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Sample records for air field ohio

  1. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Field Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  2. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  3. Screening for volatile organic compounds in soil and groundwater by use of a portable gas chromatograph during field investigations at an Air Force installation in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parnell, James M.

    1995-01-01

    The use of the portable gas chromatograph for screening of soil and water samples in the field was part of the drilling program for the installation of monitoring wells for a basewide ground-water monitoring program at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Selected soil and ground-water samples were screened in the field for volatile organic compounds to determine if contamination was present, to define the vertical and lateral extent of contamination, and to aid in the placement of the well screens for optimal interception of contaminants. This report describes the screening methods, sample-collection, quality-assurance/quality-control methods, and data-interpretation procedures necessary for screening of soil and ground-water samples in the field during the water resources investigations.

  4. 78 FR 68377 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio NOX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... these revisions under the Clean Air Act, which allows for Ohio's Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) NO X Ozone Season Trading Program rules to supersede Ohio's nitrogen oxides (NO X ) State Implementation Plan (SIP) Call Budget Trading Program rules, but leave other requirements of the NO X SIP Call in place...

  5. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 2, Work plan: Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  6. 78 FR 63436 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Dayton-Springfield...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...-2013-0378; FRL-9901-62-Region5] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio... to revise the 1997 8-hour ozone maintenance air quality state implementation plan (SIP) for the... County, Ohio. The Toledo area consists of Lucas and Wood Counties. The Ohio portion of the...

  7. URBAN SPRAWL MODELING, AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND RISK COMMUNICATION: THE NORTHEAST OHIO PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northeast Ohio Urban Sprawl, Air Quality Monitoring, and Communications Project (hereafter called the Northeast Ohio Project) provides local environmental and health information useful to residents, local officials, community planners, and others in a 15 county region in the ...

  8. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Sampling and analysis plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  9. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  10. 40 CFR 81.70 - Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.70 Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta (Ohio)...

  11. 40 CFR 81.70 - Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.70 Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta (Ohio)...

  12. 40 CFR 81.70 - Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.70 Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta (Ohio)...

  13. 40 CFR 81.70 - Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.70 Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta (Ohio)...

  14. 40 CFR 81.70 - Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.70 Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta (Ohio)...

  15. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... methods: 1. http://www.regulations.gov : Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. 2. E...: Melissa M. Barnhart, Environmental Scientist, Control Strategies Section, Air Programs Branch...

  16. 75 FR 73025 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Portion of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... of the Cincinnati-Hamilton Area; 8-Hour Ozone Maintenance Plan AGENCY: Environmental Protection... plan for the Ohio portion of the Cincinnati-Hamilton, OH-KY-IN 8-hour ozone area. The Cincinnati-Hamilton area includes Butler, Clermont, Clinton, Hamilton, and Warren Counties in Ohio,...

  17. 78 FR 19990 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... the relocated air quality standard rules. This action was published at 75 FR 65572 as a direct final... previously approved, most notably including revisions that EPA had proposed to disapprove (see 70 FR 36901... Register on October 26, 2010 (75 FR 65572), on page 65574 in the second column, the paragraph numbered...

  18. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Appendix A, Part 1, Field Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  19. 78 FR 19128 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate... state implementation plan (SIP) to a full approval. Ohio submitted a request to approve revised particulate matter (PM) rules on February 23, 2012. The PM rule revisions being approved establish...

  20. 78 FR 19164 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate... proposing to convert a conditional approval of specified provisions of the Ohio state implementation plan...) rules on February 23, 2012. The PM rule revisions being approved establish work practices for...

  1. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Matter Standards.'' The revisions were submitted by Ohio EPA to satisfy the State's 5-year review... Matter Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is... revise the Ohio State Implementation Plan under the Clean Air Act. The State has submitted revisions...

  2. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Steubenville, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.; Dockery, D.W. )

    1992-01-01

    Particulate air pollution has been associated with daily mortality in London, England, both in the smog episodes of the 1950s and at the lower pollution levels of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Replicating these findings in the United States has been difficult, because particulates are usually sampled every sixth day. Replication, particularly with a gravimetric measure of particulates, is important in assessing the causality of the relation. Daily measurements of total suspended particulates by high volume gravimetric sampler are available for the Steubenville, Ohio, metropolitan area. These were matched to daily mortality counts from the detail mortality tapes of the National Center for Health Statistics. Deaths of residents which occurred outside the Steubenville Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were excluded. Because of the much smaller population, the average total number of deaths per day in the Steubenville Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area over the 11-year period 1974-1984 was about 1% of the deaths in a typical London winter. Despite this reduced statistical power, total suspended particulate count was significantly associated with increased daily mortality in Poisson regression analyses controlling for season and temperature. An increase in particulates of 100 micrograms/m3 was associated with a 4% increase in mortality on the succeeding day. Associations with sulfur dioxide were not significant after adjustment for particulates. The relation appeared to continue at levels well below the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard.

  3. 76 FR 40246 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of Gasoline...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... rule under the Clean Air Act pertaining to a request for the use of low Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) fuel... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Carolyn Persoon, Environmental Engineer, Control Strategies Section, Air Programs...

  4. Sex Differences in Neuropsychological Function and Manganese in Air, Blood, Hair, and Toenails in Ohio Residents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: This study compares manganese (Mn) in air, blood, hair, and toenails and neuropsychological function of 110 women and 76 men, environmentally exposed to Mn in air (Mn-air) in two Ohio towns from a ferromanganese smelter and a soil Mn-packaging facility.Method: Biomark...

  5. 75 FR 72954 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Portion of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... background for this action? On May 11, 2010 (75 FR 26118), EPA redesignated the Ohio and Indiana portions of... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993... Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999); Is not an economically significant regulatory...

  6. 78 FR 53275 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Redesignation of the Ohio...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ...? On December 2, 2011 (76 FR 75464), EPA issued a final determination that the Parkersburg-Marietta and... standard. On November 30, 2012 (77 FR 71383, 77 FR 71371), EPA published notices proposing to approve Ohio..., 2012, requests for redesignation. On June 26, 2013 (78 FR 38256, 78 FR 38247), EPA...

  7. 76 FR 79593 - Approval, and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Redesignation of the Ohio...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... redesignation of the Ohio portion of the Huntington-Ashland (OH-KY-WV) nonattainment area to attainment of the... entire Huntington-Ashland (OH-KY-WV) area continues to attain the 1997 annual PM 2.5 standard. EPA is... implementation regulation regarding the 1997 p.m. 2.5 NAAQS. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  8. Ohio Aluminum Industries: Compressed air system improvement project saves energy and improves product quality

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, Ohio Aluminum Industries implemented the first phase of a compressed air system improvement project at its Cleveland, Ohio, plant. By completing this phase, the plant stabilized the system's pressure and improved its performance. Furthermore, it yielded annual energy savings of 716,000 kilowatt-hours and $73,200. The total cost for the project's first phase was $83,500, making the simple payback slightly more than 1 year.

  9. 78 FR 69337 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio SO2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Plan (SIP) approval, revisions to Ohio Administrative Code (OAC) rules: 3745-18-01, 3745-18- 03 to 3745-18-52, 3745-18-54 to 3745-18-77, 3745-18-79, 3745-18-81 to 3745-18-89, and 3745-18-91 to 3745-18-94... specific paragraphs in OAC 3745-18-04. DATES: Comments must be received on or before December 19,...

  10. Characterization of Air Manganese Exposure Estimates for Residents in Two Ohio Towns

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to derive receptor-specific outdoor exposure concentrations of total suspended particulate (TSP) and respirable (dae ≤1O µm) air manganese (air-Mn) for East Liverpool and Marietta (Ohio) in the absence of facility emissions data, but where long-t...

  11. 40 CFR 81.64 - Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland... (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control...

  12. 40 CFR 81.64 - Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland... (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control...

  13. 40 CFR 81.64 - Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland... (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control...

  14. 40 CFR 81.64 - Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland... (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control...

  15. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Appendix A, Draft standard operating procedures and elements: Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation, Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  16. Heating, Ventilation, Air-conditioning, and Refrigeration. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration occupations. The list contains units (with and without…

  17. 77 FR 59879 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; PBR and PTIO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; PBR and PTIO AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing...

  18. 77 FR 71371 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Redesignation of the Ohio...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... for PM 2.5 based on quality-assured, certified 2007-2009 ambient air monitoring data (76 FR 75464), we... 18, 1997, at 62 FR 38652. EPA promulgated an annual standard at a level of 15 micrograms per cubic... each monitoring site. On January 5, 2005, at 70 FR 944, EPA published air quality area designations...

  19. 77 FR 71383 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Redesignation of the Ohio...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... attainment date based on quality- assured, certified 2007-2009 ambient air monitoring data (76 FR 75464), we... were promulgated on July 18, 1997, at 62 FR 38652. EPA promulgated an annual standard at a level of 15... at each monitoring site. On January 5, 2005, at 70 FR 944, EPA published air quality...

  20. Contributing recharge areas to water-supply wells at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheets, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, in southwestern Ohio, has operated three well fields--Area B, Skeel Road, and the East Well Fields--to supply potable water for consumption and use for base activities. To protect these well fields from contamination and to comply with the Ohio Wellhead Protection Plan, the Base is developing a wellhead-protection program for the well fields. A three-dimensional, steady-state ground-water-flow model was developed in 1993 to simulate heads in (1) the buried-valley aquifer system that is tapped by the two active well fields, and in (2) an upland bedrock aquifer that may supply water to the wells. An advective particle-tracking algorithm that requires estimated porosities and simulated heads was used to estimate ground-water-flow pathlines and traveltimes to the active well fields. Contributing recharge areas (CRA's)--areas on the water table that contribute water to a well or well field--were generated for 1-, 5-, and 10-year traveltimes. Results from the simulation and subsequent particle tracking indicate that the CRA's for the Skeel Road Well Fields are oval and extend north- ward, toward the Mad River, as pumping at the well field increases. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of Skeel Road Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.5, 1.5 and 3.2 square miles, respectively. The CRA's for the Area B Well Field extend to the north, up the Mad River Valley; as pumping increases at the well field, the CRA's extend up the Mad River Valley under Huffman Dam. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of Area B Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.1, 0.5, and 0.9 square miles, respectively. The CRA's for the East Well Field are affected by nearby streams under average pumping conditions. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of the East Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.2, 1.2, and 2.4 square miles, respectively. However, as pumping increases

  1. 78 FR 38256 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Redesignation of the Ohio...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... standard (76 FR 75464). On November 30, 2012, EPA published a proposed rulemaking determining further that... the CAA (77 FR 71383). In that rulemaking EPA proposed several related actions. First, EPA proposed to.... Circuit remanded to EPA the ``Final Clean Air Fine Particle Implementation Rule'' (72 FR 20586, April...

  2. 78 FR 38247 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Redesignation of the Ohio...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... 1997 annual PM 2.5 standard (76 FR 75464). On November 30, 2012, EPA published a proposed rulemaking... 107(d)(3)(E) of the CAA (77 FR 71371). In that rulemaking EPA proposed several related actions. First... Clean Air Fine Particle Implementation Rule'' (72 FR 20586, April 25, 2007) and the ``Implementation...

  3. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  4. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  5. Estimating Air-Manganese Exposures in Two Ohio Towns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese (Mn), a nutrient required for normal metabolic function, is also a persistent air pollutant and a known neurotoxin at high concentrations. Elevated exposures can result in a number of motor and cognitive deficits. Quantifying chronic personal exposures in residential po...

  6. 40 CFR 81.64 - Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.64 Huntington... Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control...

  7. Ohio EPA Teachers Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Environmental Protection Agency, Columbus.

    In an effort to provide teachers in Ohio with assistance in environmental education, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has produced this teachers kit. It is designed to describe what the Ohio EPA is doing to protect Ohio's air, land, and water. The background information provides an historical account of some of the events that have…

  8. Edge-of-field evaluation of the Ohio phosphorus risk index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Phosphorus Index (PI) has been the cornerstone for phosphorus (P)-based management and planning over the past twenty years; yet, field-scale evaluation of many state PIs has been limited. In this study, measured P loads in surface runoff and tile discharge from 40 agricultural fields in Ohio wit...

  9. Dislodgeable azinphosmethyl residues from air blast spraying of apple foliage in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Hall, F R; Reichard, D L; Krueger, H R

    1975-01-01

    The distribution and decay rates of dislodgeable residues of azinphosmethyl applied by two types of air blast sprayers on apple foliage in Ohio were investigated. Leaf discs were taken from nine sites located on the periphery of Cortland apple trees at five dates after spraying. The sprayer delivering the higher airflow rate, but lower velocity, deposited the pesticide much more uniformly over the trees and applied more in the top of the tree. The other sprayer deposited the greatest proportion of pesticide on the site nearest the sprayer. The residue decreased at all sites and ranged from 42 to near 100% decrease at 14 days after spraying.

  10. 78 FR 6064 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio and Indiana; Cincinnati...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ...; Cincinnati-Hamilton, Ohio, Ohio and Indiana 1997 8- Hour Ozone Maintenance Plan Revisions to Approved Motor...: EPA is proposing to approve the request by Ohio and Indiana to revise the Cincinnati-Hamilton, 1997 8... Simulator (MOVES) 2010a emissions model. The Ohio and Indiana portions of the Cincinnati- Hamilton...

  11. International Air Travel to Ohio, USA, and the Impact on Malaria, Influenza, and Hepatitis A

    PubMed Central

    Brannen, Donald E.; Alhammad, Ali; Branum, Melissa; Schmitt, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The State of Ohio led the United States in measles in 2014, ostensibly related to international air travel (IAT), and ranked lower than 43 other states in infectious disease outbreak preparedness. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using surveillance data of the total Ohio population of 11 million from 2010 through 2014 with a nested case control of air travelers to determine the risk of malaria, seasonal influenza hospitalizations (IH), and hepatitis A (HA) disease related to international travel and to estimate the association with domestic enplanement. IAT appeared protective for HA and IH with a risk of 0.031 (.02–.04) but for malaria was 2.7 (2.07–3.62). Enplanement increased the risk for nonendemic M 3.5 (2.5–4.9) and for HA and IH 1.39 (1.34–1.44). IAT's ratio of relative risk (RRR) of malaria to HA and IH was 87.1 (55.8–136) greater than 219 times versus domestic enplanement which was protective for malaria at 0.397 (0.282–0.559). Malaria is correlated with IAT with cases increasing by 6.9 for every 10,000 passports issued. PMID:27123365

  12. Characterization of air manganese exposure estimates for residents in two Ohio towns

    PubMed Central

    Colledge, Michelle A.; Julian, Jaime R.; Gocheva, Vihra V.; Beseler, Cheryl L.; Roels, Harry A.; Lobdell, Danelle T.; Bowler, Rosemarie M.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to derive receptor-specific outdoor exposure concentrations of total suspended particulate (TSP) and respirable (dae ≤ 10 μm) air manganese (air-Mn) for East Liverpool and Marietta (Ohio) in the absence of facility emissions data, but where long-term air measurements were available. Our “site-surface area emissions method” used U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) AERMOD (AMS/EPA Regulatory Model) dispersion model and air measurement data to estimate concentrations for residential receptor sites in the two communities. Modeled concentrations were used to create ratios between receptor points and calibrated using measured data from local air monitoring stations. Estimated outdoor air-Mn concentrations were derived for individual study subjects in both towns. The mean estimated long-term air-Mn exposure levels for total suspended particulate were 0.35 μg/m3 (geometric mean [GM]) and 0.88 μg/m3 (arithmetic mean [AM]) in East Liverpool (range: 0.014–6.32 μg/m3) and 0.17 μg/m3 (GM) and 0.21 μg/m3 (AM) in Marietta (range: 0.03–1.61 μg/m3). Modeled results compared well with averaged ambient air measurements from local air monitoring stations. Exposure to respirable Mn particulate matter (PM10; PM <10 μm) was higher in Marietta residents. Implications Few available studies evaluate long-term health outcomes from inhalational manganese (Mn) exposure in residential populations, due in part to challenges in measuring individual exposures. Local long-term air measurements provide the means to calibrate models used in estimating long-term exposures. Furthermore, this combination of modeling and ambient air sampling can be used to derive receptor-specific exposure estimates even in the absence of source emissions data for use in human health outcome studies. PMID:26211636

  13. Statistical summary of air quality data for metropolitian Cleveland, Ohio, 1967 - 1972: Total suspended particulates, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Neustadter, H. E.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C., Jr.; Cornett, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    Air-quality data for metropolitan Cleveland, Ohio, from 1967 through 1972 were collated and statistically analyzed. Total suspended particulates (TSP) departed from lognormal distribution in 1972. Nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, departed significantly from lognormal distributions in 1972. In Cleveland the Ohio standards were not met. However, the data indicate a general improvement in air quality. Unusually high precipitation (43% above the average in 1972) may be responsible in lowering these values from the 1971 levels. The mean values of TSP, NO2, and SO2 are 104, 191, and 83 microgram/cu m respectively.

  14. Investigation of Air Transportation Technology at Ohio University, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The activities of the participants in the Joint University Program (JUP) at Ohio University are briefly surveyed. During 1989 to 1990, five topics received emphasis. A spectrum-efficient weather data uplink system was designed, constructed, and flight tested. An integrated Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) study continued, utilizing the Redundant strapdown Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) on loan from NASA. The Ridge Regression theory was refined and applied to air navigation scenarios. System Identification theory was applied to GPS data to point the way to better understanding of the effects of Selective Availability on civilian users of this navigation system. An analysis of thought-related (electroencephalographic) signals for application to control of computer systems that could have significance in aiding paraplegics or for hands-off systems control in industrial or air traffic control areas was carried out.

  15. Estimation of air pollution-related mortality for the Ohio River Basin Energy Study Region

    SciTech Connect

    Arbogast, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    A cross-section analysis for 1976 is performed by estimating conventional health-damage specifications. Better air-quality data are used and socio-economic controls are instituted to derive a more-accurate estimate of the air pollution-related mortality by disease that is attributable to the residuals discharge by the coal-fired electric-utility sector of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study Region (ORBES). Diseases suspected of being sensitively associated with air pollution as mortality responses are categorized as cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Air pollutants are SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 4/, and particulates for years 1976, 1985, and 2000 and for scenarios of utility compliance and noncompliance to state air-pollution regulations. The empirical results reveal that SO/sub 2/, particulates, and SO/sub 4/ are pernicious in that order and that noncompliance-related mortality is 1.6 times the compliance-related mortality. Most important is that logit and ridge regression, respectively, indicate in many instances that stochastic bio-responses to air pollution and multicollinearity among the data vectors strongly bias (overestimate) the linear least-squares estimates.

  16. 76 FR 64880 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio and Indiana; Redesignation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ...; Redesignation of the Cincinnati-Hamilton Area to Attainment of the 1997 Annual Standard for Fine Particulate... approve Ohio's and Indiana's requests to redesignate their respective portions of the Cincinnati-Hamilton OH-IN- KY nonattainment area (for Ohio: Butler, Clermont, Hamilton, and Warren Counties, Ohio; for...

  17. CTEPP: RECRUITING AND FIELD SAMPLING IN NORTH CAROLINA AND OHIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research field study (CTEPP) of approximately 260 preschool children's exposures to persistent organic pollutants in their everyday environments began in early 2000. CTEPP is a multimedia study of the children's aggregate (total) exposures over a 48-hr period, both at thei...

  18. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  19. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  20. Correlation of LANDSAT lineaments with Devonian gas fields in Lawrence County, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G. O.

    1981-01-01

    In an effort to locate sources of natural gas in Ohio, the fractures and lineaments in Black Devonian shale were measured by: (1) field mapping of joints, swarms, and fractures; (2) stereophotointerpretation of geomorphic lineaments with precise photoquads; and (3) by interpreting the linear features on LANDSAT images. All results were compiled and graphically represented on 1:250,000 scale maps. The geologic setting of Lawrence County was defined and a field fracture map was generated and plotted as rose patterns at the exposure site. All maps were compared, contrasted, and correlated by superimposing each over the other as a transparency. The LANDSAT lineaments had significant correlation with the limits of oil and gas producing fields. These limits included termination of field production as well as extensions to other fields. The lineaments represent real rock fractures with zones of increased permeability in the near surface bedrock.

  1. Correlation of LANDSAT lineaments with Devonian gas fields in Lawrence County, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.O.

    1981-01-01

    In an effort to locate sources of natural gas in Ohio, the fractures and lineaments in Black Devonian shale were measured by: (1) field mapping of joints, swarms, and fractures (2) stereophotointerpretation of geomorphic lineaments with precise photoquads and (3) by interpreting the linear features on LANDSAT images. All results were compiled and graphically represented on 1:250,000 scale maps. The geologic setting of Lawrence County was defined and a field fracture map was generated and plotted as rose patterns at the exposure site. All maps were compared, contrasted, and correlated by superimposing each over the other as a transparency. The LANDSAT lineaments had significant correlation with the limits of oil and gas producing fields. These limits included termination of field production as well as extensions to other fields. The lineaments represent real rock fractures with zones of increased permeability in the near surface bedrock.

  2. 78 FR 63388 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Dayton-Springfield...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Plan Revision to Approved Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA..., West Virginia-Ohio areas, to replace onroad emissions inventories and motor vehicle emissions budgets (budgets) with inventories and budgets developed using EPA's Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator...

  3. 40 CFR 81.202 - Northwest Ohio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... within the outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Ohio: Allen County, Auglaize..., Logan County, Mercer County, Paulding County, Putman County, Shelby County, Van Wert County,...

  4. 40 CFR 81.202 - Northwest Ohio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... within the outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Ohio: Allen County, Auglaize..., Logan County, Mercer County, Paulding County, Putman County, Shelby County, Van Wert County,...

  5. 40 CFR 81.202 - Northwest Ohio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... within the outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Ohio: Allen County, Auglaize..., Logan County, Mercer County, Paulding County, Putman County, Shelby County, Van Wert County,...

  6. 40 CFR 81.202 - Northwest Ohio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... within the outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Ohio: Allen County, Auglaize..., Logan County, Mercer County, Paulding County, Putman County, Shelby County, Van Wert County,...

  7. 40 CFR 81.202 - Northwest Ohio Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... within the outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Ohio: Allen County, Auglaize..., Logan County, Mercer County, Paulding County, Putman County, Shelby County, Van Wert County,...

  8. Statistical summary and trend evaluation of air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio in 1967 to 1971: Total suspended particulate, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; Burr, J. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio, for the period of 1967 to 1971 were collated and subjected to statistical analysis. The total suspended particulate component is lognormally distributed; while sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are reasonably approximated by lognormal distributions. Only sulfur dioxide, in some residential neighborhoods, meets Ohio air quality standards. Air quality has definitely improved in the industrial valley, while in the rest of the city, only sulfur dioxide has shown consistent improvement. A pollution index is introduced which displays directly the degree to which the environmental air conforms to mandated standards.

  9. Reservoir management strategy for East Randolph Field, Randolph Township, Portage County, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Safley, L.E.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.; Fowler, M.L.; Wing, J.L.; Thomas, J.B.; Mills, J.; Wood, D.

    1998-07-01

    The primary objective of the Reservoir Management Field Demonstration Program is to demonstrate that multidisciplinary reservoir management teams using appropriate software and methodologies with efforts scaled to the size of the resource are a cost-effective method for: Increasing current profitability of field operations; Forestalling abandonment of the reservoir; and Improving long-term economic recovery for the company. The primary objective of the Reservoir Management Demonstration Project with Belden and Blake Corporation is to develop a comprehensive reservoir management strategy to improve the operational economics and optimize oil production from East Randolph field, Randolph Township, Portage County, Ohio. This strategy identifies the viable improved recovery process options and defines related operational and facility requirements. In addition, strategies are addressed for field operation problems, such as paraffin buildup, hydraulic fracture stimulation, pumping system optimization, and production treatment requirements, with the goal of reducing operating costs and improving oil recovery.

  10. 76 FR 76048 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio and Indiana; Redesignation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... October 19, 2011 (76 FR 64825), direct final rule approving Ohio's and Indiana's requests to redesignate... October 19, 2011 (76 FR 64880). EPA will not institute a second comment period on this action. DATES: The direct final rule published at 76 FR 64825 on October 19, 2011, is withdrawn as of December 6, 2011....

  11. 78 FR 11748 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; PBR and PTIO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... October 10, 2001 (66 FR 51570) and fully approved on January 22, 2003 (68 FR 2909). For nonattainment areas, the program was fully approved on January 10, 2003 (68 FR 1366). Included in this program at OAC... exemption, PTIO, and General Permit program provisions (77 FR 59751) as a revision to Ohio's SIP....

  12. 78 FR 62459 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Redesignation of the Canton...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... secondary manner through chemical reactions or other processes in the atmosphere. \\2\\ NO X and SO 2 are precursors for fine particulates through chemical reactions and other related processes in the atmosphere... plan for the area. On August 7, 2013, (78 FR 48087), EPA proposed approval of Ohio's...

  13. Ohio Environmental Education Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Ruth W.

    This is a guide to regional sites in Ohio which can be studied in regard to resource management; land use; the quality of air, water, soil; and reclamation. The first section of the guide includes brief descriptions of Ohio's natural features at the present time, accounts of past appearances and events, and predictions for the future. In the…

  14. Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), the causal agent of High Plains disease, is present in Ohio wheat fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), the causal agent of High Plains disease in wheat, was found in wheat fields in three western counties in Ohio: Auglaize, Miami, and Paulding. WMoV nucleoprotein sequence was identified from Illumina deep sequencing of RNA collected from symptomatic and asymptomatic wheat s...

  15. Edge-of-field research to quantify the impacts of agricultural practices on water quality in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage is needed to sustain agricultural production to meet the demands of a growing global population, but it also transports nutrients from fields to surface water bodies. The State of Ohio is facing the tremendous challenge of maintaining agricultural production while protecting the environment...

  16. Use of passive alpha detectors to screen for uranium contamination in a field at Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, C.S.; Meyer, K.E.; Gammage, R.B.; Wheeler, R.V.; Salasky, M.; Kotrappa, P.

    1995-06-01

    This paper reports the results from a field test of newly developed techniques for inexpensive, in situ screening of soil for alpha contamination. Passive alpha detectors that are commercially available for the detection indoor airborne alpha activity (i.e., {sup 222}Rn) have been modified so they can be applied to the detection of alpha contamination on surfaces or in soils. Results reported here are from an intercomparison involving several different techniques with all measurements being made at the same sites in a field near the formerly used uranium processing facility at Fernald, Ohio, during the summer of 1994. The results for two types of passive alpha detector show that the quality of calibration is improved if soils samples are milled to increase homogeneity within the soil matrices. The correlation between laboratory based radiochemical analyses and quick, field-based screening measurements is acceptable and can be improved if the passive devices are left for longer exposure times in the field. The total cost per measurement for either type of passive alpha detector is probably less than $25 and should provide a cost-effective means for site managers to develop the information needed to find areas with remaining alpha contamination so resources can be allocated efficiently.

  17. Ground water levels in the vicinity of the Miami well field, Montgomery County, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Schucker, J.M. ); Hallfrisch, M. )

    1992-01-01

    During the early stages of the drought of 1987-88 in Ohio, a number of diminished capacity complaints were received from domestic well owners in northwestern Montgomery County. Most home owners blamed the nearby Dayton-Miami Well Field (MWF). The MWF is situated in a preglacial, bedrock valley filled with outwash deposits. In this area, sand and gravel outwash deposits from a buried valley aquifer. Glacial outwash also covers that uplands to the west, where a large number of domestic water wells are located. Recharge to the uplands is primarily by infiltration of precipitation. The buried valley aquifer is recharged via infiltration from the Great Miami River and precipitation. Recharge into the valley aquifer is enhanced from man-made recharge lagoons near the well field. Additional recharge to the well field occurs from ground water inflow from north of the well field, and inflow from the adjacent uplands to the east. Temporal changes in the extent of the cone of depression surrounding the well field are shown on potentiometric surface maps. Furthermore, the cone of depression extends into the glacial outwash deposits underlying the upland area, clearly indicating a hydraulic connection between the buried valley aquifer and these glacial outwash deposits beneath the upland area. This expanding cone of depression indicates that increased pumping is exceeding recharge and ground water is being removed from aquifer storage. Ground water levels in the MWF reached their lowest point during the drought of 1987-88. This was the period during which most domestic well failures occurred. If production from the MWF continues to increase and/or this region experience another prolonged drought, dewatering of domestic wells east of the MWF will likely reoccur.

  18. Estimation of the recharge areas contributing water to the south well field, Columbus, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, C.W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    The city of Columbus, Ohio, operates four radial collector wells, designed to yield 42 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), in southern Franklin County, Ohio, as part of their municipal supply of water. The collector wells are adjacent to, and designed to induce infiltration from, Big Walnut Creek and Scioto River. A previously constructed, three-dimensional, steady-state and transient ground-water-flow model of this river-aquifer system was used to estimate contributing recharge areas (CRA's) and calculate particle flowpaths in southern Franklin County. The simulations were of two steady-state periods (October 1979 and March 1986) and one 5-year transient period (March 1986---June 1991). The first simulation (1979) was of conditions before construction of the collector wells. The second simulation (1986) was of conditions when the collector wells were producing 8 Mgal/d. During the 5 years covered in the transient simulation, production at the well field averaged 18.5 Mgal/d. Under the 1979 conditions, the largest ground-water contributing areas were of the quarries and Scioto River (41 and 47 percent of the study area, respectively). During 1986, when 8 Mgal/d was withdrawn, the primary contributing areas were of the quarries (40 percent), collector wells (34 percent), and rivers (8 percent). Travel times associated with simulated particles of water tracked from cells along Big Walnut Creek to their discharge points in cells along Scioto River were about 5 to 60 years in the 1979 simulation and about 7 to 41 years in the 1986 simulation. The endpoints of these particles varied as simulated pumping rates were increased to 22 Mgal/d. The 1986, 10-year CRA's of the collector wells under 8 Mgal/d-conditions totalled about 4.5 mi2. As the pumping rate was increased to 22 Mgal/d in a predictive simulation, 10-year CRA's of the collector wells increased to 6.7mi2. Because the transient simulation encompassed only 5 years, the 10-year CRA's could not be estimated from the

  19. Lithologic, natural-gamma, grain-size, and well-construction data for Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; De Roche, Jeffrey T.

    1991-01-01

    Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, in southwestern Ohio, overlies a buried-valley aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey installed 35 observation wells at 13 sites on the base from fall 1988 through spring 1990. Fourteen of the wells were completed in bedrock; the remaining wells were completed in unconsolidated sediments. Split-spoon and bedrock cores were collected from all of the bedrock wells. Shelby-tube samples were collected from four wells. The wells were drilled by either the cable-tool or rotary method. Data presented in this report include lithologic and natural-gamma logs, and, for selected sediment samples, grain-size distributions of permeability. Final well-construction details, such as the total depth of well, screened interval, and grouting details, also are presented.

  20. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Bill

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  1. Lag times of bank filtration at a well field, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheets, R.A.; Darner, R.A.; Whitteberry, B.L.

    2002-01-01

    Wells placed next to surface-water bodies to induce infiltration have come under scrutiny because of the presence of the potential pathogens in surface water. Removal of pathogens and other contaminants by bank filtration is assumed, but regulatory agencies question the effectiveness of this process. To investigate transport processes of biological constituents, advective groundwater traveltimes to production wells under the influence of surface water need to be established first to determine appropriate water-quality sampling schedules. This paper presents the results of a study of bank filtration at a well field in southwestern Ohio. Field parameters such as water level, specific conductance, and water temperature were measured at least hourly at a streamflow gaging station and at five monitoring wells each at two separate sites, corresponding to two nearby production wells. Water-quality samples also were collected in all wells and the streamflow gaging station. Specific conductance is directly related to concentration of chloride, a chemically conservative constituent. Cross-correlation methods were used to determine the average traveltime from the river to the monitoring wells. Traveltimes based on specific conductance ranged from approximately 20 h to 10 days at one site and 5 days to 3 months at the other site. Calculated groundwater flow velocities ranged from 2.1 ?? 10-3 to 6.0 ?? 10-3 cm/s and 3.5 ?? 10-4 to 7.1 ?? 10-4 cm/s at the two sites. Data collected when a production well is continuously pumping reveal shorter and more consistent traveltimes than when the same well is pumped intermittently. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

  3. Evaluation of ground-water flow by particle tracking, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, W.L.; Sheets, R.A.; Schalk, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) began a Basewide Monitoring Program (BMP) in 1992. The purpose of the BMP was to establish a long-term ground-water and surface- water sampling network in order to (1) characterize current ground-water and surface-water quality; (2) describe water-quality changes as water enters, flows across, and exits Base boundaries; (3) conduct statistical analyses of water quality; and (4) estimate the effect of WPAFB on regional water quality. As part of the BMP, the USGS conducted ground-water particle-tracking analyses based on a ground-water-flow model produced during a previous USGS study. This report briefly describes the previous USGS study, the inherent assumptions of particle-tracking analyses, and information on the regional ground-water-flow field as inferred from particle pathlines. Pathlines for particles placed at the Base boundary and particles placed within identified Installation Restoration Program sites are described.

  4. 77 FR 11741 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; New Source Review Rules...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Andrea Morgan, Environmental Engineer, Air Permits Section, Air Programs... 60604, (312) 353-6058, morgan.andrea@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. How can I get copies of... you contact Andrea Morgan, Environmental Engineer, at (312) 353-6058 before visiting the Region...

  5. Field study for disposal of solid wastes from Advanced Coal Processes: Ohio LIMB Site Assessment. Final report, April 1986--November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.; Coel, B.J.; Butler, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    New air pollution regulations will require cleaner, more efficient processes for converting coal to electricity, producing solid byproducts or wastes that differ from conventional pulverized-coal combustion ash. Large scale landfill test cells containing byproducts were built at 3 sites and are to be monitored over at least 3 years. This report presents results of a 3-y field test at an ash disposal site in northern Ohio; the field test used ash from a combined lime injection-multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant. The landfill test cells used LIMB ash wetted only to control dusting in one cell, and LIMB ash wetted to optimize compaction density in the other cell. Both test cells had adequate load-bearing strength for landfill stability but had continuing dimensional instability. Heaving and expansion did not affect the landfill stability but probably contributed to greater permeability to infiltrating water. Leachate migration occurred from the base, but effects on downgradient groundwater were limited to increased chloride concentration in one well. Compressive strength of landfilled ash was adequate to support equipment, although permeability was higher and strength was lower than anticipated. Average moisture content has increased to about 90% (dry weight basis). Significant water infiltration has occurred; the model suggests that as much as 20% of the incident rainfall will pass through and exit as leachate. However, impacts on shallow ground water is minimal. Results of this field study suggest that LIMB ash from combustion of moderate to high sulfur coals will perform acceptably if engineering controls are used to condition and compact the materials, reduce water influx to the landfill, and minimize leachate production. Handling of the ash did not pose serious problems during cell construction; steaming and heat buildup were moderate.

  6. 75 FR 25797 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; General Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ...: Andy Chang, Environmental Engineer, Criteria Pollutant Section, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), U.S..., chang.andy@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Rules section of this Federal Register, EPA...

  7. 78 FR 66320 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio: Bellefontaine; Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ...; Determination of Attainment for the 2008 Lead Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... attained the 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS). In this action, EPA is...

