrations and fluxes from several wastewater treatment processes in urban southern California. We found that N removal during water reclamation may lead to in situ N₂O emission rates that are three or more times greater than traditional treatment processes (C oxidation only). In the water reclamation plants tested, N₂O production was a greater percentage of total N removed (1.2%) than traditional treatment processes (C oxidation only) (0.4%). We also measured stable isotope ratios (δN and δO) of emitted N₂O and found distinct δN signatures of N₂O from denitrification (0.0 ± 4.0 ‰) and nitrification reactors (-24.5 ± 2.2 ‰), respectively. These isotope data confirm that both nitrification and denitrification contribute to N₂O emissions within the same treatment plant. Our estimates indicate that N₂O emissions from biological N removal for water reclamation may be several orders of magnitude greater than N₂O emissions from agricultural activities in highly urbanized southern California. Our results suggest that wastewater treatment that includes biological nitrogen removal can significantly increase urban N₂O emissions.

  6. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  7. Air Emission, Liquid Effluent Inventory and Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Tina

    1998-08-18

    The IES maintains an inventory of radiological air and liquid effluents released to the atmosphere. The IES utilizes the official stack numbers. Data may be entered by generators for any monitoring time period. Waste volumes released as well as their radiological constituents are tracked. The IES provides data to produce a report for NESHAPS as well as several administrative action/anomaly reports. These reports flag unusual occurences (releases) that are above normal range releases.

  8. Effect of low emission sources on air quality in Cracow

    SciTech Connect

    Nedoma, J.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents calculation of power engineering low emission and results of stimulation of the effect of this emission on air quality in Cracow, Poland. It has been stated that the segment of low emission in central areas of the town makes up ca. 40% of the observed concentration of sulfur dioxide. Furthermore it has been stated that the capital investment must be concentrated in the central part of the town in order to reach noticeable improvement of air quality in Cracow. Neither the output of a separate power source nor the emission level and its individual harmful effect, but the location of the source and especially packing density of the sources must decide the priority of upgrading actions.

  9. Biofiltration: An innovative air pollution control technology for VOC emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Leson, G. ); Winer, A.M. )

    1991-08-01

    Biofiltration is a relatively recent air pollution control (APC) technology in which off-gases containing biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOC) or inorganic air toxics are vented through a biologically active material. This technology has been successfully applied in Germany and The Netherlands in many full-scale applications to control odors, VOC and air toxic emissions from a wide range of industrial and public sector sources. Control efficiencies of more than 90 percent have been achieved for many common air pollutants. Due to lower operating costs, biofiltration can provide significant economic advantages over other APC technologies if applied to off-gases that contain readily biodegradable pollutants in low concentrations. Environmental benefits include low energy requirements and the avoidance of cross media transfer of pollutants. This paper reviews the history and current status of biofiltration, outlines its underlying scientific and engineering principles, and discusses the applicability of biofilters for a wide range of specific emission sources.

  10. Factor analysis of H2S emission at a wastewater lift station: a case study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Szostak, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Odor and corrosion are common problems in domestic wastewater collection, transportation, pumping, and treatment processes. Based on the comparison among odorous compounds and onsite observations at a wastewater lift station, H2S is more likely to have caused the odor and corrosion problems than methanethiol and other organic sulfides. The field data from both air and wastewater quality monitoring demonstrated that more H2S (1 ppmv) was formed at a more negative redox potential, lower pH, and a higher temperature of wastewater. Since the lower detection level of most current analytical techniques is much greater than human's smell and the reference concentration for adverse health effects, automatic monitoring on the threshold of H2S formation provides a mechanism to trigger control techniques only when necessary for cost saving purposes. Based on Gibbs free energy, a more negative redox potential is required to form H2S with an increase in pH and a decrease in temperature and SO 4(2-) concentration. However, pH effect is more significant than both temperature and SO 4(2-) concentration for H2S formation. It is recommended that H2S control techniques be started when the redox potential is below -44 mV, the pH is lower than 5.6, and the temperature is higher than 11.5 °C to control H2S below the reference concentration. Corroded concrete particles were examined by X-ray diffraction, which showed that the dominant crystal form was quartz.

  11. Sequim Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-04-01

    This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and ashington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. This report meets the calendar year 2012 Sequim Site annual reporting requirement for its operations as a privately-owned facility as well as its federally-contracted status that began in October 2012. Compliance is indicated by comparing the estimated dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) with the 10 mrem/yr Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. The MSL contains only sources classified as fugitive emissions. Despite the fact that the regulations are intended for application to point source emissions, fugitive emissions are included with regard to complying with the EPA standard. The dose to the Sequim Site MEI due to routine operations in 2012 was 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2012. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  12. Radionuclide air emissions annual report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-04-04

    This report presents the results of the Pinellas Plant air sampling program for the year of 1994. Topics discussed include: site description; source description; air emissions data; dose assessments; description of dose model; summary of input parameters of dose model; unplanned releases; and diffuse emissions. Included in the attachments of this document are: non-radon individual dose assessment; non-radon population dose assessment; summary of stack flow rate measurements; HOTSPOT computer model run; and meteorological data for the Pinellas Plant for 1994.

  13. Wastewater treatment in the pulp-and-paper industry: A review of treatment processes and the associated greenhouse gas emission.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Omid; Yerushalmi, Laleh; Haghighat, Fariborz

    2015-08-01

    Pulp-and-paper mills produce various types of contaminants and a significant amount of wastewater depending on the type of processes used in the plant. Since the generated wastewaters can be potentially polluting and very dangerous, they should be treated in wastewater treatment plants before being released to the environment. This paper reviews different wastewater treatment processes used in the pulp-and-paper industry and compares them with respect to their contaminant removal efficiencies and the extent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. It also evaluates the impact of operating parameters on the performance of different treatment processes. Two mathematical models were used to estimate GHG emission in common biological treatment processes used in the pulp-and-paper industry. Nutrient removal processes and sludge treatment are discussed and their associated GHG emissions are calculated. Although both aerobic and anaerobic biological processes are appropriate for wastewater treatment, their combination known as hybrid processes showed a better contaminant removal capacity at higher efficiencies under optimized operating conditions with reduced GHG emission and energy costs.

  14. Polarized radio emission from extensive air showers measured with LOFAR

    SciTech Connect

    Schellart, P.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J.E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J.R.; Krause, M.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J.P.; Veen, S. ter; Thoudam, S.

    2014-10-01

    We present LOFAR measurements of radio emission from extensive air showers. We find that this emission is strongly polarized, with a median degree of polarization of nearly 99%, and that the angle between the polarization direction of the electric field and the Lorentz force acting on the particles, depends on the observer location in the shower plane. This can be understood as a superposition of the radially polarized charge-excess emission mechanism, first proposed by Askaryan and the geomagnetic emission mechanism proposed by Kahn and Lerche. We calculate the relative strengths of both contributions, as quantified by the charge-excess fraction, for 163 individual air showers. We find that the measured charge-excess fraction is higher for air showers arriving from closer to the zenith. Furthermore, the measured charge-excess fraction also increases with increasing observer distance from the air shower symmetry axis. The measured values range from (3.3± 1.0)% for very inclined air showers at 25 m to (20.3± 1.3)% for almost vertical showers at 225 m. Both dependencies are in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions.

  15. Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2008-10-17

    This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

  16. Renewable Operating Permit Program Air Emission Fees

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Characterization of air freshener emission: the potential health effects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghwa; Hong, Seong-Ho; Bong, Choon-Keun; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2015-01-01

    Air freshener could be one of the multiple sources that release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the indoor environment. The use of these products may be associated with an increase in the measured level of terpene, such as xylene and other volatile air freshener components, including aldehydes, and esters. Air freshener is usually used indoors, and thus some compounds emitted from air freshener may have potentially harmful health impacts, including sensory irritation, respiratory symptoms, and dysfunction of the lungs. The constituents of air fresheners can react with ozone to produce secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), oxidative product, and ultrafine particles. These pollutants then adversely affect human health, in many ways such as damage to the central nervous system, alteration of hormone levels, etc. In particular, the ultrafine particles may induce severe adverse effects on diverse organs, including the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Although the indoor use of air freshener is increasing, deleterious effects do not manifest for many years, making it difficult to identify air freshener-associated symptoms. In addition, risk assessment recognizes the association between air fresheners and adverse health effects, but the distinct causal relationship remains unclear. In this review, the emitted components of air freshener, including benzene, phthalate, and limonene, were described. Moreover, we focused on the health effects of these chemicals and secondary pollutants formed by the reaction with ozone. In conclusion, scientific guidelines on emission and exposure as well as risk characterization of air freshener need to be established.

  18. Including greenhouse gas emissions during benchmarking of wastewater treatment plant control strategies.

    PubMed

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Corominas, Lluís; Snip, Laura; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2011-10-15

    The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can be quantified during the evaluation of control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). A modified version of the IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2G) is hereby used as a simulation case study. Thus, the traditional effluent quality index (EQI), operational cost index (OCI) and time in violation (TIV) used to evaluate control strategies in WWTP are complemented with a new dimension dealing with GHG emissions. The proposed approach is based on a set of comprehensive models that estimate all potential on-site and off-site sources of GHG emissions. The case study investigates the overall performance of several control strategies and demonstrates that substantial reductions in effluent pollution, operating costs and GHG emissions can be achieved when automatic control is implemented. Furthermore, the study is complemented with a scenario analysis that examines the role of i) the dissolved oxygen (DO) set-point, ii) the sludge retention time (SRT) and iii) the organic carbon/nitrogen ratio (COD/N) as promoters of GHG emissions. The results of this study show the potential mechanisms that promote the formation of CO2, CH4 and N2O when different operational strategies are implemented, the existing synergies and trade-offs amongst the EQI, the OCI and TIV criteria and finally the need to reach a compromise solution to achieve an optimal plant performance.

  19. Emission of bisphenol analogues including bisphenol A and bisphenol F from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunggyu; Liao, Chunyang; Song, Geum-Ju; Ra, Kongtae; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2015-01-01

    Due to the regulation on bisphenol A (BPA) in several industrialized countries, the demand for other bisphenol analogues (BPs) as substitutes for BPA is growing. Eight BPs were determined in sludge from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea. Total concentrations of BPs (ΣBP) in sludge ranged from wastewater treated at each of the WWTPs. The sludge from industrial WWTPs contained elevated proportions of BPA, whereas sludge from domestic WWTPs was dominated by bisphenol F (BPF), suggesting use of BPF in certain industrial products in Korea. No significant correlations were found between BPs and the WWTP characteristics. The average per-capita emissions of BPs ranged from 0.04 (BPP) to 886 g capita(-1) d (BPA) through WWTP discharges. The emission fluxes of ΣBP through industrial WWTPs were 2-3 orders of magnitudes higher than those calculated for domestic WWTPs, indicating that industrial discharges are the major source of BPs into the Korean environment. This is the first nationwide survey of BPs in sludge from Korean WWTPs.

  20. Catalytic wet-air oxidation of a chemical plant wastewater over platinum-based catalysts.

    PubMed

    Cybulski, Andrzej; Trawczyński, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    Catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) of wastewater (chemical oxygen demand [COD] = 1800 mg O2/dm3) from a fine chemicals plant was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor at T = 393-473 K under total pressure of 5.0 or 8.0 MPa. Catalysts containing 0.3% wt. of platinum deposited on two supports, mixed silica-titania (SM1) and carbon black composites (CBC) were used. The CBC-supported catalyst appeared to be more active than the SM1-supported one. A slow decrease of activity of the platinum on SM1 (Pt-SM1) during the long-term operation is attributed to recrystallization of titania and leaching of a support component, while the Pt-CBC catalyst is deteriorated, owing to combustion of the support component. The power-law-kinetic equations were used to describe the rate of COD removal at CWAO over the catalysts. The kinetic parameters of COD reduction for the wastewater were determined and compared with the kinetic parameters describing phenol oxidation over the same catalysts. Rates of COD removal for the wastewater were found higher than those for phenol oxidation over the same catalysts and under identical operating conditions.

  1. Ecotoxicological and Genotoxic Evaluation of Buenos Aires City (Argentina) Hospital Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Juárez, Ángela Beatriz; Dragani, Valeria; Saenz, Magalí Elizabeth; Moretton, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Hospital wastewater (HWW) constitutes a potential risk to the ecosystems and human health due to the presence of toxic and genotoxic chemical compounds. In the present work we investigated toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewaters from the public hospital of Buenos Aires (Argentina). The effluent from the sewage treatment plant (STP) serving around 10 million inhabitants was also evaluated. The study was carried out between April and September 2012. Toxicity and genotoxicity assessment was performed using the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the Allium cepa test, respectively. Toxicity assay showed that 55% of the samples were toxic to the algae (%I of growth between 23.9 and 54.8). The A. cepa test showed that 40% of the samples were genotoxic. The analysis of chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) showed no significant differences between days and significant differences between months. The sample from the STP was not genotoxic to A. cepa but toxic to the algae (%I = 41%), showing that sewage treatment was not totally effective. This study highlights the need for environmental control programs and the establishment of advanced and effective effluent treatment plants in the hospitals, which are merely dumping the wastewaters in the municipal sewerage system. PMID:25214834

  2. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Craig, Robert R.; Thompson, Martha C.; Kmetz, Thomas F.

    2013-07-10

    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

  3. Impact of biogenic emissions on air quality over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni P.; Gounaris, Nikos; Andronopoulois, Spyros

    2013-04-01

    The impact of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions on air quality over Europe is assessed for a summer month (i.e., July, 2006) using Models-3 (i.e., CMAQ, MM5, SMOKE) modeling system. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) v4.7 Modeling System with the Carbon Bond mechanism (CB05) is used for the regional air quality modeling. Meteorological fields are derived using the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). Emissions are processed by the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE v2.6) modeling system for converting the resolution of the emission inventory data to the resolution needed by the air quality model. TNO has provided a gridded anthropogenic emissions database for the year 2006 over Europe in a 0.1 × 0.1 degrees resolution. The Biogenic Emission Inventory System, version 3 (BEIS3) is used for processing biogenic source emissions. Gridded land use data in 1 km resolution provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the default summer and winter emission factors and meteorological fields are used to create hourly model-ready biogenic emissions estimates. Results suggest that biogenic emissions increase simulated daily maximum 8 hours ozone average (Max8hrO3) concentrations over Europe by 5.6% for July 2006. BVOC emissions increase Max8hrO3 concentrations more than 5ppbV in a big part of Europe while locally it is more than 10ppbV. Despite the general trend of reduction in PM2.5 concentrations (about -2% on average over Europe during July 2006) there are regions where PM2.5 concentrations are simulated higher due to BVOC emissions. This is related to the change in PM2.5 component concentrations: an increase in organic carbon concentration and a decrease in sulfate concentration are simulated (13.6% and -5.6% on average over Europe during July 2006, respectively) while changes in nitrate concentrations are noted regionally. This work was supported by the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) 2007-2013 grand No 09SYN-31-667.

  4. Year 2015 Aircraft Emission Scenario for Scheduled Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Sutkus, Donald J.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional scenario of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons)for projected year 2015 scheduled air traffic. These emission inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxides, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  5. Evaluation of national emissions inventories of anthropogenic air pollutants for Brunei Darussalam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotse, Sam-Quarcoo; Dagar, Lalit; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; De Silva, Liyanage C.

    2016-05-01

    Haze and other air pollution related problems are getting more significant in Brunei Darussalam but till date there is absence of comprehensive national emission inventory for Brunei Darussalam. Although there are few regional and global inventories available for Brunei Darussalam, large variations in the emission estimates exist in these datasets. Therefore, there is an important need for an updated inventory, based on data available from government and other sources. This study presents a sector-wise anthropogenic emission estimates and trends (2001-2012) for the pollutants CO2, CH4, N2O, NOX, NMVOC, CO, SOX, and PM10. The results suggest no significant contributions from residential sector (<1%) whilst road transport is the main contributor for most of the pollutants. CO2 is largely emitted by power plants (∼72% in 2001 and∼ 62% in 2012) and the main source of CH4 is Solid waste disposal and wastewater handling (∼92%). There were also significant contributions from industrial processes and solvent use to NMVOC and PM10 emissions (∼74% and ∼45% respectively).

  6. Air toxic emissions from snowmobiles in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Shively, David; Mao, Huiting; Russo, Rachel S; Pape, Bruce; Mower, Richard N; Talbot, Robert; Sive, Barkley C

    2010-01-01

    A study on emissions associated with oversnow travel in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) was conducted for the time period of February 13-16, 2002 and February 12-16, 2003. Whole air and exhaust samples were characterized for 85 volatile organic compounds using gas chromatography. The toxics including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (p-, m-, and o-xylene), and n-hexane, which are major components of two-stroke engine exhaust, show large enhancements during sampling periods resulting from increased snowmobile traffic. Evaluation of the photochemical history of air masses sampled in YNP revealed that emissions of these air toxics were (i) recent, (ii) persistent throughout the region, and (iii) consistent with the two-stroke engine exhaust sample fingerprints. The annual fluxes were estimated to be 0.35, 1.12, 0.24, 1.45, and 0.36 Gg yr(-1) for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and n-hexane, respectively, from snowmobile usage in YNP. These results are comparable to the flux estimates of 0.23, 0.77, 0.17, and 0.70 Gg yr(-1) for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, respectively, that were derived on the basis of (i) actual snowmobile counts in the Park and (ii) our ambient measurements conducted in 2003. Extrapolating these results, annual emissions from snowmobiles in the U.S. appear to be significantly higher than the values from the EPA National Emissions Inventory (1999). Snowmobile emissions represent a significant fraction ( approximately 14-21%) of air toxics with respect to EPA estimates of emissions by nonroad vehicles. Further investigation is warranted to more rigorously quantify the difference between our estimates and emission inventories.

  7. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  8. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    1999-09-01

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreement/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex (routine technical meeting 12/10/96) and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant (routine technical meeting 06/25/96). Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year.

  9. AIR TOXICS EMISSIONS FROM A VINYL SHOWER CURTAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of both static and dynamic chamber tests conducted to evaluate emission characteristics of air toxics from a vinyl shower Curtain. (NOTE: Due to the relatively low price and ease of installation, vinyl shower curtains have been widely used in bathrooms i...

  10. VOC EMISSIONS FROM AN AIR FRESHENER IN THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes results of tests, conducted in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) large chamber facility, that investigated emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from one electrical plug-in type air freshener with pine-scented refills. VOCs were measured ...

  11. How do emission patterns in megacities affect regional air pollution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, A.; Richter, C.; Schroeder, S.; Schultz, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Megacities around the world show distinctly different emission patterns in terms of absolute amounts and emission ratios of individual chemical compounds due to varying socio-economic developments and technological standards. The emission patterns influence the chemical reactivity of the urban pollution plume, and hence determine air quality in and around megacity areas. In this study, which is part of the European project CITYZEN (megaCITY - Zoom for the ENvironment), the effects of emission changes in four selected megacity areas on air pollution were investigated: BeNeLux (BNL), Istanbul (IST), Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Sao Paulo (SAP). The study aims at answering the question: how would air pollution in megacity X change if it had the same urban emissions per capita as megacity Y? Model simulations with the global chemistry climate model ECHAM5-MOZ were carried out for the year 2001 using a resolution of about 2 degrees in the horizontal and of 31 levels (surface to 10 hPa) in the vertical. The model was driven by meteorological input data from the ECMWF ERA Interim reanalysis. Emissions were taken from the gridded global ACCMIP emission inventory recently established for use in chemistry-climate simulations in connection to the IPCC-AR5 assessments (Lamarque et al. 2010). We carried out sensitivity simulations where emission patterns from each of the megacity areas were replaced by those from all others. This was done on the basis of the per capita emissions for each species and sector averaged over the respective region. Total per capita CO and NMVOC emissions are highest in PRD and lowest in SAP while total per capita NOx emissions are highest in BNL and lowest in SAP. There are strong differences in the relative contribution of the urban sectors to total emissions of individual compounds. As a result, each of the four megacity areas exhibits a very characteristic NMVOC speciation profile which determines the NMVOC-related photochemical ozone (O_3

  12. Estimation of greenhouse gas emissions by the wastewater treatment plant of a locomotive repair factory in China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y; Yerushalmi, L; Haghighat, F

    2008-12-01

    This study analyzed greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) that uses a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes and estimated the emissions generated from treatment of oil-rich wastewater from a locomotive repair factory in China. The WWTP produces 526.8 t CO2-equivalent/a corresponding to 4.3 t CO2-equivalent/t oil removed. The combustion of fossil fuels for onsite energy generation is the major source of GHG, accounting for 79.7% of overall emissions. Use of chemicals for metal cleaning, flocculation, and pH control accounts for 13.4% emissions; anaerobic digestion accounts for 3.8% emissions; and the transport of solid waste and subsequent generation of landfill biogas account for 3.1% emissions. Theoretical analysis of various process design alternatives demonstrated that the recovery of biogas produced during anaerobic sludge digestion and its use as fuel reduces the emissions of GHG by 93.9 t CO2-equivalent/a, which is 15.1% of the overall emissions of the treatment plant. The use of aerobic digestion instead of anaerobic digestion in this plant did not significantly effect GHG emissions. Using anaerobic digestion for sludge treatment and releasing the generated CH4 into the atmosphere without further flaring or recovery increased GHG emissions the greatest. The reuse of waste oil and proper management of solid waste are recommended as effective ways of reducing GHG emissions.

  13. Characteristics of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kum-Lok; Bang, Cheon-Hee; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2016-08-01

    The nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions were measured from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using a flux chamber to determine the emission factors. The WWTP treats sewage using both the activated-sludge treatment and anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic (A(2)O) methods. Measurements were performed in the first settling, aeration, and secondary settling basins, as well as in the sludge thickener, sludge digestion tank, and A(2)O basins. The total emission factors of N2O and CH4 from the activated-sludge treatment were 1.256gN2O/kg total nitrogen (TN) and 3.734gCH4/kg biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), respectively. Those of the advanced treatment (A(2)O) were 1.605gN2O/kg TN and 4.022gCH4/kgBOD5, respectively. These values are applicable as basic data to estimate greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Nitrous oxide emissions in a membrane bioreactor treating saline wastewater contaminated by hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Giorgio; Cosenza, Alida; Di Trapani, Daniele; Laudicina, Vito Armando; Morici, Claudia; Ødegaard, Hallvard

    2016-11-01

    The joint effect of wastewater salinity and hydrocarbons on nitrous oxide emission was investigated. The membrane bioreactor pilot plant was operated with two phases: i. biomass acclimation by increasing salinity from 10gNaClL(-1) to 20gNaClL(-1) (Phase I); ii. hydrocarbons dosing at 20mgL(-1) with a constant salt concentration of 20gNaClL(-1) (Phase II). The Phase I revealed a relationship between nitrous oxide emissions and salinity. During the end of the Phase I, the activity of nitrifiers started to recover, indicating a partial acclimatization. During the Phase II, the hydrocarbon shock induced a temporary inhibition of the biomass with the suppression of nitrous oxide emissions. The results revealed that the oxic tank was the major source of nitrous oxide emission, likely due to the gas stripping by aeration. The joint effect of salinity and hydrocarbons was found to be crucial for the production of nitrous oxide.

  15. Energy use, emissions and air pollution reduction strategies in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Foell, W.; Green, C.; Sarkar, A.; Legler, J.

    1995-12-31

    The pace of economic progress and development experienced in many Asian countries has not occurred without costs to the natural environment. In particular, energy policies and technologies are a primary driving force behind air pollution problems arising from air pollution emissions in Asia. Economic growth, energy use, and reliance on fossil fuels are experiencing extremely high growth throughout most of the continent. Electric power expansion plans in many countries of Asia, particularly China and India, call for substantial increases in coal combustion. In the 1990`s, two-thirds of all power related investments in developing countries will be in Asia. In contrast to the situation in Europe and North America, emissions of air pollution species in Asia are increasing rapidly, resulting in both local air pollution problems and higher acidic deposition in many regions. In general, most Asian countries do not have a strong scientific nor public constituency for addressing potentially serious air pollution problems impacting important economic and cultural activities such as forestry, agriculture, and tourism. The complex political ramifications of trans-boundary air pollution in Asia have not yet begun to be addressed.

  16. Ambient and Emission Trends of Toxic Air Contaminants in California.

    PubMed

    Propper, Ralph; Wong, Patrick; Bui, Son; Austin, Jeff; Vance, William; Alvarado, Álvaro; Croes, Bart; Luo, Dongmin

    2015-10-06

    After initiating a toxic air contaminant (TAC) identification and control program in 1984, the California Air Resources Board adopted regulations to reduce TAC emissions from cars, trucks, stationary sources, and consumer products. This study quantifies ambient concentration and emission trends for the period 1990-2012 for seven TACs that are responsible for most of the known cancer risk associated with airborne exposure in California. Of these seven, diesel particulate matter (DPM) is the most important; however DPM is not measured directly. Based on a novel surrogate method, DPM concentrations declined 68%, even though the state's population increased 31%, diesel vehicle-miles-traveled increased 81%, and the gross state product (GSP) increased 74%. Based on monitoring data, concentrations of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, perchloroethylene, and hexavalent chromium declined 88-94%. Also, the ambient and emissions trends for each of these four TACs were similar. Furthermore, these declines generally occurred earlier in California than elsewhere. However, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are formed in the air photochemically from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), declined only 20-21%. The collective cancer risk from exposure to these seven reviewed TACs declined 76%. Significant reduction in cancer risk to California residents from implementation of air toxics controls (especially for DPM) is expected to continue.

