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Sample records for air eventually turned

  1. Estrogen turns down "the AIRE".

    PubMed

    Bakhru, Pearl; Su, Maureen A

    2016-04-01

    Genetic alterations are known drivers of autoimmune disease; however, there is a much higher incidence of autoimmunity in women, implicating sex-specific factors in disease development. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene contributes to the maintenance of central tolerance, and complete loss of AIRE function results in the development of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1. In this issue of the JCI, Dragin and colleagues demonstrate that AIRE expression is downregulated in females as the result of estrogen-mediated alterations at the AIRE promoter. The association between estrogen and reduction of AIRE may at least partially account for the elevated incidence of autoimmune disease in women and has potential implications for sex hormone therapy.

  2. Effect of air-flow rate and turning frequency on bio-drying of dewatered sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling; Gu, Wei-Mei; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming

    2010-12-01

    Sludge bio-drying is an approach for biomass energy utilization, in which sludge is dried by means of the heat generated by aerobic degradation of its organic substances. The study aimed at investigating the interactive influence of air-flow rate and turning frequency on water removal and biomass energy utilization. Results showed that a higher air-flow rate (0.0909m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) led to lower temperature than did the lower one (0.0455m(3)h(-1)kg(-1)) by 17.0% and 13.7% under turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow rate and lower turning frequency, temperature cumulation was almost similar to that with the lower air-flow rate and higher turning frequency. The doubled air-flow rate improved the total water removal ratio by 2.86% (19.5gkg(-1) initial water) and 11.5% (75.0gkg(-1) initial water) with turning per two days and four days respectively, indicating that there was no remarkable advantage for water removal with high air-flow rate, especially with high turning frequency. The heat used for evaporation was 60.6-72.6% of the total heat consumption (34,400-45,400kJ). The higher air-flow rate enhanced volatile solids (VS) degradation thus improving heat generation by 1.95% (800kJ) and 8.96% (3200kJ) with turning per two days and four days. With the higher air-flow rate, heat consumed by sensible heat of inlet air and heat utilization efficiency for evaporation was higher than the lower one. With the higher turning frequency, sensible heat of materials and heat consumed by turning was higher than lower one.

  3. Static voltage distribution between turns of secondary winding of air-core spiral strip transformer and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong-bo; Liu, Jin-liang; Cheng, Xin-bing; Zhang, Yu

    2011-09-01

    The static voltage distribution between winding turns has great impact on output characteristics and lifetime of the air-core spiral strip pulse transformer (ACSSPT). In this paper, winding inductance was calculated by electromagnetic theory, so that the static voltage distribution between turns of secondary winding of ACSSPT was analyzed conveniently. According to theoretical analysis, a voltage gradient because of the turn-to-turn capacitance was clearly noticeable across the ground turns. Simulation results of Pspice and CST EM Studio codes showed that the voltage distribution between turns of secondary winding had linear increments from the output turn to the ground turn. In experiment, the difference in increased voltage between the ground turns and the output turns of a 20-turns secondary winding is almost 50%, which is believed to be responsible for premature breakdown of the insulation, particularly between the ground turns. The experimental results demonstrated the theoretical analysis and simulation results, which had important value for stable and long lifetime ACSSPT design. A new ACSSPT with improved structure has been used successfully in intense electron beam accelerators steadily.

  4. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungan, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2008-02-05

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in 0 reactive flow JWL++ and Linked Cheetah V4, mostly at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. The physical basis of the input parameters is considered.

  5. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungen, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2007-05-30

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in the Linked Cheetah V4.0 reactive flow code at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. A report card of 25 tests run with the same settings on LX-17 is shown, possibly the most extensive simultaneous calibration yet tried with an explosive. The physical basis of some of the input parameters is considered.

  6. Do-It-Yourself Air Sensors – Exploring the Atmosphere and Turning on Light Bulbs!?

    EPA Science Inventory

    These are educational slides that will be presented in a webinar to the National Science Teachers Association. Topics covered include general air quality, current EPA research, and EPA's particle sensor kit that is a classroom activity.

  7. Righting and turning in mid-air using appendage inertia: reptile tails, analytical models and bio-inspired robots.

    PubMed

    Jusufi, A; Kawano, D T; Libby, T; Full, R J

    2010-12-01

    Unlike the falling cat, lizards can right themselves in mid-air by a swing of their large tails in one direction causing the body to rotate in the other. Here, we developed a new three-dimensional analytical model to investigate the effectiveness of tails as inertial appendages that change body orientation. We anchored our model using the morphological parameters of the flat-tailed house gecko Hemidactylus platyurus. The degree of roll in air righting and the amount of yaw in mid-air turning directly measured in house geckos matched the model's results. Our model predicted an increase in body roll and turning as tails increase in length relative to the body. Tails that swung from a near orthogonal plane relative to the body (i.e. 0-30° from vertical) were the most effective at generating body roll, whereas tails operating at steeper angles (i.e. 45-60°) produced only half the rotation. To further test our analytical model's predictions, we built a bio-inspired robot prototype. The robot reinforced how effective attitude control can be attained with simple movements of an inertial appendage.

  8. Flying-qualities criteria for wings-level-turn maneuvering during an air-to-ground weapon delivery task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammonds, R. I.; Bunnell, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    A moving base simulator experiment demonstrated that a wings-level-turn control mode improved flying qualities for air to ground weapon delivery compared with those of a conventionally controlled aircraft. Evaluations of criteria for dynamic response for this system have shown that pilot ratings correlate well on the basis of equivalent time constant of the initial response. Ranges of this time constant, as well as digital system transport delays and lateral acceleration control authorities that encompassed level 1 through 3 handling qualities, were determined.

  9. Flying-qualities criteria for wings-level-turn maneuvering during an air-to-ground weapon delivery task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammonds, R. I.; Bunnell, J. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A moving-base simulator experiment conducted at Ames Research Center demonstrated that a wings-level-turn control mode improved flying qualities for air-to-ground weapons delivery compared with those of a conventional aircraft. Evaluations of criteria for dynamic response for this system have shown that pilot ratings correlate well on the basis of equivalent time constant of the initial response. Ranges of this time constant, as well as digital-system transport delays and lateral-acceleration control authorities that encompassed Level I through Level III handling qualities, were determined.

  10. A "turn-on" fluorescent sensor for ozone detection in ambient air using protein-directed gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Qi, Wenjing; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Qing

    2017-04-01

    A "turn-on" fluorescent sensor for ozone using bovine serum albumin-directed gold nanoclusters (BSA-Au NCs) via energy transfer was developed. The spectral overlap of fluorescent spectrum of BSA-Au NCs with absorption spectrum of indigo carmine (IDS) was utilized. Ozone cleaves C = C bond of IDS and suppresses energy transfer from BSA-Au NCs to IDS. Therefore, this proposed fluorescent sensor is a "turn-on" detection motif. It is the first application of fluorescent nanoclusters in sensitively detecting ozone from 0.2 to 12 μM with the limit of detection of 35 nM (the volume of 500 μL, 1.68 ppb). The proposed fluorescent sensor for ozone is more sensitive and faster (within 2 min) than most methods and is with good selectivity for ozone detection against other reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen, or metallic ions. Besides, the proposed method is also utlized in ozone detection in ambient air by monitoring 1 h (60 min) in Qijiang district in Chongqing city. The average of concentration of ozone in ambient air ranges from 44.97 to 52.85 μg/m(3). The results are compared with the automatic monitoring data provided by Qijiang Environmental Monitoring Station and the relative deviations range, respectively, from 2.1 to 5.6%, which suggests that it is a promising fluorescent sensor for ozone in ambient air. This study not only develops a new model of energy transfer motif using BSA-Au NCs as donor and IDS as acceptor but also expands the application of BSA-Au NCs in environmental science. Graphical abstract A "turn-on" fluorescent sensor for ozone detection using bovine serum albumin-directed gold nanoclusters (BSA-Au NCs) via energy transfer is developed. It is the first time to utilize spectral overlap of fluorescent spectrum of BSA-Au NCs with absorption spectrum of indigo carmine and to achieve fast, sensitive, and selective ozone detection with a limit of detection of down to 35 nM (the volume of 500 μL, 1.68 ppb).

  11. LX-17 Corner-Turning and Reactive Flow Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Andreski, H; Cook III, C F; Garza, R; Pastrone, R; Phillips, D; Roeske, F; Vitello, P; Molitoris, J

    2004-03-11

    We have performed a series of highly-instrumented experiments examining corner-turning of detonation. A TATB booster is inset 15 mm into LX-17 (92.5% TATB, 7.5% kel-F) so that the detonation must turn a right angle around an air well. An optical pin located at the edge of the TATB gives the start time of the corner-turn. The breakout time on the side and back edges is measured with streak cameras. Three high-resolution X-ray images were taken on each experiment to examine the details of the detonation. We have concluded that the detonation cannot turn the corner and subsequently fails, but the shock wave continues to propagate in the unreacted explosive, leaving behind a dead zone. The detonation front farther out from the corner slowly turns and eventually reaches the air well edge 180{sup o} from its original direction. The dead zone is stable and persists 7.7 {micro}s after the corner-turn, although it has drifted into the original air well area. Our regular reactive flow computer models sometimes show temporary failure but they recover quickly and are unable to model the dead zones. We present a failure model that cuts off the reaction rate below certain detonation velocities and reproduces the qualitative features of the corner-turning failure.

  12. Eventually Periodic Solutions of a Max-Type Difference Equation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; He, Qiuli; Liu, Xin-He; Tao, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    We study the following max-type difference equation xn = max⁡{An/xn−r, xn−k}, n = 1,2,…, where {An}n=1+∞ is a periodic sequence with period p and k, r ∈ {1,2,…} with gcd(k, r) = 1 and k ≠ r, and the initial conditions x1−d, x2−d,…, x0 are real numbers with d = max⁡{r, k}. We show that if p = 1 (or p ≥ 2 and k is odd), then every well-defined solution of this equation is eventually periodic with period k, which generalizes the results of (Elsayed and Stevic´ (2009), Iričanin and Elsayed (2010), Qin et al. (2012), and Xiao and Shi (2013)) to the general case. Besides, we construct an example with p ≥ 2 and k being even which has a well-defined solution that is not eventually periodic. PMID:25101315

  13. Turning Aspirations into Reality: Ensuring Female and Minority Representation in the US Air Force Officer Corps and Senior Leader Ranks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    intergroup conflict .”58 In an organizaton with a mission oriented culture, such as the US Air Force, getting the job done typically takes precedence...The Psychology and Management of Workplace Diversity (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2004). 9 Defense Business Board, Task Group on Increasing...is more likely to gain legitimacy, and therefore public support, during times of conflict . In the case of the access/legitimacy argument for

  14. Why do even satisfied newlyweds eventually go on to divorce?

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2012-02-01

    Although divorce typically follows an extended period of unhappiness that begins early in marriage, some couples who are very happy throughout the first several years of marriage will also go on to divorce. This study aimed to identify risk factors early in marriage that distinguish initially satisfied couples who eventually divorce from those who remain married. We identified 136 couples reporting stably high levels of relationship satisfaction in the first 4 years of marriage. We compared the couples who went on to divorce by the 10-year follow-up with the couples who remained married on initial measures of commitment, observed communication, stress, and personality. Divorcing couples displayed more negative communication, emotion, and social support as newlyweds compared with couples who did not divorce. No significant differences were found in the other domains, in relationship satisfaction, or in positive behaviors. Overall, results indicate that even couples who are very successful at navigating the early years of marriage can be vulnerable to later dissolution if their interpersonal exchanges are poorly regulated. We speculate that, paradoxically, the many strengths possessed by these couples may mask their potent interpersonal liabilities, posing challenges for educational interventions designed to help these couples.

  15. Taking Turns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Two people take turns selecting from an even number of items. Their relative preferences over the items can be described as a permutation, then tools from algebraic combinatorics can be used to answer various questions. We describe each person's optimal selection strategies including how each could make use of knowing the other's preferences. We…

  16. Eventual Participation in GMES of Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balodis, J.; Janpaule, I.; Rubans, A.; Zarinjsh, A.; Abele, M.; Ubelis, A.; Cekule, M.

    2012-04-01

    for the monitoring of the environmental changes. The satellite imagery maps are used too. The knowledge of photonics discovers additional capabilities in development of airborne and spaceborn applications for earth observation. The ongoing process is accelerated in co-operation with a Riga Technical University. Scientific staff of "Fotonika-LV" project and LU GGI are looking forward for eventual participation in GMES project.

  17. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  18. Scaling relationships between sizes of nucleation regions and eventual sizes of microearthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Furumoto, Muneyoshi

    2007-10-01

    We investigate the initial rupture process of microearthquakes to reveal relationships between nucleation region sizes and eventual earthquake sizes. In order to obtain high quality waveform data, we installed a trigger recording system with a sampling frequency of 10 kHz at the base of a deep borehole at the Nojima Fault, Japan. We analyze waveform data of 31 events around the borehole, with seismic moment ranging from 4.2 × 10 9 Nm to 7.1 × 10 11 Nm. We use both a circular crack model with an accelerating rupture velocity (SK model) [Sato, T., Kanamori, H., 1999. Beginning of earthquakes modeled with the Griffith's fracture criterion, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 89, 80-93.], which generates a slow initial phase of velocity pulse, and a circular crack model with a constant rupture velocity (SH model) [Sato, T, Hirasawa, T., 1973. Body wave spectra from propagating shear cracks, J. Phys. Earth, 21, 415-431.], which generates a ramp-like velocity pulse. Source parameters of these two models are estimated by waveform inversion of the first half cycle of the observed velocity pulse applying both a grid search and a non-linear least squares method. 14 of 31 events are never reproduced by the SH model with a constant Q operator. But SK model with a constant Q operator provides a size of the pre-existing crack, corresponding to the size of the nucleation regions, and a size of the eventual crack. We recognize that (i) the eventual seismic moment is approximately scaled as the cube of the size of pre-existing cracks, (ii) the eventual seismic moment is scaled as the cube of the size of eventual cracks, and (iii) the size of eventual cracks is roughly proportional to the size of pre-existing cracks. We, thus, conclude that the size of eventual earthquakes is controlled by the size of the nucleation regions.

  19. Turning towards History: Turning towards Utopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman-Moir, John

    2004-01-01

    Turning towards history--to be contrasted with turning away from history--captures the Marxian sense of education. Marx worked out the elements of a theory of political education in relation to history by equating education with the coincidence of the changing of circumstances and people. This theory received its most comprehensive yet succinct…

  20. What 'empirical turn in bioethics'?

    PubMed

    Hurst, Samia

    2010-10-01

    Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the 'empirical turn' in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand 'empirical turn'. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a 'turn'. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting empirical research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term 'empirical turn'. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake.

  1. Experimental investigation of the effect of variously-shaped ribs on local heat transfer on the outer wall of the turning portion of a U-channel inside solar air heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Tareq; Alami, Abdul Hai; Sunden, Bengt

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, an experimental investigation of convective heat transfer and pressure drop was carried out for the turning portion of a U-channel where the outer wall was equipped with ribs. The shape of the ribs was varied. The investigation aims to give guidelines for improving the thermo-hydraulic performance of a solar air heater at the turning portion of a U-channel. Both the U-channel and the ribs were made in acrylic material to allow optical access for measuring the surface temperature by using a high-resolution technique based on narrow band thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC R35C5 W) and a CCD camera placed to face the turning portion of the U-channel. The uncertainties were estimated to 5 and 7 % for the Nusselt number and friction factor, respectively. The pressure drop was approximately the same for all the considered shapes of the ribs while the dimpled rib case gave the highest heat transfer coefficient while the grooved rib presented the highest performance index.

  2. Prediction of Eventual Suicide in Psychiatric Inpatients by Clinical Ratings of Hopelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Aaron T.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Used 9-point clinical rating scale to assess severity of hopelessness in 141 patients hospitalized with suicide ideation. Followed patients from 5 to 10 years; 10 eventually committed suicide. Mean hopelessness rating for patients committing suicide was significantly higher than that for patients not committing suicide. Cutoff score of 6 or above…

  3. The Untold Story of Mexico’s Rise and Eventual Monopoly of the Methamphetamine Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    clandestine methamphetamine production and abuse in the United States.64 64 U.S. Drug Enforcement...reported that: Meth remains the largest drug threat throughout Wyoming, and methamphetamine arrests exceed arrests for all other drugs. Clandestine ...MEXICO’S RISE AND EVENTUAL MONOPOLY OF THE METHAMPHETAMINE TRADE by Steven Scott Whitworth June 2008 Thesis Advisor: Jeanne Giraldo

  4. Note on Hovering Turns with Tandem Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, John P; Tapscott, Robert J

    1955-01-01

    The source of an appreciable pitching-moment difference between left and right hovering turns for a tandem helicopter is described. The difference in pitching moment results from the difference in rotational speed of the counter rotating rotors with respect to the air while the helicopter is turning.

  5. To turn or not to turn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beta, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    Bacteria typically swim in straight runs, interruped by sudden turning events. In particular, some species are limited to a reversal in the swimming direction as the only turning maneuver at their disposal. In a recent article, Großmann et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 043009) introduce a theoretical framework to analyze the diffusive properties of active particles following this type of run-and-reverse pattern. Based on a stochastic clock model to mimic the regulatory pathway that triggers reversal events, they show that a run-and-reverse swimmer can optimize its diffusive spreading by tuning the reversal rate according to the level of rotational noise. With their approach, they open up promising new perspectives of how to incorporate the dynamics of intracellular signaling into coarse-grained active particle descriptions.

  6. Early hippocampal volume loss as a marker of eventual memory deficits caused by repeated stress

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohammed Mostafizur; Callaghan, Charlotte K.; Kerskens, Christian M.; Chattarji, Sumantra; O’Mara, Shane M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to severe and prolonged stress has detrimental effects on the hippocampus. However, relatively little is known about the gradual changes in hippocampal structure, and its behavioral consequences, over the course of repeated stress. Behavioral analyses during 10 days of chronic stress pointed to a delayed decline in spatial memory, the full impact of which is evident only after the end of stress. In contrast, concurrent volumetric measurements in the same animals revealed significant reduction in hippocampal volumes in stressed animals relative to their unstressed counterparts, as early as the third day of stress. Notably, animals that were behaviorally the worst affected at the end of chronic stress suffered the most pronounced early loss in hippocampal volume. Together, these findings support the view that not only is smaller hippocampal volume linked to stress-induced memory deficits, but it may also act as an early risk factor for the eventual development of cognitive impairments seen in stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:27374165

  7. PRESCHOOL SPEECH ARTICULATION AND NONWORD REPETITION ABILITIES MAY HELP PREDICT EVENTUAL RECOVERY OR PERSISTENCE OF STUTTERING

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Caroline; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In preschool children, we investigated whether expressive and receptive language, phonological, articulatory, and/or verbal working memory proficiencies aid in predicting eventual recovery or persistence of stuttering. Methods Participants included 65 children, including 25 children who do not stutter (CWNS) and 40 who stutter (CWS) recruited at age 3;9–5;8. At initial testing, participants were administered the Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd edition (TACL-3), Structured Photographic Expressive Language Test, 3rd edition (SPELT-3), Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology-Consonant Inventory subtest (BBTOP-CI), Nonword Repetition Test (NRT; Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998), and Test of Auditory Perceptual Skills-Revised (TAPS-R) auditory number memory and auditory word memory subtests. Stuttering behaviors of CWS were assessed in subsequent years, forming groups whose stuttering eventually persisted (CWS-Per; n=19) or recovered (CWS-Rec; n=21). Proficiency scores in morphosyntactic skills, consonant production, verbal working memory for known words, and phonological working memory and speech production for novel nonwords obtained at the initial testing were analyzed for each group. Results CWS-Per were less proficient than CWNS and CWS-Rec in measures of consonant production (BBTOP-CI) and repetition of novel phonological sequences (NRT). In contrast, receptive language, expressive language, and verbal working memory abilities did not distinguish CWS-Rec from CWS-Per. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that preschool BBTOP-CI scores and overall NRT proficiency significantly predicted future recovery status. Conclusion Results suggest that phonological and speech articulation abilities in the preschool years should be considered with other predictive factors as part of a comprehensive risk assessment for the development of chronic stuttering. PMID:25173455

  8. Rover Pre-Turn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the view from the front hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit before the rover begins a crucial 3-point turn to face in a west direction and roll off the lander.

  9. Turning points in removable partial denture philosophy.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Michael P

    2010-10-01

    This article discusses key turning points in removable partial denture (RPD) philosophy. Early advancements tended to focus upon improving the technical quality of the prosthesis itself. The beginning of the 20th century brought significant public pressure upon the dental profession due to consequences associated with poor quality fixed prostheses. The result was dramatic improvement and heavy demand for RPDs. Technical and efficiency issues conspired to temper this enthusiasm, eventually resulting in reduced respect for RPDs. By highlighting key writings and technical issues during these periods of change it is hoped the reader will gain a more precise understanding of the current status of RPD philosophy.

  10. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M Cristina

    2015-12-18

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse-graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. The coupling between spin-current density to the local vorticity field through a nonlinear friction gives rise to a hydrodynamic mode with angular-dependent propagation speed at long wavelengths. This mode becomes unstable as a result of the growth of bend and splay deformations augmented by the spin wave, signaling the transition to complex spatiotemporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks.

  11. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2015-12-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse-graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. The coupling between spin-current density to the local vorticity field through a nonlinear friction gives rise to a hydrodynamic mode with angular-dependent propagation speed at long wavelengths. This mode becomes unstable as a result of the growth of bend and splay deformations augmented by the spin wave, signaling the transition to complex spatiotemporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks.

  12. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2015-03-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well polarized flocks. The continuum equations are derived by coarse graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. When the inertia is large, we find a novel instability that signals the transition to complex spatio-temporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks. This work was supported by the NSF Awards DMR-1305184 and DGE-1068780 at Syracuse University and NSF Award PHY11-25915 and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Grant No. 2919 at the KITP at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

  13. Flip Turns with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queeney, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Kate Queeney, a professor of chemistry at Smith College, turned to a former student to receive one-on-one instruction in swimming. The student, who had been unsure and scared in chemistry class, seemed like an entirely different person when teaching the teacher. This article describes how the author learned that there is something undeniably…

  14. Bacteria turn tiny gears

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Swarms of bacteria turn two 380-micron long gears, opening the possibility of building hybrid biological machines at the microscopic scale. Read more at Wired: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/12/bacterial-micro-machine/#more-15684 or Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=brownian-motion-bacteria

  15. 32 CFR 935.135 - Turns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Turns. 935.135 Section 935.135 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND... motion from a stopped position, or change from or merge into a lane of traffic, until he can safely...

  16. 32 CFR 935.135 - Turns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Turns. 935.135 Section 935.135 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND... motion from a stopped position, or change from or merge into a lane of traffic, until he can safely...

  17. Diamond turning of glass

    SciTech Connect

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  18. A Quasar Turns On

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    The intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) has discovered a quasar the brightly-shining, active nucleus of a galaxy abruptly turning on in what appears to be the fastest such transition ever seen in such an object.A Rapid TransitionQuasars are expected to show variations in brightness on timescales of hours to millions of years, but its not often that we get to study their major variability in real time! So far, weve discovered only a dozen changing-look quasars active galactic nuclei that exhibit major changes in their spectral class and brightness between observations. Roughly half of these were quasars that turned on and half were quasars that turned off, generally on timescales of maybe 5 or 10 years.The dramatic change in spectrum of iPTF 16bco between the archival SDSS data from 2004 (bottom) and the follow-up spectroscopy from Keck 2+DEIMOS in 2016 (top). [Adapted from Gezari et al. 2017]In June 2016, however, a team of scientists led by Suvi Gezari (University of Maryland) discovered iPTF 16bco, a nuclear transient that wasnt there the last time Palomar checked in 2012. A search through archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey and GALEX data in addition to some follow-up X-ray imaging and spectroscopic observations told the team what they needed to know: iPTF 16bco is a quasar that only just turned on within the 500 days preceding the iPTF observations.This source, in fact, is a 100-million-solar-mass black hole located at the center of a galaxy at a redshift of z= 0.237. In just over a year, the source changed classification from a galaxy with weak narrow-line emission to a quasar with characteristic strong, broad emission lines and a ten-fold increase in continuum brightness! What caused this sudden transition?Instabilities at Fault?iPTF 16bco and the other known changing-look quasars with disappearing (red circles) and appearing (blue circles) broad-line emission. [Adapted from Gezari et al. 2017]Gezari and collaborators used the large number of recent

  19. Correlation of Admission Metrics with Eventual Success in Mathematics Academic Performance of Freshmen in AMAIUB's Business Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calucag, Lina S.; Talisic, Geraldo C.; Caday, Aileen B.

    2016-01-01

    This is a correlational study research design, which aimed to determine the correlation of admission metrics with eventual success in mathematics academic performance of the admitted 177 first year students of Bachelor of Science in Business Informatics and 59 first year students of Bachelor of Science in International Studies. Using Pearson's…

  20. Page turning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J. (Inventor); Eklund, Wayne D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A device for holding reading materials for use by readers without arm mobility is presented. The device is adapted to hold the reading materials in position for reading with the pages displayed to enable turning by use of a rubber tipped stick that is held in the mouth and has a pair of rectangular frames. The frames are for holding and positioning the reading materials opened in reading posture with the pages displayed at a substantially unobstructed sighting position for reading. The pair of rectangular frames are connected to one another by a hinge so the angle between the frames may be varied thereby varying the inclination of the reading material. A pair of bent spring mounted wires for holding opposing pages of the reading material open for reading without substantial visual interference of the pages is mounted to the base. The wires are also adjustable to the thickness of the reading material and have a variable friction adjustment. This enables the force of the wires against the pages to be varied and permits the reader to manipulate the pages with the stick.

  1. IASI is turning ten!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; George, Maya; Bauduin, Sophie; Boynard, Anne; Coheur, Pierre-François; Clarisse, Lieven; Crevoisier, Cyril; Doniki, Stamatia; Hadji-Lazaro, Juliette; Hurtmans, Daniel; Lacour, Jean-Lionel; Ronsmans, Gaétane; Safieddine, Sarah; Van Damme, Martin; Wespes, Catherine; Whitburn, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The IASI mission is a versatile mission that fulfills the needs of three different communities: numerical weather prediction, climate research and atmospheric composition monitoring. In order to converge on the design of such an instrument all three communities had to make "reasonable accommodations" 20 years ago, and it turns out that this mission is now recognized as essential for weather forecasting, and for tracking pollutants/greenhouse gases from space. With the launch of MetOp-B and -C and the continuity and new challenges offered by IASI-NG, an exceptional data record will be available in the next few years. The presentation (movie) illustrates some of the major findings related to atmospheric composition changes as monitored by IASI during the last 10 years. It relies on accurate data available in near real time along with an excellent horizontal coverage. We will show the global scale mapping of gases, along with the detection of dust and ash particles, as well as the potential of the mission to catch special events such as volcanic eruptions, large fires and pollution peaks.

  2. Turn Continuation and Clause Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the viability of the analytic distinction between "turn-constructional unit (TCU) continuation" (i.e., continuing a turn beyond a point of possible completion with grammatically dependent material) and "new TCU" (i.e., continuing a turn with grammatically independent material) when hypotactic clause combinations are involved.…

  3. As the Third World turns.

    PubMed

    Hagerman, E

    1991-01-01

    Throughout the 3rd World, family planners have turned to television in order to spread their message. Combining education and entertainment in the form of advertisements and soap operas, television offers a way to provide clear and memorable information about an otherwise sensitive issue. In 1977, Mexico's Miguel Sabido developed the idea of using television as a means of social instruction. His initial soap opera dealt with adult literacy, and the success of that program led him to develop a show focusing on family planning called "Come Along with Me." Following the airing of this soap opera, attendance to family planning clinics increased by 32%. Since then, Mexico has produced a series of soap operas dealing with sex education, women's status, and the treatment of children. Soon, Mexican viewers will see a soap opera addressing the issue of AIDS. Family planners in other countries have also begun employing television. Conventional communication methods require trained counselors travelling villages, and most often, those most in need of family planning are the most difficult to reach. But over the last 10 years, the number of televisions in the Third World has doubled, and there is now approximately 1 television for every 12 people in the developing nations. In Turkey, advertisements have been used to promote modern methods of contraception. In Brazil, vasectomy has been one of the topics of ad campaigns. Mexico, the Philippines, and Nigeria have also experimented with the use of music videos. Nigeria has already had great success in integrating family planning themes to an already existing variety show. Family planning visits have increased by 47%. International agencies have recognized the value of television and have provided financial support.

  4. Nine Frames as Jupiter Turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This sequence of nine true-color, narrow-angle images shows the varying appearance of Jupiter as it rotated through more than a complete 360-degree turn. The smallest features seen in this sequence are no bigger than about 380 kilometers (about 236 miles). Rotating more than twice as fast as Earth, Jupiter completes one rotation in about 10 hours. These images were taken on Oct. 22 and 23, 2000. From image to image (proceeding left to right across each row and then down to the next row), cloud features on Jupiter move from left to right before disappearing over the edge onto the nightside of the planet. The most obvious Jovian feature is the Great Red Spot, which can be seen moving onto the dayside in the third frame (below and to the left of the center of the planet). In the fourth frame, taken about 1 hour and 40 minutes later, the Great Red Spot has been carried by the planet's rotation to the east and does not appear again until the final frame, which was taken one complete rotation after the third frame.

    Unlike weather systems on Earth, which change markedly from day to day, large cloud systems in Jupiter's colder, thicker atmosphere are long-lived, so the two frames taken one rotation apart have a very similar appearance. However, when this sequence of images is eventually animated, strong winds blowing eastward at some latitudes and westward at other latitudes will be readily apparent. The results of such differential motions can be seen even in the still frames shown here. For example, the clouds of the Great Red Spot rotate counterclockwise. The strong westward winds northeast of the Great Red Spot are deflected around the spot and form a wake of turbulent clouds downstream (visible in the fourth image), just as a rock in a rapidly flowing river deflects the fluid around it.

    The equatorial zone on Jupiter is currently bright white, indicating the presence of clouds much like cirrus clouds on Earth, but made of ammonia instead of water ice. This

  5. Thrust-vectored differential turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, H. J.; Cliff, E. M.; Lefton, L.

    1980-01-01

    Barrier surface construction in the joint space of the differential turning game for thrust-vectored vs. conventional aircraft is discussed. Differential-turn studies are based on modifications of existing computer programs including an energy-turn program, and one which generates hodograph data. Optimal turning flight in energy approximation is discussed for the conventional aircraft configurations. It is concluded that any advantages realized from thrust-vectoring are minor, unless hover is possible, where advantages would be major at low energies, and affect tactics at high energies as well.

  6. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Why Does Hair Turn Gray? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does Hair Turn Gray? Print A A A en español ¿ ... ever watched someone try to cover up gray hair by dyeing it? Or maybe you wonder why ...

  7. Mycogen magically turns around agrigenetics

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, G.

    1995-05-01

    This short article describes how Mycogen, which acquired Agrigenetics/Lubrizol`s seed industry in the 1993, finally turned a profit after drastic sales and brand consolidation updates. Lubrizol is a supplier of lubricant additives to the energy industry. Until Mycogen turned it around, Agrigenetics stood as a stark example of the unfulfilled dreams plaguing agbiotech.

  8. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Why Does Hair Turn Gray? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does Hair Turn Gray? A A A en español ¿Por ... ever watched someone try to cover up gray hair by dyeing it? Or maybe you wonder why ...

  9. Turns and maneuvers during swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Amneet; Mosberg, Noah; Bale, Rahul; Patankar, Neelesh

    2011-11-01

    In this work we use fully resolved fluid dynamics computations based on an immersed body approach to study fish turns and maneuvers. We present a numerical method to control the trajectory of fish during turns and maneuvers. Fish tracking a prey is presented as an example case. Numerical simulations are carried out on spatially adaptive grid for speed and accuracy. The effect of deformation kinematics and Reynolds number (Re), on the turn radius of an undulatory swimmer, is studied. Power spent during turning at different turn radii and Re is also reported. These results can be used to quantify the cost of various maneuvers and to identify efficient maneuvers to attain the same objective, e.g., reaching a target location during prey tracking. NSF support is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Tune Evaluation From Phased BPM Turn-By-Turn Data

    SciTech Connect

    Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Marsh, W.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-18

    In fast ramping synchrotrons like the Fermilab Booster the conventional methods of betatron tune evaluation from the turn-by-turn data may not work due to rapid changes of the tunes (sometimes in a course of a few dozens of turns) and a high level of noise. We propose a technique based on phasing of signals from a large number of BPMs which significantly increases the signal to noise ratio. Implementation of the method in the Fermilab Booster control system is described and some measurement results are presented.

  11. Turning collectors for solar radiation

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about the polar axis so that the collector is directed toward the sun as the sun tracks the sky each day. It includes two heat-expansive elements and a shadow plate. In the morning a first expansive element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the second expansive element is shaded by the plate. In the afternoon the second element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the first is shaded by the plate.

  12. A Systems Study to Determine the Attractiveness of Solar System Bodies and Sites for Eventual Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andringa, Jason M.; Gray, Andrew A.

    2005-01-01

    A pre-phase A idea-generation team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), has conducted a study to rank all locations in the solar system based on attractiveness for human exploration. The process used to perform the study was composed of the following primary steps: determination of criteria (including value, cost, and risk criteria) upon which to rate sites in the solar system; weighting of the criteria based upon importance to eventual human exploration; selection of sites to consider and assignment of team members to the task of advocating the benefits of particular sites; rating the sites in both the short- and longterm based on team member presentations and team discussions; compilation of a score based on criteria weights and individual ratings. Finally a comparison of the total scores of different sites was completed to determine a ranking of all the bodies and sites in the solar system. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to determine how weightings affect the rankings.

  13. Turning patients over in bed

    MedlinePlus

    Roll patients in bed ... following steps should be followed: Explain to the patient what you are planning to do so the ... Stand on the side of the bed the patient will be turning towards and lower the bed ...

  14. Turning around Newton's Second Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

  15. After a U-Turn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity made its first U-Turn on Mars on Feb. 14, 2004, as the completing move of its longest one-day drive, about 9 meters or 30 feet. This view from the right front hazard identification camera shows the scene in front of Opportunity after the turn, with the selected location for the mission's first trenching operation now directly in front of the rover.

  16. Ontological turns, turnoffs and roundabouts.

    PubMed

    Sismondo, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    There has been much talk of an 'ontological turn' in Science and Technology Studies. This commentary explores some recent work on multiple and historical ontologies, especially articles published in this journal, against a background of constructivism. It can be tempting to read an ontological turn as based and promoting a version of perspectivism, but that is inadequate to the scholarly work and opens multiple ontologies to serious criticisms. Instead, we should read our ontological turn or turns as being about multiplicities of practices and the ways in which these practices shape the material world. Ontologies arise out of practices through which people engage with things; the practices are fundamental and the ontologies derivative. The purchase in this move comes from the elucidating power of the verbs that scholars use to analyze relations of practices and objects--which turn out to be specific cases of constructivist verbs. The difference between this ontological turn and constructivist work in Science and Technology Studies appears to be a matter of emphases found useful for different purposes.

  17. Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dinkel, J.A.; Biggs, J.E.

    1994-03-01

    The Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector has been developed to facilitate the location of shorted turns in magnet coils. Finding these shorted turns is necessary to determine failure modes that are a necessary step in developing future production techniques. Up to this point, coils with shorted turns had the insulation burned off without the fault having been located. This disassembly process destroyed any chance of being able to find the fault. In order to maintain a flux balance in a coupled system such as a magnet coil, the current in a shorted turn must be opposed to the incident current. If the direction of the current in each conductor can be measured relative to the incident current, then the exact location of the short can be determined. In this device, an AC voltage is applied to the magnet under test. A small hand held B-dot pickup coil monitors the magnetic field produced by current in the individual magnet conductors. The relative phase of this pickup coil voltage is compared to a reference signal derived from the input current to detect a current reversal as the B-dot pickup coil is swept over the conductors of the coil under test. This technique however, is limited to only those conductors that are accessible to the hand held probe.

  18. The Physics of Ski Turns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonle, John I.; Nordick, Douglas L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the application of basic dynamics of rotations to the case of turning on skis, first without and then with external torques. Various elements are combined in different techniques and suggestions for further extensions and a list of laboratory exercises based on skiing are included. (DF)

  19. Turning Sunlight into Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    An aqueous solution contains silica particles that have been embedded with photooxidizing cobalt oxide nanocrystals plus a sensitizer to allow the water-splitting reaction to be driven by visible light. When laser light hits the solution it turns blue as the sensitizer absorbs light. Bubbles soon begin to form as oxygen gas is released from the spilt water molecules.

  20. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  1. Terminal retrograde turn of rolling rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Mir Abbas; Sarebangholi, Milad S.; Alam, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-09-01

    We report an unexpected reverse spiral turn in the final stage of the motion of rolling rings. It is well known that spinning disks rotate in the same direction of their initial spin until they stop. While a spinning ring starts its motion with a kinematics similar to disks, i.e., moving along a cycloidal path prograde with the direction of its rigid body rotation, the mean trajectory of its center of mass later develops an inflection point so that the ring makes a spiral turn and revolves in a retrograde direction around a new center. Using high speed imaging and numerical simulations of models featuring a rolling rigid body, we show that the hollow geometry of a ring tunes the rotational air drag resistance so that the frictional force at the contact point with the ground changes its direction at the inflection point and puts the ring on a retrograde spiral trajectory. Our findings have potential applications in designing topologically new surface-effect flying objects capable of performing complex reorientation and translational maneuvers.

  2. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  3. Bacteria turn a tiny gear

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of tiny Bacillus subtillis bacteria turn a single gear, just 380 microns across. (A human hair is about 100 microns across.) The method could be used to create micro-machines. Argonne National Laboratory scientist Igor Aronson pioneered this technique. Read more at the New York Times: http://ow.ly/ODfI or at Argonne: http://ow.ly/ODfa Video courtesy Igor Aronson.

  4. Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

  5. Turning points in reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  6. Bodily-Visual Practices and Turn Continuation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Cecilia E.; Thompson, Sandra A.; Drake, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    This article considers points in turn construction where conversation researchers have shown that talk routinely continues beyond possible turn completion, but where bodily-visual behavior doing such turn extension work is found. The bodily-visual behaviors examined share many features with verbal turn extensions, but it is argued that embodied…

  7. When Is It My Turn To Speak?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orestrom, Bengt

    A study analyzed four dyadic conversations for evidence of the signals operating in the turn-taking process and facilitating the smooth exchange of turns. It found over 20 syntactic, prosodic, and semantic features occurring frequently with turn-taking. The five most significant factors correlating with turn-taking were a prosodically completed…

  8. Turning for Ulcer Reduction (TURN) Study: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Paulden, Mike; Bergstrom, Nancy; Horn, Susan D.; Rapp, Mary; Stern, Anita; Barrett, Ryan; Watkiss, Michael; Krahn, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Background The Turning for Ulcer Reduction (TURN) study was a multisite, randomized controlled trial that aimed to determine the optimal frequency of turning nursing facility residents with mobility limitations who are at moderate and high risk for pressure ulcer (PrU) development. Here we present data from the economic analysis. Objectives This economic analysis aims to estimate the economic consequences for Ontario of switching from a repositioning schedule of 2-hour intervals to a schedule of 3-hour or 4-hour intervals. Data Sources Costs considered in the analysis included those associated with nursing staff time spent repositioning residents and with incontinent care supplies, which included briefs, barrier cream, and washcloths. Results The total economic benefit of switching to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning is estimated to be $11.05 or $16.74 per day, respectively, for every resident at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs. For a typical facility with 123 residents, 41 (33%) of whom are at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs, the total economic benefit is estimated to be $453 daily for 3-hour or $686 daily for 4-hour repositioning. For Ontario as a whole, assuming that there are 77,933 residents at 634 LTC facilities, 25,927 (33%) of whom are at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs, the total economic benefits of switching to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning are estimated to be $286,420 or $433,913 daily, respectively, equivalent to $104.5 million or $158.4 million per year. Limitations We did not consider the savings the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care might incur should less frequent repositioning reduce the incidence of work-related injury among nursing staff, so our findings are potentially conservative. Conclusions A switch to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning appears likely to yield substantial economic benefits to Ontario without placing residents at greater risk of developing PrUs. PMID:26330894

  9. Historical Turning Points in the German Air Force War Effort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1959-06-01

    accomplished by divers from the Ital.ian Navy Regiment"San Marco " was aub ect to innumerable delays.4Z Onoe a bri dgehead had beea f ormed, t he Axi a f...Germany ’a night fighter forcea.B aing his recommendations on a study by Ma or (Engineer) Guenther ofthe Technical Office, von Losaberg suggested

  10. Outsourcing Turns IT Leaders into the New Air Traffic Controllers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2010-01-01

    Many chief information officers (CIOs) have come to accept and even embrace the role of outsourcers in their portfolio of IT services. In 2009, 47 percent of the 352 CIOs surveyed by the Center for Higher Education Chief Information Officer Studies (CHECS) said they had selectively outsourced some part of the IT function, up from 43 percent the…

  11. An Experimental Investigation of Detonation Corner-Turning Using High Resolution Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Molitoris, J D; Andreski, H G; Garza, R G; Batteux, J D; Souers, P C

    2006-07-19

    We have performed experiments investigating detonation corner turning over a range of high-explosives including LX-17, Composition B, LX-04 and Tritonal. The primary diagnostic utilized here was a new high-resolution x-ray system that was capable of recording a time sequence of the detonation process as it negotiated the corner of interest and propagated. For LX-17 our data detail the formation of a significant dead-zone. Although the detonation eventually turned the corner in LX-17, the dead zone persisted to late times and evidence exists that it never was consumed by either detonation or fast combustion processes. In LX-17 the detonations ability to corner-turn increases as the density is reduced. Furthermore, lowering the density decreases the size of the dead-zone and alters its shape. The other high-explosives investigated were able to turn the corner immediately with no indication of any dead-zone formation.

  12. Hypervelocity, minimum-radii, coordinated turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, Michael E.

    1990-01-01

    An analytic solution is presented for the most basic powered-flight maneuver, consisting of a constant-altitude coordinated turn and expressions for minimum-turn radii; associated flight conditions are derived. It is shown that the formulation for hypervelocity turns differs from that for subsonic and hypersonic speeds. Illustrative calculations using approximate aerodynamics based on Newtonian theory are presented, and these demonstrate the differences of hypersonic flight conditions and their associated turning radii from those at lower speeds.

  13. X-31 in flight - Herbst Turn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. This understanding is expected to lead to design methods that provide better maneuverability in future high performance aircraft and make them safer to fly. An international test organization of about 110 people, managed by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), conducted the flight operations at NASA Dryden. The ARPA had requested flight research for the X-31 aircraft be moved there in February 1992. In addition to ARPA and NASA, the international test organization (ITO) included the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Air Force, Rockwell International, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Daimler-Benz Aerospace (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace). NASA was responsible for flight research operations, aircraft maintenance, and research engineering once the program moved to Dryden. The No. 1 X-31 aircraft was lost in an accident January 19, 1995. The pilot, Karl Heinz-Lang, of the Federal Republic of Germany, ejected safely before the aircraft crashed in an unpopulated desert area just north of Edwards. The X-31 program logged an X-plane record of 580 flights during the program, including 555 research missions and 21 in Europe for the 1995 Paris Air Show. A total of 14 pilots representing all agencies of the ITO flew the aircraft. This 32-second clip shows the aircraft at the top of a stall and then thrust vectoring itself around to attain a new heading, thereby allowing the aircraft to gain the advantage over a putative opponent in air-to-air combat. This maneuver is also known as a 'J turn.'

  14. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  15. A parent-report instrument for identifying one-year-olds at risk for an eventual diagnosis of autism: the first year inventory.