  8. An aerial radiological survey of the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and surrounding area, Fairborn, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over areas of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) and the immediate surrounding area, during the period July 7 through 20, 1994. The survey was conducted to measure and map the gamma radiation in the area. This mission was the first aerial radiation survey conducted at WPAFB. In the surveyed area, five small localized sources of gamma radiation were detected which were atypical of naturally-occurring radionuclides. On WPAFB property, these sources included a radiation storage facility in Area B (krypton-85) and an ash pile near the Area C flight line (low energy gamma activity). In the area covered outside WPAFB boundaries, sources included cesium-137 in excess of worldwide fallout over a landfill in a northern Dayton industrial area, an X-ray radiography source over a steel plant in the same industrial area, and a mixture of cesium-137 in excess of worldwide fallout and possibly iridium-192 in an area near Crystal Lakes, Ohio. The naturally-occurring gamma emitters (uranium-238 and progeny, thorium and progeny, and potassium-40) were detected in the remaining area with a total exposure rate range of 4 to 16 {mu}R/h; this range is typical of that found in the United States, 1 to 20 {mu}R/h.

  9. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 9, Removal action system design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  10. 76 FR 28393 - Proposed Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plan; Ohio and West Virginia; Determinations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...) revisions related to attainment of the 1997 annual PM 2.5 NAAQS shall be suspended for so long as the Areas... the on-line instructions for submitting comments. 2. E-mail: aburano.douglas@epa.gov . 3. Fax: (312) 408-2279. 4. Mail: Douglas Aburano, Chief, Control Strategies Section, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J),...

  11. 78 FR 66845 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Redesignation of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ...; Redesignation of the Columbus Area to Attainment of the 1997 Annual Standard for Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY... particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS or standard). EPA is determining... Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material,...

  12. 76 FR 43634 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia and Ohio...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    .... The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not... publicly available only in hard copy form. Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically in http://www.regulations.gov or in hard copy during normal business hours at the Air...

  13. 78 FR 59258 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Redesignation of the Dayton...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... publicly available only in hard copy form. Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically through www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Environmental Protection Agency, Region 5, Air... whenever ``we,'' ``us,'' or ``our'' is used, we mean EPA. This supplementary information section...

  14. 78 FR 48087 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Redesignation of the Canton...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ..., and be free of any defects or viruses. For additional instructions on submitting comments, go to... 18, 1997, at 62 FR 38652. EPA promulgated an annual standard at a level of 15 micrograms per cubic... monitoring site. On January 5, 2005, at 70 FR 944, EPA published air quality area designations for the...

  15. 78 FR 52733 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Redesignation of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... standards for PM 2.5 were promulgated on July 18, 1997, at 62 FR 38652. EPA promulgated an annual standard... concentrations at each monitoring site. On January 5, 2005, at 70 FR 944, EPA published air quality area.... On October 17, 2006, at 71 FR 61144, the EPA retained the annual PM 2.5 standard at 15 g/m\\3\\...

  16. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  17. 77 FR 39177 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Regional Haze

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Strategies Section, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), Environmental Protection Agency, Region 5, 77 West Jackson... codified at 40 CFR 51.308. This rule was promulgated on July 1, 1999 (64 FR 35713). Further significant provisions were promulgated on July 6, 2005, providing further guidance on provisions related to...

  18. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at the South Well Field, Columbus, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, W.L.; Bair, E.S.; Yost, W.P.

    1996-01-01

    The City of Columbus, Ohio, operates four radial collector wells in southern Franklin County. The 'South Well Field' is completed in permeable outwash and ice-contact deposits, upon which flow the Scioto River and Big Walnut Creek. The wells are designed to yield approximately 42 million gallons per day; part of that yield results from induced infiltration of surface water from the Scioto River and Big Walnut Creek. The well field supplied up to 30 percent of the water supply of southern Columbus and its suburbs in 1991. This report describes the hydrogeology of southern Franklin County and a tran sient three-dimensional, numerical ground-water- flow model of the South Well Field. The primary source of ground water in the study area is the glacial drift aquifer. The glacial drift is composed of sand, gravel, and clay depos ited during the Illinoian and Wisconsinan glaciations. In general, thick deposits of till containing lenses of sand and gravel dominate the drift in the area west of the Scioto River. The thickest and most productive parts of the glacial drift aquifer are in the buried valleys in the central and eastern parts of the study area underlying the Scioto River and Big Walnut Creek. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the glacial drift aquifer differs spa tially and ranges from 30 to 375 feet per day. The specific yield ranges from 0.12 to 0.30. The secondary source of ground water within the study area is the underlying carbonate bedrock aquifer, which consists of Silurian and Devonian limestones, dolomites, and shales. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the carbonate bedrock aquifer ranges from 10 to 15 feet per day. The storage coefficient is about 0.0002. The ground-water-flow system in the South Well Field area is recharged by precipitation, regional ground-water flow, and induced stream infiltration. Yearly recharge rates varied spatially and ranged from 4.0 to 12.0 inches. The three-dimensional, ground-water-flow model was constructed by

  19. Ambient particulate air pollution and cardiac arrhythmia in a panel of older adults in Steubenville, Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Sarnat, S E; Suh, H H; Coull, B A; Schwartz, J; Stone, P H; Gold, D R

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Ambient particulate air pollution has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Pathways by which particles may act involve autonomic nervous system dysfunction or inflammation, which can affect cardiac rate and rhythm. The importance of these pathways may vary by particle component or source. In an eastern US location with significant regional pollution, the authors examined the association of air pollution and odds of cardiac arrhythmia in older adults. Methods Thirty two non‐smoking older adults were evaluated on a weekly basis for 24 weeks during the summer and autumn of 2000 with a standardised 30 minute protocol that included continuous electrocardiogram measurements. A central ambient monitoring station provided daily concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5, sulfate, elemental carbon) and gases. Sulfate was used as a marker of regional pollution. The authors used logistic mixed effects regression to examine the odds of having any supraventricular ectopy (SVE) or ventricular ectopy (VE) in association with increases in air pollution for moving average pollutant concentrations up to 10 days before the health assessment. Results Participant specific mean counts of arrhythmia over the protocol varied between 0.1–363 for SVE and 0–350 for VE. The authors observed odds ratios for having SVE over the length of the protocol of 1.42 (95% CI 0.99 to 2.04), 1.70 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.57), and 1.78 (95% CI 0.95 to 3.35) for 10.0 μg/m3, 4.2 μg/m3, and 14.9 ppb increases in five day moving average PM2.5, sulfate, and ozone concentrations respectively. The other pollutants, including elemental carbon, showed no effect on arrhythmia. Participants reporting cardiovascular conditions (for example, previous myocardial infarction or hypertension) were the most susceptible to pollution induced SVE. The authors found no association of pollution with VE. Conclusion Increased levels of ambient sulfate and ozone may increase

  20. Isolation and identification of pathogenic microorganisms at wastewater-irrigated fields: ratios in air and wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Teltsch, B.; Kedmi, S.; Bonnet, L.; Borenzstajn-Rotem, Y.; Katzenelson, E.

    1980-06-01

    Samples of air and corresponding wastewater samples were taken at wastewater spray-irrigated fields. The concentrations of salmonellae and enteroviruses present in these samples were determined and compared with those of coliforms, and the ratios between them were calculated. The most common Salmonella serotype in the air was Salmonella ohio, whereas in the wastewater, Salmonella anatum was the most common. Enteroviruses isolated and identified were poliovirus, echovirus, and coxsackievirus type B. From the ratios of salmonellas to coliforms and enteroviruses to coliforms in the air, as compared to these ratios in the wastewater, it was concluded that the suitability of coliforms as an indication of airborne contamination caused by spray irrigation is questionable.

  1. Results of the basewide monitoring program at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1993-1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, C.W.; Cunningham, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data were collected at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio, as part of Basewide Monitoring Program (BMP) that began in 1992. The BMP was designed as a long-term project to character ground-water and surface-water quality (including streambed sediments), describe water-quality changes as water enters, flows across, and exits the Base, and investigate the effects of activities at WPAFB on regional water quality. Ground water, surface ware, and streambed sediment were sampled in four rounds between August 1993 and September 1994 to provide the analytical data needed to address the objectives of the BMP. Surface-water-sampling rounds were designed to include most of the seasonal hydrologic conditions encountered in southwestern Ohio, including baseflow conditions and spring runoff. Ground-water-sampling rounds were scheduled for times of recession and recharfe. Ground-water data were used to construct water-table, potentiometric, and vertical gradient maps of the WPAFB area. Water levels have not changed significantly since 1987, but the effects of pumping on and near the Base can have a marked effect on water levels in localized areas. Ground-ware gradients generally were downward throughout Area B (the southwestern third of the Base) and in the eastern third of Areas A and C (the northeastern two-thirds of the Base), and were upward in the vicinity of Mad River. Stream-discharge measurements verified these gradients. Many of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) exceedances of inorganic constituents in ground water were associated with water from the bedrock. Exceedances of concentrations of chromium and nickel were found consistently in five wells completed in the glacial aquifer beneath the Base. Five organic compounds [trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), vinyl chloride, benzene, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate] were detected at concentrations that exceeded MCLs; all of the TCE

  2. Field surveys of vegetation during a period of rising electric power generation in the Ohio River Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.S.; Showman, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The phytotoxicity of SO/sub 2/, a byproduct of smelting operations and generation of electricity from fossil fuels, has been known for over a century. Yet, there is disagreement over the potential risk to vegetation by SO/sub 2/ emissions in the U.S. and controversy over the environmental impact of increasing utilization of coal. Combustion of coal and generation of electricity were increasing rapidly in the 1970s, so a program of annual surveys of vegetation was initiated in an area where two new generating stations were to be constructed in addition to two existing ones. The objective was to determine whether increases in SO/sub 2/ emissions would be accompanied by the appearance of foliar symptoms on trees, weeds, crops, or ornamental plants and/or disappearance of SO/sub 2/ susceptible species of lichens. Vegetation surveys have been carried out around emission sources at many different locations to identify air pollutants, locate emission sources, delineate the area of exposure, determine compensation for injury to plants, and evaluate suitability of alternate sites for new emission sources. Observations of higher vegetation are useful because certain species develop characteristic foliar symptoms after exposure to individual episodes of elevated SO/sub 2/. Mapping of lichen populations is also useful because, over long periods of time, lichens respond to repeated or extended exposures to concentrations of SO/sub 2/ that do not necessarily produce characteristic symptoms on foliage of higher plants. The area of study was located in southeastern Ohio and northwestern West Virginia along both sides of the Ohio River. Results of the surveys are presented.

  3. Ohio Career Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This resource is designed to provide Ohio labor market information for use with advisory committees to stimulate and inform dialogue about the current evaluation and future planning of programs. It provides reports for 23 career fields in 6 career clusters. Each report highlights careers and occupations in the field and answers these questions:…

  4. Population differentiation in Andropogon virginicus L. between abandoned coal strip mine spoil and old field habitats in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nellessen, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Populations of Andropogon virginicus L. from abandoned coal mine spoils and old fields in southeastern Ohio were studied to determine whether ecotypic differentiation had occurred. Three mine spoil and three old field populations were paired for reciprocal transplant studies. A uniform garden was also established. Mine spoil and old field populations were compared for differences in demographic patterns, vegetative growth and phenology, reproductive output, and physiology. There were a greater number of seedlings and smaller individuals in the mine spoils, but seed production was similar between habitats. Seeds disperse farther in mine spoils and there was no or very little seedling establishment in 8 to 35 year old fields. Plants attained greater height in mine spoils. Population differentiation between one of the mine sites and one of the old fields was evident for seed weight, numbers of seeds per plant, and plant biomass. The three old field populations also differed from each other in reproductive characteristics. Mine spoil plants contained significantly more nitrogen within seeds despite the fact that mine soils had only half the available nitrogen as old field soils. Old field plants had a higher magnesium content in leaves. Chlorophyll content of leaves was higher for plants in old fields than for plants in mines. Undisturbed plants from both habitats had significantly higher photosynthetic rates than transplants. Old field plants had significantly greater photosynthetic rates than mine plants when grown in the uniform garden even though transpiration rates were similar. Differentiation between some coal mine spoil and old field populations of A. virginicus was evident for height growth, seed weight, photosynthesis, seed nitrogen content, magnesium content, and seed germination. Local population differentiation in plant height, seed weight, and in the timing of plant maturation was also observed.

  5. 78 FR 16785 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Cleveland-Akron-Lorain and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ...-Akron-Lorain and Columbus 1997 8-Hour Ozone Maintenance Plan Revisions to Approved Motor Vehicle... previously approved motor vehicle emissions budgets (budgets) with budgets developed using EPA's Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES) emissions model. Ohio submitted the SIP revision requests to EPA...

  6. Methodology and Limitations of Ohio Enrollment Projections. The AIR Professional File, No. 4, Winter 1979-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraetsch, Gayla A.

    Two quantitative enrollment projection techniques and the methods used by researchers at the Ohio Board of Regents (OBR) are discussed. Two quantitative approaches that are typically used for enrollment projections are curve-fitting techniques and causal models. Many state forecasters use curve-fitting techniques, a popular approach because only…

  7. Enhancement of air filtration using electric fields.

    PubMed

    Nelson, G O; Bergman, W; Miller, H H; Taylor, R D; Richards, C P; Biermann, A H

    1978-06-01

    Although polarized electrostatic air filters are efficient air filtrating devices, their main disadvantages are difficulty in collecting conductive particles or in operating at relative humidities above 70%. We describe here a new filter design that eliminates these problems. A nonconductive media, normally a glass fiber mat, is placed between two insulated conductive screens. As the voltage across the screens is increased, the penetration of particles decreases exponentially. Increasing the electric field from 0 to 10 kV/cm will decrease the mass penetration from 60% to less than 10% of a polydispersed 0.8 micrometer ammd(sigma g = 2.0) sodium chloride aerosol. The experimental effects of face velocity, particle charge and size, packing density, fiber size, and screen insulation mirror the theoretical effects of these variables on particle penetration. PMID:685827

  8. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 1, Site assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

  9. Results of soil, ground-water, surface-water, and streambed-sediment sampling at Air Force Plane 85, Columbus, Ohio, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parnell, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, prepared the Surface- and Ground- Water Monitoring Work Plan for Air Force Plant 85 (AFP 85 or Plant), Columbus, Ohio, under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program to characterize any ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination that may exist at AFP 85. The USGS began the study in November 1996. The Plant was divided into nine sampling areas, which included some previously investi gated study sites. The investigation activities included the collection and presentation of data taken during drilling and water-quality sampling. Data collection focused on the saturated and unsatur ated zones and surface water. Twenty-three soil borings were completed. Ten monitoring wells (six existing wells and four newly constructed monitoring wells) were selected for water-quality sam pling. Surface-water and streambed-sediment sampling locations were chosen to monitor flow onto and off of the Plant. Seven sites were sampled for both surface-water and streambed-sediment quality. This report presents data on the selected inorganic and organic constituents in soil, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments at AFP 85. The methods of data collection and anal ysis also are included. Knowledge of the geologic and hydrologic setting could aid Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, and its governing regulatory agencies in future remediation studies.

  10. FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT OHIO LUMEX'S RA-915+/RP-91C MERCURY ANALYZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ohio Lumex's RA915+/91 C mercury analyzer was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in May 2003, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the Demonstration was to c...

  11. [Field investigations of the air pollution level of populated territories].

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, M V

    2014-01-01

    The assessment and management of air quality of settlements is one of the priorities in the field of environmental protection. In the management of air quality the backbone factor is the methodology of the organization, performance and interpretation of data of field investigations. The present article is devoted to the analysis of the existing methodological approaches and practical aspects of their application in the organization and performance of field investigations with the aim to confirm the adequacy of the boundaries of the sanitary protection zone in the old industrial regions, hygienic evaluation of the data of field investigations of the air pollution level.

  12. Aerodynamic size distribution of suspended particulate matter in the ambient air in the city of Cleveland, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    The City of Cleveland Division of Air Pollution Control and NASA jointly investigated the chemical and physical characteristics of the suspended particulate matter in Cleveland, and as part of the program, measurements of the particle size distribution of ambient air samples at five urban locations during August and September 1972 were made using high-volume cascade impactions. The distributions were evaluated for lognormality, and the mass median diameters were compared between locations and as a function of resultant wind direction. Junge-type distributions were consistent with dirty continental aerosols. About two-thirds of the suspended particulate matter observed in Cleveland is less than 7 microns in diameter.

  13. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  14. Silurian "Clinton" Sandstone Reservoir Characterization for Evaluation of CO2-EOR Potential in the East Canton Oil Field, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Riley; John Wicks; Christopher Perry

    2009-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the East Canton oil field (ECOF). Discovered in 1947, the ECOF in northeastern Ohio has produced approximately 95 million barrels (MMbbl) of oil from the Silurian 'Clinton' sandstone. The original oil-in-place (OOIP) for this field was approximately 1.5 billion bbl and this study estimates by modeling known reservoir parameters, that between 76 and 279 MMbbl of additional oil could be produced through secondary recovery in this field, depending on the fluid and formation response to CO2 injection. A CO2 cyclic test ('Huff-n-Puff') was conducted on a well in Stark County to test the injectivity in a 'Clinton'-producing oil well in the ECOF and estimate the dispersion or potential breakthrough of the CO2 to surrounding wells. Eighty-one tons of CO2 (1.39 MMCF) were injected over a 20-hour period, after which the well was shut in for a 32-day 'soak' period before production was resumed. Results demonstrated injection rates of 1.67 MMCF of gas per day, which was much higher than anticipated and no CO2 was detected in gas samples taken from eight immediately offsetting observation wells. All data collected during this test was analyzed, interpreted, and incorporated into the reservoir characterization study and used to develop the geologic model. The geologic model was used as input into a reservoir simulation performed by Fekete Associates, Inc., to estimate the behavior of reservoir fluids when large quantities of CO2 are injected into the 'Clinton' sandstone. Results strongly suggest that the majority of the injected CO2 entered the matrix porosity of the reservoir pay zones, where it diffused into the oil. Evidence includes: (A) the volume of injected CO2 greatly exceeded the estimated capacity of the hydraulic fracture and natural fractures; (B) there was a gradual injection and pressure rate build-up during the test; (C) there was a subsequent, gradual flashout of

  15. Silurian "Clinton" Sandstone Reservoir Characterization for Evaluation of CO2-EOR Potential in the East Canton Oil Field, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Ronald; Wicks, John; Perry, Christopher

    2009-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the East Canton oil field (ECOF). Discovered in 1947, the ECOF in northeastern Ohio has produced approximately 95 million barrels (MMbbl) of oil from the Silurian “Clinton” sandstone. The original oil-in-place (OOIP) for this field was approximately 1.5 billion bbl and this study estimates by modeling known reservoir parameters, that between 76 and 279 MMbbl of additional oil could be produced through secondary recovery in this field, depending on the fluid and formation response to CO2 injection. A CO2 cyclic test (“Huff-n-Puff”) was conducted on a well in Stark County to test the injectivity in a “Clinton”-producing oil well in the ECOF and estimate the dispersion or potential breakthrough of the CO2 to surrounding wells. Eighty-one tons of CO2 (1.39 MMCF) were injected over a 20-hour period, after which the well was shut in for a 32-day “soak” period before production was resumed. Results demonstrated injection rates of 1.67 MMCF of gas per day, which was much higher than anticipated and no CO2 was detected in gas samples taken from eight immediately offsetting observation wells. All data collected during this test was analyzed, interpreted, and incorporated into the reservoir characterization study and used to develop the geologic model. The geologic model was used as input into a reservoir simulation performed by Fekete Associates, Inc., to estimate the behavior of reservoir fluids when large quantities of CO2 are injected into the “Clinton” sandstone. Results strongly suggest that the majority of the injected CO2 entered the matrix porosity of the reservoir pay zones, where it diffused into the oil. Evidence includes: (A) the volume of injected CO2 greatly exceeded the estimated capacity of the hydraulic fracture and natural fractures; (B) there was a gradual injection and pressure rate build-up during the test; (C) there was a subsequent

  16. Survey of Ohio's Prison Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liggett, Joanna M.

    A survey was conducted to gather data about Ohio's prison libraries and the librarians who are responsible for them. These libraries are areas of challenge and opportunity for librarians, and there will be continued growth in this field as more and more prisons are built. However, few professionals are aware of the concerns and challenges facing…

  17. The mutagenicity of indoor air particles in a residential pilot field study: Application and evaluation of new methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewtas, Joellen; Goto, Sumio; Williams, Katherine; Chuang, Jane C.; Petersen, Bruce A.; Wilson, Nancy K.

    The mutagenicity of indoor air paniculate matter has been measured in a pilot field study of homes in Columbus, Ohio during the 1984 winter. The study was conducted in eight all natural-gas homes and two all electric homes. Paniculate matter and semi-volatile organic compounds were collected indoors using a medium volume sampler. A micro-forward mutation bioassay employing Salmonella typhimurium strain TM 677 was used to quantify the mutagenicity in solvent extracts of microgram quantities of indoor air particles. The mutagenicity was quantified in terms of both mutation frequency per mg of organic matter extracted and per cubic meter of air sampled. The combustion source variables explored in this study included woodburning in fireplaces and cigarette smoking. Homes in which cigarette smoking occurred had the highest concentrations of mutagenicity per cubic meter of air. The average indoor air mutagenicity per cubic meter was highly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked. When the separate sampling periods in each room were compared, the mutagenicity in the kitchen samples was the most highly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked.

  18. Water, Ohio's Remarkable Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Carrie J.

    Information on water and water resources in Ohio is presented in seven sections. Water from Ohio streams, water storage, lakes in Ohio, and ground water are discussed in the first section ("Water, A Part of the Earth"). A brief discussion on the ecosystem is provided in the second section ("Water and Life"). Topics discussed in the third section…

  19. ARSENIC AND OHIO UTILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides information on arsenic removal drinking water treatment systems that are likely to be used in Ohio for arsenic removal. Because most Ohio ground water contain significant amounts of iron, iron removal processes will play a major role in treating Ohio gro...

  20. Characterizing Air Toxics from Oil Field Operations in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Brown, S. G.; DeWinter, J. L.; Bai, S.; O'Brien, T.; Vaughn, D.; Peltier, R.; Soltis, J.; Field, R. A.; Murphy, S. M.; Roberts, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Inglewood Oil Field in urban Los Angeles has been in operation for more than 70 years. Neighborhoods surrounding the oil field are concerned with the potential emissions of air toxics from oil field operations. The Baldwin Hills Air Quality Study focused on (1) quantifying air toxics concentrations originating from the Inglewood Oil Field operations, including drilling and well workovers, and (2) assessing the health risk of both acute and chronic exposure to air toxics emitted from oil field operations. Key pollutants identified for characterization included diesel particulate matter (DPM), cadmium, benzene, nickel, formaldehyde, mercury, manganese, acrolein, arsenic, and lead. The field study began in November 2012 and ended in November 2013. Four types of instruments were used to characterize oil field operations: (1) Aethalometers to measure black carbon (BC; as a proxy for DPM); (2) X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) for metals; (3) Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOFMS) for volatile organic compounds; and (4) meteorological sensors to help assess the wind patterns, temperature, and humidity that influence pollutant concentrations. Overall concentrations of most of the species measured in the study were quite low for an urban area. We determined that there were statistically significant increases in concentrations of DPM associated with oil field operations when winds were from the west-southwest. BC concentrations increased by 0.036 to 0.056 μg/m3, on average, when winds originated from the west-southwest, compared to annual mean BC concentrations of approximately 0.67 μg/m3. West-southwest winds occurred 53% of the time during the study. No other pollutants showed strong statistical evidence of chronic or acute risk from oil field operations.

  1. Office of Inspector General audit report on credit card usage at the Ohio Field Office and the Fernald and Miamisburg Environmental Management Projects

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    In 1994 the Department of Energy (Department) obtained the services of Rocky Mountain BankCard System, through the use of a General Services Administration contract, as a means for the Department and its contractors to make small purchases. The use of credit cards was expected to simplify small purchase procedures and improve cash management. The Ohio Field Office (Field Office) uses the credit card system and oversees usage by its area offices. Contractors under the Field Office also use the credit card system to make small purchases. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) has issued one audit report concerning the use of credit cards. In April 1996, the OIG issued Report WR-B-96-06, Audit of Bonneville Power Administration`s Management of Information Resources. The audit concluded that improvements could be made in implementing credit card and property procedures in Bonneville`s management of computer-related equipment. Specifically, many credit card purchases were made by employees whose authority to buy was not properly documented, and the purchasing files often lacked invoices that would show what was purchased. Additionally, some cardholders split purchases to avoid credit card limits. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the Field Office, Fernald and Miamisburg Environmental Management Projects, Fluor Daniel, and B and W were using credit cards for the appropriate purposes and within the limitations established by Federal and Departmental regulations.

  2. Water-quality data-collection activities in Colorado and Ohio; Phase II, Evaluation of 1984 field and laboratory quality-assurance practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childress, C.J.; Chaney, T.M.; Myers, Donna; Norris, J.M.; Hren, Janet

    1987-01-01

    Serious questions have been raised by Congress about the usefulness of water quality data for addressing issues of regional and national scope and, especially, for characterizing the current quality of the Nation 's streams and groundwater. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a pilot study in Colorado and Ohio to: (1) determine the characteristics of current (1984) water quality data collection activities of Federal, regional, State, and local agencies, and academic institutions; and (2) determine how well the data from these activities, collected for various purposes and using different procedures, can be used to improve the ability to answer major broad scope questions, such as: what are (or were) natural or near-natural water quality conditions; what are existing water quality conditions; and, how water quality has changed and how the changes relate to human activities. Colorado and Ohio were chosen for the pilot study largely because they represent regions with different types of water quality concerns and programs. The study has been divided into three phases, the objectives of which are: Phase I - Inventory water quality data collection programs, including costs, and identify those programs that met a set of broad criteria for producing data that are potentially appropriate for water quality assessments of regional and national scope. Phase II - Evaluate the quality assurance of field and laboratory procedures used in producing the data from programs that met the broad criteria of Phase I. Phase III - Compile the qualifying data and evaluate the adequacy of this data base for addressing selected water quality questions of regional and national scope. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Field and laboratory assessment of a coal processing effluent in the Leading Creek Watershed, Meigs County, Ohio.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, A J; Cherry, D S; Currie, R J

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has not recommended water quality criteria (WQC) to protect aquatic life from elevated sodium and sulfate concentrations, such as those associated with the coal-processing effluent of Meigs County Mine #31. This discharge, received by a tributary of the Leading Creek Watershed (SE Ohio), had a mean specific conductivity (SC) of 8,109 (7,750-8,750) microS/cm and total metal concentrations below acute WQC. The mean 48-h LC(50) for Ceriodaphnia dubia in the effluent was 6,713 +/- 99 microS/cm; mean 48-h survival was 44% for study sites downstream of the effluent. The best indicators of impairment used in this study were Ceriodaphnia fecundity, in situ Corbicula fluminea growth, EPT minus Hydropsychidae (richness and relative abundance), and relative Ephemeroptera abundance. Mayflies, reduced by more than 99% below the effluent, were absent from all but the furthest downstream study site. SC was strongly correlated with Corbicula growth (r = -0.9755, p = 0.0009) and EPT minus Hydropsychidae richness (r = -0.8756, p < 0.0001), suggesting the effluent was primarily responsible for biotic impairment. Our results indicated that SC levels, a measure of dissolved solids, in the Leading Creek Watershed that exceeded approximately 3,700 microS/cm impaired sensitive aquatic fauna.

  4. FIELD TEST OF AIR SPARGING COUPLED WITH SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A controlled field study was designed and conducted to assess the performance of air sparging for remediation of petroleum fuel and solvent contamination in a shallow (3-m deep) groundwater aquifer. Sparging was performed in an insolation test cell (5 m by 3 m by 8-m deep). A soi...

  5. Presence of Fusarium graminearum in air associated with sorghum fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum can be included in crop rotations with wheat. However, there are no known reports on the effects of sorghum grown in rotation with wheat on the epidemiology of head scab caused by Fusarium graminearum. Conidia in air samples within two sorghum fields were collected by passive spore trapping ...

  6. Geophysical Investigation Along the Great Miami River From New Miami to Charles M. Bolton Well Field, Cincinnati, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheets, R.A.; Dumouchelle, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Three geophysical profiling methods were tested to help characterize subsurface materials at selected transects along the Great Miami River, in southwestern Ohio. The profiling methods used were continuous seismic profiling (CSP), continuous resistivity profiling (CRP), and continuous electromagnetic profiling (CEP). Data were collected with global positioning systems to spatially locate the data along the river. The depth and flow conditions of the Great Miami River limited the amount and quality of data that could be collected with the CSP and CRP methods. Data from the CSP were generally poor because shallow reflections (less than 5 meters) were mostly obscured by strong multiple reflections and deep reflections (greater than 5 meters) were sparse. However, modeling of CRP data indicated broad changes in subbottom geology, primarily below about 3 to 5 meters. Details for shallow electrical conductivity (resistivity) (less than 3 meters) were limited because of the 5-meter electrode spacing used for the surveys. For future studies of this type, a cable with 3-meter electrode spacing (or perhaps even 1-meter spacing) might best be used in similar environments to determine shallow electrical properties of the stream-bottom materials. CEP data were collected along the entire reach of the Great Miami River. The CRP and CEP data did not correlate well, but the CRP electrode spacing probably limited the correlation. Middle-frequency (3,510 hertz) and high-frequency (15,030 hertz) CEP data were correlated to water depth. Low-frequency (750 hertz) CEP data indicate shallow (less than 5-meter) changes in electrical conductivity. Given the variability in depth and flow conditions on a river such as the Great Miami, the CEP method worked better than either the CSP or CRP methods.

  7. Brass plasmoid in external magnetic field at different air pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, D. N.; Thareja, Raj K.; Pandey, Pramod K.

    2013-10-15

    The behavior of expanding brass plasmoid generated by 266 nm wavelength of Nd:YAG laser in nonuniform magnetic field at different air pressures has been examined using optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging of plasma plumes. The splitting of the plasma plumes and enhancement of intensity of Cu I at 510.5 nm in the presence of magnetic field at lower pressures are discussed. The threading and expulsion of the magnetic field lines through the plasmoid are correlated with the ambient pressure. The stoichiometry of the plasma plume is not significantly influenced by the magnetic field; however, the abundance of neutral to ionic species of Cu and Zn is greatly influenced by the magnetic field.

  8. Operational Information Science (Documentation) Activities at Wright Field, Ohio, before 1950, with Emphasis on Foreign-Language Technical Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Eugene B.

    1992-01-01

    Describes documentation activities by the Air Documents Division, a precursor of the Defense Technical Information Center, involving captured German technical reports related to aeronautical science and technology following World War II. Document publication, acquisition, processing, dissemination, and utilization are discussed; and selection of…

  9. ADVANCED PLACEMENT IN OHIO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Council on Advanced Placement, Columbus.

    THE DOCUMENT PRESENTS A DESCRIPTION OF THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM IN OHIO. ANSWERS ARE GIVEN TO KEY QUESTIONS ON THE FUNCTION OF ADVANCED PLACEMENT, ACADEMIC AREAS COVERED, PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION, COSTS, BENEFITS, VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS, STUDENT PARTICIPANTS, COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN OHIO AND REPRESENTATIVE NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS…

  10. Encapsulated graphene field-effect transistors for air stable operation

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrou, Konstantinos Kymissis, Ioannis; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James

    2015-03-16

    In this work, we report the fabrication of encapsulated graphene field effects transistors (GFETs) with excellent air stability operation in ambient environment. Graphene's 2D nature makes its electronics properties very sensitive to the surrounding environment, and thus, non-encapsulated graphene devices show extensive vulnerability due to unintentional hole doping from the presence of water molecules and oxygen limiting their performance and use in real world applications. Encapsulating GFETs with a thin layer of parylene-C and aluminum deposited on top of the exposed graphene channel area resulted in devices with excellent electrical performance stability for an extended period of time. Moisture penetration is reduced significantly and carrier mobility degraded substantially less when compared to non-encapsulated control devices. Our CMOS compatible encapsulation method minimizes the problems of environmental doping and lifetime performance degradation, enabling the operation of air stable devices for next generation graphene-based electronics.

  11. Public health assessment for petitioned public health assessment addendum, fields brook (specifically concerning radiological contaminants at Reactive Metals Incorporated) Ashtabula, Ashtabula County, Ohio, Region 5, Cerclis No. OHD980614572. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-09

    The RMI Extrusion Plant, a subsidiary of Reactive Metals, Inc., subcontractor to the Department of Energy (DOE), is in the northeastern corner of Ashtabula County, Ohio, about three miles east of the center of the city of Ashtabula. Sampling of environmental media on site (air, soil, sediments, surface water, and groundwater), has shown contamination with uranium, technetium-99, and trichloroethylene (TCE). Off-site samples have shown only a small area of uranium-contaminated soil, just outside the northeastern fence. Analysis of the environmental data show that there is no apparent public health hazard associated with the RMI facility.

  12. A Bicycle-Based Field Measurement System for the Study of Thermal Exposure in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, USA

    PubMed Central

    Rajkovich, Nicholas B.; Larsen, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    Collecting a fine scale of microclimate data can help to determine how physical characteristics (e.g., solar radiation, albedo, sky view factor, vegetation) contribute to human exposure to ground and air temperatures. These data also suggest how urban design strategies can reduce the negative impacts of the urban heat island effect. However, urban microclimate measurement poses substantial challenges. For example, data taken at local airports are not representative of the conditions at the neighborhood or district level because of variation in impervious surfaces, vegetation, and waste heat from vehicles and buildings. In addition, fixed weather stations cannot be deployed quickly to capture data from a heat wave. While remote sensing can provide data on land cover and ground surface temperatures, resolution and cost remain significant limitations. This paper describes the design and validation of a mobile measurement bicycle. This bicycle permits movement from space to space within a city to assess the physical and thermal properties of microclimates. The construction of the vehicle builds on investigations of the indoor thermal environment of buildings using thermal comfort carts. PMID:26821037

  13. A Bicycle-Based Field Measurement System for the Study of Thermal Exposure in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, USA.

    PubMed

    Rajkovich, Nicholas B; Larsen, Larissa

    2016-01-25

    Collecting a fine scale of microclimate data can help to determine how physical characteristics (e.g., solar radiation, albedo, sky view factor, vegetation) contribute to human exposure to ground and air temperatures. These data also suggest how urban design strategies can reduce the negative impacts of the urban heat island effect. However, urban microclimate measurement poses substantial challenges. For example, data taken at local airports are not representative of the conditions at the neighborhood or district level because of variation in impervious surfaces, vegetation, and waste heat from vehicles and buildings. In addition, fixed weather stations cannot be deployed quickly to capture data from a heat wave. While remote sensing can provide data on land cover and ground surface temperatures, resolution and cost remain significant limitations. This paper describes the design and validation of a mobile measurement bicycle. This bicycle permits movement from space to space within a city to assess the physical and thermal properties of microclimates. The construction of the vehicle builds on investigations of the indoor thermal environment of buildings using thermal comfort carts.

  14. A Bicycle-Based Field Measurement System for the Study of Thermal Exposure in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, USA.