  17. Health effects of SRS non-radiological air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.

    1997-06-16

    This report examines the potential health effects of non radiological emissions to the air resulting from operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The scope of this study was limited to the 55 air contaminants for which the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has quantified risk by determining unit risk factors (excess cancer risks) and/or reference concentrations (deleterious non cancer risks). Potential health impacts have been assessed in relation to the maximally exposed individual. This is a hypothetical person who resides for a lifetime at the SRS boundary. The most recent (1994) quality assured SRS emissions data available were used. Estimated maximum site boundary concentrations of the air contaminants were calculated using air dispersion modeling and 24-hour and annual averaging times. For the emissions studied, the excess cancer risk was found to be less than the generally accepted risk level of 1 in 100,000 and, in most cases, was less than 1 in 1,000,000. Deleterious non cancer effects were also found to be very unlikely.

  18. The energy trilogy: An integrated sustainability model to bridge wastewater treatment plant energy and emissions gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Talibi, A. Adhim

    An estimated 4% of national energy consumption is used for drinking water and wastewater services. Despite the awareness and optimization initiatives for energy conservation, energy consumption is on the rise owing to population and urbanization expansion and to commercial and industrial business advancement. The principal concern is since energy consumption grows, the higher will be the energy production demand, leading to an increase in CO2 footprints and the contribution to global warming potential. This research is in the area of energy-water nexus, focusing on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) energy trilogy -- the group of three related entities, which includes processes: (1) consuming energy, (2) producing energy, and (3) the resulting -- CO2 equivalents. Detailed and measurable energy information is not readily obtained for wastewater facilities, specifically during facility preliminary design phases. These limitations call for data-intensive research approach on GHG emissions quantification, plant efficiencies and source reduction techniques. To achieve these goals, this research introduced a model integrating all plant processes and their pertinent energy sources. In a comprehensive and "Energy Source-to-Effluent Discharge" pattern, this model is capable of bridging the gaps of WWTP energy, facilitating plant designers' decision-making for meeting energy assessment, sustainability and the environmental regulatory compliance. Protocols for estimating common emissions sources are available such as for fuels, whereas, site-specific emissions for other sources have to be developed and are captured in this research. The dissertation objectives were met through an extensive study of the relevant literature, models and tools, originating comprehensive lists of processes and energy sources for WWTPs, locating estimation formulas for each source, identifying site specific emissions factors, and linking the sources in a mathematical model for site specific CO2 e

  19. Modelling of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Marianne

    2011-06-01

    Cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere induce extensive air showers consisting of up to billions of secondary particles. Among them, a multitude of electrons and positrons are generated. These get deflected in the Earth's magnetic field, creating time-varying transverse currents. Thereby, the air shower emits coherent radiation in the MHz frequency range measured by radio antenna arrays on the ground such as LOPES at the KIT. This detection method provides a possibility to study cosmic rays with energies above 1017 eV. At this time, the radio technique undergoes the change from prototype experiments to large scale application. Thus, a detailed understanding of the radio emission process is needed more than ever. Before starting this work, different models made conflicting predictions on the pulse shape and the amplitude of the radio signal. It turned out that a radiation component caused by the variation of the number of charged particles within the air shower was missed in several models. The Monte Carlo code REAS2 superposing the radiation of the individual air shower electrons and positrons was one of those. At this time, it was not known how to take the missing component into account. For REAS3, we developed and implemented the endpoint formalism, a universal approach, to calculate the radiation from each single particle. For the first time, we achieve a good agreement between REAS3 and MGMR, an independent and completely different simulation approach. In contrast to REAS3, MGMR is based on a macroscopic approach and on parametrisations of the air shower. We studied the differences in the underlying air shower models to explain the remaining deviations. For comparisons with LOPES data, we developed a new method which allows "top-down" simulations of air showers. From this, we developed an air shower selection criterion based on the number of muons measured with KASCADE to take shower-to-shower fluctuations for a single event analysis into account. With

  20. Comparison of air pollutant emissions among mega-cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, David D.; Kuster, William C.; Shao, Min; Yokouchi, Yoko; Kondo, Yutaka; Goldan, Paul D.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Koike, Makoto; Shirai, Tomoko

    2009-12-01

    Ambient measurements of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from three mega-cities (Beijing, Mexico City, Tokyo) are compared with similar measurements from US cities in the mid-1980s and the early 2000s. The common hydrocarbon pattern seen in all data sets suggests that emissions associated with gasoline-fueled vehicles dominate in all of these cities. This commonality suggests that it will be efficient and, ultimately, cost effective to proceed with vehicular emission controls in most emerging mega-cities, while proceeding with development of more locally appropriate air quality control strategies through emissions inventory development and ambient air monitoring. Over the three decades covered by the US data sets, the hydrocarbon emissions decreased by a significant factor (something like an order of magnitude), which is greater than suggested by emission inventories, particularly the EDGAR international inventory. The ambient hydrocarbon and CO concentrations reported for the three non-US mega-cities are higher than present US ambient concentrations, but lower than those observed in the 1980s in the US. The one exception to the preceding statement is the high concentrations of CO observed in Beijing, which apparently have a large regional contribution.

  1. Effects of future anthropogenic pollution emissions on global air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzer, A.; Zimmermann, P.; Doering, U.; van Aardenne, J.; Dentener, F.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC is used to estimate the impact of anthropogenic emission changes on global and regional air quality in recent and future years (2005, 2010, 2025 and 2050). The emission scenario assumes that population and economic growth largely determine energy consumption and consequent pollution sources ("business as usual"). By comparing with recent observations, it is shown that the model reproduces the main features of regional air pollution distributions though with some imprecision inherent to the coarse horizontal resolution (around 100 km). To identify possible future hot spots of poor air quality, a multi pollutant index (MPI) has been applied. It appears that East and South Asia and the Arabian Gulf regions represent such hotspots due to very high pollutant concentrations. In East Asia a range of pollutant gases and particulate matter (PM2.5) are projected to reach very high levels from 2005 onward, while in South Asia air pollution, including ozone, will grow rapidly towards the middle of the century. Around the Arabian Gulf, where natural PM2.5 concentrations are already high (desert dust), ozone levels will increase strongly. By extending the MPI definition, we calculated a Per Capita MPI (PCMPI) in which we combined population projections with those of pollution emissions. It thus appears that a rapidly increasing number of people worldwide will experience reduced air quality during the first half of the 21st century. It is projected that air quality for the global average citizen in 2050 will be comparable to the average in East Asia in the year 2005.

  2. Modelling the catchment-scale environmental impacts of wastewater treatment in an urban sewage system for CO₂ emission assessment.

    PubMed

    Mouri, Goro; Oki, Taikan

    2010-01-01

    Water shortages and water pollution are a global problem. Increases in population can have further acute effects on water cycles and on the availability of water resources. Thus, wastewater management plays an important role in mitigating negative impacts on natural ecosystems and human environments and is an important area of research. In this study, we modelled catchment-scale hydrology, including water balances, rainfall, contamination, and urban wastewater treatment. The entire water resource system of a basin, including a forest catchment and an urban city area, was evaluated synthetically from a spatial distribution perspective with respect to water quantity and quality; the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) technique was applied to optimize wastewater treatment management with the aim of improving water quality and reducing CO₂ emissions. A numerical model was developed to predict the water cycle and contamination in the catchment and city; the effect of a wastewater treatment system on the urban region was evaluated; pollution loads were evaluated quantitatively; and the effects of excluding rainwater from the treatment system during flooding and of urban rainwater control on water quality were examined. Analysis indicated that controlling the amount of rainwater inflow to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in an urban area with a combined sewer system has a large impact on reducing CO₂ emissions because of the load reduction on the urban sewage system.

  3. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to..., ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion......

  4. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ test...

  5. Characterization and biological abatement of diffuse methane emissions and odour in an innovative wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Barcón, Tamara; Hernández, Jerónimo; Gómez-Cuervo, Santiago; Garrido, Juan M; Omil, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An innovative and patented process for medium-high strength sewage which comprises an anaerobic step followed by a hybrid anoxic-aerobic chamber and a final ultrafiltration stage was characterized in terms of methane fugitive emissions as well as odours. The operation at ambient temperature implies higher methane content in the liquid anaerobic effluent, which finally causes concentrations around 0.01-2.4% in the off-gas released in the anoxic-aerobic chamber (1.25% average). Mass balances indicate that these emissions account for up to 30-35% of the total methane generated in the anaerobic reactor. A conventional biofilter (BF) operated at an empty bed residence time of 4 min was used to treat these emissions for 70 d. In spite of the fluctuations in the methane inlet concentrations derived from the operation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), it was possible to operate at pseudo-steady-state conditions, achieving average removal efficiencies of 76.5% and maximum elimination capacities of 30.1 g m(-3) h(-1). Odour removal was quantified as 99.1%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization probes as well as metabolic activity assays demonstrated the suitability of the biomass developed in the WWTP as inoculum to start up the BF due to the presence of methanotrophic bacteria.

  6. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles.

  7. Bioaerosol emissions and detection of airborne antibiotic resistance genes from a wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Liantong; Zhang, Xiangyu; Xu, Caijia; Dong, Liming; Yao, Maosheng

    2016-01-01

    Air samples from twelve sampling sites (including seven intra-plant sites, one upwind site and four downwind sites) from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing were collected using a Reuter Centrifugal Sampler High Flow (RCS); and their microbial fractions were studied using culturing and high throughput gene sequence. In addition, the viable (fluorescent) bioaerosol concentrations for 7 intra-plant sites were also monitored for 30 min each using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS). Both air and water samples collected from the plant were investigated for possible bacterial antibiotic resistance genes and integrons using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the air near sludge thickening basin was detected to have the highest level of culturable bacterial aerosols (up to 1697 CFU/m3) and fungal aerosols (up to 930 CFU/m3). For most sampling sites, fluorescent peaks were observed at around 3-4 μm, except the office building with a peak at 1.5 μm, with a number concentration level up to 1233-6533 Particles/m3. About 300 unique bacterial species, including human opportunistic pathogens, such as Comamonas Testosteroni and Moraxella Osloensis, were detected from the air samples collected over the biological reaction basin. In addition, we have detected the sul2 gene resistant to cotrimoxazole (also known as septra, bactrim and TMP-SMX) and class 1 integrase gene from the air samples collected from the screen room and the biological reaction basin. Overall, the screen room, sludge thickening basin and biological reaction basin imposed significant microbial exposure risks, including those from airborne antibiotic resistance genes.

  8. Improved Estimates of Air Pollutant Emissions from Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Eric C. D.

    2015-11-13

    We have attempted to use detailed kinetic modeling approach for improved estimation of combustion air pollutant emissions from biorefinery. We have developed a preliminary detailed reaction mechanism for biomass combustion. Lignin is the only biomass component included in the current mechanism and methane is used as the biogas surrogate. The model is capable of predicting the combustion emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4) and criteria air pollutants (NO, NO2, CO). The results are yet to be compared with the experimental data. The current model is still in its early stages of development. Given the acknowledged complexity of biomass oxidation, as well as the components in the feed to the combustor, obviously the modeling approach and the chemistry set discussed here may undergo revision, extension, and further validation in the future.

  9. Pollution Emission Analysis of Selected Air Force Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-29

    percent for large non-combat tranaport engines) are proposed. Eraoke numbers wlilch will ensure Invisible aircraft smoke plumes are specified. The...standards are being violated, as well as being significant sources of smoke , ,••(3) that maintenance of the national ambient sir quality BlSndards...and reduced impact of smoke emission requires that air- craft and aircraft engines be Bubjected to a program of control compatible with their

  10. Promoting Geothermal Energy: Air Emissions Comparison and Externality Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kagel, Alyssa; Gawell, Karl

    2005-09-01

    When compared to fossil fuel energy sources such as coal and natural gas, geothermal emerges as one of the least polluting forms of energy, producing virtually zero air emissions. Geothermal offers a baseload source of reliable power that compares favorably with fossil fuel power sources. But unless legislative changes are enacted, geothermal energy will continue to be produced at only a fraction of its potential.

  11. Emission and Air Quality Modeling Tools for Near-Roadway Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission and air quality modeling tools are needed for estimating the impact of roadway emissions on air quality within a few hundred meters of major roadways. This paper reviews 9 emission and 21 air quality models, with a focus on operational tools that can be applied to the U...

  12. 76 FR 30604 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AN33 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for..., the proposed rule, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and... regarding the EPA's proposed national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants, including data,...

  13. Treatment of desizing wastewater containing poly(vinyl alcohol) by wet air oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G.; Lei, L.; Yue, P.L.; Cen, P.

    2000-05-01

    The effectiveness of wet air oxidation (WAO) is studied in a 2-L autoclave for the treatment of desizing wastewater from man-made fiber textile plants. At an oxygen pressure of less than 2 MPa, over 30-min, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was found to increase from 15 to 65% when the temperature was raised from 150 to 250 C. The biodegradability of the wastewater was also simultaneously increased. Up to 90% of the COD could be removed within 120 min. A simplified reaction mechanism is proposed which involves a direct mineralization step in parallel with a step in which an intermediate is formed prior to mineralization. A kinetic model for COD removal was developed based on this reaction mechanism. The model was tested with experimental COD results over the temperature range of the experiments. The dependence of the specific reaction rate constants was found to follow the Arrhenius type of equation. The direct oxidation of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to carbon dioxide and water is the dominant reaction step. The intermediates formed are not likely to be the acetic acid but may be short segments of PVA that are easily oxidized.

  14. Continuous electricity generation in stacked air cathode microbial fuel cell treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho

    2013-11-30

    This study examined the continuous performance of air cathode MFC stacks for domestic wastewater treatments at two different temperatures (23 ± 3 °C and 30 ± 1 °C) and organic loading rates to determine the effects of the electrode connection and hydraulic flow mode on the stack performance. The power density and process stability were affected significantly by the electrode connection type, flow mode, and operating parameters. The parallel electrode connection system (in series flow mode) had benefits of COD removal, Coulombic efficiency and maximal power density due to the higher stability of the ORP in overall cells. The highest power density of 420 mW/m(2) (12.8 W/m(3)) was achieved in series flow and parallel connection mode at an organic loading rate of 25.6 g COD/L-d (HRT of 0.33 h) under mesophilic conditions, achieving a COD removal of 44%. The results highlight the importance of prefermentation process in the application of a stacked MFC for an actual wastewater treatment.

  15. Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

  16. Aromatic compound emissions from municipal solid waste landfill: Emission factors and their impact on air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanjun; Lu, Wenjing; Guo, Hanwen; Ming, Zhongyuan; Wang, Chi; Xu, Sai; Liu, Yanting; Wang, Hongtao

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic compounds (ACs) are major components of volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The ACs emissions from the working face of a landfill in Beijing were studied from 2014 to 2015 using a modified wind tunnel system. Emission factors (EFs) of fugitive ACs emissions from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to statistical analyses to cope with their uncertainty. And their impacts on air quality were assessed for the first time. Toluene was the dominant AC with an average emission rate of 38.8 ± 43.0 μg m-2 s-1 (at a sweeping velocity of 0.26 m s-1). An increasing trend in AC emission rates was observed from 12:00 to 18:00 and then peaked at 21:00 (314.3 μg m-2 s-1). The probability density functions (PDFs) of AC emission rates could be classified into three distributions: Gaussian, log-normal, and logistic. EFs of ACs from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to the 95th percentile cumulative emission rates and the wind effects on ACs emissions. The annual ozone formation and secondary organic aerosol formation potential caused by AC emissions from landfills in Beijing were estimated to be 8.86 × 105 kg year-1 and 3.46 × 104 kg year-1, respectively. Toluene, m + p-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the most significant contributors to air pollution. Although ACs pollutions from landfills accounts for less percentage (∼0.1%) compared with other anthropogenic sources, their fugitive emissions which cannot be controlled efficiently deserve more attention and further investigation.

  17. Modeling Air Pollution in Beijing: Emission Reduction vs. Meteorological Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risse, Eicke-Alexander; Hao, Nan; Trautmann, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    This case study uses the Chemical Transport Model WRF-Chem to simulate and measure the efficiency of temporal large-scale emission reductions under different meteorological conditions. The Nov. 2014 Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit provides a unique opportunity for this study due to the extraordinarily good and well-measured air quality which is believed to be induced by intense emission- reduction measures by the Chinese government. Four cases are simulated to inter-compare between favorable und unfavorablemeteorological conditions (in terms of air quality) as well as reduced and non-reduced emissions. Key variables of the simulation results are evaluated against AERONET measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and air-quality measurements by the Chinese Ministry of Environment (CME). The inter-comparison is then performed on time- and volume-averaged total concentrations of the key variables Nitrogenous Oxide (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10).The simulation settings and some important facts about the model are shown in table 1.

  18. 77 FR 58219 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ...This action finalizes the residual risk and technology review conducted for the following source categories regulated under two national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP): hard and decorative chromium electroplating and chromium anodizing tanks, and steel pickling--HCl process facilities and hydrochloric acid regeneration plants. On October 21, 2010, EPA proposed......

  19. The 1977 emissions inventory for southeastern Virginia. [environment model of air quality based on exhaust emission from urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, D. A.; Remsberg, E. E.; Woodbury, G. E.; Quinn, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    Regional tropospheric air pollution modeling and data compilation to simulate the time variation of species concentrations in and around an urban area is discussed. The methods used to compile an emissions inventory are outlined. Emissions factors for vehicular travel in the urban area are presented along with an analysis of the emission gases. Emission sources other than vehicular including industrial wastes, residential solid waste disposal, aircraft emissions, and emissions from the railroads are investigated.

  20. Heterogeneous catalytic wet air oxidation of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters: a review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Hun; Ihm, Son-Ki

    2011-02-15

    Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is one of the most economical and environmental-friendly advanced oxidation process. It makes a promising technology for the treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. Various heterogeneous catalysts including noble metals and metal oxides have been extensively studied to enhance the efficiency of CWAO. The present review is concerned about the literatures published in this regard. Phenolics, carboxylic acids, and nitrogen-containing compounds were taken as model pollutants in most cases, and noble metals such as Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, and Pt as well as oxides of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Ce were applied as heterogeneous catalysts. Reports on their characterization and catalytic performances for the CWAO of aqueous pollutants are reviewed. Discussions are also made on the reaction mechanisms and kinetics proposed for heterogeneous CWAO and also on the typical catalyst deactivations in heterogeneous CWAO, i.e. carbonaceous deposits and metal leaching.

  1. 75 FR 48894 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Revisions to Emissions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... and maintain the National Ambient Air Quality Standards that EPA has established for criteria... Bernalillo County to report emissions location information, PM 2.5 emissions, and ammonia emissions to...

  2. Evaluation of emissions and air quality in megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurjar, B. R.; Butler, T. M.; Lawrence, M. G.; Lelieveld, J.

    Several concepts and indicators exist to measure and rank urban areas in terms of their socio-economic, infrastructural, and environment-related parameters. The World Bank regularly publishes the World Development Indicators (WDI), and the United Nations reports the City Development Index (CDI) and also ranks megacities on the basis of their population size. Here, we evaluate and rank megacities in terms of their trace gas and particle emissions and ambient air quality. Besides ranking the megacities according to their surface area and population density, we evaluate them based on carbon monoxide (CO) emissions per capita, per year, and per unit surface area. Further, we rank the megacities according to ambient atmospheric concentrations of criteria pollutants, notably total suspended particles (TSP), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). We propose a multi-pollutant index (MPI) considering the combined level of the three criteria pollutants (i.e., TSP, SO 2, and NO 2) in view of the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines for Air Quality. Of 18 megacities considered here 5 classify as having "fair" air quality, and 13 as "poor". The megacities with the highest MPI, Dhaka, Beijing, Cairo, and Karachi, most urgently need reduction of air pollution.

  3. Using GIS to study the health impact of air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Dent, A.L.; Fowler, D.A.; Kaplan, B.M.; Zarus, G.M.

    1999-07-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is a fast-developing technology with an ever-increasing number of applications. Air dispersion modeling is a well-established discipline that can produce results in a spatial context. The marriage of these two application is optimal because it leverages the predictive capacity of modeling with the data management, analysis, and display capabilities of GIS. In the public health arena, exposure estimation techniques are invaluable. The utilization of air emission data, such as US EPA Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data, and air dispersion modeling with GIS enable public health professionals to identify and define the potentially exposed population, estimate the health risk burden of that population, and determine correlations between point-based health outcome results with estimated health risk.

  4. US Department of Energy report 1996 LANL radionuclide air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, K.W.

    1997-08-01

    Presented is the Laboratory-wide certified report regarding radioactive effluents released into the air by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1996. This information is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a hypothetical maximum exposed individual (MEI) of the public was calculated, using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. That dose was 1.93 mrem for 1996. Emissions of {sup 11}C, {sup 13}N, and {sup 15}O from a 1-mA, 800 MeV proton accelerator contributed over 92% of the EDE to LANL`s MEI. Using CAP88, the EPA`s dose assessment model, more than 86% of the total dose received by the MEI was via the air immersion pathway.

  5. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  6. Clean Air Act Settlement Reduces Air Emissions and Improves Chemical Safety at Rhode Island Biodiesel Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA & U.S. Department of Justice have settled an environmental enforcement case with Newport Biodiesel, Inc., resulting in reduced air emissions and improved safety controls at the company’s biodiesel manufacturing plant in Newport, Rhode Island.

  7. Road construction: Emissions Factors and Air Quality Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font Font, Anna M.; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian; Fuller, Gary W.

    2014-05-01

    Very few studies have investigated the air pollution impacts of road construction. Over a 17 month period a congested main road in south east London was widened from two lanes to four. Emissions factors for road construction were determined and a notable deterioration in residential air quality was found with the final expanded road layout. Air quality monitoring sites measuring PM10, PM2.5, NOX, NO2 and meteorological variables were deployed on both sides of the road construction to quantify ambient air quality before, during and after the completion of the road works, with additional measurements from a nearby background site. PM10 samples were collected for oxidative potential measurements. PM10 was the only pollutant to increase during the construction; mean PM10 from the road increased by 15 µg m-3 during working hours; weekdays between 6 am and 5 pm; and on Saturdays between 6 am and 12 pm, compared to concentrations before the road works. During the construction the number of days with daily mean PM10 concentrations greater than 50 µg m-3 was more than 35 for both sides of the road, breaching the European Union Limit Value (LV). Downwind-upwind differences were used to calculate real-world PM10 emissions associated to the construction activity by means of box modelling. The quantity of PM10 emitted per area and month of construction was 0.0009 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 for the construction period. This emission factor was similar to the one used in the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI). Worst case construction emissions factors were 0.0105 kg PM10 m-2 month-1, compared to 0.0448 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 and 0.1038 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 used in current European and US inventories, respectively. After the completion of the road widening an increase in all pollutants was measured during rush hour peaks: 2-4 µg m-3 for PM10; 1 µg m-3 for PM2.5; 20 and 4 ppbv (40 and 8 µg m-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively, leading to a breach of the NO2 annual mean LV

  8. Methane and hydrogen sulfide emissions in UASB reactors treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Souza, C L; Chernicharo, C A L; Melo, G C B

    2012-01-01

    The release of CH(4) and H(2)S in UASB reactors was evaluated with the aim to quantify the emissions from the liquid surfaces (three-phase separator and settler compartment) and also from the reactor's discharge hydraulic structures. The studies were carried out in two pilot- (360 L) and one demo-scale (14 m(3)) UASB reactors treating domestic wastewater. As expected, the release rates were much higher across the gas/liquid interfaces of the three-phase separators (5.4-9.7 kg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1) and 23.0-35.8 g S m(-2) d(-1)) as compared with the quiescent settler surfaces (11.0-17.8 g CH(4) m(-2) d(-1) and 0.21 to 0.37 g S m(-2) d(-1)). The decrease of dissolved methane and dissolved hydrogen sulfide was very large in the discharging hydraulic structures very close to the reactor (>60 and >80%, respectively), largely due to the loss to the atmosphere, indicating that the concentration of these compounds will probably fall to values close to zero in the near downstream structures. The emission factors due to the release of dissolved methane in the discharge structure amounted to around 0.040 g CH(4) g COD(infl)(-1) and 0.060 g CH(4) g COD(rem)(-1), representing around 60% of the methane collected in the three-phase separator.

  9. Inventory of pesticide emissions into the air in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarigiannis, D. A.; Kontoroupis, P.; Solomou, E. S.; Nikolaki, S.; Karabelas, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Creation of a reliable and comprehensive emission inventory of the pesticides used in Europe is a key step towards quantitatively assessing the link between actual pesticide exposure and adverse health effects. An inventory of pesticide emissions was generated at a 1 × 1 km grid, for the year 2000. The emission model comprises three components: estimates of active substance (AS) wind drift taking into account crop type, volatilization during pesticide application and volatilization from the crop canopy. Results show that atmospheric emission of pesticides varies significantly across Europe. Different pesticide families are emitted from different parts of Europe as a function of the main crop(s) cultivated, agro-climatic conditions and production intensity. The pesticide emission inventory methodology developed herein is a valuable tool for assessing air quality in rural and peri-urban Europe, furnishing the necessary input for atmospheric modelling at different scales. Its estimates have been tested using global sensitivity and Monte Carlo analysis for uncertainty assessment and they have been validated against national and local surveys in four European countries; the results demonstrate the robustness and reliability of the inventory. The latter may therefore be readily used for exposure and health risk assessment studies targeting farmers, applicators, but also bystanders and the general population in Europe.

  10. Economically consistent long-term scenarios for air pollutant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; West, Jason; Kyle, G. Page

    2011-09-08

    Pollutant emissions such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone precursors substantially influence climate. While future century-scale scenarios for these emissions have become more realistic through the inclusion of emission controls, they still potentially lack consistency between surface pollutant concentrations and regional levels of affluence. We demonstrate a methodology combining use of an integrated assessment model and a three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model, whereby a reference scenario is constructed by requiring consistent surface pollutant levels as a function of regional income over the 21st century. By adjusting air pollutant emission control parameters, we improve agreement between modeled PM2.5 and economic income among world regions through time; agreement for ozone is also improved but is more difficult to achieve because of the strong influence of upwind world regions. The scenario examined here was used as the basis for one of the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. This analysis methodology could also be used to examine the consistency of other pollutant emission scenarios.