    PubMed

    Reznick, J Steven; Baranek, Grace T; Reavis, Shaye; Watson, Linda R; Crais, Elizabeth R

    2007-10-01

    A parent-report instrument, the First Year Inventory (FYI), was developed to assess behaviors in 12-month-old infants that suggest risk for an eventual diagnosis of autism. The target behaviors were identified from retrospective and prospective studies. FYIs were mailed to 5,941 families and 25% (N = 1,496) were returned, with higher return rates for white families and for families with greater educational attainment. Ad hoc groups of questions afforded measurement of eight specific constructs, which were combined to establish a general risk index. Boys had higher risk scores than did girls. Maternal race and education influenced answers. A small percentage of infants appeared to be at notably elevated risk. Large-scale longitudinal research is warranted to determine whether the FYI can predict an eventual diagnosis of autism.

  16. Realistic page-turning of electronic books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Chaoran; Li, Haisheng; Bai, Yannan

    2014-01-01

    The booming electronic books (e-books), as an extension to the paper book, are popular with readers. Recently, many efforts are put into the realistic page-turning simulation o f e-book to improve its reading experience. This paper presents a new 3D page-turning simulation approach, which employs piecewise time-dependent cylindrical surfaces to describe the turning page and constructs smooth transition method between time-dependent cylinders. The page-turning animation is produced by sequentially mapping the turning page into the cylinders with different radii and positions. Compared to the previous approaches, our method is able to imitate various effects efficiently and obtains more natural animation of turning page.

  17. Turning Planetary Theory Upside Down

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    extended study (of which two are new discoveries) have retrograde motion: they orbit their star in the "wrong" direction. "The new results really challenge the conventional wisdom that planets should always orbit in the same direction as their stars spin," says Andrew Cameron of the University of St Andrews, who presented the new results at the RAS National Astronomy Meeting (NAM2010) in Glasgow this week. In the 15 years since the first hot Jupiters were discovered, their origin has been a puzzle. These are planets with masses similar to or greater than that of Jupiter, but that orbit very close to their suns. The cores of giant planets are thought to form from a mix of rock and ice particles found only in the cold outer reaches of planetary systems. Hot Jupiters must therefore form far from their star and subsequently migrate inwards to orbits much closer to the parent star. Many astronomers believed this was due to gravitational interactions with the disc of dust from which they formed. This scenario takes place over a few million years and results in an orbit aligned with the rotation axis of the parent star. It would also allow Earth-like rocky planets to form subsequently, but unfortunately it cannot account for the new observations. To account for the new retrograde exoplanets an alternative migration theory suggests that the proximity of hot Jupiters to their stars is not due to interactions with the dust disc at all, but to a slower evolution process involving a gravitational tug-of-war with more distant planetary or stellar companions over hundreds of millions of years. After these disturbances have bounced a giant exoplanet into a tilted and elongated orbit it would suffer tidal friction, losing energy every time it swung close to the star. It would eventually become parked in a near circular, but randomly tilted, orbit close to the star. "A dramatic side-effect of this process is that it would wipe out any other smaller Earth-like planet in these systems," says

  18. A procedure for diamond turning KDP crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Montesanti, R.C.; Thompson, S.L.

    1995-07-07

    A procedure and the equipment necessary for single-point diamond flycutting (loosely referred to as diamond turning) potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are described. It is based on current KDP diamond turning activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), drawing upon knowledge from the Nova crystal finishing development during the 1980`s and incorporating refinements from our efforts during 1995. In addition to describing a step-by-step process for diamond turning KDP, specific discussions are included on the necessary diamond tool geometry and edge sharpness, cutting fluid, and crystal preparation, handling, cleaning, and inspection. The authors presuppose that the reader is already familiar with diamond turning practices.

  19. Do benzodiazepines mimic reverse-turn structures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Masayuki; Marshall, Garland R.

    2006-05-01

    The role of benzodiazepine derivatives (BZD) as a privileged scaffold that mimics β-turn structures (Ripka et al. (1993) Tetrahedron 49:3593-3608) in peptide/protein recognition was reexamined in detail. Stable BZD ring conformers were determined with MM3, and experimental reverse-turn structures were extracted from the basis set of protein crystal structures previously defined by Ripka et al. Ideal β-turns were also modeled and similarly compared with BZD conformers. Huge numbers of conformers were generated by systematically scanning the torsional degrees of freedom for BZDs, as well as those of ideal β-turns for comparison. Using these structures, conformers of BZDs were fit to experimental structures as suggested by Ripka et al., or modeled classical β-turn conformers, and the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) values were calculated for each pairwise comparison. Pairs of conformers with the smallest RMSD values for overlap of the four α-β side-chain orientations were selected. All overlaps of BZD conformers with experimental β-turns yielded one or more comparisons where the least RMSD was significantly small, 0.48-0.86 Å, as previously suggested. Utilizing a different methodology, the overall conclusion that benzodiazepines could serve as reverse-turn mimetics of Ripka et al. is justified. The least RMSD values for the overlap of BZDs and modeled classical β-turns were also less than 1 Å. When comparing BZDs with experimental or classical β-turns, the set of experimental β-turns selected by Ripka et al. fit the BZD scaffolds better than modeled classical β-turns; however, all the experimental β-turns did not fit a particular BZD scaffold better. A single BZD ring conformation, and/or chiral orientation, can mimic some, but not all, of the experimental β-turn structures. BZD has two central ring conformations and one chiral center that explains why the four variations of the BZD scaffold can mimic all types of β-turn structure examined. It was

  20. 14 CFR 25.495 - Turning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turning. 25.495 Section 25.495 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.495 Turning. In the static position,...

  1. 14 CFR 25.495 - Turning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turning. 25.495 Section 25.495 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.495 Turning. In the static position,...

  2. 14 CFR 25.495 - Turning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turning. 25.495 Section 25.495 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.495 Turning. In the static position,...

  3. 14 CFR 25.495 - Turning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turning. 25.495 Section 25.495 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.495 Turning. In the static position,...

  4. Benchmarks to Becoming a Turning Points School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Jordan

    2002-01-01

    Turning Points is a national design for middle school change, coordinated by the Center for Collaborative Education in Boston, Massachusetts, which serves as the National Turning Points Center. The design focuses on restructuring middle schools to improve learning, teaching, and assessment for all students. It is based on the seminal "Turning…

  5. Take a breath and take the turn: how breathing meets turns in spontaneous dialogue.

    PubMed

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2014-12-19

    Physiological rhythms are sensitive to social interactions and could contribute to defining social rhythms. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the implications of breathing in conversational turn exchanges remains limited. In this paper, we addressed the idea that breathing may contribute to timing and coordination between dialogue partners. The relationships between turns and breathing were analysed in unconstrained face-to-face conversations involving female speakers. No overall relationship between breathing and turn-taking rates was observed, as breathing rate was specific to the subjects' activity in dialogue (listening versus taking the turn versus holding the turn). A general inter-personal coordination of breathing over the whole conversation was not evident. However, specific coordinative patterns were observed in shorter time-windows when participants engaged in taking turns. The type of turn-taking had an effect on the respective coordination in breathing. Most of the smooth and interrupted turns were taken just after an inhalation, with specific profiles of alignment to partner breathing. Unsuccessful attempts to take the turn were initiated late in the exhalation phase and with no clear inter-personal coordination. Finally, breathing profiles at turn-taking were different than those at turn-holding. The results support the idea that breathing is actively involved in turn-taking and turn-holding.

  6. Take a breath and take the turn: how breathing meets turns in spontaneous dialogue

    PubMed Central

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Physiological rhythms are sensitive to social interactions and could contribute to defining social rhythms. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the implications of breathing in conversational turn exchanges remains limited. In this paper, we addressed the idea that breathing may contribute to timing and coordination between dialogue partners. The relationships between turns and breathing were analysed in unconstrained face-to-face conversations involving female speakers. No overall relationship between breathing and turn-taking rates was observed, as breathing rate was specific to the subjects' activity in dialogue (listening versus taking the turn versus holding the turn). A general inter-personal coordination of breathing over the whole conversation was not evident. However, specific coordinative patterns were observed in shorter time-windows when participants engaged in taking turns. The type of turn-taking had an effect on the respective coordination in breathing. Most of the smooth and interrupted turns were taken just after an inhalation, with specific profiles of alignment to partner breathing. Unsuccessful attempts to take the turn were initiated late in the exhalation phase and with no clear inter-personal coordination. Finally, breathing profiles at turn-taking were different than those at turn-holding. The results support the idea that breathing is actively involved in turn-taking and turn-holding. PMID:25385777

  7. Gate-assisted turn-off thyristor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, L. R.; Page, D. J.; Schlegel, E. S.

    1978-01-01

    1,000-volt, 200-ampere gate-assisted turn-off thyristor has been developed for power circuits requiring high efficiency, small size, and low weight. Design features include shunted cathode for high dV/dt capability. Cathode in interdigitated with dynamic gate for fast, low-loss switching. Operating frequency exceeds 20 kHz with overall energy dissipation of less that 12 mJ per pulse for typical 20-microsecond half-sine waveform. Device has turn-on time of 2 microseconds and turn-off time as short as 3 microseconds with only 2 amperes of gate drive.

  8. Wave-front correctors by diamond turning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, A. B.; Meinel, M. P.; Stacy, J. E.; Saito, T. T.; Patterson, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    The production of wave-front correctors by single-point diamond turning is reported. Interferograms are shown which demonstrate excellent agreement between the diamond-turned surface and the desired surface. It is concluded from this experiment that it is now feasible by means of single-point diamond turning to make generalized wave-front control surfaces or to produce any unusual surface desired by the optical designer. The maximum departure from the nearest regular surface is set by the dynamic range and maximum diamond point acceleration permitted by the machine.

  9. Peace Corps service as a turning point.

    PubMed

    Starr, J M

    1994-01-01

    This is a longitudinal study of twenty-one U.S. Peace Corps Volunteers, first interviewed in the mid-1960s during their tour of service in the Republic of the Philippines and then twenty years later as middle-aged adults. Life events reported after their service and the high degree of response agreement in the two interviews confirm that their Peace Corps experience constituted a turning point in their life courses. The study reviews the literature on turning points, proposes an appropriate definition for the concept, identifies conditions that promote turning points, especially for youth, and indicates directions for future research.

  10. AIR Model Preflight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.; Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) ER-2 preflight analysis, one of the first attempts to obtain a relatively complete measurement set of the high-altitude radiation level environment, is described in this paper. The primary thrust is to characterize the atmospheric radiation and to define dose levels at high-altitude flight. A secondary thrust is to develop and validate dosimetric techniques and monitoring devices for protecting aircrews. With a few chosen routes, we can measure the experimental results and validate the AIR model predictions. Eventually, as more measurements are made, we gain more understanding about the hazardous radiation environment and acquire more confidence in the prediction models.

  11. 14 CFR 25.495 - Turning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... center of gravity are 1.0 vertically and 0.5 laterally. The side ground reaction of each wheel must be 0... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.495 Turning. In the static position,...

  12. A computational theory of turn-taking

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, T.

    1996-12-31

    My research is concerned with the problem of turn-taking in discourse, especially as applied to intelligent interfaces, such as advice-giving systems or software help systems. A limitation of many discourse systems is their need for explicit turn-ending signals (e.g. pressing a return key). In such systems, mid-turn interruptions are impossible, although there are practical examples of where mid-turn interruptions are highly desirable. For example, an interface agent should promptly inform the user of important pieces of information, such as a lack of disk space or the loss of a network connection, especially if the user is engaged in some activity that relies on that information.

  13. MedlinePlus.gov Turns 10!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues MedlinePlus.gov Turns 10! Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Michael Spencer, NIH NIH MedlinePlus Advisory Group celebrates 10 years of success. Photo courtesy of Michael Spencer, ...

  14. Clarification of 'Turn Performance of Aircraft'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, William F.

    1996-01-01

    A recent note analyzed the minimum turning radius of an airplane in terms of its airspeed and angle of bank. Unfortunately, some misconceptions concerning the underlying physics were introduced. This note is intended to clarify those areas.

  15. Turning Main Street into a Green Street

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With EPA assistance, a small community near Pittsburgh is turning its main street into a green street to control stormwater runoff that has caused flooding, sewer backups and combined sewer overflows.

  16. 32 CFR 935.135 - Turns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... motion from a stopped position, or change from or merge into a lane of traffic, until he can safely make... center of the road, except that on multi-lane roads of one-way traffic flow he may make the turn only from the left lane. (c) No person may make a U-turn in a motor vehicle if he cannot be seen by...

  17. 32 CFR 935.135 - Turns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... motion from a stopped position, or change from or merge into a lane of traffic, until he can safely make... center of the road, except that on multi-lane roads of one-way traffic flow he may make the turn only from the left lane. (c) No person may make a U-turn in a motor vehicle if he cannot be seen by...

  18. 32 CFR 935.135 - Turns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... motion from a stopped position, or change from or merge into a lane of traffic, until he can safely make... center of the road, except that on multi-lane roads of one-way traffic flow he may make the turn only from the left lane. (c) No person may make a U-turn in a motor vehicle if he cannot be seen by...

  19. Generation of deep eddies by a turning baroclinic jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutyrin, Georgi

    2015-07-01

    The North Atlantic Current (NAC) travels northward east of the Grand Banks until approximately 50°N where it makes a sharp turn to the east. Previous analysis of sea level variability in this region, known as the Northwest Corner, showed large-amplitude meandering and a quasi-regular production of anticyclonic eddies playing an important role in the air-sea heat exchange. Here we investigate key physical mechanisms of meandering of an idealized upper ocean turning jet using a two-layer model. The existing reduced-gravity thin jet theory is modified to take into account the crossjet velocity in the lower layer induced by the jet meanders. Such coupled system is capable to describe realistically baroclinic instability and to reduce the two-dimensional initial value problem to a rather simple one-dimensional formulation. Its linearized version is solved here to describe the fluid motion in both layers in terms of jet curvature. It is found that transient meander growth is enhanced in the vicinity of turning point owing to vertical coupling with deep eddies generated due to stretching in water column beneath growing meanders. Scaling for initial growth of deep cyclone-anticyclone pair is suggested based on a generalized thin jet theory. Patterns of further nonlinear evolution resembling observational data are described.

  20. Turning breech babies after 34 weeks: the if, how, & when of turning breech babies.

    PubMed

    Cohain, Judy Slome

    2007-01-01

    Techniques for turning a term breech baby are 1). External cephalic version (ECV) using hands and ultrasound only; 2). Acupuncture point stimulation, by needle or moxibustion; 3). Chiropractic "Webster" technique; 4). Hypnotherapy; and 5). Special exercises. Fifty % of breech fetuses at 34 weeks will turn by themselves to head down by 38 weeks. Therefore, to be considered effective, a technique for turning breech must turn the baby and keep it turned more than 50% of the time. Only ECV with an experienced practitioner has been documented to have a greater than 50% success rate at 37 weeks; in 95% of cases the head stays down. Most women experience the fetus turning by hand as quick but very painful. "Unstable lie" is sometimes used as a baseless excuse for inducing labor after the baby turns from breech to head down. (judyslome@hotmail.com).

  1. AN OPERATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE ETA-CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in collaboration with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are developing an Air Quality Forecasting Program that will eventually result in an operational Nationwide Air Quality Forecasting System. The initial pha...

  2. Magnetic substorms and northward IMF turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, Oleg; Podorozhkina, Nataly

    To determine the relation of the northward IMF turnings to substorm sudden onsets, we separated all events with sharp northward IMF turnings observed in years of solar maximum (1999-2002) and solar minimum (2007-2008). The events (N=261) have been classified in 5 groups in accordance with average magnetic activity in auroral zone (low, moderate or high levels of AL index) at unchanged or slightly changed PC index and with dynamics of PC (steady distinct growth or distinct decline) at arbitrary values of AL index. Statistical analysis of relationships between the IMF turning and changes of PC and AL indices has been fulfilled separately for each of 5 classes. Results of the analysis showed that, irrespective of geophysical conditions and solar activity epoch, the magnetic activity in the polar caps and in the auroral zone demonstrate no response to the sudden northward IMF turning, if the moment of northward turning is taken as a key date. Sharp increases of magnetic disturbance in the auroral zone are observed only under conditions of the growing PC index and statistically they are related to moment of the PC index exceeding the threshold level (~1.5 mV/m), not to northward turnings timed, as a rule, after the moment of sudden onset. Magnetic disturbances observed in these cases in the auroral zone (magnetic substorms) are guided by behavior of the PC index, like to ordinary magnetic substorms or substorms developed under conditions of the prolonged northward IMF impact on the magnetosphere. The evident inconsistency between the sharp IMF changes measured outside of the magnetosphere and behavior of the ground-based PC index, the latter determining the substorm development, provides an additional argument in favor of the PC index as a ground-based proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into magnetosphere.

  3. Health care advocacy turns into political activism.

    PubMed Central

    Spears, T

    1995-01-01

    Some advocacy groups are becoming more willing to engage in political activism. One is the Ontario Lung Association, which has been calling attention to government inaction on air-pollution issues such as controlling smog and improving indoor air quality. These lobbying efforts are supported by some physicians, who believe that environmental factors are behind the increased incidence of respiratory illness. PMID:7743456

  4. Turning of thick thermal spray coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López de Lacalle, L. N.; Lamikiz, A.; Fernandes, M. H.; Gutiérrez, A.; Sánchez, J. A.

    2001-06-01

    This technical note looks at several attempts to machine parts coated with Ni5Al thermal spray. This coating is used in the overhaul and repair of gas turbine components. Machining the thermal sprays to achieve the dimensional tolerances and surface finish is needed. Turning tests were performed with small carbide inserts and with CBN. A study was made of tool performance and cutting process. In this way, tool life, wear mechanism, chip formation process, and actual roughness of turned parts were analyzed. In addition to the good performance of CBN inserts, some disadvantages of using coolant with CBN tools were detected and analyzed.

  5. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  6. Turn-timing in signed conversations: coordinating stroke-to-stroke turn boundaries

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, Connie; Torreira, Francisco; Levinson, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    In spoken interactions, interlocutors carefully plan, and time their utterances, minimizing gaps and overlaps between consecutive turns. Cross-linguistic comparison has indicated that spoken languages vary only minimally in terms of turn-timing, and language acquisition research has shown pre-linguistic vocal turn-taking in the first half year of life. These observations suggest that the turn-taking system may provide a fundamental basis for our linguistic capacities. The question remains, however, to what extent our capacity for rapid turn-taking is determined by modality constraints. The avoidance of overlapping turns could be motivated by the difficulty of hearing and speaking at the same time. If so, turn-taking in sign might show greater toleration for overlap. Alternatively, signed conversations may show a similar distribution of turn-timing as spoken languages, thus avoiding both gaps and overlaps. To address this question we look at turn-timing in question–answer sequences in spontaneous conversations of Sign Language of the Netherlands. The findings indicate that although there is considerable overlap in two or more signers’ articulators in conversation, when proper allowance is made for onset preparation, post-utterance retraction and the intentional holding of signs for response, turn-taking latencies in sign look remarkably like those reported for spoken language. This is consistent with the possibility that, at least with regard to responses to questions, speakers and signers follow similar time courses in planning and producing their utterances in on-going conversation. This suggests that turn-taking systems may well be a shared cognitive infrastructure underlying all modern human languages, both spoken and signed. PMID:25852593

  7. 30 CFR 77.1013 - Air drills; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air drills; safeguards. 77.1013 Section 77.1013... Control § 77.1013 Air drills; safeguards. Air shall be turned off and bled from the air hoses before hand-held air drills are moved from one working area to another....

  8. 30 CFR 77.1013 - Air drills; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air drills; safeguards. 77.1013 Section 77.1013... Control § 77.1013 Air drills; safeguards. Air shall be turned off and bled from the air hoses before hand-held air drills are moved from one working area to another....

  9. 30 CFR 77.1013 - Air drills; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air drills; safeguards. 77.1013 Section 77.1013... Control § 77.1013 Air drills; safeguards. Air shall be turned off and bled from the air hoses before hand-held air drills are moved from one working area to another....

  10. 30 CFR 77.1013 - Air drills; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air drills; safeguards. 77.1013 Section 77.1013... Control § 77.1013 Air drills; safeguards. Air shall be turned off and bled from the air hoses before hand-held air drills are moved from one working area to another....

  11. 30 CFR 77.1013 - Air drills; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air drills; safeguards. 77.1013 Section 77.1013... Control § 77.1013 Air drills; safeguards. Air shall be turned off and bled from the air hoses before hand-held air drills are moved from one working area to another....

  12. Turning Parents from Critics to Allies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagarese, Margaret M.; Giannetti, Charlene C.

    1998-01-01

    Authors of "The Roller Coaster Years" (1997) advise how middle-level educators can turn wary, disinterested parents into allies. Teachers should welcome parents, advertise their own expertise, implement an early-warning system, portray children positively, convey shared values, reassure parents about children's safety, demonstrate insider…

  13. Zigzag turning preference of freely crawling cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taeseok Daniel; Park, Jin-Sung; Choi, Youngwoon; Choi, Wonshik; Ko, Tae-Wook; Lee, Kyoung J

    2011-01-01

    The coordinated motion of a cell is fundamental to many important biological processes such as development, wound healing, and phagocytosis. For eukaryotic cells, such as amoebae or animal cells, the cell motility is based on crawling and involves a complex set of internal biochemical events. A recent study reported very interesting crawling behavior of single cell amoeba: in the absence of an external cue, free amoebae move randomly with a noisy, yet, discernible sequence of 'run-and-turns' analogous to the 'run-and-tumbles' of swimming bacteria. Interestingly, amoeboid trajectories favor zigzag turns. In other words, the cells bias their crawling by making a turn in the opposite direction to a previous turn. This property enhances the long range directional persistence of the moving trajectories. This study proposes that such a zigzag crawling behavior can be a general property of any crawling cells by demonstrating that 1) microglia, which are the immune cells of the brain, and 2) a simple rule-based model cell, which incorporates the actual biochemistry and mechanics behind cell crawling, both exhibit similar type of crawling behavior. Almost all legged animals walk by alternating their feet. Similarly, all crawling cells appear to move forward by alternating the direction of their movement, even though the regularity and degree of zigzag preference vary from one type to the other.

  14. Business Intelligence: Turning Knowledge into Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endsley, Krista

    2009-01-01

    Today, many school districts are turning to business intelligence tools to retrieve, organize, and share knowledge for faster analysis and more effective, guided decision making. Business intelligence (BI) tools are the technologies and applications that gather and report information to help an organization's leaders make better decisions. BI…

  15. Turning Practitioners into Professors: Exploring Effective Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Gustafson, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents results of focus interviews with 25 "practitioners turned professors" regarding their transition from industry to academia. Finds a general consensus that all advertising and public relations programs should implement a formal mentoring process to include teacher training and inservice, greater explanation of and assistance with promotion…

  16. Can Language Classrooms Take the Multilingual Turn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquet-Gauthier, Myriam; Beaulieu, Suzie

    2016-01-01

    For the past three decades, momentum has gathered in favour of a multilingual turn in second language acquisition research and teaching. "Multicompetence" has been proposed to replace "nativeness" and "monolingualism" to measure L2 learners' success. This proposed shift has not made its way into L2 teaching settings.…

  17. Turning Down the Noise in the Blogosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Turning Down the Noise in the Blogosphere Khalid El-Arini, Gaurav Veda , Dafna Shahaf, Carlos Guestrin May 2009 CMU-ML-09-103 Report Documentation...Arini Gaurav Veda Dafna Shahaf Carlos Guestrin May 2009 CMU-ML-09-103 School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213

  18. Saccadic body turns in walking Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Geurten, Bart R. H.; Jähde, Philipp; Corthals, Kristina; Göpfert, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster structures its optic flow during flight by interspersing translational movements with abrupt body rotations. Whether these “body saccades” are accompanied by steering movements of the head is a matter of debate. By tracking single flies moving freely in an arena, we now discovered that walking Drosophila also perform saccades. Movement analysis revealed that the flies separate rotational from translational movements by quickly turning their bodies by 15 degrees within a tenth of a second. Although walking flies moved their heads by up to 20 degrees about their bodies, their heads moved with the bodies during saccadic turns. This saccadic strategy contrasts with the head saccades reported for e.g., blowflies and honeybees, presumably reflecting optical constraints: modeling revealed that head saccades as described for these latter insects would hardly affect the retinal input in Drosophila because of the lower acuity of its compound eye. The absence of head saccades in Drosophila was associated with the absence of haltere oscillations, which seem to guide head movements in other flies. In addition to adding new twists to Drosophila walking behavior, our analysis shows that Drosophila does not turn its head relative to its body when turning during walking. PMID:25386124

  19. Peace Corps Service as a Turning Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1994-01-01

    Conducted longitudinal study of 21 U.S. Peace Corps volunteers, first interviewed in 1960s during tour of service in Republic of Philippines and then 20 years later as middle-aged adults. Life events reported after their service and high degree of response agreement in two interviews confirm that Peace Corps experience constituted turning point in…

  20. The Linguistic Turn within Curriculum Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    If, as the linguistic turn has taught us, there is no representational knowledge, but more agreements and/or struggles over how to talk and learn about what we call reality, we need to address and analyse the consequences of different vocabularies of educational phenomena and schooling, in order to better understand and make use of both the…

  1. 32 CFR 636.23 - Turning movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Turning movements. 636.23 Section 636.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.23...

  2. Panoramic View of Lander During Turn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree panoramic mosaic image composed of data from the hazard avoidance camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows a view of the lander from under the rover deck. The images were taken as the rover turned from its landing position 95 degrees toward the northwest side of the lander.

  3. Leadership Helps Turn around a Troubled School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Von

    2013-01-01

    The author tells how he employed leadership skills to help turn around a failing school loaded with at-risk students. Dayton's Bluff Elementary School was one of the worst in St. Paul when Von Sheppard took over as principal in 2001. Changing the staff and attitudes at the largely low-income, minority majority school in a tough neighborhood helped…

  4. A Practice Turn for Teacher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    Within the Research Institute for Professional Practice, Learning and Education (RIPPLE) at Charles Sturt University, teacher education researchers have been quick to respond to the opportunities created by what is known as "the practice turn" that characterises contemporary theory around the globe and across disciplines. We are working,…

  5. The Social Turn in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    This book is about the prospect of a social turn in the field of second language acquisition (SLA), in particular, that part of SLA that is devoted to the input-interaction-output (IIO) model. The book is intended to critically examine some of the basic notions and assumptions that underpin this model and to suggest a more interdisciplinary and…

  6. LX-17 and ufTATB Data for Corner-Turning, Failure and Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Lauderbach, L; Garza, R; Vitello, P; Hare, D E

    2010-02-03

    Data is presented for the size (diameter) effect for ambient and cold confined LX-17, unconfined ambient LX-17, and confined ambient ultrafine TATB. Ambient, cold and hot double cylinder corner-turning data for LX-17, PBX 9502 and ufTATB is presented. Transverse air gap crossing in ambient LX-17 is studied with time delays given for detonations that cross.

  7. Determination of linear optics functions from turn-by-turn data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.

    2011-10-01

    A method for evaluation of coupled optics functions, detection of strong perturbing elements, determination of BPM calibration errors and tilts using turn-by-turn (TBT) data is presented as well as the new version of the Hamiltonian perturbation theory of betatron oscillations the method is based upon. An example of application of the considered method to the Tevatron is given.

  8. Aptamer-mediated 'turn-off/turn-on' nanozyme activity of gold nanoparticles for kanamycin detection.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Weerathunge, Pabudi; Mohammadtaheri, Mahsa; Daima, Hemant Kumar; Shukla, Ravi; Bansal, Vipul

    2014-12-28

    A new ultrafast and highly sensitive 'turn-off/turn-on' biosensing approach that combines the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with the high affinity and specificity of a ssDNA aptamer is presented for the efficient detection of a model small molecule kanamycin.

  9. Silicon Carbide Emitter Turn-Off Thyristor

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Gangyao; Li, Jun; ...

    2008-01-01

    A novel MOS-conmore » trolled SiC thyristor device, the SiC emitter turn-off thyristor (ETO) is a promising technology for future high-voltage switching applications because it integrates the excellent current conduction capability of a SiC thyristor with a simple MOS-control interface. Through unity-gain turn-off, the SiC ETO also achieves excellent Safe Operation Area (SOA) and faster switching speeds than silicon ETOs. The world's first 4.5-kV SiC ETO prototype shows a forward voltage drop of 4.26 V at 26.5  A / cm 2 current density at room and elevated temperatures. Tested in an inductive circuit with a 2.5 kV DC link voltage and a 9.56-A load current, the SiC ETO shows a fast turn-off time of 1.63 microseconds and a low 9.88 mJ turn-off energy. The low switching loss indicates that the SiC ETO could operate at about 4 kHz if 100  W / cm 2 conduction and the 100  W / cm 2 turn-off losses can be removed by the thermal management system. This frequency capability is about 4 times higher than 4.5-kV-class silicon power devices. The preliminary demonstration shows that the SiC ETO is a promising candidate for high-frequency, high-voltage power conversion applications, and additional developments to optimize the device for higher voltage (>5 kV) and higher frequency (10 kHz) are needed.« less

  10. Eye Gaze Behavior at Turn Transition: How Aphasic Patients Process Speakers' Turns during Video Observation.

    PubMed

    Preisig, Basil C; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Zito, Giuseppe; Vanbellingen, Tim; Schumacher, Rahel; Hopfner, Simone; Gutbrod, Klemens; Nyffeler, Thomas; Cazzoli, Dario; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Müri, René M

    2016-10-01

    The human turn-taking system regulates the smooth and precise exchange of speaking turns during face-to-face interaction. Recent studies investigated the processing of ongoing turns during conversation by measuring the eye movements of noninvolved observers. The findings suggest that humans shift their gaze in anticipation to the next speaker before the start of the next turn. Moreover, there is evidence that the ability to timely detect turn transitions mainly relies on the lexico-syntactic content provided by the conversation. Consequently, patients with aphasia, who often experience deficits in both semantic and syntactic processing, might encounter difficulties to detect and timely shift their gaze at turn transitions. To test this assumption, we presented video vignettes of natural conversations to aphasic patients and healthy controls, while their eye movements were measured. The frequency and latency of event-related gaze shifts, with respect to the end of the current turn in the videos, were compared between the two groups. Our results suggest that, compared with healthy controls, aphasic patients have a reduced probability to shift their gaze at turn transitions but do not show significantly increased gaze shift latencies. In healthy controls, but not in aphasic patients, the probability to shift the gaze at turn transition was increased when the video content of the current turn had a higher lexico-syntactic complexity. Furthermore, the results from voxel-based lesion symptom mapping indicate that the association between lexico-syntactic complexity and gaze shift latency in aphasic patients is predicted by brain lesions located in the posterior branch of the left arcuate fasciculus. Higher lexico-syntactic processing demands seem to lead to a reduced gaze shift probability in aphasic patients. This finding may represent missed opportunities for patients to place their contributions during everyday conversation.

  11. Air Risk Information Support Center

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  12. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  13. Partially supervised P300 speller adaptation for eventual stimulus timing optimization: target confidence is superior to error-related potential score as an uncertain label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyl, Timothy; Yin, Erwei; Keightley, Michelle; Chau, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Error-related potentials (ErrPs) have the potential to guide classifier adaptation in BCI spellers, for addressing non-stationary performance as well as for online optimization of system parameters, by providing imperfect or partial labels. However, the usefulness of ErrP-based labels for BCI adaptation has not been established in comparison to other partially supervised methods. Our objective is to make this comparison by retraining a two-step P300 speller on a subset of confident online trials using naïve labels taken from speller output, where confidence is determined either by (i) ErrP scores, (ii) posterior target scores derived from the P300 potential, or (iii) a hybrid of these scores. We further wish to evaluate the ability of partially supervised adaptation and retraining methods to adjust to a new stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA), a necessary step towards online SOA optimization. Approach. Eleven consenting able-bodied adults attended three online spelling sessions on separate days with feedback in which SOAs were set at 160 ms (sessions 1 and 2) and 80 ms (session 3). A post hoc offline analysis and a simulated online analysis were performed on sessions two and three to compare multiple adaptation methods. Area under the curve (AUC) and symbols spelled per minute (SPM) were the primary outcome measures. Main results. Retraining using supervised labels confirmed improvements of 0.9 percentage points (session 2, p < 0.01) and 1.9 percentage points (session 3, p < 0.05) in AUC using same-day training data over using data from a previous day, which supports classifier adaptation in general. Significance. Using posterior target score alone as a confidence measure resulted in the highest SPM of the partially supervised methods, indicating that ErrPs are not necessary to boost the performance of partially supervised adaptive classification. Partial supervision significantly improved SPM at a novel SOA, showing promise for eventual online SOA

  14. Turning on to a Television Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlquist, David; Bradley, James

    1972-01-01

    A cooperative arrangement between Northern Virginia Community College and a local television station provides a training program for broadcast technicians as well as producing and airing educational films and programs. (RN)

  15. A process for treating uranium chips and turnings

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinska, K.; Lussiez, G.; Munger, D.

    1995-02-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) chips and turnings are generated during machining of uranium metal. Because high surface area uranium is pyrophoric, the turnings are subject to spontaneous ignition in air. The oxidation of uranium to U0{sub 2} and U{sub 3}0{sub 8} is highly exothermic and therefore the reaction may be self-sustaining. A uranium fire or even rapid oxidation and thermal convection currents will cause emission of radioactive uranium oxides. In the presence of water as liquid or vapor, uranium may also oxidize into U0{sub 2} and U{sub 3}0{sub 8}-with generation of hydrogen, a flammable and explosive gas. The heat generated the water reaction may ignite the uranium or hydrogen producing a fire, explosion, or convection current resulting in some uranium oxide becoming airborne. Because the high surface area uranium has the hazardous characteristic of reactivity, it is stored immersed in diesel oil preventing contact with water or air. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed and constructed a process to remove the reactivity characteristic by oxidizing uranium metal to an inert product. This inert form can then be landfilled as a low-level waste. The treatment process consists of draining the packing oils, treating with sodium hypochlorite to wet-oxidize the DU to uranyl hydroxide (UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}), using sodium thiosulfate to reduce the (UO{sub 2}(OH)2) to U0{sub 2}, neutralizing with sodium hydroxide, and stabilizing the settled slurry in a cement matrix. The neutralized waste water is consumed at a radioactive waste water treatment facility. Studies done at LANL describe a manageable oxidation rate well within safe bounds.

  16. Ultra-precision turning of complex spiral optical delay line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Po; Fang, Fengzhou; Wang, Qichang

    2011-11-01

    Optical delay line (ODL) implements the vertical or depth scanning of optical coherence tomography, which is the most important factor affecting the scanning resolution and speed. The spinning spiral mirror is found as an excellent optical delay device because of the high-speed and high-repetition-rate. However, it is one difficult task to machine the mirror due to the special shape and precision requirement. In this paper, the spiral mirror with titled parabolic generatrix is proposed, and the ultra-precision turning method is studied for its machining using the spiral mathematic model. Another type of ODL with the segmental shape is also introduced and machined to make rotation balance for the mass equalization when scanning. The efficiency improvement is considered in details, including the rough cutting with the 5- axis milling machine, the machining coordinates unification, and the selection of layer direction in turning. The onmachine measuring method based on stylus gauge is designed to analyze the shape deviation. The air bearing is used as the measuring staff and the laser interferometer sensor as the position sensor, whose repeatability accuracy is proved up to 10nm and the stable feature keeps well. With this method developed, the complex mirror with nanometric finish of 10.7nm in Ra and the form error within 1um are achieved.

  17. UV Remote Sensing Data Products - Turning Data Into Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, M.; Paxton, L.; Schaefer, R. K.; Comberiate, J.; Hsieh, S. W.; Romeo, G.; Wolven, B. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The DMSP/SSUSI instruments have been taking UV images of the upper atmosphere for more than a decade. Each of the SSUSI instruments takes complete global UV images on a daily basis. Although this scientific data is very valuable, it is not actionable information. Perhaps the simplest use of SSUSI data is the assimilation of radiances into the GAIM ionospheric forecast model; even then, the data must be massaged to get it into a GAIM-ingestable form. We describe a development effort funded by the DMSP program and the Air Force Weather Agency to turn the raw data into actionable information in the form of SSUSI environmental data parameters and other derived information. We will describe current nowcasts, forecasts, and other related actionable information (e.g. auroral oval forecasts) that is currently generated by the SSUSI ground processing system for AFWA, and also concepts we have for future tools (e.g., geomagnetic storm alerts, scintillation forecasts, HF radio propagation information, auroral radar clutter) to turn more of the SSUSI dataset into actionable knowledge.

  18. Bank-to-turn control technology survey for homing missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    The potential advantages of bank-to-turn control are summarized. Recent and current programs actively investigating bank-to-turn steering are reviewed and critical technology areas concerned with bank-to-turn control are assessed.

  19. Green Turning of FCD 700 Ductile Cast Iron Using Coated Carbide Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodzi, Mohd Nor Azmi Mohd; Ghani, Jaharah A.; Eghawail, A. M.; Othman, Kamal; Rahman, Mohd. Nizam Ab.; Haron, Che Hassan Che

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents the performance of carbide coated cutting insert in turning FCD700 ductile cast iron in various dry machining conditions (without air, using air and chilled air). The turning parameters studied were, cutting speed of 120 m/min., feed rate of 0.15 mm/rev-0.4 mm/rev, and depth of cut of 0.6 mm-1.0 mm. The results show that the tool life was significantly controlled by the type of air coolant used, whereas the cutting force and surface roughness were not influenced by these coolants. Chilled air was found to be significantly improved the tool life by about 30% and 40% respectively when compared with normal air and without air conditions. The wear mechanism was predominantly controlled by the flank and crater wears on the flank and rake faces respectively. Due to the low cutting speed used in the experiment, both flank and crater wears were uniformly formed along the cutting edge and no catastrophic failure was observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  20. Diamond Turning of Nonrotationally Symmetric Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falter, Peter John

    Conventional techniques for ultraprecision turning have been successfully applied to the generation of optical quality surfaces. These resulting geometries however have been limited to surfaces of revolution. To investigate the machining of more general geometries, equipment has been developed to allow the production of accurate non -rotationally symmetric optical surfaces. This apparatus utilizes high speed digital control and a piezoelectric tool servo in conjunction with a workpiece-based metrology frame to synchronize tool position with spindle rotation. Machining experiments have been conducted to investigate the limits of producibility and the mechanics of this type of turning. The influences of tool forces, machine dynamics and metrology/control equipment on the accuracy of the finished part have also been determined.

  1. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  2. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    SciTech Connect

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  3. Spirit Takes a Turn for Adirondack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This rear hazard-identification camera image looks back at the circular tracks made in the martian soil when the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove about 3 meters (10 feet) toward the mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack, Spirit's first rock target. Spirit made a series of arcing turns totaling approximately 1 meter (3 feet). It then turned in place and made a series of short, straightforward movements totaling approximately 2 meters (6.5 feet). The drive took about 30 minutes to complete, including time stopped to take images. The two rocks in the upper left corner of the image are called 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi.' In the upper right corner is a portion of the lander, now known as the Columbia Memorial Station.

  4. Crack Turning in Integrally Stiffened Aircraft Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Richard Glen

    2000-01-01

    Current emphasis in the aircraft industry toward reducing manufacturing cost has created a renewed interest in integrally stiffened structures. Crack turning has been identified as an approach to improve the damage tolerance and fail-safety of this class of structures. A desired behavior is for skin cracks to turn before reaching a stiffener, instead of growing straight through. A crack in a pressurized fuselage encounters high T-stress as it nears the stiffener--a condition favorable to crack turning. Also, the tear resistance of aluminum alloys typically varies with crack orientation, a form of anisotropy that can influence the crack path. The present work addresses these issues with a study of crack turning in two-dimensions, including the effects of both T-stress and fracture anisotropy. Both effects are shown to have relation to the process zone size, an interaction that is central to this study. Following an introduction to the problem, the T-stress effect is studied for a slightly curved semi-infinite crack with a cohesive process zone, yielding a closed form expression for the future crack path in an infinite medium. For a given initial crack tip curvature and tensile T-stress, the crack path instability is found to increase with process zone size. Fracture orthotropy is treated using a simple function to interpolate between the two principal fracture resistance values in two-dimensions. An extension to three-dimensions interpolates between the six principal values of fracture resistance. Also discussed is the transition between mode I and mode II fracture in metals. For isotropic materials, there is evidence that the crack seeks out a direction of either local symmetry (pure mode I) or local asymmetry (pure mode II) growth. For orthotropic materials the favored states are not pure modal, and have mode mixity that is a function of crack orientation.

  5. Individual muscle contributions to circular turning mechanics.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Jessica D; Klute, Glenn K; Neptune, Richard R

    2015-04-13

    Turning is an activity of daily living that involves both the acceleration of the body center-of-mass (COM) towards the center of curvature and rotation of the pelvis towards the new heading. The purpose of this study was to understand which muscles contribute to turning using experimentation, musculoskeletal modeling and simulation. Ten healthy adults consented to walk around a 1-m radius circular path at their self-selected walking speed and then along a straight line at the same speed. Forward dynamics simulations of the individual subjects during the turning and straight-line walking tasks were generated to identify the contributions of individual muscle groups to the body mediolateral and anterior-posterior COM acceleration impulse and to the pelvis angular acceleration impulse. The stance leg gluteus medius and ankle plantarflexor muscles and the swing leg adductor muscles were the primary contributors to redirect the body's COM relative to straight-line walking. In some cases, contributions to mediolateral COM acceleration were modulated through changes in leg orientation rather than through changes in muscle force. While modulation of the muscle contributions generally occurred in both the inner and outer legs, greater changes were observed during inner single-leg support than during outer single-leg support. Total pelvis angular acceleration was minimal during the single-support phase, but the swing leg muscles contributed significantly to balancing the internal and external rotation of the pelvis. The understanding of which muscles contribute to turning the body during walking may help guide the development of more effective locomotor therapies for those with movement impairments.

  6. Minimum Time Turns Using Vectored Thrust.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    small, typicilly on the order of 10 seconds, the fuel consumed during the maneuver is negligible and the aircraft weight remains constant. The aircraft...practical (2, 3), these angles were allowed full range in order to determine how much range of thrust vectoring would be exploited if it were available...angle. 15q 15 *q 111. The Optimial Control Problem The formulation of the minimum turning time problem involves first- order non-linear differential

  7. Right turn resuscitation: frequently asked questions.

    PubMed

    Tai, N R M; Russell, R

    2011-09-01

    In this article the process of operating room resuscitation - commonly known as Right Turn Resuscitation (RTR) when conducted in the medical treatment facility at Camp Bastion - is described. The place of RTR within the concepts of damage control resuscitation and surgery is discussed along with activation criteria and protocols. The medical leadership, team roles, advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. Finally, studies describing the impact of RTR and operating room resuscitation are briefly described.

  8. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the locations set out in the table to this section. Table 1. South Shore Canal: (a) Turning Basin No... vessels up to 80 m in overall length. (1) North end of Wharf No. 1, (2) Tie-up wall above Lock 1, (3) Tie-up wall below Lock 2, (4) Wharf No. 9, (5) Between the southerly extremities of Wharves 18-2 and...

  9. Hummingbirds control turning velocity using body orientation and turning radius using asymmetrical wingbeat kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Read, Tyson J. G.; Segre, Paolo S.; Middleton, Kevin M.; Altshuler, Douglas L.