    PubMed

    Rajkovich, Nicholas B; Larsen, Larissa

    2016-02-01

    Collecting a fine scale of microclimate data can help to determine how physical characteristics (e.g., solar radiation, albedo, sky view factor, vegetation) contribute to human exposure to ground and air temperatures. These data also suggest how urban design strategies can reduce the negative impacts of the urban heat island effect. However, urban microclimate measurement poses substantial challenges. For example, data taken at local airports are not representative of the conditions at the neighborhood or district level because of variation in impervious surfaces, vegetation, and waste heat from vehicles and buildings. In addition, fixed weather stations cannot be deployed quickly to capture data from a heat wave. While remote sensing can provide data on land cover and ground surface temperatures, resolution and cost remain significant limitations. This paper describes the design and validation of a mobile measurement bicycle. This bicycle permits movement from space to space within a city to assess the physical and thermal properties of microclimates. The construction of the vehicle builds on investigations of the indoor thermal environment of buildings using thermal comfort carts. PMID:26821037

  15. Site 5 air sparging pilot test, Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Jacksonville, Florida.

    PubMed

    Murray, W A; Lunardini, R C; Ullo, F J; Davidson, M E

    2000-02-25

    A 72-h air sparging pilot test was conducted at Site 5 (Operable Unit 2), Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Jacksonville, FL, to determine performance parameters necessary for full-scale design. The sparge well was completed to a depth of 29 ft, several feet below the groundwater plume contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Air flow rates supplied to the sparge well were 3 cubic feet/min (cfm) during the first day, 2 cfm during the second day, and 1 cfm during the third day. Water levels in monitoring wells initially rose approximately 2 ft during the first 4-5 h of the test, then receded back to pre-test equilibrium levels over the next 15 h, for a total duration of water mounding of about 20 h. A small (approximately 0.5 ft) water table drop, with subsequent recovery to equilibrium level, occurred each time the air sparging rate was decreased. Although there is considerable variation depending on direction from the sparge well, the average radius of influence varied from approximately 30 ft at 1 cfm to 50 ft at 3 cfm. The air sparge system was capable of increasing the dissolved oxygen from 0 to 6 or 7 mg/l within 12-15 h of air channels reaching a given location. A lag time of approximately 13 h was observed before air channels reached a radius of 30 ft and dissolved oxygen levels began to increase at that radius. CO(2) (stripped out of the groundwater by the sparging) decreased from a pre-test concentration of 150 to 20 mg/l at r=5 ft, and from 150 to 50 mg/l at r=30 ft, within a period of about 24 h. The rate of VOC mass removal during the pilot test was 0.06 lb/day at a sparge rate of 3 cfm, and it appears that air sparging will effect a rapid cleanup of the VOCs in the Site 5 groundwater plume.

  16. Synthesis of zirconium oxynitride in air under DC electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisaki, Nobuhiro; Yoshida, Hidehiro; Matsui, Koji; Tokunaga, Tomoharu; Sasaki, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Takahisa

    2016-08-01

    We synthesized zirconium oxynitride from yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in air by applying DC electric fields that produced a controlled electric current in the specimen. When YSZ was heated under an applied DC electric field, the electric current of the specimen steeply increased at a critical temperature, called a flash event, during flash sintering. By keeping the electric current of the specimen constant during the flash event and then holding the specimen at the critical temperature, YSZ was transformed into zirconium oxynitride under the optimal conditions of 50 V/cm, 500 mA, and 1000 °C. We confirmed that zirconium oxynitride formed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. To convert oxides to nitrides, reducing conditions are necessary to form excess oxygen vacancies. Our technique produced the strong reducing conditions necessary to form nitrides from the oxides by delivering a controlled electric current to the specimen.

  17. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume I: Organization and Basic Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume I, explains in detail the following: sources and classification of pollutants; meteorological influence on air quality; the air pollution control agency; the field enforcement officer; the enforcement process; prosecuting violation; and inspection techniques including…

  18. The OhioView Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1998-01-01

    The Ohio View Consortium is a group of universities, colleges, K-12 schools, libraries, and local and State government agencies in the State of Ohio working with the USGS and NASA to provide affordable, integrated access to and delivery of U.S. Government satellite and geospatial data. The Ohio View Project is a pilot project that combines the USGS activities in providing an integrated information access and delivery capability with the activities of the Ohio View Consortium 

  19. Field Test of Room-to-Room Uniformity of Ventilation Air Distribution in Two New Houses

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, Robert; Anderson, Ren; Barley, Dennis; Rudd, Armin; Townsend, Aaron; Hancock, Ed

    2006-12-01

    This report describes a field test to characterize the uniformity of room-to-room ventilation air distribution under various operating conditions by examining multi-zone tracer gas decay curves and calculating local age-of-air.

  20. Index of current water-resources activities in Ohio, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberle, Michael

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the U. S. Geological Survey 's Water Resources Division 's program in Ohio in 1985. The work of the Ohio District is carried out through the District office in Columbus and a field office in New Philadelphia. Collection of basic data needed for continuing determination and evaluation of the quantity, quality, and use of Ohio 's water resources is the responsibility of the District 's Hydrologic Surveillance Section. The Hydrologic Investigations Section conducts analytical and interpretive water-resource appraisals describing the occurrence, availability, and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and groundwater. In addition to introductory material describing the structure of the Ohio District, information is presented on current projects, sites at which basic surface- and groundwater data are collected , and reports of Ohio 's water resources published by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies. (USGS)

  1. Detection of underground voids in Ohio by use of geophysical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munk, Jens; Sheets, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Geophysical methods are generally classified as electrical, potential field, and seismic methods. Each method type relies on contrasts of physical properties in the subsurface. Forward models based on the physical properties of air- and water-filled voids within common geologic materials indicate that several geophysical methods are technically feasible for detection of subsurface voids in Ohio, but ease of use and interpretation varies widely between the methods. Ground-penetrating radar is the most rapid and cost-effective method for collection of subsurface data in areas associated with voids under roadways. Electrical resistivity, gravity, or seismic reflection methods have applications for direct delineation of voids, but data-collection and analytical procedures are more time consuming. Electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, or magnetic methods may be useful in locating areas where conductive material, such as rail lines, are present in abandoned underground coal mines. Other electrical methods include spontaneous potential and very low frequency (VLF); these latter two methods are considered unlikely candidates for locating underground voids in Ohio. Results of ground-penetrating radar surveys at three highway sites indicate that subsurface penetration varies widely with geologic material type and amount of cultural interference. Two highway sites were chosen over abandoned underground coal mines in eastern Ohio. A third site in western Ohio was chosen in an area known to be underlain by naturally occurring voids in lime stone. Ground-penetrating radar surveys at Interstate 470, in Belmont County, Ohio, indicate subsurface penetration of less than 15 feet over a mined coal seam that was known to vary in depth from 0 to 40 feet. Although no direct observations of voids were made, anomalous areas that may be related to collapse structures above voids were indicated. Cultural interference dominated the radar records at Interstate 70, Guernsey County, Ohio

  2. Ohio incinerator battle continues

    SciTech Connect

    Melody, M.

    1993-05-01

    Waste Technologies Industries (WTI; East Liverpool, Ohio) is trying to wing what it hopes will be its final battle in a 13-year, $160 million war with the government, and community and environmental groups. The company since 1980 has sought EPA approval to operate a hazardous waste incinerator in East Liverpool, Ohio. WTI late last year conducted a pre-test burn, or shakedown, during which the incinerator burned certain types of hazardous waste. The test demonstrates the incinerator's performance under normal operating conditions, Regulatory authorities, including EPA and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA), monitored activity during the shakedown, which was limited to 720 hours of operation. In accordance with RCRA requirements, the company in March conducted a trial burn to demonstrate that the incinerator meets permit standards. WTI's permit specifies three performance parameters the incinerator must meet -- particulate and hydrogen chloride emissions limits, and destruction removal efficiencies (DREs).

  3. Tech Prep Ohio Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    Tech prep programs integrate academic, occupational, and employability during the last 2 years of high school and the first 2 years of college, combining the best of college-prep academics with the best of vocational and technical education. The Ohio Tech Prep program, jointly administered by the Ohio Board of Regents and the Ohio Department of…

  4. Field evaluation of endotoxin air sampling assay methods.

    PubMed

    Thorne, P S; Reynolds, S J; Milton, D K; Bloebaum, P D; Zhang, X; Whitten, P; Burmeister, L F

    1997-11-01

    This study tested the importance of filter media, extraction and assay protocol, and bioaerosol source on the determination of endotoxin under field conditions in swine and poultry confinement buildings. Multiple simultaneous air samples were collected using glass fiber (GF) and polycarbonate (PC) filters, and these were assayed using two methods in two separate laboratories: an endpoint chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay (QCL) performed in water and a kinetic chromogenic LAL assay (KQCL) performed in buffer with resistant-parallel line estimation analysis (KLARE). In addition, two aqueous filter extraction methods were compared in the QCL assay: 120 min extraction at 22 degrees C with vigorous shaking and 30 min extraction at 68 degrees C with gentle rocking. These extraction methods yielded endotoxin activities that were not significantly different and were very highly correlated. Reproducibility of endotoxin determinations from duplicate air sampling filters was very high (Cronbach alpha all > 0.94). When analyzed by the QCL method GF filters yielded significantly higher endotoxin activity than PC filters. QCL and KLARE methods gave similar estimates for endotoxin activity from PC filters; however, GF filters analyzed by the QCL method yielded significantly higher endotoxin activity estimates, suggesting enhancement of the QCL assay or inhibition of the KLARE asay with GF filters. Correlation between QCL-GF and QCL-PC was high (r = 0.98) while that between KLARE-GF and KLARE-PC was moderate (r = 0.68). Analysis of variance demonstrated that assay methodology, filter-type, barn-type, and interactions between assay and filter-type and between assay and barn-type were important factors influencing endotoxin exposure assessment.

  5. Deregulation Impact in Negotiating a New Electrical Contract Between NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and FirstEnergy Corp., Cleveland, Ohio, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quach, Quyen T.; Zala, Laszlo F.

    2002-01-01

    The governor of the State of Ohio signed amended substitute Senate bill 3 on July 6, 1999, requiring Ohio's electric industry to change from a monopoly environment to a competitive electric environment for generation services. The start date for competitive retail generation services was set for January 1, 2001. This new deregulation law allowed all Ohioans to choose the supplier of generation service, but the transmission and distribution would remain regulated. It also required electric utilities to unbundle the three main components (generation, transmission, and distribution) and make other changes designed to produce a competitive electric generation market. While deregulation was taking shape, the NASA Glenn Research Center electrical contract with FirstEnergy Corp. of Cleveland, Ohio, was to expire on September 7, 1999. Glenn strategically evaluated and incorporated the impacts of electric deregulation in the negotiations. Glenn and FirstEnergy spent over a year in negotiations until the Glenn utility team and the FirstEnergy negotiating team came to an agreement in the fall of 2000, and a new contract became effective on January 1, 2001.

  6. Assessing Natural Isothiocyanate Air Emissions after Field Incorporation of Mustard Cover Crop

    SciTech Connect

    Trott, Donna M.; LePage, Jane; Hebert, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    A regional air assessment was performed to characterize volatile natural isothiocyanate (NITC) compounds in air during soil incorporation of mustard cover crops in Washington State. Field air sampling and analytical methods were developed specific to three NITCs known to be present in air at appreciable concentrations during/after field incorporation. The maximum observed concentrations in air for the allyl, benzyl, and phenethyl isothiocyanates were respectively 188, 6.1, and 0.7 lg m-3 during mustard incorporation. Based on limited inhalation toxicity information, airborne NITC concentrations did not appear to pose an acute human inhalation exposure concern to field operators and bystanders.

  7. MIGRATORY LABOR IN OHIO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BINGHAM, SALLY

    OHIO HAS BECOME A HIGHLY INDUSTRIALIZED STATE WITH INSUFFICIENT QUALIFIED LOCAL FARM WORKERS TO MEET HARVEST DEMANDS. MIGRANT WORKERS HAVE FILLED THAT NEED, DOING MOSTLY "STOOP WORK" AND WORKING IN FOOD PROCESSING PLANTS. THE ANNUAL WORKER PLAN HAS PROVIDED FOR MORE EFFICIENT SCHEDULING OF MIGRANTS. CONSTRUCTIVE PROGRAMS HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED FOR…

  8. 2014 Ohio Remediation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In fulfillment of Ohio Revised Code 3333.041 (A) (1) the Chancellor has published a listing by school district of the number of the 2013 high school graduates who attended a state institution of higher education in academic year 2013-2014 and the percentage of each district's graduates required by the institution to enroll in a remedial course in…

  9. Ohio Biotechnology Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lavonna; Bowermeister, Bob; Boudreau, Joyce

    This document, which lists the biotechnology competencies identified by representatives from biotechnology businesses and industries as well as secondary and post-secondary educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through…

  10. Ohio School Design Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio School Facilities Commission, Columbus.

    This manual presents guidance to facility designers, school administrators, staff, and students for the development of school facilities being constructed under Ohio's Classroom Facilities Assistance Program. It provides critical analysis of individual spaces and material/system components necessary for the construction of elementary and secondary…

  11. Ohio Agriscience Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Robert D., II, Comp.; Waidelich, William D., Comp.

    This document, which is intended for Ohio agriculture teachers, contains lesson plans for an eight-unit competency-based course in agriscience. Each lesson plan contains some or all of the following items: (1) unit title; (2) competency/terminal performance objective; (3) competency builders/pupil performance objectives; (4) list of applied…

  12. Simulation of the effects of nearby quarrying operations on ground-water flow at the South Well Field, Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nalley, Gregory M.; Haefner, Ralph J.

    1999-01-01

    The City of Columbus, Ohio, operates a municipal well field in southern Franklin County that is adjacent to a sand and gravel mining operation. Mining operations have the potential to alter ground-water flowpaths and change the sources of water to pumped wells. Previous ground-water-flow modeling of the area has shown that water pumped from the supply wells is derived from infiltration from nearby rivers and surrounding bedrock. Some of that water flows through existing quarries. Because water quality differs among these sources and is affected by the path along which water flows to the wells, five flow conditions were simulated to evaluate the influence of different mining scenarios on sources of water as related to the size and shape of contributing recharge areas (CRAs) to wells. The first simulation was based on a revision of an existing model by Schalk (1996). The second and third simulations included one in which a 20-foot layer of undisturbed aquifer material within the quarry above the bedrock is left intact, and another in which the 20-foot layer is removed. The fourth and fifth simulations included one in which the 20-foot layer of undisturbed aquifer material is left above the bedrock and the quarry is backfilled with fine- grained sand and silt (a byproduct of the mining operations), and another in which the 20-foot layer is removed before the quarry is backfilled with the fine-grained sand and silt. The results of the five model simulations indicate that the overall volumetric budgets among models change only slightly in response to changing conditions at the quarry. The most significant change is noted in the amount of water that the aquifers gained from constant head and river leakage. This change is due to the way the quarries were simulated and lower heads in the aquifers compared to those in simulations made with earlier models. Previously published model simulations showed that the 5-year CRAs did not extend into the area of the newest sand and

  13. Performance of underfloor air distribution: Results of a field study

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas

    2004-09-02

    Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) is a new method of supplying heated or cooled air throughout a building. Reported advantages of UFAD include easy relocation of air supply diffusers, energy savings, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). We measured several aspects of the performance of an UFAD system installed in a medium-size office building. The measured air change effectiveness was very close to unity, which is comparable to that measured in buildings with typical overhead air distribution. The pollutant removal efficiency for carbon dioxide was 13 percent higher than expected in a space with well-mixed air, suggesting a 13 percent reduction in exposures to occupant generated pollutants. The increase in indoor air temperatures with height above the floor was only 1 to 2 C (2-4 F). This amount of thermal stratification could reduce the sensible energy requirements for cooling of outdoor air by approximately 10 percent. The occupants level of satisfaction with thermal conditions w as well above average and this high satisfaction rating could possibly be due, in all or part, to the use of a UFAD system. The results of this study provide some evidence of moderate energy and IAQ-related benefits of UFAD. Before general conclusions are drawn, the benefits need to be confirmed in other studies.

  14. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  15. Notes from the Field: Increase in Neisseria meningitidis-Associated Urethritis Among Men at Two Sentinel Clinics - Columbus, Ohio, and Oakland County, Michigan, 2015.

    PubMed

    Bazan, Jose A; Peterson, Amy S; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Briere, Elizabeth C; Maierhofer, Courtney; Turner, Abigail Norris; Licon, Denisse B; Parker, Nicole; Dennison, Amanda; Ervin, Melissa; Johnson, Laura; Weberman, Barbara; Hackert, Pamela; Wang, Xin; Kretz, Cecilia B; Abrams, A Jeanine; Trees, David L; Del Rio, Carlos; Stephens, David S; Tzeng, Yih-Ling; DiOrio, Mary; Roberts, Mysheika Williams

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) urogenital infections, although less common than infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng), have been associated with urethritis, cervicitis, proctitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Nm can appear similar to Ng on Gram stain analysis (gram-negative intracellular diplococci) (1-5). Because Nm colonizes the nasopharynx, men who receive oral sex (fellatio) can acquire urethral Nm infections (1,3,5). This report describes an increase in Nm-associated urethritis in men attending sexual health clinics in Columbus, Ohio, and Oakland County, Michigan.

  16. Notes from the Field: Increase in Neisseria meningitidis-Associated Urethritis Among Men at Two Sentinel Clinics - Columbus, Ohio, and Oakland County, Michigan, 2015.

    PubMed

    Bazan, Jose A; Peterson, Amy S; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Briere, Elizabeth C; Maierhofer, Courtney; Turner, Abigail Norris; Licon, Denisse B; Parker, Nicole; Dennison, Amanda; Ervin, Melissa; Johnson, Laura; Weberman, Barbara; Hackert, Pamela; Wang, Xin; Kretz, Cecilia B; Abrams, A Jeanine; Trees, David L; Del Rio, Carlos; Stephens, David S; Tzeng, Yih-Ling; DiOrio, Mary; Roberts, Mysheika Williams

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) urogenital infections, although less common than infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng), have been associated with urethritis, cervicitis, proctitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Nm can appear similar to Ng on Gram stain analysis (gram-negative intracellular diplococci) (1-5). Because Nm colonizes the nasopharynx, men who receive oral sex (fellatio) can acquire urethral Nm infections (1,3,5). This report describes an increase in Nm-associated urethritis in men attending sexual health clinics in Columbus, Ohio, and Oakland County, Michigan. PMID:27254649

  17. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Field demonstration at X-701B Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.; Muck, M.; Kearl, P.; Siegrist, R.; Schlosser, R.; Zutman, J.; Houk, T.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the field-scale demonstration performed as part of the project, In Situ Treatment of Mixed Contaminants in Groundwater. This project was a 3{1/2} year effort comprised of laboratory work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and fieldwork performed at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The overall goal of the project was to evaluate in situ treatment of groundwater using horizontal recirculation coupled with treatment modules. Specifically, horizontal recirculation was tested because of its application to thin, interbedded aquifer zones. Mixed contaminants were targeted because of their prominence at DOE sites and because they cannot be treated with conventional methods. The project involved several research elements, including treatment process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and full-scale testing at a contaminated site. This report presents the results of the work at the contaminated site, X-701B at PORTS. Groundwater contamination at X-701B consists of trichloroethene (TCE) (concentrations up to 1800 mg/L) and technetium-998 (Tc{sup 99}) (activities up to 926 pCi/L).

  18. Using soil records with atmospheric dispersion modeling to investigate the effects of clean air regulations on 60 years of manganese deposition in Marietta, Ohio (USA).

    PubMed

    Carter, Megan R; Gaudet, Brian J; Stauffer, David R; White, Timothy S; Brantley, Susan L

    2015-05-15

    Atmospheric emissions of metals from anthropogenic activities have led to deposition and contamination of soils worldwide. We quantified addition of manganese (Mn) to soils around the largest emitter of Mn in the United States (U.S.) using chemical analyses and atmospheric dispersion modeling (Second-Order Closure Integrated Puff (SCIPUFF)). Concentrations of soil-surface Mn were enriched by 9-fold relative to that of the parent material within 1 km of the facility. Elevated concentrations of Mn and chromium (Cr), another potentially toxic element that was emitted, document contamination only within 1 m of the soil surface. Total mass of Mn added per unit land area integrated over 1 m, mMn, equals ~80 mg Mn cm(-2) near the facility. Values of mMn remained above background up to tens of kilometers from the source. Air concentrations of Mn particles of 7.5-micron diameter simulated with SCIPUFF using available data for the emission rate and local meteorological conditions for 2006 were consistent with measured air concentrations. However, the Mn deposition calculated for 2006 with SCIPUFF yielded a cumulative value over the lifetime of the refinery (60 years) that is a factor of 15 lower than the Mn observed to have been added to the soils. This discrepancy can be easily explained if Mn deposition rates before 1988 were more than an order of magnitude greater than today. Such higher emissions are probable, given the changes in metal production with time and the installation of emission controls after the Clean Air Act (1970). This work shows that atmospheric dispersion models can be used with soil profiles to understand the changes in metal emissions over decadal timescales. In addition, the calculations are consistent with the Clean Air Act accounting for a 15-fold decrease in the Mn deposition to soils around the refinery per metric ton of Mn alloy produced.

  19. Air injection project breathes fire into aging West Hackberry oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1996-02-01

    Amoco, the DOE and LSU seek more oil from Gulf Coast salt dome fields with air injection technique. The West Hackberry Field in Louisiana is a water-driven reservoir. By injecting air into the high-pressure, high-temperature reservoir rock, the water is backed down, allowing the oil to drain off the steeply dipped rock.

  20. Ohio Coal Research Consortium fifth year final reports summary, September 1, 1994--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    As part of its efforts to improve the use of high-sulfur Ohio coal within environmental limits, the Ohio Coal Development Office, an entity within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO/ODOD), in late 1988 established a consortium of four Ohio universities. The purpose of the Ohio Coal Research Consortium is to conduct a multi-year fundamental research programs focused on: (1) the enhancement or development of dry sorption processes for the economical removal of high levels of SO{sub 2} and other pollutants, and (2) an increased understanding of methods for reduction in air toxics emissions from combustion gases produced by burning high-sulfur Ohio coal. This report contains summaries of eleven studies in these areas.

  1. Ohio Coal Research Consortium fourth year final summary report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    As a part of its efforts to improve the use of high-sulfur Ohio coal within environmental limits, the Ohio Coal Development Office, an entity within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO/ODOD), in late 1988 established a consortium of four Ohio universities. The purpose of the Ohio Coal Research Consortium is to conduct a multi-year fundamental research program focused on (1) the enhancement or development of dry sorption processes for the economical removal of high levels of SO{sub 2} and other pollutants and (2) an increased understanding of methods for reduction in air toxics emissions from combustion gases produced by burning high-sulfur Ohio coal. This report contains summaries of twelve studies in these areas.

  2. State summaries: Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the value of coal and industrial minerals sold in Ohio amounted to $1.5 billion, an increase of 7% from 2004. Coal production for the year increased 4.7% from 2004, totalling 22.3 Mt. Aggregate production totalled 114 Mt, a 4% decrease from 2004. In 2005, the state's salt sales amounted to $132 million. Production of industrial sandstone and conglomerate as well as dimension stone and limestone also increased.

  3. Columbus, Ohio's RDF experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, H.A. )

    1988-01-01

    This is a presentation on the Columbus, Ohio Trash Burning Power Plant from its original design assumptions and considerations to its start-up and operation. Problems associated with an infant technology and subsequent modifications to make it one of the most successful operations are today discussed in non-technical detail. By the end of 1987, the Columbus plant successfully disposed of its 1,600,00th ton of trash following its start-up in December 1983.

  4. Indoor air quality in green-renovated vs. non-green low-income homes of children living in a temperate region of US (Ohio).

    PubMed

    Coombs, Kanistha C; Chew, Ginger L; Schaffer, Christopher; Ryan, Patrick H; Brokamp, Cole; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Chillrud, Steve; Hedman, Curtis; Colton, Meryl; Ross, Jamie; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-06-01

    Green eco-friendly housing includes approaches to reduce indoor air pollutant sources and to increase energy efficiency. Although sealing/tightening buildings can save energy and reduce the penetration of outdoor pollutants, an adverse outcome can be increased buildup of pollutants with indoor sources. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the indoor air quality (IAQ) between green and non-green homes in low-income housing complexes. In one housing complex, apartments were renovated using green principles (n=28). Home visits were conducted immediately after the renovation, and subsequently at 6 months and at 12 months following the renovation. Of these homes, eight homes had pre-renovation home visits; this allowed pre- and post-renovation comparisons within the same homes. Parallel visits were conducted in non-green (control) apartments (n=14) in a nearby low-income housing complex. The IAQ assessments included PM2.5, black carbon, ultrafine particles, sulfur, total volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, and air exchange rate. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. None of the indoor pollutant concentrations were significantly different between green and non-green homes. However, we found differences when comparing the concentrations before and after renovation. Measured immediately after renovation, indoor black carbon concentrations were significantly lower averaging 682 ng/m(3) in post-renovation vs. 2364 ng/m(3) in pre-renovation home visits (p=0.01). In contrast, formaldehyde concentrations were significantly higher in post-renovated (0.03 ppm) than in pre-renovated homes (0.01 ppm) (p=0.004). Questionnaire data showed that opening of windows occurred less frequently in homes immediately post-renovation compared to pre-renovation; this factor likely affected the levels of indoor black carbon (from outdoor sources) and formaldehyde (from indoor sources) more than the renovation status itself. To reduce IAQ

  5. Indoor air quality in green-renovated vs. non-green low-income homes of children living in a temperate region of US (Ohio).

    PubMed

    Coombs, Kanistha C; Chew, Ginger L; Schaffer, Christopher; Ryan, Patrick H; Brokamp, Cole; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Chillrud, Steve; Hedman, Curtis; Colton, Meryl; Ross, Jamie; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-06-01

    Green eco-friendly housing includes approaches to reduce indoor air pollutant sources and to increase energy efficiency. Although sealing/tightening buildings can save energy and reduce the penetration of outdoor pollutants, an adverse outcome can be increased buildup of pollutants with indoor sources. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the indoor air quality (IAQ) between green and non-green homes in low-income housing complexes. In one housing complex, apartments were renovated using green principles (n=28). Home visits were conducted immediately after the renovation, and subsequently at 6 months and at 12 months following the renovation. Of these homes, eight homes had pre-renovation home visits; this allowed pre- and post-renovation comparisons within the same homes. Parallel visits were conducted in non-green (control) apartments (n=14) in a nearby low-income housing complex. The IAQ assessments included PM2.5, black carbon, ultrafine particles, sulfur, total volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, and air exchange rate. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. None of the indoor pollutant concentrations were significantly different between green and non-green homes. However, we found differences when comparing the concentrations before and after renovation. Measured immediately after renovation, indoor black carbon concentrations were significantly lower averaging 682 ng/m(3) in post-renovation vs. 2364 ng/m(3) in pre-renovation home visits (p=0.01). In contrast, formaldehyde concentrations were significantly higher in post-renovated (0.03 ppm) than in pre-renovated homes (0.01 ppm) (p=0.004). Questionnaire data showed that opening of windows occurred less frequently in homes immediately post-renovation compared to pre-renovation; this factor likely affected the levels of indoor black carbon (from outdoor sources) and formaldehyde (from indoor sources) more than the renovation status itself. To reduce IAQ

  6. Northwest Ohio Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Kevin

    2015-03-04

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY When the Toledo Lucas County Port Authority (TLCPA) filed for the Department of Energy EECBG grant in late 2009, it was part of a strategic and Board backed objective to expand the organization’s economic development and financing programs into alternative energy and energy efficiency. This plan was filed with the knowledge and support of the areas key economic development agencies. The City of Toledo was also a key partner with the Mayor designating a committee to develop a Strategic Energy Policy for the City. This would later give rise to a Community Sustainability Strategic Plan for Toledo, Lucas County and the surrounding region with energy efficiency as a key pillar. When the TLCPA signed the grant documents with the DOE in June of 2010, the geographic area was severely distressed economically, in the early stages of a recovery from over a 30% drop in business activity and high unemployment. The TLCPA and its partners began identifying potential project areas well before the filing of the application, continuing to work diligently before the formal award and signing of the grant documents. Strong implementation and actions plans and business and financing models were developed and revised throughout the 3 year grant period with the long term goal of creating a sustainable program. The TLCPA and the City of Toledo demonstrated early leadership by forming the energy improvement district and evaluating buildings under their control including transportation infrastructure and logistics, government services buildings and buildings which housed several for profit and not for profit tenants while completing significant energy efficiency projects that created public awareness and confidence and solid examples of various technologies and energy savings. As was stated in the DOE Award Summary, the undertaking was focused as a commercial program delving into Alternative Energy Utility Districts; what are referred to in Ohio Statute as Energy Special

  7. Acoustic wave propagation in air-bubble curtains in water. Part 2. Field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Domenico, S.N.

    1982-03-01

    A field experiment consisted of hydrophone recordings in a pond, 25 ft deep, of signals transmitted through air-bubble curtains from a water gun source. The air curtains issued from one to 13 pipes (20 ft long and spaced at 1.67-ft intervals). Air pressures used in the pipes were 15, 25, and 50 psi. Length and complexity of the signals indicate that reverberations occurred to an increasing extent as the number of consecutive air curtains was increased. Analysis of the first pulse in the recorded signals, after approximate removal of hydrophone and recorder response, indicates that the reverberations occur principally in the bubble-free corridors between air curtains. This pulse broadens and its peak amplitude is delayed linearly as the number of successive air curtains is increased. The peak amplitude is decreased substantially by the first air curtain and thereafter remains between 0.1 and 0.2 of the amplitude without air curtains.

  8. The effect of very small air gaps on small field dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, P. H.; Crowe, S. B.; Kairn, T.; Kenny, J.; Lehmann, J.; Lye, J.; Dunn, L.; Hill, B.; Knight, R. T.; Langton, C. M.; Trapp, J. V.

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of very small air gaps (less than 1 mm) on the dosimetry of small photon fields used for stereotactic treatments. Measurements were performed with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) for 6 MV photons on a Varian 21iX linear accelerator with a Brainlab µMLC attachment for square field sizes down to 6 mm × 6 mm. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using EGSnrc C++ user code cavity. It was found that the Monte Carlo model used in this study accurately simulated the OSLD measurements on the linear accelerator. For the 6 mm field size, the 0.5 mm air gap upstream to the active area of the OSLD caused a 5.3% dose reduction relative to a Monte Carlo simulation with no air gap. A hypothetical 0.2 mm air gap caused a dose reduction >2%, emphasizing the fact that even the tiniest air gaps can cause a large reduction in measured dose. The negligible effect on an 18 mm field size illustrated that the electronic disequilibrium caused by such small air gaps only affects the dosimetry of the very small fields. When performing small field dosimetry, care must be taken to avoid any air gaps, as can be often present when inserting detectors into solid phantoms. It is recommended that very small field dosimetry is performed in liquid water. When using small photon fields, sub-millimetre air gaps can also affect patient dosimetry if they cannot be spatially resolved on a CT scan. However the effect on the patient is debatable as the dose reduction caused by a 1 mm air gap, starting out at 19% in the first 0.1 mm behind the air gap, decreases to <5% after just 2 mm, and electronic equilibrium is fully re-established after just 5 mm.

  9. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsevski, Peter; Afjeh, Abdollah; Jamali, Mohsin; Bingman, Verner

    2014-04-04

    The Coastal Ohio Wind Project intends to address problems that impede deployment of wind turbines in the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project evaluates different wind turbine designs and the potential impact of offshore turbines on migratory and resident birds by developing multidisciplinary research, which involves wildlife biology, electrical and mechanical engineering, and geospatial science. Firstly, the project conducts cost and performance studies of two- and three-blade wind turbines using a turbine design suited for the Great Lakes. The numerical studies comprised an analysis and evaluation of the annual energy production of two- and three-blade wind turbines to determine the levelized cost of energy. This task also involved wind tunnel studies of model wind turbines to quantify the wake flow field of upwind and downwind wind turbine-tower arrangements. The experimental work included a study of a scaled model of an offshore wind turbine platform in a water tunnel. The levelized cost of energy work consisted of the development and application of a cost model to predict the cost of energy produced by a wind turbine system placed offshore. The analysis found that a floating two-blade wind turbine presents the most cost effective alternative for the Great Lakes. The load effects studies showed that the two-blade wind turbine model experiences less torque under all IEC Standard design load cases considered. Other load effects did not show this trend and depending on the design load cases, the two-bladed wind turbine showed higher or lower load effects. The experimental studies of the wake were conducted using smoke flow visualization and hot wire anemometry. Flow visualization studies showed that in the downwind turbine configuration the wake flow was insensitive to the presence of the blade and was very similar to that of the tower alone. On the other hand, in the upwind turbine configuration, increasing the rotor blade angle of attack

  10. Horizontal drilling opportunities in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, J.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Horizontal drilling has become commonplace in certain parts of Texas. The Austin Chalk is the favorite target, especially where fracture systems are present. The activity has become so intense that leases are now costly or nearly impossible to find. This type of activity was prevalent during the late oil boom, but with vertical wells. So, the same areas that were drilled then are being redone with horizontal drilling. In the past few months, carbonates with little or no evidence of fracture systems are being drilled with some success. Because of the difficulty in lease acquisition, operators are turning their attention elsewhere. Even though horizontal drilling has been conducted limitedly in the Devonian black shales, the Appalachian basin is an area that calls for attention. In Ohio, there have been instances of discoveries of one-well fields in both the Trenton and Trempealeau formations. The initial production from these wells ranges from a few to hundreds of barrels of oil per day. The lack of success in offset wells has been attributed to the interpretation that the producing wells were serendipitously drilled into a limited fractured reservoir. In most cases, the producer is surrounded by clusters of dry holes. These Ohio wells and wells in one other area are studied using well data, spectral and sonic logs, aerial photographs, side-looking radar surveys, and other data. The results are presented on structure contour and lineament maps, and quantitative log interpretations. The maps show the interpretations of those areas of fracture systems that might be viable targets for horizontal drilling.

  11. Ohio Health Technology Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Joyce; Miller, Lavonna F.

    This document, which was jointly developed by representatives from a broad cross-section of Ohio's health care industries and educators representing Ohio's schools and colleges, is intended as a foundation for developing an integrated delivery system to prepare students for careers in health care. The document's introductory section presents…

  12. Ohio: Library and Information Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Greg

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development, current status, and future goals and plans of library and information networks in Ohio. Highlights include OCLC; OhioLINK, incorporating state-assisted universities, two-year colleges, the state library, and private university libraries; a school library network; a public library information network; a telecommunications…

  13. Financing Public Libraries in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Frederick D.

    This study is an outgrowth of the plans and programs set in motion by the study of professor Ralph Blasingame, Rutgers University Graduate School, in 1968, and the 1969 legislation setting up the Ohio Library Development Plan (OLDP). Its purposes are to describe the system of financing public libraries in Ohio, to identify problem areas, and to…

  14. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the State of Ohio. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater, and…

  15. SOURCES OF MERCURY WET DEPOSITION IN EASTERN OHIO, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the fall of 2002, an enhanced air monitoring site was established in Steubenville, Ohio as part of a multi-year comprehensive mercury monitoring and source apportionment study to investigate the impact of local and regional coal combustion sources on atmospheric mercury deposi...

  16. Field Hydraulic and Air-Blast Sprayers for Row Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr., Comp.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses techniques and equipment used in spraying field crops. In the discussion of field hydraulic sprayers, specific topics include types of sprayers, tanks, pumps, pressure regulators, hoses, boom spraying, directed spraying, and nozzle bodies. In the discussion…

  17. Probing Atmospheric Electric Fields in Thunderstorms through Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray-Induced Air Showers.