  11. Application of strategies for sanitation management in wastewater treatment plants in order to control/reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Préndez, Margarita; Lara-González, Scarlette

    2008-09-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHG), basically methane (CH(4)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O), occur at atmospheric concentrations of ppbv to ppmv under natural conditions. GHG have long mean lifetimes and are an important factor for the mean temperature of the Earth. However, increasing anthropogenic emissions could produce a scenario of progressive and cumulative effects over time, causing a potential "global climate change". Biological degradation of the organic matter present in wastewater is considered one of the anthropogenic sources of GHG. In this study, GHG emissions for the period 1990-2027 were estimated considering the sanitation process and the official domestic wastewater treatment startup schedule approved for the Metropolitan Region (MR) of Santiago, Chile. The methodology considers selected models proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and some others published by different authors; these were modified according to national conditions and different sanitation and temporal scenarios. For the end of the modeled period (2027), results show emissions of about 65 Tg CO(2) equiv./year (as global warming potential), which represent around 50% of national emissions. These values could be reduced if certain sanitation management strategies were introduced in the environmental management by the sanitation company in charge of wastewater treatment.

  12. Air emissions at a municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Capenter, J.E.; Bidwell, J.N.

    1996-09-01

    The on-site and off-site ambient air concentrations of non-methane organic compounds (NMOC) and hydrogen sulfide were evaluated at a regional municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. A target list was developed to reflect those compounds typically found at MSW landfills that have potential health effects or odors. The on-site effects on ambient air were estimated conservatively by collecting air samples 10 to 13 cm above the landfill surface. The off-site impacts were predicted using air dispersion modeling that considered both fugitive and point source emissions and were based on landfill gas sampled from an active well collection system. The on-site and off-site ambient air concentrations were compared to levels set by regulatory requirements (Connecticut`s Hazard Limiting Values or HLVs) and odor threshold levels. No compound exceeded the HLVs either on- or off-site. No compounds detected on-site exceeded their odor thresholds. Several compounds evaluated at one-half their detection limit did exceed the odor threshold on-site. Only hydrogen sulfide exceeded its odor threshold off-site but remained below Connecticut`s Odor Limit Value.

  13. Air Monitoring of Emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, Michael; Allen, Shannon P.; Archuleta, Debra C.; Brock, Burgandy; Coronado, Melissa A.; Dewart, Jean M.; Eisele, William F. Jr.; Fuehne, David P.; Gadd, Milan S.; Green, Andrew A.; Lujan, Joan J.; MacDonell, Carolyn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-12

    In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent emissions from Fukushima-Daiichi, we monitored the air near Los Alamos using four air-monitoring systems: the standard AIRNET samplers, the standard rad-NESHAP samplers, the NEWNET system, and high-volume air samplers. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages. In combination, they provide a comprehensive set of measurements of airborne radionuclides near Los Alamos during the weeks following March 11. We report air-monitoring measurements of the fission products released from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear-power-plant accident in 2011. Clear gamma-spectrometry peaks were observed from Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, I-131, I132, Te-132, and Te-129m. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides, are adequate for an assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi did not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos. The data demonstrate the capabilities of the Los Alamos air-monitoring systems.

  14. Radio Emission in Atmospheric Air Showers Measured by LOPES-30

    SciTech Connect

    Isar, P. G.

    2008-01-24

    When Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) interact with particles in the Earth's atmosphere, they produce a shower of secondary particles propagating towards the ground. These relativistic particles emit synchrotron radiation in the radio frequency range when passing the Earth's magnetic field. The LOPES (LOFAR Prototype Station) experiment investigates the radio emission from these showers in detail and will pave the way to use this detection technique for large scale applications like in LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) and the Pierre Auger Observatory. The LOPES experiment is co-located and measures in coincidence with the air shower experiment KASCADE-Grande at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany. LOPES has an absolute amplitude calibration array of 30 dipole antennas (LOPES-30). After one year of measurements of the single East-West polarization by all 30 antennas, recently, the LOPES-30 set-up was configured to perform dual-polarization measurements. Half of the antennas have been configured for measurements of the North-South polarization. Only by measuring at the same time both, the E-W and N-S polarization components of the radio emission, the geo-synchrotron effect as the dominant emission mechanism in air showers can be verified. The status of the measurements, including the absolute calibration procedure of the dual-polarized antennas as well as analysis of dual-polarized event examples are reported.

  15. Effect of fuel-air-ratio nonuniformity on emissions of nitrogen oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, V. J.

    1981-01-01

    The inlet fuel-air ratio nonuniformity is studied to deterine how nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions are affected. An increase in NOx emissions with increased fuel-air ratio nonuniformity for average equivalence ratios less than 0.7 and a decrease in NOx emissions for average equivalence ratios near stoichiometric is predicted. The degree of uniformityy of fuel-air ratio profiles that is necessary to achieve NOx emissions goals for actual engines that use lean, premixed, prevaporized combustion systems is determined.

  16. Emission of greenhouse gases from constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment and from riparian buffer zones.

    PubMed

    Mander, U; Teiter, S; Augustin, J

    2005-01-01

    We measured N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes in horizontal and vertical flow constructed wetlands (CW) and in a riparian alder stand in southern Estonia using the closed chamber method in the period from October 2001 to November 2003. The average rates of N20, CH4 and CO2 emission from the riparian gray alder stand were from -0.4 to 58 microg N2O-N m(-2) h(-1) and 0.1-265 microg CH4-C m(-2) h(-1), 55-61 mg CO2-C m(-2) h(-1), respectively. The average N2O-N emission from the microsites above the inflow pipes of horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) CWs was 6.4-31 microg N2O-N m(-2) h(-1), whereas the outflow microsites emitted 2.4-8 microg N2O-N m(-2) h(-1). In vertical subsurface flow (VSSF) beds the same value was 35.6-44.7 microg N2O-N m(-2) h(-1). The average CH4 emission from the inflow and outflow microsites in the HSSF CWs differed significantly ranging from 640 to 9715 and from 30 to 770 microg CH4-C m(-2) h(-1), respectively. The average CO2 emission was somewhat higher in VSSF beds (140-291 mg CO2-C m(-2) h(-1)) and at inflow microsites of HSSF beds (61-140 mg CO2-C m(-2) h(-1)). The global warming potential (GWP) from N2O and CH4 was comparatively high in both types of CWs (4.8 +/- 9.8 and 6.8 +/- 16.2 t CO2 eq ha(-1) a(-1) in the HSSF CW 6.5 +/- 13.0 and 5.3 +/- 24.7 t CO2 eq ha(-1) a(-1) in the hybrid CW, respectively). The GWP of riparian alder forest from both N2O and CH4 was relatively low (0.4 +/- 1.0 and 0.1 +/- 0.30 t CO2 eq ha(-1) a(-1), respectively), whereas the CO2-C flux was remarkable (3.5 +/- 3.7 t ha(-1) a(-1). The global influence of CWs is not significant. Even if all the global domestic wastewater were treated by wetlands, their share in the trace gas emission budget would be less than 1%.

  17. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions in constructed wetlands treating wastewater: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangir, M. M. R.; Richards, K. G.; Healy, M. G.; Gill, L.; Müller, C.; Johnston, P.; Fenton, O.

    2016-01-01

    The removal efficiency of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in constructed wetlands (CWs) is very inconsistent and frequently does not reveal whether the removal processes are due to physical attenuation or whether the different species have been transformed to other reactive forms. Previous research on nutrient removal in CWs did not consider the dynamics of pollution swapping (the increase of one pollutant as a result of a measure introduced to reduce a different pollutant) driven by transformational processes within and around the system. This paper aims to address this knowledge gap by reviewing the biogeochemical dynamics and fate of C and N in CWs and their potential impact on the environment, and by presenting novel ways in which these knowledge gaps may be eliminated. Nutrient removal in CWs varies with the type of CW, vegetation, climate, season, geographical region, and management practices. Horizontal flow CWs tend to have good nitrate (NO3-) removal, as they provide good conditions for denitrification, but cannot remove ammonium (NH4+) due to limited ability to nitrify NH4+. Vertical flow CWs have good NH4+ removal, but their denitrification ability is low. Surface flow CWs decrease nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions but increase methane (CH4) emissions; subsurface flow CWs increase N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but decrease CH4 emissions. Mixed species of vegetation perform better than monocultures in increasing C and N removal and decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but empirical evidence is still scarce. Lower hydraulic loadings with higher hydraulic retention times enhance nutrient removal, but more empirical evidence is required to determine an optimum design. A conceptual model highlighting the current state of knowledge is presented and experimental work that should be undertaken to address knowledge gaps across CWs, vegetation and wastewater types, hydraulic loading rates and regimes, and retention times, is suggested. We recommend that

  18. 40 CFR 63.112 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standard. 63.112 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards... Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.112 Emission standard. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 63.112 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standard. 63.112 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards... Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.112 Emission standard. (a)...

  20. 75 FR 48860 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Revisions to Emissions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... ammonia emissions to New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The revisions also allow NMED to require... to report emissions location information, PM 2.5 and ammonia emissions, and allowed NMED to require... emissions, and ammonia emissions; and (2) allow NMED to require speciation of hazardous air pollutants...

  1. Evaluation of process conditions triggering emissions of green-house gases from a biological wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Aymerich, I; Poch, M; Pijuan, M

    2014-09-15

    In this study, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission dynamics of a plug-flow bioreactor located in a municipal full-scale wastewater treatment plant were monitored during a period of 10 weeks. In general, CH4 and N2O gas emissions from the bioreactor accounted for 0.016% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 0.116% of the influent total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) respectively. In order to identify the emission patterns in the different zones, the bioreactor was divided in six different sampling sites and the gas collection hood was placed for a period of 2-3 days in each of these sites. This sampling strategy also allowed the identification of different process perturbations leading to CH4 or N2O peak emissions. CH4 emissions mainly occurred in the first aerated site, and were mostly related with the influent and reject wastewater flows entering the bioreactor. On the other hand, N2O emissions were given along all the aerated parts of the bioreactor and were strongly dependant on the occurrence of process disturbances such as periods of no aeration or nitrification instability. Dissolved CH4 and N2O concentrations were monitored in the bioreactor and in other parts of the plant, as a contribution for the better understanding of the transport of these greenhouse gases across the different stages of the treatment system.

  2. Dynamic Evaluation of Regional Air Quality Model's Response to Emission Reductions in the Presence of Uncertain Emission Inventories

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is presented and applied for evaluating an air quality model’s changes in pollutant concentrations stemming from changes in emissions while explicitly accounting for the uncertainties in the base emission inventory. Specifically, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMA...

  3. Measurement of Ozone Emission and Particle Removal Rates from Portable Air Purifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Stephen A.; Walser, Maggie L.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laux, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Portable air purifiers are popular consumer items, especially in areas with poor air quality. Unfortunately, most users of these air purifiers have minimal understanding of the factors affecting their efficiency in typical indoor settings. Emission of the air pollutant ozone (O[subscript 3]) by certain air purifiers is of particular concern. In an…

  4. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants submittal -- 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1997-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing. Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in 1996 were releases from the following: evaporation of tritiated water from containment ponds that receive drainage from E tunnel and from wells used for site characterization studies; onsite radioanalytical laboratories; the Area 5 RWMS facility; and diffuse sources of tritium and resuspension of plutonium. Section 1 describes these sources on the NTS. Section 2 tabulates the air emissions data for the NTS. These data are used to calculate the effective dose equivalents to offsite residents. Appendices describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources listed.

  5. Air quality assessment and control of emission rates.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Yuri N; Parra-Guevara, David; Belitskaya, Davydova Valentina

    2005-12-01

    Mathematical methods based on the adjoint model approach are given for the air-pollution estimation and control in an urban region. A simple advection-diffusion-reaction model and its adjoint are used to illustrate the application of the methods. Dual pollution concentration estimates in ecologically important zones are derived and used to develop two non-optimal strategies and one optimal strategy for controlling the emission rates of enterprises. A linear convex combination of these strategies represents a new sufficient strategy. A method for detecting the enterprises, which violate the emission rates prescribed by a control, is given. A method for determining an optimal position for a new enterprise in the region is also described.

  6. Volcanic gas emissions and their effect on ambient air character

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography was assembled to service an agreement between Department of Energy and the USGS to provide a body of references and useful annotations for understanding background gas emissions from Kilauea volcano. The current East Rift Zone (ERZ) eruption of Kilauea releases as much as 500,000 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} annually, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl, and HF. Primary degassing locations on Kilauea are located in the summit caldera and along the middle ERZ. The effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Because of this complexity, we organized the bibliography into three main sections: (1) characterizing gases as they leave the edifice; (2) characterizing gases and chemical reaction products away from degassing sources; and (3) Hawaii Island meteorology.

  7. Improving the removal of anions by coagulation and dissolved air flotation in wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Chuang, S H; Chang, W C; Chang, T C; You, S J

    2006-05-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of improving the removal of anions from a secondary effluent by coagulation/flocculation (Coag/Floc) and dissolved air flotation (DAF) using a pilot-scale wastewater reclamation plant in a high-tech industrial park. The pilot plant was equipped with units of Coag/Floc, DAF, activated carbon beds (AC), microfiltration modules (MF) and a reverse-osmosis membrane (RO). It was operated in-situ continuously for around one year to evaluate the performance of anion removal in two processes - the AC-RO process and the DAF-AC-RO process. Long-term experimental results indicated that combining Coag/Floc, DAF and AC units increased the potential of pretreatment to remove anions. The removal efficiencies in Coag/Floc-DAF units were in the order phosphate > fluoride > chloride > sulfate > silicate. The charged complex of PACl flocs revealed a higher affinity for adsorption onto phosphate and fluoride than on chloride, sulfate and silicate. Comparison of the performance of Coag/Floc-DAF-AC units in the DAF-AC-RO process with that of a single AC unit in the AC-RO process demonstrated that adding Coag/Floc-DAF units increased the removal efficiencies of phosphate, fluoride and silicate by approximately 70.0%, 42.7% and 70.1%, respectively. Most of the phosphate and fluoride were removed in Coag/Floc-DAF units, while most of the silicate escaped from the Coag/Floc-DAF units, and was adsorbed and/or trapped in the AC unit. The quality of reclaimed water in the DAF-AC-RO process complied with the requirements of high-tech industries in cleaning processes. Combined units of Coag/Floc-DAF-AC were therefore recommended for use in pretreatment in wastewater reclamation in high-tech industrial parks.

  8. Overview of Megacity Air Pollutant Emissions and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, C. E.

    2013-05-01

    The urban metabolism that characterizes major cities consumes very large qualities of humanly produced and/or processed food, fuel, water, electricity, construction materials and manufactured goods, as well as, naturally provided sunlight, precipitation and atmospheric oxygen. The resulting urban respiration exhalations add large quantities of trace gas and particulate matter pollutants to urban atmospheres. Key classes of urban primary air pollutants and their sources will be reviewed and important secondary pollutants identified. The impacts of these pollutants on urban and downwind regional inhabitants, ecosystems, and climate will be discussed. Challenges in quantifying the temporally and spatially resolved urban air pollutant emissions and secondary pollutant production rates will be identified and possible measurement strategies evaluated.

  9. Maximizing sinter plant operating flexibility through emissions trading and air modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Schewe, G.J.; Wagner, J.A.; Heron, T.; Topf, R.; Shepker, T.O.

    1998-12-31

    This paper provides details on the dispersion modeling analysis performed to demonstrate air quality impacts associated with an emission trading scheme for a sintering operation in Youngstown, Ohio. The emission trade was proposed to allow the sinter plant to expand its current allowable sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions while being offset with SO{sub 2} emissions from boilers at a nearby shutdown steel mill. While the emission trade itself was feasible and the emissions required for the offset were available (the boiler shutdown and their subsequent SO{sub 2} emission credits were never claimed, banked, or used elsewhere), the second criteria for determining compliance was a demonstration of minimal air quality impact. The air analysis combined the increased ambient SO{sub 2} concentrations of the relaxed sinter plant emissions with the offsetting air quality of the shutdown boilers to yield the net air quality impacts. To test this net air impact, dispersion modeling was performed treating the sinter plant SO{sub 2} emissions as positive and the shutdown boiler SO{sub 2} emissions as negative. The results of the modeling indicated that the ambient air concentrations due to the proposed emissions increase will be offset by the nearby boiler emissions to levels acceptable under EPA`s offset policy Level 2 significant impact concentrations. Therefore, the dispersion modeling demonstrated that the emission trading scheme would not result in significant air quality impacts and maximum operating flexibility was provided to the sintering facility.

  10. 1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    1999-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  11. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  12. Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.; High, C.

    2008-02-01

    This document provides a summary of the impact of wind energy development on various air pollutants for a general audience. The core document addresses the key facts relating to the analysis of emission reductions from wind energy development. It is intended for use by a wide variety of parties with an interest in this issue, ranging from state environmental officials to renewable energy stakeholders. The appendices provide basic background information for the general reader, as well as detailed information for those seeking a more in-depth discussion of various topics.

  13. Emissions of air pollutants from indoor charcoal barbecue.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Lee, Whei-May Grace; Wu, Feng-Shu

    2016-01-25

    Ten types of commercial charcoal commonly used in Taiwan were investigated to study the potential health effects of air pollutants generated during charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The charcoal samples were combusted in a tubular high-temperature furnace to simulate the high-temperature charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The results indicated that traditional charcoal has higher heating value than green synthetic charcoal. The amount of PM10 and PM2.5 emitted during the smoldering stage increased when the burning temperature was raised. The EF for CO and CO2 fell within the range of 68-300 and 644-1225 g/kg, respectively. Among the charcoals, the lowest EF for PM2.5 and PM10 were found in Binchōtan (B1). Sawdust briquette charcoal (I1S) emitted the smallest amount of carbonyl compounds. Charcoal briquettes (C2S) emitted the largest amount of air pollutants during burning, with the EF for HC, PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde being the highest among the charcoals studied. The emission of PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde were 5-10 times those of the second highest charcoal. The results suggest that the adverse effects of the large amounts of air pollutants generated during indoor charcoal combustion on health and indoor air quality must not be ignored.

  14. Catalytic wet air oxidation of coke-plant wastewater on ruthenium-based eggshell catalysts in a bubbling bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Sun, Y; Xu, A H; Lu, X Y; Du, H Z; Sun, C L; Li, C

    2007-07-01

    Catalytic wet air of coke-plant wastewater was studied in a bubbling bed reactor. Two types of supported Ru-based catalysts, eggshell and uniform catalysts, were employed. Compared with the results in the wet air oxidation of coke-plant wastewater, supported Ru uniform catalysts showed high activity for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia/ammonium compounds (NH3-N) removal at temperature of 250 degrees C and pressure of 4.8 MPa, and it has been demonstrated that the catalytic activity of uniform catalyst depended strongly on the distribution of active sites of Ru on catalyst. Compared to the corresponding uniform catalysts with the same Ru loading (0.25 wt.% and 0.1 wt.%, respectively), the eggshell catalysts showed higher activities for CODcr removal and much higher activities for NH3-N degradation. The high activity of eggshell catalyst for treatment of coke-plant wastewater can be attributed to the higher density of active Ru sites in the shell layer than that of the corresponding uniform catalyst with the same Ru loading. It has been also evidenced that the active Ru sites in the internal core of uniform catalyst have very little or no contribution to CODcr and NH3-N removal in the total oxidation of coke-plant wastewater.

  15. Life cycle assessment of vertical and horizontal flow constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment considering nitrogen and carbon greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Valerie J; Mihelcic, James R; Gierke, John S

    2011-02-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to compare the environmental impacts of vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) and horizontal flow constructed wetlands (HFCW). The LCAs include greenhouse gas (N(2)O, CO(2) and CH(4)) emissions. Baseline constructed wetland designs are compared to different treatment performance scenarios and to conventional wastewater treatment at the materials acquisition, assembly and operation life stages. The LCAs suggest that constructed wetlands have less environmental impact, in terms of resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The VFCW is a less impactful configuration for removing total nitrogen from domestic wastewater. Both wetland designs have negligible impacts on respiratory organics, radiation and ozone. Gaseous emissions, often not included in wastewater LCAs because of lack of data or lack of agreement on impacts, have the largest impact on climate change. Nitrous oxide accounts for the increase in impact on respiratory inorganic, and the combined acidification/eutrophication category. The LCAs were used to assess the importance of nitrogen removal and recycling, and the potential for optimizing nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands.

  16. Photocatalysis for continuous air purification in wastewater treatment plants: from lab to reality.

    PubMed

    Portela, R; Tessinari, R F; Suárez, S; Rasmussen, S B; Hernández-Alonso, M D; Canela, M C; Avila, P; Sánchez, B

    2012-05-01

    The photocatalytic efficiency of TiO(2)-SiMgO(x) plates to oxidize H(2)S was first evaluated in a flat laboratory reactor with 50 mL min(-1) synthetic air containing 100 ppm H(2)S in the presence of humidity. The use of the photocatalyst-adsorbent hybrid material enhanced the photocatalytic activity in terms of pollutant conversion, selectivity, and catalyst lifetime compared to previous H(2)S tests with pure TiO(2) because total H(2)S elimination was maintained for more than 30 operating hours with SO(2) appearing in the outlet as reaction product only after 18 h. Subsequently, the hybrid material was successfully tested in a photoreactor prototype to treat real polluted air in a wastewater treatment plant. For this purpose, a new tubular photocatalytic reactor that may use solar radiation in combination with artificial radiation was designed; the lamp was turned on when solar UV-A irradiance was below 20 W m(-2), which was observed to be the minimum value to ensure 100% conversion. The efficient distribution of the opaque photocatalyst inside the tubular reactor was achieved by using especially designed star-shaped structures. These structures were employed for the arrangement of groups of eight TiO(2)-SiMgO(x) plates in easy-to-handle channelled units obtaining an adequate flow regime without shading. The prototype continuously removed during one month and under real conditions the H(2)S contained in a 1 L min(-1) air current with a variable inlet concentration in the range of tens of ppmv without release of SO(2).

  17. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality. PMID:26556236

  18. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, P Y; Ge, C; Wang, J; Eberwein, J R; Liang, L L; Allsman, L A; Grantz, D A; Jenerette, G D

    2015-11-10

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  19. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

  20. 76 FR 35806 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...-9320-7] RIN 2060-AM37 Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area.... SUMMARY: On June 12, 2008, EPA issued national emission standards for control of hazardous air pollutants...). In today's action, EPA is proposing to amend the national emission standards for control of...

  1. 76 FR 29031 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...EPA is proposing amendments to the national emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting to address the results of the residual risk and technology review that EPA is required to conduct by the Clean Air Act. These proposed amendments include revisions to the stack emissions limits for lead; revisions to the fugitive dust emissions control requirements; the......

  2. 40 CFR 86.166-12 - Method for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to air conditioning leakage. 86.166-12 Section 86.166-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY... for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage. This section describes procedures used...

  3. 40 CFR 270.315 - What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAM RCRA Standardized Permits for Storage and Treatment Units Information That Must Be Kept at Your Facility § 270.315 What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility? If you have air... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What air emissions control...

  4. 40 CFR 270.315 - What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAM RCRA Standardized Permits for Storage and Treatment Units Information That Must Be Kept at Your Facility § 270.315 What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility? If you have air... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What air emissions control...

  5. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  6. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  7. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  8. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  9. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  10. A novel methodology to quantify nitrous oxide emissions from full-scale wastewater treatment systems with surface aerators.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liu; Ni, Bing-Jie; Law, Yingyu; Byers, Craig; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from open-surface wastewater treatment systems with surface aerators is difficult as emissions from the surface aerator zone cannot be easily captured by floating hoods. In this study, we propose and demonstrate a novel methodology to estimate N2O emissions from such systems through determination of the N2O transfer coefficient (kLa) induced by surface aerators based on oxygen balance for the entire system. The methodology is demonstrated through its application to a full-scale open oxidation ditch wastewater treatment plant with surface aerators. The estimated kLa profile based on a month-long measurement campaign for oxygen balance, intensive monitoring of dissolved N2O profiles along the oxidation ditch over a period of four days, together with mathematical modelling, enabled to determine the N2O emission factor from this treatment plant (0.52 ± 0.16%). Majority of the N2O emission was found to occur in the surface aerator zone, which would be missed if the gas hood method was applied alone.

  11. Urban scale air quality modelling using detailed traffic emissions estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrego, C.; Amorim, J. H.; Tchepel, O.; Dias, D.; Rafael, S.; Sá, E.; Pimentel, C.; Fontes, T.; Fernandes, P.; Pereira, S. R.; Bandeira, J. M.; Coelho, M. C.

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric dispersion of NOx and PM10 was simulated with a second generation Gaussian model over a medium-size south-European city. Microscopic traffic models calibrated with GPS data were used to derive typical driving cycles for each road link, while instantaneous emissions were estimated applying a combined Vehicle Specific Power/Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (VSP/EMEP) methodology. Site-specific background concentrations were estimated using time series analysis and a low-pass filter applied to local observations. Air quality modelling results are compared against measurements at two locations for a 1 week period. 78% of the results are within a factor of two of the observations for 1-h average concentrations, increasing to 94% for daily averages. Correlation significantly improves when background is added, with an average of 0.89 for the 24 h record. The results highlight the potential of detailed traffic and instantaneous exhaust emissions estimates, together with filtered urban background, to provide accurate input data to Gaussian models applied at the urban scale.