    2016-01-01

    Turning in flight requires reorientation of force, which birds, bats and insects accomplish either by shifting body position and total force in concert or by using left–right asymmetries in wingbeat kinematics. Although both mechanisms have been observed in multiple species, it is currently unknown how each is used to control changes in trajectory. We addressed this problem by measuring body and wingbeat kinematics as hummingbirds tracked a revolving feeder, and estimating aerodynamic forces using a quasi-steady model. During arcing turns, hummingbirds symmetrically banked the stroke plane of both wings, and the body, into turns, supporting a body-dependent mechanism. However, several wingbeat asymmetries were present during turning, including a higher and flatter outer wingtip path and a lower more deviated inner wingtip path. A quasi-steady analysis of arcing turns performed with different trajectories revealed that changes in radius were associated with asymmetrical kinematics and forces, and changes in velocity were associated with symmetrical kinematics and forces. Collectively, our results indicate that both body-dependent and -independent force orientation mechanisms are available to hummingbirds, and that these kinematic strategies are used to meet the separate aerodynamic challenges posed by changes in velocity and turning radius. PMID:27030042

  10. Local transverse coupling impedance measurements in a synchrotron light source from turn-by-turn acquisitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlà, Michele; Benedetti, Gabriele; Günzel, Thomas; Iriso, Ubaldo; Martí, Zeus

    2016-12-01

    Transverse beam coupling impedance is a source of beam instabilities that limits the machine performance in circular accelerators. Several beam based techniques have been used to measure the transverse impedance of an accelerator, usually based on the optics distortion produced by the impedance source itself. Beam position monitor turn-by-turn analysis for impedance characterization has been usually employed in large circumference machines, while synchrotron light sources have mainly used slow orbit based techniques. Instead, the work presented in this paper uses for the first time turn-by-turn data at ALBA to advance the measurement technique into the range of the typically small impedance values of modern light sources. We have measured local impedance contributions through the observation of phase advance versus bunch charge using the betatron oscillations excited with a fast dipole kicker. The ALBA beam position monitor system and the precision of the turn-by-turn analysis allowed to characterize the main sources of transverse impedance, in good agreement with the model values, including the impedance of an in-vacuum undulator.

  11. Corning and Kroger turn whey to yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-16

    It is reported that Corning and Kroger intend to build a 35,000 sq. ft. plant in Winchester, Ky., that will turn whey into bakers' yeast. The plant will convert whey from Kroger's dairies into bakers' yeast, supplying about 60% of the yeast needed for nine Kroger bakeries. It will also produce syrups and whey protein concentrate for use in other food processing activities. In addition to making useful products, the project will convert the whey to glucose and galactose. The protein component of the whey will be concentrated and used in various foods and feeds.

  12. Genesis of a flexible turning center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanclemente, Paul; French, Robert D.

    GE - Aircraft Engines has designed, built, and is operating a flexible turning center for jet engine hardware. Although the plant is in the forefront of manufacturing technology development, it was intended from the start to be a production facility. So while there was much to learn from being involved in all phases of the project, meeting production schedules was, and is, key to its success. This paper reviews the early history of the project and ends with a view of its recent production status.

  13. Magic-angle turning with double acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Tatsuya; Takegoshi, K.

    2017-01-01

    The double-acquisition scheme for efficient data collection of hypercomplex data (the States method) of a two-dimensional experiment is adopted to magic-angle hopping (MAH) and magic-angle turning (MAT) experiments, which are powerful methods to measure the principal values of the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) in a powder sample. It is shown that the double acquisition MAT (DAMAT) sequence realizes the S/N ratio comparable to or better than those of other variants of the MAH/MAT sequences. In addition, we show that DAMAT has preferable features that there are no spinning sidebands in the indirect dimension, and no spectral shearing is necessary.

  14. Magic-angle turning with double acquisition.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Tatsuya; Takegoshi, K

    2017-01-01

    The double-acquisition scheme for efficient data collection of hypercomplex data (the States method) of a two-dimensional experiment is adopted to magic-angle hopping (MAH) and magic-angle turning (MAT) experiments, which are powerful methods to measure the principal values of the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) in a powder sample. It is shown that the double acquisition MAT (DAMAT) sequence realizes the S/N ratio comparable to or better than those of other variants of the MAH/MAT sequences. In addition, we show that DAMAT has preferable features that there are no spinning sidebands in the indirect dimension, and no spectral shearing is necessary.

  15. Virtual Rover Takes its First Turn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows a screenshot from the software used by engineers to drive the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. The software simulates the rover's movements across the martian terrain, helping to plot a safe course for the rover. The virtual 3-D world around the rover is built from images taken by Spirit's stereo navigation cameras. Regions for which the rover has not yet acquired 3-D data are represented in beige. This image depicts the state of the rover before it backed up and turned 45 degrees on Sol 11 (01-13-04).

  16. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  17. Transcription factors make a turn into migration

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The formation of the brain depends on a tightly regulated process of proliferation, neuronal fate specification and migration which eventually leads to the final architecture of the cerebral cortex. The specification of different neuronal subtypes depends on a complex developmental program mastered by several transcription factors. Besides, it was shown that the same transcription factors can subsequently control neural migration. However, the mechanisms of this regulation are still unclear. Two papers recently published by Heng et al.1 and Nóbrega-Pereira et al.2 confirm that these transcription factors are involved in controlling neural migration. In addition, these studies show that these transcription factors can control neural migration via different molecular mechanisms: Heng and coworkers show that Neurogenin 2 controls neural migration by directly regulating the expression of the small GTPase Rnd2 (a modulator of cytoskeletal dynamics); whereas Nóbrega-Pereira and colleagues demonstrate that Nkx2-1 establishes the response to guidance cues, in migrating interneurons, by directly regulating the expression of the semaphorin receptor Neuropilin 2. Taken together, these findings support the idea that transcription factors are reused during development to control neural migration and they shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. PMID:19262164

  18. Turning Words Into Action: Confronting Acquisition Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    models of smartphones and automobiles were developed and delivered to customers in the time it takes for typical defense acquisitions. Those...companies would be out of business . Sure, the Air Force makes more than just smart­ phones, but most electronics companies offer many models and devices...respond faster than our potential adversaries.” It noted that we must be a strategically agile force, with flexibility and consciousness of the

  19. Reduce air, reduce compliance cost new patented spray booth technology

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, F.

    1997-12-31

    A New Paint Spray Booth System that dramatically reduces air volumes normally required for capturing and controlling paint overspray that contains either Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) or Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP), or both. In turn, a substantial reduction in capital equipment expenditures for air abatement systems and air make-up heaters as well as related annual operating expenses is realized.

  20. Utilizing the N beam position monitor method for turn-by-turn optics measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, A.; Benedetti, G.; Carlà, M.; Iriso, U.; Martí, Z.; de Portugal, J. Coello; Tomás, R.

    2016-09-01

    The N beam position monitor method (N -BPM) which was recently developed for the LHC has significantly improved the precision of optics measurements that are based on BPM turn-by-turn data. The main improvement is due to the consideration of correlations for statistical and systematic error sources, as well as increasing the amount of BPM combinations which are used to derive the β -function at one location. We present how this technique can be applied at light sources like ALBA, and compare the results with other methods.

  1. ACCELERATORS: Preliminary application of turn-by-turn data analysis to the SSRF storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-Hui; Zhao, Zhen-Tang

    2009-07-01

    There is growing interest in utilizing the beam position monitor turn-by-turn (TBT) data to debug accelerators. TBT data can be used to determine the linear optics, coupled optics and nonlinear behaviors of the storage ring lattice. This is not only a useful complement to other methods of determining the linear optics such as LOCO, but also provides a possibility to uncover more hidden phenomena. In this paper, a preliminary application of a β function measurement to the SSRF storage ring is presented.

  2. Beam diagnostics via model independent analysis of the turn-by-turn BPM data

    SciTech Connect

    Xi Yang

    2004-08-11

    Model independent analysis (MIA) can be used to obtain all the eigen modes included in the turn-by-turn BPM data. Not only the synchrotron tune and betatron tune can be obtained from the fast Fourier transforms (FFT) of the temporal eigen vector of the corresponding mode, but also the error mode, which could be caused by the different gain of a BPM, can be observed in both the temporal and spatial eigen vectors of the error mode. It can be applied as a diagnostic tool for Booster.

  3. Chatter detection in turning using persistent homology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasawneh, Firas A.; Munch, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a new approach for ascertaining the stability of stochastic dynamical systems in their parameter space by examining their time series using topological data analysis (TDA). We illustrate the approach using a nonlinear delayed model that describes the tool oscillations due to self-excited vibrations in turning. Each time series is generated using the Euler-Maruyama method and a corresponding point cloud is obtained using the Takens embedding. The point cloud can then be analyzed using a tool from TDA known as persistent homology. The results of this study show that the described approach can be used for analyzing datasets of delay dynamical systems generated both from numerical simulation and experimental data. The contributions of this paper include presenting for the first time a topological approach for investigating the stability of a class of nonlinear stochastic delay equations, and introducing a new application of TDA to machining processes.

  4. Turning Algae into Energy in New Mexico

    ScienceCinema

    Sayre, Richard; Olivares, Jose; Lammers, Peter

    2016-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the New Mexico Consortium - comprised of New Mexico's major research universities, the Lab, and key industry partners - is conducting research into using algae as a feed stock for a renewable source of fuels, and other products. There are hundreds of thousands of different algae species on Earth. They account for approximately half of the net photosynthesis on the planet, yet they have not been used in any kind of a large scale by humanity, with just a few exceptions. And yet, the biomass is easy to transform into useful products, including fuels, and they contain many other natural products that have high value. In this video Los Alamos and New Mexico State University scientists outline the opportunities and challenges of using science to turn algae into energy.

  5. Turning Algae into Energy in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, Richard; Olivares, Jose; Lammers, Peter

    2013-07-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, as part of the New Mexico Consortium - comprised of New Mexico's major research universities, the Lab, and key industry partners - is conducting research into using algae as a feed stock for a renewable source of fuels, and other products. There are hundreds of thousands of different algae species on Earth. They account for approximately half of the net photosynthesis on the planet, yet they have not been used in any kind of a large scale by humanity, with just a few exceptions. And yet, the biomass is easy to transform into useful products, including fuels, and they contain many other natural products that have high value. In this video Los Alamos and New Mexico State University scientists outline the opportunities and challenges of using science to turn algae into energy.

  6. Twists and turns: a scientific journey.

    PubMed

    Tilghman, Shirley M

    2014-01-01

    In this perspective I look back on the twists and turns that influenced the direction of my scientific career over the past 40 years. From my early ambition to be a chemist to my training in Philadelphia and Bethesda as a molecular biologist, I benefited enormously from generous and valuable mentoring. In my independent career in Philadelphia and Princeton, I was motivated by a keen interest in the changes in gene expression that direct the development of the mammalian embryo and inspired by the creativity and energy of my students, fellows, and research staff. After twelve years as President of Princeton University, I have happily returned to the faculty of the Department of Molecular Biology.

  7. Hard turning micro-machine tool

    SciTech Connect

    DeVor, Richard E; Adair, Kurt; Kapoor, Shiv G

    2013-10-22

    A micro-scale apparatus for supporting a tool for hard turning comprises a base, a pivot coupled to the base, an actuator coupled to the base, and at least one member coupled to the actuator at one end and rotatably coupled to the pivot at another end. A tool mount is disposed on the at least one member. The at least one member defines a first lever arm between the pivot and the tool mount, and a second lever arm between the pivot and the actuator. The first lever arm has a length that is less than a length of the second lever arm. The actuator moves the tool mount along an arc.

  8. Modeling and optimization on Nd:YAG laser turned micro-grooving of cylindrical ceramic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhupal, D.; Doloi, B.; Bhattacharyya, B.

    2009-09-01

    Nd:YAG laser turning is a new technique for manufacturing micro-grooves on cylindrical surface of ceramic materials needed for the present day precision industries. The importance of laser turning has directed the researchers to search how accurately micro-grooves can be obtained in cylindrical parts. In this paper, laser turning process parameters have been determined for producing square micro-grooves on cylindrical surface. The experiments have been performed based on the statistical five level central composite design techniques. The effects of laser turning process parameters i.e. lamp current, pulse frequency, pulse width, cutting speed (revolution per minute, rpm) and assist gas pressure on the quality of the laser turned micro-grooves have been studied. A predictive model for laser turning process parameters is created using a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) technique utilized the experimental observation data based on response surface methodology (RSM). The optimization problem has been constructed based on RSM and solved using multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA). The neural network coupled with genetic algorithm can be effectively utilized to find the optimum parameter value for a specific laser micro-turning condition in ceramic materials. The optimal process parameter settings are found as lamp current of 19 A, pulse frequency of 3.2 kHz, pulse width of 6% duty cycle, cutting speed as 22 rpm and assist air pressure of 0.13 N/mm 2 for achieving the predicted minimum deviation of upper width of -0.0101 mm, lower width 0.0098 mm and depth -0.0069 mm of laser turned micro-grooves.

  9. Changes and variations in the turning angle of Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukita, J.; Honda, M.; Ishizuka, S.

    2012-12-01

    The motion of sea ice is under influences of forcing from winds and currents and of sea ice properties. In facing rapidly changing Arctic climate we are interested in whether we observe and quantify changes in sea ice conditions reflected in its velocity field. Theoretical consideration on the freedrift model predicts a change in the sea ice turning angle with respect to the direction of forcing wind in association with thinning sea ice thickness. Possible changes in atmospheric and ocean boundary layer conditions may be reflected in the sea ice turning angle through modification of both atmospheric and oceanic Ekman spirals. With these in mind this study examines statistical properties of the turning angle of the Arctic sea ice and compares them with atmospheric/ice/ocean conditions for the period of 1979-2010 on the basis of IABP buoy data. Preliminary results indicate that over this period the turning angle has varying trends depending on different seasons. We found weakly significant (>90% level) changes in the turning angle from August to October with the maximum trend in October. The direction of trends is counter-clockwise with respect to the geostrophic wind direction, which is consistent with the thinning of sea ice. The interannual variability of the turning angle for this peak season of the reduced sea ice cover is not the same as that of the Arctic SIE. However, in recent years the turning angle appears to covary with the surface air temperature, providing supporting evidence for the relationship between the angle and sea ice thickness. In the presentation we will provide results on the relationships between the turning angle and atmospheric and oceanic variables and further discuss their implications.

  10. Turn-by-Turn Imaging of the Transverse Beam Profile in PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Alan A.; Petree, Mark; /SLAC

    2006-12-18

    During injection or instability, the transverse profile of an individual bunch in a storage ring can change significantly in a few turns. However, most synchrotron-light imaging techniques are not designed for this time scale. We have developed a novel diagnostic that enhances the utility of a fast gated camera by adding, inexpensively, some features of a dual-axis streak camera, in order to watch the turn-by-turn evolution of the transverse profile, in both x and y. The beam's elliptical profile is reshaped using cylindrical lenses to form a tall and narrow ellipse--essentially the projection of the full ellipse onto one transverse axis. We do this projection twice, by splitting the beam into two paths at different heights, and rotating the ellipse by 90{sup o} on one path. A rapidly rotating mirror scans these vertical ''pencils'' of light horizontally across the photocathode of the camera, which is gated for 3 ns on every Nth ring turn. A single readout of the camera captures 100 images, looking like a stroboscopic photograph of a moving object. We have observed the capture of injected charge into a bunch and the rapid change of beam size at the onset of a fast instability.

  11. Why Critical Literacy Should Turn to "The Affective Turn": Making a Case for Critical Affective Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.

    2016-01-01

    The central argument of this essay is that critical literacy with a rationalistic bent may not enable us to cope with ethical dilemmas in our responsiveness to human sufferings. I argue that critical literacy education would benefit from turning to the recent scholarship on affect/emotion studies. I draw upon the works of Sara Ahmed--one of the…

  12. Predicting Turns in Proteins with a Unified Model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qi; Li, Tonghua; Cong, Peisheng; Sun, Jiangming; Li, Dapeng; Tang, Shengnan

    2012-01-01

    Motivation Turns are a critical element of the structure of a protein; turns play a crucial role in loops, folds, and interactions. Current prediction methods are well developed for the prediction of individual turn types, including α-turn, β-turn, and γ-turn, etc. However, for further protein structure and function prediction it is necessary to develop a uniform model that can accurately predict all types of turns simultaneously. Results In this study, we present a novel approach, TurnP, which offers the ability to investigate all the turns in a protein based on a unified model. The main characteristics of TurnP are: (i) using newly exploited features of structural evolution information (secondary structure and shape string of protein) based on structure homologies, (ii) considering all types of turns in a unified model, and (iii) practical capability of accurate prediction of all turns simultaneously for a query. TurnP utilizes predicted secondary structures and predicted shape strings, both of which have greater accuracy, based on innovative technologies which were both developed by our group. Then, sequence and structural evolution features, which are profile of sequence, profile of secondary structures and profile of shape strings are generated by sequence and structure alignment. When TurnP was validated on a non-redundant dataset (4,107 entries) by five-fold cross-validation, we achieved an accuracy of 88.8% and a sensitivity of 71.8%, which exceeded the most state-of-the-art predictors of certain type of turn. Newly determined sequences, the EVA and CASP9 datasets were used as independent tests and the results we achieved were outstanding for turn predictions and confirmed the good performance of TurnP for practical applications. PMID:23144872

  13. Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Taking Medicines Safely Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely ... medicine. The pharmacist has filled the prescription. Now it's up to you to take the medicine safely. ...

  14. 14 CFR 417.209 - Malfunction turn analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... launch vehicle velocity turn magnitude from the nominal velocity magnitude that corresponds to the... magnitude from the nominal velocity magnitude that corresponds to the velocity vector turn angle envelope....

  15. 14 CFR 417.209 - Malfunction turn analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., aerodynamic breakup or inertial breakup. (6) The launch vehicle's turning behavior from the time when a malfunction begins to cause a turn until aerodynamic breakup, inertial breakup, or ground impact. The...

  16. 14 CFR 417.209 - Malfunction turn analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., aerodynamic breakup or inertial breakup. (6) The launch vehicle's turning behavior from the time when a malfunction begins to cause a turn until aerodynamic breakup, inertial breakup, or ground impact. The...

  17. 14 CFR 417.209 - Malfunction turn analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., aerodynamic breakup or inertial breakup. (6) The launch vehicle's turning behavior from the time when a malfunction begins to cause a turn until aerodynamic breakup, inertial breakup, or ground impact. The...

  18. 14 CFR 417.209 - Malfunction turn analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., aerodynamic breakup or inertial breakup. (6) The launch vehicle's turning behavior from the time when a malfunction begins to cause a turn until aerodynamic breakup, inertial breakup, or ground impact. The...

  19. Maize Leaves Turn Away from Neighbors1

    PubMed Central

    Maddonni, Gustavo Angel; Otegui, María Elena; Andrieu, Bruno; Chelle, Michael; Casal, Jorge J.

    2002-01-01

    In commercial crops, maize (Zea mays) plants are typically grown at a larger distance between rows (70 cm) than within the same row (16–23 cm). This rectangular arrangement creates a heterogeneous environment in which the plants receive higher red light (R) to far-red light (FR) ratios from the interrow spaces. In field crops, the hybrid Dekalb 696 (DK696) showed an increased proportion of leaves toward interrow spaces, whereas the experimental hybrid 980 (Exp980) retained random leaf orientation. Mirrors reflecting FR were placed close to isolated plants to simulate the presence of neighbors in the field. In addition, localized FR was applied to target leaves in a growth chamber. During their expansion, the leaves of DK696 turned away from the low R to FR ratio signals, whereas Exp980 leaves remained unaffected. On the contrary, tillering was reduced and plant height was increased by low R to FR ratios in Exp980 but not in DK696. Isolated plants preconditioned with low R/FR-simulating neighbors in a North-South row showed reduced mutual shading among leaves when the plants were actually grouped in North-South rows. These observations contradict the current view that phytochrome-mediated responses to low R/FR are a relic from wild conditions, detrimental for crop yield. PMID:12427985

  20. Maize leaves turn away from neighbors.

    PubMed

    Maddonni, Gustavo Angel; Otegui, María Elena; Andrieu, Bruno; Chelle, Michael; Casal, Jorge J

    2002-11-01

    In commercial crops, maize (Zea mays) plants are typically grown at a larger distance between rows (70 cm) than within the same row (16-23 cm). This rectangular arrangement creates a heterogeneous environment in which the plants receive higher red light (R) to far-red light (FR) ratios from the interrow spaces. In field crops, the hybrid Dekalb 696 (DK696) showed an increased proportion of leaves toward interrow spaces, whereas the experimental hybrid 980 (Exp980) retained random leaf orientation. Mirrors reflecting FR were placed close to isolated plants to simulate the presence of neighbors in the field. In addition, localized FR was applied to target leaves in a growth chamber. During their expansion, the leaves of DK696 turned away from the low R to FR ratio signals, whereas Exp980 leaves remained unaffected. On the contrary, tillering was reduced and plant height was increased by low R to FR ratios in Exp980 but not in DK696. Isolated plants preconditioned with low R/FR-simulating neighbors in a North-South row showed reduced mutual shading among leaves when the plants were actually grouped in North-South rows. These observations contradict the current view that phytochrome-mediated responses to low R/FR are a relic from wild conditions, detrimental for crop yield.

  1. 33 CFR 164.42 - Rate of turn indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rate of turn indicator. 164.42...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.42 Rate of turn indicator. Each vessel of... turn indicator....

  2. Turn Openings in Academic Talk: Where Goals and Roles Intersect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evison, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This study uses Corpus Linguistic (CL) techniques to explore multiple turn openings in conjunction with comparative measures of turn-initial priming (the proportion of occurrences of a form that are turn-initial). Using a benchmark corpus of casual conversation as a point of comparison, six frequent items which have a particularly strong affinity…

  3. History of Education in Canada: Historiographic "Turns" and Widening Horizons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno-Jofré, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores major historiographic "turns" in history of education with a focus, although not exclusively, on English-speaking Canada. It addresses the transformative intellectual impact of the turn toward social history on the history of education, the impact of cultural history and the linguistic turn, the reception of Michel…

  4. A SPICE Model and Electrostatic Field Analysis of the MOS Turn-Off Thyristor

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D Q; Mayhall, D J; Wilson, M J; Lahowe, D A

    2002-08-05

    This paper presents a circuit model and an electrostatic field analysis with an approximate model of the SDM170HK MOS turn-off thyristor (MTO) fabricated by Silicon Power Corporation. The circuit model consists of five cells, each containing two bipolar junction transistors and three resistors. The turn-off feature of the MTO was simulated by inserting an array of 21 Fairchild FDS6670A MOSFET importable sub-circuit components between the cathode and the turn-on gate. The model was then used to create a four-terminal sub-circuit component representing the MTO that can be readily imported into computer-aided circuit design programs such as PSPICE and Micro-Cap. The generated static I-V characteristics and simulated switching waveforms are shown. The electrostatic field analysis was done for the maximum operating voltage of 4.5 kV using the Ansoft Maxwell 3D field simulator. Electrostatic field magnitudes that exceed the nominal air breakdown threshold of 30 kV/cm were observed surrounding the simulated turn-off gate wire, the turn-off gate ring contact, and the cathode ring contact. The resulting areas of high fields are a concern, as arc track marks have been found on the inner surface of the ceramic insulator near the internal gate connections of a failed device.

  5. Extension of the classical classification of β-turns

    PubMed Central

    de Brevern, Alexandre G.

    2016-01-01

    The functional properties of a protein primarily depend on its three-dimensional (3D) structure. These properties have classically been assigned, visualized and analysed on the basis of protein secondary structures. The β-turn is the third most important secondary structure after helices and β-strands. β-turns have been classified according to the values of the dihedral angles φ and ψ of the central residue. Conventionally, eight different types of β-turns have been defined, whereas those that cannot be defined are classified as type IV β-turns. This classification remains the most widely used. Nonetheless, the miscellaneous type IV β-turns represent 1/3rd of β-turn residues. An unsupervised specific clustering approach was designed to search for recurrent new turns in the type IV category. The classical rules of β-turn type assignment were central to the approach. The four most frequently occurring clusters defined the new β-turn types. Unexpectedly, these types, designated IV1, IV2, IV3 and IV4, represent half of the type IV β-turns and occur more frequently than many of the previously established types. These types show convincing particularities, in terms of both structures and sequences that allow for the classical β-turn classification to be extended for the first time in 25 years. PMID:27627963

  6. Wind tunnel studies of turns by flying dragonflies.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D E

    1986-05-01

    High-speed movies of dragonflies turning in flight on flexible tethers show that there are two distinct modes of turning. In the 'conventional' mode, dragonflies use left-right asymmetries in the wing stroke amplitude, and occasionally in the angle of attack, to produce more lift and thrust on one side than the other. This causes the animal to roll into a bank, so that the lift vector has a sideward component; this sideward component produces the turn, much as in an airplane. This type of turn is probably most useful during fast forward flight. The second mode of turning in the 'yaw turn'. Yaw turns are accomplished without banking, and the dragonfly's long axis may turn more than 90 degrees in the period of two wing strokes. The kinematics of this turn could not be as closely analysed, but it appears that dragonflies use drag on the inner wing upstroke and the outer wing downstroke to turn, much like pivoting a rowing boat. This turn may be hampered by drag on the abdomen during fast forward flight and would be most useful at low speeds or during hovering.

  7. Extension of the classical classification of β-turns.

    PubMed

    de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2016-09-15

    The functional properties of a protein primarily depend on its three-dimensional (3D) structure. These properties have classically been assigned, visualized and analysed on the basis of protein secondary structures. The β-turn is the third most important secondary structure after helices and β-strands. β-turns have been classified according to the values of the dihedral angles φ and ψ of the central residue. Conventionally, eight different types of β-turns have been defined, whereas those that cannot be defined are classified as type IV β-turns. This classification remains the most widely used. Nonetheless, the miscellaneous type IV β-turns represent 1/3(rd) of β-turn residues. An unsupervised specific clustering approach was designed to search for recurrent new turns in the type IV category. The classical rules of β-turn type assignment were central to the approach. The four most frequently occurring clusters defined the new β-turn types. Unexpectedly, these types, designated IV1, IV2, IV3 and IV4, represent half of the type IV β-turns and occur more frequently than many of the previously established types. These types show convincing particularities, in terms of both structures and sequences that allow for the classical β-turn classification to be extended for the first time in 25 years.

  8. A new observable in extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Canal, C. A.; Illana, J. I.; Masip, M.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    We find that the ratio rμe of the muon to the electromagnetic component of an extended air shower at the ground level provides an indirect measure of the depth Xmax of the shower maximum. This result, obtained with the air-shower code AIRES, is independent of the hadronic model used in the simulation. We show that the value of rμe in a particular shower discriminates its proton or iron nature with a 98% efficiency. We also show that the eventual production of forwardheavy quarks inside the shower may introduce anomalous values of rμe in isolated events.

  9. Tracking the Turn Maneuvering Target Using the Multi-Target Bayes Filter with an Adaptive Estimation of Turn Rate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zong-Xiang; Wu, De-Hui; Xie, Wei-Xin; Li, Liang-Qun

    2017-02-15

    Tracking the target that maneuvers at a variable turn rate is a challenging problem. The traditional solution for this problem is the use of the switching multiple models technique, which includes several dynamic models with different turn rates for matching the motion mode of the target at each point in time. However, the actual motion mode of a target at any time may be different from all of the dynamic models, because these models are usually limited. To address this problem, we establish a formula for estimating the turn rate of a maneuvering target. By applying the estimation method of the turn rate to the multi-target Bayes (MB) filter, we develop a MB filter with an adaptive estimation of the turn rate, in order to track multiple maneuvering targets. Simulation results indicate that the MB filter with an adaptive estimation of the turn rate, is better than the existing filter at tracking the target that maneuvers at a variable turn rate.

  10. Making 'Tractor Beams' a Reality (Eventually)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Tractor beams -- the ability to trap and move objects using laser light -- are the stuff of science fiction, but a team of NASA scientists has won funding to study the concept for remotely capturin...

  11. Revisiting GNRA and UNCG folds: U-turns versus Z-turns in RNA hairpin loops

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    When thinking about RNA three-dimensional structures, coming across GNRA and UNCG tetraloops is perceived as a boon since their folds have been extensively described. Nevertheless, analyzing loop conformations within RNA and RNP structures led us to uncover several instances of GNRA and UNCG loops that do not fold as expected. We noticed that when a GNRA does not assume its “natural” fold, it adopts the one we typically associate with a UNCG sequence. The same folding interconversion may occur for loops with UNCG sequences, for instance within tRNA anticodon loops. Hence, we show that some structured tetranucleotide sequences starting with G or U can adopt either of these folds. The underlying structural basis that defines these two fold types is the mutually exclusive stacking of a backbone oxygen on either the first (in GNRA) or the last nucleobase (in UNCG), generating an oxygen–π contact. We thereby propose to refrain from using sequences to distinguish between loop conformations. Instead, we suggest using descriptors such as U-turn (for “GNRA-type” folds) and a newly described Z-turn (for “UNCG-type” folds). Because tetraloops adopt for the largest part only two (inter)convertible turns, we are better able to interpret from a structural perspective loop interchangeability occurring in ribosomes and viral RNA. In this respect, we propose a general view on the inclination for a given sequence to adopt (or not) a specific fold. We also suggest how long-noncoding RNAs may adopt discrete but transient structures, which are therefore hard to predict. PMID:27999116

  12. Revisiting GNRA and UNCG folds: U-turns versus Z-turns in RNA hairpin loops.

    PubMed

    D'Ascenzo, Luigi; Leonarski, Filip; Vicens, Quentin; Auffinger, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    When thinking about RNA three-dimensional structures, coming across GNRA and UNCG tetraloops is perceived as a boon since their folds have been extensively described. Nevertheless, analyzing loop conformations within RNA and RNP structures led us to uncover several instances of GNRA and UNCG loops that do not fold as expected. We noticed that when a GNRA does not assume its "natural" fold, it adopts the one we typically associate with a UNCG sequence. The same folding interconversion may occur for loops with UNCG sequences, for instance within tRNA anticodon loops. Hence, we show that some structured tetranucleotide sequences starting with G or U can adopt either of these folds. The underlying structural basis that defines these two fold types is the mutually exclusive stacking of a backbone oxygen on either the first (in GNRA) or the last nucleobase (in UNCG), generating an oxygen-π contact. We thereby propose to refrain from using sequences to distinguish between loop conformations. Instead, we suggest using descriptors such as U-turn (for "GNRA-type" folds) and a newly described Z-turn (for "UNCG-type" folds). Because tetraloops adopt for the largest part only two (inter)convertible turns, we are better able to interpret from a structural perspective loop interchangeability occurring in ribosomes and viral RNA. In this respect, we propose a general view on the inclination for a given sequence to adopt (or not) a specific fold. We also suggest how long-noncoding RNAs may adopt discrete but transient structures, which are therefore hard to predict.

  13. Plasticity of the RNA Kink Turn Structural Motif

    SciTech Connect

    Antonioli, A.; Cochrane, J; Lipchock, S; Strobel, S

    2010-01-01

    The kink turn (K-turn) is an RNA structural motif found in many biologically significant RNAs. While most examples of the K-turn have a similar fold, the crystal structure of the Azoarcus group I intron revealed a novel RNA conformation, a reverse kink turn bent in the direction opposite that of a consensus K-turn. The reverse K-turn is bent toward the major grooves rather than the minor grooves of the flanking helices, yet the sequence differs from the K-turn consensus by only a single nucleotide. Here we demonstrate that the reverse bend direction is not solely defined by internal sequence elements, but is instead affected by structural elements external to the K-turn. It bends toward the major groove under the direction of a tetraloop-tetraloop receptor. The ability of one sequence to form two distinct structures demonstrates the inherent plasticity of the K-turn sequence. Such plasticity suggests that the K-turn is not a primary element in RNA folding, but instead is shaped by other structural elements within the RNA or ribonucleoprotein assembly.

  14. Turning by buckling: a cheap evolutionary strategy for turning among marine bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Kwangmin; Guasto, Jeffrey; Stocker, Roman

    2012-02-01

    Marine bacteria have long been known to swim forward and backward (`run and reverse') by controlling the rotational direction of a 20 nm helical flagellum. Recent detailed observations have shown that these bacteria can also make sharp, ˜90^o turns, an astounding feature for a micron-scale organism with just one degree of freedom under its control. We demonstrate that a buckling instability originating from the flexible linkage (`hook') between the body and the flagellum is responsible for the reorientation. Using high-magnification (40˜100X) observations based on high-speed video microscopy (420˜1000 fps), we captured the extreme deformation of the flagellum and the hook involved in this process. The mechanical properties of the hook are finely tuned to the hydrodynamic loads experienced by the cell: the hook becomes unstable only when the compressive load during the onset of forward swimming exceeds the threshold for Euler buckling. Combining the data with a model of buckling of thin structures, we show that bacteria take advantage of the flexibility of the flagellum and the hook to generate a turn, which may represent the evolutionarily cheapest bacterial strategy to actively change direction.

  15. The use of data turning in airborne radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightstone, L.; Faubert, D.

    Data turning is a digital signal processing method that achieves good signal-to-noise ratio and target/interference resolution while reducing the number of pulses processed in the discrete Fourier transform/fast Fourier transform operation. A mathematical description is provided of data turning, along with a mathematical example of the impact of data turning on a bank of discrete Fourier transform filters. Data turning is discussed from the frequency domain and time domain perspectives, and a simulated performance example is taken from an airborne pulse doppler radar system. It is shown that data turning can, with a proper choice of signal processing parameters, approximate the integration improvement of non-coherent integration. Data turning can be significantly faster than either full coherent processing or non-coherent processing.

  16. Advances in Atmospheric Radiation Measurements and Modeling Needed to Improve Air Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Atwell, William; Beck, Peter; Benton, Eric; Copeland, Kyle; Dyer, Clive; Gersey, Brad; Getley, Ian; Hands, Alex; Holland, Michael; Hong, Sunhak; Hwang, Junga; Jones, Bryn; Malone, Kathleen; Meier, Matthias M.; Mertens, Chris; Phillips, Tony; Ryden, Keith; Schwadron, Nathan; Wender, Stephen A.; Wilkins, Richard; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2015-04-01

    Air safety is tied to the phenomenon of ionizing radiation from space weather, primarily from galactic cosmic rays but also from solar energetic particles. A global framework for addressing radiation issues in this environment has been constructed, but more must be done at international and national levels. Health consequences from atmospheric radiation exposure are likely to exist. In addition, severe solar radiation events may cause economic consequences in the international aviation community due to exposure limits being reached by some crew members. Impacts from a radiation environment upon avionics from high-energy particles and low-energy, thermalized neutrons are now recognized as an area of active interest. A broad community recognizes that there are a number of mitigation paths that can be taken relative to the human tissue and avionics exposure risks. These include developing active monitoring and measurement programs as well as improving scientific modeling capabilities that can eventually be turned into operations. A number of roadblocks to risk mitigation still exist, such as effective pilot training programs as well as monitoring, measuring, and regulatory measures. An active international effort toward observing the weather of atmospheric radiation must occur to make progress in mitigating radiation exposure risks. Stakeholders in this process include standard-making bodies, scientific organizations, regulatory organizations, air traffic management systems, aircraft owners and operators, pilots and crew, and even the public.

  17. Report: Enhanced EPA Oversight Needed to Address Risks From Declining Clean Air Act Title V Revenues

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #15-P-0006, October 20, 2014. Weaknesses in the EPA's oversight of Title V revenues and expenditures jeopardize program implementation and, in turn, compliance with air regulations for many of the nation's largest sources of air pollution.

  18. High explosive corner turning performance and the LANL mushroom test

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.G.; Seitz, W.L.; Forest, C.A.; Harry, H.H.

    1998-07-01

    The Mushroom test is designed to characterize the corner turning performance of a new generation of less sensitive booster explosives. The test is described in detail, and three corner turning figures-of-merit are examined using pure TATB (both Livermore{close_quote}s Ultrafine and a Los Alamos research blend) and PBX9504 as examples. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. High explosive corner turning performance and the LANL Mushroom test

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.G.; Seitz, W.L.; Forest, C.A.; Harry, H.H.

    1997-09-01

    The Mushroom test is designed to characterize the corner turning performance of a new generation of less insensitive booster explosives. The test is described in detail, and three corner turning figures-of-merit are examined using pure TATB (both Livermore`s Ultrafine and a Los Alamos research blend) and PBX9504 as examples.

  20. Turning Points: Priorities for Teacher Education in a Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Rosalie M.

    2009-01-01

    Every generation has its moment, some turning point that will mark its place in the historical record. Such points provide the direction of our history and our future. Turning points are, characteristically, times of turmoil based on a fundamental change in models or events--what Thomas Kuhn called a "paradigm shift." In terms of a democratic…

  1. Every Child, Every Promise: Turning Failure into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Every Child, Every Promise: Turning Failure into Action" is the first national research that comprehensively measures the presence of the essential resources that correlate with success in both youth and adulthood. The report indicates that there is much work to do as a nation. It also shows how failure can be turned into action to improve the…

  2. 33 CFR 164.42 - Rate of turn indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rate of turn indicator. 164.42 Section 164.42 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.42 Rate of turn indicator. Each vessel...

  3. Turning Points in the Development of Classical Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabor, Elena

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the vocational socialization turning points in families of classical musicians. I sampled and interviewed 20 parent-child dyads, for a total of 46 interviews. Data analysis revealed that classical musicians' experiences were marked by 11 turning points that affected their identification with the occupation:…

  4. Compensatory mechanisms of transtibial amputees during circular turning.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Jessica D; Segal, Ava D; Klute, Glenn K; Neptune, Richard R

    2011-07-01

    Turning plays a prominent role in daily living activities and requires the modulation of the ground reaction forces to accelerate the body's center-of-mass along the path of the turn. With the ankle plantarflexors being prominent contributors to the propulsive ground reaction forces, it is not clear how transtibial amputees perform turning tasks without these important muscles. The purpose of this study was to identify the compensatory mechanisms used by transtibial amputees during a simple turning task by analyzing the radial and anterior-posterior ground reaction impulses and sagittal, transverse and coronal joint work of the residual and intact legs. These quantities were analyzed with the residual leg on both the inside and outside of the turn and compared to non-amputees. The analysis showed that amputees and non-amputees use different joint strategies to turn. Amputees rely primarily on sagittal plane hip joint work to turn while non-amputees rely primarily on ankle work in the sagittal plane and hip joint work in the coronal plane. Differences in strategies are most likely due to the minimal power output provided by the passive prosthetic feet used by amputees and perhaps a desire to minimize the risk of falling. Understanding these differences in turning strategies will aid in developing effective rehabilitation therapies and prosthetic devices that improve amputee mobility.

  5. Case Study Using Ultrasound to Treat /[turned r]/

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modha, Geetanjalee; Bernhardt, B. May; Church, Robyn; Bacsfalvi, Penelope

    2008-01-01

    Background: Ultrasound has shown promise as visual feedback in remediation of /[turned r]/.Aims: To compare treatment for [turned r] with and without ultrasound.Methods & Procedures: A Canadian English-speaking adolescent participated in a case study with a no treatment baseline, alternating treatment blocks with and without ultrasound and a…

  6. Density of Plutonium Turnings Generated from Machining Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, John Robert; Vigil, Duane M.; Jachimowski, Thomas A.; Archuleta, Alonso; Arellano, Gerald Joseph; Melton, Vince Lee

    2016-10-20

    The purpose of this project was to determine the density of plutonium (Pu) turnings generated from the range of machining activities, using both surrogate material and machined Pu turnings. Verify that 500 grams (g) of plutonium will fit in a one quart container using a surrogate equivalent volume and that 100 grams of Pu will fit in a one quart Savy container.

  7. Human Rights Education and the Post Secular Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowie, Bob

    2012-01-01

    This article questions whether human rights education (HRE) scholarship is responding adequately to the post secular turn in thinking about the place and nature of religion in society. Here the post secular turn is used to describe the discrediting of secularisation theory, the recognition of religion as an enduring and pervasive global cultural…

  8. Turn-Final or in English: A Conversation Analytic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Anna Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Or is commonly understood to be a conjunction linking two or more constituents. Ending a sentence with "or" is considered non-canonical in written interaction, but ending a turn with "or" occurs regularly in spoken interaction. This dissertation investigates the interactional work of turn-final or as in "Did his oxygen get…

  9. Turn-Continuation by Self and by Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidnell, Jack

    2012-01-01

    At the possible completion of a turn constructional unit (TCU) that has not selected a next speaker, a speaker has two available options: either begin a new TCU or continue the one that has just come to a point of possible completion. This article describes some of the complex turns that result from exercising the second option. These can be seen…

  10. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  11. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Climate Change on Children's Health: Session Two: Air Quality Impacts MODERATOR: Susan Anenberg, EPA Meredith McCormack, Johns ... University • Effects of Climate Change on Children’s Health: Air Quality Impacts Frederica Perera, Columbia University • Air quality Impacts ...

  12. Experience sharing, emotional reciprocity, and turn-taking

    PubMed Central

    Stevanovic, Melisa; Peräkylä, Anssi

    2015-01-01

    In this perspective article, we consider the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking. There is much evidence suggesting that human social interaction is permeated by two temporal organizations: (1) the sequential framework of turn-taking and (2) the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity. From this perspective, we introduce two alternative hypotheses about how the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking could be viewed. According to the first hypothesis, the home environment of experience sharing is in the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity, while the motivation to share experiences is in tension with the sequential framework of turn-taking. According to the second hypothesis, people’s inclination to coordinate their actions in terms of turn-taking is motivated precisely by their propensity to share experiences. We consider theoretical and empirical ideas in favor of both of these hypotheses and discuss their implications for future research. PMID:25926811

  13. Turn-by-Turn and Bunch-by-Bunch Transverse Profiles of a Single Bunch in a Full Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, R.; Fisher, A.S.; /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    The apparatus described in this paper can image the evolution of the transverse profile of a single bunch, isolated from a full PEP-II ring of 1500 bunches. Using this apparatus there are two methods of single bunch imaging; bunch-by-bunch beam profiling can image every bunch in the ring a single bunch at a time with the images of sequential bunches being in order, allowing one to see variations in beam size along a train. Turn-by-turn beam profiling images a single bunch on each successive turn it makes around the ring. This method will be useful in determining the effect that an injected bunch has on a stable bunch as the oscillations of the injected bunch damp out. Turn-by-turn imaging of the synchrotron light uses a system of lenses and mirrors to image many turns of both the major and minor axis of a single bunch across the photocathode of a gateable camera. The bunch-by-bunch method is simpler: because of a focusing mirror used in porting the light from the ring, the synchrotron light from the orbiting electrons becomes an image at a certain distance from the mirror; and since the camera does not use a lens, the photocathode is set exactly at this image distance. Bunch-by-bunch profiling has shown that in the Low Energy Ring (LER) horizontal bunch size decreases along a train. Turn-by-turn profiling has been able to image 100 turns of a single bunch on one exposure of the camera. The turn-by-turn setup has also been able to image 50 turns of the minor axis showing part of the damping process of an oscillating injected charge during a LER fill. The goal is to image the damping of oscillations of injected charge for 100 turns of both the major and minor axis throughout the damping process during trickle injection. With some changes to the apparatus this goal is within reach and will make turn-by-turn imaging a very useful tool in beam diagnostics.

  14. Water and side-chain embedded π-turns.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Dey, Sucharita; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2014-05-01

    Elucidating protein function from its structure is central to the understanding of cellular mechanisms. This involves deciphering the dependence of local structural motifs on sequence. These structural motifs may be stabilized by direct or water-mediated hydrogen bonding among the constituent residues. π-Turns, defined by interactions between (i) and (i + 5) positions, are large enough to contain a central space that can embed a water molecule (or a protein moiety) to form a stable structure. This work is an analysis of such embedded π-turns using a nonredundant dataset of protein structures. A total of 2965 embedded π-turns have been identified, as also 281 embedded Schellman motif, a type of π-turn which occurs at the C-termini of α-helices. Embedded π-turns and Schellman motifs have been classified on the basis of the protein atoms of the terminal turn residues that are linked by the embedded moiety, conformation, residue composition, and compared with the turns that have terminal residues connected by direct hydrogen bonds. Geometrically, the turns have been fitted to a circle and the position of the linker relative to its center analyzed. The hydroxyl group of Ser and Thr, located at (i + 3) position, is the most prominent linker for the side-chain mediated π-turns. Consideration of residue conservation among homologous sequences indicates the terminal and the linker positions to be the most conserved. The embedded π-turn as a binding site (for the linker) is discussed in the context of "nest," a concave depression that is formed in protein structures with adjacent residues having enantiomeric main-chain conformations.