    PubMed

    Schellart, P; Trinh, T N G; Buitink, S; Corstanje, A; Enriquez, J E; Falcke, H; Hörandel, J R; Nelles, A; Rachen, J P; Rossetto, L; Scholten, O; Ter Veen, S; Thoudam, S; Ebert, U; Koehn, C; Rutjes, C; Alexov, A; Anderson, J M; Avruch, I M; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; de Geus, E; de Vos, M; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Fallows, R A; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Heald, G; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Holties, H A; Juette, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Mann, G; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Mevius, M; Moldon, J; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D J; Serylak, M; Smirnov, O; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tasse, C; Toribio, M C; van Weeren, R J; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Zarka, P

    2015-04-24

    We present measurements of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers that took place during thunderstorms. The intensity and polarization patterns of these air showers are radically different from those measured during fair-weather conditions. With the use of a simple two-layer model for the atmospheric electric field, these patterns can be well reproduced by state-of-the-art simulation codes. This in turn provides a novel way to study atmospheric electric fields.

  18. Probing Atmospheric Electric Fields in Thunderstorms through Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray-Induced Air Showers.

    PubMed

    Schellart, P; Trinh, T N G; Buitink, S; Corstanje, A; Enriquez, J E; Falcke, H; Hörandel, J R; Nelles, A; Rachen, J P; Rossetto, L; Scholten, O; Ter Veen, S; Thoudam, S; Ebert, U; Koehn, C; Rutjes, C; Alexov, A; Anderson, J M; Avruch, I M; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; de Geus, E; de Vos, M; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Fallows, R A; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Heald, G; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Holties, H A; Juette, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Mann, G; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Mevius, M; Moldon, J; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D J; Serylak, M; Smirnov, O; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tasse, C; Toribio, M C; van Weeren, R J; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Zarka, P

    2015-04-24

    We present measurements of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers that took place during thunderstorms. The intensity and polarization patterns of these air showers are radically different from those measured during fair-weather conditions. With the use of a simple two-layer model for the atmospheric electric field, these patterns can be well reproduced by state-of-the-art simulation codes. This in turn provides a novel way to study atmospheric electric fields. PMID:25955053

  19. Hydrology and water quality near the South Well Field, southern Franklin County, Ohio, with emphasis on the simulation of ground-water flow and transport of Scioto River. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, C.J.O.; Sheets, R.A.; Bair, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    At present (1990), about 15 percent of the total water supply for the City of Columbus, Ohio, is provided by ground water withdrawn from the South Well Field in southern Franklin County. Much of the flow of Scioto River at the South Well Field originates from the Jackson Pike Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF), one of two municipal wastewater-treatment plants operated by the City of Columbus. The Jackson Pike WTF discharges effluent into Scioto River about 6 mi upstream from the South Well Field. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), undertook a study to evaluate the hydrologic consequences of changes in effluent discharge to Scioto River and to clarify the interaction of Scioto River and carbonate bedrock and glacial drift aquifers at the South Well Field. The report describes the hydrology and water quality of the South Well Field area by presenting the results of (1) surface-water-transport simulations of a conservative constituent during low flow of Scioto River from Frank Road to the South Well Field and (2) ground-water-flow simulations of the glacial drift and carbonate bedrock aquifers at the South Well Field. The simulations are examined along with surface-water and ground-water quality to describe the relation between the quantity and quality of flow in the Scioto River; the nature of the ground-water-flow system; and the quantity, quality, and sources of water pumped from the South Well Field. Data collection in the study area in August and September 1987 and 1988 included sampling for surface-water and ground-water quality and measurement of surface-water discharge, Scioto River travel-times, ground-water levels, and vertical riverbed hydraulic conductivity.

  20. Field controlled experiments of mercury accumulation in crops from air and soil.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei; Ci, Zhijia

    2011-10-01

    Field open top chambers (OTCs) and soil mercury (Hg) enriched experiments were employed to study the influence of Hg concentrations in air and soil on the Hg accumulation in the organs of maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Results showed that Hg concentrations in foliages were correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with air Hg concentrations but insignificantly correlated with soil Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop foliages was mainly from air. Hg concentrations in roots were generally correlated with soil Hg concentrations (p < 0.05) but insignificantly correlated with air Hg concentrations, indicating that Hg in crop roots was mainly from soil. No significant correlations were found between Hg concentrations in stems and those in air and soil. However, Hg concentrations in upper stems were usually higher than those in bottom stems, implying air Hg might have stronger influence than soil Hg on stem Hg accumulation.

  1. Factors affecting air sparging remediation systems using field data and numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Benner, Michael L; Mohtar, Rabi H; Lee, Linda S

    2002-12-01

    Field data from five air sparging sites were used to assess the effect of several soil, contaminant, and air sparging system factors on the removal time and associated costs required to reach specified clean-up criteria. Numerical simulations were also performed to better assess the field data and to expand the data sets beyond the five field sites. Ten factors were selected and evaluated individually over a range of values based on information from practitioners and the literature. Trends in removal time and removal cost to reach a specified clean-up criterion were analyzed to ascertain the conditions controlling contaminant removal with variations in each factors' value. A linear sensitivity equation was used to quantify system dynamics controlling the observed contaminant removal trends for each factor. Factors found most critical across all field sites in terms of removal time and/or cost were contaminant type, sparge pulsing schedule, number of wells, maximum biodecay rate, total soil porosity, and aquifer organic carbon content. Factors showing moderate to low effect included the depth of the sparge point below the water table, air injection rate/pressure, horizontal air conductivity, and anisotropy ratio. At each field site, subsurface coverage of sparged air, sparged air residence time, contaminant equilibrium in the system, contaminant phase distribution, oxygen availability to microbes, and contaminant volatility seem to control the system responses and were affected by one or more of the 10 factors evaluated.

  2. BIOREMEDIATION FIELD EVALUATION - HILL AIR FORCE BASE, UTAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Bioremediation Field Initiative as part of its overall strategy to increase the use of bioremediation to treat hazardous wastes at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liabil- ity Act (C...

  3. Geologic investigations for Ohio SSC proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Pavey, R.R.

    1987-09-01

    The proposed Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) will be the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator for high-energy particle physics research. The primary feature of this scientific instrument is a 10-ft diameter tunnel, 53 mi in circumference. The geologic setting for such a tunneling effort is of paramount importance for selection of the SSC site. The SSC study area comprises portions of 16 quadrangles within Marion, Union, Delaware, and Morrow Counties, Ohio. Very little modern geologic information was available for this area. However, the Ohio Division of Geological Survey's existing mapping and drilling programs were ideally suited to produce the geologic framework needed to determine an optimum SSC site. Thus, the Survey's commitment to the state of Ohio's SSC proposal has been substantial. Project results include a comprehensive series of maps, including glacial materials to 50 ft, bedrock topography, drift thickness, bedrock unit subcrop, and structure maps for several bedrock units. Also added to the knowledge base of this area are numerous field sections and cores, several gravity profiles, and an improved understanding of the area's glacial and bedrock stratigraphy.

  4. Advancing STEM Learning across the Educational Pipeline: Statewide Efforts in Ohio. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Youth Policy Forum, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This issue brief is focused on state efforts to improve education in science, technology, engineering, and math--collectively known as the "STEM" disciplines. The brief is largely based on a March, 2009 American Youth Policy Forum (AYPF) field trip to Columbus and Dayton, Ohio, and describes Ohio's success in advancing STEM education across the…

  5. Study of flow fields induced by surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator in low-pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Che, Xueke E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Nie, Wansheng; Tian, Xihui; Hou, Zhiyong; He, Haobo; Zhou, Penghui; Zhou, Siyin; Yang, Chao; Shao, Tao E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn

    2014-04-15

    Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) is a promising method for a flow control. Flow fields induced by a SDBD actuator driven by the ac voltage in static air at low pressures varying from 1.0 to 27.7 kPa are measured by the particle image velocimetry method. The influence of the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude on the induced flow fields is studied. The results show that three different classes of flow fields (wall jet flow field, complex flow field, and vortex-shape flow field) can be induced by the SDBD actuator in the low-pressure air. Among them, the wall jet flow field is the same as the tangential jet at atmospheric pressure, which is, together with the vertical jet, the complex flow field. The vortex-shape flow field is composed of one vertical jet which points towards the wall and two opposite tangential jets. The complex and the vortex-shape flow fields can be transformed to the wall jet flow field when the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude are changed. It is found that the discharge power consumption increases initially, decreases, and then increases again at the same applied ac voltage magnitude when the air pressure decreases. The tangential velocity of the wall jet flow field increases when the air pressure decreases. It is however opposite for the complex flow field. The variation of the applied ac voltage frequency influences differently three different flow fields. When the applied ac voltage magnitude increases at the same applied ac voltage frequency, the maximal jet velocity increases, while the power efficiency increases only initially and then decreases again. The discharge power shows either linear or exponential dependences on the applied ac voltage magnitude.

  6. BIOREMEDIATION FIELD EVALUATION: EIELSON AIR FORCE BASE, ALASKA (EPA/540/R-95/533)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication, one of a series presenting the findings of the Bioremediation Field Initiatives bioremediation field evaluations, provides a detailed summary of the evaluation conducted at the Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) Superfund site in Fairbanks, Alaska. At this site, the ...

  7. The temperature fields measurement of air in the car cabin by infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pešek, M.

    2013-04-01

    The article deals with the temperature fields measurement of air using the Jenoptic Variocam infrared camera inside the car Škoda Octavia Combi II. The temperature fields with the use of auxiliary material with a high emissivity value were visualized. The measurements through the viewing window with a high transmissivity value were performed. The viewing windows on the side car door were placed. In the rear car area, the temperature fields of air on the spacious sheet of auxiliary material were visualized which is a suitable method for 2D airstreams. In the front car area, the temperature fields in the air were measured with the use of the measuring net which is suitable for 3D airstreams measuring.

  8. Solar energy system performance evaluation: seasonal report for Solaron-Akron, Akron, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The long-term field performance of the installed system and technical contributions to the definition of techniques and requirements for solar energy system design are reported. The Solar Energy System was designed by Solaron Corporation, Denver, Colorado, to provide an 1840 square foot floor area with space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) for a dual-level single family residence in Akron, Ohio. The Solar Energy System uses air as the heat transport medium, has a 546 square foot flat plate collector array subsystem, a 270 cubic foot rock thermal storage bin subsystem, a domestic hot water preheat tank, pumps, controls and transport lines. The auxiliary space heating subsystem is an air to liquid heat pump coupled with a 1000 gallon water storage tank. Electricity provides auxiliary energy for both space heating and DHW subsystems.

  9. Avian Field guide and checklist for Kunsan Air Base, Korea.

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, J. B.; Environmental Assessment

    2005-11-15

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Kunsan Air Base (AB). This on-going survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Kunsan AB, and the 8th Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred sixteen bird species representing 34 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Cultural Property Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Six species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's(KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, only ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected because the Eurasian Spoonbill, Peregrine Falcon, and Eurasian Oystercatcher are listed by both agencies. The primary objective of the avian survey at Kunsan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex C.4.a.(1-4) of the 8th Fighter Wing BASH Plan(8FWOPLAN 91-202). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Kunsan AB throughout the year, and from the survey results determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Kunsan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Kunsan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a and also that are favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  10. Avian survey and field guide for Osan Air Base, Korea.

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, J.

    2006-12-05

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Osan Air Base (AB). This ongoing survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Osan AB, and the 51st Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred ten bird species representing 35 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Natural Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Three species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's (KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected. The primary objective of the avian survey at Osan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex J.14.c of the 51st Fighter BASH Plan 91-212 (51 FW OPLAN 91-212). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Osan AB throughout the year and from the survey results, determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Osan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Osan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a that are also favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  11. Regulatory facility guide for Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.S.; Bock, R.E.; Francis, M.W.; Gove, R.M.; Johnson, P.E.; Kovac, F.M.; Mynatt, J.O.; Rymer, A.C.

    1994-02-28

    The Regulatory Facility Guide (RFG) has been developed for the DOE and contractor facilities located in the state of Ohio. It provides detailed compilations of international, federal, and state transportation-related regulations applicable to shipments originating at destined to Ohio facilities. This RFG was developed as an additional resource tool for use both by traffic managers who must ensure that transportation operations are in full compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements and by oversight personnel who must verify compliance activities.

  12. MODELING AIR TOXICS AND PM 2.5 CONCENTRATION FIELDS AS A MEANS FOR FACILITATING HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability of the US EPA Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is extended to provide gridded ambient air quality concentration fields at fine scales. These fields will drive human exposure to air toxics and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) models...

  13. Validation of a prototype DiodeAir for small field dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Underwood, T S A; Thompson, J; Bird, L; Scott, A J D; Patmore, P; Winter, H C; Hill, M A; Fenwick, J D

    2015-04-01

    Standard commercial diode detectors over-respond within small radiation fields, an effect largely attributable to the relatively high mass-density of silicon. However, Monte Carlo studies can be used to optimise dosimeter designs and have demonstrated that 'mass-density compensation'-for example, introducing a low-density air-gap upstream of a diode's high-density silicon volume-can substantially improve instrument response. In this work we used egs_chamber Monte Carlo simulations to predict the ideal air-gap thickness for a PTW 60017 unshielded diode detector. We then developed a prototype instrument incorporating that air-gap and, for a 6 MV linac, tested it experimentally against EBT3 film. We also tested a further three prototypes with different air-gap thicknesses. Our results demonstrate that for a 10 × 10 cm(2) reference field the DiodeAir, a PTW 60017 diode with a built-in air-gap of 1 mm, has on-axis correction factors near unity. Laterally the DiodeAir performs very well off-axis and reports FWHM and penumbra values consistent with those measured using EBT3. For PDD measurement, the performance of the DiodeAir matches that of the original PTW 60017. The experimental focus of this work was 6 MV but we also simulated the on-axis response of the DiodeAir within 15 MV beams and found that our modification proved robust to this substantial increase in beam energy. However, the original diode 60017 does exhibit low energy scatter dependencies and may over-respond to high linac dose-rates such that applying the mass-density compensation method to an alternative instrument (particularly a diamond detector) could ultimately take us even closer to the small-field ideal. PMID:25789823

  14. Field study of pulsed air sparging for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaomin; Beckmann, Dennis; Fiorenza, Stephanie; Niedermeier, Craig

    2005-09-15

    Recent laboratory-scale studies strongly suggested an advantage to operating air-sparging systems in a pulsed mode; however, little definitive field data existed to support the laboratory-scale observations. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a field-scale pulsed air-sparging system during a short-term pilot test and during long-term system operation. The air-sparging system consisted of 32 sparging points and had been previously operated in a continuous mode for two years before the field study was performed. The field study used instruments with continuous data logging capabilities to monitor the dynamic responses of groundwater and soil vapor parameters to air injection. The optimum pulsing frequency was based on the evidence that the hydrocarbon volatilization and oxygen dissolution rates dramatically dropped after the air-sparging system reached steady state. The short-term pilot test results indicated a substantial increase in hydrocarbon volatilization and biodegradation in pulsed operation. On the basis of the results of the pilottest, the air-sparging system was set to operate in a pulsed mode at an optimum pulsing frequency. Operation parameters were collected 2, 8, and 12 months after the start of the pulsed operation. The long-term monitoring results showed thatthe pulsed operation increased the average hydrocarbon removal rate (kg/day) by a factor of up to 3 as compared to the previous continuous operation. The pulsed air sparging has resulted in higher reduction rates of dissolved benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) than were observed during the continuous operation. Among BTEX, benzene's reduction rate was the highest during the pulsed air-sparging operation. PMID:16201659

  15. Field study of pulsed air sparging for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaomin; Beckmann, Dennis; Fiorenza, Stephanie; Niedermeier, Craig

    2005-09-15

    Recent laboratory-scale studies strongly suggested an advantage to operating air-sparging systems in a pulsed mode; however, little definitive field data existed to support the laboratory-scale observations. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a field-scale pulsed air-sparging system during a short-term pilot test and during long-term system operation. The air-sparging system consisted of 32 sparging points and had been previously operated in a continuous mode for two years before the field study was performed. The field study used instruments with continuous data logging capabilities to monitor the dynamic responses of groundwater and soil vapor parameters to air injection. The optimum pulsing frequency was based on the evidence that the hydrocarbon volatilization and oxygen dissolution rates dramatically dropped after the air-sparging system reached steady state. The short-term pilot test results indicated a substantial increase in hydrocarbon volatilization and biodegradation in pulsed operation. On the basis of the results of the pilottest, the air-sparging system was set to operate in a pulsed mode at an optimum pulsing frequency. Operation parameters were collected 2, 8, and 12 months after the start of the pulsed operation. The long-term monitoring results showed thatthe pulsed operation increased the average hydrocarbon removal rate (kg/day) by a factor of up to 3 as compared to the previous continuous operation. The pulsed air sparging has resulted in higher reduction rates of dissolved benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) than were observed during the continuous operation. Among BTEX, benzene's reduction rate was the highest during the pulsed air-sparging operation.

  16. Simulation of radio emission from air showers in atmospheric electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Buitink, S.; Huege, T.; Falcke, H; Kuijpers, J.

    2010-02-25

    We study the effect of atmospheric electric fields on the radio pulse emitted by cos- mic ray air showers. Under fair weather conditions the dominant part of the radio emission is driven by the geomagnetic field. When the shower charges are accelerated and deflected in an electric field additional radiation is emitted. We simulate this effect with the Monte Carlo code REAS2, using CORSIKA-simulated showers as input. In both codes a routine has been implemented that treats the effect of the electric field on the shower particles. We find that the radio pulse is significantly altered in background fields of the order of ~100 V/cm and higher. Practically, this means that air showers passing through thunderstorms emit radio pulses that are not a reliable measure for the shower energy. Under other weather circumstances significant electric field effects are expected to occur rarely, but nimbostratus clouds can harbor fields that are large enough. In general, the contribution of the electric field to the radio pulse has polarization properties that are different from the geomagnetic pulse. In order to filter out radio pulses that have been affected by electric field effects, radio air shower experiments should keep weatherinformation and perform full polarization measurements of the radio signal.

  17. Air core poloidal magnetic field system for a toroidal plasma producing device

    DOEpatents

    Marcus, Frederick B.

    1978-01-01

    A poloidal magnetics system for a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration is provided that reduces both the total volt-seconds requirement and the magnitude of the field change at the toroidal field coils. The system utilizes an air core transformer wound between the toroidal field (TF) coils and the major axis outside the TF coils. Electric current in the primary windings of this transformer is distributed and the magnetic flux returned by air core windings wrapped outside the toroidal field coils. A shield winding that is closely coupled to the plasma carries a current equal and opposite to the plasma current. This winding provides the shielding function and in addition serves in a fashion similar to a driven conducting shell to provide the equilibrium vertical field for the plasma. The shield winding is in series with a power supply and a decoupling coil located outside the TF coil at the primary winding locations. The present invention requires much less energy than the usual air core transformer and is capable of substantially shielding the toroidal field coils from poloidal field flux.

  18. Analysis of heat pumps installed in family housing at Hunter Army Air Field

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, S.A.

    1994-08-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to conduct a postconstruction evaluation of the air-source heat pumps installed in family housing at Hunter Army Air Field (AAF). The objective of this project was to investigate and resolve concerns about an increase in energy costs at Hunter AAF following the installation of heat pumps in November 1992. After completing several analyses and a field inspection of the heat pumps in family housing at Hunter AAF, the following conclusions were made: the installation of air-source heat pumps reduced the annual energy cost in family housing by $46,672 in 1993; the heat pump thermostat controls in Hunter AAF family housing appear to be incorrectly installed; and the Hunter AAF electric utility bill increased 10% during the first 6 months of 1993 compared to the first 6 months of 1992.

  19. Air-propelled abrasive grit for postemergence in-row weed control in field corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic growers need additional tools for weed control. A new technique involving abrasive grit propelled by compressed air was tested in field plots. Grit derived from corn cobs was directed at seedlings of summer annual weeds growing at the bases of corn plants when the corn was at differing early...

  20. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

  1. Staying the Course: Racing for Ohio's Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Debra Kay

    2010-01-01

    With the change in Ohio's Operating Standards in July of 2002, students across Ohio began losing school library learning opportunities. District after district made financially based decisions to minimize, and in a few cases totally eliminate, school library programs. Across the state, many of Ohio's children lost precious learning opportunities.…

  2. 21 CFR 808.85 - Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ohio. 808.85 Section 808.85 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.85 Ohio. (a) The following Ohio medical device requirement is...

  3. 21 CFR 808.85 - Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ohio. 808.85 Section 808.85 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.85 Ohio. (a) The following Ohio medical device requirement is...

  4. 21 CFR 808.85 - Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ohio. 808.85 Section 808.85 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.85 Ohio. (a) The following Ohio medical device requirement is...

  5. 21 CFR 808.85 - Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ohio. 808.85 Section 808.85 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.85 Ohio. (a) The following Ohio medical device requirement is...

  6. 21 CFR 808.85 - Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ohio. 808.85 Section 808.85 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.85 Ohio. (a) The following Ohio medical device requirement is...

  7. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Pilot test at the Clean Test Site Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Muck, M.T.; Kearl, P.M.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1998-08-01

    This report presents the results of field testing a horizontal well recirculation system at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The recirculation system uses a pair of horizontal wells, one for groundwater extraction and treatment and the other for reinjection of treated groundwater, to set up a recirculation flow field. The induced flow field from the injection well to the extraction well establishes a sweeping action for the removal and treatment of groundwater contaminants. The overall purpose of this project is to study treatment of mixed groundwater contaminants that occur in a thin water-bearing zone not easily targeted by traditional vertical wells. The project involves several research elements, including treatment-process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and pilot testing at a contaminated site. The results of the pilot test at an uncontaminated site, the Clean Test Site (CTS), are presented in this report.

  8. 77 FR 14006 - Record of Decision for the Military Housing Privatization Initiative Hurlburt Field and Eglin Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Department of the Air Force Record of Decision for the Military Housing Privatization Initiative Hurlburt Field and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, Final Environmental Impact Statement ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of a Record of Decision (ROD). SUMMARY: On February 6, 2012, the United States Air...

  9. 76 FR 38266 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Ohio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ...]; Federal-Aid Highway Act . 2. Air: Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671(q). 3. Land: Land and Water... of Ohio: one additional through lane in each direction on I-75; changes in access for the following interchanges: Galbraith Road (modernize with full access), SR-126 (upgraded access but will lack two...

  10. External electric field control of THz pulse generation in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen-Feng; Zhou, Yun-Song; Wang, Xin-Ke; Zhang, Yan

    2008-10-13

    A theoretical model has been proposed to describe the dependence of the THz wave generated in a laser-induced air plasma on the external electric field. Using this model we predict the following, (i) previously observed results show that the THz pulse enhances linearly with the increase of the external field; (ii) the THz pulse varies as a cosine function with the angle between the direction of the external electric field and the polarization of the incident exciting beam; (iii) and the amplitude is proportional to the square of the intensity of the incident pulse in a low energy region. These predictions are validated by our experiment.

  11. Bias stress effect in "air-gap" organic field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Podzorov, V

    2012-05-22

    The origin of the bias stress effect related only to semiconductor properties is investigated in "air-gap" organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) in the absence of a material gate dielectric. The effect becomes stronger as the density of trap states in the semiconductor increases. A theoretical model based on carrier trapping and relaxation in localized tail states is formulated. Polar molecular vapors in the gap of "air-gap" OFETs also have a significant impact on the bias stress effect via the formation of bound states between the charge carriers and molecular dipoles at the semiconductor surface. PMID:22499410

  12. Numerical analysis of air-flow and temperature field in a passenger car compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamar, Haslinda Mohamed; Kamsah, Nazri; Mohammad Nor, Ahmad Miski

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical study on the temperature field inside a passenger's compartment of a Proton Wira saloon car using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. The main goal is to investigate the effects of different glazing types applied onto the front and rear windscreens of the car on the distribution of air-temperature inside the passenger compartment in the steady-state conditions. The air-flow condition in the passenger's compartment is also investigated. Fluent CFD software was used to develop a three-dimensional symmetrical model of the passenger's compartment. Simplified representations of the driver and one rear passenger were incorporated into the CFD model of the passenger's compartment. Two types of glazing were considered namely clear insulated laminated tint (CIL) with a shading coefficient of 0.78 and green insulated laminate tint (GIL) with a shading coefficient of 0.5. Results of the CFD analysis were compared with those obtained when the windscreens are made up of clear glass having a shading coefficient of 0.86. Results of the CFD analysis show that for a given glazing material, the temperature of the air around the driver is slightly lower than the air around the rear passenger. Also, the use of GIL glazing material on both the front and rear windscreens significantly reduces the air temperature inside the passenger's compartment of the car. This contributes to a better thermal comfort condition to the occupants. Swirling air flow condition occurs in the passenger compartment. The air-flow intensity and velocity are higher along the side wall of the passenger's compartment compared to that along the middle section of the compartment. It was also found that the use of glazing materials on both the front and rear windscreen has no significant effects on the air-flow condition inside the passenger's compartment of the car.

  13. Influence of a Static Magnetic Field on Laser Induced Tungsten Plasma in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ding; Liu, Ping; Sun, Liying; Hai, Ran; Ding, Hongbin

    2016-04-01

    In this work, laser induced tungsten plasma has been investigated in the absence and presence of 0.6 T static transverse magnetic field at atmospheric pressure in air. The spectroscopic characterization of laser induced tungsten plasma was experimentally studied using space-resolved emission spectroscopy. The atomic emission lines of tungsten showed a significant enhancement in the presence of a magnetic field, while the ionic emission lines of tungsten presented little change. Temporal variation of the optical emission lines of tungsten indicated that the atomic emission time in the presence of a magnetic field was longer than that in the absence of a magnetic field, while no significant changes occurred for the ionic emission time. The spatial resolution of optical emission lines of tungsten demonstrated that the spatial distribution of atoms and ions were separated. The influence of a magnetic field on the spatial distribution of atoms was remarkable, whereas the spatial distribution of ions was little influenced by the magnetic field. The different behaviors between ions and atoms with and without magnetic field in air were related to the various atomic processes especially the electrons and ions recombination process during the plasma expansion and cooling process.

  14. HOW OHIO HELPS MIGRANT CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizabeth S. Magee Education and Research Foundation, Inc., Cleveland, OH.

    PRESENTED WERE PROBLEMS OF OHIO MIGRANT WORKERS, MOSTLY TEXANS OF MEXICAN BACKGROUND, WHOSE CHILDREN WERE DEFICIENT IN EDUCATIONAL GROWTH. THE GROWTH OF THE SUMMER SCHOOL PROGRAM BEGAN IN 1957 WITH AN INVESTIGATION THAT POINTED OUT THE NEED OF SUCH SCHOOLS FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN. IN 1958, TWO SUMMER SCHOOL CLASSES WERE HELD, IN 1959, THE TWO CLASSES…

  15. Cosmetology. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This comprehensive and verified employer competency list was developed from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This competency list contains 17 units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational,…

  16. Ohio Workplace Education Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest ABLE Resource Center, Toledo, OH.

    This manual is designed for adult basic education programs to use as a resource for workplace education (WE). It begins with a section of introductory materials, including a WE definition, scope of work, and survey results. The next section contains a program profile; director/coordinator profile; instructor profiles; Ohio ABLE workplace site…

  17. Survey of Ohio's Prison Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liggett, Joanna M.

    1996-01-01

    Prison libraries present a growing employment opportunity for librarians, but there is little statistical or descriptive information about prison libraries. A survey was conducted of Ohio prison libraries to create a profile and increase appreciation and understanding of them. Information was collected about library users, types of materials,…

  18. Ohio Laws for Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Patrick

    Presented are texts of Ohio state laws regarding the provision and funding of special educational programs, school attendance, and related issues. Laws regarding special educational programs deal with such topics as classes and training of teachers for the handicapped, inspection of classes, programs for the gifted, definition of handicapped…

  19. Ohio Engineering Technologies Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lavonna; Draeger, Meg; Bowermeister, Bob; Wancho, Richard

    This document, which lists engineering technologies competencies as identified by representatives from business and industry as well as secondary and post-secondary educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary…

  20. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile. Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This index contains the unit titles from all 60 Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) lists. It is intended to facilitate the combination of units from different OCAPs in order to develop curricula that meet specific program needs (e.g., learner differences, labor market demands, and technological developments). OCAP titles are as follows:…

  1. Postretirement Medical Coverage in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Saul W.; Cross, Mark L.

    2007-01-01

    The Ohio State Teacher Retirement System (STRS) provides retirement, survivor, and disability benefits to public school (K-12) teachers, college and university professors employed by state institutions, and the spouses and eligible dependents of these employees. In doing so, it operates much like other state retirement systems. The money to…

  2. Water use in Ohio, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hathaway, R. Michael; Eberle, Michael

    1981-01-01

    The estimated water use in Ohio for all purposes in 1975 was 16 ,431 million gallons per day. Of this total, 15,321 were taken from surface water while the remaining 1,110 represent ground-water withdrawals. Totals by category are as follows (in million gallons per day): Thermoelectric power generation, 12 ,404; self-supplied industrial use, 2,362: public water supplies , 1,423; rural domestic and livestock, 201; and irrigation, 40. Per capita water use was calculated to be 1,528 gallons per day for an Ohio population of 10,751,000 in 1975. Jefferson County led all Ohio counties in total water use with 3,447 million gallons per day. This was nearly three times the usage of second-ranking Gallia County where withdrawals were 1,242 million gallons per day. The heavy water use in both of these Ohio River counties is due to large withdrawals for thermoelectic power generation. Cuyahoga, Lorain, and Lake Counties, all in the Cleveland metropolitan area, rank third, fourth, and fifth in the State with respective totals of 1,061, 1,047, and 1,030 million gallons per day. Water use is more diverse in this area, with public supplies, industrial use, and thermoelectric power all making significant impacts. (USGS)

  3. Ohio Construction Technologies Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lavonna; Bowermeister, Bob

    This document, which lists construction technologies competencies as identified by representatives from government agencies and labor organizations as well as secondary and postsecondary educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing both college tech prep programs and apprenticeship training/education…

  4. Welding. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a welding program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability skills needed…

  5. 33 CFR 334.845 - Wisconsin Air National Guard, Volk Field military exercise area located in Lake Michigan offshore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wisconsin Air National Guard, Volk Field military exercise area located in Lake Michigan offshore from Manitowoc and Sheboygan... Air National Guard, Volk Field military exercise area located in Lake Michigan offshore from...

  6. 33 CFR 334.845 - Wisconsin Air National Guard, Volk Field military exercise area located in Lake Michigan offshore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wisconsin Air National Guard, Volk Field military exercise area located in Lake Michigan offshore from Manitowoc and Sheboygan... Air National Guard, Volk Field military exercise area located in Lake Michigan offshore from...

  7. 33 CFR 334.845 - Wisconsin Air National Guard, Volk Field military exercise area located in Lake Michigan offshore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wisconsin Air National Guard, Volk Field military exercise area located in Lake Michigan offshore from Manitowoc and Sheboygan... Air National Guard, Volk Field military exercise area located in Lake Michigan offshore from...

  8. Porous media experience applicable to field evaluation for compressed air energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Gutknecht, P.J.

    1980-06-01

    A survey is presented of porous media field experience that may aid in the development of a compressed air energy storage field demonstration. Work done at PNL and experience of other groups and related industries is reviewed. An overall view of porous media experience in the underground storage of fluids is presented. CAES experience consists of site evaluation and selection processes used by groups in California, Kansas, and Indiana. Reservoir design and field evaluation of example sites are reported. The studies raised questions about compatibility with depleted oil and gas reservoirs, storage space rights, and compressed air regulations. Related experience embraces technologies of natural gas, thermal energy, and geothermal and hydrogen storage. Natural gas storage technology lends the most toward compressed air storage development, keeping in mind the respective differences between stored fluids, physical conditions, and cycling frequencies. Both fluids are injected under pressure into an aquifer to form a storage bubble confined between a suitable caprock structure and partially displaced ground water. State-of-the-art information is summarized as the necessary foundation material for field planning. Preliminary design criteria are given as recommendations for basic reservoir characteristics. These include geometric dimensions and storage matrix properties such as permeability. Suggested ranges are given for injection air temperature and reservoir pressure. The second step in developmental research is numerical modeling. Results have aided preliminary design by analyzing injection effects upon reservoir pressure, temperature and humidity profiles. Results are reported from laboratory experiments on candidate sandstones and caprocks. Conclusions are drawn, but further verification must be done in the field.

  9. The inception of pulsed discharges in air: simulations in background fields above and below breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Anbang; Teunissen, Jannis; Ebert, Ute

    2014-11-01

    We investigate discharge inception in air, in uniform background electric fields above and below the breakdown threshold. We perform 3D particle simulations that include a natural level of background ionization in the form of positive and \\text{O}2- ions. In background fields below breakdown, we use a strongly ionized seed of electrons and positive ions to enhance the field locally. In the region of enhanced field, we observe the growth of positive streamers, as in previous simulations with 2D plasma fluid models. The inclusion of background ionization has little effect in this case. When the background field is above the breakdown threshold, the situation is very different. Electrons can then detach from \\text{O}2- and start ionization avalanches in the whole volume. These avalanches together create one extended discharge, in contrast to the ‘double-headed’ streamers found in many fluid simulations.

  10. Geology and hydrogeology of Naval Air Station Chase Field and Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Goliad, Bee and Goliad counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Large vertical hydraulic-head gradients are present between the unconfined Evangeline aquifer and confined Fleming aquifers at Naval Air Station Chase Field and Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Goliad. These gradients, together with the results of the aquifer test at Naval Air Station Chase Field and assumed characteristics of the confining units, indicate that downward flow of ground water probably occurs from the water-table aquifer to the underlying aquifers. The rate of downward flow between the two confined Fleming aquifers (from A-sand to B-sand) can be approximated using an estimate of vertical hydraulic conductivity of the intervening confining unit obtained from assumed storage characteristics and data from the aquifer test. Under the relatively high vertical hydraulic-head gradient induced by the aquifer test, ground-water movement from the A-sand aquifer to the B-sand aquifer could require about 490 years; and about 730 years under the natural gradient. Future increases in ground-water withdrawals from the B-sand aquifer might increase downward flow in the aquifer system of the study area.

  11. Application of multiphase transport models to field remediation by air sparging and soil vapor extraction.

    PubMed

    Rahbeh, M E; Mohtar, R H

    2007-05-01

    The design and operation of air sparging and soil vapor extraction (AS/SVE) remediation systems remains in large an art due to the absence of reliable physically based models that can utilize the limited available field data. In this paper, a numerical model developed for the design and operation of air sparging and soil vapor extractions systems was used to simulate two field case studies. The first-order mass transfer kinetics were incorporated into the model to account for contaminant mass transfer between the water and air (stripping), NAPL and water (dissolution), NAPL and air (volatilization), and water and soil (sorption/desorption), the model also accounted for soil heterogeneity. Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX) were the contaminants of concern in both case studies. In the second case study, the model was used to evaluate the effect of pulsed sparging on the removal rate of BTEX compounds. The pulsed sparging operation was approximated assuming uniform contaminant redistribution at the beginning of the shut-off period. The close comparison between the observed and simulated contaminant concentration in the aqueous phase showed that the approximation of the pulsed sparging operation yielded reasonable prediction of the removal process. Field heterogeneity was simulated using Monte Carlo analysis. The model predicted about 80-85% of the contaminant mass was removed by air-water mass transfer, which was similar to the average removal obtained by Monte Carlo analysis. The analysis of the removal/rebound cycles demonstrated that removal rate was controlled by the organic-aqueous distribution coefficient K(oc). Due to the lack of site-specific data, the aerobic first-order biodegradation coefficients (k(bio)) were obtained from a literature survey, therefore, uncertainty analysis of the k(bio) was conducted to evaluate the contribution of the aerobic biodegradation to total contaminant removal. Results of both case studies showed that

  12. Laser induced fluorescence measurements of dissolved oxygen concentration fields near air bubble surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sabita; Duke, Steve R.