  12. Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS)/Final Environmental Impact Report (FEIR). Otis Air National Guard Base, Wastewater Treatment Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    and publications in areas of water and wastewater treatment. David Tomasko, Ph.D., 1985. University of New Mexico . Staff Hydrogeologist. Research...Reserve in California. We are working on EIS’s for the U.S. Air Force Base Closings in realignment in California, New Mexico and Washington, and a very...some of you might know about and the realignments in California, New Mexico and Washington; and the U.S. Department of Energy New Production Defense

  13. STANDARDS CONTROLLING AIR EMISSIONS FOR THE SOIL DESICCATION PILOT TEST

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE MW

    2010-09-08

    This air emissions document supports implementation of the Treatability Test Plan for Soil Desiccation as outlined in the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau (DOE/RL-2007-56). Treatability testing supports evaluation of remedial technologies for technetium-99 (Tc-99) contamination in the vadose zone at sites such as the BC Cribs and Trenches. Soil desiccation has been selected as the first technology for testing because it has been recommended as a promising technology in previous Hanford Site technology evaluations and because testing of soil desiccation will provide useful information to enhance evaluation of other technologies, in particular gas-phase remediation technologies. A soil desiccation pilot test (SDPT) will evaluate the desiccation process (e.g., how the targeted interval is dried) and the long-term performance for mitigation of contaminant transport. The SDPT will dry out a moist zone contaminated by Tc-99 and nitrate that has been detected at Well 299-E13-62 (Borehole C5923). This air emissions document applies to the activities to be completed to conduct the SDPT in the 200-BC-1 operable unit located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. Well 299-E13-62 is planned to be used as an injection well. This well is located between and approximately equidistant from cribs 216-B-16, 216-B-17, 216-B-18. and 216-B-19. Nitrogen gas will be pumped at approximately 300 ft{sup 3}/min into the 299-EI3-62 injection well, located approximately 12 m (39 ft) away from extraction well 299-EI3-65. The soil gas extraction rate will be approximately 150 ft{sup 3}/min. The SDPT will be conducted continuously over a period of approximately six months. The purpose of the test is to evaluate soil desiccation as a potential remedy for protecting groundwater. A conceptual depiction is provided in Figure 1. The soil desiccation process will physically dry, or evaporate, some of the water from the moist zone of interest. As such, it is

  14. A zinc-air battery and flywheel zero emission vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Tokarz, F.; Smith, J.R.; Cooper, J.; Bender, D.; Aceves, S.

    1995-10-03

    In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) developed a compliance plan known as the Low Emission Vehicle Program. An integral part of that program was a sales mandate to the top seven automobile manufacturers requiring the percentage of Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) sold in California to be 2% in 1998, 5% in 2001 and 10% by 2003. Currently available ZEV technology will probably not meet customer demand for range and moderate cost. A potential option to meet the CARB mandate is to use two Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) technologies, namely, zinc-air refuelable batteries (ZARBs) and electromechanical batteries (EMBs, i. e., flywheels) to develop a ZEV with a 384 kilometer (240 mile) urban range. This vehicle uses a 40 kW, 70 kWh ZARB for energy storage combined with a 102 kW, 0.5 kWh EMB for power peaking. These technologies are sufficiently near-term and cost-effective to plausibly be in production by the 1999-2001 time frame for stationary and initial vehicular applications. Unlike many other ZEVs currently being developed by industry, our proposed ZEV has range, acceleration, and size consistent with larger conventional passenger vehicles available today. Our life-cycle cost projections for this technology are lower than for Pb-acid battery ZEVs. We have used our Hybrid Vehicle Evaluation Code (HVEC) to simulate the performance of the vehicle and to size the various components. The use of conservative subsystem performance parameters and the resulting vehicle performance are discussed in detail.

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2011-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP

  16. Supported noble metal catalysts in the catalytic wet air oxidation of industrial wastewaters and sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Besson, M; Descorme, C; Bernardi, M; Gallezot, P; di Gregorio, F; Grosjean, N; Minh, D Pham; Pintar, A

    2010-12-01

    This paper reviews some catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) investigations of industrial wastewaters over platinum and ruthenium catalysts supported on TiO2 and ZrO2 formulated to be active and resistant to leaching, with particular focus on the stability of the catalyst. Catalyst recycling experiments were performed in batch reactors and long-term stability tests were conducted in trickle-bed reactors. The catalyst did not leach upon treatment of Kraft bleaching plant and olive oil mill effluents, and could be either recycled or used for long periods of time in continuous reactors. Conversely, these catalysts were rapidly leached when used to treat effluents from the production of polymeric membranes containing N,N-dimethylformamide. The intermediate formation of amines, such as dimethylamine and methylamine with a high complexing capacity for the metal, was shown to be responsible for the metal leaching. These heterogeneous catalysts also deactivated upon CWAO of sewage sludges due to the adsorption of the solid organic matter. Pre-sonication of the sludge to disintegrate the flocs and improve solubility was inefficient.

  17. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process

    SciTech Connect

    English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1983-02-01

    A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

  18. Stabilization of heavy metals in wastewater treatment sludge from power plants air heater washing.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Mohsen; Amini, Hamid Reza

    2009-05-01

    In the present investigation, for the first time in Iran, dewatered sludge waste from the air heater washing wastewater treatment of a thermal power plant was subject to investigation with regard to cement-based stabilization in order to reduce the mobility of heavy metals. Studies of the chemical composition, mineralogy, morphology and leaching characteristics of the untreated and treated waste were conducted. The stabilization was done with two cement-based mix designs with different waste/cement ratios in different samples. In the cement stabilization process the leaching of V, Ni, Zn and Cr could be decreased from 314.1, 209.1, 24.8 and 5.5 mg L(-1), respectively, in the untreated waste to 6.02, 32.11, 3.57 and 3.68 mg L(-1) in a mixture with 20% waste/cement ratio, while during stabilization with cement + sand, the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachate contents of the mentioned metals were decreased to 4.24, 16.2, 2.51 and 2.2 mg L(-1) for the same waste/cement ratio. Stabilization with sand/cement seemed to be more efficient in reducing metal leaching from the waste. X-ray diffraction studies showed that portlandite, calcite, lime, larnite and quartz were produced during the stabilization process.

  19. Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from indoor air of an urban wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Juliana V; Cecílio, Pedro; Gonçalves, Daniela; Vilar, Vítor J P; Pinto, Eugénia; Ferreira, Helena N

    2016-07-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been recognized as sources of bioaerosols that may act as vehicles for dissemination of pathogens and multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. The occurrence of MDR Enterobacteriaceae in indoor air of an urban WWTP was investigated. A possible airborne contamination with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was also explored. Fourteen of 39 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were MDR. These isolates were found at all sampling sites, mainly at the secondary sedimentation settings. The highest levels of resistance were detected in three different species: Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii. Furthermore, one of the airborne E. coli isolates was phenotypically characterized as an ESBL producer. Additionally, five isolates showed non-susceptibility to at least one carbapenem tested. The presence of genes encoding relevant beta-lactamase types in these ESBL-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates was investigated by PCR. Results showed amplification for bla CTX-M and bla OXA. These findings are relevant both in terms of occupational/public health and of environmental dissemination of MDR bacteria.

  20. Toward better understanding and feasibility of controlling greenhouse gas emissions from treatment of industrial wastewater with activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Yang, Jun-Hong; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Yang, Ying-Hsien

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been recognized as important sources for anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The objective of the study was to thoroughly investigate a typical industrial WWTP in southern Taiwan in winter and summer which possesses the emission factors close to those reported values, with the analyses of emission factors, mass fluxes, fugacity, lab-scale in situ experiments, and impact assessment. The activated sludge was the important source in winter and summer, and nitrous oxide (N2O) was the main contributor (e.g., 57 to 91 % of total GHG emission in a unit of kg carbon dioxide-equivalent/kg chemical oxygen demand). Albeit important for the GHGs in the atmosphere, the fractional contribution of the GHG emission to the carbon or nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment was negligible (e.g., less than 1.5 %). In comparison with the sludge concentration or retention time, adjusting the aeration rate was more effective to diminish the GHG emission in the activated sludge without significantly affecting the treated water quality. When the aeration rate in the activated sludge simulation was reduced by 75 %, the mass flux of N2O could be diminished by up to 53 % (from 9.6 to 4.5 mg/m(2)-day). The total emission in the WWTP (including carbon dioxide, methane, and N2O) would decrease by 46 % (from 0.67 to 0.36 kg CO2-equiv/kg COD). However, the more important benefit of changing the aeration rate was lowering the energy consumption in operation of the WWTP, as the fractional contribution of pumping to the total emission from the WWTP ranged from 46 to 93 % within the range of the aeration rate tested. Under the circumstance in which reducing the burden of climate change is a global campaign, the findings provide insight regarding the GHG emission from treatment of industrial wastewater and the associated impact on the treatment performance and possible mitigation strategies by operational modifications.

  1. 55 FR 14037 Correction to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Correction to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Benzene Emissions From Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke Byproduct Recovery Plants.

  2. (AWMA) IMPROVING EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR EFFECTIVE AIR-QUALITY MANAGEMENT ACROSS NORTH AMERICA - A NARSTO ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  3. AIR EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL HEATING: THE WOOD HEATING OPTION PUT INTO ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper compares the national scale (rather than local) air quality impacts of the various residential space heating options. Specifically, it compares the relative contribution of the space heating options to fine particulate emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and acid preci...

  4. IMPROVING EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR EFFECTIVE AIR-QUALITY MANAGMENT ACROSS NORTH AMERICA - A NARSTO ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  5. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2006-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation’s site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale “background levels” or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile

  6. 76 FR 15553 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ...EPA is promulgating national emission standards for control of hazardous air pollutants from two area source categories: Industrial boilers and commercial and institutional boilers. The final emission standards for control of mercury and polycyclic organic matter emissions from coal-fired area source boilers are based on the maximum achievable control technology. The final emission standards......

  7. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  9. Self-Driven Desalination and Advanced Treatment of Wastewater in a Modularized Filtration Air Cathode Microbial Desalination Cell.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Kuichang; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Zuo, Jiaolan; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2016-07-05

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) extract organic energy from wastewater for in situ desalination of saline water. However, to desalinate salt water, traditional MDCs often require an anolyte (wastewater) and a catholyte (other synthetic water) to produce electricity. Correspondingly, the traditional MDCs also produced anode effluent and cathode effluent, and may produce a concentrate solution, resulting in a low production of diluate. In this study, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube membranes and Pt carbon cloths were utilized as filtration material and cathode to fabricate a modularized filtration air cathode MDC (F-MDC). With real wastewater flowing from anode to cathode, and finally to the middle membrane stack, the diluate volume production reached 82.4%, with the removal efficiency of salinity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reached 93.6% and 97.3% respectively. The final diluate conductivity was 68 ± 12 μS/cm, and the turbidity was 0.41 NTU, which were sufficient for boiler supplementary or industrial cooling. The concentrate production was only 17.6%, and almost all the phosphorus and salt, and most of the nitrogen were recovered, potentially allowing the recovery of nutrients and other chemicals. These results show the potential utility of the modularized F-MDC in the application of municipal wastewater advanced treatment and self-driven desalination.

  10. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site, calendar year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P.; Johnson, A.R.; Rhoads, K.; Klages, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Rokkan, D.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1992 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to an member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  11. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site, Calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.; Diediker, L.P.; Jette, S.J.; Rhoads, K.; Soldat, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1994, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the ``MEI.`` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

  13. Modeling and Qualification of a Modified Emission Unit for Radioactive Air Emissions Stack Sampling Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Glissmeyer, John A.

    2016-01-01

    A planned laboratory space and exhaust system modification to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Material Science and Technology Building indicated a new evaluation of the mixing at the air sampling system location would be required for compliance to ANSI/HPS N13.1-2011. The modified exhaust system would add a third fan thereby increasing the overall exhaust rate out the stack thus voiding the previous mixing study. Prior to modifying the radioactive air emissions exhaust system, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics computer model was used to evaluate the mixing at the sampling system location. Modeling of the new original three-fan system indicated that not all mixing criteria could be met. A second modeling effort was conducted with the addition of an air blender downstream of the confluence of the three fans which then showed satisfactory mixing results. The final installation included an air blender, and the exhaust system underwent full-scale tests to verify velocity, cyclonic flow, gas, and particulate uniformity. The modeling results and those of the full-scale tests show agreement between each of the evaluated criteria. The use of a computational fluid dynamics code was an effective aid in the design process and allowed the sampling system to remain in its original location while still meeting the requirements for sampling at a well-mixed location.

  14. Effect of gradual transition of substrate on performance of flat-panel air-cathode microbial fuel cells to treat domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Park, Younghyun; Park, Seonghwan; Nguyen, Van Khanh; Kim, Jung Rae; Kim, Hong Suck; Kim, Byung Goon; Yu, Jaecheul; Lee, Taeho

    2017-02-01

    In order to confirm the effects of the low conductivity and biodegradability of wastewater, flat-panel air-cathode microbial fuel cells (FA-MFCs) were operated by supplying substrates with different volume ratios of domestic wastewater mixed with an artificial medium: the artificial medium only, 25% wastewater, 50% wastewater, 75% wastewater, 100% of wastewater with 500mg-COD/L by adding acetate, and raw domestic wastewater (230mg-COD/L). With the increase of wastewater ratio, the maximum power density and organic removal efficiency decreased from 187 to 60W/m(3) and 51.5 to 37.4%, respectively, but the Coulombic efficiency was maintained in the range of 18.0-18.9%. The FA-MFCs could maintain their low internal resistances and overcome the decreasing conductivity. The acetate concentration was more important than the total organics for power production. This study suggests that the FA-MFC configuration has great applicability for practical applications when supplied by domestic wastewater with low conductivity and biodegradability.

  15. Identifying sensitive sources and key control handles for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2014-10-01

    This research investigates the effects of adjusting control handle values on greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment, and reveals critical control handles and sensitive emission sources for control through the combined use of local and global sensitivity analysis methods. The direction of change in emissions, effluent quality and operational cost resulting from variation of control handles individually is determined using one-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis, and corresponding trade-offs are identified. The contribution of each control handle to variance in model outputs, taking into account the effects of interactions, is then explored using a variance-based sensitivity analysis method, i.e., Sobol's method, and significant second order interactions are discovered. This knowledge will assist future control strategy development and aid an efficient design and optimisation process, as it provides a better understanding of the effects of control handles on key performance indicators and identifies those for which dynamic control has the greatest potential benefits. Sources with the greatest variance in emissions, and therefore the greatest need to monitor, are also identified. It is found that variance in total emissions is predominantly due to changes in direct N2O emissions and selection of suitable values for wastage flow rate and aeration intensity in the final activated sludge reactor is of key importance. To improve effluent quality, costs and/or emissions, it is necessary to consider the effects of adjusting multiple control handles simultaneously and determine the optimum trade-off.

  16. Air Quality Modeling of Emissions from Prescribed Burning : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Jitendra J.; Ottmar, Robert D.

    1989-06-01

    Fuel moisture content, woody fuel and duff consumption, fire behavior, and smoke plumes were monitored on four prescribed burns located on the Oakridge Ranger District of the Willamette National Forest. The measured fuel moisture, fuel consumption, and fire behavior data were used to validate an Emissions Production Model (EPM) which predicts fuel consumption, heat release rates, and smoke emissions for a smoke dispersion model called Simple Approach Smoke Estimation Model (SASEM). Both EPM and SASEM have been combined together into a single program called Tiered Smoke Air Resource System (TSARS). Several comparisons were made between predicted results from EPM and measured values to help determine the level of accuracy which could be expected for different levels of data input effort. In-plume sampling procedures using tethered equipment for sampling of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants were designed, developed, and acquired during this study. Because the objective of this study was to evaluate the model under the July 1 to Labor Day burning ban meteorological conditions, sampling was scheduled only for the summer months. For each study year, a meteorological pattern occurred that severely limited sampling. The summers for all three study years in general were extremely dry; prohibiting burning due to fire danger. Therefore, a smaller number of units were burned than that planned. 29 refs., 16 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Submittal - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E.

    1996-06-01

    This report contains National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It provides lists of figures and tables related to the NTS and includes a Site Description. The Source Description includes current and previous activities conducted on the NTS. The Site has been the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. since 1951. Historical testing has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950`s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. At the North Las Vegas Facility, operated for DOE/NV by EG&G Energy Measurements, there was an Unusual Occurrence that led to an insignificant potential exposure to an offsite person. The incident involved the release of tritiated water (HTO), and a description of the incident and the method of calculating the effective dose equivalent for offsite exposure are described. The Source Description further describes Ground Seepage of Noble Gases, Radioactive Waste Management Sites, and Plutonium Contaminated Surface Areas.

  18. Control of air emissions from POTWs using biofiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, T.S.; Devinny, J.S.; Torres, E.M.; Basrai, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    The University of Southern California (USC), in collaboration with the County Sanitation Districts of Orange County (CSDOC), the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), Southern California Edison (SCE), the Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF), and Huntingdon Environmental Engineering, Inc. (HEEI), is conducting a research project to evaluate the application of biofiltration to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs), odor-causing air pollutants, and toxics from a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) waste airstream. As part of this project, bench-scale and pilot-scale experiments are being conducted to test the effectiveness of biofiltration and determine the optimum parameters for applying biofiltration to POTWs. Results from the bench-scale experiments demonstrate that biofiltration is effective in reducing the concentration of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and total VOCs present in waste airstreams by over 99% and up to 90%, respectively. Average reduction of specific aromatic and carbonyl compounds ranged from 55% to 91%. Removal efficiencies for chlorinated hydrocarbons were variable, ranging from 6% to 88%. Overall, biofiltration appears to be a promising technology for full-scale implementation at POTWs for VOC and odor emission compliance.

  19. Effect of Wind Tunnel Air Velocity on VOC Flux from Standard Solutions and CAFO Manure/Wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers and practitioners have used wind tunnels and flux chambers to quantify the flux of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide and estimate emission factors from animal feeding operations (AFOs) without accounting for effects of air velocity or sweep air flow rate. L...

  20. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a...)(10)(iii) of this section clarify the organic HAP that an owner or operator shall consider when... requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.149 that pertain solely and exclusively to organic HAP listed on table...

  1. [Study on feasible emission control level of air pollutions for cement industry ].

    PubMed

    Ren, Chun; Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Wei, Yu-xia; Zhao, Guo-hua; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2014-09-01

    The revised National Emission Standard of Air Pollutions for Cement Industry has been issued, which will be effective for the new enterprises and the existing enterprises on Mar. 1st, 2014 and July 1st, 2015, respectively. In the process of revision, the key technical issues on determination of standard limits was how to determine the feasible emission control level of air pollutions. Feasible emission control requirements were put forward, according to air pollutants emission, technologies, environmental management requirements and foreign standards, etc. The main contents of the revised standard include expanding the scope of application, increasing the pollutants, improving the particulate and NO emissions control level, and increasing special emission limits applied to key areas of air pollutants. The standard will become the gripper of pollution prevention, total emission reduction, structural adjustment and optimization of the layout, and will promote scientific and technical progression for the cement industry.

  2. Recent Developments in the Quantification and Regulation of Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations.

    PubMed

    Heinzen, Tarah

    2015-03-01

    Animal feeding operations (AFOs) emit various air pollutants, including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, methane, and nitrous oxide. Several of these pollutants are regulated under federal clean air statutes, yet AFOs have largely escaped regulation under these laws because of challenges in accurately estimating the rate and quantity of emissions from various types of livestock operations. Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efforts to collect emissions data, develop an emissions model capable of estimating emissions at AFOs nationwide, and establish emissions estimating methodologies for certain key livestock air pollutants suffered from design flaws and omitted pollutants of concern. Moreover, this process seems to have stalled, delaying other regulatory reforms needed to increase transparency and increase regulation of these facilities. Until EPA establishes these methodologies, significant AFO pollution regulation under the Clean Air Act or emissions reporting statutes will be very difficult to achieve, and the public health and environmental impacts of these emissions will continue unabated.

  3. Air quality improvements following implementation of Lisbon's Low Emission Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, F.; Gomes, P.; Tente, H.; Carvalho, A. C.; Pereira, P.; Monjardino, J.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution levels within Lisbon city limits have been exceeding the limit values established in European Union and national legislation since 2001, with the most problematic cases related to the levels of fine particles (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), mainly originated by road traffic. With the objective of answering this public health issue, an Air Quality Action Plan was developed in 2006 and the respective Enforcement Plan was published in 2009. From the overall strategy, one of the major measures presented in this strategy was the creation of a Low Emission Zone (LEZ) in Lisbon, which has been operating since July 2011. Implemented at different stages it has progressively expanded its area, including more vehicle types and adopting more stringent requirements in terms of minimum emission standards (currently LEZ phase 2 with EURO 2 in the city center - zone 1 and EURO 1 in the rest of the LEZ area - zone 2). At the same time the road axis comprised of Marquês de Pombal square and Avenida da Liberdade was subjected to profound changes in its traffic circulation model, reducing road traffic volumes. The analysis of the air quality data before and after the LEZ phase 2 has shown positive evolution when comparing the period between 2011 (before measures) and 2013 (after measures). In 2013, there was a reduction in PM10 annual average concentration of 23% and NO2 annual average concentrations of 12%, compared with the year 2011. Although PM10 reductions were more significant inside the LEZ area, the same was not valid for NO2, suggesting that the implementation of these measures was not as effective in reducing NO2 levels as shown by results in other cities like Berlin and London. The results from road traffic characterization indicate a relevant effect on fleet renewal with an overall decrease in the relative weight of pre-EURO 2 vehicles in 2012/2013, compared with data from 2011. An important increase in the share of EURO 4 and EURO 5 vehicles was also

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  5. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  6. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the

  7. Wastewater and greywater reuse on irrigation in centralized and decentralized systems--an integrated approach on water quality, energy consumption and CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Matos, C; Pereira, S; Amorim, E V; Bentes, I; Briga-Sá, A

    2014-09-15

    Wastewater and greywater have different scales of end-uses in irrigation in Portugal. Wastewater is treated in a central wastewater treatment plant and reused in public/private large areas of irrigation, like agriculture, public gardens and golf courses. On the contrary, greywater reuse is generally applied in in situ small scales, treated and used in the same place, generally in the production site. The main aim of this paper is to compare the two types of systems: a wastewater centralized reuse system (WWCRS) and a greywater decentralized reuse system (GWDRS) in terms of water quality, energy consumption and CO2 emissions. In this paper, the main characteristics of both streams are presented and the degree of treatment required in each stream is analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of its reuse in different scales, in terms of water quality, energy consumption and CO2 emissions are discussed. A methodology to calculate the energy consumptions and CO2 emissions related to wastewater treatment that may be applied in different cases is presented. A hypothetical example of the two systems: one referring to a WWCRS and the other to a GWDRS is presented. The energy consumption and the CO2 emissions are analyzed and compared. The WWCRS needs a higher degree of treatment and so it spends more energy and leads to more CO2 emissions to the environment than the GWDRS that consumed between 11.8 and 37.5% of the energy consumed in the WWCRS considering the same number of inhabitants served.

  8. Life-Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of a Building-Scale Wastewater Treatment and Nonpotable Reuse System.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Thomas P; Nguyen, Mi T; Sukardi, Marsha; Miot, Alexandre; Horvath, Arpad; Nelson, Kara L

    2015-09-01

    Treatment and water reuse in decentralized systems is envisioned to play a greater role in our future urban water infrastructure due to growing populations and uncertainty in quality and quantity of traditional water resources. In this study, we utilized life-cycle assessment (LCA) to analyze the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of an operating Living Machine (LM) wetland treatment system that recycles wastewater in an office building. The study also assessed the performance of the local utility's centralized wastewater treatment plant, which was found to be significantly more efficient than the LM (79% less energy, 98% less GHG emissions per volume treated). To create a functionally equivalent comparison, the study developed a hypothetical scenario in which the same LM design flow is recycled via centralized infrastructure. This comparison revealed that the current LM has energy consumption advantages (8% less), and a theoretically improved LM design could have GHG advantages (24% less) over the centralized reuse system. The methodology in this study can be applied to other case studies and scenarios to identify conditions under which decentralized water reuse can lower GHG emissions and energy use compared to centralized water reuse when selecting alternative approaches to meet growing water demands.

  9. Uncertainty Estimation of Metals and Semimetals Determination in Wastewater by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, J. R.; Villa-Soares, S. M.; Stellato, T. B.; Silva, T. B. S. C.; Faustino, M. G.; Monteiro, L. R.; Pires, M. A. F.; Cotrim, M. E. B.

    2016-07-01

    The measurement uncertainty is a parameter that represents the dispersion of the results obtained by a method of analysis. The estimation of measurement uncertainty in the determination of metals and semimetals is important to compare the results with limits defined by environmental legislation and conclude if the analytes are meeting the requirements. Therefore, the aim of this paper is present all the steps followed to estimate the uncertainty of the determination of amount of metals and semimetals in wastewater by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Measurement uncertainty obtained was between 4.6 and 12.2% in the concentration range of mg.L-1.

  10. Closed DHS system to prevent dissolved methane emissions as greenhouse gas in anaerobic wastewater treatment by its recovery and biological oxidation.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, N; Hatamoto, M; Sumino, H; Syutsubo, K; Yamaguchi, T; Ohashi, A

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment has been focused on its eco-friendly nature in terms of the improved energy conservation and reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the anaerobic process discharges unrecovered methane as dissolved methane. In this study, to prevent the emission of dissolved methane from up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors used to treat sewage and to recover it as useful gas, we employed a two-stage down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor as a post-treatment of the UASB reactor. The closed DHS reactor in the first stage was intended for the recovery of dissolved methane from the UASB reactor effluent; the reactor could successfully recover an average of 76.8% of the influent dissolved methane as useful gas (containing methane over 30%) with hydraulic retention time of 2 h. During the experimental period, it was possible to maintain the recovered methane concentrations greater than 30% by adjusting the air supply rate. The remaining dissolved methane after the first stage was treated by the next step. The second closed DHS reactor was operated for oxidation of the residual methane and polishing of the remaining organic carbons. The reactor had a high performance and the influent dissolved methane was mostly eliminated to approximately 0.01 mgCOD L(-1). The dissolved methane from the UASB reactor was completely eliminated--by more than 99%--by the post-treatment after the two-stage closed DHS system.