  15. Influence of coolant on ductile mode processing of binderless nanocrystalline tungsten carbide through ultraprecision diamond turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doetz, Marius; Dambon, Olaf; Klocke, Fritz; Fähnle, Oliver

    2015-08-01

    Molds made of tungsten carbide are typically used for the replicative mass production of glass lenses by precision glass molding. Consequently an ultra-precision grinding process with a subsequent fresh-feed polishing operation is conventionally applied. These processes are time consuming and have a relatively low reproducibility. An alternative manufacturing technology, with a high predictability and efficiency, which additionally allows a higher geometrical flexibility, is the single point diamond turning technique (SPDT). However, the extreme hardness and the chemical properties of tungsten carbide lead to significant tool wear and therefore the impossibility of machining the work pieces in an economical way. One approach to enlarge the tool life is to affect the contact zone between tool and work piece by the use of special cutting fluids. This publication emphasizes on the most recent investigations and results in direct machining of nano-grained tungsten carbide with mono crystal diamonds under the influence of various kinds of cutting fluids. Therefore basic ruling experiments on binderless nano grained tungsten carbide were performed, where the tool performed a linear movement with a steadily increasing depth of cut. As the ductile cutting mechanism is a prerequisite for the optical manufacturing of tungsten carbide these experiments serve the purpose for establish the influence of different cutting fluid characteristics on the cutting performance of mono crystal diamonds. Eventually it is shown that by adjusting the coolant fluid it is possible to significantly shift the transition point from ductile to brittle removal to larger depths of cut eventually enabling a SPDT of binderless tungsten carbide molds.

  16. A study of commuter air service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belina, F. W.; Bush, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    A regionally oriented overview of the commuter air service industry is provided. A framework for an eventual assessment of potential technology directions that may be of benefit to the industry is presented. Data are provided on the industry's market characteristics, service patterns, patronage characteristics, aircraft and airport needs, economic characteristics and institutional issues. Using personal interview and literature survey methods, investigation of a considerable cross-section of the industry was made.

  17. The Evolution of Air Force Targeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    campaign against Japan. This group eventually evolved into the first Joint Target Group . The deputy assistant chief of the Air Staff for targeting...Far East Command (GHQ FEC) as- sumed responsibility for targeting. The chief of staff established the GHQ Target Group on 14 July 1950 and made it...responsible for target nominations. However, the GHQ Target Group was not capable of performing this task. The work of this group was nei- ther

  18. BolA Is a Transcriptional Switch That Turns Off Motility and Turns On Biofilm Development

    PubMed Central

    Dressaire, Clémentine; Moreira, Ricardo Neves; Barahona, Susana; Alves de Matos, António Pedro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria are extremely versatile organisms that rapidly adapt to changing environments. When bacterial cells switch from planktonic growth to biofilm, flagellum formation is turned off and the production of fimbriae and extracellular polysaccharides is switched on. BolA is present in most Gram-negative bacteria, and homologues can be found from proteobacteria to eukaryotes. Here, we show that BolA is a new bacterial transcription factor that modulates the switch from a planktonic to a sessile lifestyle. It negatively modulates flagellar biosynthesis and swimming capacity in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, BolA overexpression favors biofilm formation, involving the production of fimbria-like adhesins and curli. Our results also demonstrate that BolA is a protein with high affinity to DNA and is able to regulate many genes on a genome-wide scale. Moreover, we show that the most significant targets of this protein involve a complex network of genes encoding proteins related to biofilm development. Herein, we propose that BolA is a motile/adhesive transcriptional switch, specifically involved in the transition between the planktonic and the attachment stage of biofilm formation. PMID:25691594

  19. U-turn alternative to the large aperture switch

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.

    1994-03-09

    The primary alternative laser architecture is the U-turn design. The U-turn has significantly different cost and performance risks than the full-aperture switch, which makes it a highly desirable alternative. The U-turn was conceived at LLNL in 1992. A similar concept, the L-turn had already been discovered by the French at CEL-V. Both concepts are based on the multipass glass amplifier design, but the full-aperture Pockels cell and polarizer are replaced with smaller and less expensive optics. Eliminating the large switch and polarizer not only reduces component costs, it also provides options for shortening the laser which, in turn, could reduce the size and cost of the laser building. Efficient use of the amplifier aperture (small vignetting allowance) requires that the U-turn have a long transport spatial filter; however, this is not a disadvantage if a long spatial filter is already required for image relaying to the frequency converter. Given a long spatial filter, the U-turn is potentially more efficient because losses in the switch and polarizer are avoided.

  20. How many hydrogen-bonded α-turns are possible?

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Anette; Schramm, Peter; Hofmann, Hans-Jörg

    2011-06-01

    The formation of α-turns is a possibility to reverse the direction of peptide sequences via five amino acids. In this paper, a systematic conformational analysis was performed to find the possible isolated α-turns with a hydrogen bond between the first and fifth amino acid employing the methods of ab initio MO theory in vacuum (HF/6-31G*, B3LYP/6-311 + G*) and in solution (CPCM/HF/6-31G*). Only few α-turn structures with glycine and alanine backbones fulfill the geometry criteria for the i←(i + 4) hydrogen bond satisfactorily. The most stable representatives agree with structures found in the Protein Data Bank. There is a general tendency to form additional hydrogen bonds for smaller pseudocycles corresponding to β- and γ-turns with better hydrogen bond geometries. Sometimes, this competition weakens or even destroys the i←(i + 4) hydrogen bond leading to very stable double β-turn structures. This is also the reason why an "ideal" α-turn with three central amino acids having the perfect backbone angle values of an α-helix could not be localized. There are numerous hints for stable α-turns with a distance between the C(α)-atoms of the first and fifth amino acid smaller than 6-7 Å, but without an i←(i + 4) hydrogen bond.

  1. Predicting β-Turns in Protein Using Kernel Logistic Regression

    PubMed Central

    Elbashir, Murtada Khalafallah; Sheng, Yu; Wang, Jianxin; Wu, FangXiang; Li, Min

    2013-01-01

    A β-turn is a secondary protein structure type that plays a significant role in protein configuration and function. On average 25% of amino acids in protein structures are located in β-turns. It is very important to develope an accurate and efficient method for β-turns prediction. Most of the current successful β-turns prediction methods use support vector machines (SVMs) or neural networks (NNs). The kernel logistic regression (KLR) is a powerful classification technique that has been applied successfully in many classification problems. However, it is often not found in β-turns classification, mainly because it is computationally expensive. In this paper, we used KLR to obtain sparse β-turns prediction in short evolution time. Secondary structure information and position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) are utilized as input features. We achieved Qtotal of 80.7% and MCC of 50% on BT426 dataset. These results show that KLR method with the right algorithm can yield performance equivalent to or even better than NNs and SVMs in β-turns prediction. In addition, KLR yields probabilistic outcome and has a well-defined extension to multiclass case. PMID:23509793

  2. Compensatory turning strategies while walking in patients with hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Tsukagoshi, Rui; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Haruhiko; So, Kazutaka; Kuroda, Yutaka; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2014-04-01

    The ability to change directions while walking is an integral component of adaptive locomotor behavior. Patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) experience prolonged hip dysfunction. Gait compensation adopted by the patients with hip OA may become more pronounced while they turn. The purposes of this study were to identify the turning strategy while walking in patients with hip OA, and to examine the relationship between the turning strategy and the patient's functional level. Fourteen patients with hip OA and 13 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. The hip, knee, and ankle joint angles and moments, and the foot progression angle were measured under three walking conditions (straight walking, 45° step turn, and 45° crossover turn), and the gait variables for each walking condition were compared between the 2 groups. The relationship between the increasing rate of knee and ankle joint moments in the turning to the straight walking and the functional point in the Harris hip score (HHS) was examined. The OA group showed decreased hip flexion, extension, and abduction angles, and hip flexion moment during the step turn, and decreased hip flexion, extension, and adduction angles, and hip abduction moment during the crossover turn. Furthermore, the ankle plantarflexion moment and the change in the foot angle during the stance phase were significantly increased during the crossover turn in the OA group. The increasing rate of the ankle plantarflexion moment correlated significantly with the functional point in the HHS. Patients with hip OA rely primarily on the ankle plantarflexors to compensate for the hip dysfunction while changing the walking direction.

  3. INCREASING PROTEIN STABILITY BY IMPROVING BETA-TURNS

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hailong; Grimsley, Gerald R.; Razvi, Abbas; Scholtz, J. Martin; Pace, C. Nick

    2009-01-01

    Our goal was to gain a better understanding of how protein stability can be increased by improving β-turns. We studied 22 β-turns in nine proteins with 66 to 370 residues by replacing other residues with proline and glycine and measuring the stability. These two residues are statistically preferred in some β-turn positions. We studied: Cold shock protein B (CspB), Histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein (HPr), Ubiquitin, Ribonucleases Sa2, Sa3, T1, and HI, Tryptophan synthetase α-subunit (TSα), and Maltose binding protein (MBP). Of the fifteen single proline mutations, 11increased stability (Average = 0.8 ± 0.3; Range = 0.3 – 1.5 kcal/mol), and the stabilizing effect of double proline mutants was additive. Based on this and our previous work, we conclude that proteins can generally be stabilized by replacing non-proline residues with proline residues at the i + 1 position of Type I and II β-turns and at the i position in Type II β-turns. Other turn positions can sometimes be used if the φ angle is near −60° for the residue replaced. It is important that the side chain of the residue replaced is less than 50% buried. Identical substitutions in β-turns in related proteins give similar results. Proline substitutions increase stability mainly by decreasing the entropy of the denatured state. In contrast, the large, diverse group of proteins considered here had almost no residues in β-turns that could be replaced by Gly to increase protein stability. Improving β-turns by substituting Pro residues is a generally useful way of increasing protein stability. PMID:19626709

  4. Three-level rating of turns while walking

    PubMed Central

    England, Sarah E.; Verghese, Joe; Mahoney, Jeannette R.; Tranntzas, Constantin; Holtzer, Roee

    2014-01-01

    Research concerning the assessment of turns during walking in healthy older adults is scarce. This study compared three independent assessments of entry and exit points of turns during walking; participant, clinical rater, and a computer algorithm. Nineteen non-demented and nondisabled older adults (mean age 75.40 ± 5.52 years) participated in the current study. Results revealed that overall the three assessment methods were consistent (68 – 100 % agreement). However, participants determined their turn exit point before the algorithm, (−304.53 ± 326.67 ms), t(18) = −4.06, p = .001, 95% CI [−461.98, −147.08], and clinical rater, (−225.79 ± 303.79 ms), t(18) = −3.24, p = .005, 95% CI [−372.21, −79.37]. The differences in turn determination between the algorithm and rater were significant at turn entry points (131.24, ± 127.25 ms), t(18) = 4.50, p < .001, 95% CI [69.91, 192.58]) but not at turn exit points (−78.74 ± 259.66 ms), t(18) = −1.32, p < .20, 95% CI [−203.89, −46.41]). Greater time discrepancies in assessing turn exit points between the participants and both the algorithm and clinical rater were associated with worse visuospatial performance. Despite the relatively small difference among the three assessments of turns, they were consistent and can be utilized interchangeably. Further studies are necessary to determine whether differences in the ability to accurately determine turns entry and exit points are related to fall risk in normal and disease populations. PMID:25282258

  5. Turning Point: Operation Allied Force and the Allure of Air Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    including selected comments dating back from officer evaluations on Hoar as a young captain, as well as Defense Secretary Aspin’s comments on how each...GEN Clark and relay the following message verbatim, “get your fucking face off the TV. No more briefings, period. That’s it [italics in original].”260...determine if Serb forces were nearby. According to U.S. Army Colonel Mike Howell, “They look to see if children are playing or wash is on the

  6. MULTI - MILLION - TURN BEAM POSITION MONITORS FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    SATOGATA,T.CAMERON,P.CERNIGLIA,P.CUPOLO,J.DAWSON,CDEGEN,CMEAD,JVETTER,K

    2003-05-12

    During the RHIC 2003 run, two beam position monitors (BPMs) in each transverse plane in the RHIC blue ring were upgraded with high-capacity mezzanine cards. This upgrade provided these planes with the capability to digitize up to 128 million consecutive turns of RHIC beam, or almost 30 minutes of continuous beam centroid phase space evolution for a single RHIC bunch. This paper describes necessary hardware and software changes and initial system performance. We discuss early uses and results for diagnosis of coherent beam oscillations, turn-by-turn (TBT) acquisition through a RHIC acceleration ramp, and ac-dipole nonlinear dynamics studies.

  7. Diamond turning of Si and Ge single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, P.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single-point diamond turning studies have been completed on Si and Ge crystals. A new process model was developed for diamond turning which is based on a critical depth of cut for plastic flow-to-brittle fracture transitions. This concept, when combined with the actual machining geometry for single-point turning, predicts that {open_quotes}ductile{close_quotes} machining is a combined action of plasticity and fracture. Interrupted cutting experiments also provide a meant to directly measure the critical depth parameter for given machining conditions.

  8. Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.

  9. Air Force cryocooler development for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, William L.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is given of Air Force sponsored cryocooler development for long duration spacecraft missions. Alternate approaches are being pursued to insure eventual success. The types of closed cycle cryocoolers that are now in advanced development include Vuilleumier, turbo-Brayton, and rotary-reciprocating refrigerators. Linear Stirling coolers with magnetic bearings have also been jointly sponsored by NASA and the Air Force. Technology is also being explored for future coolers using magnetic materials at low temperatures and for refrigerators with sorption compresssors. All of these cryocoolers are presently configured primarily for use with infrared sensor systems, but the designs could be adapted for use with cryogenic fluid storage systems or other applications.

  10. Tracking the Turn Maneuvering Target Using the Multi-Target Bayes Filter with an Adaptive Estimation of Turn Rate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zong-xiang; Wu, De-hui; Xie, Wei-xin; Li, Liang-qun

    2017-01-01

    Tracking the target that maneuvers at a variable turn rate is a challenging problem. The traditional solution for this problem is the use of the switching multiple models technique, which includes several dynamic models with different turn rates for matching the motion mode of the target at each point in time. However, the actual motion mode of a target at any time may be different from all of the dynamic models, because these models are usually limited. To address this problem, we establish a formula for estimating the turn rate of a maneuvering target. By applying the estimation method of the turn rate to the multi-target Bayes (MB) filter, we develop a MB filter with an adaptive estimation of the turn rate, in order to track multiple maneuvering targets. Simulation results indicate that the MB filter with an adaptive estimation of the turn rate, is better than the existing filter at tracking the target that maneuvers at a variable turn rate. PMID:28212291

  11. Air Deployed Oceanographic Mooring (ADOM).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    TERMINAL INTERFACE LINES 2 - CABLE PAY OUT CONTROL Figur 6. ActicADOM ontrLNSyse POE turned on, whether the pump should be running, etc. The control...Bay, Washington, D.C. 20550 Port Hueneme, CA 93043 B.C., Canada Mr. Edgar Reed Dr. Robert N. Cordy, Director Dr. Ken Hunkins Naval Air Development Ctr...Data Bank Dr. Allan Thorndike AIDJEX Program Office AIDJEX Program Officer University of Washington University of Washington 4059 Roosevelt 4059

  12. A Blast of Cool Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Unable to solve their engineering problem with a rotor in their Orbital Vane product, DynEco Corporation turned to Kennedy Space Center for help. KSC engineers determined that the compressor rotor was causing a large concentration of stress, which led to cracking and instant rotor failure. NASA redesigned the lubrication system, which allowed the company to move forward with its compressor that has no rubbing parts. The Orbital Vane is a refrigerant compressor suitable for mobile air conditioning and refrigeration.

  13. Tropical Storm Gordon Makes a U-Turn

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations from August 14-17, 2012, shows the birth and strengthening of the Atlantic Ocean's Tropical Storm Gordon making a U-turn and heading back to the east. This vi...

  14. Printed Multi-Turn Loop Antennas for RF Biotelemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Hall, David G.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2007-01-01

    Printed multi-turn loop antennas have been designed for contactless powering of, and reception of radio signals transmitted by, surgically implantable biotelemetric sensor units operating at frequencies in the vicinity of 300 MHz.

  15. More Teens Turning Their Backs on Tanning Beds: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Teens Turning Their Backs on Tanning Beds: CDC Half as many high school students reported indoor ... sunlight, said Guy, a health economist with the CDC's division of cancer prevention and control. "We also ...

  16. 11. STAIRHALL. HANDSOME STAIR HAS A MASSIVE NEWEL, TURNED BALUSTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. STAIRHALL. HANDSOME STAIR HAS A MASSIVE NEWEL, TURNED BALUSTERS (TWO PER TREAD) AND A BRASS LAMP. ALSO NOTE DOORS AND DOOR TRIM - John L. Wisdom House, 535 East Main Street, Jackson, Madison County, TN

  17. Focus on Marshall: The Marshall Center Turns 50! (Part 2)

    NASA Video Gallery

    This month, the Focus on Marshall team invites you to a very special ceremony -- the NASA verison of a "birthday party" as the Marshall Space Flight Center turns 50 years old. Join them for the unv...

  18. 1. DETAIL BELOW ROASTER, SOUTHEAST VIEW (SHAFT, TURNING GEAR MECHANISM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DETAIL BELOW ROASTER, SOUTHEAST VIEW (SHAFT, TURNING GEAR MECHANISM AND FURNACE). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Steel Skimmer Salt Roaster, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  19. 5. LOOKING SOUTHEAST, VIEW OF CENTER TURN SPAN AND SOUTHWESTERNMOST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. LOOKING SOUTHEAST, VIEW OF CENTER TURN SPAN AND SOUTHWESTERNMOST SPAN FROM ADJACENT INTERSTATE 40 BRIDGE - St. Francis River Bridge, Spanning St. Francis River at U.S. Highway 70, Forrest City, St. Francis County, AR

  20. Flight dynamics of rotorcraft in steep high-g turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T. N.

    1982-01-01

    An analyticl procedure developed to permit a systematic examination of rotorcraft flight dynamics in steep high-g turns is presented. The procedure is used in a numerical investigation of a tilt-rotor aircraft and three single-rotor helicopters that have different types of main rotor systems. The results indicate (1) that strong coupling in longitudinal and lateral-directional motions exists for these rotorcraft in high-g turns; (2) that for single-rotor helicopters, the direction of turn has a significant influence on flight dynamics; and (3) that a stability and control augmentation system that is designed on the basis of standard small-disturbance equations of motion from steady straight and level flight and that otherwise performs satisfactorily in operations near 1 g, becomes significantly degraded in steep turning flight.

  1. Steady properly-banked turns of turbojet-propelled airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, Angelo

    1955-01-01

    The problem of a jet-propelled airplane held in a steady turn is treated both in the very general case and also in the particular case when the polar curve can be approximated by a parabola. Once the general solution has been obtained, some typical maneuvers are next studied such as, the turn of maximum bank, of maximum angular velocity, and of minimum radius of curvature. After a brief comparison is made between the turning characteristics of conventional airplanes and jet airplanes, and after the effect of compressibility upon the turn is examined, the effects of the salient aerodynamic and structural parameters upon the behavior of the plane in curvilinear flight are summarized in the conclusions.

  2. 13. TURNING DEVICE SUSPENDED FROM, AND LIFTED BY THE OVERHEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TURNING DEVICE SUSPENDED FROM, AND LIFTED BY THE OVERHEAD CRANE SYSTEM EAST OF No. 1 PRESS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 1, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 14. CLOSEUP OF TURNING DEVICE SUSPENDED FROM, AND LIFTED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CLOSE-UP OF TURNING DEVICE SUSPENDED FROM, AND LIFTED BY THE OVERHEAD CRANE SYSTEM EAST OF No. 1 PRESS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 1, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  4. 16. Overall view of the swing span (Span G) turning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Overall view of the swing span (Span G) turning drum, showing rollers and drive chains; looking W. (Ceronie) - Rock Island Arsenal, Rock Island Bridge, Fort Armstrong Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. Air Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Iraq. To provide a background for understanding why Britain commenced the policy of air policing, this paper begins with a review of contemporary...7 Omissi, Air Power, XV. 8 policing actions or the pushing home of advantages gained by the air.” Within the context of this paper , the...control operations, and therefore within the context of this paper , the term coercive airpower refers to the threat of harming a population or the threat

  6. Diamond-turning tool setting by interferogram analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rasnick, W.H.; Yoder, R.C.

    1980-10-22

    A method was developed to establish a numerically controlled tool path with respect to the work spindle centerline. Particularly adapted to the diamond turning of optics, this method is based upon interferogram analysis and is applicable to the establishment of the work spindle centerline relative to the tool path for any center-turned optic having a well-defined vertex radius of curvature. The application reported is for an f/2 concave spherical mirror.

  7. Turning water into rock: The inverted waves effect.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Jukka; Gröhn, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Humans perceive shape in two-dimensional shaded images, and turning such an image upside down can result in inversion of the relief of this image. Previous research indicates that this inversion is caused by assumptions related to overhead illumination, global convexity and viewpoint above the surface. In our article, we describe the inverted waves effect, in which turning an image of waves upside down changes its relief and also its perceived material properties.

  8. Turning water into rock: The inverted waves effect

    PubMed Central

    Gröhn, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Humans perceive shape in two-dimensional shaded images, and turning such an image upside down can result in inversion of the relief of this image. Previous research indicates that this inversion is caused by assumptions related to overhead illumination, global convexity and viewpoint above the surface. In our article, we describe the inverted waves effect, in which turning an image of waves upside down changes its relief and also its perceived material properties. PMID:27482371

  9. The Effect on the Sperry Directional Gyro in Turning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    RosselliDelTurco, Rossello

    1946-01-01

    The present report is concerned with an analytical treatment of the effects of the transverse inclination of an airplane in a turn on the indication of the directional gyro. It is found that the extreme inclinations which the airplane must necessarily assume for a correct turn in the approaches executed at high speed and small radius of curvature, renders the indications of the instrument worthless during such maneuvers.

  10. Simulation study of plane motion of air cushion vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shu-Qin; Shi, Xiao-Cheng; Shi, Yi-Long; Bian, Xin-Qian

    2003-12-01

    This research is on horizontal plane motion equations of Air Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and its simulation. To investigate this, a lot of simulation study including ACV’s voyage and turning performance has been done. It was found that the voyage simulation results were accorded with ACV own characteristic and turning simulation results were accorded with USA ACV’s movement characteristic basically.

  11. Quantification of wing and body kinematics in connection to torque generation during damselfly yaw turn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyghami, Samane; Bode-Oke, Ayodeji T.; Dong, HaiBo

    2017-01-01

    This study provides accurate measurements of the wing and body kinematics of three different species of damselflies in free yaw turn flights. The yaw turn is characterized by a short acceleration phase which is immediately followed by an elongated deceleration phase. Most of the heading change takes place during the latter stage of the flight. Our observations showed that yaw turns are executed via drastic rather than subtle changes in the kinematics of all four wings. The motion of the inner and outer wings were found to be strongly linked through their orientation as well as their velocities with the inner wings moving faster than the outer wings. By controlling the pitch angle and wing velocity, a damselfly adjusts the angle of attack. The wing angle of attack exerted the strongest influence on the yaw torque, followed by the flapping and deviation velocities of the wings. Moreover, no evidence of active generation of counter torque was found in the flight data implying that deceleration and stopping of the maneuver is dominated by passive damping. The systematic analysis carried out on the free flight data advances our understanding of the mechanisms by which these insects achieve their observed maneuverability. In addition, the inspiration drawn from this study can be employed in the design of low frequency flapping wing micro air vehicles (MAV's).

  12. Effects of a continuous lateral turning device on pressure relief

    PubMed Central

    Do, Nam Ho; Kim, Deog Young; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Jong Hyun; Joo, So Young; Kang, Na Kyung; Baek, Yoon Su

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the pressure-relieving effects of a continuous lateral turning device on common pressure ulcer sites. [Subjects] Twenty-four healthy adults participated. [Methods] The design of our continuous lateral turning device was motivated by the need for an adequate pressure-relieving device for immobile and/or elderly people. The procedure of manual repositioning is embodied in our continuous lateral turning device. The interface pressure and time were measured, and comfort grade was evaluated during sessions of continuous lateral turning at 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. We quantified the pressure-relieving effect using peak pressure, mean pressure, and pressure time integration. [Results] Participants demonstrated pressure time integration values below the pressure-time threshold at 15°, 30°, and 45° at all the common pressure ulcer sites. Moreover, the most effective angles for pressure relief at the common pressure ulcer sites were 30° at the occiput, 15° at the left scapula, 45° at the right scapula, 45° at the sacrum, 15° at the right heel, and 30° at the left heel. However, angles greater than 30° induced discomfort. [Conclusion] Continuous lateral turning with our specially designed device effectively relieved the pressure of targeted sites. Moreover, the suggested angles of continuous lateral turning can be used to relieve pressure at targeted sites. PMID:27065531

  13. Effects of a continuous lateral turning device on pressure relief.

    PubMed

    Do, Nam Ho; Kim, Deog Young; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Jong Hyun; Joo, So Young; Kang, Na Kyung; Baek, Yoon Su

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the pressure-relieving effects of a continuous lateral turning device on common pressure ulcer sites. [Subjects] Twenty-four healthy adults participated. [Methods] The design of our continuous lateral turning device was motivated by the need for an adequate pressure-relieving device for immobile and/or elderly people. The procedure of manual repositioning is embodied in our continuous lateral turning device. The interface pressure and time were measured, and comfort grade was evaluated during sessions of continuous lateral turning at 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. We quantified the pressure-relieving effect using peak pressure, mean pressure, and pressure time integration. [Results] Participants demonstrated pressure time integration values below the pressure-time threshold at 15°, 30°, and 45° at all the common pressure ulcer sites. Moreover, the most effective angles for pressure relief at the common pressure ulcer sites were 30° at the occiput, 15° at the left scapula, 45° at the right scapula, 45° at the sacrum, 15° at the right heel, and 30° at the left heel. However, angles greater than 30° induced discomfort. [Conclusion] Continuous lateral turning with our specially designed device effectively relieved the pressure of targeted sites. Moreover, the suggested angles of continuous lateral turning can be used to relieve pressure at targeted sites.

  14. Position- and quantity-dependent responses in zebrafish turning behavior

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, Keiko; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu; Shoji, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Neural reflexes are stereotypical automatic responses often modulated by both intrinsic and environmental factors. We report herein that zebrafish larval C-shaped turning is modulated by the stimulated position of Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons. Targeted stimulation of more anterior RB neurons produces larger trunk flexion, which anticipates adult escape behavior by coordinated turning toward the appropriate direction. We also demonstrated that turning laterality varies with the numbers of stimulated neurons. Multi-cell stimulation of RB neurons elicits contralateral turning, as seen in the touch response to physical contact, while minimum input from single-cell stimulation induces ipsilateral turning, a phenomenon not previously reported. This ipsilateral response, but not the contralateral one, is impaired by transecting the ascending neural tract known as the dorsolateral fascicule (DLF), indicating that two, distinct neural circuits trigger these two responses. Our results suggest that RB neurons transmit the position and quantity of sensory information, which are then processed separately to modulate behavioral strength and to select turning laterality. PMID:27292818

  15. Kinematic properties of the helicopter in coordinated turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T. N.; Jeske, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A study on the kinematic relationship of the variables of helicopter motion in steady, coordinated turns involving inherent sideslip is described. A set of exact kinematic equations which govern a steady coordinated helical turn about an Earth referenced vertical axis is developed. A precise definition for the load factor parameter that best characterizes a coordinated turn is proposed. Formulas are developed which relate the aircraft angular rates and pitch and roll attitudes to the turn parameters, angle of attack, and inherent sideslip. A steep, coordinated helical turn at extreme angles of attack with inherent sideslip is of primary interest. The bank angle of the aircraft can differ markedly from the tilt angle of the normal load factor. The normal load factor can also differ substantially from the accelerometer reading along the vertical body axis of the aircraft. Sideslip has a strong influence on the pitch attitude and roll rate of the helicopter. Pitch rate is independent of angle of attack in a coordinated turn and in the absence of sideslip, angular rates about the stability axes are independent of the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft.

  16. Compensations for increased rotational inertia during human cutting turns

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Mu; Brown, Brian; Jindrich, Devin L.

    2014-01-01

    Locomotion in a complex environment is often not steady state, but unsteady locomotion (stability and maneuverability) is not well understood. We investigated the strategies used by humans to perform sidestep cutting turns when running. Previous studies have argued that because humans have small yaw rotational moments of inertia relative to body mass, deceleratory forces in the initial velocity direction that occur during the turning step, or ‘braking’ forces, could function to prevent body over-rotation during turns. We tested this hypothesis by increasing body rotational inertia and testing whether braking forces during stance decreased. We recorded ground reaction force and body kinematics from seven participants performing 45 deg sidestep cutting turns and straight running at five levels of body rotational inertia, with increases up to fourfold. Contrary to our prediction, braking forces remained consistent at different rotational inertias, facilitated by anticipatory changes to body rotational speed. Increasing inertia revealed that the opposing effects of several turning parameters, including rotation due to symmetrical anterior–posterior forces, result in a system that can compensate for fourfold changes in rotational inertia with less than 50% changes to rotational velocity. These results suggest that in submaximal effort turning, legged systems may be robust to changes in morphological parameters, and that compensations can involve relatively minor adjustments between steps to change initial stance conditions. PMID:24115061

  17. Compensations for increased rotational inertia during human cutting turns.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Mu; Brown, Brian; Jindrich, Devin L

    2014-02-01

    Locomotion in a complex environment is often not steady state, but unsteady locomotion (stability and maneuverability) is not well understood. We investigated the strategies used by humans to perform sidestep cutting turns when running. Previous studies have argued that because humans have small yaw rotational moments of inertia relative to body mass, deceleratory forces in the initial velocity direction that occur during the turning step, or 'braking' forces, could function to prevent body over-rotation during turns. We tested this hypothesis by increasing body rotational inertia and testing whether braking forces during stance decreased. We recorded ground reaction force and body kinematics from seven participants performing 45 deg sidestep cutting turns and straight running at five levels of body rotational inertia, with increases up to fourfold. Contrary to our prediction, braking forces remained consistent at different rotational inertias, facilitated by anticipatory changes to body rotational speed. Increasing inertia revealed that the opposing effects of several turning parameters, including rotation due to symmetrical anterior-posterior forces, result in a system that can compensate for fourfold changes in rotational inertia with less than 50% changes to rotational velocity. These results suggest that in submaximal effort turning, legged systems may be robust to changes in morphological parameters, and that compensations can involve relatively minor adjustments between steps to change initial stance conditions.

  18. Turn-ons and turn-offs: Causes and mechanisms of the initiation and termination of coral reef growth

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.; Hopley, D.

    1988-04-26

    The objective of this review is to develop and organize a conceptual framework for the discussion of the mechanisms of reef growth turn-on and turn-off. An improved understanding of the causes, mechanisms and short-term symptoms of reef turn-on/turn-off is essential if we are to deal with the challenge of understanding and managing reef resources under conditions of both immediate anthropogenic impacts and long-term climatic changes. The discussion attempts to provide a basis for identifying the future research and conceptual synthesis that can best improve both our understanding of the causes of past transitions in reef development and our abiltiy to predict with confidence the future outcome of presently changing conditions.

  19. Air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, F Handley

    1924-01-01

    I purpose (sic) in this paper to deal with the development in air transport which has taken place since civil aviation between England and the Continent first started at the end of August 1919. A great deal of attention has been paid in the press to air services of the future, to the detriment of the consideration of results obtained up to the present.

  20. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  1. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  2. Effect of air-staging on mercury speciation in pulverized fuel co-combustion: part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Shishir P. Sable; Wiebren de Jong; Ruud Meij; Hartmut Spliethoff

    2007-08-15

    The concerns regarding global warming and need for new energy resources brought the concept of biomass and waste as secondary fuels to the power industry. Mercury emissions in cases of cofiring of chicken manure, olive residue, and B-wood with a high volatile bituminous coal blend are studied in the first part of this paper. The use of secondary fuels significantly affects NOx emissions due to different types of nitrogen present in the fuel matrix. Air-staging is a proven in-furnace NOx reduction technology. The present work mainly involves bench scale studies to investigate the effect of air-staging on partitioning of mercury in pulverized fuel co-combustion. The combustion experiments are carried out in an entrained flow reactor at 1300{sup o}C with a 20%th share of secondary fuels. Elemental and total gaseous mercury from the reactor is measured on-line, and ash is analyzed for particulate mercury along with elemental and surface properties. Reducing the air stoichiometry in the primary zone of the combustor increases unburnt carbon which in turn reduces mercury emissions in the gas phase. Ash analysis shows the effect of surface area, particle size, and unburnt carbon on mercury capture. Calcium variation in the ash was observed due to formation of different slag in reducing and oxidizing conditions and might have affected the mercury capture in combination with the above parameters. A low iron concentration of ash does not seem to affect the capture of mercury. The results will help in predicting different forms of mercury emitted from the furnace at desired operating conditions which will eventually form the basis for the design of the control strategies for mercury emissions. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Evidence for a gamma-turn motif in antifreeze glycopeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Drewes, J A; Rowlen, K L

    1993-01-01

    Knowledge of the secondary structure of antifreeze peptides (AFPs) and glycopeptides (AFGPs) is crucial to understanding the mechanism by which these molecules inhibit ice crystal growth. A polyproline type II helix is perhaps the most widely accepted conformation for active AFGPs; however, random coil and alpha-helix conformations have also been proposed. In this report we present vibrational spectroscopic evidence that the conformation of AFGPs in solution is not random, not alpha-helical, and not polyproline type II. Comparison of AFGP amide vibrational frequencies with those observed and calculated for beta and gamma-turns in other peptides strongly suggests that AFGPs contain substantial turn structure. Computer-generated molecular models were utilized to compare gamma-turn, beta-turn, and polyproline II structures. The gamma-turn motif is consistent with observed amide frequencies and results in a molecule with planar symmetry with respect to the disaccharides. This intriguing conformation may provide new insight into the unusual properties of AFGPs. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:8241413

  4. Effects of ultrasonic vibrations in micro-groove turning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Guo, Ping; Ehmann, Kornel F; Li, Yingguang

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic vibration cutting is an efficient cutting process for mechanical micro-machining. This process can generate intricate surface textures with different geometric characteristics. Micro-grooves/micro-channels are among the most frequently encountered micro-structures and, as such, are the focus of this paper. The effectiveness of both the linear and ultrasonic elliptical vibration-assisted machining technique in micro-groove turning is analyzed and discussed in the paper. The paper first investigates the mechanisms of micro-groove generation induced by the linear and elliptical vibration modes. A simplified cutting force analysis method is given to compare the effectiveness of the two modes in micro-groove turning. The surface roughness of the generated micro-grooves is analyzed next and theoretical expressions are given for the two cases. Finally, micro-groove turning experiments are conducted to compare the influences of the two vibration modes on the cutting forces and the surface roughness. The experimental results show that linear vibration-assisted micro-groove turning leads to better surface roughness as compared to the elliptical vibration-assisted case, while elliptical vibration-assisted micro-groove turning shows advantages in terms of decreasing the cutting forces.

  5. Ground cloud air quality effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brubaker, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of the ground cloud associated with launching of a large rocket on air quality are discussed. The ground cloud consists of the exhaust emitted by the rocket during the first 15 to 25 seconds following ignition and liftoff, together with a large quantity of entrained air, cooling water, dust and other debris. Immediately after formation, the ground cloud rises in the air due to the buoyant effect of its high thermal energy content. Eventually, at an altitude typically between 0.7 and 3 km, the cloud stabilizes and is carried along by the prevailing wind at that altitude. For the use of heavy lift launch vehicles small quantities of nitrogen oxides, primarily nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, are expected to be produced from a molecular nitrogen impurity in the fuel or liquid oxygen, or from entrainment and heating of ambient air in the hot rocket exhaust. In addition, possible impurities such as sulfur in the fuel would give rise to a corresponding amount of oxidation products such as sulfur dioxide.

  6. Flow and heat transfer in 180-degree turn square ducts: Effects of turning configuration and system rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Chyu, Ming-King

    1993-07-01

    Forced flow through channels connected by sharp bends is frequently encountered in various rocket and gas turbine engines. For example, the transfer ducts, the coolant channels surround the combustion chamber, the internal cooling passage in a blade or vane, the flow path in the fuel element of a nuclear rocket engine, the flow around a pressure relieve valve piston, and the recirculated base flow of multiple engine clustered nozzles. Transport phenomena involved in such a flow passage are complex and considered to be very different from those of conventional turning flow with relatively mild radii of curvature. While previous research pertaining to this subject has been focused primarily on the experimental heat transfer, very little analytical work is directed to understanding the flowfield and energy transport in the passage. Therefore, the primary goal of this paper is to benchmark the predicted wall heat fluxes using a state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics (CFD) formulation against those of measurement for a rectangular turn duct. Other secondary goals include studying the effects of turning configurations, e.g., the semi-circular turn, and the rounded-corner turn, and the effect of system rotation. The computed heat fluxes for the rectangular turn duct compared favorably with those of the experimental data. The results show that the flow pattern, pressure drop, and heat transfer characteristics are different among the three turning configurations, and are substantially different with system rotation. Also demonstrated in this work is that the present computational approach is quite effective and efficient and will be suitable for flow and thermal modeling in rocket and turbine engine applications.

  7. Does dragonfly's abdomen flexion help with fast turning maneuvers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Geng; Li, Chengyu; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Group Team

    2013-11-01

    Dragonflies are able to achieve fast turning maneuvers during take-off flights. Both asymmetric wing flapping and abdomen flexion have been observed during the fast turning. It's widely thought that the asymmetric wing beats are responsible of producing the aerodynamic moment needed for the body rotation. However, the dynamic effect of the abdomen flexion is not clear yet. In this study, an integrated experimental and computational approach is used to study the underlying dynamic effect of dragonfly abdomen flexion. It's found that dragonfly abdomen tended to bend towards the same side as the body reorienting to. Quantitative analysis have shown that during take-off turning maneuver the abdomen flexion can modulate the arm of force by changing the position of the center of mass relative to the thorax. As a result, roll and yaw moments produced by the wing flapping can be enhanced. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1313217. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1313217.

  8. Ultrasonically assisted turning of aviation materials: simulations and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Babitsky, V I; Mitrofanov, A V; Silberschmidt, V V

    2004-04-01

    Ultrasonically assisted turning of modern aviation materials is conducted with ultrasonic vibration (frequency f approximately 20 kHz, amplitude a approximately 15 microm) superimposed on the cutting tool movement. An autoresonant control system is used to maintain the stable nonlinear resonant mode of vibration throughout the cutting process. Experimental comparison of roughness and roundness for workpieces machined conventionally and with the superimposed ultrasonic vibration, results of high-speed filming of the turning process and nanoindentation analyses of the microstructure of the machined material are presented. The suggested finite-element model provides numerical comparison between conventional and ultrasonic turning of Inconel 718 in terms of stress/strain state, cutting forces and contact conditions at the workpiece/tool interface.

  9. Singular perturbations and vanishing passage through a turning point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Maesschalck, P.; Dumortier, F.

    The paper deals with planar slow-fast cycles containing a unique generic turning point. We address the question on how to study canard cycles when the slow dynamics can be singular at the turning point. We more precisely accept a generic saddle-node bifurcation to pass through the turning point. It reveals that in this case the slow divergence integral is no longer the good tool to use, but its derivative with respect to the layer variable still is. We provide general results as well as a number of applications. We show how to treat the open problems presented in Artés et al. (2009) [1] and Dumortier and Rousseau (2009) [13], dealing respectively with the graphics DI2a and DF1a from Dumortier et al. (1994) [14].

  10. Missing the (question) mark? What is a turn to ontology?

    PubMed

    Woolgar, Steve; Lezaun, Javier

    2015-06-01

    Our introductory essay in this journal's 2013 Special Issue on the 'turn to ontology' examined the shift from epistemology to ontology in science and technology studies and explored the implications of the notion of enactment. Three responses to that Special Issue argue that (I) there is no fundamental qualitative difference between the ontological turn and social constructivism, (2) we need to be wary of overly generic use of the term 'ontology' and (3) the language of 'turns' imposes constraints on the richness and diversity of science and technology studies. In this brief reply, we show how each of those critiques varies in its commitment to circumspection about making objective determinations of reality and to resisting reification. We illustrate our point by considering overlapping discussions in anthropology. This brings out the crucial difference between the science and technology studies slogan 'it could be otherwise' and the multinaturalist motto 'it actually is otherwise'.

  11. Experiments with diamond-turned metal X-ray mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garmire, G. P.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that the primary advantages of diamond turning technology for the fabrication of X-ray telescope mirrors is in the smoothness of the finished surface and the control of the position of the cutter afforded by the precision slides and computer-assisted positioners which form the surface. The paper summarizes the Caltech work in attempting to make Wolter Type I telescope mirrors using the diamond turning facilities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 laboratory. Attention is given to such factors as the use of aluminum with copper plating and electroless nickel coating. It is found that although the diamond turning capability of the Y-12 lab is capable of making good X-ray mirror contours, there are problems in the process which have limited the accuracy achieved by this technique.

  12. Turning points in long distance grandparent-grandchild relationships.

    PubMed

    Bangerter, Lauren R; Waldron, Vincent R

    2014-04-01

    This study examines changes in long-distance relationships between grandparents and their adolescent grandchildren by identifying relational turning points and trajectories. Qualitative analysis of data collected from interviews with grandparents yielded 100 unique turning points. Constant comparative analysis revealed eight distinct categories of relational turning points; Spending Time Together, Family Relational Dynamics, Geographic Distance, Lack of Relational Investment, Use of Technology, Relational Investment, Lack of Free Time, and Grandchild Gaining Independence. These varied in the degree to which they positively or negatively impacted relational closeness. Application of the Retrospective Interview Technique (RIT) yielded five distinctive relational trajectories: Decrease in Closeness, Increase in Closeness, Multidimensional Changes in Closeness, Minimal Changes in Closeness, and Consistent Relational Closeness. The results expose the communicative challenges faced by long-distance-grandparents, the diversity of these relationships, and the ways in which grandparenting bonds change over time. Implications for an enriched understanding of grandparenting relationships and practical applications for families are explored.

  13. Adaptive control of surface finish in automated turning processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Plaza, E.; Núñez, P. J.; Martín, A. R.; Sanz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to design and develop an on-line control system of finished surfaces in automated machining process by CNC turning. The control system consisted of two basic phases: during the first phase, surface roughness was monitored through cutting force signals; the second phase involved a closed-loop adaptive control system based on data obtained during the monitoring of the cutting process. The system ensures that surfaces roughness is maintained at optimum values by adjusting the feed rate through communication with the PLC of the CNC machine. A monitoring and adaptive control system has been developed that enables the real-time monitoring of surface roughness during CNC turning operations. The system detects and prevents faults in automated turning processes, and applies corrective measures during the cutting process that raise quality and reliability reducing the need for quality control.

  14. Eye and head motion during head turns in spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Uri, John J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.

    1988-01-01

    Eye-head motion was studied pre-, in- and postflight during single voluntary head turns. A transient increase in vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain occurred early in the flight, but later trended toward normal. This increased gain was produced by a relative increase in eye counterrotation velocity. Asymmetries in gain with right and left turns also occurred, caused by asymmetries in eye counterrotation velocities. These findings were remarkably similar to those from Soviet primate studies using gaze fixation targets, except the human study trended more rapidly toward normal. These findings differ substantially from those measuring VOR gain by head oscillation, in which no significant changes were found inflight. No visual disturbances were noted in either test condition or in normal activities. These head turn studies are the only ones to date documenting any functional change in VOR in weightlessness.