    2000-09-01

    This article describes a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique for measuring dissolved oxygen concentration gradients in water near the surface of an air bubble. Air bubbles are created at the tip of a needle in a rectangular bubble column filled with water that contains pyrenebutyric acid (PBA). The fluorescence of the PBA is induced by a planar pulse of nitrogen laser light. Oxygen transferring from the air bubble to the deoxygenated water quenches the fluorescence of the PBA. Images of the instantaneous and two-dimensional fluorescence field are obtained by a UV-intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Quenching of fluorescence intensity is determined at each pixel in the CCD image to measure dissolved oxygen concentration. Two-dimensional concentration fields are presented for a series of measurements of oxygen transfer from 1.6 mm bubbles suspended on the tip of a needle in a quiescent fluid. The images show the spatially varying concentration profiles, gradients, and boundary layer thicknesses at positions around the bubble surfaces. These direct and local measurements of concentration behavior within the mass transfer boundary layer show the potential of this LIF technique for the development of general and mechanistic models for oxygen transport across the air-water interface.

  13. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Thomas; Willem, Henry; Ni, Chun Chun; Stratton, Hannah; Chen, Yuting; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Iyer, Maithili; Price, Sarah; Dunham, Camilla

    2014-12-01

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States.

  14. Air Quality in Megacities: Lessons Learned from Mexico City Field Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    More than half of the world's population now lives in urban areas because of the opportunities for better jobs, access to city services, cultural and educational activities, and a desire for more stimulating human interaction. At the same time, many of these urban centers are expanding rapidly, giving rise to the phenomenon of megacities. In recent decades air pollution has become not only one of the most important environmental problems of megacities, but also presents serious consequences to human health and ecosystems and economic costs to society. Although the progress to date in combating air pollution problems in developed and some developing world megacities has been impressive, many challenges remain including the need to improve air quality while simultaneously mitigating climate change. This talk will present the results and the lessons learned from field measurements conducted in Mexico City Metropolitan Area - one of the world's largest megacities - over the past decade. While each city has its own unique circumstances, the need for an integrated assessment approach in addressing complex environmental problems is the same. There is no single strategy in solving air pollution problems in megacities; a mix of policy measures based on sound scientific findings will be necessary to improve air quality, protect public health, and mitigate climate change.

  15. Field and numerical analysis of in-situ air sparging: a case study.

    PubMed

    Benner, M L; Stanford, S M; Lee, L S; Mohtar, R H

    2000-02-25

    An in-situ air sparging operation was used to remediate the sandy subsurface soils and shallow groundwater under a drum storage site near Chicago, IL, where either periodic or random spillage of a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) occurred between 1980 and 1987. Both field measurements and model simulations using commercially available computer software suggested that microbial degradation was the most significant contributor to the removal of contaminant mass. Toluene, ethylbenzene and total xylenes (TEX), which were of major concern with regards to reaching clean-up criteria at the site, were observed to decline by 88% in concentration. Furthermore, up to 97% of the total mass removed through microbial degradation consisted of TEX. Of the total contaminant spill, up to 23% of initial organic chemical mass was removed through microbial degradation compared to less than 6% by physical stripping. Greater loss to microbial degradation is most likely attributed to the relatively low air injection rate used during the course of the air sparging remediation. Evaluation of air sparging at the site using model simulations supported this analysis by estimating 140 and 620 kg of total contaminant mass being removed through volatilization and biodegradation, respectively. An evaluation of several system design parameters using model simulations suggested that only the type of sparging operation (i.e. pulsed or continuous) was significant in terms of total contaminant removal time, while both the sparging operation and air injection rate were significant in terms of removal of a critical species, total xylenes.

  16. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  17. Numerical Simulations of Blast Loads from Near-Field Ground Explosions in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrociński, Stanisław; Flis, Leszek

    2015-12-01

    Numerical simulations of air blast loading in the near-field acting on the ground have been performed. A simplified blast model based on empirical blast loading data representing spherical and hemispherical explosive shapes has been simulated. Conwep is an implementation of the empirical blast models presented by Kingery and Bulmash, which is also implemented in the commercial code LS-DYNA based on work done by Rahnders-Pehrson and Bannister. This makes it possible to simulate blast loads acting on structures representing spherical and hemispherical explosive shapes of TNT with reasonable computational effort as an alternative to the SPH and Eulerian model. The CPU time for the simplified blast model is however considerably shorter and may still be useful in time consuming concept studies. Reasonable numerical results using reasonable model sizes can be achieved not only for modelling near-field explosions in air but most areas of geotechnical. Calculation was compared with blast SPH and Eulerian model.

  18. Observation of the avalanche of runaway electrons in air in a strong electric field.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, A V; Mesyats, G A; Zybin, K P; Yalandin, M I; Reutova, A G; Shpak, V G; Shunailov, S A

    2012-08-24

    The generation of an avalanche of runaway electrons is demonstrated for the first time in a laboratory experiment. Two flows of runaway electrons are formed sequentially in an extended air discharge gap at the stage of delay of a pulsed breakdown. The first, picosecond, runaway electron flow is emitted in the cathode region where the field is enhanced. Being accelerated in the gap, this beam generates electrons due to impact ionization. These secondary electrons form a delayed avalanche of runaway electrons if the field is strong enough. The properties of the avalanche correspond to the existing notions about the runaway breakdown in air. The measured current of the avalanche exceeds up to an order the current of the initiating electron beam. PMID:23002751

  19. Observation of the Avalanche of Runaway Electrons in Air in a Strong Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, A. V.; Mesyats, G. A.; Zybin, K. P.; Yalandin, M. I.; Reutova, A. G.; Shpak, V. G.; Shunailov, S. A.

    2012-08-01

    The generation of an avalanche of runaway electrons is demonstrated for the first time in a laboratory experiment. Two flows of runaway electrons are formed sequentially in an extended air discharge gap at the stage of delay of a pulsed breakdown. The first, picosecond, runaway electron flow is emitted in the cathode region where the field is enhanced. Being accelerated in the gap, this beam generates electrons due to impact ionization. These secondary electrons form a delayed avalanche of runaway electrons if the field is strong enough. The properties of the avalanche correspond to the existing notions about the runaway breakdown in air. The measured current of the avalanche exceeds up to an order the current of the initiating electron beam.

  20. Observation of the avalanche of runaway electrons in air in a strong electric field.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, A V; Mesyats, G A; Zybin, K P; Yalandin, M I; Reutova, A G; Shpak, V G; Shunailov, S A

    2012-08-24

    The generation of an avalanche of runaway electrons is demonstrated for the first time in a laboratory experiment. Two flows of runaway electrons are formed sequentially in an extended air discharge gap at the stage of delay of a pulsed breakdown. The first, picosecond, runaway electron flow is emitted in the cathode region where the field is enhanced. Being accelerated in the gap, this beam generates electrons due to impact ionization. These secondary electrons form a delayed avalanche of runaway electrons if the field is strong enough. The properties of the avalanche correspond to the existing notions about the runaway breakdown in air. The measured current of the avalanche exceeds up to an order the current of the initiating electron beam.

  1. Losing Ohio's Future: Why College Graduates Flee the Buckeye State and What Might Be Done about It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Thomas B. Fordham Institute became interested in Ohio's human-talent issues via its work to improve public education. Fordham wanted answers to two related questions: what would it take to excite, attract, and retain more top college students to work in Ohio, and what else would it take to draw them into the field of education? To seek…

  2. Assessment of common soybean-infecting viruses in Ohio, USA, through multisite sampling and high-throughput sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess the scope of virus disease problems of soybean in Ohio, USA, a survey was conducted during 2011 and 2012 soybean growing seasons. A total of 259 samples were collected from 80 soybean fields distributed in 42 Ohio counties, accounting for more than 90% of major soybean-growing counties in ...

  3. Small field in-air output factors: The role of miniphantom design and dosimeter type

    SciTech Connect

    Warrener, Kirbie; Hug, Benjamin; Ebert, Martin A.; Liu, Paul; McKenzie, David R.; Ralston, Anna; Suchowerska, Natalka

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The commissioning of treatment planning systems and beam modeling requires measured input parameters. The measurement of relative output in-air, S{sub c} is particularly difficult for small fields. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of miniphantom design and detector selection on measured S{sub c} values for small fields and to validate the measurements against Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Measurements were performed using brass caps (with sidewalls) or tops (no sidewalls) of varying heights and widths. The performance of two unshielded diodes (60012 and SFD), EBT2 radiochromic film, and a fiber optic dosimeter (FOD) were compared for fields defined by MLCs (5–100 mm) and SRS cones (4–30 mm) on a Varian Novalis linear accelerator. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to theoretically predict S{sub c} as measured by the FOD. Results: For all detectors, S{sub c} agreed to within 1% for fields larger than 10 mm and to within 2.3% for smaller fields. Monte Carlo simulation matched the FOD measurements for all size of cone defined fields to within 0.5%. Conclusions: Miniphantom design is the most important variable for reproducible and accurate measurements of the in-air output ratio, S{sub c}, in small photon fields (less than 30 mm). Sidewalls are not required for fields ≤ 30 mm and tops are therefore preferred over the larger caps. Unlike output measurements in water, S{sub cp,} the selection of detector type for S{sub c} is not critical, provided the active dosimeter volume is small relative to the field size.

  4. Elemental composition and size distribution of particulates in Cleveland, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.; Neustadter, H. E.; Leibecki, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements were made of the elemental particle size distribution at five contrasting urban environments with different source-type distributions in Cleveland, Ohio. Air quality conditions ranged from normal to air pollution alert levels. A parallel network of high-volume cascade impactors (5-state) were used for simultaneous sampling on glass fiber surfaces for mass determinations and on Whatman-41 surfaces for elemental analysis by neutron activation for 25 elements. The elemental data are assessed in terms of distribution functions and interrelationships and are compared between locations as a function of resultant wind direction in an attempt to relate the findings to sources.

  5. Probing Atmospheric Electric Fields through Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray-Induced Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholten, Olaf; Trinh, Gia; Buitink, Stijn; Corstanje, Arthur; Ebert, Ute; Enriquez, Emilio; Falcke, Heino; Hoerandel, Joerg; Nelles, Anna; Schellart, Pim; Rachen, Joerg; Rutjes, Casper; ter Veen, Sander; Rossetto, Laura; Thoudam, Satyendra

    2016-04-01

    Energetic cosmic rays impinging on the atmosphere create a particle avalanche called an extensive air shower. In the leading plasma of this shower electric currents are induced that generate coherent radio wave emission that has been detected with LOFAR, a large and dense array of simple radio antennas primarily developed for radio-astronomy observations. Our measurements are performed in the 30-80 MHz frequency band. For fair weather conditions the observations are in excellent agreement with model calculations. However, for air showers measured under thunderstorm conditions we observe large differences in the intensity and polarization patterns from the predictions of fair weather models. We will show that the linear as well as the circular polarization of the radio waves carry clear information on the magnitude and orientation of the electric fields at different heights in the thunderstorm clouds. We will show that from the measured data at LOFAR the thunderstorm electric fields can be reconstructed. We thus have established the measurement of radio emission from extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays as a new tool to probe the atmospheric electric fields present in thunderclouds in a non-intrusive way. In part this presentation is based on the work: P. Schellart et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 165001 (2015).

  6. Measurement of electromagnetic fields generated by air traffic control radar systems with spectrum analysers.

    PubMed

    Barellini, A; Bogi, L; Licitra, G; Silvi, A M; Zari, A

    2009-12-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) primary radars are 'classical' radars that use echoes of radiofrequency (RF) pulses from aircraft to determine their position. High-power RF pulses radiated from radar antennas may produce high electromagnetic field levels in the surrounding area. Measurement of electromagnetic fields produced by RF-pulsed radar by means of a swept-tuned spectrum analyser are investigated here. Measurements have been carried out both in the laboratory and in situ on signals generated by an ATC primary radar. PMID:19864331

  7. Directed air flow to reduce airborne particulate and bacterial contamination in the surgical field during total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Stocks, Gregory W; O'Connor, Daniel P; Self, Sean D; Marcek, Geoff A; Thompson, Brandon L

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated the use of a system that delivers a small field of local, directed air from a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter to reduce airborne particulate and airborne bacteria in the surgical field during total hip arthroplasty. Thirty-six patients were randomized into 3 groups: with directed air flow, with the directed air flow system present but turned off, and control. Airborne particulate and bacteria were collected from within 5 cm of the surgical wound. All particulate and bacterial counts at the surgical site were significantly lower in the directed air flow group (P < .001). The directed air flow system was effective in reducing airborne particulate and colony-forming units in the surgical field during total hip arthroplasty. PMID:20851565

  8. Intensive probing of a clear air convective field by radar and instrumental drone aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An instrumented drone aircraft was used in conjunction with ultrasensitive radar to study the development of a convective field in the clear air. Radar data are presented which show an initial constant growth rate in the height of the convective field of 3.8 m/min, followed by a short period marked by condensation and rapid growth at a rate in excess of 6.1 m/min. Drone aircraft soundings show general features of a convective field including progressive lifting of the inversion at the top of the convection and a cooling of the air at the top of the field. Calculations of vertical heat flux as a function of time and altitude during the early stages of convection show a linear decrease in heat flux with altitude to near the top of the convective field and a negative heat flux at the top. Evidence is presented which supports previous observations that convective cells overshoot their neutral buoyancy level into a region where they are cool and moist compared to their surroundings. Furthermore, only that portion of the convective cell that has overshot its neutral buoyancy level is generally visible to the radar.

  9. The Passy-2015 field experiment: wintertime atmospheric dynamics and air quality in a narrow alpine valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paci, Alexandre; Staquet, Chantal

    2016-04-01

    Wintertime anticyclonic conditions lead to the formation of persistent stable boundary layers which may induce severe air pollution episodes in urban or industrialized area, particularly in mountain regions. The Arve river valley in the Northern Alps is very sensitive to this phenomenon, in particular close to the city of Passy (Haute-Savoie), 20 km down valley past Chamonix. This place is indeed one of the worst place in France regarding air quality, the concentration of fine particles and Benzo(a)pyrene (a carcinogenic organic compound) regularly exceeding the EU legal admissible level during winter. Besides air quality measurements, such as the ones presently carried in the area by the local air quality agency Air Rhône-Alpes or in the DECOMBIO project led by LGGE, it is crucial to improve our knowledge of the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and processes at the valley scale under these persistent stable conditions in order to improve our understanding on how it drives pollutant dispersion. These issues motivated the Passy-2015 field experiment which took place during the winter 2014-2015. A relatively large set-up of instruments was deployed on a main measurement site in the valley center and on four other satellite sites. It includes several remote sensing instruments, a surface flux station, a 10 m instrumented tower, a large aperture scintillometer, a fog monitoring station among others. Most of the instruments were present from early January to the end of February. During two intensive observation periods, 6-14 February and 17-20 February, the instrumental set-up was completed on the main site with high frequency radio-soundings (up to one per 1h30), a tethered balloon, a remote controlled drone quadcopter and a sodar. The field campaign, the instruments, the meteorological situations observed and preliminary results will be presented. This field experiment is part of the Passy project funded by ADEME through the French national programme LEFE/INSU and

  10. 75 FR 65572 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... practicable and legally permissible methods, under Executive Order 12898 (59 FR 7629, February 16, 1994). In... the following methods: 1. http://www.regulations.gov : Follow the on-line instructions for submitting..., Environmental Scientist, at (312) 353-8647 before visiting the Region 5 office. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  11. Ohio Space Grant Funds for Scholarship/Fellowship Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAT), a consortium of university, industry, and government, was formed to promote collaborative aerospace-related research, graduate education, and technology transfer among the nine Ohio universities with doctoral level engineering programs, NASA Lewis Research Center, Air Force Wright Laboratory, and industry. OAT provides enhanced opportunities for affiliates to utilize federal government research laboratories and facilities at Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and Wright Laboratory. As a component of the graduate education and research programs, students and faculty from the member universities, LeRC engineers and scientists, and visiting investigators from industry, government and non-member universities conduct collaborative research projects using the unique facilities at LeRC, and will participate in collaborative education programs. Faculty from the member universities who hold collateral appointments at OAT, and government and industry experts serving as adjunct faculty, can participate in the supervision of student research.

  12. [Negative air ions generated by plants upon pulsed electric field stimulation applied to soil].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ren-ye; Deng, Chuan-yuan; Yang, Zhi-jian; Weng, Hai-yong; Zhu, Tie-jun-rong; Zheng, Jin-gui

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigated the capacity of plants (Schlumbergera truncata, Aloe vera var. chinensis, Chlorophytum comosum, Schlumbergera bridgesii, Gymnocalycium mihanovichii var. friedrichii, Aspidistra elatior, Cymbidium kanran, Echinocactus grusonii, Agave americana var. marginata, Asparagus setaceus) to generate negative air ions (NAI) under pulsed electric field stimulation. The results showed that single plant generated low amounts of NAI in natural condition. The capacity of C. comosum and G. mihanovichii var. friedrichii generated most NAI among the above ten species, with a daily average of 43 ion · cm(-3). The least one was A. americana var. marginata with the value of 19 ion · cm(-3). When proper pulsed electric field stimulation was applied to soil, the NAI of ten plant species were greatly improved. The effect of pulsed electric field u3 (average voltage over the pulse period was 2.0 x 10(4) V, pulse frequency was 1 Hz, and pulse duration was 50 ms) was the greatest. The mean NAI concentration of C. kanran was the highest 1454967 ion · cm(-3), which was 48498.9 times as much as that in natural condition. The lowest one was S. truncata with the value of 34567 ion · cm(-3), which was 843.1 times as much as that in natural condition. The capacity of the same plants to generate negative air ion varied extremely under different intensity pulsed electric fields. PMID:26094455

  13. Effect of a uniform electric field on soot in laminar premixed ethylene/air flames

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Yao, Q.; Nathan, G.J.; Alwahabi, Z.T.; King, K.D.; Ho, K.

    2010-07-15

    The effect of a nominally uniform electric field on the initially uniform distribution of soot has been assessed for laminar premixed ethylene/air flames from a McKenna burner. An electrophoretic influence on charged soot particles was measured through changes to the deposition rate of soot on the McKenna plug, using laser extinction (LE). Soot volume fraction was measured in situ using laser-induced incandescence (LII). Particle size and morphologies were assessed through ex situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using thermophoretic sampling particle diagnostics (TSPD). The results show that the majority of these soot particles are positively charged. The presence of a negatively charged plug was found to decrease the particle residence times in the flame and to influence the formation and oxidation progress. A positively charged plug has the opposite effect. The effect on soot volume fraction, particles size and morphology with electric field strength is also reported. Flame stability was also found to be affected by the presence of the electric field, with the balance of the electrophoretic force and drag force controlling the transition to unstable flame flicker. The presence of charged species generated by the flame was found to reduce the dielectric field strength to one seventh that of air. (author)

  14. [Negative air ions generated by plants upon pulsed electric field stimulation applied to soil].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ren-ye; Deng, Chuan-yuan; Yang, Zhi-jian; Weng, Hai-yong; Zhu, Tie-jun-rong; Zheng, Jin-gui

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigated the capacity of plants (Schlumbergera truncata, Aloe vera var. chinensis, Chlorophytum comosum, Schlumbergera bridgesii, Gymnocalycium mihanovichii var. friedrichii, Aspidistra elatior, Cymbidium kanran, Echinocactus grusonii, Agave americana var. marginata, Asparagus setaceus) to generate negative air ions (NAI) under pulsed electric field stimulation. The results showed that single plant generated low amounts of NAI in natural condition. The capacity of C. comosum and G. mihanovichii var. friedrichii generated most NAI among the above ten species, with a daily average of 43 ion · cm(-3). The least one was A. americana var. marginata with the value of 19 ion · cm(-3). When proper pulsed electric field stimulation was applied to soil, the NAI of ten plant species were greatly improved. The effect of pulsed electric field u3 (average voltage over the pulse period was 2.0 x 10(4) V, pulse frequency was 1 Hz, and pulse duration was 50 ms) was the greatest. The mean NAI concentration of C. kanran was the highest 1454967 ion · cm(-3), which was 48498.9 times as much as that in natural condition. The lowest one was S. truncata with the value of 34567 ion · cm(-3), which was 843.1 times as much as that in natural condition. The capacity of the same plants to generate negative air ion varied extremely under different intensity pulsed electric fields.

  15. Impact of air traffic emissions on airport air quality. Multi-scale modeling, test bed and field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaroson, R.; Vuillot, F.; Durand, Y.; Courbet, B.; Janin, F.; Copalle, A.; Guin, C.; Paux, E.; Vannier, F.; Talbaut, M.; Weill, M.

    2004-12-01

    Air traffic emissions are playing a significant role in airport air quality. Engine emissions contribute to the ozone and PM formation. There is an emergence of a need to develop advanced numerical tools and airport emission databases for air pollution studies. Field monitoring at airports necessary to support model assessment is still limited in time and space. The French ONERA AIRPUR project has focused on three objectives: emission inventories; dispersion models; field measurements. Results are presented and discussed in this paper. The ground spatial distribution of LTO emissions using realistic aircraft trajectories, aircraft-engine classification by ICAO, fuel flow methodology and diurnal variations of fleet number, is presented and discussed. Exhaust species time evolution is simulated using a chemical-dispersion model. Results show high emissions of NOx during LTO, and a maximum of CO and Hydrocarbons during taxi. Depending on seasons, the NOx lifetime is varying differently; lower concentration is calculated far away from LTO emissions. Longer-lived pollutants such as ozone are formed downstream and require the use of advanced dispersion models. For this reason, two interactive models coupling the micro and the regional scales are developed and used in this work. A 3D CFD model (CEDRE) simulates the flow characteristics around buildings and the dispersion of emissions. CEDRE boundary conditions are provided by the 3D nested dispersion model MEDIUM/MM5, which includes a surface boundary layer chemistry and calculates the concentration of pollutants from the local to the airport vicinities. The CFD results show a tracer accumulation calculated downstream beside terminals, consistent with observations at some mega-airports. Sensibility studies are conducted to highlight the impact of emissions on ozone formation with MEDIUM. Results show that longer-lived species are produced downstream, their concentration depending on NOx, aromatics and VOC released by

  16. TECNAIRE winter field campaign: turbulent characteristics and their influence on air quality conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagüe, Carlos; Román Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Sastre, Mariano; Arrillaga, Jon A.; Artíñano, Begoña; Diaz-Ramiro, Elías; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Borge, Rafael; Narros, Adolfo; Pérez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    An urban field campaign was conducted at an air pollution hot spot in Madrid city (Spain) during winter 2015 (from 16th February to 2nd March). The zone selected for the study is a square (Plaza Fernández Ladreda) located in the southern part of the city. This area is an important intersection of several principal routes, and therefore a significant impact in the air quality of the area is found due to the high traffic density. Meteorological data (wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation and global solar radiation) were daily recorded as well as micrometeorological measurements obtained from two sonic anemometers. To characterize this urban atmospheric boundary layer (uABL), micrometeorological parameters (turbulent kinetic energy -TKE-, friction velocity -u∗- and sensible heat flux -H-) are calculated, considering 5-minute average for variance and covariance evaluations. Furthermore, synoptic atmospheric features were analyzed. As a whole, a predominant influence of high pressure systems was found over the Atlantic Ocean and western Spain, affecting Madrid, but during a couple of days (17th and 21st February) some atmospheric instability played a role. The influence of the synoptic situation and specially the evolution of the micrometeorological conditions along the day on air quality characteristics (Particulate Matter concentrations: PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, and NOx concentrations) are analyzed and shown in detail. This work has been financed by Madrid Regional Research Plan through TECNAIRE (P2013/MAE-2972).

  17. Air compressor battery duration with mechanical ventilation in a field anesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Szpisjak, Dale F; Giberman, Anthony A

    2015-05-01

    Compressed air to power field anesthesia machine ventilators may be supplied by air compressor with battery backup. This study determined the battery duration when the compPAC ventilator's air compressor was powered by NiCd battery to ventilate the Vent Aid Training Test Lung modeling high (HC = 0.100 L/cm H2O) and low (LC = 0.020 L/cm H2O) pulmonary compliance. Target tidal volumes (VT) were 500, 750, and 1,000 mL. Respiratory rate = 10 bpm, inspiratory-to-expiratory time ratio = 1:2, and fresh gas flow = 1 L/min air. N = 5 in each group. Control limits were determined from the first 150 minutes of battery power for each run and lower control limit = mean VT - 3SD. Battery depletion occurred when VT was below the lower control limit. Battery duration ranged from 185.8 (±3.2) minutes in the LC-1000 group to 233.3 (±3.6) minutes in the HC-750 group. Battery duration of the LC-1000 group was less than all others (p = 0.027). The differences among the non-LC-1000 groups were not clinically significant.

  18. Alcohol fuel from Ohio farms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Brief descriptions of on-farm ethanol production methods including feedstock preparation, cooking, fermentation, and distillation are presented. Safety conditions are described. Investment in on-farm ethanol production facilities and their potential returns are addressed. The market for ethanol and ethanol blends as well as for by-products is encouraging. Legal aspects for permitting and environmental regulations both for Ohio and federal agencies are discussed. (DMC)

  19. Near-field dispersal modeling for liquid fuel-air explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, D.R.

    1990-07-01

    The near-field, explosive dispersal of a liquid into air has been explored using a combination of analytical and numerical models. The near-field flow regime is transient, existing only as long as the explosive forces produced by the detonation of the burster charge dominate or are approximately equal in magnitude to the aerodynamic drag forces on the liquid. The near-field model provides reasonable initial conditions for the far-field model, which is described in a separate report. The near-field model consists of the CTH hydrodynamics code and a film instability model. In particular, the CTH hydrodynamics code is used to provide initial temperature, pressure, and velocity fields, and bulk material distribution for the far-field model. The film instability model is a linear stability model for a radially expanding fluid film, and is used to provide a lower bound on the breakup time and an upper and lower bound on the initial average drop diameter for the liquid following breakup. Predictions of the liquid breakup time and the initial arithmetic average drop diameter from the model compare favorably with the sparse experimental data. 26 refs., 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Intensive probing of clear air convective fields by radar and instrumented drone aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Clear air convective fields were probed in three summer experiments (1969, 1970, and 1971) on an S-band monopulse tracking radar at Wallops Island, Virginia, and a drone aircraft with a takeoff weight of 5.2 kg, wingspan of 2.5 m, and cruising glide speed of 10.3 m/sec. The drone was flown 23.2 km north of the radar and carried temperature, pressure/altitude, humidity, and vertical and airspeed velocity sensors. Extensive time-space convective field data were obtained by taking a large number of RHI and PPI pictures at short intervals of time. The rapidly changing overall convective field data obtained from the radar could be related to the meteorological information telemetered from the drone at a reasonably low cost by this combined technique.

  1. Electric Field Effects on an Injected Air Bubble at Detachment in a Low Gravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacona, Estelle; Herman, Cila; Chang, Shinan

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the behavior of individual air bubbles injected through an orifice into an electrically insulating liquid under the influence of a static and uniform electric field. Bubble formation and detachment were visualized and recorded in microgravity using a high-speed video camera. Bubble volume, dimensions and contact angle at detachment were measured. In addition to the experimental studies, a simple model, predicting bubble characteristics at detachment was developed. The model, based on thermodynamic considerations, accounts for the level of gravity as well as the magnitude of the uniform electric field. Measured data and model predictions show good agreement, and indicate that the level of gravity and the electric field magnitude significantly affect bubble shape, volume and dimensions.

  2. History Untold: Celebrating Ohio History Through ABLE Students. Ohio History Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent State Univ., OH. Ohio Literacy Resource Center.

    This document is a compilation of 33 pieces of writing presenting Ohio adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) students' perspectives of community and personal history. The items included in the compilation were written by ABLE students across Ohio in celebration of Ohio History Day. The compilation is organized in five sections as follows: (1)…

  3. Large Field of View PIV Measurements of Air Entrainment by SLS SMAT Water Sound Suppression System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmeir, Matthew; Pothos, Stamatios; Bissell, Dan

    2015-11-01

    Water-based sound suppressions systems have been used to reduce the acoustic impact of space vehicle launches. Water flows at a high rate during launch in order to suppress Engine Generated Acoustics and other potentially damaging sources of noise. For the Space Shuttle, peak flow rates exceeded 900,000 gallons per minute. Such large water flow rates have the potential to induce substantial entrainment of the surrounding air, affecting the launch conditions and generating airflow around the launch vehicle. Validation testing is necessary to quantify this impact for future space launch systems. In this study, PIV measurements were performed to map the flow field above the SMAT sub-scale launch vehicle scaled launch stand. Air entrainment effects generated by a water-based sound suppression system were studied. Mean and fluctuating fluid velocities were mapped up to 1m above the test stand deck and compared to simulation results. Measurements performed with NASA MSFC.

  4. Geothermal investigations in Ohio and Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Eckstein, Y.; Heimlich, R.A.; Palmer, D.F.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    New values of heat flow were determined for the Appalachian Plateau in eastern Ohio and northwestern Pennsylvania. Corrected values for wells in Washington and Summit Counties, Ohio, are 1.36 and 1.37 heat-flow units (HFU), respectively. Those of 1.84 and 2.00 HFU define a previously unknown heat-flow high in Venango and Clarion counties, Pennsylvania. Thermal conductivity was measured for core samples from 12 wells in Ohio and 6 wells in Pennsylvania. Heat production was determined for 34 core and outcrop samples from Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey.

  5. Analysis of the sensitivity of soils to the leaching of agricultural pesticides in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Pesticides have not been found frequently in the ground waters of Ohio even though large amounts of agricultural pesticides are applied to fields in Ohio every year. State regulators, including representatives from Ohio Environmental Protection Agency and Departments of Agriculture, Health, and Natural Resources, are striving to limit the presence of pesticides in ground water at a minimum. A proposed pesticide management plan for the State aims at protecting Ohio's ground water by assessing pesticide-leaching potential using geographic information system (GIS) technology and invoking a monitoring plan that targets aquifers deemed most likely to be vulnerable to pesticide leaching. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Ohio Department of Agriculture, assessed the sensitivity of mapped soil units in Ohio to pesticide leaching. A soils data base (STATSGO) compiled by U.S. Department of Agriculture was used iteratively to estimate soil units as being of high to low sensitivity on the basis of soil permeability, clay content, and organic-matter content. Although this analysis did not target aquifers directly, the results can be used as a first estimate of areas most likely to be subject to pesticide contamination from normal agricultural practices. High-sensitivity soil units were found in lakefront areas and former lakefront beach ridges, buried valleys in several river basins, and parts of central and south- central Ohio. Medium-high-sensitivity soil units were found in other river basins, along Lake Erie in north-central Ohio, and in many of the upland areas of the Muskingum River Basin. Low-sensitivity map units dominated the northwestern quadrant of Ohio.

  6. Artificial intelligence modeling to evaluate field performance of photocatalytic asphalt pavement for ambient air purification.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Somayeh; Hassan, Marwa; Nadiri, Ataallah; Dylla, Heather

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the application of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) as a photocatalyst in asphalt pavement has received considerable attention for purifying ambient air from traffic-emitted pollutants via photocatalytic processes. In order to control the increasing deterioration of ambient air quality, urgent and proper risk assessment tools are deemed necessary. However, in practice, monitoring all process parameters for various operating conditions is difficult due to the complex and non-linear nature of air pollution-based problems. Therefore, the development of models to predict air pollutant concentrations is very useful because it can provide early warnings to the population and also reduce the number of measuring sites. This study used artificial neural network (ANN) and neuro-fuzzy (NF) models to predict NOx concentration in the air as a function of traffic count (Tr) and climatic conditions including humidity (H), temperature (T), solar radiation (S), and wind speed (W) before and after the application of TiO₂ on the pavement surface. These models are useful for modeling because of their ability to be trained using historical data and because of their capability for modeling highly non-linear relationships. To build these models, data were collected from a field study where an aqueous nano TiO₂ solution was sprayed on a 0.2-mile of asphalt pavement in Baton Rouge, LA. Results of this study showed that the NF model provided a better fitting to NOx measurements than the ANN model in the training, validation, and test steps. Results of a parametric study indicated that traffic level, relative humidity, and solar radiation had the most influence on photocatalytic efficiency.

  7. Field calibration of polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers for PCBs and OC pesticides.

    PubMed

    Chaemfa, Chakra; Barber, Jonathan L; Gocht, Tilman; Harner, Tom; Holoubek, Ivan; Klanova, Jana; Jones, Kevin C

    2008-12-01

    Different passive air sampler (PAS) strategies have been developed for sampling in remote areas and for cost-effective simultaneous spatial mapping of POPs (persistent organic pollutants) over differing geographical scales. The polyurethane foam (PUF) disk-based PAS is probably the most widely used. In a PUF-based PAS, the PUF disk is generally mounted inside two stainless steel bowls to buffer the air flow to the disk and to shield it from precipitation and light. The field study described in this manuscript was conducted to: compare performance of 3 different designs of sampler; to further calibrate the sampler against the conventional active sampler; to derive more information on field-based uptake rates and equilibrium times of the samplers. Samplers were also deployed at different locations across the field site, and at different heights up a meteorological tower, to investigate the possible influence of sampler location. Samplers deployed <5m above ground, and not directly sheltered from the wind gave similar uptake rates. Small differences in dimensions between the 3 designs of passive sampler chamber had no discernable effect on accumulation rates, allowing comparison with previously published data.

  8. Field estimates of polyurethane foam - air partition coefficients for hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and bromoanisoles.

    PubMed

    Bidleman, Terry F; Nygren, Olle; Tysklind, Mats

    2016-09-01

    Partition coefficients of gaseous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between polyurethane foam (PUF) and air (KPA) are needed in the estimation of sampling rates for PUF disk passive air samplers. We determined KPA in field experiments by conducting long-term (24-48 h) air sampling to saturate PUF traps and shorter runs (2-4 h) to measure air concentrations. Sampling events were done at daily mean temperatures ranging from 1.9 to 17.5 °C. Target compounds were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), 2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DiBA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TriBA). KPA (mL g(-1)) was calculated from quantities on the PUF traps at saturation (ng g(-1)) divided by air concentrations (ng mL(-1)). Enthalpies of PUF-to-air transfer (ΔHPA, kJ mol(-1)) were determined from the slopes of log KPA/mL g(-1) versus 1/T(K) for HCB and the bromoanisoles, KPA of α-HCH was measured only at 14.3 to 17.5 °C and ΔHPA was not determined. Experimental log KPA/mL g(-1) at 15 °C were HCB = 7.37; α-HCH = 8.08; 2,4-DiBA = 7.26 and 2,4,6-TriBA = 7.26. Experimental log KPA/mL g(-1) were compared with predictions based on an octanol-air partition coefficient (log KOA) model (Shoeib and Harner, 2002a) and a polyparameter linear free relationship (pp-LFER) model (Kamprad and Goss, 2007) using different sets of solute parameters. Predicted KP values varied by factors of 3 to over 30, depending on the compound and the model. Such discrepancies provide incentive for experimental measurements of KPA for other SVOCs. PMID:27285381

  9. Field Results from Application of the Outdoor-Air/Economizer Diagnostician for Commissioning and O&M

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.; Blanc, Steven L.