  11. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Ciucci, John

    2010-06-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  12. Report: EPA Needs to Improve Its Efforts to Reduce Air Emissions at U.S. Ports

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #09-P-0125, March 23, 2009. While EPA has issued air emissions regulations for most port sources, EPA’s actions to address air emissions from large oceangoing vessels in U.S. ports have not yet achieved the goals for protecting human health.

  13. 76 FR 35744 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...On June 12, 2008, EPA issued national emission standards for control of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) for the plating and polishing area source category under section 112 of the Clean Air Act (CAA). In today's action, EPA is taking direct final action to amend the national emission standards for HAP (NESHAP) for the plating and polishing area source category. These final amendments clarify......

  14. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable air compressor noise emission standard. 204.52 Section 204.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors §...

  15. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Portable air compressor noise emission standard. 204.52 Section 204.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors §...

  16. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Portable air compressor noise emission standard. 204.52 Section 204.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors §...

  17. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable air compressor noise emission standard. 204.52 Section 204.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors §...

  18. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Portable air compressor noise emission standard. 204.52 Section 204.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors §...

  19. 78 FR 10005 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ...On July 18, 2012, the EPA proposed amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and the Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants. This final action amends the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for the Portland cement industry. The EPA is also promulgating amendments with respect to......

  20. 77 FR 41146 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source... delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Gila...

  1. 77 FR 65135 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ89 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical... provisions in the final National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical...

  2. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  3. AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE TREATMENT OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM FUELS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report updates a 1992 report that summarizes available information on air emissions from the treatment of soils contaminated with fuels. Soils contaminated by leaks or spills of fuel products, such as gasoline or jet fuel, are a nationwide concern. Air emissions during remedi...

  4. 76 FR 56750 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Air Emissions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... certain EPA regulations is consolidated in 40 CFR part 9. Abstract: The EPA promulgated the Air Emissions... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Air Emissions...-0489, by one of the following methods: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the on-line instructions...

  5. 76 FR 9409 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ...EPA is proposing amendments to the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for Primary Lead Smelting to address the results of the residual risk and technology reviews conducted as required under sections 112(d)(6) and (f)(2) of the Clean Air Act (CAA). These proposed amendments include revisions to the emission limits for lead, the addition of a lead concentration in......

  6. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? After...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? After...

  8. 76 FR 50164 - Protocol Gas Verification Program and Minimum Competency Requirements for Air Emission Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... of the Protocol Gas Verification Program and Minimum Competency Requirements for Air Emission Testing... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 72 and 75 RIN 2060-AQ06 Protocol Gas Verification Program and Minimum Competency Requirements for Air Emission Testing; Corrections AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

  9. Study of the characteristics of CH4 and N2O emission and methods of controlling their emission in the soil-trench wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hai Nan; Kimochi, Yuzuru; Mizuochi, Motoyuki; Inamori, Ryuhei; Inamori, Yuhei

    2002-05-06

    In recent years, worldwide concern over global warming has been expressed. It has been reported that domestic wastewater and its treatment processes are sources of CH4 and N2O, designated as greenhouse gases, the reduction of which was noted to be extremely important at the Third Conference of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (Conference Of the Parties; COP3). Here we report a study of a field that has been unexplored until now: analytical evaluation of the properties of the emission of CH4 and N2O and methods of restricting their emission in soil-trench wastewater treatment processes, the use of which is spreading, mainly in developing nations. The results have provided the following information. A field fact-finding survey has confirmed that soil trenches emit 9.3-13.9 g CH4 m(-3) and 8.2-12.2 gN2O m(-3) in Japan, and 3.0-4.5 g CH4 m(-3) and 3.3-5.0 g N2O m(-3) in China. The emission properties widely vary according to the structure of the treatment system. The conversion ratio for nitrogen in the wastewater influent to N2O by a soil trench is between 2 and a maximum of 8%, and ranges from a few- to several 10-fold as much as that with the activated sludge method, suggesting that this can be a large source of N2O emission. It has also clearly been shown that the aerobic-anaerobic state inside the treatment system is closely related to its CH4 and N2O emission characteristics. By performing ventilation to maintain the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) near the trench at an aerobic condition of +200 mV or more, the quantities of CH4 and N2O emitted can be reduced by as much as 50% from the levels without this ventilation, and that this can make a large contribution.

  10. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

  11. The effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on FFV exhaust emissions using M85

    SciTech Connect

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Ng, H.K.; Baudino, J.H.; Colucci, C.P.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents results of emission tests of a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) powered by an SI engine, fueled by M85 (methanol), and supplied with oxygen-enriched intake air containing 21, 23, and 25 vol% O2. Engine-out total hydrocarbons (THCs) and unburned methanol were considerably reduced in the entire FTP cycle when the O2 content of the intake air was either 23 or 25%. However, CO emissions did not vary much, and NOx emissions were higher. HCHO emissions were reduced by 53% in bag 1, 84% in bag 2, and 59% in bag 3 of the FTP cycle with 25% oxygen-enriched intake air. During cold-phase FTP,reductions of 42% in THCs, 40% in unburned methanol, 60% in nonmethane hydrocarbons, and 45% in nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs) were observed with 25% enriched air; NO{sub x} emissions increased by 78%. Converter-out emissions were also reduced with enriched air but to a lesser degree. FFVs operating on M85 that use 25% enriched air during only the initial 127 s of cold-phase FTP or that use 23 or 25% enriched air during only cold-phase FTP can meet the reactivity-adjusted NMOG, CO, NO{sub x}, and HCHO emission standards of the transitional low-emission vehicle.

  12. [Estimation of average traffic emission factor based on synchronized incremental traffic flow and air pollutant concentration].

    PubMed

    Li, Run-Kui; Zhao, Tong; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ding, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Qun; Song, Xian-Feng

    2014-04-01

    On-road vehicle emissions have become the main source of urban air pollution and attracted broad attentions. Vehicle emission factor is a basic parameter to reflect the status of vehicle emissions, but the measured emission factor is difficult to obtain, and the simulated emission factor is not localized in China. Based on the synchronized increments of traffic flow and concentration of air pollutants in the morning rush hour period, while meteorological condition and background air pollution concentration retain relatively stable, the relationship between the increase of traffic and the increase of air pollution concentration close to a road is established. Infinite line source Gaussian dispersion model was transformed for the inversion of average vehicle emission factors. A case study was conducted on a main road in Beijing. Traffic flow, meteorological data and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration were collected to estimate average vehicle emission factors of CO. The results were compared with simulated emission factors of COPERT4 model. Results showed that the average emission factors estimated by the proposed approach and COPERT4 in August were 2.0 g x km(-1) and 1.2 g x km(-1), respectively, and in December were 5.5 g x km(-1) and 5.2 g x km(-1), respectively. The emission factors from the proposed approach and COPERT4 showed close values and similar seasonal trends. The proposed method for average emission factor estimation eliminates the disturbance of background concentrations and potentially provides real-time access to vehicle fleet emission factors.

  13. Relationships between estimated flame retardant emissions and levels in indoor air and house dust.

    PubMed

    Liagkouridis, I; Cequier, E; Lazarov, B; Palm Cousins, A; Thomsen, C; Stranger, M; Cousins, I T

    2016-09-10

    A significant number of consumer goods and building materials can act as emission sources of flame retardants (FRs) in the indoor environment. We investigate the relationship between the emission source strength and the levels of 19 brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and seven organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in air and dust collected in 38 indoor microenvironments in Norway. We use modeling methods to back-calculate emission rates from indoor air and dust measurements and identify possible indications of an emission-to-dust pathway. Experimentally based emission estimates provide a satisfactory indication of the relative emission strength of indoor sources. Modeling results indicate an up to two orders of magnitude enhanced emission strength for OPFRs (median emission rates of 0.083 and 0.41 μg h(-1) for air-based and dust-based estimates) compared to BFRs (0.52 and 0.37 ng h(-1) median emission rates). A consistent emission-to-dust signal, defined as higher dust-based than air-based emission estimates, was identified for four of the seven OPFRs, but only for one of the 19 BFRs. It is concluded, however, that uncertainty in model input parameters could potentially lead to the false identification of an emission-to-dust signal.

  14. Emission of artificial sweeteners, select pharmaceuticals, and personal care products through sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Bikram; Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-07-01

    Concern over the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) as well as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment is growing, due to their high use and potential adverse effects on non-target organisms. The data for this study are drawn from a nationwide survey of ASWs in sewage sludge from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that receive domestic (WWTPD), industrial (WWTPI), or mixed (domestic plus industrial; WWTPM) wastewaters in Korea. Five ASWs (concentrations ranged from 7.08 to 5220 ng/g dry weight [dw]) and ten PPCPs (4.95-6930 ng/g dw) were determined in sludge. Aspartame (concentrations ranged from 28.4 to 5220 ng/g dw) was determined for the first time in sewage sludge. The median concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge from domestic WWTPs were 0.8-2.5 and 1.0-3.4 times, respectively, the concentrations found in WWTPs that receive combined domestic and industrial wastewaters. Among the five ASWs analyzed, the median environmental emission rates of aspartame through domestic WWTPs (both sludge and effluent discharges combined) were calculated to be 417 μg/capita/day, followed by sucralose (117 μg/capita/day), acesulfame (90 μg/capita/day), and saccharin (66μg/capita/day). The per-capita emission rates of select PPCPs, such as antimicrobials (triclocarban: 158 μg/capita/day) and analgesics (acetaminophen: 59 μg/capita/day), were an order of magnitude higher than those calculated for antimycotic (miconazole) and anthelmintic (thiabendazole) drugs analyzed in this study. Multiple linear regression analysis of measured concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge revealed that several WWTP parameters, such as treatment capacity, population-served, sludge production rate, and hydraulic retention time could influence the concentrations found in sludge.

  15. 75 FR 77799 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources. Among the provisions that EPA is... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources on October 29, 2009. 40...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? Within 60 days after your...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) After... for air curtain incinerators? After the date the initial stack test is required or...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) After the date the initial stack test is required or...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? Within 60 days after your...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) After the date the initial stack test is required or...

  1. Low-pressure catalytic wet-air oxidation of a high-strength industrial wastewater using Fenton's reagent.

    PubMed

    Biçaksiz, Zeliha; Aytimur, Gülin; Atalay, Süheyda

    2008-06-01

    Wastewater from the Afyon Alkaloids Factory (Afyon, Turkey) was subjected to low-pressure catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) using Fenton's reagent, and the optimal reaction conditions were investigated. The CWAO using Fenton's reagent was applied to the factory effluent, diluted factory effluent, and aerobically pretreated wastewater. To find the optimum quantities of reagents, ferrous iron (Fe(+2))-to-substrate ratios of 1:10, 1:25, and 1:50 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-to-Fe(+2) ratios of 1, 5, and 10 were investigated, and the treatment was carried out at different temperatures. High chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals were obtained at 50 degrees C, with the Fe(+2)-to-substrate ratio range between 1:10 and 1:25. The change in H2O2-to-Fe(+2) ratios did not cause any considerable effect. Also, the percentages of COD removals were nearly the same, so the ratio H2O2:Fe(+2):1 is recommended. Aerobic pretreatment seems to be effective. On the other hand, no enhancement was observed in the case of the diluted wastewater.

  2. Objective Measure of Nasal Air Emission Using Nasal Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Cler, Meredith J.; Lien, Yu-An S.; Braden, Maia N.; Mittelman, Talia; Downing, Kerri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article describes the development and initial validation of an objective measure of nasal air emission (NAE) using nasal accelerometry. Method Nasal acceleration and nasal airflow signals were simultaneously recorded while an expert speech language pathologist modeled NAEs at a variety of severity levels. In addition, microphone and nasal accelerometer signals were collected during the production of /pɑpɑpɑpɑ/ speech utterances by 25 children with and without cleft palate. Fourteen inexperienced raters listened to the microphone signals from the pediatric speakers and rated the samples for the severity of NAE using direct magnitude estimation. Mean listener ratings were compared to a novel quantitative measurement of NAE derived from the nasal acceleration signals. Results Correlation between the nasal acceleration energy measure and the measured nasal airflow was high (r = .87). Correlation between the measure and auditory-perceptual ratings was moderate (r = .49). Conclusion The measure presented here is quantitative and noninvasive, and the required hardware is inexpensive ($150). Future studies will include speakers with a wider range of NAE severity and etiology, including cleft palate, hearing impairment, or dysarthria. Further development will also involve validation of the measure against airflow measures across subjects. PMID:27618145

  3. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from different treatment processes in full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Rena, Y G; Wang, J H; Li, H F; Zhang, J; Qi, P Y; Hu, Z

    2013-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) are two important greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). In this study, three typical biological wastewater treatment processes were studied in WWTP of Northern China: pre-anaerobic carrousel oxidation ditch (A+OD) process, pre-anoxic anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A-A/ A/O) process and reverse anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (r-A/ A/O) process. The N2O and CH4 emissions from these three different processes were measured in every processing unit of each WWTP. Results showed that N2O and CH4 were mainly discharged during the nitrification/denitrification process and the anaerobic/anoxic treatment process, respectively and the amounts of their formation and release were significantly influenced by different BNR processes implemented in these WWTP. The N2O conversion ratio of r-A/ A/O process was the lowest among the three WWTP, which were 10.9% and 18.6% lower than that of A-A/A/O process and A+OD process, respectively. Similarly, the CH4 conversion ratio of r-A/ A/O process was the lowest among the three WWTP, which were 89. I% and 80.8% lower than that of A-A/ A/O process and A+OD process, respectively. The factors influencing N2O and CH4 formation and emission in the three WWTP were investigated to explain the difference between these processes. The nitrite concentration and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) value were found to be the dominant influencing factors affecting N2O and CH4 production, respectively. The flow-based emission factors of N2O and CH4 of the WWTP were figured out for better quantification of GHG emissions and further technical assessments of mitigation options.

  4. Removal of pharmaceutical residue in municipal wastewater by DAF (dissolved air flotation)-MBR (membrane bioreactor) and ozone oxidation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Miyoung; Choi, Dong Whan; Lee, Jung Yeol; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Bun Su; Lee, Byoung Ho

    2012-01-01

    Growing attention is given to pharmaceutical residue in the water environment. It is known that pharmaceuticals are able to survive from a series of wastewater treatment processes. Concerns regarding pharmaceutical residues are attributed to the fact that they are being detected in water and sediment environment ubiquitously. Pharmaceutical treatment using a series of wastewater treatment processes of the DAF (dissolved air flotation)-MBR (membrane bioreactor)-ozone oxidation was conducted in the study. DAF, without addition of coagulant, could remove COD(cr) (chemical oxygen demand by Cr) up to over 70%, BOD 73%, SS 83%, T-N 55%, NH₄(+) 23%, and T-P 65% in influent of municipal wastewater. Average removal rates of water quality parameters by the DAF-MBR system were very high, e.g. COD(cr) 95.88%, BOD₅ 99.66%, COD(mn) (chemical oxygen demand by Mn) 93.63%, T-N 69.75%, NH₄-N 98.46%, T-P 78.23%, and SS 99.51%, which satisfy effluent water quality standards. Despite the high removal rate of the wastewater treatment system, pharmaceuticals were eliminated to be about 50-99% by the MBR system, depending on specific pharmaceuticals. Ibuprofen was well removed by MBR system up to over 95%, while removal rate of bezafibrate ranged between 50 and 90%. With over 5 mg/l of ozone oxidation, most pharmaceuticals which survived the DAF-MBR process were removed completely or resulted in very low survival rate within the range of few micrograms per litre. However, some pharmaceuticals such as bezafibrate and naproxen tended to be resistant to ozone oxidation.

  5. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Identification of emission units and air pollutant-generating activities. (viii) A plot plan showing the location of all emission units and air pollutant-generating activities. The plot plan must also show...

  6. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission units and air pollutant-generating activities. (viii) A plot plan showing the location of all emission units and air pollutant-generating activities. The plot plan must also show the property lines...

  7. Quantifying the air pollutants emission reduction during the 2008 Olympic games in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Meng; Xing, Jia; Wu, Ye; Zhou, Yu; Lei, Yu; He, Kebin; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2010-04-01

    Air quality was a vital concern for the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008. To strictly control air pollutant emissions and ensure good air quality for the Games, Beijing municipal government announced an "Air Quality Guarantee Plan for the 29th Olympics in Beijing". In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the guarantee plan, this study analyzed the air pollutant emission reductions during the 29th Olympiad in Beijing. In June 2008, daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were 103.9 t, 428.5 t, 362.7 t, and 890.0 t, respectively. During the Olympic Games, the daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were reduced to 61.6 t, 229.1 t, 164.3 t, and 381.8 t -41%, 47%, 55%, and 57% lower than June 2008 emission levels. Closing facilities producing construction materials reduced the sector's SO(2) emissions by 85%. Emission control measures for mobile sources, including high-emitting vehicle restrictions, government vehicle use controls, and alternate day driving rules for Beijing's 3.3 million private cars, reduced mobile source NO(X) and NMVOC by 46% and 57%, respectively. Prohibitions on building construction reduced the sector's PM(10) emissions by approximately 90% or total PM(10) by 35%. NMVOC reductions came mainly from mobile source and fugitive emission reductions. Based on the emission inventories developed in this study, the CMAQ model was used to simulate Beijing's ambient air quality during the Olympic Games. The model results accurately reflect the environmental monitoring data providing evidence that the emission inventories in this study are reasonably accurate and quantitatively reflect the emission changes attributable to air pollution control measures taken during the 29th Olympic Games in 2008.

  8. Examining air pollution in China using production- and consumption-based emissions accounting approaches.

    PubMed

    Huo, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Guan, Dabo; Su, Xin; Zhao, Hongyan; He, Kebin

    2014-12-16

    Two important reasons for China's air pollution are the high emission factors (emission per unit of product) of pollution sources and the high emission intensity (emissions per unit of GDP) of the industrial structure. Therefore, a wide variety of policy measures, including both emission abatement technologies and economic adjustment, must be implemented. To support such measures, this study used the production- and consumption-based emissions accounting approaches to simulate the SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and VOC emissions flows among producers and consumers. This study analyzed the emissions and GDP performance of 36 production sectors. The results showed that the equipment, machinery, and devices manufacturing and construction sectors contributed more than 50% of air pollutant emissions, and most of their products were used for capital formation and export. The service sector had the lowest emission intensities, and its output was mainly consumed by households and the government. In China, the emission intensities of production activities triggered by capital formation and export were approximately twice that of the service sector triggered by final consumption expenditure. This study suggests that China should control air pollution using the following strategies: applying end-of-pipe abatement technologies and using cleaner fuels to further decrease the emission factors associated with rural cooking, electricity generation, and the transportation sector; continuing to limit highly emission-intensive but low value-added exports; developing a plan to reduce construction activities; and increasing the proportion of service GDP in the national economy.

  9. Emissions of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320-DIAD air cooled light aircraft engine as a function of fuel-air ratio, timing, and air temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions to establish the exhaust levels over the EPA seven-mode emissions cycle. Baseline (full rich production limit) exhaust emissions at an induction air temperature of 59 F and near zero relative humidity were 90 percent of the EPA standard for HC, 35 percent for NOx, and 161 percent for CO. Changes in ignition timing around the standard 25 deg BTDC from 30 deg BTDC to 20 deg BTDC had little effect on the exhaust emissions. Retarding the timing to 15 deg BTDC increased both the HC and CO emissions and decreased NOx emissions. HC and CO emissions decreased as the carburetor was leaned out, while NOx emissions increased. The EPA emission standards were marginally achieved at two leanout conditions. Variations in the quantity of cooling air flow over the engine had no effect on exhaust emissions. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased.

  10. Temporalization of Electric Generation Emissions for Improved Representation of Peak Air Quality Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, C. M.; Moeller, M.; Carlton, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Photochemical transport models routinely under predict peak air quality events. This deficiency may be due, in part, to inadequate temporalization of emissions from the electric generating sector. The National Emissions Inventory (NEI) reports emissions from Electric Generating Units (EGUs) by either Continuous Emission Monitors (CEMs) that report hourly values or as an annual total. The Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions preprocessor (SMOKE), used to prepare emissions data for modeling with the CMAQ air quality model, allocates annual emission totals throughout the year using specific monthly, weekly, and hourly weights according to standard classification code (SCC) and location. This approach represents average diurnal and seasonal patterns of electricity generation but does not capture spikes in emissions due to episodic use as with peaking units or due to extreme weather events. In this project we use a combination of state air quality permits, CEM data, and EPA emission factors to more accurately temporalize emissions of NOx, SO2 and particulate matter (PM) during the extensive heat wave of July and August 2006. Two CMAQ simulations are conducted; the first with the base NEI emissions and the second with improved temporalization, more representative of actual emissions during the heat wave. Predictions from both simulations are evaluated with O3 and PM measurement data from EPA's National Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS) and State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (SLAMS) during the heat wave, for which ambient concentrations of criteria pollutants were often above NAAQS. During periods of increased photochemistry and high pollutant concentrations, it is critical that emissions are most accurately represented in air quality models.

  11. Estimates of air emissions from asphalt storage tanks and truck loading

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbore, D.C.

    1999-12-31

    Title V of the 1990 Clean Air Act requires the accurate estimation of emissions from all US manufacturing processes, and places the burden of proof for that estimate on the process owner. This paper is published as a tool to assist in the estimation of air emission from hot asphalt storage tanks and asphalt truck loading operations. Data are presented on asphalt vapor pressure, vapor molecular weight, and the emission split between volatile organic compounds and particulate emissions that can be used with AP-42 calculation techniques to estimate air emissions from asphalt storage tanks and truck loading operations. Since current AP-42 techniques are not valid in asphalt tanks with active fume removal, a different technique for estimation of air emissions in those tanks, based on direct measurement of vapor space combustible gas content, is proposed. Likewise, since AP-42 does not address carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide emissions that are known to be present in asphalt operations, this paper proposes techniques for estimation of those emissions. Finally, data are presented on the effectiveness of fiber bed filters in reducing air emissions in asphalt operations.

  12. Utilizing intake-air oxygen-enrichment technology to reduce cold- phase emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Poola, R.B.; Ng, H.K.; Sekar, R.R.; Baudino, J.H.; Colucci, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    Oxygen-enriched combustion is a proven, serious considered technique to reduce exhaust hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automotive gasoline engines. This paper presents the cold-phase emissions reduction results of using oxygen-enriched intake air containing about 23% and 25% oxygen (by volume) in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition (SI) engine. Both engineout and converter-out emissions data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP). Converter-out emissions data were also obtained employing the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) ``Off-Cycle`` test. Test results indicate that the engine-out CO emissions during the cold phase (bag 1) were reduced by about 46 and 50%, and HC by about 33 and 43%, using nominal 23 and 25% oxygen-enriched air compared to ambient air (21% oxygen by volume), respectively. However, the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions were increased by about 56 and 79%, respectively. Time-resolved emissions data indicate that both HC and CO emissions were reduced considerably during the initial 127 s of the cold-phase FTP, without any increase in NO, emissions in the first 25 s. Hydrocarbon speciation results indicate that all major toxic pollutants, including ozone-forming specific reactivity factors, such as maximum incremental reactivity (NUR) and maximum ozone incremental reactivity (MOIR), were reduced considerably with oxygen-enrichment. Based on these results, it seems that using oxygen-enriched intake air during the cold-phase FTP could potentially reduce HC and CO emissions sufficiently to meet future emissions standards. Off-cycle, converter-out, weighted-average emissions results show that both HC and CO emissions were reduced by about 60 to 75% with 23 or 25% oxygen-enrichment, but the accompanying NO{sub x}, emissions were much higher than those with the ambient air.

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, June 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Grossman

    2005-06-01

    The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS. The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) underground testing between 1951 and 1992, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing (DOE, 1996a). No nuclear tests have been conducted since September 23,1992 (DOE, 2000), however; radionuclides remaining on the soil surface in many NTS areas after several decades of radioactive decay are re-suspended into the atmosphere at concentrations that can be detected by air sampling. Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (formerly called the Hazardous Materials Spill Center), private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses; handling, transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices or radioactive targets for the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) gas gun; and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE, 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in calendar year (CY) 2004 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and water pumped from wells used to characterize the aquifers at the sites of past underground nuclear tests, (2) onsite radioanalytical laboratories, (3) the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS facilities, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium (H{sup 3}) and re-suspension of plutonium ({sup 239+240}Pu) and americium ({sup 241}Am) at the sites of past nuclear tests. The following

  14. Survey of hazardous organic compounds in the groundwater, air and wastewater effluents near the Tehran automobile industry.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Mahdi; Nadafi, Kazem; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Nasseri, Simin; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Rastkari, Noushin

    2013-02-01

    Potential of wastewater treatment in car industry and groundwater contamination by volatile organic compounds include perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE) and dichloromethane (DCM) near car industry was conducted in this study. Samples were collected in September through December 2011 from automobile industry. Head-space Gas chromatography with FID detector is used for analysis. Mean PCE levels in groundwater ranged from 0 to 63.56 μg L(-1) with maximum level of 89.1 μg L(-1). Mean TCE from 0 to 76.63 μg L(-1) with maximum level of 112 μg L(-1). Due to the data obtained from pre treatment of car staining site and conventional wastewater treatment in car factory, the most of TCE, PCE and DCM removed by pre aeration. Therefor this materials entry from liquid phase to air phase and by precipitation leak out to the groundwater. As a consequence these pollutants have a many negative health effect on the workers by air and groundwater.