  15. Effect of transmitter turn-off time on transient soundings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitterman, D.V.; Anderson, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    A general procedure for computing the effect of non-zero turn-off time on the transient electromagnetic response is presented which can be applied to forward and inverse calculation methods for any transmitter-receiver configuration. We consider in detail the case of a large transmitter loop which has a receiver coil located at the center of the loop (central induction or in-loop array). For a linear turn-off ramp of width t0, the voltage response is shown to be the voltage due to an ideal step turn-off averaged over windows of width t0. Thus the effect is similar to that obtained by using averaging windows in the receiver. In general when time zero is taken to be the end of the ramp, the apparent resistivity increases for a homogeneous half-space over a limited time range. For time zero taken to be the start of the ramp the apparent resistivity is affected in the opposite direction. The effect of the ramp increases with increasing t0 and first-layer resistivity, is largest during the intermediate stage, and decreases with increasing time. It is shown that for a ramp turn-off, there is no effect in the early and late stages. For two-layered models with a resistive first layer (??1>??2), the apparent resistivity is increased in the intermediate stage. When the first layer is more conductive than the second layer (??1turn-off effect. Neglecting the turn-off ramp will affect data interpretation as shown by field examples; the influence is the greatest on near-surface layer parameters. ?? 1987.

  16. Sequence replacements in the central beta-turn of plastocyanin.

    PubMed Central

    Ybe, J. A.; Hecht, M. H.

    1996-01-01

    The role of beta-turns in dictating the structure of a beta-barrel protein is assessed by probing the tolerance of the central beta-turn of poplar plastocyanin to substitution by arbitrary sequences. Native plastocyanin binds copper and is colored bright blue. However, when the wild-type Pro47-Ser48-Gly49-Val50 turn sequence is replaced by arbitrary tetrapeptides, the vast majority (92/98 = 94%) of mutant proteins cannot fold into the native blue structure. Characterization of the colorless mutant proteins demonstrates that the majority of substitutions in this type II beta-turn disrupt the native structure severely. Gross structural changes are indicated by major differences in the CD spectra of the mutants relative to the wild-type protein, and by the much larger apparent size of mutant proteins in gel filtration experiments. These mutant proteins do not bind copper. Furthermore, Cys84 forms a disulfide bond readily in the colorless mutant proteins, indicating that it has moved away from the buried position it occupies in the native copper binding site and has become exposed. These results indicate that the central beta-turn in plastocyanin is not merely a default structure arising in response to the surrounding context; rather, sequence information in this turn plays an active role in dictating the location of a chain reversal in the beta-barrel structure. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the folding of natural proteins, as well as the design of de novo proteins. PMID:8732753

  17. Kinematics of 90 degrees running turns in wild mice.

    PubMed

    Walter, Rebecca M

    2003-05-01

    Turning is a requirement for locomotion on the variable terrain that most terrestrial animals inhabit and is a deciding factor in many predator-prey interactions. Despite this, the kinematics and mechanics of quadrupedal turns are not well understood. To gain insight to the turning kinematics of small quadrupedal mammals, six adult wild mice were videotaped at 250 Hz from below as they performed 90 degrees running turns. Four markers placed along the sagittal axis were digitized to allow observation of lateral bending and body rotation throughout the turn. Ground contact periods of the fore- and hindlimbs were also noted for each frame. During turning, mice increased their ground contact time, but did not change their stride frequency relative to straight running at maximum speed. Postcranial body rotation preceded deflection in heading, and did not occur in one continuous motion, but rather in bouts of 15-53 degrees. These bouts were synchronized with the stride cycle, such that the majority of rotation occurred during the second half of forelimb support and the first half of hindlimb support. In this phase of the stride cycle, the trunk was sagittally flexed and rotational inertia was 65% of that during maximal extension. By synchronizing body rotation with this portion of the stride cycle, mice can achieve a given angular acceleration with much lower applied torque. Compared with humans running along curved trajectories, mice maintained relatively higher speeds at proportionately smaller radii. A possible explanation for this difference lies in the more crouched limb posture of mice, which increases the mechanical advantage for horizontal ground force production. The occurrence of body rotation prior to deflection in heading may facilitate acceleration in the new direction by making use of the relatively greater force production inherent in the parasagittal limb posture of mice.

  18. Pure Air`s Bailly scrubber: A four-year retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Manavi, G.B.; Vymazal, D.C.; Sarkus, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project has completed four highly successful years of operation at NIPSCO`s Bailly Station. As part of their program, Pure Air has concluded a six-part study of system performance. This paper summarizes the results of the demonstration program, including AFGD performance on coals ranging from 2.0--2.4% sulfur. The paper highlights novel aspects of the Bailly facility, including pulverized limestone injection, air rotary sparger for oxidation, wastewater evaporation system and the production of PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum. Operations and maintenance which have led to the facility`s notable 99.47% availability record are also discussed. A project company, Pure Air on the Lake Limited Partnership, owns the AFGD facility. Pure Air was the turn key contractor and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is the operator of the AFGD system.

  19. Comparative Results of AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS Retrievals Using a Scientifically Equivalent Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm is currently producing high quality level-3 Climate Data Records (CDRs) from AIRS/AMSU which are critical for understanding climate processes. The AIRS Science Team is finalizing an improved Version-7 retrieval algorithm to reprocess all old and future AIRS data. AIRS CDRs should eventually cover the period September 2002 through at least 2020. CrIS/ATMS is the only scheduled follow on to AIRS/AMSU. The objective of this research is to prepare for generation of long term CrIS/ATMS CDRs using a retrieval algorithm that is scientifically equivalent to AIRS/AMSU Version-7.

  20. Safety of the Las Vegas left-turn display.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Ozlem; Tian, Zong Z; Gibby, A Reed

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a safety evaluation of a special protected/permitted left turn signal control (Las Vegas LT Display) that has been implemented in the urbanized area of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Las Vegas LT Display eliminates the yellow trap condition for leading approach in lead/lag operation. It provides protected only left turns during certain times of day by suppressing the permitted green ball and yellow ball displays. Before and after studies were conducted using the crash data from 10 intersections. Results from the analyses indicated that no obvious safety concerns due to use of the special display.

  1. Quantitative analysis of cyclic beta-turn models.

    PubMed Central

    Perczel, A.; Fasman, G. D.

    1992-01-01

    The beta-turn is a frequently found structural unit in the conformation of globular proteins. Although the circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the alpha-helix and beta-pleated sheet are well defined, there remains some ambiguity concerning the pure component CD spectra of the different types of beta-turns. Recently, it has been reported (Hollósi, M., Kövér, K.E., Holly, S., Radics, L., & Fasman, G.D., 1987, Biopolymers 26, 1527-1572; Perczel, A., Hollósi, M., Foxman, B.M., & Fasman, G.D., 1991a, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 9772-9784) that some pseudohexapeptides (e.g., the cyclo[(delta)Ava-Gly-Pro-Aaa-Gly] where Aaa = Ser, Ser(OtBu), or Gly) in many solvents adopt a conformational mixture of type I and the type II beta-turns, although the X-ray-determined conformation was an ideal type I beta-turn. In addition to these pseudohexapeptides, conformational analysis was also carried out on three pseudotetrapeptides and three pseudooctapeptides. The target of the conformation analysis reported herein was to determine whether the ring stress of the above beta-turn models has an influence on their conformational properties. Quantitative nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) measurements yielded interproton distances. The conformational average distances so obtained were interpreted utilizing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to yield the conformational percentages. These conformational ratios were correlated with the conformational weights obtained by quantitative CD analysis of the same compounds. The pure component CD curves of type I and type II beta-turns were also obtained, using a recently developed algorithm (Perczel, A., Tusnády, G., Hollósi, M., & Fasman, G.D., 1991b, Protein Eng. 4(6), 669-679). For the first time the results of a CD deconvolution, based on the CD spectra of 14 beta-turn models, were assigned by quantitative NOE results. The NOE experiments confirmed the ratios of the component curves found for the two major beta-turns by CD analysis. These results

  2. Locomotor Trajectories of Stroke Patients during Oriented Gait and Turning

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Angele; Bensmail, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    Background The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is widely used to assess locomotion in patients with stroke and is considered to predict the risk of falls. The analysis of locomotor trajectories during the TUG appears pertinent in stroke patients. The aims of this study were i) to analyze locomotor trajectories in patients with stroke during the walking and turning sub-tasks of the TUG, and to compare them with healthy subjects, ii) to determine whether trajectory parameters provide additional information to that provided by the conventional measure (performance time), iii) to compare the trajectory parameters of fallers and non-fallers with stroke and of patients with right and left hemisphere stroke, and iv) to evaluate correlations between trajectory parameters and Berg Balance Scale scores. Methods 29 patients with stroke (mean age 54.2±12.2 years, 18 men, 8 fallers) and 25 healthy subjects (mean age 51.6±8.7 years, 11 men) underwent three-dimensional analysis of the TUG. The trajectory of the center of mass was analyzed by calculation of the global trajectory length, Hausdorff distance and Dynamic Time Warping. The parameters were compared with a reference trajectory during the total task and each sub-task (Go, Turn, Return) of the TUG. Results Values of trajectory parameters were significantly higher for the stroke group during the total TUG and the Go and Turn sub-tasks (p<0.05). Moreover, logistic regression indicated that these parameters better discriminated stroke patients and healthy subjects than the conventional timed performance during the Go sub-task. In addition, fallers were distinguished by higher Dynamic Time Warping during the Go (p<0.05). There were no differences between patients with right and left hemisphere stroke. Discussion and Conclusion The trajectories of the stroke patients were longer and more deviated during the turn and the preceding phase. Trajectory parameters provided additional information to timed performance of this locomotor

  3. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  4. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Sunday, April 9, 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... general dentist, who has been trained in restorative dentistry techniques, will perform any procedures that use air- ...

  5. Ideas, Concepts, Doctrine: Basic Thinking in the United States Air Force, 1907-1960. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    sea- based aircraft . Olds, nevertheless, pointed out that the waging of air warfare was of equal importance to the waging of ground and sea warfare...the ground and air forces had made a major error in failing to press for an early seizure of African air bases . 189 While the briefings were in...lanes of communication" and for ground forces sufficient to maintain the security of Allied base areas and eventually to undertake a final surface

  6. The AIRES Optical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    AIRES (Airborne InfraRed Echelle Spectrometer) is the facility spectrometer for SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy). AIRES is a long-slit (approximately 160 in) spectrometer designed to cover the 17 to 210-micron range with good sensitivity using three spectroscopic arrays. Initially, only the 30-130 micron, mid-wavelength array will be available. The instrument has a cryogenic K-mirror to perform field rotation and a slit-viewing camera (lambda < 28 microns, FOV = 160 in diameter) to image source morphology and verify telescope pointing. AIRES employs a large echelle grating to achieve a spectral resolving power (lambda/delta lambda) of approximately 1.0 x 10(exp 6)/lambda (sub mu), where lambda (sub mu) is the wavelength in microns. Hyperfine, Inc. has ruled and tested the AIRES' echelle; its wave-front error is 0.028 waves RMS (root mean square) at 10.6 microns. The instrument is housed in a liquid-helium cryostat which is constrained in diameter (approximately 1 m) and length (approximately 2 m) by the observatory. Hence, the length of the echelle (approximately 1.1 m) and the focal length of its collimator (approximately 5.2 m) severely drive the optical design and packaging. The final design uses diamond-turned aluminum optics and has up to 19 reflections inside the cryostat, depending on the optical path. This design was generated, optimized, and toleranced using Code V. The predicted performance is nearly diffraction-limited at 17 microns; the error budget is dominated by design residuals. Light loss due to slit rotation and slit curvature has been minimized. A thorough diffraction analysis with GLAD (G-Level Analysis Drawer) was used to size the mirrors and baffles; the internal light loss is shown to be a strong function of slit width.

  7. Turning around Low-Performing Schools in Chicago: Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Marisa; Allensworth, Elaine; Jagesic, Sanja; Sebastian, James; Salmonowicz, Michael; Meyers, Coby; Gerdeman, R. Dean

    2013-01-01

    Specific strategies for "turning around" chronically low-performing schools have become prominent, with the U.S. Department of Education enacting policies to promote four school improvement models that include "fundamental, comprehensive changes in leadership, staffing, and governance." Despite the attention and activity…

  8. 4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe (VTL). Machining the fixture for GE Turboshroud. G.S. O'Brien, operator. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  9. ESU Turns 30! Fighting for Student Rights since 1982

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivosevic, Vanja, Ed.; Pall, Allan, Ed.; Primozic, Rok, Ed.; Slegers, Marianne, Ed.; Vukasovic, Martina, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The beloved WESIB/ESIB/ESU (from here on labelled mostly as ESU) is turning 30 this October. This momentous occasion is of course a wonderful excuse to celebrate, but also an opportunity to reflect where the organization is and where it could be and to connect numerous generations of student activists that have made and will continue to make the…

  10. Diplomas Count 2013: Second Chances--Turning Dropouts into Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 edition of "Diplomas Count," entitled "Second Chances: Turning Dropouts into Graduates," examines dropout recovery and innovative strategies for returning to the educational fold the 1 million students who leave school without a diploma each year. "Education Week's" journalists investigate interventions that…

  11. The Faure Report: A Turning Point in Educational Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, William J.

    The Report of the International Commission for the Development of Education reinforces the advances that are occurring in education and in overall development policy. At this turning point in education, planning must contribute to needed mutation and reform. Vector planning seems likely to supplement target planning as a means of identifying and…

  12. Education, Inc.: Turning Learning into a Business. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie, Ed.; Shannon, Patrick, Ed.

    This collection of essays builds a case against those who see children as customers or workers and those who want to turn learning into a business. Following an introduction, The 500-Pound Gorilla by Alfie Kohn, section 1, Commercialism in Schools, contains: (1) Buy Me! Buy Me! (Alex Molnar and Joseph A. Reaves); (2) Commercialism in U.S. Schools…

  13. Bumblebee Homing: The Fine Structure of Head Turning Movements

    PubMed Central

    Boeddeker, Norbert; Mertes, Marcel; Dittmar, Laura; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Changes in flight direction in flying insects are largely due to roll, yaw and pitch rotations of their body. Head orientation is stabilized for most of the time by counter rotation. Here, we use high-speed video to analyse head- and body-movements of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris while approaching and departing from a food source located between three landmarks in an indoor flight-arena. The flight paths consist of almost straight flight segments that are interspersed with rapid turns. These short and fast yaw turns (“saccades”) are usually accompanied by even faster head yaw turns that change gaze direction. Since a large part of image rotation is thereby reduced to brief instants of time, this behavioural pattern facilitates depth perception from visual motion parallax during the intersaccadic intervals. The detailed analysis of the fine structure of the bees’ head turning movements shows that the time course of single head saccades is very stereotypical. We find a consistent relationship between the duration, peak velocity and amplitude of saccadic head movements, which in its main characteristics resembles the so-called "saccadic main sequence" in humans. The fact that bumblebee head saccades are highly stereotyped as in humans, may hint at a common principle, where fast and precise motor control is used to reliably reduce the time during which the retinal images moves. PMID:26352836

  14. A Rhetoric of Turns: Signs and Symbols in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutten, Kris; Soetaert, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    In our research and teaching we explore the value and the place of rhetoric in education. From a theoretical perspective we situate our work in different disciplines, inspired by major "turns": linguistic, cultural, anthropological/ethnographic, interpretive, semiotic, narrative, literary, rhetorical etc. In this article we engage in the…

  15. A jump persistent turning walker to model zebrafish locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Mwaffo, Violet; Anderson, Ross P.; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish are gaining momentum as a laboratory animal species for the investigation of several functional and dysfunctional biological processes. Mathematical models of zebrafish behaviour are expected to considerably aid in the design of hypothesis-driven studies by enabling preliminary in silico tests that can be used to infer possible experimental outcomes without the use of zebrafish. This study is motivated by observations of sudden, drastic changes in zebrafish locomotion in the form of large deviations in turn rate. We demonstrate that such deviations can be captured through a stochastic mean reverting jump diffusion model, a process that is commonly used in financial engineering to describe large changes in the price of an asset. The jump process-based model is validated on trajectory data of adult subjects swimming in a shallow circular tank obtained from an overhead camera. Through statistical comparison of the empirical distribution of the turn rate against theoretical predictions, we demonstrate the feasibility of describing zebrafish as a jump persistent turning walker. The critical role of the jump term is assessed through comparison with a simplified mean reversion diffusion model, which does not allow for describing the heavy-tailed distributions observed in the fish turn rate. PMID:25392396

  16. Universals and cultural variation in turn-taking in conversation

    PubMed Central

    Stivers, Tanya; Enfield, N. J.; Brown, Penelope; Englert, Christina; Hayashi, Makoto; Heinemann, Trine; Hoymann, Gertie; Rossano, Federico; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Yoon, Kyung-Eun; Levinson, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Informal verbal interaction is the core matrix for human social life. A mechanism for coordinating this basic mode of interaction is a system of turn-taking that regulates who is to speak and when. Yet relatively little is known about how this system varies across cultures. The anthropological literature reports significant cultural differences in the timing of turn-taking in ordinary conversation. We test these claims and show that in fact there are striking universals in the underlying pattern of response latency in conversation. Using a worldwide sample of 10 languages drawn from traditional indigenous communities to major world languages, we show that all of the languages tested provide clear evidence for a general avoidance of overlapping talk and a minimization of silence between conversational turns. In addition, all of the languages show the same factors explaining within-language variation in speed of response. We do, however, find differences across the languages in the average gap between turns, within a range of 250 ms from the cross-language mean. We believe that a natural sensitivity to these tempo differences leads to a subjective perception of dramatic or even fundamental differences as offered in ethnographic reports of conversational style. Our empirical evidence suggests robust human universals in this domain, where local variations are quantitative only, pointing to a single shared infrastructure for language use with likely ethological foundations. PMID:19553212

  17. Evaluation of environmentally safe cleaning agents for diamond turned optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theye, Lonnie A.; Day, Robert D.; Weinrach, Jeffrey; Schubert, Rudolf; Seiffert, Stephen

    Precision machining of metal surfaces using diamond turning has increased greatly in popularity at LANL in recent years. Similar techniques are used extensively to manufacture metal mirrors for use in laser applications. The diamond turned surfaces are easily damaged, making the selection of a cleaning agent very critical. These surfaces have been traditionally cleaned using Trichloroethane (TCA) to remove residual oil remaining from the machining process. The TCA was then removed with an ethanol rinse, leaving a residue free surface. Recently, however, TCA was pronounced environmentally unsafe. Consequently, we are searching for an environmentally safe cleaning agent for these diamond turned metal optics. The concern with using alternative solvents is the potential for residual surface films that produce reflectivity changes related to a combination of wavelength, surface coverage, film thickness and dielectric properties. Therefore, we have initiated a program for testing the effectiveness of a variety of environmentally safe solvents used to clean diamond turned optical surfaces. Our basic test plan consists of comparing a number of environmentally safe solvents against the TCA/ethanol cleaning system. We have identified twelve candidate solvents, but have only been able to perform a partial test on one of them to date. This paper discusses the results obtained to date using this solvent known as P F.

  18. On Kinesic Triadic Relations in Turn-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Kenneth L.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses three characteristics useful in defining the relations between speakers in the turn-taking aspects of conversation: the derivational history of personal relationships, stop-action pseudo-history versus dynamic compacted posing, and the criss-crossing of verbal versus kinetic axes. (Available from Semiotica, Co-Libri, P.O.…

  19. Experimental design for single point diamond turning of silicon optics

    SciTech Connect

    Krulewich, D.A.

    1996-06-16

    The goal of these experiments is to determine optimum cutting factors for the machining of silicon optics. This report describes experimental design, a systematic method of selecting optimal settings for a limited set of experiments, and its use in the silcon-optics turning experiments. 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  20. Turning a New Page to Life and Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Rosemarye T.; McAtee, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how a literacy intervention program found success among struggling readers in prison. Describes "Turning a New Page," an unconditional literacy project that develops vocabulary, comprehension, fluency, and self-esteem in the older, reluctant reader. Concludes that older, reluctant readers need motivation and respect in learning…

  1. Repeated Reading, Turn Taking, and Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmister, Evette; Wegner, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This single participant multiple baseline research design measured the effects of repeatedly reading narrative books to children who used voice output augmentative communication devices to communicate. The study sought to determine if there was a difference observed in the number of turns taken when reading stories repeatedly. Three girls ranging…

  2. Turn vs. Shape: Teachers Cope with Incompatible Perspectives on Angle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontorovich, Igor'; Zazkis, Rina

    2016-01-01

    This study is concerned with tensions between the two different perspectives on the concept of angle: angle as a static shape and angle as a dynamic turn. The goal of the study is to explore how teachers cope with these tensions. We analyze scripts of 16 in-service secondary mathematics teachers, which feature a dialogue between a teacher and…

  3. Turning Points of the Spherical Pendulum and the Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essen, Hanno; Apazidis, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We study the turning point problem of a spherical pendulum. The special cases of the simple pendulum and the conical pendulum are noted. For simple initial conditions the solution to this problem involves the golden ratio, also called the golden section, or the golden number. This number often appears in mathematics where you least expect it. To…

  4. The Aesthetic Turn and the Rhetorical Perspective on Argumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Ronald Walter

    1998-01-01

    Argues that Robert Scott's landmark 1967 essay sets in motion a constitutive model of rhetorical effectivity. States Scott's essay belongs to a disciplinary history that brings forth a central preoccupation with the ethical problematization of rhetorical practices from an aesthetic point of view. Discusses how this aesthetic turn transforms the…

  5. A jump persistent turning walker to model zebrafish locomotion.

    PubMed

    Mwaffo, Violet; Anderson, Ross P; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-01-06

    Zebrafish are gaining momentum as a laboratory animal species for the investigation of several functional and dysfunctional biological processes. Mathematical models of zebrafish behaviour are expected to considerably aid in the design of hypothesis-driven studies by enabling preliminary in silico tests that can be used to infer possible experimental outcomes without the use of zebrafish. This study is motivated by observations of sudden, drastic changes in zebrafish locomotion in the form of large deviations in turn rate. We demonstrate that such deviations can be captured through a stochastic mean reverting jump diffusion model, a process that is commonly used in financial engineering to describe large changes in the price of an asset. The jump process-based model is validated on trajectory data of adult subjects swimming in a shallow circular tank obtained from an overhead camera. Through statistical comparison of the empirical distribution of the turn rate against theoretical predictions, we demonstrate the feasibility of describing zebrafish as a jump persistent turning walker. The critical role of the jump term is assessed through comparison with a simplified mean reversion diffusion model, which does not allow for describing the heavy-tailed distributions observed in the fish turn rate.

  6. Freeform turning lathe with direct drives and aerostatic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Chao-liang; Dai, Yi-fan; Yin, Zi-qiang; Yang, Fan

    2009-05-01

    More and more precision freeform parts are required by defense technology and national economy today and in the future. The applications of freeform parts have traditionally conformed to the limitations imposed by practical limits on high effective fabricating technology. Single point diamond turning is one of the important methods of machining freeform surface parts. Generally speaking, optical freeform surfaces have complex geometrical surface shapes and require ultra smooth surface (roughness down to 10nm) and high form accuracy (form accuracy down to several ten nanometers). So, the ultra precision turning lathe must improve the motion accuracy, dynamic stiffness and bandwidth of every axis. Direct drive technology combined with aerostatic bearing do not affect by frication and eliminate the micro-backlash and creeping; reduce the number of transmission element, shorten the transmitted chains and be propitious to improve dynamic stiffness and bandwidth. This paper presents a ultra precision diamond turning lathe with linear motor and aerostatic guide drive system. Combined with the lathe a FTS (Fast Tool Servo) system driven by voice coil actor is use to machining free form surface. The turning experiments show that this lathe can satisfy the requirement of machine freeform surface.

  7. Numerical simulation of a turning alpine ski during recreational skiing.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Y; Tada, N

    1996-09-01

    While downhill snow skiing, recreational alpine skiers enjoy making turning motions with their skis. These motions are mainly induced by skidding, while turning by alpine ski racers is made by carving a trace in the snow. In the present study we treat the turning motions by recreational alpine skiers. This "skidding" turning motion is made possible by centripetal forces acting on the ski and skier dynamic motion systems, with these forces arising due to the skier placing the ski's longitudinal axis at an angle that is inclined away from the velocity vector and edging the ski into the snow. When snow is soft, the edged ski creates a snow impacting force, whereas a snow cutting force occurs when it is hard. Here, we calculate the former force using a three-dimensional water jet analogy, while the latter one using conventional metal cutting theory, after which the corresponding equations of motion for each system are derived and numerically solved. This methodology enables simulating the curvilinear and rotational motion of the ski and skier systems. Resultant simulations quantitatively show for the first time that the resultant radius of curvature of a ski track while downhill skiing is strongly dependent on the location of the ski boot on the ski's longitudinal axis and also on its side-cut (midlength taper).

  8. Poets and Book Design at the Turn of the Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depas, Rosalind

    1979-01-01

    Considers influences on the design and production of books at the turn of the century, including the influences of symbolists and other European poets (e.g., Blake, Wilde, Verhaeren, Maeterlinck, Baudelaire, Mallarme, Huysmans, George, von Hofmannsthal, and Rilke); book designers, typographers, and printers; and the Art Nouveau school. (DMM)

  9. Marking the Turn: Obligation, Engagement, and Alienation in Group Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David R.

    2010-01-01

    In group conversations, not speaking is the state of affairs experienced by most people most of the time; I refer to this as "conversational latency." Hypothesizing that conversational latency affects one's discursive options, I analyze the association between latency (operationalized as the number of turns that elapsed since the current speaker…

  10. The Roots of Turn-Taking in the Neonatal Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, S.; Devouche, E.; Apter, G.; Gratier, M.

    2016-01-01

    Human newborns are cognitively and socially competent. Although they are sensitive to the presence of a social partner, little is known on the emergence of the ability to partake in social interaction. In this study we aimed to explore the roots of turn-taking in the neonatal period. We wished to highlight the way mothers' and newborns'…

  11. 6. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, WITH CAR 'DETRUCKED AND TURNED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, WITH CAR 'DETRUCKED AND TURNED UPSIDE DOWN' FOR WELDING UNDERSIDE OF THE CAR AND INSIDE OF THE ROOF. IN FOREGROUND ARE THE WHEELS REMOVED TO FACILITATE ASSEMBLY. - Pullman Standard Company Plant, Fabrication Assembly Shop, 401 North Twenty-fourth Street, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  12. Adult Learning: Turning the Corner to Instructional Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Mary Beth; Wallach, Catherine A.; Ramsey, Brinton S.

    2006-01-01

    This is the culminating report of a three-year study of seven small schools in Washington State. It examines adult learning in the context of school redesign and highlights three schools where teachers are beginning to capitalize on adult learning opportunities to turn the corner to instructional change. In our view, effective adult learning…

  13. Causal Role of Motor Simulation in Turn-Taking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Novembre, Giacomo; Keller, Peter E.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Overlap between sensory and motor representations has been documented for a range of human actions, from grasping (Rizzolatti et al., 1996b) to playing a musical instrument (Novembre and Keller, 2014). Such overlap suggests that individuals use motor simulation to predict the outcome of observed actions (Wolpert, 1997). Here we investigate motor simulation as a basis of human communication. Using a musical turn-taking task, we show that pianists call on motor representations of their partner's part to predict when to come in for their own turn. Pianists played alternating solos with a videoed partner, and double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied around the turn-switch to temporarily disrupt processing in two cortical regions implicated previously in different forms of motor simulation: (1) the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), associated with automatic motor resonance during passive observation of hand actions, especially when the actions are familiar (Lahav et al., 2007); and (2) the supplementary motor area (SMA), involved in active motor imagery, especially when the actions are familiar (Baumann et al., 2007). Stimulation of the right dPMC decreased the temporal accuracy of pianists' (right-hand) entries relative to sham when the partner's (left-hand) part had been rehearsed previously. This effect did not occur for dPMC stimulation without rehearsal or for SMA stimulation. These findings support the role of the dPMC in predicting the time course of observed actions via resonance-based motor simulation during turn-taking. Because turn-taking spans multiple modes of human interaction, we suggest that simulation is a foundational mechanism underlying the temporal dynamics of joint action. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Even during passive observation, seeing or hearing somebody execute an action from within our repertoire activates motor cortices of our brain. But what is the functional relevance of such “motor simulation”? By combining a musical duet

  14. Efficient Removal of Retained Intracardiac Air Utilizing Buoyancy.

    PubMed

    Orihashi, Kazumasa

    2016-12-01

    Retained intracardiac air has been an important issue in cardiac surgery. Although echo visualization has allowed detection of air and guided deairing procedures, adequate air removal is not always attained. Actually it has been attempted in each surgeon's manner without solid standard or evidence. Basically buoyancy is responsible for air retention as well as difficult deairing. This paper is aimed to present the author's current measures of deairing, which turn this property of air into efficient removal, as test bed for discussion on this long-standing but pending issue.

  15. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Air Toxics Website Rules and Implementation Related Information Air Quality Data and Tools Clean Air Act Criteria Air ... Resources Visibility and Haze Voluntary Programs for Improving Air Quality Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, ...

  16. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  17. De-icing of the altitude wind tunnel turning vanes by electro-magnetic impulse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, G. W.; Ross, R.

    1986-01-01

    The Altitude Wind Tunnel at the NASA-Lewis facility is being proposed for a refurbishment and moderization. Two major changes are: (1) the increasing of the test section Mach number to 0.90, and (2) the addition of spray nozzles to provide simulation of flight in icing clouds. Features to be retained are the simulation of atmospheric temperature and pressure to 50,000 foot altitude and provision for full-scale aircraft engine operation by the exhausting of the aircraft combustion gases and ingestion of air to replace that used in combustion. The first change required a re-design of the turning vanes in the two corners downstream of the test section due to the higher Mach number at the corners. The second change threatens the operation of the turning vanes by the expected ice build-up, particulary on the first-corner vanes. De-icing by heat has two drawbacks: (1) an extremely large amount of heat is required, and (2) the melted ice would tend to collect as ice on some other surfaces in the tunnel, namely, the tunnel propellers and the cooling coils. An alternate de-icing method had been under development for three years under NASA-Lewis grants to the Wichita State University. This report describes the electro-impulse de-icing (EIDI) method and the testing work done to assess its applicability to wind tunnel turning vane de-icing. Tests were conducted in the structural dynamics laboratory and in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel. Good ice protection was achieved at lower power consumption and at a wide range of tunnel operations conditions. Recommendations for design and construction of the system for this application of the EIDI method are given.

  18. Inverted, Organic WORM Device Based on PEDOT:PSS with Very Low Turn-On Voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, Robert A.; Galiger, Erin M.; Ostrowski, David P.; Bailey, Brian A.; Jiang, Xin; Voyles, Richard M.; Kopidakis, Nikos; Olson, Dana C.; Shaheen, Sean E.

    2014-05-17

    An organic Write-Once-Read-Many (WORM) device based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the active layer was fabricated with an inverted architecture. Insertion of an ultrathin layer of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) between the bottom electrode and the PEDOT:PSS resulted in a systematic and substantial decrease in turn-on voltage, from 7.0 V to less than 1.0 V. An optimal thickness of the PMMA layer was found to yield the lowest consistent turn-on voltage of ~0.8 V, with 0.5 V being the lowest value of all fabricated devices. The switching mechanism was attributed to filamentary doping of the PEDOT:PSS. Insertion of the PMMA acted to protect the underlying ZnO from being etched by the acidic PEDOT:PSS as well as to improve its wetting properties. Moreover, devices were demonstrated on both ITO and aluminum bottom electrodes, with aluminum yielding the highest ON/OFF ratios in the study. Owing to their inverted architecture, the devices demonstrated good stability, and the retention time of the ON-state was determined to be greater than twenty months while stored in air for devices with ITO bottom electrodes. Blade-coating was demonstrated as a viable processing technique for applications requiring rapid or large-area manufacturing in addition to deposition via spin-coating.

  19. Turning the Tide Against Aids | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Turning the Tide Against AIDS Turning the Tide Against AIDS Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents A ... What is the current state of the HIV/AIDS epidemic? Globally, more than 34 million people are ...

  20. Did the breakout of laurentia turn gondwanaland inside-out?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, P F

    1991-06-07

    Comparative geology suggests that the continents adjacent to northern, western, southern, and eastern Laurentia in the Late Proterozoic were Siberia, Australia-Antarctica, southern Africa, and Amazonia-Baltica, respectively. Late Proterozoic fragmentation of the supercontinent centered on Laurentia would then have been followed by rapid fan-like collapse of the (present) southern continents and eventual consolidation of East and West Gondwanaland. In this scenario, a pole of rotation near the Weddell Sea would explain the observed dominance of wrench tectonics in (present) east-west trending Pan-African mobile belts and subduction-accretion tectonics in north-south trending belts. In the process of fragmentation, rifts originating in the interior of the Late Proterozoic supercontinent became the external margins of Paleozoic Gondwanaland; exterior margins of the Late Proterozoic supercontinent became landlocked within the interior of Gondwanaland.

  1. Turning Indium Oxide into a Superior Electrocatalyst: Deterministic Heteroatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Nan Nan; Chen, Jian Fu; Hou, Yu; Yang, Shuang; Guo, Jian Wei; Yang, Xiao Hua; Zhong, Ju Hua; Wang, Hai Feng; Hu, P.; Zhao, Hui Jun; Yang, Hua Gui

    2013-10-01

    The efficient electrocatalysts for many heterogeneous catalytic processes in energy conversion and storage systems must possess necessary surface active sites. Here we identify, from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, that controlling charge density redistribution via the atomic-scale incorporation of heteroatoms is paramount to import surface active sites. We engineer the deterministic nitrogen atoms inserting the bulk material to preferentially expose active sites to turn the inactive material into a sufficient electrocatalyst. The excellent electrocatalytic activity of N-In2O3 nanocrystals leads to higher performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) than the DSCs fabricated with Pt. The successful strategy provides the rational design of transforming abundant materials into high-efficient electrocatalysts. More importantly, the exciting discovery of turning the commonly used transparent conductive oxide (TCO) in DSCs into counter electrode material means that except for decreasing the cost, the device structure and processing techniques of DSCs can be simplified in future.

  2. A Turn-Projected State-Based Conflict Resolution Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Lewis, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    State-based conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) algorithms detect conflicts and resolve them on the basis on current state information without the use of additional intent information from aircraft flight plans. Therefore, the prediction of the trajectory of aircraft is based solely upon the position and velocity vectors of the traffic aircraft. Most CD&R algorithms project the traffic state using only the current state vectors. However, the past state vectors can be used to make a better prediction of the future trajectory of the traffic aircraft. This paper explores the idea of using past state vectors to detect traffic turns and resolve conflicts caused by these turns using a non-linear projection of the traffic state. A new algorithm based on this idea is presented and validated using a fast-time simulator developed for this study.

  3. Surface Integrity in Turning of Annealed Brass: Hardness Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurita, O.; Di Graci, V.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the effects of cutting parameters (depth of cut, feed rate, and cutting speed) on the surface integrity of, in terms of superficial hardening, annealed brass during a turning process. The results indicate that no significant phase transformations occurred for any of the turning conditions evaluated; however, microstructural changes were observed, as well as changes in the superficial hardness were measured. It was found that when the studied cutting parameters increase, the superficial hardness increases, with the cutting speed having less influence (2.56%), and feed rate having the greatest effect (22.67%). Finally, a mathematical expression is proposed, which relates the cutting parameters to the maximum hardness obtained for a given cutting condition.

  4. Design and synthesis of a protein. beta. -turn mimetic

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, G.L.; Voss, M.E.; Hill, D.E.; Kahn, M.; Madison, V.S.; Cook, C.M. )

    1990-01-03

    A nine-membered-ring lactam system (1) has been chosen as a framework for the development of non-peptide molecules to mimic structural features of peptide and protein {beta}-turns. The synthesis of model di- and tetrapeptide mimetics starting from 1,5-cyclooctadiene derivatives is reported. In the model dipeptide mimetic (9), the amide linkages is trans (NMR, X-ray) and functional groups at positions adjacent to the lactam amide bond correspond closely to the side-chain positions of residues i + 1 and i + 2 of classical type II{prime} {beta}-turns. In the model tetrapeptide mimetic (30), all four side chains of low-energy trans amide conformers of the mimetic are well matched to their peptide counterparts.

  5. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Hundreds of birds, especially gray and white pelicans and cormorants, cover the water in the turn basin, located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway. The basin is teeming with fish, attracting the crowd for a meal. The turn basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth..

  6. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The water in the turn basin, east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, teems with fish and draws white pelicans, gray pelicans, cormorants, sea gulls and more looking for a meal. The turn basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

  7. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The water in the turn basin, located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, teems with fish and draws white pelicans, gray pelicans, cormorants, sea gulls and one of several dolphins looking for a meal. The turn basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

  8. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A gray and a white pelican glide down to the water near a dolphin and cormorant in the turn basin to search for a meal in the fish- teeming water. Sea gulls also approach. The turn basin, which is east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, is part of the Indian River Lagoon, composed of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. The lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America, plus many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish, shellfish and dolphins. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth..

  9. Turning indium oxide into a superior electrocatalyst: deterministic heteroatoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Nan Nan; Chen, Jian Fu; Hou, Yu; Yang, Shuang; Guo, Jian Wei; Yang, Xiao Hua; Zhong, Ju Hua; Wang, Hai Feng; Hu, P; Zhao, Hui Jun; Yang, Hua Gui

    2013-10-31

    The efficient electrocatalysts for many heterogeneous catalytic processes in energy conversion and storage systems must possess necessary surface active sites. Here we identify, from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, that controlling charge density redistribution via the atomic-scale incorporation of heteroatoms is paramount to import surface active sites. We engineer the deterministic nitrogen atoms inserting the bulk material to preferentially expose active sites to turn the inactive material into a sufficient electrocatalyst. The excellent electrocatalytic activity of N-In2O3 nanocrystals leads to higher performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) than the DSCs fabricated with Pt. The successful strategy provides the rational design of transforming abundant materials into high-efficient electrocatalysts. More importantly, the exciting discovery of turning the commonly used transparent conductive oxide (TCO) in DSCs into counter electrode material means that except for decreasing the cost, the device structure and processing techniques of DSCs can be simplified in future.

  10. Diamond turning in the production of x ray optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fawcett, Steven C.

    1994-01-01

    A demonstration x-ray optic has been produced by diamond turning and replication techniques that could revolutionize the fabrication of advanced mirror assemblies. The prototype optic was developed as part of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility - Spectrographic project (AXAF-S). The initial part of the project was aimed at developing and testing the replica technique so that it could potentially be used for the production of the entire mirror array comprised of up to 50 individual mirror shells.

  11. Steep Turn On/Off "Green" Tunnel Transistors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-17

    Steep Turn On/Off "Green" Tunnel Transistors Pratik Ashvin Patel Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley...ES) University of California at Berkeley,Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences,Berkeley,CA,94720 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...presents a serious thermal management challenge and potential limiter of integration density as well as a rapidly growing portion of the world electricity

  12. Enhanced ultrasonically assisted turning of a β-titanium alloy.

    PubMed

    Maurotto, Agostino; Muhammad, Riaz; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2013-09-01

    Although titanium alloys have outstanding mechanical properties such as high hot hardness, a good strength-to-weight ratio and high corrosion resistance; their low thermal conductivity, high chemical affinity to tool materials severely impair their machinability. Ultrasonically assisted machining (UAM) is an advanced machining technique, which has been shown to improve machinability of a β-titanium alloy, namely, Ti-15-3-3-3, when compared to conventional turning processes.

  13. Analysis of the influence of tool dynamics in diamond turning

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, S.C.; Luttrell, D.E.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the progress in defining the role of machine and interface dynamics on the surface finish in diamond turning. It contains a review of literature from conventional and diamond machining processes relating tool dynamics, material interactions and tool wear to surface finish. Data from experimental measurements of tool/work piece interface dynamics are presented as well as machine dynamics for the DTM at the Center.

  14. DIME Students Waiting for Their Turn to Drop Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students pause while waiting their turn at the 2.2-second Drop Tower during the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  15. Turned head--adducted hip--truncal curvature syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Hamanishi, C; Tanaka, S

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and eight neonates and infants who showed the clinical triad of a head turned to one side, adduction contracture of the hip joint on the occipital side of the turned head, and truncal curvature, which we named TAC syndrome, were studied. These cases included seven with congenital and five with late infantile dislocations of the hip joint and 14 who developed muscular torticollis. Forty one were among 7103 neonates examined by one of the authors. An epidemiological analysis confirmed the aetiology of the syndrome to be environmental. The side to which the head was turned and that of the adducted hip contracture showed a high correlation with the side of the maternal spine on which the fetus had been lying. TAC syndrome is an important asymmetrical deformity that should be kept in mind during neonatal examination, and may be aetiologically related to the unilateral dislocation of the hip joint, torticollis, and infantile scoliosis which develop after a vertex presentation. Images PMID:8048823

  16. Turning Rate Dynamics of Zebrafish Exposed to Ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwaffo, Violet; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Zebrafish is emerging as a species of choice in alcohol-related pharmacological studies. In these studies, zebrafish are often exposed to acute ethanol treatments and their activity scored during behavioral assays. Computational modeling of zebrafish behavior is expected to positively impact these efforts by offering a predictive toolbox to plan hypothesis-driven studies, reduce the number of subjects, perform pilot trials, and refine behavioral screening. In this work, we demonstrate the use of the recently proposed jump persistent turning walker to model the turning rate dynamics of zebrafish exposed to acute ethanol administration. This modeling framework is based on a stochastic mean reverting jump process to capture the sudden and large changes in orientation of swimming zebrafish. The model is calibrated on an available experimental dataset of 40 subjects, tested at different ethanol concentrations. We demonstrate that model parameters are modulated by ethanol administration, whereby both the relaxation rate and jump frequency of the turning rate dynamics are influenced by ethanol concentration. This effort offers a first evidence for the possibility of complementing zebrafish pharmacological research with computational modeling of animal behavior.

  17. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  18. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  19. An application for tunes and coupling evaluation from turn-by-turn data at the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, W.; Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    A console application using the phasing of Turn-by-Turn signals from the different BPMs has been tested at the Fermilab Booster. This technique allows the on-line detection of the beam tunes during the fast Booster ramp in conditions where other algorithms were unsuccessful. The application has been recently expanded to include the computation of the linear coupling coefficients. Algorithm and measurement results are presented. Although improved by the phased sum technique the automatic identification of the tunes is not always successful. This makes the use of the on-line application difficult. Ideas for further improvements are under investigation. Measurements have indicated that the effect of the skew quadrupoles is by a factor 3 weaker than expected from the nominal optics. A calibration of the skew quadrupole circuits using the TBT data is planned.