    2000-05-31

    This paper presents results of field testing an automated diagnostician for outdoor-air-supply and economizer systems that can be used for commissioning purposes. The fundamental capabilities of the tool are described and key results of its application on six air handlers in a large hotel building are discussed. Ancillary issues pertinent to the development and application of such tools are also presented.

  10. An Autosampler and Field Sample Carrier for Maximizing Throughput Using an Open-Air, Surface Sampling Ion Source for MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recently developed, commercially available, open-air, surface sampling ion source for mass spectrometers provides individual analyses in several seconds. To realize its full throughput potential, an autosampler and field sample carrier were designed and built. The autosampler ...

  11. The two-dimensional calculation of the temperature field of a continuous optical discharge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raizer, Iu. P.; Silantev, A. Iu.

    1986-03-01

    A two-dimensional temperature field present in a continuous optical discharge in air sustained by CO2 laser radiation is computed numerically. Consideration is given to both laser beam refraction in the discharge and radiative heat transfer. It is found that the refraction induces strong caustic broadening as well as displacement of the constriction region towards the beam, so that the discharge is located in the region of highest radiation intensity. Hence, the phenomenon whereby high-output optical discharge never burns at the geometrical locus (even when there is sufficient radiation power) is explained. Power output and lens focussing are used to find the threshold and upper limits of discharge existence.

  12. Comparison of the macroscopic properties of field-accelerated electrons in dry air and in pure oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, G.; Bonnet, J.; Pigache, D.

    1980-06-01

    The numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for an ionized gas yields the macroscopic properties of electrons accelerated by an electric field in dry air and in pure oxygen. For the purpose of ozone generation, the stronger the field, the better the efficiency of oxygen dissociation. In air, the oxygen dissociation is found to be much less easy than that at the same amount of pure oxygen.

  13. From the Field to the Laboratory: Air Pollutant-Induced Genomic Effects in Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vizuete, William; Sexton, Kenneth G.; Nguyen, Hang; Smeester, Lisa; Aagaard, Kjersti Marie; Shope, Cynthia; Lefer, Barry; Flynn, James H.; Alvarez, Sergio; Erickson, Mathew H.; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Current in vitro studies do not typically assess cellular impacts in relation to real-world atmospheric mixtures of gases. In this study, we set out to examine the feasibility of measuring biological responses at the level of gene expression in human lung cells upon direct exposures to air in the field. This study describes the successful deployment of lung cells in the heavily industrialized Houston Ship Channel. By examining messenger RNA (mRNA) levels from exposed lung cells, we identified changes in genes that play a role as inflammatory responders in the cell. The results show anticipated responses from negative and positive controls, confirming the integrity of the experimental protocol and the successful deployment of the in vitro instrument. Furthermore, exposures to ambient conditions displayed robust changes in gene expression. These results demonstrate a methodology that can produce gas-phase toxicity data in the field. PMID:26917966

  14. From the Field to the Laboratory: Air Pollutant-Induced Genomic Effects in Lung Cells.

    PubMed

    Vizuete, William; Sexton, Kenneth G; Nguyen, Hang; Smeester, Lisa; Aagaard, Kjersti Marie; Shope, Cynthia; Lefer, Barry; Flynn, James H; Alvarez, Sergio; Erickson, Mathew H; Fry, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    Current in vitro studies do not typically assess cellular impacts in relation to real-world atmospheric mixtures of gases. In this study, we set out to examine the feasibility of measuring biological responses at the level of gene expression in human lung cells upon direct exposures to air in the field. This study describes the successful deployment of lung cells in the heavily industrialized Houston Ship Channel. By examining messenger RNA (mRNA) levels from exposed lung cells, we identified changes in genes that play a role as inflammatory responders in the cell. The results show anticipated responses from negative and positive controls, confirming the integrity of the experimental protocol and the successful deployment of the in vitro instrument. Furthermore, exposures to ambient conditions displayed robust changes in gene expression. These results demonstrate a methodology that can produce gas-phase toxicity data in the field.

  15. Field investigation source area ST58 old Quartermaster service station, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Liikala, T.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Source area ST58 is the site of the old Quartermaster service station at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska. The source area is one of several Source Evaluation Report sites being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Air Force as candidates for no further remedial action, interim removal action, or a remedial investigation/feasibility study under a Federal Facilities Agreement. The purpose of this work was to characterize source area ST58 and excavate the most contaminated soils for use in composting treatability studies. A field investigation was conducted to determine the nature and extent of soil contamination. The field investigation entailed a records search; grid node location, surface geophysical, and soil gas surveys; and test pit soil sampling. Soil excavation followed based on the results of the field investigation. The site was backfilled with clean soil. Results from this work indicate close spatial correlation between screening instruments, used during the field investigation and soil excavation, and laboratory analyses. Gasoline was identified as the main subsurface contaminant based on the soil gas surveys and test pit soil sampling. A center of contamination was located near the northcentral portion of the source area, and a center was located in the northwestern comer. The contamination typically occurred near or below a former soil horizon probably as a result of surface spills and leaks from discontinuities and/or breaks in the underground piping. Piping locations were delineated during the surface geophysical surveys and corresponded very well to unscaled drawings of the site. The high subsurface concentrations of gasoline detected in the northwestern comer of the source area probably reflect ground-water contamination and/or possibly floating product.

  16. Determination of methyl bromide in air resulting from pre-plant fumigations of plowed fields

    SciTech Connect

    Woodrow, J.E.; Honaganahalli, P.; Seiber, J.N.

    1995-12-31

    A method for measuring residues of methyl bromide in air entails concentrating the fumigant on charcoal from an airstream at a flowrate of 100 ml/min, desorption of the trapped material with benzyl alcohol solvent in a sealed vial at 60-110{degrees}C for 10-15 min, and then sampling of the equilibrated vapor for gas chromatographic assay using electron-capture detection. The desorbed vapor is chromatographed on a 27 in x 0.32 mm (id) porous-layer open tubular column, on which methyl bromide has a retention time of about 6 min at 90{degrees}C and at a carrier gas flowrate of 3-3.5 ml/min. Using this method, standard curves were linear over at least three orders of magnitude and a practical limit of detection for field air was about 20 ng/m{sup 3} ({approximately}5 ppt). This method has been used in studies concerned with methyl bromide volatilization from fumigated fields and with ambient background levels.

  17. Circular polarization of radio emission from air showers probes atmospheric electric fields in thunderclouds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gia Trinh, Thi Ngoc; Scholten, Olaf; Buitink, Stijn; Corstanje, Arthur; Ebert, Ute; Enriquez, Emilio; Falcke, Heino; Horandel, Jörg R.; Nelles, Anna; Schellart, Pim; Rachen, Jorg; Rossetto, Laura; Rutjes, Casper; ter Veen, Sander; Thoudam, Satyendra

    2016-04-01

    When a high-energy cosmic-ray particle enters the upper layer of the atmosphere, it generates many secondary high-energy particles and forms a cosmic-ray-induced air shower. In the leading plasma of this shower electric currents are induced that emit electromagnetic radiation. These radio waves can be detected with LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) radio telescope. Events have been collected under fair-weather conditions as well as under atmospheric conditions where thunderstorms occur. For the events under the fair weather conditions the emission process is well understood by present models. For the events measured under the thunderstorm conditions, we observe a large fraction of the circular polarization near the core of the shower which is not shown in the events under the fair-weather conditions. This can be explained by the change of direction of the atmospheric electric fields with altitude. Therefore, measuring the circular polarization of radio emission from cosmic ray extensive air showers during the thunderstorm conditions helps to have a better understanding about the structure of atmospheric electric fields in the thunderclouds.

  18. A newly designed compact remote TDL sensing system for air pollutants -- Field experiments and comparison measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, A.; Herzog, R.; Lamp, T.; Ropertz, A.; Weber, K.

    1999-07-01

    The remote sensing system for local or diffuse concentrations of gaseous air pollutants developed and realized by the ILK Dresden is a very compact and low mass apparatus based on the tunable diode laser (TDL) techniques in pulse or cw mode regime. The prototypes are characterized by compact design (300x150x300mm3) and stand-alone and mains-independent operation that allows a fast, flexible and mobile use in different applications. The first hardware version works as an one laser monitor while the advanced version provides for the simultaneous operation of two lasers and can thus measure two gaseous pollutants at the same time. The sensitivity limits for CO and NO were determined at 13ppb x 100m and at 22ppb x 100m respectively. Optical measurement paths are possible up to 700m. The paper presented results of field measurements of the gaseous pollutants in the open atmosphere, i.e. traffic-induced CO and NO as well as CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} landfill gases. Furthermore, the authors have investigated in co-operation with the FH Duesseldorf the ILK TDL-system and commercial remote sensing systems for air pollutant monitoring, especially the FTIR and DOAS systems, in different comparison measurements under real field conditions.

  19. 33 CFR 117.417 - Ohio River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ohio River. 117.417 Section 117.417 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.417 Ohio River. The draw of the Southern...

  20. 33 CFR 117.417 - Ohio River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ohio River. 117.417 Section 117.417 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.417 Ohio River. The draw of the Southern...

  1. 33 CFR 117.417 - Ohio River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ohio River. 117.417 Section 117.417 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.417 Ohio River. The draw of the Southern...

  2. 33 CFR 117.417 - Ohio River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ohio River. 117.417 Section 117.417 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.417 Ohio River. The draw of the Southern...

  3. 33 CFR 117.417 - Ohio River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ohio River. 117.417 Section 117.417 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.417 Ohio River. The draw of the Southern...

  4. Ohio Valley Community Health Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guard, Roger; And Others

    The Ohio Valley Community Health Information Network (OVCHIN) works to determine the efficacy of delivering health information to residents of rural southern Ohio and the urban and suburban Cincinnati area. OVCHIN is a community-based, consumer-defined demonstration grant program funded by the National Telecommunications and Information…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Ohio, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Ohio for 2010. In grade 8 math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Ohio showed a clear trend of gains for all major subgroups at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels, with one exception. In grade 8 reading,…

  6. Ohio Schools and Privatization: Opportunity or Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, William

    Food service, transportation and building cleaning and maintenance are big business and are seen as candidates for privatization. In Ohio, a 30-item questionnaire was developed for the state's school district superintendents. Results were generated from the 143 questionnaires that were returned (70 percent response rate). Findings show that Ohio's…

  7. 77 FR 8185 - Ohio Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... approval of the Ohio program in the August 16, 1982, Federal Register (41 FR 34688). You can also find... April 30, 2007, Federal Register (72 FR 21176). The submission was a result of the adoption of Ohio... House Bill 443 in the April 30, 2007, Federal Register (72 FR 21176). Since that publication,...

  8. 78 FR 47816 - Ohio Disaster # OH-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Ohio dated 07/29/2013... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  9. 77 FR 16315 - Ohio Disaster #OH-00032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00032 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Ohio dated 03/13/2012... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  10. Sexual Assault Reporting Procedures at Ohio Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krivoshey, Mira S.; Adkins, Rachel; Hayes, Rebecca; Nemeth, Julianna M.; Klein, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess how Ohio colleges conform to recommendations that address barriers to reporting sexual assault. Participants: A study sample of Ohio 4-year colleges ("N" = 105). Methods: College Web sites were examined between March and November 2011 for their availability of sexual assault policies using 8 measures. Results: Of the colleges…

  11. Selected Health Practices Among Ohio's Rural Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, G. Howard; Pugh, Albert

    Using a stratified random sample of 12 of Ohio's 88 counties, this 1967 study had as its objectives (1) to measure the level of participation in selected health practices by Ohio's rural residents, (2) to compare the level of participation in selected health practices of farm and rural nonfarm residents, and (3) to examine levels of participation…

  12. Ohio's OPLIN: The Future of Library Service?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Meribah

    1997-01-01

    Examines the Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN) which provides access to the state's public library resources; federal, state, and regional information resources; and other electronic information resources. Describes OPLIN's role in Ohio, hardware and services provided, mission, origin, funding, staff training, databases, future plans…

  13. Career Education in Teacher Education in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus.

    The Ohio guide for career education in teacher education consists of four parts: (1) introduction, (2) framework for career education program development in Ohio, (3) career education K-12 and career education in teacher education, and (4) disseminating system for career education in teacher education. Part 1 provides definitional background and…

  14. Lightning strike at Bryan, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, B. E.

    1980-02-01

    A week before the 29 August 1979 dedication of the photovoltaic power system at daytime AM radio station WBNO, in Bryan, Ohio, a lightning superbolt struck the FM radio tower, one of two towers at the station. Minor damage to the station and to components of the photovoltaic system, the latter designed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory under US Department of Energy sponsorship, is described. This rare strike suggested the need for increased protection and more voltage-transient suppressors were added to those already in place as a preventive measure in the event that such a phenomenon reoccurs.

  15. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 86-005-1679, Dutch Girl Cleaners, Springdale, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, G.A.; Todd, W.

    1986-03-01

    An environmental survey at Dutch Girl Cleaners in the Thriftway Mini Mall, Springdale, Ohio, was conducted on October 25, 1985, and air samples collected on October 30, 1985 from the cleaners, an adjacent supermarket and the enclosed pedestrian mall were analyzed for perchloroethylene.

  16. Test Data of Flow Field of Shuttle SRM Nozzle Joint with Bond Defects, Using Unheated Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hair, Leroy M.; McAnally, James V.; Hengel, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The nozzle-to-case joint on the Shuttle SRM (as redesigned after the Challenger accident) features an adhesive sealant filling and bonding the joint, with a wiper O-ring to prevent the adhesive from reaching and disabling the closure O-ring. Flawless implementation of that joint design would ensure that hot, corrosive propellant combustion gases never reach the closure O-ring. However, understanding the flow field related to bonding defects is prudent. A comprehensive test program was conducted to quantify such flow fields and associated heating environments. A two-dimensional, full-scale model represented 65 inches of the nozzle joint, using unheated air as the test medium, in a blowdown mode. Geometry variations modeled RSRM assembly tolerances, and two types of bonding defects: pullaways and blowholes. A range of the magnitude of each type defect was tested. Also a range of operational parameters was tested, representative of the RSRM flow environment, including duplication of RSRM Mach and Reynolds numbers. Extensive instrumentation was provided to quantify pressures, heat rates, and velocities. The resulting data established that larger geometric defects cause larger pressure and larger heating, at the closure O-ring region. Velocity trends were not so straight-forward. Variations in assembly tolerances did not generally affect flow fields or heating. Operational parameters affected flow fields and heating as might be expected, increasing density or velocity increased heating. Complete details of this test effort are presented.

  17. Chamber and field evaluations of air pollution tolerances of urban trees

    SciTech Connect

    Karnosky, D.F.

    1981-04-01

    Results are presented for a study of the relative air pollution tolerances of 32 urban-tree cultivars as determined by both chamber fumigations and field exposures. Tolerances to ozone and sulfur dioxide, alone and in combination, were determined using short-term, acute doses administered while the plants were inside a plastic fumigation chamber located inside the Cary Arboretum greenhouses. In a follow-up study still underway, representatives of the same cultivars were outplanted at four locations in the greater New York City area. To date, only oxidant-type injury has been observed on trees in the field plots. Cultivars tolerant to all chamber and field exposures were Acer platanoides Cleveland, Crimson King, Emerald Queen, Jade Glen, and Summershade; Acer rubrum Autumn Flame and Red Sunset; Acer saccharum Green Mountain and Temple's Upright; Fagus sylvatica Rotundifolia; Fraxinus pennsylvanica Summit; and Ginkgo biloba Fastigate and Sentry. Cultivars sensitive to ozone as determined by the chamber and field tests and that may serve as bioindicators of the presence of ozone were Gleditsia triacanthos inermis imperial and Platanus acerifolia Bloodgood.

  18. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Thomas; Willem, Henry; Ni, Chun Chun; Stratton, Hannah; Chen, Yuting; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Iyer, Maithili; Price, Sarah; Dunham, Camilla

    2014-12-12

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States. LBNL performed its field-metering study from mid-April to late October 2014. The study, which monitored 19 sites in the Northeastern United States (4 in upstate New York and 15 near Philadelphia), collected real-time data on PAC energy consumption along with information regarding housing characteristics, consumer behavior, and environmental conditions that were expected to affect PAC performance. Given the limited number of test sites, this study was not intended to be statistically representative of PAC users in the United States but rather to understand the system response to the cooling demand and to

  19. Pouring it on in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.G.

    1996-03-01

    For IMCO Recycling, Inc. (Irving, Texas), scrap is anything but a dirty word. Sheet scrap, used beverage cans (UBCs), and other types of aluminum recovered from the waste stream are the major feedstock for the company`s 335-million-pound per-year (ppy) aluminum recycling facility in Uhrichsville, Ohio, about halfway between Akron, Ohio, and Wheeling, West Virginia. The facility is the largest for IMCO, which, in turn, claims to be the world`s largest aluminum recycling company. The company upgraded the facility to its current capacity in 1994, just two years after the plant went on line. IMCO had foreseen the need for expansion when it built the facility, leaving space for two more furnaces than the eight that it had originally. IMCO, whose name was derived from the company`s predecessor, International metals Co., was organized in its current form in 1988. It now has an annual total capacity of about 1.7 billion ppy, according to Paul Dufour, the company`s CEO.

  20. 33 CFR 334.845 - Wisconsin Air National Guard, Volk Field military exercise area located in Lake Michigan offshore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Volk Field military exercise area located in Lake Michigan offshore from Manitowoc and Sheboygan... Air National Guard, Volk Field military exercise area located in Lake Michigan offshore from Manitowoc.... (b) The regulation. (1) During specific, infrequent periods when Military exercises will be...

  1. Visual observation of the effect of magnetic field on moving air and vapor bubbles in a magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsuka, K.; Jeyadevan, B.; Akagami, Y.; Torigoe, T.; Asari, S.

    1999-07-01

    Theoretical prediction suggests that magnetic fluid (MF) as working liquid in heat pipe could enhance and control the heat transfer under the application of magnetic field. However, heat pipe experiments using ionic MF showed only marginal gain and demands investigation. As an initial step, visualization of air and vapor bubbles behavior under zero and applied magnetic field has been carried out using X-ray. The observations can be summarized as follows; applied magnetic field (a) reduces the size and deforms the shape of the bubble that secede from the heating surface or air supply tube, and (b) accelerates the movement of the bubble in the liquid.

  2. Emergence of Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease vector and agent, in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Glowacki, Meaghan N; Hoet, Armando E; Needham, Glen R; Smith, Kathleen A; Gary, Richard E; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, is caused by a tick-borne infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Currently, Ohio is considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to be non-endemic for Lyme disease. The low incidence of Lyme disease in this state was largely attributed to the absence of the transmitting vector, Ixodes scapularis, commonly known as the blacklegged tick. However, a tick surveillance program established by Ohio Department of Health indicated that the number of I. scapularis in Ohio had increased sharply in recent years, from 0 - 5 ticks per year during 1983-2008 to 15 in 2009, 40 in 2010, and 184 in 2011. During the fall deer hunting season, examination of deer heads submitted to Ohio Department of Agriculture found 29 I. scapularis from 7 counties in 2010 and 1,830 from 25 counties in 2011. As of 2012, the tick had been found in 57 of the 88 counties of Ohio. In addition, all three active stages (larva, nymph, and adult) of I. scapularis were found in Tiverton Township of Coshocton County, demonstrating the presence of established tick populations at this central Ohio location. Of 530 nymphal or adult I. scapularis analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), 32 (6.1%) tested positive for the B. burgdorferi flaB gene, ranging from 36 to 390,000 copies per tick. Antibodies to B. burgdorferi antigens were detected in 2 of 10 (20%) field-captured Peromyscus leucopus from Tiverton Township, and in 41 of 355 (11.5%) dogs residing in Ohio. Collectively, these data suggest that the enzootic life cycle of B. burgdorferi has become established in Ohio, which poses risk of Lyme disease to people and animals in the area. PMID:24926441

  3. Emergence of Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease vector and agent, in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Glowacki, Meaghan N; Hoet, Armando E; Needham, Glen R; Smith, Kathleen A; Gary, Richard E; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, is caused by a tick-borne infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Currently, Ohio is considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to be non-endemic for Lyme disease. The low incidence of Lyme disease in this state was largely attributed to the absence of the transmitting vector, Ixodes scapularis, commonly known as the blacklegged tick. However, a tick surveillance program established by Ohio Department of Health indicated that the number of I. scapularis in Ohio had increased sharply in recent years, from 0 - 5 ticks per year during 1983-2008 to 15 in 2009, 40 in 2010, and 184 in 2011. During the fall deer hunting season, examination of deer heads submitted to Ohio Department of Agriculture found 29 I. scapularis from 7 counties in 2010 and 1,830 from 25 counties in 2011. As of 2012, the tick had been found in 57 of the 88 counties of Ohio. In addition, all three active stages (larva, nymph, and adult) of I. scapularis were found in Tiverton Township of Coshocton County, demonstrating the presence of established tick populations at this central Ohio location. Of 530 nymphal or adult I. scapularis analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), 32 (6.1%) tested positive for the B. burgdorferi flaB gene, ranging from 36 to 390,000 copies per tick. Antibodies to B. burgdorferi antigens were detected in 2 of 10 (20%) field-captured Peromyscus leucopus from Tiverton Township, and in 41 of 355 (11.5%) dogs residing in Ohio. Collectively, these data suggest that the enzootic life cycle of B. burgdorferi has become established in Ohio, which poses risk of Lyme disease to people and animals in the area.

  4. Emergence of Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease vector and agent, in Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Glowacki, Meaghan N.; Hoet, Armando E.; Needham, Glen R.; Smith, Kathleen A.; Gary, Richard E.; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, is caused by a tick-borne infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Currently, Ohio is considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to be non-endemic for Lyme disease. The low incidence of Lyme disease in this state was largely attributed to the absence of the transmitting vector, Ixodes scapularis, commonly known as the blacklegged tick. However, a tick surveillance program established by Ohio Department of Health indicated that the number of I. scapularis in Ohio had increased sharply in recent years, from 0 - 5 ticks per year during 1983–2008 to 15 in 2009, 40 in 2010, and 184 in 2011. During the fall deer hunting season, examination of deer heads submitted to Ohio Department of Agriculture found 29 I. scapularis from 7 counties in 2010 and 1,830 from 25 counties in 2011. As of 2012, the tick had been found in 57 of the 88 counties of Ohio. In addition, all three active stages (larva, nymph, and adult) of I. scapularis were found in Tiverton Township of Coshocton County, demonstrating the presence of established tick populations at this central Ohio location. Of 530 nymphal or adult I. scapularis analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), 32 (6.1%) tested positive for the B. burgdorferi flaB gene, ranging from 36 to 390,000 copies per tick. Antibodies to B. burgdorferi antigens were detected in 2 of 10 (20%) field-captured Peromyscus leucopus from Tiverton Township, and in 41 of 355 (11.5%) dogs residing in Ohio. Collectively, these data suggest that the enzootic life cycle of B. burgdorferi has become established in Ohio, which poses risk of Lyme disease to people and animals in the area. PMID:24926441

  5. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  6. A Rising Tide of Digitization--The Ohio Memory Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, after a year of planning and preparation, the second generation of Ohio Memory was launched. A collaborative effort of the Ohio Historical Society (OHS) and the State Library of Ohio, Ohio Memory is a repository for more than 75,000 digital items, including photographs, journals, and other manuscript materials, as well as print documents…

  7. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant-Based Outdoor Air Preconditioning Systems, Final Report: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.

    2001-07-09

    This report summarizes an investigation of the performance of two active desiccant cooling systems that were installed as pilot systems in two locations--a college dormitory and a research laboratory--during the fall of 1999. The laboratory system was assembled in the field from commercially available Trane air-handling modules combined with a standard total energy recovery module and a customized active desiccant wheel, both produced by SEMCO. The dormitory system was a factory-built, integrated system produced by SEMCO that included both active desiccant and sensible-only recovery wheels, a direct-fired gas regeneration section, and a pre-piped Trane heat pump condensing section. Both systems were equipped with direct digital control systems, complete with full instrumentation and remote monitoring capabilities. This report includes detailed descriptions of these two systems, installation details, samples of actual performance, and estimations of the energy savings realized. These pilot sites represent a continuation of previous active desiccant product development research (Fischer, Hallstrom, and Sand 2000; Fischer 2000). Both systems performed as anticipated, were reliable, and required minimal maintenance. The dehumidification/total-energy-recovery hybrid approach was particularly effective in all respects. System performance showed remarkable improvement in latent load handling capability and operating efficiency compared with the original conventional cooling system and with the conventional system that remained in another, identical wing of the facility. The dehumidification capacity of the pilot systems was very high, the cost of operation was very low, and the system was cost-effective, offering a simple payback for these retrofit installations of approximately 5 to 6 years. Most important, the dormitory system resolved numerous indoor air quality problems in the dormitory by providing effective humidity control and increased, continuous ventilation air.

  8. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  9. Air flow and concentration fields at urban road intersections for improved understanding of personal exposure.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Robins, Alan; Namdeo, Anil; Bell, Margaret

    2011-07-01

    This paper reviews the state of knowledge on modelling air flow and concentration fields at road intersections. The first part covers the available literature from the past two decades on experimental (both field and wind tunnel) and modelling activities in order to provide insight into the physical basis of flow behaviour at a typical cross-street intersection. This is followed by a review of associated investigations of the impact of traffic-generated localised turbulence on the concentration fields due to emissions from vehicles. There is a discussion on the role of adequate characterisation of vehicle-induced turbulence in making predictions using hybrid models, combining the merits of conventional approaches with information obtained from more detailed modelling. This concludes that, despite advancements in computational techniques, there are crucial knowledge gaps affecting the parameterisations used in current models for individual exposure. This is specifically relevant to the growing impetus on walking and cycling activities on urban roads in the context of current drives for sustainable transport and healthy living. Due to inherently longer travel times involved during such trips, compared to automotive transport, pedestrians and cyclists are subjected to higher levels of exposure to emissions. Current modelling tools seem to under-predict this exposure because of limitations in their design and in the empirical parameters employed.

  10. Air flow and concentration fields at urban road intersections for improved understanding of personal exposure.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Robins, Alan; Namdeo, Anil; Bell, Margaret

    2011-07-01

    This paper reviews the state of knowledge on modelling air flow and concentration fields at road intersections. The first part covers the available literature from the past two decades on experimental (both field and wind tunnel) and modelling activities in order to provide insight into the physical basis of flow behaviour at a typical cross-street intersection. This is followed by a review of associated investigations of the impact of traffic-generated localised turbulence on the concentration fields due to emissions from vehicles. There is a discussion on the role of adequate characterisation of vehicle-induced turbulence in making predictions using hybrid models, combining the merits of conventional approaches with information obtained from more detailed modelling. This concludes that, despite advancements in computational techniques, there are crucial knowledge gaps affecting the parameterisations used in current models for individual exposure. This is specifically relevant to the growing impetus on walking and cycling activities on urban roads in the context of current drives for sustainable transport and healthy living. Due to inherently longer travel times involved during such trips, compared to automotive transport, pedestrians and cyclists are subjected to higher levels of exposure to emissions. Current modelling tools seem to under-predict this exposure because of limitations in their design and in the empirical parameters employed. PMID:21435722

  11. Field demonstration and commercialization of silent discharge plasma hazardous air pollutant control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, L.A.; Coogan, J.J.; Korzekwa, R.A.; Secker, D.A.; Reimers, R.F.; Herrmann, P.G.; Chase, P.J.; Gross, M.P. |; Jones, M.R.

    1996-07-01

    Silent electrical discharge plasma (dielectric barrier) reactors can decompose gas-phase pollutants by free-radical attack or electron-induced fragmentation. The radicals or electrons are produced by the large average volume nonthermal plasmas generated in the reactor. In the past decade, the barrier configuration has attracted attention for destroying toxic chemical agents for the military, removing harmful greenhouse gases, and treating other environmentally- hazardous chemical compounds. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have been studying the silent discharge plasma (SDP) for processing gaseous-based hazardous chemicals for approximately five years. The key objective is to convert hazardous or toxic chemicals into non-hazardous compounds or into materials which are more easily managed. The main applications have been for treating off-gases from thermal treatment units, and for abating hazardous air-pollutant emissions (e.g., industrial air emissions, vapors extracted from contaminated soil or groundwater). In this paper, we will summarize the basic principles of SDP processing, discuss illustrative applications of the technology, and present results from small-scale field tests that are relevant to our commercialization effort.

  12. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  13. The use of total simulator training in transitioning air-carrier pilots: A field evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J., Jr.; Tanner, T. A.; Hamerman, J. A.; Showalter, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    A field study was conducted in which the performance of air carrier transitioning pilots who had landing training in a landing maneuver approved simulator was compared with the performance of pilots who had landing training in the aircraft. Forty-eight trainees transitioning to the B-727 aircraft and eighty-seven trainees transitioning to the DC-10 were included in the study. The study results in terms of both objectively measured performance indicants and observer and check-pilot ratings did not demonstrate a clear distinction between the two training groups. The results suggest that, for these highly skilled transitioning pilots, a separate training module in the aircraft may be of dubious value.

  14. Air Pollutant Mapping with a Mobile Laboratory During the BEE-TEX Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Yacovitch, Tara I.; Herndon, Scott C.; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Floerchinger, Cody; Knighton, W. Berk; Kolb, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was deployed to the Houston Ship Channel and surrounding areas during the Benzene and Other Toxics Exposure field study in February 2015. We evaluated atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic hydrocarbons and other hazardous air pollutants of importance to human health, including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzenes, styrene, and NO2. Ambient concentration measurements were focused on the neighborhoods of Manchester, Harrisburg, and Galena Park. The most likely measured concentration of 1,3-butadiene in the Manchester neighborhood (0.17 ppb) exceeds the Environmental Protection Agency’s E-5 lifetime cancer risk level of 0.14 ppb. In all the three neighborhoods, the measured benzene concentration falls below or within the E-5 lifetime cancer risk levels of 0.4–1.4 ppb for benzene. Pollution maps as a function of wind direction show the impact of nearby sources. PMID:26819556

  15. Air Pollutant Mapping with a Mobile Laboratory During the BEE-TEX Field Study.

    PubMed

    Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Roscioli, Joseph R; Floerchinger, Cody; Knighton, W Berk; Kolb, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was deployed to the Houston Ship Channel and surrounding areas during the Benzene and Other Toxics Exposure field study in February 2015. We evaluated atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic hydrocarbons and other hazardous air pollutants of importance to human health, including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzenes, styrene, and NO2. Ambient concentration measurements were focused on the neighborhoods of Manchester, Harrisburg, and Galena Park. The most likely measured concentration of 1,3-butadiene in the Manchester neighborhood (0.17 ppb) exceeds the Environmental Protection Agency's E-5 lifetime cancer risk level of 0.14 ppb. In all the three neighborhoods, the measured benzene concentration falls below or within the E-5 lifetime cancer risk levels of 0.4-1.4 ppb for benzene. Pollution maps as a function of wind direction show the impact of nearby sources. PMID:26819556

  16. Experimental study of near-field air entrainment by subsonic volcanic jets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solovitz, S.A.; Mastin, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    The flow structure in the developing region of a turbulent jet has been examined using particle image velocimetry methods, considering the flow at steady state conditions. The velocity fields were integrated to determine the ratio of the entrained air speed to the jet speed, which was approximately 0.03 for a range of Mach numbers up to 0.89 and. Reynolds numbers up to 217,000. This range of experimental Mach and Reynolds numbers is higher than previously considered for high-accuracy entrainment measures, particularly in the near-vent region. The entrainment values are below those commonly used for geophysical analyses of volcanic plumes, suggesting that existing 1-D models are likely to understate the tendency for column collapse. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Air Pollutant Mapping with a Mobile Laboratory During the BEE-TEX Field Study.

    PubMed

    Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Roscioli, Joseph R; Floerchinger, Cody; Knighton, W Berk; Kolb, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was deployed to the Houston Ship Channel and surrounding areas during the Benzene and Other Toxics Exposure field study in February 2015. We evaluated atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic hydrocarbons and other hazardous air pollutants of importance to human health, including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzenes, styrene, and NO2. Ambient concentration measurements were focused on the neighborhoods of Manchester, Harrisburg, and Galena Park. The most likely measured concentration of 1,3-butadiene in the Manchester neighborhood (0.17 ppb) exceeds the Environmental Protection Agency's E-5 lifetime cancer risk level of 0.14 ppb. In all the three neighborhoods, the measured benzene concentration falls below or within the E-5 lifetime cancer risk levels of 0.4-1.4 ppb for benzene. Pollution maps as a function of wind direction show the impact of nearby sources.

  18. The effect of air density on atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from a long airborne object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazelyan, E. M.; Aleksandrov, N. L.; Raizer, Yu. P.; Konchakov, A. M.

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the work was to determine minimum atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from an airborne vehicle at various altitudes up to 10 km. The problem was reduced to the determination of a condition for initiation of a viable positive leader from a conductive object in an ambient electric field. It was shown that, depending on air density and shape and dimensions of the object, critical atmospheric fields are governed by the condition for leader viability or that for corona onset. To establish quantitative criteria for reduced air densities, available observations of spark discharges in long laboratory gaps were analyzed, the effect of air density on leader velocity was discussed and evolution in time of the properties of plasma in the leader channel was numerically simulated. The results obtained were used to evaluate the effect of pressure on the quantitative relationships between the potential difference near the leader tip, leader current and its velocity; based on these relationships, criteria for steady development of a leader were determined for various air pressures. Atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from rods and ellipsoidal objects of various dimensions were calculated at different air densities. It was shown that there is no simple way to extend critical ambient fields obtained for some given objects and pressures to other objects and pressures.

  19. The Effect of Air Density on Atmospheric Electric Fields Required for Lightning Initiation from a Long Airborne Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazelyan, E. M.; Aleksandrov, N. L.; Raizer, Yu. Pl.; Konchankov, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to determine minimum atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from an airborne vehicle at various altitudes up to 10 km. The problem was reduced to the determination of a condition for initiation of a viable positive leader from a conductive object in an ambient electric field. It was shown that, depending on air density and shape and dimensions of the object, critical atmospheric fields are governed by the condition for leader viability or that for corona onset. To establish quantitative criteria for reduced air densities, available observations of spark discharges in long laboratory gaps were analyzed, the effect of air density on leader velocity was discussed and evolution in time of the properties of plasma in the leader channel was numerically simulated. The results obtained were used to evaluate the effect of pressure on the quantitative relationships between the potential difference near the leader tip, leader current and its velocity; based on these relationships, criteria for steady development of a leader were determined for various air pressures. Atmospheric electric fields required for lightning initiation from rods and ellipsoidal objects of various dimensions were calculated at different air densities. It was shown that there is no simple way to extend critical ambient fields obtained for some given objects and pressures to other objects and pressures.