  15. Impacts of Energy Sector Emissions on PM2.5 Air Quality in Northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karambelas, A. N.; Kiesewetter, G.; Heyes, C.; Holloway, T.

    2015-12-01

    India experiences high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and several Indian cities currently rank among the world's most polluted cities. With ongoing urbanization and a growing economy, emissions from different energy sectors remain major contributors to air pollution in India. Emission sectors impact ambient air quality differently due to spatial distribution (typical urban vs. typical rural sources) as well as source height characteristics (low-level vs. high stack sources). This study aims to assess the impacts of emissions from three distinct energy sectors—transportation, domestic, and electricity—on ambient PM2.5­­ in northern India using an advanced air quality analysis framework based on the U.S. EPA Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Present air quality conditions are simulated using 2010 emissions from the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interaction and Synergies (GAINS) model. Modeled PM2.5 concentrations are compared with satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2010. Energy sector emissions impacts on future (2030) PM2.5 are evaluated with three sensitivity simulations, assuming maximum feasible reduction technologies for either transportation, domestic, or electricity sectors. These simulations are compared with a business as usual 2030 simulation to assess relative sectoral impacts spatially and temporally. CMAQ is modeled at 12km by 12km and include biogenic emissions from the Community Land Model coupled with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols in Nature (CLM-MEGAN), biomass burning emissions from the Global Fires Emissions Database (GFED), and ERA-Interim meteorology generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for 2010 to quantify the impact of modified anthropogenic emissions on ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Energy sector emissions analysis supports decision-making to improve future air quality and public health in

  16. Researchers Examine Nanoparticles' Impact on Fuel Emissions and Air Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nanoparticle catalysts offer an opportunity to increase fuel efficiency. While overall particle emissions may decrease, the emissions of some species may increase and changes to the particle size distribution can impact health.

  17. Composition of extracellular polymeric substances in a partial nitrification reactor treating high ammonia wastewater and nitrous oxide emission.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Du, Bin; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Zhen; Liang, Shuang; Li, Yiran

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) during the achievement of partial nitrification and subsequent nitrous oxide (N2O) emission treating high ammonia wastewater. After operation of 120days, the reactor achieved high ammonia removal efficiency and stable nitrite accumulation. The average size of sludge flocs in the reactor increased from 102.6 to 258.5μm. The main compositions of EPS, including protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), increased to 65.46±3.27 and 21.63±1.08mg/g VSS, respectively. Results of three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy implied that EPS transferred to tryptophan PN-like and humic acid-like substrates. N2O emission accounts for 11.67% of removed nitrogen during the steady state of partial nitrification reactor. The obtained results could contribute a better understanding the achievement of partial nitrification through the composition changes of EPS, and provide more information to determine nitrogen removal by considering N2O emission.

  18. Mitigation of nitrous oxide (N2 O) emission from swine wastewater treatment in an aerobic bioreactor packed with carbon fibers.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Yamamoto-Ikemoto, Ryoko; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Hirofumi; Ogino, Akifumi; Osada, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Mitigation of nitrous oxide (N2 O) emission from swine wastewater treatment was demonstrated in an aerobic bioreactor packed with carbon fibers (CF reactor). The CF reactor had a demonstrated advantage in mitigating N2 O emission and avoiding NOx (NO3  + NO2 ) accumulation. The N2 O emission factor was 0.0003 g N2 O-N/gTN-load in the CF bioreactor compared to 0.03 gN2 O-N/gTN-load in an activated sludge reactor (AS reactor). N2 O and CH4 emissions from the CF reactor were 42 g-CO2 eq/m(3) /day, while those from the AS reactor were 725 g-CO2 eq/m(3) /day. The dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in the CF reactor removed an average of 156 mg/L of the NH4 -N, and accumulated an average of 14 mg/L of the NO3 -N. In contrast, the DIN in the AS reactor removed an average 144 mg/L of the NH4 -N and accumulated an average 183 mg/L of the NO3 -N. NO2 -N was almost undetectable in both reactors.

  19. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides [2014

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2013 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 3.02 E-02 mrem per year, 0.30 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  20. [Revision process and thinking of emission standard of air pollutants for cement industry].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei; Li, Xiao-Qian; Ji, Liang; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Guo-Hua; Che, Fei; Li, Gang; Zhang, Guo-Ning

    2014-12-01

    The new National Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Cement Industry (GB 4915-2013) was released recently, which is the third revision since the first release in 1985. This paper reviewed the revision process for the emission standard of air pollutants in cement industry, analyzed the impact of environmental protection situation and management policies changes on the content and form of the standard. The standard formulating principles and several key issues together constitute the base of emission standard, which are not only important to complete the theories and methods of emission standard development, but also important to improve the environmental management and pollution control level.

  1. Radionuclide air emission report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P.; Curn, B.L.; Rhoads, K.; Damberg, E.G.; Soldat, J.K.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1993 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, {open_quotes}National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,{close_quotes} Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.{close_quotes}

  2. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2012-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  4. Impact of air conditioning system operation on increasing gases emissions from automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burciu, S. M.; Coman, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the influence of air conditioning system operation on the increase of gases emissions from cars. The study focuses on urban operating regimes of the automobile, regimes when the engines have low loads or are operating at idling. Are presented graphically the variations of pollution emissions (CO, CO2, HC) depending of engine speed and the load on air conditioning system. Additionally are presented, injection duration, throttle position, the mechanical power required by the compressor of air conditioning system and the refrigerant pressure variation on the discharge path, according to the stage of charging of the air conditioning system.

  5. Landfill Air Emissions Estimation Model, Version 1. 1. User's manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pelt, W.R.; Bass, R.L.; Kuo, I.R.; Blackard, A.L.

    1991-04-01

    The document is a user's guide for the computer program, Landfill Air Emissions Estimation Model. It provides step-by-step guidance for using the program to estimate landfill air emissions. The purpose of the program is to aid local and state agencies in estimating landfill air emission rates for nonmethane organic compounds and individual air toxics. The program will also be helpful to landfill owners and operators affected by the upcoming New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines for Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Air Emissions. The model is based on the Scholl Canyon Gas Generation Model, used in the development of the soon-to-be-proposed regulation for landfill air emissions. The Scholl Canyon Model is a first order decay equation that uses site-specific characteristics for estimating the gas generation rate. In the absence of site-specific data, the program provides conservative default values from the soon-to-be-proposed NSPS for new landfills and emission guidelines for existing landfills. These default values may be revised based on future information collected by the Agency.

  6. Comparison of air emissions from various operating scenarios using an environmental database management system

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, N.

    1997-12-31

    In their continuing effort to reduce air emissions, chemical and petroleum processing facilities must be able to predict, analyze, and compare emissions which result from a variety of operating scenarios. Will the use of a more expensive, yet cleaner fuel improve air emissions enough to warrant the extra cost? What are the threshold levels of production that will push a facility`s air emissions out of compliance with regulated limits? Which raw materials have the most prominent effect on the facility`s air emissions? Accurately determining the answers to such questions will help a facility determine which emission reduction alternatives are the most efficient and cost-effective. The use of an environmental data management system can make the analysis of different source operating scenarios a painless and efficient task. Within one database, a facility can store all possible operating scenario information, as well as all regulated emissions limits. The system will then process and calculate the air emissions quickly and accurately. Using statistical analysis tools, graphing capabilities, and reports embedded in the system, the facility can easily compare the pros and cons of each operating scenario.

  7. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2013-06-06

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  8. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2014-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2013 from PNNL Site sources is 2E-05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 2E-6 mrem (2E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-11 mrem (1E-13 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2013. The total radiological dose for 2013 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2E-5 mrem (2E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance

  9. Impact of urban emission on air-quality over central Europe: present day and future emissions perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, Peter; Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas; Karlicky, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to quantify the impact of present-day and future urban emission from central European cities on the regional air-quality (AQ), based on a modeling couple of the regional climate model RegCM4.2 and the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the present (2001-2010) decade and two future decades (2026-2035 and 2046-2055) either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. As we are interested on the impact of emission changes only, the impact of different driving meteorological conditions in the future (due to climate change) are not considered. The emissions used is the TNO MEGAPOLI European emission database that includes country/sector based scenarios for years 2030 and 2050, which were used for the encompassing decades. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20% emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The model was also validated using surface measurements of key pollutants. Selected air-quality measures were used as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas further from, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70% for NOx and SO2 , and up to 55% for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20%). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. The future urban emission AQ fingerprint is, in general, slightly smaller than in

  10. Total hydrocarbon emission testing of waste-water sludge incinerators. Volume 1. Final report 1991-92

    SciTech Connect

    Chehaske, J.T.; DeWees, W.G.; Lewis, F.M.

    1992-06-01

    The U.S. EPA is considering continuous monitoring of total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions from all wastewater sludge incincerators. The study was conducted to determine the reliability of total hydrocarbon analyzers (THCAs) in the application. Continuous monitors for oxygen (O2), carbon monoxide (CO), THC, and temperature were installed at two municipal wastewater sludge incinerators. The O2 data were used to normalize the measured THC concentrations to 7% O2. CO was measured to determine if it could be used as a surrogate for THC measurements. The two THCAs performed very well, achieving 94 and 90% on-line availability at the two sampling sites, respectively. The O2 and CO analyzers also worked well. There were initial problems with the sample conditioning system that is necessary for the CO and O2 monitors, but successful operation was achieved after it was modified. The report presents graphical and tabular summaries of the results. The report covers a period from February 1991 to September 1991, and work was completed as of May 29, 1992.

  11. Cleaning up the air: effectiveness of air quality policy for SO2 and NOx emissions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der A, Ronald J.; Mijling, Bas; Ding, Jieying; Elissavet Koukouli, Maria; Liu, Fei; Li, Qing; Mao, Huiqin; Theys, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Air quality observations by satellite instruments are global and have a regular temporal resolution, which makes them very useful in studying long-term trends in atmospheric species. To monitor air quality trends in China for the period 2005-2015, we derive SO2 columns and NOx emissions on a provincial level with improved accuracy. To put these trends into perspective they are compared with public data on energy consumption and the environmental policies of China. We distinguish the effect of air quality regulations from economic growth by comparing them relatively to fossil fuel consumption. Pollutant levels, per unit of fossil fuel, are used to assess the effectiveness of air quality regulations. We note that the desulfurization regulations enforced in 2005-2006 only had a significant effect in the years 2008-2009, when a much stricter control of the actual use of the installations began. For national NOx emissions a distinct decreasing trend is only visible from 2012 onwards, but the emission peak year differs from province to province. Unlike SO2, emissions of NOx are highly related to traffic. Furthermore, regulations for NOx emissions are partly decided on a provincial level. The last 3 years show a reduction both in SO2 and NOx emissions per fossil fuel unit, since the authorities have implemented several new environmental regulations. Despite an increasing fossil fuel consumption and a growing transport sector, the effects of air quality policy in China are clearly visible. Without the air quality regulations the concentration of SO2 would be about 2.5 times higher and the NO2 concentrations would be at least 25 % higher than they are today in China.

  12. Halogenated Solvent Cleaning Compliance Assistance Memoranda for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains three documents, one from 1997, one from 1999, and one from 2001, that provide further clarification on complying with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning.

  13. Final Rule to Reduce Hazardous Air Emissions from Newly Built Stationary Combustion Turbines: Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains an August 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Stationary Combustion Turbines. This document provides a summary of the information for this NESHAP.

  14. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Most, C.C.

    1989-08-01

    To assist groups interested in inventorying air emissions of various potentially toxic substances, EPA is preparing a series of documents to compile available information on sources and emissions of these substances. This document deals specifically with perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene. Its intended audience includes Federal, State, and local air-pollution personnel and others in locating potential emitters of perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene and in making gross estimates of air emissions therefrom. The document presents information on the types of sources that may emit perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene, process variations and release points that may be expected within these sources, and available emissions information indicating the potential for trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene releases into the air from each operation.

  15. 78 FR 54606 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines and the standards of performance for stationary internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the......

  16. Surface Coating of Wood Building Products National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Applicability Flowchart

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a January 2005 document that has a flow chart to help you determine if this National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) rule for Surface Coating of Wood Building Products applies to your facility.

  17. 75 FR 32682 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ..., Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters; National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Standards of Performance for... the following source categories: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process...

  18. Facilities Potentially Subject to the Secondary Aluminum National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document contains a September 2001 list of sources potentially subject to the secondary aluminum production national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP). This list does not include auto salvage i.e. sweat furnaces.

  19. Paper and Other Web Coating National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Questions and Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This May 2003 document contains questions and answers on the Paper and Web Coating National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulation. The questions cover topics such as compliance, applicability, and initial notification.

  20. Air Emissions Inventory Guidance for Implementation of Ozone and Particulate Matter NAAQS and Regional Haze Regulations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Guidance document on how to develop emission inventories to meet State Implementation Plan requirements for complying with the 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS), the revised particulate matter (PM) NAAQS, and the regional haze reg

  1. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  2. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Emissions from Lime Manufacturing Plants Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains an August 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Lime Manufacturing Plants. This document provides a summary of the information for this NESHAP.

  3. Report: EPA’s Method for Calculating Air Toxics Emissions for Reporting Results Needs Improvement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2004-P-00012, March 31, 2004. Although the methods by which air toxics emissions are estimated have improved substantially, unvalidated assumptions and other limitations underlying the NTI continue to impact its use as a GPRA performance measure.

  4. CAPSULE REPORT: SOURCES AND AIR EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES AT WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemicals processed during waste management operations can volatilize into the atmosphere and cause carcinogenic or other toxic effects or contribute to ozone formation. Regulations have been developed to control air emissions from these operations. The EPA has promulgated st...

  5. Comparative analysis of air pollution emissions by electric utilities: Public policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Martin; Jaggi, Bikki

    1991-09-01

    One of the objectives of US environmental regulations was to reduce industrial air pollution emissions, especially from the electric utility industry, the major industrial air polluter. In this study, a comparative analysis of air pollution emissions from fossil-fuel-burning electric utility plants is conducted. The analysis focuses on a 12-yr period from 1975 to 1987 for three air pollutants: particulates, surfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides. The results indicate that particulate emissions have been significantly reduced but that sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are still major problems for a number of plants. Furthermore, the disparity in the performance by plants indicates that by using current technology, the industry as a whole could greatly reduce these emissions. These results have policy implication for future environmental legislation.

  6. 75 FR 37730 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... Petroleum Refineries AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY... air pollutants from heat exchange systems at petroleum refineries. These requirements were published as amendments to the national emission standards for petroleum refineries. In this notice, we...

  7. Unravelling the spatial variation of nitrous oxide emissions from a step-feed plug-flow full scale wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuting; van den Akker, Ben; Ye, Liu; Ni, Bing-Jie; Watts, Shane; Reid, Katherine; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Plug-flow activated sludge reactors (ASR) that are step-feed with wastewater are widely adopted in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) due to their ability to maximise the use of the organic carbon in wastewater for denitrification. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are expected to vary along these reactors due to pronounced spatial variations in both biomass and substrate concentrations. However, to date, no detailed studies have characterised the impact of the step-feed configuration on emission variability. Here we report on the results from a comprehensive online N2O monitoring campaign, which used multiple gas collection hoods to simultaneously measure emission along the length of a full-scale, step-fed, plug-flow ASR in Australia. The measured N2O fluxes exhibited strong spatial-temporal variation along the reactor path. The step-feed configuration had a substantial influence on the N2O emissions, where the N2O emission factors in sections following the first and second step feed were 0.68% ± 0.09% and 3.5% ± 0.49% of the nitrogen load applied to each section. The relatively high biomass-specific nitrogen loading rate in the second section of the reactor was most likely cause of the high emissions from this section.

  8. Unravelling the spatial variation of nitrous oxide emissions from a step-feed plug-flow full scale wastewater treatment plant

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuting; van den Akker, Ben; Ye, Liu; Ni, Bing-Jie; Watts, Shane; Reid, Katherine; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Plug-flow activated sludge reactors (ASR) that are step-feed with wastewater are widely adopted in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) due to their ability to maximise the use of the organic carbon in wastewater for denitrification. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are expected to vary along these reactors due to pronounced spatial variations in both biomass and substrate concentrations. However, to date, no detailed studies have characterised the impact of the step-feed configuration on emission variability. Here we report on the results from a comprehensive online N2O monitoring campaign, which used multiple gas collection hoods to simultaneously measure emission along the length of a full-scale, step-fed, plug-flow ASR in Australia. The measured N2O fluxes exhibited strong spatial-temporal variation along the reactor path. The step-feed configuration had a substantial influence on the N2O emissions, where the N2O emission factors in sections following the first and second step feed were 0.68% ± 0.09% and 3.5% ± 0.49% of the nitrogen load applied to each section. The relatively high biomass-specific nitrogen loading rate in the second section of the reactor was most likely cause of the high emissions from this section. PMID:26852718

  9. Air-drying beds reduce the quantities of antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons in residual municipal wastewater solids.

    PubMed

    Burch, Tucker R; Sadowsky, Michael J; LaPara, Timothy M

    2013-09-03

    This study investigated whether air-drying beds reduce antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) concentrations in residual municipal wastewater solids. Three laboratory-scale drying beds were operated for a period of nearly 100 days. Real-time PCR was used to quantify 16S rRNA genes, 16S rRNA genes specific to fecal bacteria (AllBac) and human fecal bacteria (HF183), the integrase gene of class 1 integrons (intI1), and five ARGs representing a cross-section of antibiotic classes and resistance mechanisms (erm(B), sul1, tet(A), tet(W), and tet(X)). Air-drying beds were capable of reducing all gene target concentrations by 1 to 5 orders of magnitude, and the nature of this reduction was consistent with both a net decrease in the number of bacterial cells and a lack of selection within the microbial community. Half-lives varied between 1.5 d (HF183) and 5.4 d (tet(X)) during the first 20 d of treatment. After the first 20 d of treatment, however, half-lives varied between 8.6 d (tet(X)) and 19.3 d (AllBac), and 16S rRNA gene, intI1, and sul1 concentrations did not change (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that air-drying beds can reduce ARG and intI1 concentrations in residual municipal wastewater solids within timeframes typical of operating practices.

  10. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-26

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1995, and the resulting effective dose equivalent (FDE) to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the `MEI.` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, `National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,` Subpart H, `National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.` This report has also been prepared for and will be submitted in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, `Radiation Protection-Air Emissions.`

  11. Circular polarization of radio emission from air showers in thunderstorm conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, T. N. G.; Scholten, O.; Bonardi, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Ebert, U.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Mitra, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nelles, A.; Thoudam, S.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Rutjes, C.; Schellart, P.; ter Veen, S.; Winchen, T.

    2017-03-01

    We present measured radio emission from cosmic-ray-induced air showers under thunderstorm conditions. We observe for these events large differences in intensity, linear polarization and circular polarization from the events measured under fair-weather conditions. This can be explained by the effects of atmospheric electric fields in thunderclouds. Therefore, measuring the intensity and polarization of radio emission from cosmic ray extensive air showers during thunderstorm conditions provides a new tool to probe the atmospheric electric fields present in thunderclouds.

  12. An overview of principles of odor production, emission, and control methods in wastewater collection and treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Talaiekhozani, Amirreza; Bagheri, Marzieh; Goli, Amin; Talaei Khoozani, Mohammad Reza

    2016-04-01

    Odorous gases are the most important reason that people register complaints with organizations responsible for wastewater collection and treatment systems (WCTS). Although several studies have been conducted for prevention and control of odorous gases, no comprehensive research exists about recent achievements in this area. The aim of the present study is to collect and categorize the new achievements in preventing and controlling odorous gases in WCTS. Two strategies for controlling odor emissions from WCTS are (1) prevention of odor production and (2) removal of odorous compounds from emissions of WCTS. Between the two, priority goes to preventing odorous compounds' production. Several methods have been developed to prevent odor production, such as increasing oxidation reduction potential; inhibiting the activity of sulfide reducing bacteria; chemical removal of hydrogen sulfide; applying formaldehyde and paraformaldehyde to prevent hydrogen sulfide production; and using fuel cells in hydrogen sulfide inhibition and gradual release of oxygen in gas phase by using MgO2 or CaO2. In addition to preventing odorous compounds in WCTS, many other methods have been introduced to remove odorous compounds from emissions of WCTS, such as biofilters; bioscrubbers; biotrickling filters; suspended growth reactors; and membrane bioreactors and scrubbers. Through this review, responsible organizations can find new, effective, and economical strategies to prevent and control odorous gases in WCTS.

  13. Application of dynamic models to estimate greenhouse gas emission by wastewater treatment plants of the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Omid; Yerushalmi, Laleh; Haghighat, Fariborz

    2013-03-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in wastewater treatment plants of the pulp-and-paper industry was estimated by using a dynamic mathematical model. Significant variations were shown in the magnitude of GHG generation in response to variations in operating parameters, demonstrating the limited capacity of steady-state models in predicting the time-dependent emissions of these harmful gases. The examined treatment systems used aerobic, anaerobic, and hybrid-anaerobic/aerobic-biological processes along with chemical coagulation/flocculation, anaerobic digester, nitrification and denitrification processes, and biogas recovery. The pertinent operating parameters included the influent substrate concentration, influent flow rate, and temperature. Although the average predictions by the dynamic model were only 10 % different from those of steady-state model during 140 days of operation of the examined systems, the daily variations of GHG emissions were different up to ± 30, ± 19, and ± 17 % in the aerobic, anaerobic, and hybrid systems, respectively. The variations of process variables caused fluctuations in energy generation from biogas recovery by ± 6, ± 7, and ± 4 % in the three examined systems, respectively. The lowest variations were observed in the hybrid system, showing the stability of this particular process design.

  14. Estimation of hydrogen sulfide emission rates at several wastewater treatment plants through experimental concentration measurements and dispersion modeling.

    PubMed

    Llavador Colomer, Fernando; Espinós Morató, Héctor; Mantilla Iglesias, Enrique

    2012-07-01

    The management and operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) usually involve the release into the atmosphere of malodorous substances with the potential to reduce the quality of life of people living nearby. In this type of facility, anaerobic degradation processes contribute to the generation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), often at quite high concentrations; thus, the presence of this chemical compound in the atmosphere can be a good indicator of the occurrence and intensity of the olfactory impact in a specific area. The present paper describes the experimental and modelling work being carried out by CEAM-UMH in the surroundings of several wastewater treatment plants located in the Valencia Autonomous Community (Spain). This work has permitted the estimation of H2S emission rates at different WWTPs under different environmental and operating conditions. Our methodological approach for analyzing and describing the most relevant aspects of the olfactory impact consisted of several experimental campaigns involving intensive field measurements using passive samplers in the vicinity of several WWTPs, in combination with numerical simulation results from a diagnostic dispersion model. A meteorological tower at each WWTP provided the input values for the dispersion code, ensuring a good fit of the advective component and therefore more confidence in the modelled concentration field in response to environmental conditions. Then, comparisons between simulated and experimental H2S concentrations yielded estimates of the global emission rate for this substance at several WWTPs at different time periods. The results obtained show a certain degree of temporal and spatial (between-plant) variability (possibly due to both operational and environmental conditions). Nevertheless, and more importantly, the results show a high degree of uniformity in the estimates, which consistently stay within the same order of magnitude.

  15. The impact of NO x, CO and VOC emissions on the air quality of Zurich airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schürmann, Gregor; Schäfer, Klaus; Jahn, Carsten; Hoffmann, Herbert; Bauerfeind, Martina; Fleuti, Emanuel; Rappenglück, Bernhard

    To study the impact of emissions at an airport on local air quality, a measurement campaign at the Zurich airport was performed from 30 June 2004 to 15 July 2004. Measurements of NO, NO 2, CO and CO 2 were conducted with open path devices to determine real in-use emission indices of aircraft during idling. Additionally, air samples were taken to analyse the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Temporal variations of VOC mixing ratios on the airport were investigated, while other air samples were taken in the plume of an aircraft during engine ignition. CO concentrations in the vicinity of the terminals were found to be highly dependent on aircraft movement, whereas NO concentrations were dominated by emissions from ground support vehicles. The measured emission indices for aircraft showed a strong dependence upon engine type. Our work also revealed differences from emission indices published in the emission data base of the International Civil Aviation Organisation. Among the VOC, reactive C 2-C 3 alkenes were found in significant amounts in the exhaust of an engine compared to ambient levels. Also, isoprene, a VOC commonly associated with biogenic emissions, was found in the exhaust, however it was not detected in refuelling emissions. The benzene to toluene ratio was used to discriminate exhaust from refuelling emission. In refuelling emissions, a ratio well below 1 was found, while for exhaust this ratio was usually about 1.7.

  16. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2015-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the 2014 highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an offsite member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The dose to the PNNL Campus MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2014 from PNNL Campus sources is 2E 05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from all fugitive sources is 3E-6 mrem (3E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-6 mrem (1E-8 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2014. The total radiological dose for 2014 to the MEI from all PNNL Campus radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 3E-5 mrem (3E-7 mSv) EDE, or more than 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Campus is in compliance.

  17. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2016-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the 2015 highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an offsite member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The dose to the PNNL Campus MEI from routine major and minor point source emissions in 2015 from PNNL Campus sources is 2.6E-4 mrem (2.6E-6 mSv) EDE. The dose from all fugitive sources is 1.8E-6 mrem (1.8E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 4.4E-8 mrem (4.4E-10 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2015. The total radiological dose to the MEI from all PNNL Campus radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2.6E-4 mrem (2.6E-6 mSv) EDE, or more than 10,000 times less than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, with which the PNNL Campus is in compliance.

  18. Effects of Coaxial Air on Nitrogen-Diluted Hydrogen Jet Diffusion Flame Length and NOx Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, N.T.; Chen, R.-H.; Strakey, P.A.