  20. Investigating the Electrothermal Characteristics of a Gate Turn Off Thyristor During Turn-Off Using SILVACO ATLAS(TM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    conduction is a physical device property commonly referred to as the “holding current” [7]. pnp transistor npn transistor 9 2. Operating Characteristics... Transistor Representation of a GTO Thyristor Unit Cell. .............. 8  Figure 3.  Nominal GTO Thyristor Turn-off Waveforms (From [6...P+ P+ 8 The four-layer structure of a GTO thyristor allows each unit cell to operate like a pair of coupled bipolar junction transistors as shown

  1. Medium dependent dual turn on/turn off fluorescence sensing for Cu2 + ions using AMI/SDS assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujar, Varsha B.; Ottoor, Divya

    2017-02-01

    Behavior of Amiloride (AMI) as a metal ion sensor in anionic surfactant assemblies of varying concentrations at different pH is depicted in this work. From a non-sensor fluorophore, AMI has been transformed in to a tunable fluorosensor for Cu2 + ions in various SDS concentrations. At premicellar concentration of SDS, ion-pair complex is expected to be formed between AMI and SDS due to electrostatic interactions between them. However at CMC concentrations of SDS, fluorescence intensity of AMI is greatly enhanced with red shift in emission, due to the incorporation of AMI molecule in the hydrophobic micellar interface. The behavior of metal sensing by AMI-SDS assemblies gives rise to several interesting observations. Micellation of SDS has been greatly enhanced by increasing copper ion concentrations, as these counter ions screens the charge on monomers of SDS which lead to the aggregation at premicellar concentrations only. Concentrations and pH dependent discrete trends of interactions between SDS-AMI and SDS-Cu2 + ions, have given tunable fluorescence responses (fluorescence turn on/turn off) of AMI for added Cu2 + ions. The electrostatic interaction between the metal cations and the anionic surfactants is the driving force for bringing the metal ions near to the vicinity of micelle where AMI resides. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism related to the 'turn on-turn off' fluorescence response of AMI with respect to pH and SDS concentration for effective Cu2 + ion sensing is illustrated in this work.

  2. Medium dependent dual turn on/turn off fluorescence sensing for Cu(2+) ions using AMI/SDS assemblies.

    PubMed

    Gujar, Varsha B; Ottoor, Divya

    2017-02-15

    Behavior of Amiloride (AMI) as a metal ion sensor in anionic surfactant assemblies of varying concentrations at different pH is depicted in this work. From a non-sensor fluorophore, AMI has been transformed in to a tunable fluorosensor for Cu(2+) ions in various SDS concentrations. At premicellar concentration of SDS, ion-pair complex is expected to be formed between AMI and SDS due to electrostatic interactions between them. However at CMC concentrations of SDS, fluorescence intensity of AMI is greatly enhanced with red shift in emission, due to the incorporation of AMI molecule in the hydrophobic micellar interface. The behavior of metal sensing by AMI-SDS assemblies gives rise to several interesting observations. Micellation of SDS has been greatly enhanced by increasing copper ion concentrations, as these counter ions screens the charge on monomers of SDS which lead to the aggregation at premicellar concentrations only. Concentrations and pH dependent discrete trends of interactions between SDS-AMI and SDS-Cu(2+) ions, have given tunable fluorescence responses (fluorescence turn on/turn off) of AMI for added Cu(2+) ions. The electrostatic interaction between the metal cations and the anionic surfactants is the driving force for bringing the metal ions near to the vicinity of micelle where AMI resides. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism related to the 'turn on-turn off' fluorescence response of AMI with respect to pH and SDS concentration for effective Cu(2+) ion sensing is illustrated in this work.

  3. Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Johnson, Anne; Bounds, Keith

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the leaves, roots, soil, and associated microorganisms of plants have been evaluated as a possible means of reducing indoor air pollutants. Additionally, a novel approach of using plant systems for removing high concentrations of indoor air pollutants such as cigarette smoke, organic solvents, and possibly radon has been designed from this work. This air filter design combines plants with an activated carbon filter. The rationale for this design, which evolved from wastewater treatment studies, is based on moving large volumes of contaminated air through an activated carbon bed where smoke, organic chemicals, pathogenic microorganisms (if present), and possibly radon are absorbed by the carbon filter. Plant roots and their associated microorganisms then destroy the pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and the organic chemicals, eventually converting all of these air pollutants into new plant tissue. It is believed that the decayed radon products would be taken up the plant roots and retained in the plant tissue.

  4. Air pollution.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

    2010-01-01

    Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last

  5. Air traffic management evaluation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar (Inventor); Sheth, Kapil S. (Inventor); Chatterji, Gano Broto (Inventor); Bilimoria, Karl D. (Inventor); Grabbe, Shon (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for evaluating and implementing air traffic management tools and approaches for managing and avoiding an air traffic incident before the incident occurs. The invention provides flight plan routing and direct routing or wind optimal routing, using great circle navigation and spherical Earth geometry. The invention provides for aircraft dynamics effects, such as wind effects at each altitude, altitude changes, airspeed changes and aircraft turns to provide predictions of aircraft trajectory (and, optionally, aircraft fuel use). A second system provides several aviation applications using the first system. These applications include conflict detection and resolution, miles-in trail or minutes-in-trail aircraft separation, flight arrival management, flight re-routing, weather prediction and analysis and interpolation of weather variables based upon sparse measurements.

  6. Turned versus anodised dental implants: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chrcanovic, B R; Albrektsson, T; Wennerberg, A

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to test the null hypothesis of no difference in the implant failure rates, marginal bone loss (MBL)and post-operative infection for patients being rehabilitated by turned versus anodised-surface implants, against the alternative hypothesis of a difference. An electronic search without time or language restrictions was undertaken in November 2015. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, either randomised or not. Thirty-eight publications were included. The results suggest a risk ratio of 2·82 (95% CI 1·95-4·06, P < 0·00001) for failure of turned implants, when compared to anodised-surface implants. Sensitivity analyses showed similar results when only the studies inserting implants in maxillae or mandibles were pooled. There were no statistically significant effects of turned implants on the MBL (mean difference-MD 0·02, 95%CI -0·16-0·20; P = 0·82) in comparison to anodised implants. The results of a meta-regression considering the follow-up period as a covariate suggested an increase of the MD with the increase in the follow-up time (MD increase 0·012 mm year(-1) ), however, without a statistical significance (P = 0·813). Due to lack of satisfactory information, meta-analysis for the outcome 'post-operative infection' was not performed. The results have to be interpreted with caution due to the presence of several confounding factors in the included studies.

  7. Turning around Low-Performing Schools in Chicago. Summary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Marisa; Allensworth, Elaine; Jagesic, Sanja; Sebastian, James; Salmonowicz, Michael; Meyers, Coby; Gerdeman, R. Dean

    2012-01-01

    The University of Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research and the American Institutes for Research (AIR) partnered to examine five different models initiated by the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) in 36 schools. CPS was an early adopter of dramatic intervention strategies in low-performing schools, and the reforms in this study were implemented…

  8. Losing Something In Translation: Turning Requirements Into Specifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    managers develop the operational Affordability Allocated Analysis Bureaucratic Capability Compliance Contractual Cost Customer Data Derived Design...Requirements Center Director at the Defense Acquisition University’s Defense Systems Management College at Fort Belvoir in Virginia. He is a former Wild...Weasel Electronic Warfare Officer, a test manager , a program manager , and an Air Force laboratory supervisor. His doctorate from Walden University

  9. Why nature doesn't turn off neurosis.

    PubMed

    Badalamenti, Anthony F

    2013-03-01

    This paper develops an integration of psychoanalytic and wisdom tradition concepts to answer the question as to why nature does not turn off neurosis, The proposed answer is that nature wants a person to exploit the neurosis for two gains, one being the increase in adaptive capacity resulting from releasing it and the second involving the difficulty in the release itself, the latter related to gains proffered by the world's wisdom traditions. These see a movement from the psyche's creation by passive, unconscious means of finite promise rooted in parental love to creation by active, consciously chosen means of unlimited promise involving a direct relationship with nature and the Cosmos.

  10. Turning a Poor Ion Channel into a Good Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astumian, Dean

    2003-05-01

    We consider a membrane protein that can exist in two configurations, either one of which acts as a poor ion channel, allowing ions to slowly leak across the membrane from high to low elctrochemical potential. We show that random external fluctuations can provide the energy to turn this poor channel into a good pump that drives ion transport from low to high electrochemical potential. We discuss this result in terms of a gambling analogy, and point to possible implications for fields as far ranging as population biology, economics, and actuarial science.

  11. Computer controlled precision optical polishing on the diamond turning machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hannah, P.R.; Day, R.D.; Hatch, D.

    1993-10-01

    This abstract reports the force and wear data required to predict the material removal, or wear, for the Numerical controlled (N/C) polishing program. The program`s aim is to provide the operator of a N/C diamond turning machine or N/C grinding machine with the wear characteristics necessary to achieve uniform material removal. The first phase of the program looks at a rotating polishing wheel, moving from near the center to edge of a rotating glass disc. future phases will look at more complex shapes.

  12. Turning point sets the stage for emergency preparedness planning.

    PubMed

    Bekemeier, Betty; Dahl, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Nearly a billion dollars were made available to state health departments through federal grants in the spring of 2002 for public health emergency preparedness plans. Twenty-one states had already been participating for some years in The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Turning Point Initiative. This article illustrates how earlier practice and experience in developing cross-sector collaborations and institutionalizing a model of broad-based partnerships for public health decision making can increase effectiveness and efficiency in responding to a call for action around an emergency.

  13. The Opportunities and Threats of Turning Airports into Hubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, Andreas; Koch, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the opportunities and threats which arise when turning origin/destination airports into hubs. The analysis focuses on market development trends, competitive structures, especially in the light of airline network strategies and the growing rivalry between airports, and finally the potential financial impacts for the airport, including both investment efforts and the financial results from hub operations. We argue that in most cases a decision against converting a traditional origin/destination airport into a major transfer point is preferable to the transformation into a hub.

  14. Turning a remotely controllable observatory into a fully autonomous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindell, Scott; Johnson, Chris; Gabor, Paul; Zareba, Grzegorz; Kubánek, Petr; Prouza, Michael

    2014-08-01

    We describe a complex process needed to turn an existing, old, operational observatory - The Steward Observatory's 61" Kuiper Telescope - into a fully autonomous system, which observers without an observer. For this purpose, we employed RTS2,1 an open sourced, Linux based observatory control system, together with other open sourced programs and tools (GNU compilers, Python language for scripting, JQuery UI for Web user interface). This presentation provides a guide with time estimates needed for a newcomers to the field to handle such challenging tasks, as fully autonomous observatory operations.

  15. Changes in the upper turning point due to magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Rekha; Hindman, Bradley W.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    1995-01-01

    It was observed that the p-mode power is substantially suppressed in magnetic regions. One possible explanation is that the upper turning point, the acoustic cut-off point of the solar p-modes is lowered in the presence of a magnetic field. A related possibility is that the attenuation length scale in the evanescent region is reduced in the presence of a magnetic field. It is likely that the observations sample a different position in the evanescent tails of the eigenfunctions in magnetic regions because of different temperature structures in these regions. A model is used to quantify the first of these effects.

  16. Turn over folders: a proven tool in succession management planning.

    PubMed

    Engells, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    The dual challenges of succession management and succession management planning are considerable. A tool, the Turn over Folder, was introduced and described in detail as a useful first step in succession management planning. The adoption of that tool will not in itself produce a succession management plan, but it will orientate the organization and its members to the reality of succession management in all important leadership and critical positions. Succession management is an important consideration in all progressive organizations and well worth the effort.

  17. Orbiter 'Enterprise' turns and banks during second ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' makes a turn and bank maneuver during the second free flight of the Shuttle Apporach and Landing Tests (ALTs) conducted on September 13, 1977 at Dryden Flight Research Center in Southern California. The 'Enterprise' separated form the NASA 747 carrier aircraft and after a five-minute, 28-second unpowered flight landed on a runway below. Astronauts Joe H. Engle, and Richard H. Truly were the crew of the 'Enterprise.' The ALT free flights are designed to verify Orbiter subsonic airworthiness, integrated systems operations and pilot-guided approach and landing capability and satisfying prerequisites to automatic flight control and navigation mode.

  18. 1. AT PENINSULA, THE CUYAHOGA RIVER MAKES A HAIRPIN TURN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AT PENINSULA, THE CUYAHOGA RIVER MAKES A HAIRPIN TURN, CARVING OUT A 'PENINSULA' AND THEREBY GIVING THE VILLAGE ITS NAME. hERE, THE REMAINS OF A DAM AND OF THE THOMAS & MOODY FLOUR MILL CAN BE SEEN. THE OHIO AND ERIE CANAL CROSSED THE CUYAHOGA RIVER AT THE PENINSULA AQUEDUCT, WHICH WAS LOCATED A SHORT DISTANCE TO THE NORTH. VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD THE MAIN STREET BRIDGE. - Ohio & Erie Canal, Links Lake Erie at Cleveland & Ohio River at Portsmouth, Peninsula, Summit County, OH

  19. 180° turn while walking: characterization and comparisons between subjects with and without stroke

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais; Paula de Carvalho-Pinto, Bárbara; Nadeau, Sylvie; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Limitations in performing the 180°-turning increase the risk of falls and disabilities in stroke patients. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the 180°-turning between people with and without stroke, considering the direction towards which they turned. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen subjects with stroke and 14 matched healthy controls performed the 180°-turning twice while walking: towards the self-selected, and the opposite directions. The turning performances were recorded using three video cameras. The videos were randomly analyzed by a single examiner, who characterized the turning, while considering the time required to complete the task, the number of steps, balance, and turning type. Friedman Tests and ANOVA (2 × 2) were used to compare the groups and turning direction factors (turning towards the self-selected versus opposite sides, and towards the paretic/non-dominant versus non-paretic/dominant sides). [Results] No interaction between the groups and turning directions, and no significant differences between the turning directions were found. However, significant differences were found between the groups for all variables used to characterize the turning performance, except for the type of turning. [Conclusion] Stroke subjects demonstrated poor performance on the 180°-turning, regardless of the turning direction. Duration, number of steps, and balance loss indicated difficulties in turn performance. PMID:27821916

  20. What is an effective portable air cleaning device? A review.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, R J; Sextro, R G

    2006-04-01

    The use of portable air cleaning devices in residential settings has been steadily growing over the last 10 years. Three out of every 10 households now contain a portable air cleaning device. This increased use of air cleaners is accompanied by, if not influenced by, a fundamental belief by consumers that the air cleaners are providing an improved indoor air environment. However, there is a wide variation in the performance of air cleaners that is dependent on the specific air cleaner design and various indoor factors. The most widely used method in the United States to assess the performance of new air cleaners is the procedure described in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) AC-1-2002. This method describes both the test conditions and the testing protocol. The protocol yields a performance metric that is based on the measured decay rate of contaminant concentrations with the air cleaner operating compared with the measured decay rate with the air cleaner turned off. The resulting metric, the clean air delivery rate (CADR), permits both an intercomparison of performance among various air cleaners and a comparison of air cleaner operation to other contaminant removal processes. In this article, we comment on the testing process, discuss its applicability to various contaminants, and evaluate the resulting performance metrics for effective air cleaning.

  1. A two-dimensional air-to-air combat game - Toward an air-combat advisory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, Frank

    1987-01-01

    Air-to-air combat is modeled as a discrete differential game, and by constraining the game to searching for the best guidance laws from the sets of those considered for each opponent, feedback and outcome charts are obtained which can be used to turn one of the automatic opponents into an intelligent opponent against a human pilot. A one-on-one two-dimensional fully automatic, or manned versus automatic, air-to-air combat game has been designed which includes both attack and evasion alternatives for both aircraft. Guidance law selection occurs by flooding the initial-condition space with four simulated fights for each initial condition, depicting the various attack/evasion strategies for the two opponents, and recording the outcomes. For each initial condition, the minimax method from differential games is employed to determine the best choice from the available strategies.

  2. Lawrence's Legacy : Seaborg's Cyclotron - The 88-Inch Cyclotron turns 40

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahan, Margaret; Clark, David

    2003-04-01

    In 1958, Sputnik had recently been launched by the Russians, leading to worry in Congress and increased funding for science and technology. Ernest Lawrence was director of the "Rad Lab" at Berkeley. Another Nobel Prize winner, Glenn Seaborg, was Associate Laboratory Director and Director of the Nuclear Chemistry Division. In this atmosphere, Lawrence was phoned by commissioners of the Atomic Energy Commission and asked what they could do for Seaborg, "because he did such a fine job of setting up the chemistry for extracting plutonium from spent reactor fuel" [1]. In this informal way, the 90-Inch (eventually 88-Inch) Cyclotron became a line item in the federal budget at a cost of 3M (later increased to 5M). The 88-Inch Cyclotron achieved first internal beam on Dec. 12, 1961 and first external beam in May 1962. Forty years later it is still going strong. Pieced together from interviews with the retirees who built it, Rad Lab reports and archives from the Seaborg and Lawrence collections, the story of its design and construction - on-time and under-budget - provides a glimpse into the early days of big science. [1] remarks made by Elmer Kelly, "Physicist-in-charge' of the project on the occasion of the 40th anniversary celebration.

  3. Turning heads: the biology of solar tracking in sunflower.

    PubMed

    Vandenbrink, Joshua P; Brown, Evan A; Harmer, Stacey L; Blackman, Benjamin K

    2014-07-01

    Solar tracking in the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus, is a dramatic example of a diurnal rhythm in plants. During the day, the shoot apex continuously reorients, following the sun's relative position so that the developing heads track from east to west. At night, the reverse happens, and the heads return and face east in anticipation of dawn. This daily cycle dampens and eventually stops at anthesis, after which the sunflower head maintains an easterly orientation. Although shoot apical heliotropism has long been the subject of physiological studies in sunflower, the underlying developmental, cellular, and molecular mechanisms that drive the directional growth and curvature of the stem in response to extrinsic and perhaps intrinsic cues are not known. Furthermore, the ecological functions of solar tracking and the easterly orientation of mature heads have been the subject of significant but unresolved speculation. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge about this complex, dynamic trait. Candidate mechanisms that may contribute to daytime and nighttime movement are highlighted, including light signaling, hormonal action, and circadian regulation of growth pathways. The merits of the diverse hypotheses advanced to explain the adaptive significance of heliotropism in sunflower are also considered.

  4. The Art of Reflection: Turning the Strange into the Familiar.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Kaethe

    2016-06-01

    There are a great many useful articles on the dynamics and pragmatics of reflecting teams but few articles address what constitutes a good or inept reflection and why. I provide a conceptual model for thinking about what a good reflection does, distinguishing it from a nice reflection. With some further refinements in place, I then illustrate how reflections can be part of any relationship, not just clinical ones. We have opportunities to make them and to recognize when others make them to us. By using examples from my personal life-as a grandmother, daughter, radio listener, cancer survivor, and client-I attempt to ease the personal/professional binary, a project of mine for the last 35 years. In the second part of the article, I address how writing can serve reflection. Although best offered at the moment one is called for, it is never too late for a reflection. Writing allows people to offer reflections after the fact to those who have shared their stories. Sometimes, it is to ourselves we offer those reflections, when the reflector has long since dropped the thread of obligation or interest. I provide an example of working with iconic imagery to unpack meaning so that reflection can eventually take place, allowing integration to proceed, facilitating the strange becoming the familiar.

  5. Implementation of one-turn maps in SSCTRK using ZLIB

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffmann, S.K.; Yan, Y.T. ); Ritson, D.M. )

    1990-09-01

    The particle tracking code SSCTRK is currently being adapted to operational simulation and beam-beam effect studies for the Collider rings of the SSC. During beam-beam effect studies, the lattice content of the bending arcs is normally not varied, making fast truncated Taylor map tracking through the arcs an attractive option. The implementation of SSCTRK as a truncated Taylor map tracking program has been carried out using the differential algebra library ZLIB, which simplified the task to that of straightforward translation of SSCTRK kick and drift arithmetic operations to calls to the corresponding polynomial operation subroutines of ZLIB. The accuracy and speed (relative to normal SSCTRK tracking) of truncated Taylor map tracking at 2mm betatron oscillation amplitude was studied in various orders of the map. The seventh order map was found to be in agreement with the normal SSCTRK to about eight significant figures on the first turn, and to a fraction of 1% on the 100,000th turn, for a typical 5cm magnet aperture lattice, and could be made to track at ten times the speed of the normal SSCTRK kick-drift tracking on a scalar architecture (Sun) workstation. (The map tracking subroutines of ZLIB are optimized for vector and parallel architecture supercomputers, and typically achieve even faster relative performance on these, but operational simulation studies will be more conveniently carried out on dedicated workstations which have the incoming generation of superscalar'' CPUs).

  6. Induction motor inter turn fault detection using infrared thermographic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurmeet; Anil Kumar, T. Ch.; Naikan, V. N. A.

    2016-07-01

    Induction motors are the most commonly used prime movers in industries. These are subjected to various environmental, thermal and load stresses that ultimately reduces the motor efficiency and later leads to failure. Inter turn fault is the second most commonly observed faults in the motors and is considered the most severe. It can lead to the failure of complete phase and can even cause accidents, if left undetected or untreated. This paper proposes an online and non invasive technique that uses infrared thermography, in order to detect the presence of inter turn fault in induction motor drive. Two methods have been proposed that detect the fault and estimate its severity. One method uses transient thermal monitoring during the start of motor and other applies pseudo coloring technique on infrared image of the motor, after it reaches a thermal steady state. The designed template for pseudo-coloring is in acquiescence with the InterNational Electrical Testing Association (NETA) thermographic standard. An index is proposed to assess the severity of the fault present in the motor.

  7. Turning Indium Oxide into a Superior Electrocatalyst: Deterministic Heteroatoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Nan Nan; Chen, Jian Fu; Hou, Yu; Yang, Shuang; Guo, Jian Wei; Yang, Xiao Hua; Zhong, Ju Hua; Wang, Hai Feng; Hu, P.; Zhao, Hui Jun; Yang, Hua Gui

    2013-01-01

    The efficient electrocatalysts for many heterogeneous catalytic processes in energy conversion and storage systems must possess necessary surface active sites. Here we identify, from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, that controlling charge density redistribution via the atomic-scale incorporation of heteroatoms is paramount to import surface active sites. We engineer the deterministic nitrogen atoms inserting the bulk material to preferentially expose active sites to turn the inactive material into a sufficient electrocatalyst. The excellent electrocatalytic activity of N-In2O3 nanocrystals leads to higher performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) than the DSCs fabricated with Pt. The successful strategy provides the rational design of transforming abundant materials into high-efficient electrocatalysts. More importantly, the exciting discovery of turning the commonly used transparent conductive oxide (TCO) in DSCs into counter electrode material means that except for decreasing the cost, the device structure and processing techniques of DSCs can be simplified in future. PMID:24173503

  8. Turn-taking: From perception to speech preparation.

    PubMed

    Wesselmeier, Hendrik; Müller, Horst M

    2015-11-16

    We investigated the preparation of a spoken answer response to interrogative sentences by measuring response time (RT) and the response-related readiness potential (RP). By comparing the RT and RP results we aimed to identify whether the RP-onset is more related to the actual speech preparation process or the pure intention to speak after turn-anticipation. Additionally, we investigated if the RP-onset can be influenced by the syntactic structure (one or two completion points). Therefore, the EEG data were sorted based on two variables: the cognitive load required for the response and the syntactic structure of the stimulus questions. The results of the response utterance preparation associated event-related potential (ERP) and the RT suggest that the RP-onset is more related to the actual speech preparation process rather than the pure intention to speak after turn-anticipation. However, the RP-onset can be influenced by the syntactic structure of the question leading to an early response preparation.

  9. Ductile-regime turning of germanium and silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Peter N.; Scattergood, Ronald O.

    1989-01-01

    Single-point diamond turning of silicon and germanium was investigated in order to clarify the role of cutting depth in coaxing a ductile chip formation in normally brittle substances. Experiments based on the rapid withdrawal of the tool from the workpiece have shown that microfracture damage is a function of the effective depth of cut (as opposed to the nominal cutting depth). In essence, damage created by the leading edge of the tool is removed several revolutions later by lower sections of the tool edge, where the effective cutting depth is less. It appears that a truly ductile cutting response can be achieved only when the effective cutting depth, or critical chip thickness, is less than about 20 nm. Factors such as tool rake angle are significant in that they will affect the actual value of the critical chip thickness for transition from brittle to ductile response. It is concluded that the critical chip thickness is an excellent parameter for measuring the effects of machining conditions on the ductility of the cut and for designing tool-workpiece geometry in both turning and grinding.

  10. Air Quality System (AQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  11. Thermal conditions and perceived air quality in an air-conditioned auditorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polednik, Bernard; Guz, Łukasz; Skwarczyński, Mariusz; Dudzińska, Marzenna R.

    2016-07-01

    The study reports measurements of indoor air temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), perceived air quality (PAQ) and CO2, fine aerosol particle number (PN) and mass (PM1) concentrations in an air conditioned auditorium. The measurements of these air physical parameters have been carried out in the unoccupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off (AC off mode) and in the unoccupied and occupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off during the night and switched on during the day (AC on/off mode). The average indoor air thermal parameters, CO2 concentration and the PAQ value (in decipols) were elevated, while average PM1 concentration was lower in the AC on/off mode. A statistically significant (p < 0.001) positive correlation has been observed between T and PAQ values and CO2 concentrations (r = 0.66 and r = 0.59, respectively) in that AC mode. A significant negative correlation has been observed between T and PN and PM1 concentrations (r = -0.38 and r = -0.49, respectively). In the AC off mode the above relations between T and the particle concentrations were not that unequivocal. These findings may be of importance as they indicate that in certain AC operation modes the indoor air quality deteriorates along with the variation of the indoor air microclimate and room occupation. This, in turn, may adversely affect the comfort and productivity of the users of air conditioned premises.

  12. Positive Effects of Specific Exercise and Novel Turning-based Treadmill Training on Turning Performance in Individuals with Parkinson’s disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fang-Yu; Yang, Yea-Ru; Chen, Li-Mei; Wu, Yih-Ru; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2016-01-01

    Two different training strategies to improve turning performance in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) were designed and investigated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a specific exercise group, turning-based training group, or control group to receive training that emphasized balance and strengthening, turning-based treadmill training, and general exercise training, respectively. A total of 12 30-min training sessions followed by 10 min of turning training on a level surface were administered over 4 to 6 weeks. The results (n = 12 for each group) showed that both the specific exercise and turning-based training group experienced improved turning performance, the primary outcome, compared with the control group (specific exercise, 33% change, p = 0.016; turning-based training, 35% change, p = 0.021). For the secondary outcomes, the specific exercise group performed better than the control group on the Tinetti balance scale, limit of stability test and lower extremity extensor and abductor strength. The turning-based training groups performed better than the control group in sensory organization and ankle plantar flexor strength. In summary, specific exercise training and turning-based treadmill training were both effective in improving turning performance in participants with PD. However, the improvements in turning performance of these two groups resulted from improving different aspects of impairment in individuals with PD. PMID:27628128

  13. Positive Effects of Specific Exercise and Novel Turning-based Treadmill Training on Turning Performance in Individuals with Parkinson's disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang-Yu; Yang, Yea-Ru; Chen, Li-Mei; Wu, Yih-Ru; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2016-09-13

    Two different training strategies to improve turning performance in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) were designed and investigated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a specific exercise group, turning-based training group, or control group to receive training that emphasized balance and strengthening, turning-based treadmill training, and general exercise training, respectively. A total of 12 30-min training sessions followed by 10 min of turning training on a level surface were administered over 4 to 6 weeks. The results (n = 12 for each group) showed that both the specific exercise and turning-based training group experienced improved turning performance, the primary outcome, compared with the control group (specific exercise, 33% change, p = 0.016; turning-based training, 35% change, p = 0.021). For the secondary outcomes, the specific exercise group performed better than the control group on the Tinetti balance scale, limit of stability test and lower extremity extensor and abductor strength. The turning-based training groups performed better than the control group in sensory organization and ankle plantar flexor strength. In summary, specific exercise training and turning-based treadmill training were both effective in improving turning performance in participants with PD. However, the improvements in turning performance of these two groups resulted from improving different aspects of impairment in individuals with PD.

  14. Facility Requirements of the Air Force Avionics Laboratory. Revision,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    a dozen locations in Area B, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The Base Master Plan proposes eventually to consolidate the Avionics Laboratory in...only. To reassess the requirement for the planned third increment of Building 620, the Commander of the Avionics Laboratory contracted with the...alternative is to take no action other than the moves now planned . The second alternative is to move the Commander, his immediate staff and the one

  15. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  16. Proposed Clean Air Act reform draws fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A Congressional hearing on the accomplishments of the U.S. Clean Air Act and subsequent amendments turned into a squabble about whether Bush administration efforts to reform the act would improve or undermine air quality regulations.At the 1 May hearing of the House of Representatives' Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality, a key sticking point concerned whether an emissions "cap-and-trade" program, which was proposed as part of President George W. Bush's 14 February Clear Skies initiative, would effectively meet air quality standards. The program would provide market-based incentives to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and mercury. Another point of contention was whether such a program would make some current regulations, including new source review of upgraded utility plants, redundant and unnecessary.

  17. Single-Mode WGM Resonators Fabricated by Diamond Turning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grudinin, Ivan; Maleki, Lute; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrewy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    A diamond turning process has made possible a significant advance in the art of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators. By use of this process, it is possible to fashion crystalline materials into WGM resonators that have ultrahigh resonance quality factors (high Q values), are compact (ranging in size from millimeters down to tens of microns), and support single electromagnetic modes. This development combines and extends the developments reported in "Few- Mode Whispering-Gallery-Mode Resonators" (NPO-41256), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 1 (January 2006), page 16a and "Fabrication of Submillimeter Axisymmetric Optical Components" (NPO-42056), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 5 (May 2007), page 10a. To recapitulate from the first cited prior article: A WGM resonator of this special type consists of a rod, made of a suitable transparent material, from which protrudes a thin circumferential belt of the same material. The belt is integral with the rest of the rod and acts as a circumferential waveguide. If the depth and width of the belt are made appropriately small, then the belt acts as though it were the core of a single-mode optical fiber: the belt and the rod material adjacent to it support a single, circumferentially propagating mode or family of modes. To recapitulate from the second cited prior article: A major step in the fabrication of a WGM resonator of this special type is diamond turning or computer numerically controlled machining of a rod of a suitable transparent crystalline material on an ultrahigh-precision lathe. During the rotation of a spindle in which the rod is mounted, a diamond tool is used to cut the rod. A computer program is used to control stepping motors that move the diamond tool, thereby controlling the shape cut by the tool. Because the shape can be controlled via software, it is possible to choose a shape designed to optimize a resonator spectrum, including, if desired, to limit the resonator to supporting a single mode

  18. Are turns required for the folding of ribonuclease T1?

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, J. B.; Mullins, L. S.; Raushel, F. M.

    1996-01-01

    Ribonuclease T1 (RNase T1) is a small, globular protein of 104 amino acids for which extensive thermodynamic and structural information is known. To assess the specific influence of variations in amino acid sequence on the mechanism for protein folding, circularly permuted variants of RNase T1 were constructed and characterized in terms of catalytic activity and thermodynamic stability. The disulfide bond connecting Cys-2 and Cys-10 was removed by mutation of these residues to alanine (C2, 10A) to avoid potential steric problems imposed by the circular permutations. The original amino-terminus and carboxyl-terminus of the mutant (C2, 10A) were subsequently joined with a tripeptide linker to accommodate a reverse turn and new termini were introduced throughout the primary sequence in regions of solvent-exposed loops at Ser-35 (cp35S1), Asp-49 (cp49D1), Gly-70 (cp70G1), and Ser-96 (cp96S1). These circularly permuted RNase T1 mutants retained 35-100% of the original catalytic activity for the hydrolysis of guanylyl(3'-->5')cytidine, suggesting that the overall tertiary fold of these mutants is very similar to that of wild-type protein. Chemical denaturation curves indicated thermodynamic stabilities at pH 5.0 of 5.7, 2.9, 2.6, and 4.6 kcal/mol for cp35S1, cp49D1, cp70G1, and cp96S1, respectively, compared to a value of 10.1 kcal/mol for wild-type RNase T1 and 6.4 kcal/mol for (C2, 10A) T1. A fifth set of circularly permuted variants was attempted with new termini positioned in a tight beta-turn between Glu-82 and Gln-85. New termini were inserted at Asn-83 (cp83N1), Asn-84 (cp84N1), and Gln-85 (cp85Q1). No detectable amount of protein was ever produced for any of the mutations in this region, suggesting that this turn may be critical for the proper folding and/or thermodynamic stability of RNase T1. PMID:8745397

  19. [Past and present of Medicina (Buenos Aires)].

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, C D; Kotsias, B A

    2000-01-01

    To celebrate the 60th anniversary of Medicina (Buenos Aires) an International Symposium was held at the National Academy of Medicine of Buenos Aires on the 6-7th of October 1999, under the title of Clinical investigation in the next millennium. This meeting was a success as evidenced by the 376 registered attendants. Sixty years of uninterrupted publication is an uncommon feat in our midst and this could be achieved on the basis of a number of factors which include, the initiative of those who founded the journal, the unfailing motivation and dedication of the Editorial Board and primarily the authors who have trusted us with their manuscripts. Of the many important papers published, we have selected a few which proved to be milestones in the development of Argentine biomedicine. It is to be hoped that the future will bring an increase in our impact index through more and even better papers eventually reflecting the authentic scientific value of our country.

  20. Cleaner Air for Home and Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Increased insulation has led to higher concentrations in homes and offices of toxic chemicals caused by emissions from synthetic building components. Recent NASA research regarding future interplanetary manned spacecraft has shown that certain plants can absorb gasses, reducing indoor air pollution. After working with water purifying water hyacinths, Dr. B. C. Wolverton at NSTL developed a carbon/plant filter system to remove chemicals, smoke, etc. Two companies have commercialized the system. Bio-safe provides plants, a bed of activated carbon and an air pump installed near the plant's roots. Pollutants are trapped by the charcoal and either digested by the roots or broken down by microorganisms. Purified air is then directed back into the room. Applied Indoor Resource Company markets Bio-Pure, which includes plants on a layer of patented soil medium with activated carbon. Legumes and mosses filter the air; a blower moves air through the filtering system for cleansing by microorganisms. Research at NSTL continues, and the system may eventually be enlarged.

  1. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  2. What Turns Assistive into Restorative Brain-Machine Interfaces?

    PubMed Central

    Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) may support motor impaired patients during activities of daily living by controlling external devices such as prostheses (assistive BMI). Moreover, BMIs are applied in conjunction with robotic orthoses for rehabilitation of lost motor function via neurofeedback training (restorative BMI). Using assistive BMI in a rehabilitation context does not automatically turn them into restorative devices. This perspective article suggests key features of restorative BMI and provides the supporting evidence: In summary, BMI may be referred to as restorative tools when demonstrating subsequently (i) operant learning and progressive evolution of specific brain states/dynamics, (ii) correlated modulations of functional networks related to the therapeutic goal, (iii) subsequent improvement in a specific task, and (iv) an explicit correlation between the modulated brain dynamics and the achieved behavioral gains. Such findings would provide the rationale for translating BMI-based interventions into clinical settings for reinforcement learning and motor rehabilitation following stroke. PMID:27790085

  3. Dynamics of a Volvox embryo turning itself inside out.

    PubMed

    Höhn, Stephanie; Honerkamp-Smith, Aurelia R; Haas, Pierre A; Trong, Philipp Khuc; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2015-05-01

    Deformations of cell sheets are ubiquitous in early animal development, often arising from a complex and poorly understood interplay of cell shape changes, division, and migration. Here, we explore perhaps the simplest example of cell sheet folding: the "inversion" process of the algal genus Volvox, during which spherical embryos turn themselves inside out through a process hypothesized to arise from cell shape changes alone. We use light sheet microscopy to obtain the first three-dimensional visualizations of inversion in vivo, and develop the first theory of this process, in which cell shape changes appear as local variations of intrinsic curvature, contraction and stretching of an elastic shell. Our results support a scenario in which these active processes function in a defined spatiotemporal manner to enable inversion.

  4. Biased optimal guidance for a bank-to-turn missile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallard, D. V.

    A practical terminal-phase guidance law for controlling the pitch acceleration and roll rate of a bank-to-turn missile with zero autopilot lags was derived and tested, so as to minimize squared miss distance without requiring overly large commands. An acceleration bias is introduced to prevent excessive roll commands due to noise. The Separation Theorem is invoked and the guidance (control) law is derived by applying optimal control theory, linearizing the nonlinear plant equation around the present missile orientation, and obtaining a closed-form solution. The optimal pitch-acceleration and roll-rate commands are respectively proportional to two components of the projected, constant-bias, miss distance, with a resemblance to earlier derivations and proportional navigation. Simulaiation results and other related work confirm the suitability of the guidance law.

  5. Health geography's voluntary turn: a view from western France.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mark W; Fleuret, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential for prevailing Anglo-American perspectives on voluntarism to inform understanding of health and social care internationally. Focusing on the économie sociale et solidaire and its involvement in the secteur médico-social in France, it evaluates the transferability of a theorization about the evolving role of voluntary organizations and volunteers for the purpose of interpreting research on service provision in ageing communities. A case study of local associations is analyzed to uncover their emergence within evolving spaces of care, how they facilitate adjustment and create opportunities for resistance to the dual challenges of ageing and restructuring as well as the complexity underlying their multifaceted responses. The findings contribute to understanding the link between voluntarism, health and place, and address calls to expand the international scope of health geography within the 'voluntary turn' in health policy and research.

  6. Turning bubbles on and off during boiling using charged surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H. Jeremy; Mizerak, Jordan P.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2015-10-01

    Boiling--a process that has powered industries since the steam age--is governed by bubble formation. State-of-the-art boiling surfaces often increase bubble nucleation via roughness and/or wettability modification to increase performance. However, without active in situ control of bubbles, temperature or steam generation cannot be adjusted for a given heat input. Here we report the ability to turn bubbles `on and off' independent of heat input during boiling both temporally and spatially via molecular manipulation of the boiling surface. As a result, we can rapidly and reversibly alter heat transfer performance up to an order of magnitude. Our experiments show that this active control is achieved by electrostatically adsorbing and desorbing charged surfactants to alter the wettability of the surface, thereby affecting nucleation. This approach can improve performance and flexibility in existing boiling technologies as well as enable emerging or unprecedented energy applications.

  7. Optimising efficiency in diamond turned Fresnel mould masters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allsop, John L.; Mateboer, Arjen; Shore, Paul

    2011-05-01

    Radial and Linear Fresnel Lenses are finding application as light concentrators for Concentrated Photovoltaic and Concentrated Solar Thermal power applications. The efficiency of these diffractive lenses directly affects the yield of such systems. Peaks and valleys of the optical facets of the Fresnel lens must be sharp in order to prevent diffusion and transmission loss due to rounding. For diamond turned mould masters, optical facet tip sharpness is affected by machining accuracy, tool-path and tool wear/mileage. Strategies to optimise optical facet tip sharpness are presented which enable production of large lenses with minimal degradation of optical quality. Radial Fresnel produced with diameters over 500mm and Linear Fresnel over 1m long are discussed with data on structure fidelity and tool wear.

  8. Turn Around Time (TAT) as a Benchmark of Laboratory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Binita; Chawla, Ranjna; Gupta, V. K.; Mallika, V.

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory analytical turnaround time is a reliable indicator of laboratory effectiveness. Our study aimed to evaluate laboratory analytical turnaround time in our laboratory and appraise the contribution of the different phases of analysis towards the same. The turn around time (TAT) for all the samples (both routine and emergency) for the outpatient and hospitalized patients were evaluated for one year. TAT was calculated from sample reception to report dispatch. The average TAT for the clinical biochemistry samples was 5.5 h for routine inpatient samples while the TAT for the outpatient samples was 24 h. The turnaround time for stat samples was 1 h. Pre- and Post-analytical phases were found to contribute approximately 75% to the total TAT. The TAT demonstrates the need for improvement in the pre- and post-analytical periods. We need to tread the middle path to perform optimally according to clinician expectations. PMID:21966108

  9. Diamond turning fabrication of an ultra-compact endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Yu; Liang, Rongguang

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a technique by integrating mechanical mounts into lens elements to fulfill a self-aligned and self-assembled optical system. To prove this concept, we designed, fabricated, and tested an ultra-compact endoscope that adopts this technique. By taking advantages of the specially designed fixture and observing the interference fringes between the lens and fixture, we developed a method to minimize decenter and tilt between the two surfaces of the endoscope lens during the diamond turning fabrication process. The integrated mechanical mounts provide an easy assembly process for the endoscope system while maintaining high accuracy in system alignment. With the application of heat shrink tube as the endoscope system holder and to block stray light, the proposed endoscope system has the advantages of low cost, compact size, and high imaging quality.

  10. Turning the LHC ring into a new physics search machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orava, Risto

    2017-03-01

    The LHC Collider Ring is proposed to be turned into an ultimate automatic search engine for new physics in four consecutive phases: (1) Searches for heavy particles produced in Central Exclusive Process (CEP): pp → p + X + p based on the existing Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system of the LHC; (2) Feasibility study of using the LHC Ring as a gravitation wave antenna; (3) Extensions to the current BLM system to facilitate precise registration of the selected CEP proton exit points from the LHC beam vacuum chamber; (4) Integration of the BLM based event tagging system together with the trigger/data acquisition systems of the LHC experiments to facilitate an on-line automatic search machine for the physics of tomorrow.

  11. Dynamics of a Volvox Embryo Turning Itself Inside Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, Stephanie; Honerkamp-Smith, Aurelia R.; Haas, Pierre A.; Trong, Philipp Khuc; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2015-05-01

    Deformations of cell sheets are ubiquitous in early animal development, often arising from a complex and poorly understood interplay of cell shape changes, division, and migration. Here, we explore perhaps the simplest example of cell sheet folding: the "inversion" process of the algal genus Volvox, during which spherical embryos turn themselves inside out through a process hypothesized to arise from cell shape changes alone. We use light sheet microscopy to obtain the first three-dimensional visualizations of inversion in vivo, and develop the first theory of this process, in which cell shape changes appear as local variations of intrinsic curvature, contraction and stretching of an elastic shell. Our results support a scenario in which these active processes function in a defined spatiotemporal manner to enable inversion.

  12. Experimental investigation of surface roughness in electrical discharge turning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohil, Vikas; Puri, Y. M.

    2016-10-01

    In the present study the effects of machining parameters on the average surface roughness (Ra) in electrical discharge turning (EDT) is investigated. EDT is a new machining process in which a rotary spindle is added to a conventional die-sinking EDM machine in order to produce cylindrical components. In this method a new process parameter (spindle rotation) along with pulse on time and current is introduced to study its effect on Ra. This has been done by means of full factorial design (21 × 32) of experiments. A mathematical model has been developed for Ra by regression analysis and factor effects were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Signal-to-noise ratio analysis is used to find the optimal condition.

  13. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the turn basin east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, a mother dolphin guides her baby through the water to search for food. Dolphins inhabit the waters around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth. Nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally.

  14. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the turn basin east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, a mother dolphin guides her baby through the water to search for food. Dolphins inhabit the waters around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

  15. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the turn basin east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway, a mother dolphin guides her baby through the water to search for food. Next to them on a rock is an osprey eating a fish. Dolphins inhabit the waters around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth. Nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the Lagoon seasonally. The lagoon also has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America.

  16. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A dolphin glides through the water looking for fish in the turn basin, which is located east of the Vehicle Assembly Building and next to the crawlerway. Dolphins inhabit the waters, known as the Indian River Lagoon, around Kennedy Space Center, along with many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish. Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west make up a special type of estuary called a lagoon, a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one-third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

  17. Searching for intellectual turning points: Progressive knowledge domain visualization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chaomei

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces a previously undescribed method progressively visualizing the evolution of a knowledge domain's cocitation network. The method first derives a sequence of cocitation networks from a series of equal-length time interval slices. These time-registered networks are merged and visualized in a panoramic view in such a way that intellectually significant articles can be identified based on their visually salient features. The method is applied to a cocitation study of the superstring field in theoretical physics. The study focuses on the search of articles that triggered two superstring revolutions. Visually salient nodes in the panoramic view are identified, and the nature of their intellectual contributions is validated by leading scientists in the field. The analysis has demonstrated that a search for intellectual turning points can be narrowed down to visually salient nodes in the visualized network. The method provides a promising way to simplify otherwise cognitively demanding tasks to a search for landmarks, pivots, and hubs. PMID:14724295

  18. Nonlinear rheology of entangled polymers at turning point.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Qing

    2015-02-28

    Thanks to extensive observations of strain localization upon startup or after stepwise shear, a conceptual framework for nonlinear rheology of entangled polymers appears to have emerged that has led to discovery of many new phenomena, which were not previously predicted by the standard tube model. On the other hand, the published theoretical and experimental attempts to test the limits of the tube model have largely demonstrated that the most experimental data appear consistent with the tube-model based theoretical calculations. Therefore, the field of nonlinear rheology of entangled polymers is at a turning point and is thus a rather crucial area in which further examinations are needed. In particular, more molecular dynamics simulations are needed to delineate the detailed molecular mechanisms for the various nonlinear rheological phenomena.