  20. Testing flow-through air samplers for use in near-field vapour drift studies by measuring pyrimethanil in air after spraying.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Trudyanne S; Hageman, Kimberly J; Hewitt, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Pesticide volatilisation and subsequent vapour drift reduce a pesticide's efficiency and contribute to environmental contamination. High-volume air samplers (HVSs) are often used to measure pesticide concentrations in air but these samplers are expensive to purchase and require network electricity, limiting the number and type of sites where they can be deployed. The flow-through sampler (FTS) presents an opportunity to overcome these limitations. The FTS is a wind-driven passive sampler that has been developed to quantify organic contaminants in remote ecosystems. FTSs differ from other passive samplers in that they turn into the wind and use the wind to draw air through the sampling media. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the FTS in a near-field pesticide vapour drift study by comparing the concentrations of pyrimethanil in air measured using one HVS and three FTSs placed in the same location. Pyrimethanil was sprayed onto a vineyard as part of normal pest management procedures. Air samples were collected every eight hours for 48 h. The volume of air sampled by the FTSs was calculated using the measured relationship between ambient wind speed and the wind speed inside the sampler as determined with a separate wind tunnel study. The FTSs sampled 1.7 to 40.6 m(3) of air during each 8 h sampling period, depending on wind speed, whereas the mean volume sampled by the HVS was 128.7 m(3). Mean pyrimethanil concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 μg m(-3) of air. Inter-sampler reproducibility, as represented by percent relative standard deviation, for the three FTSs was ∼20%. The largest difference in FTS-derived versus HVS-derived pyrimethanil concentrations occurred during the lowest wind-speed period. During this period, it is likely that the FTS predominately acted like a traditional diffusion-based passive sampler. As indicated by both types of sampler, pyrimethanil concentrations in air changed by a factor of ∼2 during the two days after spaying

  1. Viruses in maize and Johnsongrass in southern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L R; Teplier, R; Todd, J C; Jones, M W; Cassone, B J; Wijeratne, S; Wijeratne, A; Redinbaugh, M G

    2014-12-01

    The two major U.S. maize viruses, Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV), emerged in southern Ohio and surrounding regions in the 1960s and caused significant losses. Planting resistant varieties and changing cultural practices has dramatically reduced virus impact in subsequent decades. Current information on the distribution, diversity, and impact of known and potential U.S. maize disease-causing viruses is lacking. To assess the current reservoir of viruses present at the sites of past disease emergence, we used a combination of serological testing and next-generation RNA sequencing approaches. Here, we report enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and RNA-Seq data from samples collected over 2 years to assess the presence of viruses in cultivated maize and an important weedy reservoir, Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense). Results revealed a persistent reservoir of MDMV and two strains of MCDV in Ohio Johnsongrass. We identified sequences of several other grass-infecting viruses and confirmed the presence of Wheat mosaic virus in Ohio maize. Together, these results provide important data for managing virus disease in field corn and sweet corn maize crops, and identifying potential future virus threats.

  2. The relationship among air quality, mixing heights, and winds observed during the entire TexAQS-II field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, C.; Knoderer, C. A.; Zahn, P.

    2007-12-01

    The Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS-II) was designed to provide support for State Implementation Plan (SIP) revisions. The SIP revisions outline strategies for improving air quality to meet the new federal 8-hr ozone standard and regional haze requirements. As part of TexAQS-II, a field study was conducted to collect air quality and meteorological data throughout eastern Texas from May 1, 2005, through October 15, 2006. As part of the field study, various organizations made upper-air meteorological measurements at several locations. These measurements were collected by twelve 915-MHz radar wind profilers (RWPs), three 404 MHz RWPs, nine Radio Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASS), two sodars, and one lidar. These instruments provide vertically, horizontally, and temporally resolved wind, virtual temperature (Tv), and mixing height information. This presentation will address the three-dimensional and temporal characteristics of these parameters throughout the study domain for the entire study period and how these characteristic vary by season, month, and synoptic weather pattern. The presentation will also address how these characteristics influence regional and local air quality conditions throughout the study domain, including the relationship among various transport statistics, mixing height characteristics (e.g., time of peak mixing, morning mixing height growth rate, peak mixing height, average morning mixing height, etc.) and air quality. In addition, case studies will illustrate the finer-scale details of the relationship among the evolution of mixing heights, diurnal variability of winds, and air quality.

  3. Measurement of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Xiu-Xiu; Bian, Lei; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2015-12-01

    Determination of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air is important to understand chemical communication between plants and insects and will aid the development of semiochemicals from plants for pest control. In this study, a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to measure ultra-trace levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. The desorption parameters of TD, including sorbent tube material, tube desorption temperature, desorption time, and cold trap temperature, were selected and optimized. In GC-MS analysis, the selected ion monitoring mode was used for enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. This method was sufficiently sensitive to detect part-per-trillion levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. Laboratory and field evaluation revealed that the method presented high precision and accuracy. Field studies indicated that the background odor of tea plantations contained some common volatile plant compounds, such as (Z)-3-hexenol, methyl salicylate, and (E)-ocimene, at concentrations ranging from 1 to 3400 ng m(-3). In addition, the background odor in summer was more abundant in quality and quantity than in autumn. Relative to previous methods, the TD-GC-MS method is more sensitive, permitting accurate qualitative and quantitative measurements of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. PMID:26493981

  4. Measurement of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Xiu-Xiu; Bian, Lei; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2015-12-01

    Determination of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air is important to understand chemical communication between plants and insects and will aid the development of semiochemicals from plants for pest control. In this study, a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to measure ultra-trace levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. The desorption parameters of TD, including sorbent tube material, tube desorption temperature, desorption time, and cold trap temperature, were selected and optimized. In GC-MS analysis, the selected ion monitoring mode was used for enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. This method was sufficiently sensitive to detect part-per-trillion levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. Laboratory and field evaluation revealed that the method presented high precision and accuracy. Field studies indicated that the background odor of tea plantations contained some common volatile plant compounds, such as (Z)-3-hexenol, methyl salicylate, and (E)-ocimene, at concentrations ranging from 1 to 3400 ng m(-3). In addition, the background odor in summer was more abundant in quality and quantity than in autumn. Relative to previous methods, the TD-GC-MS method is more sensitive, permitting accurate qualitative and quantitative measurements of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air.

  5. Air stripping and emissions control technologies: Field testing of countercurrent packings, rotary air stripping, catalytic oxidation, and adsorption materials. Final report, April 1987-June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.H.; Counce, R.M.; Lucero, A.J.; Jennings, H.L.; Singh, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this activity was to field test innovative air stripping with emissions control technologies. The scale of the various components used in these tests was selected such that results would be useful for better predicting the performance of application-scale equipment. The goal of this effort was to provide managers and engineers with necessary information so that decisions relating to the application of this technology can proceed on a rational basis. Conventional countercurrent air stripping (with 4 different packing materials) were compared to a centrifugal contactor, also known as a rotary air stripper. Emissions control tests showed that the activity of the noble metal catalyst was lost before any useful abatement results were obtained. This loss in activity was attributed to poisoning by sulfur stripped from the groundwater. Control of the emissions by activated carbon was achieved. Significant quantities of lighter hydrocarbons were noted in the stripper effluent that were not effectively adsorbed by the carbon. No generally useful results ere obtained for control of emissions by molecular sieves.... Air stripping, Rotary air stripper, VOCs, Fuel contamination, Catalytic oxidations, Carbon adsorption, Molecular sieves.

  6. Streamer development in barrier discharge in air: spectral signatures and electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoder, Tomas; Simek, Milan; Bonaventura, Zdenek; Prukner, Vaclav

    2015-09-01

    Electrical breakdown in the upper atmosphere takes form of so called Transient Luminous Events (TLE). Down to the certain pressure limit, the first phases of the TLE-phenomena are controlled by the streamer mechanism. In order to understand the development of these events, streamers in 10 torr air were generated in volume barrier discharge. Stability and reproducibility of generated streamers were secured by proper electrode geometry and specific applied voltage waveform. In this work, spectrally resolved measurements of the streamer head emission with high spatial and temporal resolution are presented. Precise recordings of the emission of the second positive and first negative systems of molecular nitrogen allowed the determination of the spatio-temporal development of the reduced electric field in the streamer head. This unique experimental result reveals in more details the early stages of the streamer development and gives, besides values for streamer velocity and its diameter, quantitative information on the magnitude of the electric field. T.H. was financed through the ESF Programme TEA-IS (Grant No. 4219), M.S. and V.P. by the AVCR under collaborative project M100431201 and Z.B. acknowledges the support of grant of Czech Science Foundation GA15-04023S.

  7. Assessment of the air-soil partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a paddy field using a modified fugacity sampler.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Luo, Chunling; Wang, Shaorui; Liu, Junwen; Pan, Suhong; Li, Jun; Ming, Lili; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    Rice, one of the most widely cultivated crops, has received great attention in contaminant uptake from soil and air, especially for the special approaches used for its cultivation. The dry-wet alternation method can influence the air-soil partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the paddy ecosystem. Here, we modified a fugacity sampler to investigate the air-surface in situ partitioning of ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at different growth stages in a suburban paddy field in South China. The canopy of rice can form a closed space, which acts like a chamber that can force the air under the canopy to equilibrate with the field surface. When we compared the fugacities calculated using a fugacity model of the partition coefficients to the measured fugacities, we observed similar trends in the variation, but significantly different values between different growing stages, especially during the flooding stages. However, the measured and calculated fugacity fractions were comparable when uncertainties in our calculations were considered, with the exception of the high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. The measured fugacity fractions suggested that the HMW PAHs were also closed to equilibrium between the paddy field and atmosphere. The modified fugacity sampler provided a novel way of accurately determining the in situ air-soil partitioning of SVOCs in a wet paddy field.

  8. Field evaluation of a transportable open-path FTIR spectrometer for real-time air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ross, Kiley R; Todd, Lori A

    2002-02-01

    To effectively and accurately evaluate human exposures to chemicals, it is important to quantify mixtures of chemicals in air, at low levels, and in real time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in the field, a prototype of a new transportable instrument that can fill an important gap in methods available to industrial hygienists. This instrument is a cross between extractive and open-path Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometers and measures chemicals passively and in real time in the vicinity of the breathing zone. The spectrometer has a folded optical path that can be enclosed, similar to an extractive system. The enclosure can be removed, enabling the optical path to be open to the atmosphere; thus, the instrument could be operated as an open-path spectrometer. A field study was conducted in three different occupational settings, including a prosthodontics dental laboratory, a surgery recovery area, and a cytology laboratory. Chemicals that were identified and quantified included methyl methacrylate, nitrous oxide, xylene isomers, toluene, and ethanol. Simultaneous side-by-side sampling was conducted with the prototype instrument and recognized National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analytical methods. The distinct infrared "fingerprint" of each chemical made identification and quantification of multiple chemicals possible with the prototype instrument. This attribute allowed the industrial hygienist to quantify short-term exposures and ceiling levels, correlate work practices with concentration levels, evaluate the effectiveness of engineering controls, and identify the presence of unexpected compounds. There was no significant difference between the mean time-weighted averages (TWAs) of the prototype instrument and traditional methods (p > 0.03). Regression analysis found good correlation between the two methods with no significant differences between the slope and unity and between the y-intercept and zero (p > 0.03). The

  9. NORTHERN OHIO AEROSOL STUDY: STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A consortium of Universities, located in northwest Ohio have received funds to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of land applied biosolids in that state. This USDA funded study includes observing land application practices and evaluating biosolids, soils, runoff water and bioaer...

  10. 78 FR 2708 - Ohio Disaster # OH-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This..., Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. BILLING CODE 8025-01-P...

  11. [Effect of air-electric fields on driving and reaction patterns. Test subjects in the car driving simulator (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Anselm, D; Danner, M; Kirmaier, N; König, H L; Müller-Limmroth, W; Reis, A; Schauerte, W

    1977-06-10

    In the relevant frequency range of about 10 Hertz cars can be considered very largely as Faraday cages and consequently as screens against air-electric fields. This may have a negative influence on driving and reaction patterns as a result. In an extensive investigation 48 subjects in a driving simulator were exposed to definite artificially produced air-electric fields. The self-rating of the performance and concentration of the subjects, reaction times and driving errors were determined. While the reaction times remained practically constant, the driving behavior of the subjects improved.

  12. Performance analysis of innovative collector fields for solar-electric plants, using air as heat transfer medium

    SciTech Connect

    De Marchi Desenzani, P.; Gaia, M.

    1984-08-01

    The production of electricity by thermodynamic conversion of the heat supplied by flat plate collectors has been tried many times. The use of air as heat transfer medium could allow a dramatic simplification of the collector field and a relevant reduction of thermal inertia. The paper discusses the characteristics of a system based on air collectors and ORC engine. Both multilayer inflated plastic sheet collectors and vacuum tubes collectors are proposed as suitable solutions. The field fan power consumption is optimized jointly with the power cycle evaporator design. Both the envisaged solutions are investigated on the point of view of overall cost/performance ratio.

  13. Welcome to the Ohio Aerospace Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The mission and various programs administered by the Ohio Aerospace Institute, a consortium made up of 9 Ohio Universities, LeRC, and members of the Aerospace Industry are described. The video highlights the following: programs to bring aerospace research to K-12 classrooms; programs to allow graduate students access to laboratory equipment at LeRC; the creation of a statewide television network to link researchers in industry and academia; and focus groups to encourage collaboration between companies in aerospace research.

  14. Field evaluation of sampling and analysis for organic pollutants in indoor air. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.C.; Mack, G.A.; Stockrahm, J.W.; Hannan, S.W.; Bridges, C.

    1988-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the feasibility of the use of newly developed indoor air samplers in residential indoor air sampling and to evaluate methodology for characterization of the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), PAH derivatives, and nicotine in residential air.

  15. Field Assessment of the Village Green Project: An Autonomous Community Air Quality Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent findings on air pollution levels in communities motivate new technologies to assess air pollution at finer spatial scale. The Village Green Project (VGP) is a novel approach using commercially-available technology for long-term community environments air pollution measure...

  16. Measuring remanence anisotropy of hematite in red beds: anisotropy of high-field isothermal remanence magnetization (hf-AIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilardello, Dario; Kodama, Kenneth P.

    2009-09-01

    The potential of using high-field anisotropy of isothermal remanence magnetization (hf-AIR) measurements for determining the origin of natural remanent magnetization in red beds and for identifying and correcting possible red-bed inclination shallowing was investigated for specimens of the Carboniferous Shepody Formation of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada. The technique makes it possible for a typical paleomagnetic laboratory to measure the remanence anisotropy of high-coercivity hematite. High-field (hf) AIR was used in conjunction with 100 mT alternating field (af) and 120°C thermal demagnetization to separate the contribution of hematite to the remanence anisotropy from that of magnetite/maghemite and goethite, respectively. A 5-T impulse DC magnetic field was used for the hf-AIR to reset the magnetic moment of high-coercivity hematite so that demagnetization between AIR orientations was not necessary. The ability of a 5-T field to reset the magnetization was tested by generating an isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition curve for hematite by using impulse DC magnetic fields up to 5 T in one orientation and followed by applying a field in the opposite direction at each step. Each field application was treated by 120°C heating and 100 mT af demagnetization before measurement. At 5 T, the difference between the magnetizations applied in opposite directions disappeared indicating that no magnetic memory persisted at this field strength. We performed a validity and reproducibility test of our hf-AIR measurement technique by measuring three specimens multiple times along two orthogonal coordinate systems. The method yielded highly reproducible results and, on rotating the specimen's coordinates, the fabric rotated by 90° as expected, showing that it is not an artifact of the technique. We also measured hf-AIR on samples that had previously been chemically demagnetized in 3N HCl to remove the secondary, chemically grown pigmentary hematite. The hf-AIR

  17. Flood of March 1997 in southern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, K.S.; Vivian, S.A.; Diam, F.J.; Crecelius, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Rainfall amounts of up to 12 inches produced by thunderstorms during March 1-2, 1997 resulted in severe flooding throughout much of southern Ohio. Eighteen counties were declared Federal and State disaster areas. Cost estimates of damage in Ohio from the flooding are nearly $180 million. About 6,500 residences and more than 800 businesses were affected by flooding. Nearly 20,000 persons were evacuated, and 5 deaths were attributed to the flooding. Record peak stage and streamflow were recorded at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations on Ohio Brush Creek near West Union and Shade River near Chester. The peak streamflow at these two locations exceeded the estimate of the 100-year-recurrence- interval peak streamflow. The recurrence intervals of peak stream flow at selected USGS streamflow gaging stations throughout southern Ohio ranged from less than 2 years to greater than 100 years. The most severe flooding in the State was generally confined to areas within 50 to 70 miles of the Ohio River. Many communities along the Ohio River experienced the worst flooding in more than 30 years.

  18. Compensating for the impact of non-stationary spherical air cavities on IMRT dose delivery in transverse magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Bol, G H; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2015-01-21

    With the development of the 1.5 T MRI linear accelerator and the clinical introduction of the 0.35 T ViewRay™ system, delivering intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in a transverse magnetic field becomes increasingly important. When delivering dose in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, one of the most prominent phenomena occurs around air cavities: the electron return effect (ERE). For stationary, spherical air cavities which are centrally located in the phantom, the ERE can be compensated by using opposing beams configurations in combination with IMRT. In this paper we investigate the effects of non-stationary spherical air cavities, centrally located within the target in a phantom containing no organs at risk, on IMRT dose delivery in 0.35 T and 1.5 T transverse magnetic fields by using Monte Carlo simulations. We show that IMRT can be used for compensating ERE around those air cavities, except for intrafraction appearing or disappearing air cavities. For these cases, gating or plan re-optimization should be used. We also analyzed the option of using IMRT plans optimized at 0 T to be delivered in the presence of 0.35 T and 1.5 T magnetic field. When delivering dose at 0.35 T, IMRT plans optimized at 0 T and 0.35 T perform equally well regarding ERE compensation. Within a 1.5 T environment, the 1.5 T optimized plans perform slightly better for the static and random intra- and interfraction air cavity movement cases than the 0 T optimized plans. For non-stationary spherical air cavities with a baseline shift (intra- and interfraction) the 0 T optimized plans perform better. These observations show the intrinsic ERE compensation by equidistant and opposing beam configurations for spherical air cavities within the target area. IMRT gives some additional compensation, but only in case of correct positioning of the air cavity according to the IMRT compensation. For intrafraction appearing or disappearing air cavities this correct positioning is absent

  19. Compensating for the impact of non-stationary spherical air cavities on IMRT dose delivery in transverse magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Bol, G H; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2015-01-21

    With the development of the 1.5 T MRI linear accelerator and the clinical introduction of the 0.35 T ViewRay™ system, delivering intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in a transverse magnetic field becomes increasingly important. When delivering dose in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, one of the most prominent phenomena occurs around air cavities: the electron return effect (ERE). For stationary, spherical air cavities which are centrally located in the phantom, the ERE can be compensated by using opposing beams configurations in combination with IMRT. In this paper we investigate the effects of non-stationary spherical air cavities, centrally located within the target in a phantom containing no organs at risk, on IMRT dose delivery in 0.35 T and 1.5 T transverse magnetic fields by using Monte Carlo simulations. We show that IMRT can be used for compensating ERE around those air cavities, except for intrafraction appearing or disappearing air cavities. For these cases, gating or plan re-optimization should be used. We also analyzed the option of using IMRT plans optimized at 0 T to be delivered in the presence of 0.35 T and 1.5 T magnetic field. When delivering dose at 0.35 T, IMRT plans optimized at 0 T and 0.35 T perform equally well regarding ERE compensation. Within a 1.5 T environment, the 1.5 T optimized plans perform slightly better for the static and random intra- and interfraction air cavity movement cases than the 0 T optimized plans. For non-stationary spherical air cavities with a baseline shift (intra- and interfraction) the 0 T optimized plans perform better. These observations show the intrinsic ERE compensation by equidistant and opposing beam configurations for spherical air cavities within the target area. IMRT gives some additional compensation, but only in case of correct positioning of the air cavity according to the IMRT compensation. For intrafraction appearing or disappearing air cavities this correct positioning is absent

  20. Compensating for the impact of non-stationary spherical air cavities on IMRT dose delivery in transverse magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bol, G. H.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    With the development of the 1.5 T MRI linear accelerator and the clinical introduction of the 0.35 T ViewRay™ system, delivering intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in a transverse magnetic field becomes increasingly important. When delivering dose in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, one of the most prominent phenomena occurs around air cavities: the electron return effect (ERE). For stationary, spherical air cavities which are centrally located in the phantom, the ERE can be compensated by using opposing beams configurations in combination with IMRT. In this paper we investigate the effects of non-stationary spherical air cavities, centrally located within the target in a phantom containing no organs at risk, on IMRT dose delivery in 0.35 T and 1.5 T transverse magnetic fields by using Monte Carlo simulations. We show that IMRT can be used for compensating ERE around those air cavities, except for intrafraction appearing or disappearing air cavities. For these cases, gating or plan re-optimization should be used. We also analyzed the option of using IMRT plans optimized at 0 T to be delivered in the presence of 0.35 T and 1.5 T magnetic field. When delivering dose at 0.35 T, IMRT plans optimized at 0 T and 0.35 T perform equally well regarding ERE compensation. Within a 1.5 T environment, the 1.5 T optimized plans perform slightly better for the static and random intra- and interfraction air cavity movement cases than the 0 T optimized plans. For non-stationary spherical air cavities with a baseline shift (intra- and interfraction) the 0 T optimized plans perform better. These observations show the intrinsic ERE compensation by equidistant and opposing beam configurations for spherical air cavities within the target area. IMRT gives some additional compensation, but only in case of correct positioning of the air cavity according to the IMRT compensation. For intrafraction appearing or disappearing air cavities this correct positioning is absent

  1. Evaluation of near surface ozone and particulate matter in air quality simulations driven by dynamically downscaled historical meteorological fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltzer, Karl M.; Nolte, Christopher G.; Spero, Tanya L.; Appel, K. Wyat; Xing, Jia

    2016-08-01

    In this study, techniques typically used for future air quality projections are applied to a historical 11-year period to assess the performance of the modeling system when the driving meteorological conditions are obtained using dynamical downscaling of coarse-scale fields without correcting toward higher-resolution observations. The Weather Research and Forecasting model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model are used to simulate regional climate and air quality over the contiguous United States for 2000-2010. The air quality simulations for that historical period are then compared to observations from four national networks. Comparisons are drawn between defined performance metrics and other published modeling results for predicted ozone, fine particulate matter, and speciated fine particulate matter. The results indicate that the historical air quality simulations driven by dynamically downscaled meteorology are typically within defined modeling performance benchmarks and are consistent with results from other published modeling studies using finer-resolution meteorology. This indicates that the regional climate and air quality modeling framework utilized here does not introduce substantial bias, which provides confidence in the method's use for future air quality projections.

  2. Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly Gibson; Mark Norfolk

    2012-07-30

    The program goal of the Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center (OAEMC) is to support advanced energy manufacturing and to create responsive manufacturing clusters that will support the production of advanced energy and energy-efficient products to help ensure the nation's energy and environmental security. This goal cuts across a number of existing industry segments critical to the nation's future. Many of the advanced energy businesses are starting to make the transition from technology development to commercial production. Historically, this transition from laboratory prototypes through initial production for early adopters to full production for mass markets has taken several years. Developing and implementing manufacturing technology to enable production at a price point the market will accept is a key step. Since these start-up operations are configured to advance the technology readiness of the core energy technology, they have neither the expertise nor the resources to address manufacturing readiness issues they encounter as the technology advances toward market entry. Given the economic realities of today's business environment, finding ways to accelerate this transition can make the difference between success and failure for a new product or business. The advanced energy industry touches a wide range of industry segments that are not accustomed to working together in complex supply chains to serve large markets such as automotive and construction. During its first three years, the Center has catalyzed the communication between companies and industry groups that serve the wide range of advanced energy markets. The Center has also found areas of common concern, and worked to help companies address these concerns on a segment or industry basis rather than having each company work to solve common problems individually. EWI worked with three industries through public-private partnerships to sew together disparate segments helping to promote overall industry

  3. The Ohio Library Association and the Ohio Library Trustees Association; a Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Ellen

    This study assesses the activities of the Ohio Library Association (OLA) an the Ohio Library Trustees Association (OLTA)--the formal and informal relationships with the State Library, promotion of libraries throughout the state by these organizations, and participation and attitudes of the organizations' members. Data for the study were collected…

  4. The Ohio & Erie Canal: Catalyst of Economic Development for Ohio. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Deborah

    In the 19th century, canal boats pulled along by mules carried much cargo. The canal boat was the family business, their livelihood, and their home. In Ohio, these boats glided gracefully along the Ohio and Erie Canal, heavily laden with lumber on its way north to Lake Erie where it was transferred to a lake freighter and sent to Buffalo (New…

  5. Field calibration of rapidly equilibrating thin-film passive air samplers and their potential application for low-volume air sampling studies.

    PubMed

    Farrar, N J; Harner, T J; Sweetman, A J; Jones, K C

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a field calibration and ambient deployment study with rapidly equilibrating thin-film passive air samplers. POlymer-coated Glass (POG) samplers have a coating of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) less than 1 microm thick coated on to glass, which can be dissolved off after exposure and prepared for quantification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have partitioned into the film during field exposure. In this study, POGs were exposed for up to 18 d, in a study to assess compound uptake rates and their time to approach equilibrium. Results confirmed theoretical predictions, with time to equilibrium varying between a few hours to ca. 20 d for PCB-18 and PCB-138, respectively. Performance reference compounds and contaminated POGs were used to investigate depuration kinetics, confirming that lighter congeners behave extremely dynamically with substantial losses from the films over periods of a few hours. Repeated deployments of the samplers for different3-d periods yielded detectable levels of a range of PCB congeners, which had partitioned from as little as approximately 2 to 10 m3 air. This highlights the potential utility of POGs for extremely sensitive and dynamic passive air sampling in the future to help improve understanding of sources, environmental fate, and behavior of POPs. Recommendations are made for future improvements/refinements in POG sampling and handling procedures.

  6. Direct measurement of the characteristic three-body electron attachment time in the atmospheric air in direct current electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Shutov, A. V.; Smetanin, I. V.; Ionin, A. A.; Levchenko, A. O.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Zvorykin, V. D.

    2013-07-15

    We report the results of theoretical and experimental study of the characteristic time for three-body attachment of electrons produced by 100 fs UV laser pulse in the atmosphere air in the external DC electric field ranged from 0.2 to 10 kV/cm.

  7. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  8. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Operable Unit 6, Jacksonville, FL, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The site name is the Golf Course Pesticide Disposal Area, Site 11, Operable Unit (OU) 6. The site is located in a wooded area between the 11th fairway and the 17th green at the Naval Air Station (NAS) Cecil Field golf course, Jacksonville, Florida. The purpose of the interim remedial action is to remove buried containers of pesticides and associated contaminated soil.

  9. Evaluation of near surface ozone and particulate matter in air quality simulations driven by dynamically downscaled historical meteorological fields

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, techniques typically used for future air quality projections are applied to a historical 11-year period to assess the performance of the modeling system when the driving meteorological conditions are obtained using dynamical downscaling of coarse-scale fields witho...

  10. Effect of air flow, panel curvature, and internal pressurization on field-incidence transmission loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koval, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    In the context of sound transmission through aircraft fuselage panels, equations for the field-incidence transmission loss (TL) of a single-walled panel are derived that include the effects of external air flow, panel curvature, and internal fuselage pressurization. Flow is shown to provide a modest increase in TL that is uniform with frequency up to the critical frequency. The increase is about 2 dB at Mach number M = 0.5, and about 3.5 dB at M = 1. Above the critical frequency where TL is damping controlled, the increase can be slightly larger at certain frequencies. Curvature is found to stiffen the panel, thereby increasing the TL at low frequencies, but also to introduce a dip at the 'ring frequency' of a full cylinder having the same radius as the panel. Pressurization appears to produce a slight decrease in TL throughout the frequency range, and also slightly shifts the dips at the critical frequency and at the ring frequency.

  11. Soot formation and temperature field structure in laminar propane-air diffusion flames at elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Bento, Decio S.; Guelder, OEmer L.; Thomson, Kevin A.

    2006-06-15

    The effect of pressure on soot formation and the structure of the temperature field was studied in coflow propane-air laminar diffusion flames over the pressure range of 0.1 to 0.73 MPa in a high-pressure combustion chamber. The fuel flow rate was selected so that the soot was completely oxidized within the visible flame and the flame was stable at all pressures. Spectral soot emission was used to measure radially resolved soot volume fraction and soot temperature as a function of pressure. Additional soot volume fraction measurements were made at selected heights using line-of-sight light attenuation. Soot concentration values from these two techniques agreed to within 30% and both methods exhibited similar trends in the spatial distribution of soot concentration. Maximum line-of-sight soot concentration along the flame centerline scaled with pressure; the pressure exponent was about 1.4 for pressures between 0.2 and 0.73 MPa. Peak carbon conversion to soot, defined as the percentage of fuel carbon content converted to soot, also followed a power-law dependence on pressure, where the pressure exponent was near to unity for pressures between 0.2 and 0.73 MPa. Soot temperature measurements indicated that the overall temperatures decreased with increasing pressure; however, the temperature gradients increased with increasing pressure. (author)

  12. Field-scale demonstration of induced biogeochemical reductive dechlorination at Dover Air Force Base, Dover, Delaware.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Lonnie G; Everett, Jess W; Becvar, Erica; DeFeo, Donald

    2006-11-20

    Biogeochemical reductive dechlorination (BiRD) is a new remediation approach for chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). The approach stimulates common sulfate-reducing soil bacteria, facilitating the geochemical conversion of native iron minerals into iron sulfides. Iron sulfides have the ability to chemically reduce many common CAH compounds including PCE, TCE, DCE, similar to zero valent iron (Fe(0)). Results of a field test at Dover Air Force Base, Dover, Delaware, are given in this paper. BiRD was stimulated by direct injection of Epson salt (MgSO(4).7H(2)O) and sodium (L) lactate (NaC(3)H(5)O(3)) in five injection wells. Sediment was sampled before and 8 months after injection. Significant iron sulfide minerals developed in the sandy aquifer matrix. From ground water analyses, treatment began a few weeks after injection with up to 95% reduction in PCE, TCE, and cDCE in less than 1 year. More complete CAH treatment is likely at a larger scale than this demonstration.

  13. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    SciTech Connect

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  14. Source evaluation report phase 2 investigation: Limited field investigation. Final report: United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the limited field investigation work done to address issues and answer unresolved questions regarding a collection of potential contaminant sources at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), near Fairbanks, Alaska. These sources were listed in the Eielson AFB Federal Facility Agreement supporting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of the base. The limited field investigation began in 1993 to resolve all remaining technical issues and provide the data and analysis required to evaluate the environmental hazard associated with these sites. The objective of the limited field investigation was to allow the remedial project managers to sort each site into one of three categories: requiring remedial investigation/feasibility study, requiring interim removal action, or requiring no further remedial action.

  15. East Ohio gas 'bridges' service to reach new customers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    A lift bridge across the Cuyahoga River at the eastern end of Whiskey Island provided the most feasible route to five new industrial customers for East Ohio Gas Co. in Cleveland. Previously considered ''unpipeable'', the island was reached by building a line along the stationary bridgework 125 ft above the bridge. The 6-in pipe is protected by a heat-fused epoxy coating; welded joints were covered in the field with heat-shrink sleeves. The line is fully electrically insulated and protected from lightning.

  16. Crop losses from air pollutants: A computer and field-based assessment program and crop and forest losses from air pollutants: An assessment program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mutters, R.; Guzy, M.; Thompson, C.R.

    1993-10-01

    The Air Resources Board-sponsored Crop Loss Assessment Program quantifies potential ozone-caused yield losses in 26 crops grown in California. Statewide yield loss estimates were made with aggregated county statistics, and at a subcounty level for the southern San Joaquin Valley. Interpolations of statewide 7-hr mean zone levels were made for selected air basins delimited by a 2000-ft altitudinal barrier. Estimated yield losses were calculated using 2.50 pphm as a background 12-hr average concentration. Regression analyses were performed in a detailed analysis of cotton yield responses in Kern County. Statistically significant regressions of yield vs. ozone concentration, soil characteristics and cotton variety were observed. A field survey to identify ozone injury in cotton, almond and grape was conducted at 11 sites in the Central Valley.

  17. Water use in Ohio, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberle, Michael; McClure, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    An estimated 13,389 million gallons of water per day were used in Ohio in 1980, in four major categories of water use. Of this total, 12,645 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) were taken from surface-water sources whereas 744 Mgal/d was ground water. Totals for each category (in Mgal/d) were: thermoelectric power generation, 10,417; self-supplied manufacturing, 1,399; public water supplies, 1,432; and rural domestic and livestock, 141. Additional miscellaneous uses (irrigation, rural commercial, and non-manufacturing industrial) probably totaled about 300 Mgal/d. The five counties that led the state in total water use were: Jefferson, 2,620 Mgal/d; Lucas, 1,150 Mgal/d; Gallia, 1.086 Mgal/d; Cuyahoga, 1,085 Mgal/d; and Lorain, 991 Mgal/d. These counties, in the same order, were the top five surface-water users. (USGS)

  18. Measles in rural Ohio county.

    PubMed

    Orenstein, W A; Irvin, J; Jennings, M R; Giandelia, J; Halpin, T J; Marks, J S; Conrad, J L

    1980-06-01

    Between December 23, 1975, and March 31, 1976, 169 cases of measles were reported from Defiance County, Ohio, a small rural county in the northwest corner of the State. The outbreak spread from a single junior high school basketball player to eventually involve 19 of the 28 county schools. Among the affected schools, measles attack rates varied from 0.3-7.2% with a mean of 2.0%. A likely source of illness was determined for 160 of the 169 cases (95%). Intraschool transmission was most common, accounting for 97 of the 169 cases (57%) followed by sibling contact for 23 cases (14%). The pattern of measles spread was complex and would have been difficult to predict in advance even if surveillance systems reported each case the day it occurred. A control program held between February 2 and February 20, 1976, vaccinated 5145 of the 11,114 (46.3%) county schoolchildren. Forty-four cases of measles occurred 4 or more days following school clinics, 22 (50%) in children who requested measles vaccine at school clinics, 17 of whom were actually vaccinated. Most of the other cases occurred in students whose parents thought their children to be protected. Measles is a disease which spreads rapidly in a complex pattern over wide geographic areas. A control program vaccinating a large proportion of the children without definitive history of adequate vaccination or disease was apprently effective in curtailing the outbreak.

  19. Electric air filtration: theory, laboratory studies, hardware development, and field evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.; Kuhl, W.; Lum, B.; Bogdanoff, A.; Hebard, H.; Hall, M.; Banks, D.; Mazumder, M.; Johnson, J.

    1983-09-01

    We summarize the results of a seven-year research project for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop electric air filters that extend the service life of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used in the nuclear industry. This project was unique to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and it entailed comprehensive theory, laboratory studies, and hardware development. We present our work in three major areas: (1) theory of and instrumentation for filter test methods, (2) theoretical and laboratory studies of electric air filters, and (3) development and evaluation of eight experimental electric air filters.