    2007-10-01

    Turbulent nitrogen-diluted hydrogen jet diffusion flames with high velocity coaxial air flows are investigated for their NOx emission levels. This study is motivated by the DOE turbine program’s goal of achieving 2 ppm dry low NOx from turbine combustors running on nitrogen-diluted high-hydrogen fuels. In this study, effects of coaxial air velocity and momentum are varied while maintaining low overall equivalence ratios to eliminate the effects of recirculation of combustion products on flame lengths, flame temperatures, and resulting NOx emission levels. The nature of flame length and NOx emission scaling relationships are found to vary, depending on whether the combined fuel and coaxial air jet is fuel-rich or fuel-lean. In the absence of differential diffusion effects, flame lengths agree well with predicted trends, and NOx emissions levels are shown to decrease with increasing coaxial air velocity, as expected. Normalizing the NOx emission index with a flame residence time reveals some interesting trends, and indicates that a global flame strain based on the difference between the fuel and coaxial air velocities, as is traditionally used, is not a viable parameter for scaling the normalized NOx emissions of coaxial air jet diffusion flames.

  19. Estimation of monetary values of air pollutant emissions in various US areas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.; Santini, D.J.

    1994-08-17

    Two general methods of estimating monetary values of air pollutants are presented in this paper. The damage estimate method directly estimated, air pollutant by simulating air quality, identifying health and other welfare impacts damage values and valuing the identified impacts of air pollution, and valuing the identified impacts. Although the method is theoretically sound, many assumptions are involved in each of its estimation steps, and uncertainty exists in each step. The control cost estimate method estimates the marginal emission control cost, which represents the opportunity cost offset by emission reductions from some given control measures. Studies conducted to estimate emission values in US regions used either the damage estimate method or the control cost estimate method. Taking emission values estimated for some US air basins, this paper establishes regression relationships between emission values and total population and air pollutant concentrations. On the basis of the established relationships, both damage-based and control-cost-based emission values are estimated for 17 major US urban areas.

  20. Megacity and country emissions from combustion sources-Buenos Aires-Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidowski, L.; Gomez, D.; Matranga, M.; D'Angiola, A.; Oreggioni, G.

    2010-12-01

    Historic time series (1970-2006) emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants arising from stationary and mobile combustion sources were estimated at national level for Argentina and at regional level for the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (MABA). All emissions were estimated using a bottom-up approach following the IPCC good practice guidance. For mobile sources, national emissions include all transport categories. Regional emissions account thus far only for on-road. For national emissions, methodologies and guidance by the IPCC were employed, applying the highest possible tier and using: i)country-specific emission factors for carbon and sulphur and technology-based information for other species, ii)activity data from energy balance series (1970-2007), and iii)complementary information concerning the non-energy use of fuels. Regional emissions in 2006 were estimated in-depth using a technology-based approach for the city of Buenos Aires (CBA) and the 24 neighboring districts composing the MABA. A regional emissions factors database was developed to better characterize Latin American fleets and driving conditions employing COPERT III-IV algorithms and emission factors measured in dynamometers and circulating vehicles in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Colombia. Past emissions were back estimated from 2005 to 1970 using the best available information, which differs greatly among categories, spatial disaggregation and time periods. The time series of stationary and mobile combustion sources at the national and regional level allowed the identification of distinct patterns. National greenhouse gas emissions in 2006 amounted to ~ 150 million ton CO2-equivalent, 70% of which were contributed by stationary sources. On-road transport was the major contributor within mobile sources (28.1 %). The increasing emissions trends are dominated by on-road transport, agriculture and residential categories while the variability is largely associated with energy industries

  1. Wastewater Characterization Survey, O’Hare International Airport (IAP), Air Reserve Station, Illinois.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    group employs approximately 4,300 people in defense-related positions. Wastewater treatment is accomplished by The Metropolitan Water Reclamation ...Commissioners of The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago. Its purpose is the protection of the public health and safety by abating and...from the base are regulated by The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (Appendix B). This sewage and waste control ordinance

  2. Contact Aeration Wastewater Treatment Plant Upgrading Evaluation, Reese Air Force Base, Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    id* If negoeory sruidanilU y bl Wok nusm) A 1940 vintage contact aeration wastewater treatment (Hays Process ) plant at Reese APE TX was upgraded by...aeration process is presented. The pet.rmance effticiencies of the Reese APE contact aeration treatment plant before and after upgrading are presented...Efeve SE~CURITY CLASSIFICATION OF TbIISP AGECIWa.. Does #ntiorgo). contact aeration process . It was found that the performance efficiencies of the

  3. Quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater treatment plants using a ground-based remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    The direct release of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is important because it contributes to the global greenhouse gases (GHGs) release and strongly effects the WWTP carbon footprint. Biological nitrogen removal technologies could increase the direct emission of N2O (IPCC, 2006), while CH4 losses are of environmental, economic and safety concern. Currently, reporting of N2O and CH4 emissions from WWTPs are performed mainly using methods suggested by IPCC which are not site specific (IPCC, 2006). The dynamic tracer dispersion method (TDM), a ground based remote sensing approach implemented at DTU Environment, was demonstrated to be a novel and successful tool for full-scale CH4 and N2O quantification from WWTPs. The method combines a controlled release of tracer gas from the facility with concentration measurements downwind of the plant (Mønster et al., 2014; Yoshida et al., 2014). TDM in general is based on the assumption that a tracer gas released at an emission source, in this case a WWTP, disperses into the atmosphere in the same way as the GHG emitted from process units. Since the ratio of their concentrations remains constant along their atmospheric dispersion, the GHG emission rate can be calculated using the following expression when the tracer gas release rate is known: EGHG=Qtr*(CGHG/Ctr)*(MWGHG/MWtr) EGHG is the GHG emission in mass per time, Qtr is the tracer release in mass per time, CGHG and Ctr are the concentrations measured downwind in parts per billion subtracted of their background values and integrated over the whole plume, and MWGHG and MWtr are the molar weights of GHG and tracer gas respectively (Mønster et al. 2014). In this study, acetylene (C2H2) was used as tracer. Downwind plume concentrations were measured driving along transects with two cavity ring down spectrometers (Yoshida et al., 2014). TDM was successfully applied in different seasons at several Scandinavian WWTPs characterized by

  4. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Potential Impact Categories for Radiological Air Emission Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2012-06-05

    In 2002, the EPA amended 40 CFR 61 Subpart H and 40 CFR 61 Appendix B Method 114 to include requirements from ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities for major emission points. Additionally, the WDOH amended the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247 Radiation protection-air emissions to include ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements for major and minor emission points when new permitting actions are approved. A result of the amended regulations is the requirement to prepare a written technical basis for the radiological air emission sampling and monitoring program. A key component of the technical basis is the Potential Impact Category (PIC) assigned to an emission point. This paper discusses the PIC assignments for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Integrated Laboratory emission units; this revision includes five PIC categories.

  5. EMISSIONS PROCESSING FOR THE ETA/ CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of the...

  6. Photon emission from gold surfaces in air using scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Mark J.; Howells, Sam; Yi, Leon; Chen, Ting; Sarid, Dror

    1992-11-01

    Photon emission was observed at the tunnel junction of a scanning tunneling microscope while scanning Au structures in air. Emission levels of about 4000 counts per second (cps) were routinely achieved with Au tips, allowing photon maps to be produced. The similarity between these photon maps and the topographic images of the Au samples are discussed.

  7. 78 FR 24073 - Reconsideration of Certain New Source Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... referred to as the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) NESHAP, and the New Source Performance Standards... ), lead (Pb), and selenium emission limits for all new coal-fired EGUs; the mercury (Hg) emission limit... EGUs Filterable particulate Hydrogen chloride, lb/ Subcategory matter, lb/MWh MWh Mercury, lb/GWh...

  8. [Implementation results of emission standards of air pollutants for thermal power plants: a numerical simulation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan-Shan; Pan, Li-Bo

    2014-03-01

    The emission inventory of air pollutants from the thermal power plants in the year of 2010 was set up. Based on the inventory, the air quality of the prediction scenarios by implementation of both 2003-version emission standard and the new emission standard were simulated using Models-3/CMAQ. The concentrations of NO2, SO2, and PM2.5, and the deposition of nitrogen and sulfur in the year of 2015 and 2020 were predicted to investigate the regional air quality improvement by the new emission standard. The results showed that the new emission standard could effectively improve the air quality in China. Compared with the implementation results of the 2003-version emission standard, by 2015 and 2020, the area with NO2 concentration higher than the emission standard would be reduced by 53.9% and 55.2%, the area with SO2 concentration higher than the emission standard would be reduced by 40.0%, the area with nitrogen deposition higher than 1.0 t x km(-2) would be reduced by 75.4% and 77.9%, and the area with sulfur deposition higher than 1.6 t x km(-2) would be reduced by 37.1% and 34.3%, respectively.

  9. Effects of influent C/N ratios on wastewater nutrient removal and simultaneous greenhouse gas emission from the combinations of vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands and earthworm eco-filters for treating synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongjun; Zhang, Yuejin; Ge, Zhigang; Hu, Changwei; Zhang, Hui

    2014-03-01

    This research focused on the nutrient removal and the simultaneous CO2, CH4, and N2O emission rates of various combinations of vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands (VSFCWs) and earthworm eco-filters (EEs) under different influent C/N ratios in synthetic wastewater. The optimal parameters for nutrient removal were influent C/N ratios of 5 : 1 and 10 : 1 as well as the combination VSFCW-EE. Relatively low values of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission rates measured in situ were obtained at a C/N ratio of 5 : 1. The emission rates of CH4 and N2O were considerably lower than that of CO2. The VSFCW-EE and EE-VSFCW combinations showed similar GHG emission results. The C/N ratio of 5 : 1 and the VSFCW-EE combination exhibited the highest nutrient removal efficiency with the lowest GHG emission rate. Wastewater nutrient removal and GHG emission were both high during summer (June to August) and low during winter (December to February).

  10. Potential Air Emission Impacts of Cellulosic Ethanol Production at Seven Demonstration Refineries in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on the estimated potential air emissions as found in air permits and supporting documentation for seven of the first group of pre-commercial or Ademonstration@ U.S. cellulosic ethanol refineries currently operating or planning to operate in the near future. Th...

  11. 76 FR 38591 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Lead Smelting; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting (76 FR 29032... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting, was published May 19, 2011 (76 FR...

  12. “Exchanges of Aggregate Air Nitrogen Emissions and Watershed Nitrogen Loads”

    EPA Science Inventory

    An approach has been developed to define transfer coefficients that can be used to convert changes in air emissions to changes in air deposition and subsequently to changes in loads delivered to the Bay. This approach uses a special CMAQ version that quantitatively attributes wa...

  13. 76 FR 28318 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is denying in part and granting in part the petitions to reconsider the final revised National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants emitted by the Portland Cement Industry and the New Source Performance Standards for Portland Cement Plants issued under sections 112(d) and 111(b) of the Clean Air Act, respectively. The EPA is also......

  14. Dynamic Evaluation of a Regional Air Quality Model: Assessing the Emissions-Induced Weekly Ozone Cycle

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality models are used to predict changes in pollutant concentrations resulting from envisioned emission control policies. Recognizing the need to assess the credibility of air quality models in a policy-relevant context, we perform a dynamic evaluation of the community Mult...

  15. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  16. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  17. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  18. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  19. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  20. Wet air oxidation of resorcinol as a model treatment for refractory organics in wastewaters from the wood processing industry.

    PubMed

    Weber, Bernd; Chavez, Alma; Morales-Mejia, Julio; Eichenauer, Sabrina; Stadlbauer, Ernst A; Almanza, Rafael

    2015-09-15

    Wastewater treatment systems are important tools to enhance sustainability in terms of reducing environmental impact and complying with sanitary requirements. This work addresses the wet air oxidation (WAO) process for pre-treatment of phenolic wastewater effluents. The aim was to increase biodegradability prior to a subsequent anaerobic stage. In WAO laboratory experiments using a micro-autoclave, the model compound resorcinol was degraded under different oxygen availability regims within the temperature range 150 °C-270 °C. The activation energy was determined to be 51.5 kJ/mol. Analysis of the products revealed that after 3 h of reaction at 230 °C, 97.5% degradation of resorcinol was achieved. At 250 °C and the same reaction time complete removal of resorcinol was observed. In this case the total organic carbon content was reduced down to 29%, from 118.0 mg/L down to 34.4 mg/L. Under these process conditions, the pollutant was only partially mineralized and the ratio of the biological oxygen demand relative to the chemical oxygen demand, which is 0.07 for resorcinol, was increased to a value exceeding 0.5. The main by-product acetic acid, which is a preferred compound for methanogenic bacteria, was found to account for 33% of the total organic carbon.

  1. Air emissions and control technology for leather tanning and finishing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsch, B.F.; Howie, R.H.; McClintock, S.C.

    1993-06-01

    The document provides information for use in assessing appropriate measures to control volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from leather tanning and finishing facilities. It also provides a general description of the industry; describes the key processes employed in manufacturing leather; characterizes the emissions of VOC's and HAPs from the industry; describes applicable emission reduction technologies; and finally, discusses current State and local air pollution regulations affecting the industry.

  2. Nonlinear air-coupled emission: The signature to reveal and image microdamage in solid materials

    SciTech Connect

    Solodov, Igor; Busse, Gerd

    2007-12-17

    It is shown that low-frequency elastic vibrations of near-surface planar defects cause high-frequency ultrasonic radiation in surrounding air. The frequency conversion mechanism is concerned with contact nonlinearity of the defect vibrations and provides efficient generation of air-coupled higher-order ultraharmonics, ultrasubharmonics, and combination frequencies. The nonlinear air-coupled ultrasonic emission is applied for location and high-resolution imaging of damage-induced defects in a variety of solid materials.

  3. Air emissions due to wind and solar power.

    PubMed

    Katzenstein, Warren; Apt, Jay

    2009-01-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) encourage large-scale deployment of wind and solar electric power. Their power output varies rapidly, even when several sites are added together. In many locations, natural gas generators are the lowest cost resource available to compensate for this variability, and must ramp up and down quickly to keep the grid stable, affecting their emissions of NOx and CO2. We model a wind or solar photovoltaic plus gas system using measured 1-min time-resolved emissions and heat rate data from two types of natural gas generators, and power data from four wind plants and one solar plant. Over a wide range of renewable penetration, we find CO2 emissions achieve approximately 80% of the emissions reductions expected if the power fluctuations caused no additional emissions. Using steam injection, gas generators achieve only 30-50% of expected NOx emissions reductions, and with dry control NOx emissions increase substantially. We quantify the interaction between state RPSs and NOx constraints, finding that states with substantial RPSs could see significant upward pressure on NOx permit prices, if the gas turbines we modeled are representative of the plants used to mitigate wind and solar power variability.

  4. Study of air emissions related to aircraft deicing

    SciTech Connect

    Zarubiak, D.C.Z.; DeToro, J.A.; Menon, R.P.

    1997-12-31

    This paper outlines the results of a study that was conducted by Trinity Consultants Incorporated (Trinity) to estimate the airborne emissions of glycol from Type 1 Deicer fluid and potential exposure of ground personnel during routine deicing of aircraft. The study involved the experimental measurement of Type 1 Deicer fluid vapor emissions by Southern Research Institute (SRI, Research Triangle Park, NC). An open path Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique developed by SRI was used during a simulated airplane deicing event. The emissions measurement data are analyzed to obtain appropriate emission rates for an atmospheric dispersion modeling analysis. The modeled gaseous Type 1 Deicer fluid concentrations are determined from calculated emission rates and selected meteorological conditions. A propylene glycol (PG)-based Type 1 Deicer fluid was used. In order to examine the effects of the assumptions that are made for the development of the emission quantification and dispersion modeling methodologies, various scenarios are evaluated. A parametric analysis evaluates the effect of variations in the following parameters on the results of the study: glycol concentrations in deicing fluids, error limits of emission measurements, emission source heights, evaporation rate for various wind speeds, wind directions over typical physical layouts, and background (ambient) Type 1 Deicer fluid concentrations. The emissions for an EG based Type 1 Deicing fluid are expected to be between 80 and 85% of the reported data. In general, the model shows the region of maximum concentrations is located between 20 and 50 meters downwind from the trailing edge of the wing. This range is consistent with experimental findings. Depending on the specific modeled scenarios, maximum glycol concentrations are found to generally range between 50 and 500 milligrams per cubic meter.

  5. Air emissions from exposed contaminated sediments and dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    Valsaraj, K.T.; Ravikrishna, R.; Reible, D.D.; Thibodeaux, L.J.; Choy, B.; Price, C.B.; Brannon, J.M.; Myers, T.E.; Yost, S.

    1999-01-01

    The sediment-to-air fluxes of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and pyrene) and a heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (dibenzofuran) from a laboratory-contaminated sediment and those of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) from three field sediments were investigated in experimental microcosms. The flux was dependent on the sediment moisture content, air-filled porosity, and the relative humidity of the air flowing over the sediment surface. The mathematical model predictions of flux from the laboratory-spiked sediment agreed with observed values. The fluxes of compounds with higher hydrophobicity were more air-side resistance controlled. Conspicuous differences were observed between the fluxes from the laboratory-spiked and two of the three field sediments. Two field sediments showed dramatic increases in mass-transfer resistances with increasing exposure time and had significant fractions of oil and grease. The proposed mathematical model was inadequate for predicting the flux from the latter field sediments. Sediment reworking enhanced the fluxes from the field sediments due to exposure of fresh solids to the air. Variations in flux from the lab-spiked sediment as a result of change in air relative humidity were due to differences in retardation of chemicals on a dry or wet surface sediment. High moisture in the air over the dry sediment increased the competition for sorption sites between water and contaminant and increased the contaminant flux.

  6. [Concentrations of mercury in ambient air in wastewater irrigated area of Tianjin City and its accumulation in leafy vegetables].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shun-An; Han, Yun-Lei; Zheng, Xiang-Qun

    2014-11-01

    limit of mercury in food. Spinach appeared to accumulate more mercury than the other four vegetables, in which the median and mean mercury content were both higher than 20 μg x kg(-1). The mercury concentrations in rape, lettuce and allium tuberosum were lower than the standard. Moreover, test results indicated that the Hg content in leafy vegetables was mainly the gaseous mercury through leaf adsorption but not the Hg particulates. This study clearly manifested that there should be a great concern on the pollution risk of both air-and soil borne mercury when cultivating leafy vegetables in long-term wastewater-irrigated area.

  7. The development of emissions estimates for the Arizona Hazardous Air Pollution Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, R.J.; Wolf, M.E.; Morrison, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    A series of emissions inventories have been developed to support the Arizona Hazardous Air Pollution (HAP) Research Program. This paper summarizes both the methodology and results of this inventory effort. To meet the objectives of the HAP Research Program, emissions inventories were prepared for four different geographic regions. Both Phoenix and Tucson were selected to represent urban-scale environments. The town of Payson was selected as a mountain community with residential wood combustion emissions, while Casa Grande was selected for its agricultural emissions, primarily pesticides. The emissions databases developed for these four regions consist of gridded and hourly emission files that were used in a three dimensional air quality grid model. The inventory databases contain HAP emissions for point, area, and mobile sources (both on-road motor vehicles and nonroad mobile sources). The overall area and mobile source inventory consists of over 150 individual source categories. Future year emission projections were prepared to simulate growth, as well as planned local, state, and federal control requirements that will influence HAP emissions in the four regions. Results of the inventory indicate that mobile sources are the dominant source category in all four regions, although semivolatile organic emissions from residential wood combustion and pesticides are important components of the Payson and Casa Grande inventories, respectively. Although significant growth and economic expansion is predicted for each region, overall emissions of the key HAP species are expected to decline.

  8. Impact of Trans-Boundary Emissions on Modelled Air Pollution in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Moran, Mike; Zhang, Junhua; Zheng, Qiong; Menard, Sylvain; Anselmo, David; Davignon, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The operational air quality model GEM-MACH is run twice daily at the Canadian Meteorological Centre in Montreal, Quebec to produce 48-hour forecasts of hourly O3, NO2, and PM2.5 fields over a North American domain. The hourly gridded anthropogenic emissions fields needed by GEM-MACH are currently based on the 2006 Canadian emissions inventory, a 2012 projected U.S. inventory, and the 1999 Mexican inventory. The Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) processing package was used to process these three national emissions inventories to create the GEM-MACH emissions fields. While Canada is the second-largest country in the world by total area, its population and its emissions of criteria contaminants are both only about one-tenth of U.S. values and roughly 80% of the Canadian population lives within 150 km of the international border with the U.S. As a consequence, transboundary transport of air pollution has a major impact on air quality in Canada. To quantify the impact of non-Canadian emissions on forecasted pollutant levels in Canada, the following two tests were performed: (a) all U.S. and Mexican anthropogenic emissions were switched off; and (b) anthropogenic emissions from the southernmost tier of U.S. states and Mexico were switched off. These sensitivity tests were performed for the summer and winter periods of 2012 or 2011. The results obtained show that the impact of non-Canadian sources on forecasted pollution is generally larger in summer than in winter, especially in south-eastern parts of Canada. For the three pollutants considered in the Canadian national Air Quality Health Index, PM2.5 is impacted the most (up to 80%) and NO2 the least (<10%). Emissions from the southern U.S. and Mexico do impact Canadian air quality, but the sign may change depending on the season (i.e., increase vs. decrease), reflecting chemical processing en route.

  9. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site -- calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.; Rhoads, K.

    1998-06-17

    This report documents radionuclide air emission from the Hanford Site in 1997, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the MEI. The report has been prepared in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities. This report has also been prepared in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The effective dose equivalent to the MEI from the Hanford Site`s 1997 point source emissions was 1.2 E-03 mrem (1.2 E-05 mSv), which is well below the 40 CFR 61 Subpart H regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr. Radon and thoron emissions, exempted from 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, resulted in an effective dose equivalent to the MEI of 2.5 E-03 mrem (2.5 E-05 mSv). The effective dose equivalent to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive emissions was 2.2 E-02 mrem (2.2 E-04 mSv). The total effective dose equivalent from all of the Hanford Site`s air emissions was 2.6 E-02 mrem (2.6 E-04 mSv). The effective dose equivalent from all of the Hanford Site`s air emissions is well below the Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 246-247, regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr.

  10. Wet air and catalytic wet air oxidation of several azodyes from wastewaters: the beneficial role of catalysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; García, J; Ovejero, G; Mestanza, M

    2009-01-01

    Degradation of several azo dyes, Acid Orange 7 (AO7), Acid Orange 74 (AO74), Direct Blue 71 (DB71), Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Eriochrome Blue Black B (EBBB), well-known non-biodegradable mono, di and tri azo dyes has been studied using, wet-air oxidation (WAO) and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO). The efficiency of substrate decolorization and mineralization in each process has been comparatively discussed by evolution concentration, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon content and toxicity of dyes solutions. The most efficient method on decolorization and mineralization (TOC) was observed to be CWAO process. Mineralization efficiency with wet air and catalytic wet air oxidation essays was observed in the order of mono-azo > di-azo > tri-azo dye. Final solutions of CWAO applications after 180 min treatment can be disposed safely to environment.

  11. Reducing ultrafine particle emissions using air injection in wood-burning cookstoves

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Vi H.; Caubel, Julien J.; Wilson, Daniel L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2016-06-27

    In order to address the health risks and climate impacts associated with pollution from cooking on biomass fires, researchers have focused on designing new cookstoves that improve cooking performance and reduce harmful emissions, specifically particulate matter (PM). One method for improving cooking performance and reducing emissions is using air injection to increase turbulence of unburned gases in the combustion zone. Although air injection reduces total PM mass emissions, the effect on PM size-distribution and number concentration has not been thoroughly investigated. Using two new wood-burning cookstove designs from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, this research explores the effect of air injection on cooking performance, PM and gaseous emissions, and PM size distribution and number concentration. Both cookstoves were created using the Berkeley-Darfur Stove as the base platform to isolate the effects of air injection. The thermal performance, gaseous emissions, PM mass emissions, and particle concentrations (ranging from 5 nm to 10 μm in diameter) of the cookstoves were measured during multiple high-power cooking tests. Finally, the results indicate that air injection improves cookstove performance and reduces total PM mass but increases total ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) PM concentration over the course of high-power cooking.

  12. Reducing ultrafine particle emissions using air injection in wood-burning cookstoves

    DOE PAGES

    Rapp, Vi H.; Caubel, Julien J.; Wilson, Daniel L.; ...