  19. Faints, fits and funny turns for the physician.

    PubMed

    Omar, Rohani

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis and management of the dizzy patient presents the physician with significant challenges. Dizziness and imbalance are common complaints among the general population, affecting around one-third of people over the age of 65 years, and can result from a range of causes spanning many medical disciplines. The ability to take a thorough, accurate history with a logical framework for formulating a differential diagnosis is essential given the many ways that symptoms of dizziness can present. An understanding of the key features of the vestibular examination, and consideration of other pathologies including neurological and cardiac, are important. This conference was held with the aim of demystifying the dizzy patient by providing physicians with a practical approach to the assessment and management of dizziness, imbalance and 'funny turns'.

  20. Turning bubbles on and off during boiling using charged surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Cho, H. Jeremy; Mizerak, Jordan P.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2015-01-01

    Boiling—a process that has powered industries since the steam age—is governed by bubble formation. State-of-the-art boiling surfaces often increase bubble nucleation via roughness and/or wettability modification to increase performance. However, without active in situ control of bubbles, temperature or steam generation cannot be adjusted for a given heat input. Here we report the ability to turn bubbles ‘on and off' independent of heat input during boiling both temporally and spatially via molecular manipulation of the boiling surface. As a result, we can rapidly and reversibly alter heat transfer performance up to an order of magnitude. Our experiments show that this active control is achieved by electrostatically adsorbing and desorbing charged surfactants to alter the wettability of the surface, thereby affecting nucleation. This approach can improve performance and flexibility in existing boiling technologies as well as enable emerging or unprecedented energy applications. PMID:26486275

  1. What Turns Assistive into Restorative Brain-Machine Interfaces?

    PubMed

    Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) may support motor impaired patients during activities of daily living by controlling external devices such as prostheses (assistive BMI). Moreover, BMIs are applied in conjunction with robotic orthoses for rehabilitation of lost motor function via neurofeedback training (restorative BMI). Using assistive BMI in a rehabilitation context does not automatically turn them into restorative devices. This perspective article suggests key features of restorative BMI and provides the supporting evidence: In summary, BMI may be referred to as restorative tools when demonstrating subsequently (i) operant learning and progressive evolution of specific brain states/dynamics, (ii) correlated modulations of functional networks related to the therapeutic goal, (iii) subsequent improvement in a specific task, and (iv) an explicit correlation between the modulated brain dynamics and the achieved behavioral gains. Such findings would provide the rationale for translating BMI-based interventions into clinical settings for reinforcement learning and motor rehabilitation following stroke.

  2. Crack Turning Mechanics of Composite Wing Skin Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, F. G.; Reeder, James R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The safety of future composite wing skin integral stiffener panels requires a full understanding of failure mechanisms of these damage tolerance critical structures under both in-plane and bending loads. Of primary interest is to derive mathematical models using fracture mechanics in anisotropic cracked plate structures, to assess the crack turning mechanisms, and thereby to enhance the residual strength in the integral stiffener composite structures. The use of fracture mechanics to assess the failure behavior in a cracked structure requires the identification of critical fracture parameters which govern the severity of stress and deformation field ahead of the flaw, and which can be evaluated using information obtained from the flaw tip. In the three-year grant, the crack-tip fields under plane deformation, crack-tip fields for anisotropic plates and anisotropic shells have been obtained. In addition, methods for determining the stress intensity factors, energy release rate, and the T-stresses have been proposed and verified. The research accomplishments can be summarized as follows: (1) Under plane deformation in anisotropic solids, the asymptotic crack-tip fields have been obtained using Stroh formalism; (2) The T-stress and the coefficient of the second term for sigma(sub y), g(sub 32), have been obtained using path-independent integral, the J-integral and Betti's reciprocal theorem together with auxiliary fields; (3) With experimental data performed by NASA, analyses indicated that the mode-I critical stress intensity factor K(sub Q) provides a satisfactory characterization of fracture initiation for a given laminate thickness, provided the failure is fiber-dominated and crack extends in a self-similar manner; (4) The high constraint specimens, especially for CT specimens, due to large T-stress and large magnitude of negative g(sub 32) term may be expected to inhibit the crack extension in the same plane and promote crack turning; (5) Crack turning out of

  3. Turning bubbles on and off during boiling using charged surfactants.

    PubMed

    Cho, H Jeremy; Mizerak, Jordan P; Wang, Evelyn N

    2015-10-21

    Boiling--a process that has powered industries since the steam age--is governed by bubble formation. State-of-the-art boiling surfaces often increase bubble nucleation via roughness and/or wettability modification to increase performance. However, without active in situ control of bubbles, temperature or steam generation cannot be adjusted for a given heat input. Here we report the ability to turn bubbles 'on and off' independent of heat input during boiling both temporally and spatially via molecular manipulation of the boiling surface. As a result, we can rapidly and reversibly alter heat transfer performance up to an order of magnitude. Our experiments show that this active control is achieved by electrostatically adsorbing and desorbing charged surfactants to alter the wettability of the surface, thereby affecting nucleation. This approach can improve performance and flexibility in existing boiling technologies as well as enable emerging or unprecedented energy applications.

  4. Turning Skyscrapers into Town Houses: Insights into Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Theresa D; Lutz, Lisa; Lassmann, Silke; Werner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is defined as metaplasia of the esophageal squamous epithelium with multiple cell layers into a single layer of intestinal columnar epithelial cells - or, in other words, skyscrapers are turned into town houses. The underlying pathomechanism(s) and the cell of origin of BE lesions have not been defined yet. However, four potential hypotheses for BE development have been suggested. The morphological changes during BE development are associated with rather well-described aberrant gene/protein expression patterns. However, the potential key regulators of this conversion process are still unclear. The process of metaplastic conversion is difficult to monitor in a spatiotemporal manner in vitro, and robust models are lacking. There is therefore a need for novel experimental systems. This review focuses on potential key regulators, microenvironmental influences, epigenetic alterations and experimental research systems related to BE.

  5. Turn-off-on chemiluminescence determination of cyanide.

    PubMed

    Han, Suqin; Wang, Jianbo; Jia, Shize

    2015-02-01

    A flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method was developed for the determination of cyanide (CN(-) ) based on the recovered CL signal by Cu(2+) inhibiting a glutathione (GSH)-capped CdTe quantum dot (QD) and hydrogen peroxide system. In an alkaline medium, strong CL signals were observed from the reaction of CdTe QDs and H2O2 , and addition of Cu(2+) could cause significant CL inhibition of the CdTe QDs-H2O2 system. In the presence of CN(-) , Cu(2+) can be removed from the surface of CdTe QDs via the formation of particularly stable [Cu(CN)n ]((n-1)-) species, and the CL signal of the CdTe QDs-H2O2 system was efficiently recovered. Thus, the CL signals of CdTe QDs-H2O2 system were turned off and turned on by the addition of Cu(2+) and CN(-) , respectively. Further, the results showed that among the tested ions, only CN(-) could recover the CL signal, which suggested that the CdTe QDs-H2O2 -Cu(2+) CL system had highly selectivity for CN(-) . Under optimum conditions, the CL intensity and the concentration of CN(-) show a good linear relationship in the range 0.0-650.0 ng/mL (R(2)  = 0.9996). The limit of detection for CN(-) was 6.0 ng/mL (3σ). This method has been applied to detect CN(-) in river water and industrial wastewater with satisfactory results.

  6. Turning the tide of public opinion on nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.L.

    1997-04-01

    Until the early 1970s, the tide of public opinion in the United States was strongly in favor of nuclear power. New power plants were coming on line frequently, and in 1973-74, there were close to 40 new orders per year for new reactors in the United States. Official government projections estimated 1000 operating reactors by the year 2000. Fuel reprocessing, plutonium recycle, and breeder reactor development were also proceeding smoothly and rapidly. But, in the mid-1970s, the tide suddenly turned against the nuclear industry. How did this come about? In the late 1960s, energetic and idealistic young people who had never experienced economic insecurity or World Wars came of age. Environmentalism was an attractive outlet for their activity in most of the Western world. In the United States, opposition to the Vietnam War, in which these young people had a personal stake, was even more popular at first, but by the early 1970s, Vietnam was winding down, and they turned also to Environmentalism. Numerous environmental groups started up, aided heavily by the favorable connotation of the very word {open_quotes}environmentalist{close_quotes} in the public mind. Their organizational experience, political savvy, and media connections gained from their antiwar protests were powerful assets. But the groups needed specific targets to attack, and they soon found that nuclear power was well-suited for that purpose. Here was a new technology, coming on at a very rapid pace. To the public, radiation was highly mysterious, and people were well aware that it could be dangerous. And, the word danger had taken on a new meaning. Previous generations were well acquainted with death and were much less averse to risk-taking than the generation of the 1970s.

  7. Back to the Future: Making a Modern Day Air Corps in a Stone Age Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    for surveillance and reconnaissance with the Iraqi Ministry of oil and electricity. 38 Organization Organization of the Iraqi Air Force is...lived a peppered life of growth and contraction. Alliances for the Air Corps shifted from one controlling body to another, eventually fracturing an...compared to 79.96% white, 15.1% Hispanic and 12.85% black in the US. 72 The lack of commonality in Afghanistan exacerbates the difficulties

  8. Seeking Shadows in the Sky: The Strategy of Air Guerrilla Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    weighs the evidence to determine the feasibility of the concept of air guerilla warfare and also explores the implications of air guerrilla warfare for...the guerrilleros sapped the strength of the French and thus set the stage for their eventual expulsion from the Iber- ian Peninsula by the Duke of...irregular warfare not only from the guerrilleros in Spain but also from partisans in Russia. Lt Col Denis Davydov led a small regular unit operating in

  9. A blue luminescent MOF as a rapid turn-off/turn-on detector for H2O, O2 and CH2Cl2, MeCN: ∞³[Ce(Im)3ImH]·ImH.

    PubMed

    Meyer, L V; Schönfeld, F; Zurawski, A; Mai, M; Feldmann, C; Müller-Buschbaum, K

    2015-03-07

    The blue emitting luminescent MOF ∞³[Ce(Im)3ImH]·ImH forms a 3D-framework with Kagomé net topology. The framework exhibits an intense blue luminescence which can be retained upon activation of the MOF with the formula ∞³[Ce(Im)3ImH]. The luminescence is metal-based due to parity-allowed 5d-4f-transitions. Time-dependent investigations of the interaction with liquid and gas analytes show that the MOF – by utilising 5d-4f-transitions of Ce(3+) – can be used as a high-speed "turn-off" detector for water and oxygen in dry air. Other protic or polar solvents, like methanol, acetone or pyridine, which also show a "turn-off"-effect can be distinguished from water-detection either on a time scale (ranging up to 250,000 : 1) or a shift of the chromaticity, the latter being pronounced for MeOH. The fast time-dependent decrease of the luminescence intensity for water arises from an extremely fast hydrolysis and is irreversible. Polar aprotic molecules like dichloromethane and acetonitrile can also result in a "turn-on"-effect of the luminescence intensity due to their behaviour as additional sensitizers for Ce(3+)-emission. We conclude that the cerium-MOF can be utilised in gas and liquid sensing applications as a detector material for water and oxygen in dry air. The luminescence is intense with good quantum yield between 55% (as-synthesised) and 36% (activated). This implies that only milligram amounts of the material are needed to detect the analyte species and is especially useful, as the MOF can be directly used as-synthesised for water detection in applications for which an irreversible signal change is desired, e.g. preventing a signal change upon unwanted re-drying.

  10. 40 CFR 1066.845 - AC17 air conditioning efficiency test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... solar heating is disabled for certain test intervals as described in this section. (d) Interior air... vehicle's windows and operate the vehicle over a preconditioning UDDS with no solar heating and with the... cooling fans. (3) Turn on solar heating within one minute after turning off the engine. Once the...

  11. Model of turn-on characteristics of InP-based Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes suitable for circuit simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordy, George; Donnelly, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    A model for the turn-on characteristics of separate-absorber-multiplier InP-based Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) has been developed. Verilog-A was used to implement the model in a manner that can be incorporated into circuit simulations. Rather than using SPICE elements to mimic the voltage and current characteristics of the APD, Verilog-A can represent the first order nonlinear differential equations that govern the avalanche current of the APD. This continuous time representation is fundamentally different than the piecewise linear characteristics of other models. The model is based on a driving term for the differential current, which is given by the voltage overbias minus the voltage drop across the device's space-charge resistance RSC. This drop is primarily due to electrons transiting the separate absorber. RSC starts off high and decreases with time as the initial breakdown filament spreads laterally to fill the APD. With constant bias voltage, the initial current grows exponentially until space charge effects reduce the driving function. With increasing current the driving term eventually goes to zero and the APD current saturates. On the other hand, if the APD is biased with a capacitor, the driving term becomes negative as the capacitor discharges, reducing the current and driving the voltage below breakdown. The model parameters depend on device design and are obtained from fitting the model to Monte-Carlo turn-on simulations that include lateral spreading of the carriers of the relevant structure. The Monte-Carlo simulations also provide information on the probability of avalanche, and jitter due to where the photon is absorbed in the APD.

  12. Optimal Digital Control of a Bank-to-Turn Missile.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    California 93943 6. Office of The Air Attache 3 Brazilian Embassy 3006 [’assachus sets Av NW Washington DC 20008 7. Centro Tqcnico Aeroespacial 1%Rua...Parabuna SIN imo".� Sao Jose ds Campos - S? Sao Paulo, BRAZIL 8. Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial 2 Institut? de Atividades Espaciais Rua Parai-buna S/N...12200 Sao Jose dos Campos - SP Sao Paulo, BRAZIL 9. Centro Tacnico Aeroespacial 2 I;stituto de Atividales Espaciais Divisao le Si4stemas Belicog Rua

  13. Intel turns to photonics to extend Moore's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitz, Breck

    2009-07-01

    Mario Paniccia settles into his chair with an air of confidence that comes from having been right all along. "We have done all the things that sceptics said we could not," he says. Paniccia, who is director of Intel's Photonics Technology Laboratory in Santa Clara, California, ticks off his group's accomplishments: silicon lasers; high-speed silicon modulators; fast, sensitive silicon photodetectors in the infrared. "We have got beyond the proof-of-principle stage," he says. "Now we're putting it all together so that Moore's law can extend for decades into the future."

  14. Ramping turn-to-turn loss and magnetization loss of a No-Insulation (RE)Ba2Cu3Ox high temperature superconductor pancake coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Song, H.; Yuan, W.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.

    2017-03-01

    This paper is to study ramping turn-to-turn loss and magnetization loss of a no-insulation (NI) high temperature superconductor (HTS) pancake coil wound with (RE)Ba2Cu3Ox (REBCO) conductors. For insulated (INS) HTS coils, a magnetization loss occurs on superconducting layers during a ramping operation. For the NI HTS coil, additional loss is generated by the "bypassing" current on the turn-to-turn metallic contacts, which is called "turn-to-turn loss" in this study. Therefore, the NI coil's ramping loss is much different from that of the INS coil, but few studies have been reported on this aspect. To analyze the ramping losses of NI coils, a numerical method is developed by coupling an equivalent circuit network model and a H-formulation finite element method model. The former model is to calculate NI coil's current distribution and turn-to-turn loss, and the latter model is to calculate the magnetization loss. A test NI pancake coil is wound with REBCO tapes and the reliability of this model is validated by experiments. Then the characteristics of the NI coil's ramping losses are studied using this coupling model. Results show that the turn-to-turn loss is much higher than the magnetization loss. The NI coil's total ramping loss is much higher than that of its insulated counterpart, which has to be considered carefully in the design and operation of NI applications. This paper also discusses the possibility to reduce NI coil's ramping loss by decreasing the ramping rate of power supply or increasing the coil's turn-to-turn resistivity.

  15. Economic and environmental evaluation of compressed-air cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzig, Felix; Papson, Andrew; Schipper, Lee; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2009-10-01

    Climate change and energy security require a reduction in travel demand, a modal shift, and technological innovation in the transport sector. Through a series of press releases and demonstrations, a car using energy stored in compressed air produced by a compressor has been suggested as an environmentally friendly vehicle of the future. We analyze the thermodynamic efficiency of a compressed-air car powered by a pneumatic engine and consider the merits of compressed air versus chemical storage of potential energy. Even under highly optimistic assumptions the compressed-air car is significantly less efficient than a battery electric vehicle and produces more greenhouse gas emissions than a conventional gas-powered car with a coal intensive power mix. However, a pneumatic-combustion hybrid is technologically feasible, inexpensive and could eventually compete with hybrid electric vehicles.

  16. Influence of a portable air treatment unit on health-related quality indicators of indoor air in a classroom.

    PubMed

    Scheepers, Paul T J; Cremers, Robbert; van Hout, Stef P R; Anzion, Rob B M

    2012-02-01

    During periods of two weeks in February and June 2010 the performance of portable air treatment units (PATUs) was evaluated in a primary school classroom using indicators of indoor air quality. Air samples were collected in an undisturbed setting on weekend days and in an occupied setting during teaching hours. In the first week PATUs were turned off and in the second week they were turned on. On weekend days PATUs reduced indoor levels of PM-10 by 87% in February and by 70% in June compared to weekend days when PATUs were turned off. On schooldays, indoor PM-10 was increased by 6% in February and reduced by 42% in June. For PM-2.5 reductions on weekend days were 89% in February and 80% in June. On school days PM-2.5 was increased by 15% in February and reduced by 83% in June. Turning on the PATUs reduced total VOC by 80% on weekend days and by 57% on school days (but not in June). No influence on formaldehyde, NO(2), O(3) and molds was observed. PATUs appeared to be less effective in removal of air pollutants when used in an occupied classroom compared to an unoccupied setting. Our study suggests that such devices should be tested in real-life settings to evaluate their influence on indoor air quality.

  17. Stuck with/in a 'turn': Can we metaphorize better in Science and Technology Studies?

    PubMed

    Vasileva, Bistra

    2015-06-01

    This contribution encourages loosening the cast-iron mould of the 'turn' metaphor that the practices of general and ontology-related turn-talking/making in Science and Technology Studies forge and fortify. Could framing novel themes and thinking in terms of 'turn' be as good as fettering? Not specific to the 'ontological turn' or 'turn to ontology', but haunting Science and Technology Studies across the board to signify supposed tidal change, the metaphor warrants dissection. Thus, this commentary expounds four distinct yet not unrelated versions of 'turn'--rotation, change of course/direction, change in general and occasion/opportunity to act--together with the worlds they beget. Then, the operation of these 'turns' in the debates on the 'ontological turn' is pursued. Enactments of the first three modes/moulds of 'turn', all entailing and tainted by the inexorable directedness of change the coupled 'turn to' framing imparts, either debunk or qualify the extent of the professed 'turn', with the effect of betraying its conceptual and methodological offerings. The fourth version, less substitutable with 'turn to' and thus less infected by intransigent directedness, escapes the rigidity that diminishes the value of ontology-minded studies. Clear of either a resolution to the debate or an alternative trope to cure the maladies of 'turn', the conclusion wishes to open space for pondering how to metaphorize more consciously and judiciously evolution and innovation in Science and Technology Studies.

  18. Crack Turning and Arrest Mechanisms for Integral Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Richard; Ingraffea, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    In the course of several years of research efforts to predict crack turning and flapping in aircraft fuselage structures and other problems related to crack turning, the 2nd order maximum tangential stress theory has been identified as the theory most capable of predicting the observed test results. This theory requires knowledge of a material specific characteristic length, and also a computation of the stress intensity factors and the T-stress, or second order term in the asymptotic stress field in the vicinity of the crack tip. A characteristic length, r(sub c), is proposed for ductile materials pertaining to the onset of plastic instability, as opposed to the void spacing theories espoused by previous investigators. For the plane stress case, an approximate estimate of r(sub c), is obtained from the asymptotic field for strain hardening materials given by Hutchinson, Rice and Rosengren (HRR). A previous study using of high order finite element methods to calculate T-stresses by contour integrals resulted in extremely high accuracy values obtained for selected test specimen geometries, and a theoretical error estimation parameter was defined. In the present study, it is shown that a large portion of the error in finite element computations of both K and T are systematic, and can be corrected after the initial solution if the finite element implementation utilizes a similar crack tip discretization scheme for all problems. This scheme is applied for two-dimensional problems to a both a p-version finite element code, showing that sufficiently accurate values of both K(sub I) and T can be obtained with fairly low order elements if correction is used. T-stress correction coefficients are also developed for the singular crack tip rosette utilized in the adaptive mesh finite element code FRANC2D, and shown to reduce the error in the computed T-stress significantly. Stress intensity factor correction was not attempted for FRANC2D because it employs a highly accurate

  19. The 2016 Lewis H. Wright Memorial Lecture: America's Doctor Anaesthetists (1862-1936)-Turning a Tide of Asphyxiating Waves.

    PubMed

    Bause, George S

    2017-01-01

    Laughing-gas showman G.Q. Colton franchised dental extraction under 100% nitrous oxide in many large American cities before popularizing the practice with French Imperial Court dentist T.W. Evans in France and then England. Chicago dentist Z. Rogers helped surgeon E. Andrews oxygenate nitrous oxide, with neither man changing significantly the clinical practices of others. London's F.W. Hewitt and Pittsburgh's S.J. Hayes oxygenated anesthetics with greater clinical impact. By 1920, E.I. McKesson had publicized his practice of secondary saturation with bursts of 100% nitrous oxide to relax musculature in anesthetized patients. In the banner year of 1936, (1) C.B. Courville published a paper about brain damage following hypoxic anesthetics, (2) pulse oximetry pioneer T. Aoyagi was born, and (3) a New York society nationalized into the American Society of Anesthetists, many of whose presidents would champion the adequate oxygenation and the monitoring of anesthetized patients. Many dental and medical doctors first promoted and then eventually opposed hypoxic anesthetics, finally turning the tide of asphyxiating waves.

  20. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  1. ClinicalTrials.gov Turns 10! | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Clinical Trials ClinicalTrials.gov Turns 10! Past Issues / ... to contact for more information. ClinicalTrials.gov's Helpful Features ClinicalTrials.gov has many helpful consumer features. If ...

  2. Effects of turning and through lane sharing on traffic performance at intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-02-01

    Turning vehicles strongly influence traffic flows at intersections. Effective regulation of turning vehicles is important to achieve better traffic performance. This paper studies the impact of lane sharing and turning signals on traffic performance at intersections by using cellular automata. Both right-turn and left-turn lane sharing are studied. Interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are considered. The transportation efficiency, road safety and energy economy are the traffic performance metrics. Extensive simulations are carried out to study the traffic performance indices. It is observed that shared turning lanes and permissive left-turn signal improve the transportation efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption in most cases, but the safety is usually sacrificed. It is not always beneficial for the through vehicles when they are allowed to be in the turning lanes.

  3. The Amateur-Turned-Professional Syndrome: Two Australian Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    In the nineteenth century, and particularly during the era which saw the gradual replacement of positional astronomy by astrophysics, amateur astronomers were able to make an important contribution to international astronomy. Many were blessed with instruments comparable to those found in professional observatories; they pursued the same astronomical research programs as their professional colleagues; published in the same journals; received the same medals and awards; and played key roles in the formation of the earliest astronomical groups and societies. In this healthy environment of amateur-professional co-operation it was possible for talented amateur astronomers to transfer to professional ranks, and the "amateur-turned-professional" (henceforth ATP) was a distinctive feature of late nineteenth century astronomy. In this paper we focus on two Australian-based ATPs, R.T.A. Innes and C.J. Merfield, and examine their contributions as amateur astronomers in Sydney before reviewing the circumstances surrounding their transfer to the Cape Observatory (South Africa) and Sydney Observatory, in 1896 and 1904, respectively.

  4. Reductive Potential - A Savior Turns Stressor in Protein Aggregation Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Madhusudhanan; Rajasekaran, Namakkal S.

    2015-01-01

    Redox homeostasis is essential for basal signaling of several physiological processes, but a unilateral shift towards an ‘oxidative’ or ‘reductive’ trait will alter intracellular redox milieu. Typically, such an event influences the structure and the native function of a cell or an organelle. Numerous experimental research and clinical trials over the last 6 decades have demonstrated that enhanced oxygen-derived free radicals constitutes a major stimuli to trigger damage in several human diseases, including cardiovascular complications supporting the theory of oxidative stress (OS). However, until our key discovery, the dynamic interrelationship between “Reductive Stress (RS)” and cardiac health has been obscured by overwhelming OS studies (Rajasekaran et al., 2007). Notably, this seminal finding spurred considerable interest in investigations of other mechanistic insights, and thus far the results indicate a similar or stronger role for RS, than that of OS. In addition, from our own findings we strongly believe that constitutive activation of pathways that enable sustained generation of reducing equivalents glutathione (GSH), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) will cause RS and impair the basal cellular signaling mechanisms operating through harmless pro-oxidative events, in turn, disrupting single and/or a combination of key cellular processes such as growth, maturation, differentiation, survival, death etc., that govern healthy cell physiology. Here, we have discussed the role of RS as a causal or contributing factor in relevant pathophysiology of a major cardiac disease of human origin. PMID:25446995

  5. Turn-on fluorescent chemosensor for determination of lutetium ion.

    PubMed

    Faridbod, F; Sedaghat, M; Hosseini, M; Ganjali, M R; Khoobi, M; Shafiee, A; Norouzi, P

    2015-02-25

    A turn-on fluorescent chemosensor is introduced for the detection of Lu(3+) ion using N-[3-methyl]-2-[pyridine-2-amido] phenyl] pyridine-2-carboxamide (L) molecule. Fluorescent emission intensity of L enhances after binding to Lu(3+) ions in ethanol-water solution (1:9, v/v). The observed enhancement is the result of a strong covalent binding between Lu(3+) ion and L (the binding constant value is 2.0×10(6) mol(-1) L). The proposed optical chemosensor can be applied for the analysis of Lu(3+) ion in a linear range of 3.3×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-5) mol L(-1). The limit of detection was obtained 8.6×10(-7) mol L(-1). The probe exhibits high selectivity toward Lu(3+) ion in comparison with common metal ions. The proposed fluorescent chemosensor was successfully used in the determination of Lu(3+) ion in some water samples.

  6. Deep Tunnel's twists and turns -- CSO control in metro Chicago

    SciTech Connect

    Farnan, J.C.; Lue-Hing, C.; O'Connor, T.K.; Rakoczy, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    Metro-Chicago began its search for a comprehensive solution to its severe and then-worsening combined sewer overflow (CSO) pollution and flooding problems even before enactment of the 1972 Federal Clean Water Act. Many studies and extensive interagency cooperation singled out the Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) as the best means of cost-effectively achieving three anti-pollution and anti-flooding objectives: protect Chicagoland's main drinking water supply--Lake Michigan--from raw sewage backflows; clean up polluted streams; and alleviated basement sewage backups. Owing to TARP's uniqueness, initially there was little or no design, construction or operations experience to draw upon to help implement the project. But since TARP's four systems operate independently, and new tunnel segments are placed into operation as soon as completed, the District has been able to continuously monitor performance and obtain operations feedback. This has enabled ongoing refinement of design, construction, and operational strategy on successive TARP tunnel contracts. Herein is a brief discussion of TARP's development--an evolutionary process with many twists and turns--and of problems and opportunities encountered which resulted in design or operations changes.

  7. 3D FEM Simulation of Flank Wear in Turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attanasio, Aldo; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Giardini, Claudio

    2011-05-01

    This work deals with tool wear simulation. Studying the influence of tool wear on tool life, tool substitution policy and influence on final part quality, surface integrity, cutting forces and power consumption it is important to reduce the global process costs. Adhesion, abrasion, erosion, diffusion, corrosion and fracture are some of the phenomena responsible of the tool wear depending on the selected cutting parameters: cutting velocity, feed rate, depth of cut, …. In some cases these wear mechanisms are described by analytical models as a function of process variables (temperature, pressure and sliding velocity along the cutting surface). These analytical models are suitable to be implemented in FEM codes and they can be utilized to simulate the tool wear. In the present paper a commercial 3D FEM software has been customized to simulate the tool wear during turning operations when cutting AISI 1045 carbon steel with uncoated tungsten carbide tip. The FEM software was improved by means of a suitable subroutine able to modify the tool geometry on the basis of the estimated tool wear as the simulation goes on. Since for the considered couple of tool-workpiece material the main phenomena generating wear are the abrasive and the diffusive ones, the tool wear model implemented into the subroutine was obtained as combination between the Usui's and the Takeyama and Murata's models. A comparison between experimental and simulated flank tool wear curves is reported demonstrating that it is possible to simulate the tool wear development.

  8. Turning goals into results: the power of catalytic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Collins, J

    1999-01-01

    Most executives have a big, hairy, audacious goal. They write vision statements, formalize procedures, and develop complicated incentive programs--all in pursuit of that goal. In other words, with the best of intentions, they install layers of stultifying bureaucracy. But it doesn't have to be that way. In this article, Jim Collins introduces the catalytic mechanism, a simple yet powerful managerial tool that helps translate lofty aspirations into concrete reality. Catalytic mechanisms are the crucial link between objectives and performance; they are a galvanizing, nonbureaucratic means to turn one into the other. What's the difference between catalytic mechanisms and most traditional managerial controls? Catalytic mechanisms share five characteristics. First, they produce desired results in unpredictable ways. Second, they distribute power for the benefit of the overall system, often to the discomfort of those who traditionally hold power. Third, catalytic mechanisms have teeth. Fourth, they eject "viruses"--those people who don't share the company's core values. Finally, they produce an ongoing effect. Catalytic mechanisms are just as effective for reaching individual goals as they are for corporate ones. To illustrate how catalytic mechanisms work, the author draws on examples of individuals and organizations that have relied on such mechanisms to achieve their goals. The same catalytic mechanism that works in one organization, however, will not necessarily work in another. Catalytic mechanisms must be tailored to specific goals and situations. To help readers get started, the author offers some general principles that support the process of building catalytic mechanisms effectively.

  9. Turning Perspective in Photoelectrocatalytic Cells for Solar Fuels.

    PubMed

    Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele; Su, Dangsheng

    2016-02-19

    The development of new devices for the use and storage of solar energy is a key step to enable a new sustainable energy scenario. The route for direct solar-to-chemical energy transformation, especially to produce liquid fuels, represents a necessary element to realize transition from the actual energy infrastructure. Photoelectrocatalytic (PECa) devices for the production of solar fuels are a key element to enable this sustainable scenario. The development of PECa devices and related materials is of increasing scientific and applied interest. This concept paper introduces the need to turn the viewpoint of research in terms of PECa cell design and related materials with respect to mainstream activities in the field of artificial photosynthesis and leaves. As an example of a new possible direction, the concept of electrolyte-less cell design for PECa cells to produce solar fuels by reduction of CO2 is presented. The fundamental and applied development of new materials and electrodes for these cells should proceed fully integrated with PECa cell design and systematic analysis. A new possible approach to develop semiconductors with improved performances by using visible light is also shortly presented.

  10. Birds and dolphins flock to turn basin in feeding frenzy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Birds by the score, especially gray and white pelicans, cormorants, sea gulls, herons and ospreys, flock to the turn basin east of the Vehicle Assembly Building in a feeding frenzy as schools of fish fill the waters. In the background is Launch Pad A with Space Shuttle Endeavour waiting for launch on Friday, Feb. 11 for mission STS-99. The basin is part of the Indian River Lagoon, which is made up of Mosquito Lagoon to the north, Banana River and Creek to the south and the Indian River to the west. It is called a lagoon because it is a body of water separated from the ocean by barrier islands, with limited exchange with the ocean through inlets. The Indian River Lagoon has one of the most diverse bird populations anywhere in America. Also, nearly one- third of the nation's manatee population lives here or migrates through the lagoon seasonally. The lagoon varies in width from .5 mile to 5 miles and averages only 3 feet in depth.

  11. Ares I-X Malfunction Turn Range Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaty, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the designation given to the flight test version of the Ares I rocket which was developed by NASA (also known as the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) component of the Constellation Program). The Ares I-X flight test vehicle achieved a successful flight test on October 28, 2009, from Pad LC-39B at Kennedy Space Center, Florida (KSC). As part of the flight plan approval for the test vehicle, a range safety malfunction turn analysis was performed to support the risk assessment and vehicle destruct criteria development processes. Several vehicle failure scenarios were identified which could have caused the vehicle trajectory to deviate from its normal flight path. The effects of these failures were evaluated with an Ares I-X 6 degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) digital simulation, using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories Version II (POST2) simulation tool. The Ares I-X simulation analysis provided output files containing vehicle trajectory state information. These were used by other risk assessment and vehicle debris trajectory simulation tools to determine the risk to personnel and facilities in the vicinity of the launch area at KSC, and to develop the vehicle destruct criteria used by the flight test range safety officer in the event of a flight test anomaly of the vehicle. The simulation analysis approach used for this study is described, including descriptions of the failure modes which were considered and the underlying assumptions and ground rules of the study.

  12. Columbia turns after rolling out of KSC's OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Photographed from overhead, the orbiter Columbia begins to turn after rolling out of KSC's Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3, bound for the Shuttle Landing Facility's (SLF) Mate-Demate Device. At the SLF the orbiter is to be mated to the Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft for a ferry flight to Palmdale, Calif. On the rear of the orbiter can be seen the tail cone, a fairing that is installed over the aft fuselage of the orbiter to decrease aerodynamic drag and buffet when the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft is transporting the orbiter cross- country. It is 36 feet long, 25 feet wide, and 22 feet high. Columbia, the oldest of four orbiters in NASA's fleet, will undergo extensive inspections and modifications in Boeing's Orbiter Assembly Facility during a nine-month orbiter maintenance down period (OMDP), the second in its history. Orbiters are periodically removed from flight operations for an OMDP. Columbia's first was in 1994. Along with more than 100 modifications on the vehicle, Columbia will be the second orbiter to be outfitted with the multifunctional electronic display system, or 'glass cockpit.' Columbia is expected to return to KSC in July 2000

  13. Swine manure composting by means of experimental turning equipment.

    PubMed

    Chiumenti, A; Da Borso, F; Rodar, T; Chiumenti, R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of research was to test the effectiveness of a prototype of a turning machine and to evaluate the feasability of a farm-scale composting process of the solid fraction of swine manure. A qualitative evaluation of the process and final product was made by monitoring the following parameters: process temperature, oxygen concentration inside the biomass, gaseous emissions (CH4, CO2, NH3, N2O), respiration index, humification index, total and volatile solids, carbon and nitrogen, pH and microbial load. The prototype proved to be very effective from a technical-operational point of view. The composting process exhibited a typical time-history, characterised by a thermophilic phase followed by a curing phase [Chiumenti, A., Chiumenti, R., Diaz, L.F., Savage, G.M., Eggerth, L.L., Goldstein, N., 2005. Modern Composting Technologies. BioCycle-JG Press, Emmaus, PA, USA]. Gas emissions from compost the windrow were more intense during the active phase of the process and showed a decreasing trend from the thermophilic to the curing phase. The final compost was characterized by good qualitative characteristics, a significant level of humification [Rossi, L., Piccinini, S., 1999. La qualità agronomica dei compost derivanti da liquami suinicoli. (Agronomic quality of swine manure compost). L'informatore Agrario 38, 29-31] and no odor emissions. This method of managing manure represents an effective, low cost approach that could be an interesting opportunity for swine farms.

  14. Muscular Control of Turning and Maneuvering in Jellyfish Bells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Alexander; Miller, Laura; Griffith, Boyce

    2014-11-01

    Jellyfish represent one of the earliest and simplest examples of swimming by a macroscopic organism. Contractions of an elastic bell that expels water are driven by coronal swimming muscles. The re-expansion of the bell is passively driven by stored elastic energy. A current question in jellyfish propulsion is how the underlying neuromuscular organization of their bell allows for maneuvering. Using an immersed boundary framework, we will examine the mechanics of swimming by incorporating material models that are informed by the musculature present in jellyfish into a model of the elastic jellyfish bell in three dimensions. The fully-coupled fluid structure interaction problem is solved using an adaptive and parallelized version of the immersed boundary method (IBAMR). We then use this model to understand how variability in the muscular activation patterns allows for complicated swimming behavior, such as steering. We will compare the results of the simulations with the actual turning maneuvers of several species of jellyfish. Numerical flow fields will also be compared to those produced by actual jellyfish using particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  15. Reductive potential - a savior turns stressor in protein aggregation cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Madhusudhanan; Rajasekaran, Namakkal S

    2015-01-01

    Redox homeostasis is essential for basal signaling of several physiological processes, but a unilateral shift towards an 'oxidative' or 'reductive' trait will alter intracellular redox milieu. Typically, such an event influences the structure and the native function of a cell or an organelle. Numerous experimental research and clinical trials over the last 6 decades have demonstrated that enhanced oxygen-derived free radicals constitute a major stimulus to trigger damage in several human diseases, including cardiovascular complications supporting the theory of oxidative stress (OS). However, until our key discovery, the dynamic interrelationship between "Reductive Stress (RS)" and cardiac health has been obscured by overwhelming OS studies (Rajasekaran et al., 2007). Notably, this seminal finding spurred considerable interest in investigations of other mechanistic insights, and thus far the results indicate a similar or stronger role for RS, as that of OS. In addition, from our own findings we strongly believe that constitutive activation of pathways that enable sustained generation of reducing equivalents of glutathione (GSH), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) will cause RS and impair the basal cellular signaling mechanisms operating through harmless pro-oxidative events, in turn, disrupting single and/or a combination of key cellular processes such as growth, maturation, differentiation, survival, death etc., that govern healthy cell physiology. Here, we have discussed the role of RS as a causal or contributing factor in relevant pathophysiology of a major cardiac disease of human origin.

  16. Heat transfer in 3-D serpentine channels with right-angle turns

    SciTech Connect

    Chintada, S.; Ko, K.H.; Anand, N.K.

    1999-12-01

    Laminar flow and heat transfer in square serpentine channels with right-angle turns, which have applications in heat exchangers, were numerically studied. A finite volume code in FORTRAN was developed to solve this problem. For solving the flow field, a colocated-grid formulation was used, as opposed to the staggered-grid formulation, and the SIMPLE algorithm was used to link the velocity and pressure. The line-by-line method was used to solve the algebraic equations. The temperature field was solved for the uniform-wall-heat-flux boundary condition. The developed numerical code was validated by solving for fully developed flow and heat transfer in a square straight channel. The grid-independent solution was established for a reference case of serpentine channel with the highest Reynolds number. Periodically fully developed flow and heat transfer fields in serpentine channels were solved for different geometry parameters, for different Reynolds numbers, and for two different Prandtl numbers (for air and water, respectively). The enhancement of the heat transfer mechanism was explained by studying the plotted flow-field velocity vectors in different planes. The heat transfer performance of serpentine channels is better than that for straight channels for Pr = 7.0 and is worse than that for straight channels for Pr = 0.7.

  17. Pre- and unplanned walking turns in Parkinson's disease - Effects of dopaminergic medication.

    PubMed

    Conradsson, David; Paquette, Caroline; Lökk, Johan; Franzén, Erika

    2017-01-26

    Although dopaminergic medication improves functional mobility in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD), its effects on walking turns are uncertain. Our goals was to determine whether dopaminergic medication improves preplanned and unplanned walking turns in individuals with PD, compared to healthy controls. Nineteen older adults with mild-to-moderate PD and 17 healthy controls performed one of the following three tasks, presented randomly: walking straight, or walking and turning 180° to the right or left. The walking direction was visually cued before starting to walk (preplanned) or after (unplanned, i.e., 0.6m before reaching the turning point). Subjects with PD were assessed off dopaminergic medication (OFF) and on dopaminergic medication (ON) medication. Turning strategy (step and spin turns), turning performance (turning distance and body rotation) and walking pattern were analyzed for three turning steps. Irrespective of medication state and turning condition, step and spin turns followed a nearly 50:50 distribution. After intake of dopaminergic medication, subjects with PD increased their turning distance but not the amount of body rotation or their walking pattern. Compared to controls, turning impairments in subjects with PD remained while ON medication and problems regulating step width were the most prominent features of their walking pattern. Specifically, subjects with PD turned with narrower cross-over steps, i.e. when the external foot crossed over the line of progression of the internal leg. We conclude that turning impairments remained even after dopaminergic medication and problems modulating step width appears to be a critical feature for turning in PD.

  18. Pitch Contour Matching and Interactional Alignment across Turns: An Acoustic Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorisch, Jan; Wells, Bill; Brown, Guy J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the influence of context on the phonetic design of talk-in-interaction, we investigated the pitch characteristics of short turns (insertions) that are produced by one speaker between turns from another speaker. We investigated the hypothesis that the speaker of the insertion designs her turn as a pitch match to the prior turn…

  19. The functional exchangeability of pk- and k-turns in RNA structure

    PubMed Central

    Daldrop, Peter; Masquida, Benoît; Lilley, David M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ribonuclease P RNA requires a sharply kinked RNA helix to make a loop-receptor interaction that creates the binding site for the substrate. In some forms of the ribozyme, this is accomplished by a k-turn, while others have a different element called the pk-turn. The structure of the pk-turn in RNase P of Thermotoga maritima is globally very similar to a k-turn, but lacks all the standard features of that structure, including long-range hydrogen bonds between the two helical arms. We show here that in an isolated RNA duplex, the pk-turn fails to adopt a tightly kinked structure, but rather is a flexible element. This suggests that the tertiary contacts of RNase P assist its folding into the required kinked structure. We find that we can replace the k-turn of the SAM-I riboswitch with the pk-turn, such that the resulting RNA retains its ability to bind SAM, although with lower affinity. We also find that we can replace the pk-turn of T. maritima RNase P with a standard k-turn (in either orientation) with retention of ribozyme activity. Thus, although the pk-turn cannot intrinsically fold into the kinked structure, it can be induced to fold correctly in context. And the pk-turn and k-turns can substitute functionally for one another. PMID:23364423

  20. 77 FR 25131 - Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Rural Utilities Service Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact AGENCY... Assessment (EA) associated with a solar generation project. The EA was prepared in accordance with the... associated with a potential loan or loan guarantee to Turning Point Solar LLC (Turning Point Solar) for...

  1. "Everything Changed": Relational Turning Point Events in College Teacher-Student Relationships from Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docan-Morgan, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate college teachers' experiences of relational turning points with their students, as well as how these turning point events may affect teacher outcomes. Teachers who were able to identify a relational turning point event with a student (n=306, 78.5% of the overall sample) completed open- and closed-ended…

  2. 46 CFR 148.04-13 - Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding stainless steel).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-13 Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding... described as ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings on board vessels (excluding...

  3. Landfill gas energy recovery: Turning a liability into an asset

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, M.

    1996-08-01

    Until the past decade, landfill gas (LFG) was viewed as a nuisance at best and a hazard at worst. Today, municipalities and private-sector solid waste management companies are findings ways to put landfill gas to productive use. Landfill gas energy recovery eliminates detrimental air emissions; prevents landfill methane from contributing to global climate change; stops methane from migrating off-site and becoming a safety hazard or odor problem; and provides local utilities, industry, and consumers with a competitive, local source of power. In other words, LFG-to-energy facilities provide a unique form of recycling--solid waste is hauled to the landfill as refuse and returned to the consumer in the form of energy. US EPA`s Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) and new EPA regulations for control of landfill gas emissions work together to encourage greater use of LFT at many facilities across the US.

  4. Trash burns, turns into $120,000 in annual savings

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.A.

    1981-09-01

    A plan was developed to generate a major portion of the energy required for heating and air conditioning by burning factory trash instead of using natural gas and electricity. Trash from the Rockwell Int'l. plant, including broken wood pallets, cardboard packing materials and office waste paper, amounted to 1,000 tons per year. Previously, a contractor was being paid to come to the plant several times a week, pick up the trash and haul it to a landfill. To supplement the 1,000 tons of usable waste generated by the plant annually, the additional 500 tons of similar trash needed to operate the system are received from other industries in the vicinity. Besides accepting waste from other plants, the Marysville facility stockpiles and uses refuse corn stalks harvested from 50 acres of Rockwell-owned land adjacent to the plant. The incinerator featuring a pyrolytic heat recovery system is presented and its operation is illustrated.

  5. Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... can protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  6. Air Sensor Toolbox

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  7. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  8. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  9. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  10. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  11. Hypercarotenodermia in Zambia: which children turned orange during mango season?

    PubMed

    Tanumihardjo, S A; Gannon, B M; Kaliwile, C; Chileshe, J

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is a public health problem in many countries. The World Health Organization recommends high-dose VA supplements to children aged 6-59 months based on unequivocal evidence that supplements decreased mortality risk. VA supplements were meant as a temporary intervention until more sustainable approaches could be implemented. Fortification of processed foods with preformed VA is a means to improve VA status. The most recent addition of retinyl palmitate to cooking oil in countries that may also fortify margarine and milk will undoubtedly have a positive impact on VA status. However, quantitative measures have not been used to assess the underlying VA status of the groups who have adopted widespread fortification. The addition of preformed VA to otherwise adequate diets in VA may cause excessive total body stores. Monitoring population status will require accurate VA assessment to ensure that hypervitaminosis does not prevail. This perspective describes a cohort of rural Zambian children who have adequate diets in VA, mostly as provitamin A carotenoids; who were given high-dose VA supplements till the age of 5 years; who have access to VA-fortified sugar; and whose mothers had access to VA-fortified sugar throughout pregnancy and lactation. Many of these children turned orange during mango season, and this phenomenon occurred at estimated liver reserve concentrations >1 μmol retinol equivalents/g liver. It will be necessary to continue to monitor VA status, including all sectors of the population that have access to successful interventions, to optimize health with the intent to lower retinol content of fortified foods or better target VA supplementation to areas of most need.

  12. Turning maneuvers in sharks: Predicting body curvature from axial morphology.

    PubMed

    Porter, Marianne E; Roque, Cassandra M; Long, John H

    2009-08-01

    Given the diversity of vertebral morphologies among fishes, it is tempting to propose causal links between axial morphology and body curvature. We propose that shape and size of the vertebrae, intervertebral joints, and the body will more accurately predict differences in body curvature during swimming rather than a single meristic such as total vertebral number alone. We examined the correlation between morphological features and maximum body curvature seen during routine turns in five species of shark: Triakis semifasciata, Heterodontus francisci, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, Chiloscyllium punctatum, and Hemiscyllium ocellatum. We quantified overall body curvature using three different metrics. From a separate group of size-matched individuals, we measured 16 morphological features from precaudal vertebrae and the body. As predicted, a larger pool of morphological features yielded a more robust prediction of maximal body curvature than vertebral number alone. Stepwise linear regression showed that up to 11 features were significant predictors of the three measures of body curvature, yielding highly significant multiple regressions with r(2) values of 0.523, 0.537, and 0.584. The second moment of area of the centrum was always the best predictor, followed by either centrum length or transverse height. Ranking as the fifth most important variable in three different models, the body's total length, fineness ratio, and width were the most important non-vertebral morphologies. Without considering the effects of muscle activity, these correlations suggest a dominant role for the vertebral column in providing the passive mechanical properties of the body that control, in part, body curvature during swimming.

  13. Experimental Investigation of White Layer formation in Hard Turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbrello, D.; Rotella, G.; Crea, F.

    2011-05-01

    Hard turning with super hard cutting tools, like PCBN or Ceramics inserts, represents an interesting advance in the manufacturing industry, regarding the finishing of hardened steels. This innovative machining technique is considered an attractive alternative to traditional finish grinding operations because of the high flexibility, the ability to achieve higher metal removal rates, the possibility to operate without the use of coolants, and the capability to achieve comparable workpiece quality. However, the surface integrity effects of hard machining need to be taken into account due to their influence on the life of machined components. In particular, the formation of a usually undesirable white layer at the surface needs further investigation. Three different mechanisms have been proposed as main responsible of the white layer genesis: (i) microstructural phase transformation due to a rapid heating and quenching, (ii) severe plastic deformation resulting in a homogenous structure and/or a very fine grain size microstructure; (iii) surface reaction with the environment. In this research, an experimental campaign was carried out and several experimental techniques were used in order to analyzed the machined surface and to understand which of the above mentioned theories is the main cause of the white layer formation when AISI 52100 hardened steel is machined by PCBN inserts. In particular, the topography characterization has obtained by means of optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) while microstructural phase composition and chemical characterization have been respectively detected using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. The results prove that the white layer is the result of microstructural alteration, i.e. the generation of a martensitic structure.

  14. Kinematical Comparison of the 200 m Backstroke Turns between National and Regional Level Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Santiago; Cala, Antonio; Frutos, Pablo González; Navarro, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were to determine the evolution of selected turn variables during competitive backstroke races and to compare these kinematic variables between two different levels of swimmers. Sixteen national and regional level male swimmers participant in the 200 m backstroke event at the Spanish Swimming Championships in short course (25 m) were selected to analyze their turn performances. The individual distances method with two-dimensional Direct Linear Transformation (2D-DLT) algorithms was used to perform race analyses. National level swimmers presented a shorter "turn time", a longer "distance in", a faster "underwater velocity" and "normalized underwater velocity", and a faster "stroking velocity" than regional level swimmers, whereas no significant differences were detected between levels for the "underwater distance". National level swimmers maintained similar "turn times" over the event and increased "underwater velocity" and "normalized underwater velocity" in the last (seventh) turn segment, whereas regional level swimmers increased "turn time" in the last half of the race. For both national and regional level swimmers, turn "underwater distance" during the last three turns of the race was significantly shorter while no significant differences in distance into the wall occurred throughout the race. The skill level of the swimmers has an impact on the competitive backstroke turn segments. In a 200 m event, the underwater velocity should be maximized to maintain turn proficiency, whereas turn distance must be subordinated to the average velocity. Key PointsThe underwater turn velocity is as a critical variable related to the swimmers' level of skill in a 200 m backstroke event.Best swimmers perform faster but no longer turn segments during a 200 m backstroke event.Best swimmers maintain their turn performance throughout the 200 m backstroke event by increasing the underwater velocity during the final part of the race.The turn distance

  15. Predictions of Substorms and Intensifications Following Northward Turnings of the IMF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, G. T.; Lyons, L. R.; Spann, J.

    1999-01-01

    Substorms are often observed to occur at the end of intervals of Southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), i.e. following the northward turning. Despite the significant correlation between northward turning and substorms, no direct causal relationship between northward turnings and substorms has been demonstrated. Assuming such a causal relationship, we predict that substorms will occur within a particular interval following the observation of a northward turning in the IMF. We observe 16 northward turnings following steady, southward IMF in data taken by the WIND spacecraft magnetic field instrument (MFI). To ensure that the northward turning was observed at the magnetosphere, we require that the northward turning also be observed by instruments on either one of Geotail or IMP-8 while the separation of the second spacecraft from WIND was more that 10 R(sub E). These two-spacecraft observations also allow us to predict more accurately the arrival time of the northward turning at the Earth. Of the predictions substorms, 10 predictions were clearly successful to within +/- 12 min. Five predictions failed, but the failures reveal clear shortcomings in the criteria for a northward turning that we correct. The failures were caused by an increase in the absolute value of B(sub YGSM) simultaneous with the northward turning in 3 cases, and a weak southward IMF preceding the northward turning in 2 cases. The final northward turning arrived in the recovery phase of an ongoing substorm, and resulted in unusual auroral activity. The implication of the predictability of substorms following sharp northward turnings is that the postulated causal relationship between northward turnings and substorm onset exists. The effect of increases in the absolute value of B(sub YGSM) to negate the triggering ability of northward turnings suggests that the triggering mechanism involves sharp reductions in the magnetospheric convection electric field.

  16. Air Brayton Solar Receiver, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deanda, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    An air Brayton solar receiver (ABSR) is discussed. The ABSR consists of a cylindrical, insulated, offset plate fin heat exchanger which is mounted at the focal plane of a fully tracking parabolic solar collector. The receiver transfer heat from the concentrated solar radiation (which impinges on the inside walls of the heat exchanger) to the working fluid i.e., air. The hot air would then e used to drive a small Brayton cycle heat engine. The engine in turn drives a generator which produces electrical energy. Symmetrical and asymmetrical solar power input into the ABSR are analyzed. The symmetrical cases involve the baseline incident flux and the axially shifted incident fluxes. The asymmetrical cases correspond to the solar fluxes that are obtained by reduced solar input from one half of the concentrator or by receiver offset of plus or minus 1 inch from the concentrator optical axis.

  17. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  18. Air-to-air combat analysis - Review of differential-gaming approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of evaluating the combat performance of fighter/attack aircraft is discussed, and the mathematical nature of the problem is examined. The following approaches to air combat analysis are reviewed: (1) differential-turning differential game and (2) coplanar differential game. Selected numerical examples of these approaches are presented. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each are analyzed, and it is concluded that air combat analysis is an extremely difficult mathematical problem and that no one method of approach is best for all purposes. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the two approaches might be used in a complementary manner.

  19. Influence of turn-to-turn resistivity and coil geometrical size on charging characteristics of no-electrical-insulation REBCO pancake coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Song, H.

    2016-07-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) no-electrical-insulation (NEI) coils demonstrate great advantages in thermal stability and self-protection features. However, an intrinsic delay is observed in the charging process and as a result there maybe a possible settle-out problem. It becomes more critical for large HTS coils with more turns, such as the magnets for the accelerator system and DC induction heater applications. This paper presents detailed studies on the charging characteristics of NEI coils. Firstly, two different no-electrical-insulation coils are wound: the first is directly wound using only REBCO tapes with brass lamination, which is called a no-insulation (NI) coil. The other one is co-wound with stainless steel (SS) strips and REBCO tapes whose copper stabilizer is electroplated, which is called a metallic insulation (MI) coil. Fast discharging tests are performed on the two coils and their equivalent turn-to-turn resistivity is calculated. A similar discharging delay is observed on both coils, but the turn-to-turn resistivity of the SS co-wound coil is much higher than that of the first coil. Then the resistivity data is directly applied to an equivalent circuit network model which is developed to predict the charging behaviours. The model calculates coil voltage, currents along the azimuthal and radial directions, as well as the induced magnetic field. A practical charging time is defined to characterize the field ramping process considering the charging delay between field ramping and current charging. The charging behaviours are extensively analyzed and compared in terms of three primary factors: equivalent turn-to-turn resistivity, coil size and ramping rate. The results show that the charging time increases dramatically with the coil size and may be too long to be practical for large-scale applications using HTS coils with low turn-to-turn resistivity. Increasing the turn-to-turn resistivity enables one to accelerate the charging process

  20. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  1. Effects of turn region treatments on pressure loss through sharp 180-degree bends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plevich, C. W.; Metzger, D. E.

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effect of geometric turn region inserts on pressure losses for flow through sharp 180-degree channel turns typical of internal cooling passages in gas turbine engine airfoils. The experiments were conducted in a rectangular cross-sectioned channel with 90-degree transverse rib roughening in both inlet and outlet legs, starting with completely smooth turn regions and progressing through various modifications including corner fillets, radial ribs, and turning vanes. The results show that modifications to the turn region geometry, particularly the inclusion of a single semi-circular turning vane, significantly reduce the pressure losses associated with coolant flows through sharp 180-degree turns and therefore can result in increased coolant flow for a given coolant supply pressure.

  2. Effects of Outside Air Temperature on Movement of Phosphine Gas in Concrete Elevator Bins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies that measured the movement and concentration of phosphine gas in upright concrete bins over time indicated that fumigant movement was dictated by air currents, which in turn, were a function of the difference between the average grain temperature and the average outside air temperature durin...

  3. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... but set the fan speed to the lowest setting that continues to provide air flow. Recirculation shall...

  4. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... but set the fan speed to the lowest setting that continues to provide air flow. Recirculation shall...

  5. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... but set the fan speed to the lowest setting that continues to provide air flow. Recirculation shall...

  6. Job Dissatisfaction among Air Force Clinical Nurses: Causes and Ways to Change It.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    34 burnout " syndrome . 4. Reports indicate clinical nurses are providing effective, quality nursing care to patients in Air Force medical treatment facilities...clinical nurses are falling victim to " burnout " syndrome , which in turn is affecting their job satisfaction. Air Force clinical inpatient nurses are managing

  7. Seeing It Coming: Revitalizing Future Studies in the US Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Gulliver’s Travails ,” “Zaibatsu,” “Digital Cacophony,” and “King Khan” scenarios developed in the Air Force’s Alternate Futures for 2025 study of... motivate the Air Force to turn away from the myopic tendencies that have become so prevalent and renew its focus on future studies. Anticipation of the

  8. Peroxide Propulsion at the Turn of the Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William E.; Butler, Kathy; Crocket, Dave; Lewis, Tim; McNeal, Curtis

    2000-01-01

    A resurgence of interest in peroxide propulsion has occurred in the last years of the 21st Century. This interest is driven by the need for lower cost propulsion systems and the need for storable reusable propulsion systems to meet future space transportation system architectures. NASA and the Air Force are jointly developing two propulsion systems for flight demonstration early in the 21st Century. One system will be a development of Boeing's AR2-3 engine, which was successfully fielded in the 1960s. The other is a new pressure-fed design by Orbital Sciences Corporation for expendable mission requirements. Concurrently NASA and industry are pursuing the key peroxide technologies needed to design, fabricate, and test advanced peroxide engines to meet the mission needs beyond 2005. This paper will present a description of the AR2-3, report the status of its current test program, and describe its intended flight demonstration. This paper will then describe the Orbital 10K engine, the status of its test program, and describe its planned flight demonstration. Finally the paper will present a plan, or technology roadmap, for the development of an advanced peroxide engine for the 21st Century.

  9. Aquatic turning performance of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) and functional consequences of a rigid body design.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Gabriel; Rivera, Angela R V; Dougherty, Erin E; Blob, Richard W

    2006-11-01

    The ability to capture prey and avoid predation in aquatic habitats depends strongly on the ability to perform unsteady maneuvers (e.g. turns), which itself depends strongly on body flexibility. Two previous studies of turning performance in rigid-bodied taxa have found either high maneuverability or high agility, but not both. However, examinations of aquatic turning performance in rigid-bodied animals have had limited taxonomic scope and, as such, the effects of many body shapes and designs on aquatic maneuverability and agility have yet to be examined. Turtles represent the oldest extant lineage of rigid-bodied vertebrates and the only aquatic rigid-bodied tetrapods. We evaluated the aquatic turning performance of painted turtles, Chrysemys picta (Schneider, 1783) using the minimum length-specific radius of the turning path (R/L) and the average turning rate (omega(avg)) as measures of maneuverability and agility, respectively. We filmed turtles conducting forward and backward turns in an aquatic arena. Each type of turn was executed using a different pattern of limb movements. During forward turns, turtles consistently protracted the inboard forelimb and held it stationary into the flow, while continuing to move the outboard forelimb and both hindlimbs as in rectilinear swimming. The limb movements of backward turns were more complex than those of forward turns, but involved near simultaneous retraction and protraction of contralateral fore- and hindlimbs, respectively. Forward turns had a minimum R/L of 0.0018 (the second single lowest value reported from any animal) and a maximum omega(avg) of 247.1 degrees. Values of R/L for backward turns (0.0091-0.0950 L) were much less variable than that of forward turns (0.0018-1.0442 L). The maneuverability of turtles is similar to that recorded previously for rigid-bodied boxfish. However, several morphological features of turtles (e.g. shell morphology and limb position) appear to increase agility relative to the body

  10. One Team, One Fight, One Organizational Identity...Or Not: The United States Air Force at a Turning Point

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    2 Jeffrey Kerr and  John  W. Slocum, Jr., “Managing Corporate Culture Through Reward Systems,” Academy  of...consistent with Stuart Albert and David Whetten, who define organizational identity as that which is central, enduring, and distinctive about the...1982), 26.  58  Stuart  Albert and David A. Whetten, “Organizational Identity,” in Research in Organizational Behavior,  Vol. 7, eds. L.L. Cummings and

  11. Results from CrIS/ATMS Obtained Using an "AIRS Version-6 Like" Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena; Blaisdell, John

    2015-01-01

    AIRS and CrIS Version-6.22 O3(p) and q(p) products are both superior to those of AIRS Version-6.Monthly mean August 2014 Version-6.22 AIRS and CrIS products agree reasonably well with OMPS, CERES, and witheach other. JPL plans to process AIRS and CrIS for many months and compare interannual differences. Updates to thecalibration of both CrIS and ATMS are still being finalized. We are also working with JPL to develop a joint AIRS/CrISlevel-1 to level-3 processing system using a still to be finalized Version-7 retrieval algorithm. The NASA Goddard DISCwill eventually use this system to reprocess all AIRS and recalibrated CrIS/ATMS. .

  12. Comparative Results of AIRS AMSU and CrIS/ATMS Retrievals Using a Scientifically Equivalent Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version 6 retrieval algorithm is currently producing high quality level-3 Climate Data Records (CDRs) from AIRSAMSU which are critical for understanding climate processes. The AIRS Science Team is finalizing an improved Version-7 retrieval algorithm to reprocess all old and future AIRS data. AIRS CDRs should eventually cover the period September 2002 through at least 2020. CrISATMS is the only scheduled follow on to AIRSAMSU. The objective of this research is to prepare for generation of a long term CrISATMS level-3 data using a finalized retrieval algorithm that is scientifically equivalent to AIRSAMSU Version-7.

  13. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  14. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  15. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to threaten the lives and health of ... sources such as fires and dust contribute to air pollution. Learn more Fighting for Healthy Air The American ...

  16. Self-corrective behavior for turn alternation in pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare).

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Toru; Migita, Masao; Mitsuishi, Meiji

    2016-01-01

    Pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare) demonstrate a behavior called turn alternation that keeps their overall direction of movement straight after obstacles in experimental settings force them to deviate from a course. For example, this behavior is seen when they alternate their path choice on successive trials of the T-maze test. However, sometimes pill bugs stop after turning and change their direction (directional change). The function of this directional change has not been investigated because such individuals are usually omitted from the data. The present paper shows that pill bugs use directional changes to prevent them from turning in the same direction on two successive turns, a behavior called turn repetition. We examined the behavior of 36 pill bugs that each completed 130 successive T-maze trials. Directional changes appeared more frequently when individuals had begun a turn repetition than when they had begun a turn alternation. Furthermore, after correcting for turn repetition, turn alternations increased. These results suggest that pill bugs have an inherent mechanism that acts to maintain turn-alternating behavior.

  17. Modification of impulse generation during piqué turns with increased rotational demands.

    PubMed

    Zaferiou, Antonia M; Wilcox, Rand R; McNitt-Gray, Jill L

    2016-06-01

    During initiation of a piqué turn, a dancer generates impulse to achieve the desired lateral translation and whole-body rotation. The goal of this study was to determine how individuals regulate impulse generation when initiating piqué turns with increased rotational demands. Skilled dancers (n=10) performed single (∼360°) and double (∼720°) piqué turns from a stationary position. Linear and angular impulse generated by the push and turn legs were quantified using ground reaction forces and compared across turn conditions as a group and within a dancer using probability-based statistical methods. The results indicate that as the rotation demands of the piqué turn increased, the net angular impulse generated increased whereas net lateral impulse decreased. Early during turn initiation, the free moment contributed to angular impulse generation. Later during turn initiation, horizontal reaction forces were controlled to generate angular impulse. As rotational demands increased, the moment applied increased primarily from redirection of the horizontal reaction force (RFh) at the push leg and a combination of RFh magnitude and moment arm increases at the turn leg. RFh at each leg were coordinated to limit unwanted net linear impulse. Knowledge of observed subject-specific mechanisms is important to inform the design of turning performance training tools.

  18. Algorithm research and realization of the turning control system for heavy transportation vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Hanguang; Yuan, Haiwen; Wang, Qiusheng; Zhao, Jingpo

    2012-05-01

    The dynamics of turning system which is a nonlinear system normally has great impact on the transportation speed of the vehicle having heavy load and large size. The dynamics of turning system depends on control algorithm and its implementation, but the existing control algorithms which having high dynamics in the application of heavy transportation vehicle are complex for realization and high hardware requirement. So, the nonlinear turning system is analyzed for improving its dynamics by researching new efficient control algorithm. The models of electromagnetic valve, hydraulic cylinder and turning mechanical part are built individually to get the open-loop model of the turning system following characteristics analyzed. According to the model, a new control algorithm for heavy transportation vehicle which combined PID with Bang-Bang control is presented. Then the close-loop model of turning system is obtained under Matlab/Simulink environment. By comparing the step response of different control algorithms in the same conditions, the new algorithm's validity is verified. On the basis of the analysis results, the algorithm is adopted to implement the turning control system by using CAN field bus and PLC controllers. Furthermore, the turning control system has been applied in one type of heavy transportation vehicle. It reduces the response time of turning system from seconds level to 250 ms, and the speed of heavy transportation vehicle increases from 5 km/h to 30 km/h. The application result shows that the algorithm and turning control system have met all the turning requirements. This new type of turning control algorithm proposed is simple in implementation for fast response of nonlinear and large-scale turning system of heavy transportation vehicle.

  19. The logic of participation: critical perspectives on the 'participatory turn' in river and catchment management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    regarding those who currently participate; necessary, because of changes in the water management system that make an existing system inherently less participative; or ignorant, because authorities do not realise that there are already effective systems of participation in water management that are invisible, or only partly visible, and so too readily overlooked. To explore this issue, I focus upon a proposed restructuring of the Inland Drainage Boards (IDBs) of England and Wales over the last decade. The IDBs have developed, in some cases over many centuries, as organisations responsible for the management of water levels in areas of special drainage need, providing a range of water supply, flood risk management and ecosystem services. They cover 9.7% and 1.4% of the land area of England and Wales respectively and there are currently 121 in total. They provide an interesting case example because up until the restructuring process began, they were organized around relatively small-in-size drainage districts and governed by members elected from the payers of agricultural drainage rates (owners, occupiers or tenants) or appointed from elected local authority members, in proportion to the payments the local authorities were making to the IDB. They were, in effect, highly participatory forms of hydrological governance as many of those who paid and who were elected were genuinely those who lived within their own water management system. What I show in this paper is that this proved highly unsatisfactory to legislators and other organisations involved in river management. Under the pre-text that river management should respect catchment boundaries, the IDBs were progressively encouraged to create larger spatial units with smaller numbers of elected representatives, initially as amalgamation to share services and functions, eventually into large stand-alone boards. The latter was preferred so as to provide efficiency savings and to be more readily seen as accountable to legislation

  20. A pound of prevention: Air pollution and the fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.L.; Rose, R.

    1996-12-31

    The expanded use of fuel cells in transportation and power generation is an exciting proposition for public health officials because of the potential of this technology to help reduce air pollution levels around the globe. Such work is about prevention -- prevention of air emissions of hazardous substances. Prevention is a key concept in public health. An example is quarantine, which aims to prevent the spread of a disease-causing organism. In the environmental arena, prevention includes cessation of pollution. Air pollution prevention policies also have a practical impact. Sooner or later ideas on technology, especially new technology, must be sold to policy makers, legislators, and eventually the public. Advocating technologies that will improve human health and welfare can be an effective marketing strategy.

  1. Interaction of Lamb mode (A(o)) with structural discontinuity and generation of "Turning modes" in a T-joint.

    PubMed

    Ramadas, C; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Joshi, M; Krishnamurthy, C V

    2011-07-01

    In the present work, the interaction of the fundamental anti-symmetric guided Lamb mode (A(o)) with a structural discontinuity in a composite structure was studied through Finite Element numerical simulations and experiments. The structural component selected for this study was a T-joint section made from glass/epoxy material. This co-cured composite structure is made-up of an upper shell (skin) and a spar as the sub-components. It was observed that when A(o) mode interacts with the junction (structural discontinuity) of these sub-components, a mode-converted S(o) mode is generated. Experiments were conducted using air-coupled ultrasound to validate the numerical simulations. The back-propagating "Turning modes", which propagate from the thin region to the spar web and vice versa, were also numerically simulated and experimentally verified.

  2. Humidification and perceived indoor air quality in the office environment.

    PubMed Central

    Reinikainen, L M; Aunela-Tapola, L; Jaakkola, J J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of humidification on the odour, acceptability, and stuffiness of indoor air. METHODS: In a six period cross over trial at the Pasila Office Center, Helsinki, the air of two wings of the building in turn were ventilated with air of 30%-40% humidity. A third wing served as a non-humidified control area. The quality of indoor air was assessed weekly by a panel containing 18 to 23 members. The intraindividual differences in the ratings for odour, stuffiness, and acceptability between humidified and non-humidified wings were used to assess the effect of humidification. The roles of sex, current smoking, and age as potential effect modifiers were assessed by comparing the mean intraindividual differences in ratings between the groups. RESULTS: Humidified air was found to be more odorous and stuffy (paired t test P = 0.0001) and less acceptable than the non-humidified air (McNemar's test P < 0.001). The differences in odour and stuffiness between humidified and non-humidified air were greater for women and for non-smokers, and greatest differences were in the youngest age group, and least in the oldest age group. The differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: An untrained panel of 20 members is able to differentiate a slight malodour and stuffiness in indoor air. The results suggest that steam air humidification decreases the perceived air quality. This effect is strongest in women and young subjects. PMID:9196454

  3. Investigation on quench initiation and propagation characteristics of GdBCO coil co-wound with a stainless steel tape as turn-to-turn metallic insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. G.; Song, J. B.; Choi, Y. H.; Yang, D. G.; Kim, S. G.; Lee, H. G.

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the quench initiation and propagation characteristics of a metallic insulation (MI) coil by conducting thermal quench tests for a GdBCO single-pancake coil co-wound with a stainless steel tape as the turn-to-turn MI. The test results confirmed that the MI coil exhibited superior thermal and electrical stabilities compared to the conventional coils co-wound with organic insulation material because the operating current could flow along the radial direction due to the existence of a turn-to-turn contact when a local hot spot was generated. The results of the quench test at a heater current (Ih) of 12, 13, and 14 A indicate that the MI coil possesses a self-protecting characteristic resulting from the "current bypass" through the turn-to-turn contact. However, the test coil was not self-protecting at Ih = 15 A because the Joule heat energy generated by the radial current flow was not completely dissipated due to the characteristic resistance of the metallic insulation tape and the non-superconducting materials, including the substrate, stabilizer, and buffer layers within the high-temperature superconductor (HTS) tape. Even though the MI coil possesses superior thermal and electrical stability relative to those of conventional HTS coils co-wound with an organic material as turn-to-turn insulation, it is essential to consider the critical role of the Joule heat energy resulting from the operating current and stored magnetic energy as well as the characteristic resistances in order to further develop self-protective 2G HTS magnets.

  4. Investigation on quench initiation and propagation characteristics of GdBCO coil co-wound with a stainless steel tape as turn-to-turn metallic insulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y G; Song, J B; Choi, Y H; Yang, D G; Kim, S G; Lee, H G

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the quench initiation and propagation characteristics of a metallic insulation (MI) coil by conducting thermal quench tests for a GdBCO single-pancake coil co-wound with a stainless steel tape as the turn-to-turn MI. The test results confirmed that the MI coil exhibited superior thermal and electrical stabilities compared to the conventional coils co-wound with organic insulation material because the operating current could flow along the radial direction due to the existence of a turn-to-turn contact when a local hot spot was generated. The results of the quench test at a heater current (Ih) of 12, 13, and 14 A indicate that the MI coil possesses a self-protecting characteristic resulting from the "current bypass" through the turn-to-turn contact. However, the test coil was not self-protecting at Ih = 15 A because the Joule heat energy generated by the radial current flow was not completely dissipated due to the characteristic resistance of the metallic insulation tape and the non-superconducting materials, including the substrate, stabilizer, and buffer layers within the high-temperature superconductor (HTS) tape. Even though the MI coil possesses superior thermal and electrical stability relative to those of conventional HTS coils co-wound with an organic material as turn-to-turn insulation, it is essential to consider the critical role of the Joule heat energy resulting from the operating current and stored magnetic energy as well as the characteristic resistances in order to further develop self-protective 2G HTS magnets.

  5. Gliding flight in Chrysopelea: turning a snake into a wing.

    PubMed

    Socha, John J

    2011-12-01

    Although many cylindrical animals swim through water, flying snakes of the genus Chrysopelea are the only limbless animals that glide through air. Despite a lack of limbs, these snakes can actively launch by jumping, maintain a stable glide path without obvious control surfaces, maneuver, and safely land without injury. Jumping takeoffs employ vertically looped kinematics that seem to be different than any other behavior in limbless vertebrates, and their presence in a closely related genus suggests that gap-crossing may have been a behavioral precursor to the evolution of gliding in snakes. Change in shape of the body by dorsoventral flattening and high-amplitude aerial undulation comprise two key features of snakes' gliding behavior. As the snake becomes airborne, the body flattens sequentially from head to vent, forming a cross-sectional shape that is roughly triangular, with a flat surface and lateral "lips" that protrude ventrally on each side of the body; these may diminish toward the vent. This shape likely provides the snake with lift coefficients that peak at high angles of attack and gentle stall characteristics. A glide trajectory is initiated with the snake falling at a steep angle. As the snake rotates in the pitch axis, it forms a wide "S" shape and begins undulating in a complex three-dimensional pattern, with the body angled upward relative to the glide path. The head moves side-to-side, sending traveling waves posteriorly toward the tail, while the body (most prominently, the posterior end) oscillates in the vertical axis. These active movements while gliding are substantially different and more dynamic than those used by any other animal glider. As the snake gains forward speed, the glide path becomes less steep, reaching minimally recorded glide angles of 13°. In general, smaller snakes appear to be more proficient gliders. Chrysopelea paradisi can also maneuver and land either on the ground or on vegetation, but these locomotor behaviors have

  6. Hanford Site air operating permit application

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which amended the Federal Clean Air Act of 1977, required that the US Environmental Protection Agency develop a national Air Operating Permit Program, which in turn would require each state to develop an Air Operating Permit Program to identify all sources of ``regulated`` pollutants. Regulated pollutants include ``criteria`` pollutants (oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, total suspended particulates, carbon monoxide, particulate matter greater than 10 micron, lead) plus 189 other ``Hazardous`` Air Pollutants. The Hanford Site, owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, is located in southcentral Washington State and covers 560 square miles of semi-arid shrub and grasslands located just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. This land, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas historically used for the production of nuclear materials, waste storage, and waste disposal. About 6 percent of the land area has been disturbed and is actively used. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application consists of more than 1,100 sources and in excess of 300 emission points. Before January 1995, the maintenance and operations contractor and the environmental restoration contractor for the US Department of Energy completed an air emission inventory on the Hanford Site. The inventory has been entered into a database so that the sources and emission points can be tracked and updated information readily can be retrieved. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application contains information current as of April 19, 1995.

  7. How an Electron Beam (Eventually) Penetrates Ceramic Cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Russell, C. K.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Fragomeni, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    In anticipation of the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE) the effect of an electron beam was investigated on Nextel AF-62 ceramic cloth designed to withstand temperatures up to 1427 C. It was anticipated that the cloth would take a static charge that would repel the beam and remain undamaged. It was found that after some seconds the impinging beam penetrated penetrated the cloth. Further, the penetration time went up significantly both at longer and at closer standoff distances. A tentative explanation appears to fit the observed facts. The electrons in the beam generate positive ions by collisions with the contaminant gas molecules in the vacuum chamber. The positive ions transfer a small but significant fraction of the beam power to the cloth. Under the impingement of the positive ions the cloth heats up until sufficient outgassing occurs to initiate arcing. Once arcing occurs the full beam power impinges on the cloth and, almost instantaneously, burns a hole.

  8. Energy and population: transitional issues and eventual limits.

    PubMed

    Werbos, P J

    1990-08-01

    The implication of population size for US energy requirements is explored in this essay. The basic argument is that the present supply of fuels and energy technologies is not sustainable in the long run, that a wide range of choices is possible when a complete transition is made to sustainable technologies, and that the growth of population and the composition of this growth during the next 30 years are the most serious problems impacting on the achievement of sustainable technology. The importance and future of fuel oil is discussed as well as the transition to sustainable energy supplies: conservation, renewables, nuclear and coal. Dependency on oil can only be changed through time and the infusion of money, but even with these givens, the transition is also dependent on the political and budgetary climate. The race is between crisis and cure. It is argued that the soft energy systems (biomass, solar water heater, wind, hydro, and geothermal energy) along with conservation will increase easily and naturally, but the total potential from these sources amounts to only 10% of the present US energy supply. Conservation offers greater hope because 80% of end-use fossil fuel is used in transportation and industry. Further growth of the population in the US would create a demand to desalinate water, which would increase the demand for energy. A totally soft energy economy is probably not feasible without a drastic reduction in US population. The expected direction is in the increased use of coal, and then nuclear energy. Unfortunately, coal contributes to greenhouse warming, and the supply is limited to 60-100 years. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism is connected to the widespread use of nuclear energy. Some breakthrough technology with cold fusion may offer a safer alternative. High technology renewables such as solar cells can be competitive with nuclear energy, if prices can be kept down. on earth or in space, are being investigated. Exploring a variety of advanced technology is most likely to bring success. Therefore, government investment in accelerated research and development is necessary. The optimum population for the US would be 60 million people.

  9. Turning field size and its effects upon computer-simulated klinotactic orientation.

    PubMed

    Bornbusch, A H

    1984-03-07

    The turning field is defined in the context of klinotaxis as the angular region(s) into which an organism may direct itself at any point in time and space while orienting within a stimulus gradient. The turning field size determines the size distribution of turns an organism can make during klinotaxis. Changes in turning field size affect the efficiency of klinotactic source location as measured by computer simulations of ideal behaviors. The optimal field size lies between 90 and 150 degrees. Turning field size also affects the appearance of search paths made by organisms locating an attractant source. The significance of turning field size is discussed and the described klinotactic model is proposed as a predictive model for orientation research.

  10. Stepping in Place While Voluntarily Turning Around Produces a Long-Lasting Posteffect Consisting in Inadvertent Turning While Stepping Eyes Closed

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Training subjects to step in place on a rotating platform while maintaining a fixed body orientation in space produces a posteffect consisting in inadvertent turning around while stepping in place eyes closed (podokinetic after-rotation, PKAR). We tested the hypothesis that voluntary turning around while stepping in place also produces a posteffect similar to PKAR. Sixteen subjects performed 12 min of voluntary turning while stepping around their vertical axis eyes closed and 12 min of stepping in place eyes open on the center of a platform rotating at 60°/s (pretests). Then, subjects continued stepping in place eyes closed for at least 10 min (posteffect). We recorded the positions of markers fixed to head, shoulder, and feet. The posteffect of voluntary turning shared all features of PKAR. Time decay of angular velocity, stepping cadence, head acceleration, and ratio of angular velocity after to angular velocity before were similar between both protocols. Both postrotations took place inadvertently. The posteffects are possibly dependent on the repeated voluntary contraction of leg and foot intrarotating pelvic muscles that rotate the trunk over the stance foot, a synergy common to both protocols. We propose that stepping in place and voluntary turning can be a scheme ancillary to the rotating platform for training body segment coordination in patients with impairment of turning synergies of various origin. PMID:27635264

  11. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  12. REVIEW OF THE RADNET AIR MONITORING NETWORK ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    RadNet, formerly known as ERAMS, has been operating since the 1970's, monitoring environmental radiation across the country, supporting responses to radiological emergencies, and providing important information on background levels of radiation in the environment. The original purpose of the system was to monitor fallout from weapons testing. Even though upgrades to and reconfiguration of the system have been planned for some time, the events of 9/11/01 gave impetus to a thorough upgrade of RadNet, primarily directed at providing more timely data and covering a larger portion of the nation's population. Moreover, the demands upon RadNet are now based upon homeland security support in addition to existing EPA monitoring responsibilities. Beginning in FY05 and continuing into FY13 up to135 near real-time air monitors will be put into operation across the country to provide decision making-data to EPA officials. Data will be transmitted from the monitors in all 50 states to a central database at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama. The data will then be assessed and verified and made available to federal and state officials and, eventually, the public. A data flow model is being constructed to provide the most effective and efficient use of verified data obtained from the new radNet system The objective of the near-real time air monitoring component of RadNet is to provide verified decision-making data to fed

  13. Development of high speed power thyristor: The gate assisted turn-off thyristor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. R.; Brewster, J.; Frobenius, D.; Desmond, T.

    1972-01-01

    A high speed power switch with unique turn-off capability was developed. This gate-assisted turn-off thyristor was rated at 609 V and 50 A with turn-off times of 2 microsec. Twenty-two units were delivered for evaluation in a series inverter circuit. In addition, test circuits designed to relate to the series inverter application were built and demonstrated.

  14. Topological side-chain classification of β-turns: Ideal motifs for peptidomimetic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Tran Trung; McKie, Jim; Meutermans, Wim D. F.; Bourne, Gregory T.; Andrews, Peter R.; Smythe, Mark L.

    2005-08-01

    β-turns are important topological motifs for biological recognition of proteins and peptides. Organic molecules that sample the side chain positions of β-turns have shown broad binding capacity to multiple different receptors, for example benzodiazepines. β-turns have traditionally been classified into various types based on the backbone dihedral angles (φ2, ψ2, φ3 and ψ3). Indeed, 57-68% of β-turns are currently classified into 8 different backbone families (Type I, Type II, Type I', Type II', Type VIII, Type VIa1, Type VIa2 and Type VIb and Type IV which represents unclassified β-turns). Although this classification of β-turns has been useful, the resulting β-turn types are not ideal for the design of β-turn mimetics as they do not reflect topological features of the recognition elements, the side chains. To overcome this, we have extracted β-turns from a data set of non-homologous and high-resolution protein crystal structures. The side chain positions, as defined by Cα-Cβ vectors, of these turns have been clustered using the kth nearest neighbor clustering and filtered nearest centroid sorting algorithms. Nine clusters were obtained that cluster 90% of the data, and the average intra-cluster RMSD of the four Cα-Cβ vectors is 0.36. The nine clusters therefore represent the topology of the side chain scaffold architecture of the vast majority of β-turns. The mean structures of the nine clusters are useful for the development of β-turn mimetics and as biological descriptors for focusing combinatorial chemistry towards biologically relevant topological space.

  15. Efficiency of static core turn-off in a system-on-a-chip with variation

    DOEpatents

    Cher, Chen-Yong; Coteus, Paul W; Gara, Alan; Kursun, Eren; Paulsen, David P; Schuelke, Brian A; Sheets, II, John E; Tian, Shurong

    2013-10-29

    A processor-implemented method for improving efficiency of a static core turn-off in a multi-core processor with variation, the method comprising: conducting via a simulation a turn-off analysis of the multi-core processor at the multi-core processor's design stage, wherein the turn-off analysis of the multi-core processor at the multi-core processor's design stage includes a first output corresponding to a first multi-core processor core to turn off; conducting a turn-off analysis of the multi-core processor at the multi-core processor's testing stage, wherein the turn-off analysis of the multi-core processor at the multi-core processor's testing stage includes a second output corresponding to a second multi-core processor core to turn off; comparing the first output and the second output to determine if the first output is referring to the same core to turn off as the second output; outputting a third output corresponding to the first multi-core processor core if the first output and the second output are both referring to the same core to turn off.

  16. Right-turn-on-red laws and motor vehicle crashes: a review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Zador, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    Alternative analyses of data previously published by Zador et al. confirm that adoption of right-turn-on-red laws increased by about 18% the frequency of all right-turning crashes at all signalized intersections in the jurisdictions that adopted such laws. From a view of the available literature it is estimated that at the approximately 80% of all signalized intersections where motorists are allowed to turn right on red all right-turning crashes increased by about 23%, pedestrian crashes by about 60%, and bicyclist crashes by about 100%. 11 references, 1 table.

  17. Optimal turning climb-out and descent of commercial jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, F.; Kreindler, E.

    1982-01-01

    Optimal turning climb-out and descent flight-paths from and to runway headings are derived to provide the missing elements of a complete flight-path optimization for minimum fuel consumption. The paths are derived by generating a field of extremals, using the necessary conditions of optimal control. Results show that the speed profiles for straight and turning flight are essentially identical, except for the final horizontal accelerating or decelerating turn. The optimal turns, which require no abrupt maneuvers, could easily be integrated with present climb-cruise-descent fuel-optimization algorithms.

  18. Experimental investigation of the ultra-precision turning capability of PVD ZnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-hao; Yang, Kun; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Gao-feng; Liu, Dan-dan

    2016-10-01

    ZnSe is widely used in infrared optical systems because of the good optical characteristics in 0.5 22μm and the good processability. Physical Vapor Deposition(PVD) of ZnSe is good at no pollution in production process, lower price, etc. Infrared optical parts should be made by single point diamond turning or single point diamond fly-cutting after the experimental investigation of the ultra-precision turning capability of PVD ZnSe. The orthogonal experiment of ultra-precision turning PVD ZnSe was done at first, then the smooth turning surface and the rough turning surface were observed by metallographic microscope and 3D profilometer, and the mechanism of the defects on the turning surface was discussed. The result shows: the quality of ultra-precision turning surface of PVD ZnSe was restricted by the grain size and the distribution of the grain which could easily cause the variegated macula at the grain size, rising the spindle speed, reducing the feed rate and reducing the cut depth could make the quality of ultra-precision turning surface better and reduce the roughness Ra value lower, the roughness Ra value of the smooth turning surface was reached 3 4nm which is enough to the infrared optical image systems currently by using the optimization of parameters.

  19. Classifying Step and Spin Turns Using Wireless Gyroscopes and Implications for Fall Risk Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Fino, Peter C.; Frames, Christopher W.; Lockhart, Thurmon E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have reported a greater prevalence of spin turns, which are more unstable than step turns, in older adults compared to young adults in laboratory settings. Currently, turning strategies can only be identified through visual observation, either in-person or through video. This paper presents two unique methods and their combination to remotely monitor turning behavior using three uniaxial gyroscopes. Five young adults performed 90° turns at slow, normal, and fast walking speeds around a variety of obstacles while instrumented with three IMUs (attached on the trunk, left and right shank). Raw data from 360 trials were analyzed. Compared to visual classification, the two IMU methods’ sensitivity/specificity to detecting spin turns were 76.1%/76.7% and 76.1%/84.4%, respectively. When the two methods were combined, the IMU had an overall 86.8% sensitivity and 92.2% specificity, with 89.4%/100% sensitivity/specificity at slow speeds. This combined method can be implemented into wireless fall prevention systems and used to identify increased use of spin turns. This method allows for longitudinal monitoring of turning strategies and allows researchers to test for potential associations between the frequency of spin turns and clinically relevant outcomes (e.g., falls) in non-laboratory settings. PMID:25954950

  20. Turn-taking in Human Communication--Origins and Implications for Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    Most language usage is interactive, involving rapid turn-taking. The turn-taking system has a number of striking properties: turns are short and responses are remarkably rapid, but turns are of varying length and often of very complex construction such that the underlying cognitive processing is highly compressed. Although neglected in cognitive science, the system has deep implications for language processing and acquisition that are only now becoming clear. Appearing earlier in ontogeny than linguistic competence, it is also found across all the major primate clades. This suggests a possible phylogenetic continuity, which may provide key insights into language evolution.