    2016-06-27

    In order to address the health risks and climate impacts associated with pollution from cooking on biomass fires, researchers have focused on designing new cookstoves that improve cooking performance and reduce harmful emissions, specifically particulate matter (PM). One method for improving cooking performance and reducing emissions is using air injection to increase turbulence of unburned gases in the combustion zone. Although air injection reduces total PM mass emissions, the effect on PM size-distribution and number concentration has not been thoroughly investigated. Using two new wood-burning cookstove designs from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, this research explores the effect of air injectionmore » on cooking performance, PM and gaseous emissions, and PM size distribution and number concentration. Both cookstoves were created using the Berkeley-Darfur Stove as the base platform to isolate the effects of air injection. The thermal performance, gaseous emissions, PM mass emissions, and particle concentrations (ranging from 5 nm to 10 μm in diameter) of the cookstoves were measured during multiple high-power cooking tests. Finally, the results indicate that air injection improves cookstove performance and reduces total PM mass but increases total ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) PM concentration over the course of high-power cooking.« less

  13. Air Emissions Guide for Air Force Mobile Sources: Methods for Estimating Emissions of Air Pollutants for Mobile Sources at U.S. Air Force Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Management Practices BOOS Burners Out Of Service BSFC Brake-Specific Fuel Consumption Btu British Thermal Unit ºC Degrees Celsius CAA Clean Air Act CAAA...Vehicle Management Flight Vehicle Maintenance LNB Low NOX Burner LPG Liquid Petroleum Gas LTO Landing and Takeoff MAJCOM Major Command MB...OLVIMS On-line Vehicle Interactive Management System OTAG Office of Transportation Quality P2 Pollution Prevention PAH Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon

  14. Assessment of air pollutant emissions from brick kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajarathnam, Uma; Athalye, Vasudev; Ragavan, Santhosh; Maithel, Sameer; Lalchandani, Dheeraj; Kumar, Sonal; Baum, Ellen; Weyant, Cheryl; Bond, Tami

    2014-12-01

    India has more than 100,000 brick kilns producing around 250 billion bricks annually. Indian brick industry is often a small scale industry and third largest consumer of coal in the country. With the growing demand for building materials and characterised by lack of pollution control measures the brick industry has a potential to cause adverse effects on the environment. This paper presents assessment of five brick making technologies based on the measurements carried out at seventeen individual brick kilns. Emissions of PM, SO2, CO and CO2 were measured and these emissions were used to estimate the emission factors for comparing the emissions across different fuel or operating conditions. Estimated emission from brick kilns in South Asia are about 0.94 million tonnes of PM; 3.9 million tonnes of CO and 127 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Among various technologies that are widely used in India, Zig zag and vertical shaft brick kilns showed better performance in terms of emissions over the traditional fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns. This suggests that the replacement of traditional technologies with Zig zag, vertical shaft brick kilns or other cleaner kiln technologies will contribute towards improvements in the environmental performance of brick kiln industry in the country. Zig zag kilns appear to be the logical replacement because of low capital investment, easy integration with the existing production process, and the possibility of retrofitting fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns into Zig zag firing.

  15. The AMY experiment: Microwave emission from air shower plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Blanco, M.; Boháčová, M.; Buonomo, B.; Cataldi, G.; Coluccia, M. R.; Creti, P.; De Mitri, I.; Di Giulio, C.; Facal San Luis, P.; Foggetta, L.; Gaïor, R.; Garcia-Fernandez, D.; Iarlori, M.; Le Coz, S.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Louedec, K.; Maris, I. C.; Martello, D.; Mazzitelli, G.; Monasor, M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Salamida, F.; Salina, G.; Settimo, M.; Valente, P.; Vazquez, J. R.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.

    2016-07-01

    You The Air Microwave Yield (AMY) experiment investigate the molecular bremsstrahlung radiation emitted in the GHz frequency range from an electron beam induced air-shower. The measurements have been performed at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) of Frascati INFN National Laboratories with a 510 MeV electron beam in a wide frequency range between 1 and 20 GHz. We present the apparatus and the results of the tests performed.

  16. International trade and air pollution: estimating the economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kevin P

    2005-10-01

    Although there is a burgeoning literature on the effects of international trade on the environment, relatively little work has been done on where trade most directly effects the environment: the transportation sector. This article shows how international trade is affecting air pollution emissions in the United States' shipping sector. Recent work has shown that cargo ships have been long overlooked regarding their contribution to air pollution. Indeed, ship emissions have recently been deemed "the last unregulated source of traditional air pollutants". Air pollution from ships has a number of significant local, national, and global environmental effects. Building on past studies, we examine the economic costs of this increasing and unregulated form of environmental damage. We find that total emissions from ships are largely increasing due to the increase in foreign commerce (or international trade). The economic costs of SO2 pollution range from dollars 697 million to dollars 3.9 billion during the period examined, or dollars 77 to dollars 435 million on an annual basis. The bulk of the cost is from foreign commerce, where the annual costs average to dollars 42 to dollars 241 million. For NOx emissions the costs are dollars 3.7 billion over the entire period or dollars 412 million per year. Because foreign trade is driving the growth in US shipping, we also estimate the effect of the Uruguay Round on emissions. Separating out the effects of global trade agreements reveals that the trade agreement-led emissions amounted to dollars 96 to dollars 542 million for SO2 between 1993 and 2001, or dollars 10 to dollars 60 million per year. For NOx they were dollars 745 million for the whole period or dollars 82 million per year. Without adequate policy responses, we predict that these trends and costs will continue into the future.

  17. Sensory and chemical characterization of VOC emissions from building products: impact of concentration and air velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, H. N.; Kjaer, U. D.; Nielsen, P. A.; Wolkoff, P.

    The emissions from five commonly used building products were studied in small-scale test chambers over a period of 50 days. The odor intensity was assessed by a sensory panel and the concentrations of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of concern for the indoor air quality were measured. The building products were three floor coverings: PVC, floor varnish on beechwood parquet and nylon carpet on a latex foam backing; an acrylic sealant, and a waterborne wall paint on gypsum board. The impacts of the VOC concentration in the air and the air velocity over the building products on the odor intensity and on the emission rate of VOCs were studied. The emission from each building product was studied under two or three different area-specific ventilation rates, i.e. different ratios of ventilation rate of the test chamber and building product area in the test chamber. The air velocity over the building product samples was adjusted to different levels between 0.1 and 0.3 m s -1. The origin of the emitted VOCs was assessed in order to distinguish between primary and secondary emissions. The results show that it is reasonable after an initial period of up to 14 days to consider the emission rate of VOCs of primary origin from most building products as being independent of the concentration and of the air velocity. However, if the building product surface is sensitive to oxidative degradation, increased air velocity may result in increased secondary emissions. The odor intensity of the emissions from the building products only decayed modestly over time. Consequently, it is recommended to use building products which have a low impact on the perceived air quality from the moment they are applied. The odor indices (i.e. concentration divided by odor threshold) of primary VOCs decayed markedly faster than the corresponding odor intensities. This indicates that the secondary emissions rather than the primary emissions, are likely to affect the perceived air quality in the

  18. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  19. Large Gain in Air Quality Compared to an Alternative Anthropogenic Emissions Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daskalakis, Nikos; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Fanourgakis, George S.; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    During the last 30 years, significant effort has been made to improve air quality through legislation for emissions reduction. Global three-dimensional chemistrytransport simulations of atmospheric composition over the past 3 decades have been performed to estimate what the air quality levels would have been under a scenario of stagnation of anthropogenic emissions per capita as in 1980, accounting for the population increase (BA1980) or using the standard practice of neglecting it (AE1980), and how they compare to the historical changes in air quality levels. The simulations are based on assimilated meteorology to account for the yearto- year observed climate variability and on different scenarios of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants. The ACCMIP historical emissions dataset is used as the starting point. Our sensitivity simulations provide clear indications that air quality legislation and technology developments have limited the rapid increase of air pollutants. The achieved reductions in concentrations of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, black carbon, and sulfate aerosols are found to be significant when comparing to both BA1980 and AE1980 simulations that neglect any measures applied for the protection of the environment. We also show the potentially large tropospheric air quality benefit from the development of cleaner technology used by the growing global population. These 30-year hindcast sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the actual benefit in air quality due to air pollution legislation and technological advances is higher than the gain calculated by a simple comparison against a constant anthropogenic emissions simulation, as is usually done. Our results also indicate that over China and India the beneficial technological advances for the air quality may have been masked by the explosive increase in local population and the disproportional increase in energy demand partially due to the globalization of the economy.

  20. Large gain in air quality compared to an alternative anthropogenic emissions scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalakis, Nikos; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Fanourgakis, George S.; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-08-01

    During the last 30 years, significant effort has been made to improve air quality through legislation for emissions reduction. Global three-dimensional chemistry-transport simulations of atmospheric composition over the past 3 decades have been performed to estimate what the air quality levels would have been under a scenario of stagnation of anthropogenic emissions per capita as in 1980, accounting for the population increase (BA1980) or using the standard practice of neglecting it (AE1980), and how they compare to the historical changes in air quality levels. The simulations are based on assimilated meteorology to account for the year-to-year observed climate variability and on different scenarios of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants. The ACCMIP historical emissions dataset is used as the starting point. Our sensitivity simulations provide clear indications that air quality legislation and technology developments have limited the rapid increase of air pollutants. The achieved reductions in concentrations of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, black carbon, and sulfate aerosols are found to be significant when comparing to both BA1980 and AE1980 simulations that neglect any measures applied for the protection of the environment. We also show the potentially large tropospheric air quality benefit from the development of cleaner technology used by the growing global population. These 30-year hindcast sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the actual benefit in air quality due to air pollution legislation and technological advances is higher than the gain calculated by a simple comparison against a constant anthropogenic emissions simulation, as is usually done. Our results also indicate that over China and India the beneficial technological advances for the air quality may have been masked by the explosive increase in local population and the disproportional increase in energy demand partially due to the globalization of the economy.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  2. Three-dimensional air quality simulation study on low-emission vehicles in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunimi, H.; Ishizawa, S.; Yoshikawa, Y.

    The effect of low-emission vehicles on improving air quality in Southern California was analyzed using a three-dimensional simulation model. Simulations were performed using 1987 emission data and meteorological data released by the California Air Resources Board. Exhaust emission data at TLEV, LEV and ZEV levels were used in the analysis. The results show that a reduction in reactive organic gases (ROG) has a large effect on reducing the ozone concentration. The ozone reduction effects of alternative fuels like methanol or compressed natural gas can also be analyzed at the same stage as exhaust emissions from conventional gasoline vehicles by applying the maximum incremental reactivity index to correct measured ROG data. The ROG/NO x ratio at the time of peak ozone concentration correlates well with the ozone level, suggesting that a reduction in NO x emissions does not always lower the ozone concentration.

  3. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim (Sequim). This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The EDE to the Sequim MEI due to routine operations in 2013 was 5E-05 mrem (5E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2013. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  4. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2015-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim.This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.'' The EDE to the MSL MEI due to routine operations in 2014 was 9E-05 mrem (9E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2014. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  5. Impact of air velocity, temperature, humidity, and air on long-term voc emissions from building products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkoff, Peder

    The emissions of two volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of concern from five building products (BPs) were measured in the field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) up to 250 d. The BPs (VOCs selected on the basis of abundance and low human odor thresholds) were: nylon carpet with latex backing (2-ethylhexanol, 4-phenylcyclohexene), PVC flooring (2-ethylhexanol, phenol), floor varnish on pretreated beechwood parquet (butyl acetate, N-methylpyrrolidone), sealant (hexane, dimethyloctanols), and waterborne wall paint on gypsum board (1,2-propandiol, Texanol). Ten different climate conditions were tested: four different air velocities from ca. 1 cm s -1 to ca. 9 cm s -1, three different temperatures (23, 35, and 60°C), two different relative humidities (0% and 50% RH), and pure nitrogen instead of clean air supply. Additionally, two sample specimen and two different batches were compared for repeatability and homogeneity. The VOCs were sampled on Tenax TA and determined by thermal desorption and gas chromatography (FID). Quantification was carried out by individual calibration of each VOC of concern. Concentration/time profiles of the selected VOCs (i.e. their concentration decay curves over time) in a standard room were used for comparison. Primary source emissions were not affected by the air velocity after a few days to any great extent. Both the temperature and relative humidity affected the emission rates, but depended strongly on the type of BP and type of VOC. Secondary (oxidative) source emissions were only observed for the PVC and for dimethyloctanols from the sealant. The time to reach a given concentration (emission rate) appears to be a good approach for future interlaboratory comparisons of BP's VOC emissions.

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2012-06-12

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation ProtectionAir Emissions. The EDE to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine emissions in 2011 from PNNL Site sources was 1.7E 05 mrem (1.7E-7 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2011. The total radiological dose for 2011 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions was more than 10,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  7. Modeling Feedbacks between Biogenic Emissions and Air Chemistry from Site to Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, T. M.; Grote, R.

    2014-12-01

    We present the implementation of a new model describing light dependent emission of volatile organic compounds (BVOC) that derives isoprenoid production directly from the electron transport potential and consumption from photosynthesis. Photosynthesis information requirements are designed to be met by many recent land-surface models that apply the Farquhar assimilation scheme, e.g. JULES or CLM. The new approach has the advantages that 1) the commonly observed decrease of (isoprene) emission with increasing CO2 air concentration is considered by the competition on energy between photosynthesis and emission processes, and 2) air pollution impacts may be considered as inducing emissions by activating emission enzymes as well as decreasing substrate supply from photosynthesis, and 3) many environmental drivers of BVOC emissions are implicitly considered in the description of plant photosynthesis and phenology, reducing the demand for species-specific emission parameters. We investigate the parameter sensitivity of the suggested model as well as the sensitivity of emissions to a range of environmental conditions with a particular focus on CO2 responses. We present evaluation at the site level and compare the model with other approaches. Finally, we demonstrate the implementation into a coupled global-air chemistry model and discuss the requirements to appropriately parameterize plant functional types.

  8. Strategies for emission reduction of air pollutants produced from a chemical plant.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Cho, Sung-Woong

    2003-01-01

    Various air pollution control (APC) techniques were employed in order to reduce emissions of air pollutants produced from chemical plants, which have many different chemical production facilities. For an emission reduction of acid gases, this study employed a method to improve solubility of pollutants by decreasing the operating temperature of the scrubbers, increasing the surface area for effective contact of gas and liquid, and modifying processes in the acid scrubbers. To reduce emission of both amines and acid gases, pollutant gas components were first separated, then condensation and/or acid scrubbing, depending on the chemical and physical properties of pollutant components, were used. To reduce emission of solvents, condensation and activated carbon adsorption were employed. To reduce emission of a mixture gases containing acid gases and solvents, the mixed gases were passed into the first condenser, the acid scrubber, the second condenser, and the activated carbon adsorption tower in sequence. As a strategy to reduce emission of pollutants at the source, this study also employed the simple pollution prevention concept of modification of the previously operating APC control device. Finally, air emissions of pollutants produced from the chemical plants were much more reduced by applying proper APC methods, depending upon the types (physical or chemical properties) and the specific emission situations of pollutants.

  9. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    2000-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 1999 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities'', and with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247. Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from US. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1999 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.029 mrem (2.9 E-04 mSv), which is less than 0.3 percent of the federal standard. WAC 246-247 requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources, during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations. The state further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. The EDE from diffuse and fugitive emissions at the Hanford Site in 1999 was 0.039 mrem (3.9 E-04 mSv) EDE. The total dose from point sources and from diffuse and fugitive sources of radionuclide emissions during all operating conditions in 1999 was 0.068 mrem (6.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is less than 0.7 percent of the state standard.

  10. Full-scale chamber investigation and simulation of air freshener emissions in the presence of ozone.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Mason, Mark; Krebs, Kenneth; Sparks, Leslie

    2004-05-15

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from one electrical plug-in type of pine-scented air freshener and their reactions with O3 were investigated in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency indoor air research large chamber facility. Ozone was generated from a device marketed as an ozone generator air cleaner. Ozone and oxides of nitrogen concentrations and chamber conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and air exchange rate were controlled and/or monitored. VOC emissions and some of the reaction products were identified and quantified. Source emission models were developed to predict the time/concentration profiles of the major VOCs (limonene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 3-carene, camphene, benzyl propionate, benzyl alcohol, bornyl acetate, isobornyl acetate, and benzaldehyde) emitted bythe air freshener. Gas-phase reactions of VOCs from the air freshener with O3 were simulated by a photochemical kinetics simulation system using VOC reaction mechanisms and rate constants adopted from the literature. The concentration-time predictions were in good agreement with the data for O3 and VOCs emitted from the air freshener and with some of the primary reaction products. Systematic differences between the predictions and the experimental results were found for some species. Poor understanding of secondary reactions and heterogeneous chemistry in the chamber is the likely cause of these differences. The method has the potential to provide data to predict the impact of O3/VOC interactions on indoor air quality.

  11. Comparison of air pollutant emissions among mega-cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, D. D.; Kuster, W. C.; Shao, M.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Goldan, P. D.; de Gouw, J. A.; Koike, M.; Shirai, T.

    2009-04-01

    Ambient measurements of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from three mega-cities (Beijing, Mexico City, Tokyo) are compared with similar measurements from US cities in the mid-1980s and the early 2000s. The common hydrocarbon pattern seen in all data sets suggests that emissions associated with gasoline-fueled vehicles dominate in all of these cities. This commonality suggests that relatively modest monitoring efforts with controls focused on vehicle emissions plus emissions from specific local industrial sources may provide the most efficient approach to controlling photochemical smog in emerging mega-cities. It is noted that over the two decades covered by the US data sets, the hydrocarbon emissions decreased by approximately an order of magnitude, which is greater than suggested by emission inventories. The ambient hydrocarbon and CO concentrations reported for the three non-US mega-cities are higher than present US ambient concentrations, but lower than those observed in the 1980s in the US. The one exception to the preceding statement is the high concentrations of CO observed in Beijing, which apparently have a large regional contribution.

  12. Influence of population density and temporal variations in emissions on the air duality benefits of NOx emission trading.

    PubMed

    Nobel, Carolyn E; McDonald-Buller, Elena C; Kimura, Yosuke; Lumbley, Katherine E; Allen, David T

    2002-08-15

    Ozone formation is a complex function of local hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions. Therefore, trading of NOx emissions among geographically distributed facilities can lead to more or less ozone formation than across-the-board reductions. Monte Carlo simulations of trading scenarios involving 51 large NOx point sources in eastern Texas were used in a previous study by the authors to assess the effects of trading on air quality benefits, as measured by changes in ozone concentrations. The results indicated that 12% of trading scenarios would lead to greater than a 25% variation from conventional across-the-board reductions when air quality benefits are based only on changes in ozone concentration. The current study found that when benefits are based on a metric related to population exposure to ozone, two-thirds of the trading scenarios lead to changes in air quality benefits of approximately 25%. Variability in air quality benefits is not as strongly dependent on the temporal distribution of NOx emissions.

  13. Air Quality and Road Emission Results for Fort Stewart, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, Randy R.; Driver, Crystal J.; Chamness, Mickie A.; Barfuss, Brad C.

    2004-02-02

    The Directorate of Public Works Environmental & Natural Resources Division (Fort Stewart /Hunter Army Airfield) contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to monitor particulate matter (PM) concentrations on Fort Stewart, Georgia. The purpose of this investigation was to establish a PM sampling network using monitoring equipment typically used in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ''saturation sampling'', to determine air quality on the installation. In this initial study, the emphasis was on training-generated PM, not receptor PM loading. The majority of PM samples were 24-hr filter-based samples with sampling frequency ranging from every other day, to once every six days synchronized with the EPA 6th day national sampling schedule. Eight measurement sites were established and used to determine spatial variability in PM concentrations and evaluate whether fluctuations in PM appear to result from training activities and forest management practices on the installation. Data collected to date indicate the average installation PM2.5 concentration is lower than that of nearby urban Savannah, Georgia. At three sites near the installation perimeter, analyses to segregate PM concentrations by direction of air flow across the installation boundary indicate that air (below 80 ft) leaving the installation contains less PM2.5 than that entering the installation. This is reinforced by the observation that air near the ground is cleaner on average than the air at the top of the canopy.

  14. [A comparative study on domestic and foreign emission standards of air pollutants for cement industry].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei; Li, Xiao-Qian; Ji, Liang; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Guo-Hua; Che, Fei; Li, Gang; Zhang, Guo-Ning

    2014-12-01

    The new National Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Cement Industry (GB 4915-2013) becomes effective on Mar. 1st, 2014. It will play an important role in pollution prevention, total emission reduction, structure adjustment, and layout optimization for cement industry. Based on the research of emission standard in China, U. S., EU and Japan, the similarities and differences in the pollutant projects, control indicators, limits and means of implementation were discussed and advice was proposed, with the purpose to provide a reference for revision of emission standard, and to improve the level of environmental management and pollution control.

  15. Revisiting the mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence emission induced by femtosecond filament in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Suyu; Jiang, Yuanfei; Chen, Anmin; He, Lanhai; Liu, Dunli; Jin, Mingxing

    2017-03-01

    The backward propagating and side emitted fluorescence during the femtosecond filamentation in air is experimentally investigated in this paper. By comparing the fluorescence emission in the circular and linear polarization states, we find that in the shorter focal length case, the direct ionization of N 2 greatly affects the fluorescence emission behaviors: the fluorescence from N2 + and N 2 is always stronger in the linear and circular polarization cases, respectively. Based on the observation, the emission mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence emission induced by a femtosecond filament is discussed.

  16. Copper emissions from a high volume air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Toma, J.

    1975-01-01

    High volume air samplers (hi vols) are described which utilize a brush-type electric motor to power the fans used for pulling air through the filter. Anomalously high copper values were attributed to removal of copper from the commutator into the air stream due to arcing of the brushes and recirculation through the filter. Duplicate hi vols were set up under three operating conditions: (1) unmodified; (2) gasketed to prevent internal recirculation; and (3) gasketed and provided with a pipe to transport the motor exhaust some 20 feet away. The results of 5 days' operation demonstrate that hi vols can suddenly start emitting increased amounts of copper with no discernible operational indication, and that recirculation and capture on the filter can take place. Copper levels found with hi vols whose exhaust was discharged at a distance downwind were among the lowest found, and apparently provides a satisfactory solution to copper contamination.

  17. Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoyoglu, S.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-11-01

    Emissions from the marine transport sector are one of the least regulated anthropogenic emission sources and contribute significantly to air pollution. Although strict limits were introduced recently for the maximum sulfur content in marine fuels in the SECAs (sulfur emission control areas) and in the EU ports, sulfur emissions outside the SECAs and emissions of other components in all European maritime areas have continued to increase in the last two decades. We have used the air quality model CAMx with and without ship emissions for the year 2006 to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual as well as seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5 and the dry and wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Europe. Our results suggest that emissions from international shipping affect the air quality in northern and southern Europe differently and their contributions to the air concentrations vary seasonally. The largest changes in pollutant concentrations due to ship emissions were predicted for summer. Increased concentrations of the primary particle mass were found only along the shipping routes whereas concentrations of the secondary pollutants were affected over a larger area. Concentrations of particulate sulfate increased due to ship emissions in the Mediterranean (up to 60 %), in the English Channel and the North Sea (30-35 %) while increases in particulate nitrate levels were found especially in the north, around the Benelux area (20 %) where there were high NH3 land-based emissions. Our model results showed that not only the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants are affected by ship emissions, but also depositions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds increase significantly along the shipping routes. NOx emissions from the ships especially in the English Channel and the North Sea, cause a decrease in the dry deposition of reduced nitrogen at source regions by moving it from the gas-phase to the

  18. The mechanism of light emission from a scanning tunnelling microscope operating in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogez, B.; Cao, S.; Dujardin, G.; Comtet, G.; Le Moal, E.; Mayne, A.; Boer-Duchemin, E.

    2016-11-01

    The scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) may be used as a low-energy, electrical nanosource of surface plasmon polaritons and light. In this article, we demonstrate that the optimum mode of operation of the STM for maximum photon emission is completely different in air than in vacuum. To this end, we investigate the emission of photons, the variation in the relative tip-sample distance and the measured current as a function of time for an STM operating in air. Contrary to the case of an STM operating in vacuum, the measured current between the tip and sample for an STM in air is very unstable (rapidly fluctuating in time) when the applied voltage between the tip and sample is in the ˜1.5-3 V range (i.e., in the energy range of visible photons). The photon emission occurs in short (50 μs) bursts when the STM tip is closest to the sample. The current instabilities are shown to be a key ingredient for producing intense light emission from an STM operating in air (photon emission rate several orders of magnitude higher than for stable current). These results are explained in terms of the interplay between the tunnel current and the electrochemical current in the ubiquitous thin water layer that exists when working in air.

  19. Method and apparatus for reducing cold-phase emissions by utilizing oxygen-enriched intake air

    DOEpatents

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Stork, Kevin C.

    1997-01-01

    An oxygen-enriched air intake control system for an internal combustion engine includes air directing apparatus to control the air flow into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of the engine, ambient air flowing from an air filter of the engine flows through the air directing apparatus into the intake of the engine. In order to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions that tend to be produced by the engine during a short period of time after the engine is started, the air directing apparatus diverts for a short period of time following the start up of the engine at least a portion of the ambient air from the air filter through a secondary path. The secondary path includes a selectively permeable membrane through which the diverted portion of the ambient air flows. The selectively permeable membrane separates nitrogen and oxygen from the diverted air so that oxygen enriched air containing from about 23% to 25% oxygen by volume is supplied to the intake of the engine.

  20. The Impact of Future Emissions Changes on Air Pollution Concentrations and Related Human Health Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Williams, M.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of potential health benefits of reductions in air pollution on the local scale is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study is to conduct health impact assessment (HIA) by utilizing regionally and spatially specific data in order to assess the influence of future emission scenarios on human health. In the first stage of this investigation, a modeling study was carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry to estimate ambient concentrations of air pollutants for the baseline year 2009, and for the future emission scenarios in southern Germany. Anthropogenic emissions for the baseline year 2009 are derived from the emission inventory provided by the Netherlands Organization of Applied Scientific Research (TNO) (Denier van der Gon et al., 2010). For Germany, the TNO emissions were replaced by gridded emission data with a high spatial resolution of 1/64 x 1/64 degrees. Future air quality simulations are carried out under different emission scenarios, which reflect possible energy and climate measures in year 2030. The model set-up included a nesting approach, where three domains with horizontal resolution of 18 km, 6 km and 2 km were defined. The simulation results for the baseline year 2009 are used to quantify present-day health burdens. Concentration-response functions (CRFs) for PM2.5 and NO2 from the WHO Health risks of air Pollution in Europe (HRAPIE) project were applied to population-weighted mean concentrations to estimate relative risks and hence to determine numbers of attributable deaths and associated life-years lost. In the next step, future health impacts of projected concentrations were calculated taking into account different emissions scenarios. The health benefits that we assume with air pollution reductions can be used to provide options for future policy decisions to protect public health.