  20. Evaluation of CMAQ and CAMx Ensemble Air Quality Forecasts during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.; Kim, S.; Bae, C.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of Air quality forecasts during the 2015 MAPS-Seoul Field Campaign was evaluated. An forecast system has been operated to support the campaign's daily aircraft route decisions for airborne measurements to observe long-range transporting plume. We utilized two real-time ensemble systems based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE)-Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) modeling framework and WRF-SMOKE- Community Multi_scale Air Quality (CMAQ) framework over northeastern Asia to simulate PM10 concentrations. Global Forecast System (GFS) from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) was used to provide meteorological inputs for the forecasts. For an additional set of retrospective simulations, ERA Interim Reanalysis from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) was also utilized to access forecast uncertainties from the meteorological data used. Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and National Institute of Environment Research (NIER) Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) emission inventories are used for foreign and domestic emissions, respectively. In the study, we evaluate the CMAQ and CAMx model performance during the campaign by comparing the results to the airborne and surface measurements. Contributions of foreign and domestic emissions are estimated using a brute force method. Analyses on model performance and emissions will be utilized to improve air quality forecasts for the upcoming KORUS-AQ field campaign planned in 2016.

  1. Is mudflow in Sidoarjo, East Java due to the pumping mechanism of hot air bubbles? : Laboratory simulations and field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.

    2015-09-01

    Extraordinary mudflow has happened in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia since 2006. This mud comes from the giant crater that is located close to the BJP - 01. Thousands of homes have been submerged due to mudflow. Till today this giant mud crater is still has great strength despite the mud flowing over 8 years. This is a very rare phenomenon in the world. This mud flow mechanism raises big questions, because it has been going on for years, naturally the mudflow will stop by itself because the pressure should be reduced. This research evaluates all aspects of integrated observations, laboratory tests and field observations since the beginning of this ongoing mudflow. Laboratory tests were done by providing hot air bubbles into the fluid inside the inverted funnel showed that the fluid can flow with a high altitude. It is due to the mechanism of buoyant force from air bubbles to the water where the contrast density of the water and the air is quite large. Quantity of air bubbles provides direct effect to the debit of fluid flow. Direct observation in the field, in 2006 and 2007, with TIMNAS and LPPM ITB showed the large number of air bubbles on the surface of the mud craters. Temperature observation on the surface of mud crater is around 98 degree C whereas at greater depth shows the temperature is increasingly rising. This strengthens the hypothesis or proves that the mud pumping mechanism comes from buoyant force of hot air bubbles. Inversion gravity images show that the deep subsurface of main crater is close to volcanic layers or root of Arjuna mountain. Based on the simulation laboratory and field observation data, it can be concluded that the geothermal factor plays a key role in the mudflow mechanism.

  2. Prevalence of permanent threshold shifts in the United States Air Force hearing conservation program by career field, 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Lloyd Soderlund, Laurel; McKenna, Elizabeth A; Tastad, Katie; Paul, Marika

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe changes in hearing, using the permanent threshold shift metric, among United States Air Force servicemembers, including active duty, Reserve and Air National Guard components, for demographics, job categories, and career fields. In the United States Air Force, only servicemembers who are occupationally exposed routinely to hazardous noise are monitored. Audiogram records and demographic variables were analyzed for servicemembers from 2005-2011 using data from the Department of Defense system that captures occupational hearing tests worldwide. Results suggest that occupational hearing loss was larger in males than females, in officers than enlisted populations, and in Reserve and Air National Guard than in active duty. Compared to similar civilian career fields, active duty has lower prevalence rates for occupational hearing loss overall, although Reserve and Air National Guard prevalence rates were more similar to the civilian reported rates. The proportion of personnel with permanent threshold shifts varied between 4.6-16.7% within active duty career fields, which includes 76% of the population for study timeframe. Permanent threshold shift was larger in small job categories, and in jobs that are not considered exposed to hazardous noise routinely which is comparative with results from civilian data analysis of occupational hearing loss. Further investigation into testing practices for Air Force specific groups, use of the system for nonoccupational hearing testing, and challenges to follow-up compliance is warranted. Increased surveillance procedures for occupational hearing loss are needed to address concerns on the prevalence of servicemember hearing loss, the role of recreational and lifestyle factors to contribute the high reported hearing loss prevalence of veterans compared to nonveterans. PMID:26720128

  3. Long-range water plan Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio phase 1: Hydraulic and water quality requirements analyses. Final report, September 1993-April 1994, FLD33 ERR CHK FLD04

    SciTech Connect

    VanAtten, J.L.; Forbes, R.E.

    1994-04-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act and associated regulations developed by USEPA and state and local agencies have expanded the standards and requirements on water suppliers to assure that a safe, high quality, and continuous supply of drinking (potable) water is provided to all consumers by all providers. Currently, Wright-Patterson AFB (Base) uses groundwater sources on the Base to supply all potable water to Areas A, B, and C. The base has individual treatment facilities located at each Area, which include air strippers, polyphosphate addition, chlorination, carbon dioxide addition, softening, and fluoride addition. The Base has initiated an aggressive and comprehensive program to fully evaluate available water supply and treatment alternatives to comply with all Federal and State regulations and to assure that a safe and reliable supply of potable water is available for all base activities. The purpose of this Long-Range Water Plan is to define and evaluate alternatives for providing the public water systems on the Base with water that will meet future demands as well as environmental regulations. These alternatives include treatment systems upgrades, maintenance/repair of existing treatment components, or a completely new water supply. The recommended alternatives are to be based on hydrogeologic and water quality data, an assessment of the existing water supply and treatment systems, and off-Base sources of water.

  4. The impact of rising electric power generation on vegetation in Southeastern Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.S.; Showman, R.E.

    1983-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of annual field surveys of lichens and higher vegetation that were conducted from 1971 through 1982 in the vicinity of power generating stations in southeastern Ohio. Despite an increase of more than two-fold in SO/sub 2/ emissions during that period, foliar injury to vegetation by SO/sub 2/ was observed only in 1973.

  5. 3. Photocopied 1974 from The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopied 1974 from The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and Its Branches, from the Lakes to the Sea, Baltimore, 1872. EARLY VIEW AT TRACK LEVEL. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Tray Run Viaduct, Spanning Tray Run, Rowlesburg, Preston County, WV

  6. 26. Photocopy of drawing, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, District Engineer's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of drawing, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, District Engineer's Office, 1942 PILE RECORD PLAN, RECONSTRUCTION OF FELLS STREET WHARF, TOBACCO WAREHOUSE - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Tobacco Warehouse, 1000-1001 Fell Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  7. 1. Photocopied 1974 from Album of Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied 1974 from Album of Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Witteman Brothers, Smithsonian Institution, 1882. WOODCUT ILLUSTRATION OF TRESTLE WORK, CHEAT RIVER GORGE. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Tray Run Viaduct, Spanning Tray Run, Rowlesburg, Preston County, WV

  8. GULF MOBILE & OHIO WOOD TRESTLE BRIDGE LINKING TUSCALOOSA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GULF MOBILE & OHIO WOOD TRESTLE BRIDGE LINKING TUSCALOOSA AND NORTHPORT ACROSS THE WARRIOR RIVER. - Gulf, Mobile & Ohio Railroad Bridge, Spans Black Warrior River between Northport & Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  9. VIEW LOOKING TOWARDS NORTHPORT, GULF MOBILE & OHIO RAILROAD BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING TOWARDS NORTHPORT, GULF MOBILE & OHIO RAILROAD BRIDGE LINKS TUSCALOOSA AND NORTHPORT. - Gulf, Mobile & Ohio Railroad Bridge, Spans Black Warrior River between Northport & Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  10. Field Measurements of Heating Efficiency of Electric Forced-Air Furnaces in Six Manufactured Homes.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Bob; Palmiter, Larry S.; Siegel, Jeff

    1994-07-26

    This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency for six manufactured homes in the Pacific Northwest heated with electric forced-air systems. This is the first in a series of regional and national efforts to measure in detail the heating efficiency of manufactured homes. Only six homes were included in this study because of budgetary constraints; therefore this is not a representative sample. These investigations do provide some useful information on the heating efficiency of these homes. Useful comparisons can be drawn between these study homes and site-built heating efficiencies measured with a similar protocol. The protocol used to test these homes is very similar to another Ecotope protocol used in the study conducted in 1992 and 1993 for the Bonneville Power Administration to test the heating efficiency of 24 homes. This protocol combined real-time power measurements of furnace energy usage with energy usage during co-heat periods. Accessory data such as house and duct tightness measurements and tracer gas measurements were used to describe these homes and their heating system efficiency. Ensuring that manufactured housing is constructed in an energy and resource efficient manner is of increasing concern to manufactured home builders and consumers. No comparable work has been done to measure the heating system efficiency of MCS manufactured homes, although some co-heat tests have been performed on manufactured homes heated with natural gas to validate HUD thermal standards. It is expected that later in 1994 more research of this kind will be conducted, and perhaps a less costly and less time-consuming method for testing efficiencies will be develops.

  11. Occupational silicosis--Ohio, 1989-1994.

    PubMed

    1995-02-01

    Silicosis is a chronic lung disease associated with the inhalation and pulmonary deposition of dust that contains crystalline silica. Through the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)* program, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is assessing practical models for implementing state-based surveillance of silicosis and linking follow-up intervention activities to surveillance reports. From 1989 through 1992, the Ohio Department of Health (ODH) SENSOR program identified silicosis cases through reports of Bureau of Workers' Compensation (BWC) claims, physician reports, and death certificates. The addition in 1993 of hospital discharge reports as an ascertainment source resulted in a substantial increase in the number of silicosis case reports identified annually (Table 1). This report describes the investigation of a case of occupational silicosis in Ohio and summarizes the impact of hospital-based reporting on surveillance for silicosis in Ohio during 1993-1994.

  12. Spatial variability of mercury wet deposition in eastern Ohio: summertime meteorological case study analysis of local source influences.

    PubMed

    White, Emily M; Keeler, Gerald J; Landis, Matthew S

    2009-07-01

    Extensive exploration of event precipitation data in the Ohio River Valley indicates that coal combustion emissions play an important role in mercury (Hg) wet deposition. During July-September 2006, an intensive study was undertaken to discern the degree of local source influence. Source-receptor relationships were explored by establishing a set of wet deposition sites in and around Steubenville, Ohio. For the three month period of study, volume-weighted mean Hg concentrations observed at the eight sites ranged from 10.2 to 223 ng L(-1), but this range increased drastically on an event basis with a maximum concentration of 89.4 ng L(-1) and a minimum concentration of 4.1 ng L(-1). A subset of events was explored in depth, andthe degree of variability in Hg concentrations between sites was linked to the degree of local source enhancement. Samples collected at sites less than 1 km from coal-fired utility stacks (near-field) exhibited up to 72% enhancement in Hg concentrations over regionally representative samples on an event basis. Air mass transport and precipitating cell histories were traced in order to evaluate relationships between local point sources and receptor sites. It was found that the interaction of several dynamic atmospheric parameters combined to favor local Hg concentration enhancement over the more regional contribution. When significant meteorological factors (wind speed at time of maximum rain rate, wind speed 24 h prior to precipitation, mixing height, and observed ceiling) were explored, it was estimated that during summertime precipitation, 42% of Hg concentration in near-field samples could be attributed to the adjacent coal-fired utility source.

  13. Exploring Ohio's Private Education Sector. School Survey Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring Ohio's Private Education Sector is the second entry in the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice's "School Survey Series." This report synthesizes information on Ohio's private schools collected by the U.S. Department of Education and the Ohio Department of Education (ODE). Two appendices provide supplementary tables and…

  14. Applying Systems Thinking to Improve Special Education in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    This report was written at the request of the Thomas B. Fordham Institute and the Educational Service Center of Central Ohio, to inform the discussion of state-level policy makers and other stakeholders on how to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of services provided to Ohio's students with special needs. It is critical for Ohio to find…

  15. Implementation of Ohio's School-to-Work System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metis Associates, Inc., New York, NY.

    The Ohio School-to-Work (STW) Office was created in 1994 to manage state agencies' efforts to support 11 school-to-work pilot projects across Ohio. The STW Office shared its management responsibilities with the School-to-Work "A Team," which consisted of representatives from five Ohio departments and agencies, key business organizations, major…

  16. Directory of Ohio Environmental Education Sites and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mourad, Teresa; Morrone, Michele

    This publication is the result of a collaboration between the Environmental Education Council of Ohio (EECO) and the Office of Environmental Education at the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA). This directory of environmental education resources within the state of Ohio is intended to assist educators in finding information that can…

  17. Basic Data Series. Ohio Higher Education System. 1987 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    A biennial publication of data collections (historical, comparative, student, staffing, space, and financial) from Ohio's state-assisted colleges and universities is presented. Six sections provide information on the following: (1) historical data (student enrollment, U.S., Ohio public and private totals; student enrollment, Ohio public…

  18. Ohio Children: Together We Can Help Them Grow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund-Ohio, Columbus.

    Ohio, like other states, will soon begin implementing parts of a sweeping new federal welfare reform law. These seven 1- and 2-page reports, issued under the general heading of "Ohio Children: Together We Can Help Them Grow," describe various Ohio welfare programs, providing statistics on their costs and usage rates, as well as changes in the…

  19. Field evaluation of nanofilm detectors for measuring acidic particles in indoor and outdoor air.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Beverly S; Heikkinen, Maire S A; Hazi, Yair; Gao, Hai; Peters, Paul; Lippmann, Morton

    2004-09-01

    This field evaluation study was conducted to assess new technology designed to measure number concentrations of strongly acidic ultrafine particles. Interest in these particles derives from their potential to cause adverse health effects. Current methods for counting and sizing airborne ultrafine particles cannot isolate those particles that are acidic. We hypothesized that the size-resolved number concentration of such particles to which people are exposed could be measured by newly developed iron nanofilm detectors on which sulfuric acid (H2SO4*) droplets produce distinctive ringed reaction sites visible by atomic force microscopy (AFM). We carried out field measurements using an array of samplers, with and without the iron nanofilm detectors, that allowed indirect comparison of particle number concentrations and size-resolved measures of acidity. The iron nanofilm detectors are silicon chips (5 mm x 5 mm x 0.6 mm) that are coated with iron by vapor deposition. The iron layer was 21.5 or 26 nm thick for the two batches used in these experiments. After exposure the detector surface was scanned topographically by AFM to view and enumerate the ringed acid reaction sites and deposited nonacidic particles. The number of reaction sites and particles per scan can be counted directly on the image displayed by AFM. Sizes can also be measured, but for this research we did not size particles collected in the field. The integrity of the surface of iron nanofilm detectors was monitored by laboratory analysis and by deploying blank detectors and detectors that had previously been exposed to H2SO4 calibration aerosols. The work established that the detectors could be used with confidence in temperate climates. Under extreme high humidity and high temperature, the surface film was liable to detach from the support, but remaining portions of the film still produced reliable data. Exposure to ambient gases in a filtered air canister during the field tests did not affect the film

  20. Field evaluation of nanofilm detectors for measuring acidic particles in indoor and outdoor air.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Beverly S; Heikkinen, Maire S A; Hazi, Yair; Gao, Hai; Peters, Paul; Lippmann, Morton

    2004-09-01

    This field evaluation study was conducted to assess new technology designed to measure number concentrations of strongly acidic ultrafine particles. Interest in these particles derives from their potential to cause adverse health effects. Current methods for counting and sizing airborne ultrafine particles cannot isolate those particles that are acidic. We hypothesized that the size-resolved number concentration of such particles to which people are exposed could be measured by newly developed iron nanofilm detectors on which sulfuric acid (H2SO4*) droplets produce distinctive ringed reaction sites visible by atomic force microscopy (AFM). We carried out field measurements using an array of samplers, with and without the iron nanofilm detectors, that allowed indirect comparison of particle number concentrations and size-resolved measures of acidity. The iron nanofilm detectors are silicon chips (5 mm x 5 mm x 0.6 mm) that are coated with iron by vapor deposition. The iron layer was 21.5 or 26 nm thick for the two batches used in these experiments. After exposure the detector surface was scanned topographically by AFM to view and enumerate the ringed acid reaction sites and deposited nonacidic particles. The number of reaction sites and particles per scan can be counted directly on the image displayed by AFM. Sizes can also be measured, but for this research we did not size particles collected in the field. The integrity of the surface of iron nanofilm detectors was monitored by laboratory analysis and by deploying blank detectors and detectors that had previously been exposed to H2SO4 calibration aerosols. The work established that the detectors could be used with confidence in temperate climates. Under extreme high humidity and high temperature, the surface film was liable to detach from the support, but remaining portions of the film still produced reliable data. Exposure to ambient gases in a filtered air canister during the field tests did not affect the film

  1. Elemental composition of suspended particulates as functions of space and time in Cleveland, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    An approach to the analysis of a very large elemental concentration data set. The particular data considered was generated by instrumental neutron activation and emission spectroscopy analyses of over 750 24-hour ambient air particulate samples collected at 16 sites in Cleveland, Ohio, during the 15 months from August 1971 thru October 1972. Examples are presented that show the use of multiple approaches to interpreting the data, including pairwise correlation statistics, selective data plotting and cluster analysis.

  2. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 84-198-1560, Division of Public Health Laboratories, State of Ohio, Columbus, Ohio. [Ethylene oxide and organic-solvent vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, V.; Burroughs, G.E.

    1985-02-01

    Breathing-zone and environmental samples were analyzed for ethylene oxide and organic-solvent vapors at the Public Health Laboratory, State of Ohio, Columbus, Ohio, on March 26 and 27, 1984. The evaluation was requested because of employee complaints of mucous membrane and skin irritation while they poured gonorrhea culture media into petri dishes that had been sterilized with ethylene oxide. The authors conclude that the environmental cause of the health problems cannot be determined due to the lack of symptoms on the days of the survey. Without taking measurements on the exact day when conspicuous symptoms occur, it is difficult to determine the source of the problem. General recommendations include checking the general air circulation in the media laboratory and encouraging employees to wear gloves that protect hands and wrists while pouring culture media.

  3. Development of Gridded Fields of Urban Canopy Parameters for Advanced Urban Meteorological and Air Quality Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban dispersion and air quality simulation models applied at various horizontal scales require different levels of fidelity for specifying the characteristics of the underlying surfaces. As the modeling scales approach the neighborhood level (~1 km horizontal grid spacing), the...

  4. 41. AUXILIARY CHAMBER, CONCRETE ENCLOSURE CHAMBER AIR LOCK (EXTERIOR), LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. AUXILIARY CHAMBER, CONCRETE ENCLOSURE CHAMBER AIR LOCK (EXTERIOR), LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER (LOCATION AAA) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  5. 64. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT REPAIR SHOP. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  6. 78 FR 41752 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Redesignation of the Ohio...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... plan submission includes a motor vehicle emission budget (MVEB) for the mobile source contribution of...)) 5. Insignificance Determination for the Mobile Source Contribution to PM 2.5 and NO X 6. 2005 and... technical information and/or data that you used. 5. If you estimate potential costs or burdens, explain...

  7. 78 FR 68367 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio NOX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... other large industrial boilers, cement kilns, and internal combustion engines were the most cost... combustion engines. Under the NO X SIP Call, states have flexibility in determining where NO X emission... and Executive Order Reviews I. Background On October 27, 1998 (63 FR 57356), EPA published...

  8. 78 FR 69299 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio SO2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ..., 2008 at 73 FR 15083. For a full history of the federally approved revisions to OAC 3745-18, see the Background section of rulemaking published in the Federal Register on May 1, 2007 at 72 FR 23783. II. Review... and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); ] Does not impose...

  9. Cloudy Sounding and Cloud-Top Height Retrieval From AIRS Alone Single Field-of-View Radiance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisz, Elisabeth; Li, Jun; Li, Jinlong; Zhou, Daniel K.; Huang, Hung-Lung; Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Yang, Ping

    2007-01-01

    High-spectral resolution measurements from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard the EOS (Earth Observing System) Aqua satellite provide unique information about atmospheric state, surface and cloud properties. This paper presents an AIRS alone single field-of-view (SFOV) retrieval algorithm to simultaneously retrieve temperature, humidity and ozone profiles under all weather conditions, as well as cloud top pressure (CTP) and cloud optical thickness (COT) under cloudy skies. For optically thick cloud conditions the above-cloud soundings are derived, whereas for clear skies and optically thin cloud conditions the profiles are retrieved from 0.005 hPa down to the earth's surface. Initial validation has been conducted by using the operational MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) product, ECMWF (European Center of Medium range Weather Forecasts) analysis fields and radiosonde observations (RAOBs). These inter-comparisons clearly demonstrate the potential of this algorithm to process data from 38 high-spectral infrared (IR) sounder instruments.

  10. Field assessment of the Village Green Project: an autonomous community air quality monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wan; Hagler, Gayle S W; Williams, Ronald W; Sharpe, Robert N; Weinstock, Lewis; Rice, Joann

    2015-05-19

    Continuous, long-term, and time-resolved measurement of outdoor air pollution has been limited by logistical hurdles and resource constraints. Measuring air pollution in more places is desired to address community concerns regarding local air quality impacts related to proximate sources, to provide data in areas lacking regional air monitoring altogether, or to support environmental awareness and education. This study integrated commercially available technologies to create the Village Green Project (VGP), a durable, solar-powered air monitoring park bench that measures real-time ozone, PM2.5, and meteorological parameters. The data are wirelessly transmitted via cellular modem to a server, where automated quality checks take place before data are provided to the public nearly instantaneously. Over 5500 h of data were successfully collected during the first ten months of pilot testing in Durham, North Carolina, with about 13 days (5.5%) of downtime because of low battery power. Additional data loss (4-14% depending on the measurement) was caused by infrequent wireless communication interruptions and instrument maintenance. The 94.5% operational time via solar power was within 1.5% of engineering calculations using historical solar data for the location. The performance of the VGP was evaluated by comparing the data to nearby air monitoring stations operating federal equivalent methods (FEM), which exhibited good agreement with the nearest benchmark FEMs for hourly ozone (r(2) = 0.79) and PM2.5 (r(2) = 0.76).

  11. Field determination of vertical permeability to air in the unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, Edwin P.

    1978-01-01

    The vertical permeability to air of layered materials in the unsaturated zone may be determined from air pressure data obtained at depth during a period when air pressure is changing at land surface. Such data may be obtained by monitoring barometric pressure with a microbarograph or surveying altimeter and simultaneously measuring down-hole pneumatic head differences in specially constructed piezometers. These data, coupled with air-filled porosity data from other sources, may be compared with the results of electric-analog or numerical solution of the one-dimensional diffusion equation to make a trial-and-error determination of the air permeability for each layer. The permeabilities to air may in turn be converted to equivalent hydraulic conductivity values if the materials are well drained, are permeable enough that the Klinkenberg effect is small, and are structurally unaffected by wetting. The method offers potential advantages over present methods to evaluate sites for artificial recharge by spreading; to evaluate ground-water pollution hazards from feedlots, sanitary landfills , and land irrigated with sewage effluent; and to evaluate sites for temporary storage of gas in the unsaturated zone. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Field assessment of the Village Green Project: an autonomous community air quality monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wan; Hagler, Gayle S W; Williams, Ronald W; Sharpe, Robert N; Weinstock, Lewis; Rice, Joann

    2015-05-19

    Continuous, long-term, and time-resolved measurement of outdoor air pollution has been limited by logistical hurdles and resource constraints. Measuring air pollution in more places is desired to address community concerns regarding local air quality impacts related to proximate sources, to provide data in areas lacking regional air monitoring altogether, or to support environmental awareness and education. This study integrated commercially available technologies to create the Village Green Project (VGP), a durable, solar-powered air monitoring park bench that measures real-time ozone, PM2.5, and meteorological parameters. The data are wirelessly transmitted via cellular modem to a server, where automated quality checks take place before data are provided to the public nearly instantaneously. Over 5500 h of data were successfully collected during the first ten months of pilot testing in Durham, North Carolina, with about 13 days (5.5%) of downtime because of low battery power. Additional data loss (4-14% depending on the measurement) was caused by infrequent wireless communication interruptions and instrument maintenance. The 94.5% operational time via solar power was within 1.5% of engineering calculations using historical solar data for the location. The performance of the VGP was evaluated by comparing the data to nearby air monitoring stations operating federal equivalent methods (FEM), which exhibited good agreement with the nearest benchmark FEMs for hourly ozone (r(2) = 0.79) and PM2.5 (r(2) = 0.76). PMID:25905923

  13. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 89-065-2119, One Government Center, Toledo, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, G.A.; Alderfer, R.J.

    1991-06-01

    In response to a request from the Ohio Department of Health, an investigation was undertaken of possible hazardous working conditions at One Government Center, a modern 22 story municipal office building located in downtown Toledo, Ohio. Employees reported fatigue, nausea, headache, and other effects perhaps linked to poor indoor air quality. The building housed offices for the city of Toledo, the county and the state of Ohio. Questionnaires were administered to workers, and air quality measurements were made on floors 15 through 22. For the most part the concentration of carbon-dioxide (124389) was below the acceptable limit (1000 parts per million) with two exceptions which probably reflected a higher occupancy level and more extensive use of office partitions. Temperature and humidity levels measured were all within the acceptable limits. Respirable particulate levels in a smoking lounge located on the seventeenth floor were 454 micrograms/cubic meter and exceeded the recommended limit of 150 micrograms/cubic meter. The authors conclude that the indoor air quality parameters were within acceptable limits in most of the areas. The authors recommend that the existing smoking policy should be modified, and that the number of employees in specific areas be reduced or the ventilation in these same areas should be increased.

  14. The use of wind fields in a land use regression model to predict air pollution concentrations for health exposure studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arain, M. A.; Blair, R.; Finkelstein, N.; Brook, J. R.; Sahsuvaroglu, T.; Beckerman, B.; Zhang, L.; Jerrett, M.

    A methodology is developed to include wind flow effects in land use regression (LUR) models for predicting nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) concentrations for health exposure studies. NO 2 is widely used in health studies as an indicator of traffic-generated air pollution in urban areas. Incorporation of high-resolution interpolated observed wind direction from a network of 38 weather stations in a LUR model improved NO 2 concentration estimates in densely populated, high traffic and industrial/business areas in Toronto-Hamilton urban airshed (THUA) of Ontario, Canada. These small-area variations in air pollution concentrations that are probably more important for health exposure studies may not be detected by sparse continuous air pollution monitoring network or conventional interpolation methods. Observed wind fields were also compared with wind fields generated by Global Environmental Multiscale-High resolution Model Application Project (GEM-HiMAP) to explore the feasibility of using regional weather forecasting model simulated wind fields in LUR models when observed data are either sparse or not available. While GEM-HiMAP predicted wind fields well at large scales, it was unable to resolve wind flow patterns at smaller scales. These results suggest caution and careful evaluation of regional weather forecasting model simulated wind fields before incorporating into human exposure models for health studies. This study has demonstrated that wind fields may be integrated into the land use regression framework. Such integration has a discernable influence on both the overall model prediction and perhaps more importantly for health effects assessment on the relative spatial distribution of traffic pollution throughout the THUA. Methodology developed in this study may be applied in other large urban areas across the world.

  15. Design, fabrication and testing of an air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell with compound anode flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luwen; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhao, Youran; An, Zijiang; Zhou, Zhiping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2011-10-01

    An air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) with a compound anode flow field structure (composed of the parallel flow field and the perforated flow field) is designed, fabricated and tested. To better analyze the effect of the compound anode flow field on the mass transfer of methanol, the compound flow field with different open ratios (ratio of exposure area to total area) and thicknesses of current collectors is modeled and simulated. Micro process technologies are employed to fabricate the end plates and current collectors. The performances of the μDMFC with a compound anode flow field are measured under various operating parameters. Both the modeled and the experimental results show that, comparing the conventional parallel flow field, the compound one can enhance the mass transfer resistance of methanol from the flow field to the anode diffusion layer. The results also indicate that the μDMFC with an anode open ratio of 40% and a thickness of 300 µm has the optimal performance under the 7 M methanol which is three to four times higher than conventional flow fields. Finally, a 2 h stability test of the μDMFC is performed with a methanol concentration of 7 M and a flow velocity of 0.1 ml min-1. The results indicate that the μDMFC can work steadily with high methanol concentration.

  16. SNRB{trademark} air toxics monitoring. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is currently conducting a project under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT II) Program to demonstrate its SO{sub x}NO{sub x}-Rox Box{trademark} (SNRB{trademark}) process in a 5 MWe Field Demonstration Unit at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio. The objective of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project was to provide data on SNRB{trademark} air toxics emissions control performance to B&W and to add to the DOE/EPRI/EPA data base by quantifying the flow rates of selected hazardous substances (or air toxics) in all of the major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} process as well as the power plant. Work under the project included the collection and analysis of representative samples of all major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} demonstration unit and the power plant, and the subsequent laboratory analysis of these samples to determine the partitioning of the hazardous substances between the various process streams. Material balances for selected air toxics were subsequently calculated around the SNRB{trademark} and host boiler systems, including the removal efficiencies across each of the major air pollution control devices. This report presents results of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project. In addition to the Introduction, a brief description of the test site, including the Boiler No. 8 and the SNRB{trademark} process, is included in Section H. The concentrations of air toxic emissions are presented in Section II according to compound class. Material balances are included in Section IV for three major systems: boiler, electrostatic precipitator, and SNRB{trademark}. Emission factors and removal efficiencies are also presented according to compound class in Sections V and VI, respectively. A data evaluation is provided in Section VII.

  17. Ion Organization and Reversed Electric Field at Air/aqueous Interfaces Revealed by Heterodyne-Detected Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wei; Huang, Zishuai; Jubb, Aaron M.; Allen, Heather C.

    2012-06-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) is a second order optical spectroscopy that probes regions of non centrosymmetry, interfaces, and allows for the understanding of molecular organization at air/aqueous interfaces. An overview of our work in this area is presented with emphasis on phase-sensitive SFG (PS-SFG) spectroscopy. PS-SFG is a variant of SFG and is used in our laboratory to investigate the average direction of the transition dipole of interfacial water molecules. The orientation of water at air/aqueous inorganic salts interfaces of CaCl2, NaCl, Na2SO4, (NH4)2SO4, and Na2CO3 is inferred from the direct measurement of the transition dipole moment. We find that charge separation at the air/water interface is most obvious for the aqueous ammonium sulfate solution where the local electric field has a greater magnitude at this interface relative to the other salt solutions. The magnitude of the electric field in the surface extending to the subsurface regions decreases in the order: (NH4)2SO4 > Na2SO4 > Na2CO3 ≥ CaCl2 > NaCl; the electric field is opposite in direction for the sulfates and carbonate relative to the chloride salts.

  18. Calibration and validation of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Ohio River, Jefferson County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, C.R.; Mueller, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    The quantification of current patterns is an essential component of a Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) application in a riverine environment. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provided a field validated two-dimensional Resource Management Associates-2 (RMA-2) hydrodynamic model capable of quantifying the steady-flowpatterns in the Ohio River extending from river mile 590 to 630 for the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO) water-quality modeling efforts on that reach. Because of the hydrodynamic complexities induced by McAlpine Locks and Dam (Ohio River mile 607), the model was split into two segments: an upstream reach, which extended from the dam upstream to the upper terminus of the study reach at Ohio River mile 590; and a downstream reach, which extended from the dam downstream to a lower terminus at Ohio River mile 636. The model was calibrated to a low-flow hydraulic survey (approximately 35,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s)) and verified with data collected during a high-flow survey (approximately 390,000 ft3/s). The model calibration and validation process included matching water-surface elevations at 10 locations and velocity profiles at 30 cross sections throughout the study reach. Based on the calibration and validation results, the model is a representative simulation of the Ohio River steady-flow patterns below discharges of approximately 400,000 ft3/s.

  19. Quantification of crop residue burning in the field and its influence on ambient air quality in Suqian, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shijian; He, Hongping; Lu, Shangling; Chen, Dong; Zhu, Jianxi

    In China, many pollutants are released because of crop residue burning in the field, resulting in serious pollution of ambient air. Suqian with 4523 km 2 of total area under cultivation was selected as a case to be studied, where wheat-rice double cropping system is widely adopted. Based on the data of crop output from 2001 to 2005, the annual average amount of crop residue generated was estimated as 3.04×10 6 t. About 82% of wheat straw and 37% of rice straw were burned in the field, so the proportion of crop residue burned in the field was about 43%. In combination with emission factors proposed by some literatures, the total amounts, the amounts in summer harvest and in autumn harvest of TSP, PM 10, SO 2, NO x, NH 3, CH 4, EC, OC, VOC, CO, and CO 2, emitted from crop residue burning in the field, were estimated. The total amounts of them were 11,051, 7572, 525, 3280, 1707, 3544, 905, 4331, 20,606, 120,747, and 1,988,376 t, respectively, and about 78% of them were emitted in summer harvest. During the summer harvest from June 4 to 13 in 2006, influenced by crop residue burning in the field, the daily average concentrations of PM 10, NO 2, and SO 2 were 0.266, 0.051, and 0.063 mg m -3, respectively. And the daily average concentration of PM 10 kept exceeding 0.250 mg m -3, the Third Standard Level of National Ambient Air Quality (China). Based on hourly concentration changes of PM 10 and meteorological condition, crop residue burning in the field was characterized. According to the field survey, it is regarded that combine harvester acts as an important role in crop residue burning in the field.

  20. Hydrogen-air ignition torch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repas, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    The design and operation of a hydrogen-air ignition torch presently being used to burn off excess hydrogen that accumulates in the scrubber exhaust ducts of two rocket engine test facilities at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, is described.

  1. 76 FR 33804 - Ohio Disaster #OH-00027

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Ohio dated 06/02/2011. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding. Incident Period: 05/10/2011 through 05/11/2011. Effective Date: 06/02/2011. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 08/01/2011. Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan...

  2. Nurse Aide. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for nurses' aides. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify…

  3. Improving Ohio's Education Management Information System (EMIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Legislative Office of Education Oversight, Columbus.

    Due to legislative mandate, the Ohio Department of Education (ODE) was required to develop a system (the Education Management Information System) that would increase the amount of information available to state-level policy makers and the public. Some recommendations for improving the function of EMIS are offered in this report. The text provides…

  4. A Guide to Ohio Outdoor Education Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Ruth W.

    More than 700 areas in Ohio, useful as sites for environmental and outdoor studies, are catalogued in this guide. They include national forests; state parks; forest and wildlife areas; historic sites and memorials; metropolitan, country, and city parks; agency and private camps; conservation agency properties; conservancy district lands and…

  5. Machine Trades. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for machine trades. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  6. Venture Capital Initiative: Ohio's School Improvement Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Soonhwa; Loadman, William E.

    In 1994 the Ohio State Legislature established Venture Capital to support school restructuring. The Venture Capital school initiative is a concept borrowed from the business community in which the corporate entity provides risk capital to parts of the organization to stimulate creative ideas and to provide opportunities for local entities to try…

  7. Swine Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a swine producer program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability skills…

  8. Dairy Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for dairy producers. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  9. Microscopy & microanalysis 2016 in Columbus, Ohio

    DOE PAGES

    Michael, Joseph R.

    2016-01-08

    The article provides information about an upcoming conference from the program chair. The Microscopy Society of America (MSA), the Microanalysis Society (MAS), and the International Metallographic Society (IMS) invite participation in Microscopy & Microanalysis 2016 in Columbus, Ohio, July 24 through July 28, 2016.

  10. Auto Mechanics. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This comprehensive and verified employer competency list was developed from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This competency list contains 11 units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational,…

  11. Poultry Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a poultry producer program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  12. Agricultural Production. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This list consists of essential competencies from the following specialized Ohio Competency Analysis Profiles: Beef and Sheep Producers; Crop Producer; Dairy Producer; Poultry Producer; and Swine Producer. Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives…

  13. Commercial Art. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This comprehensive and verified employer competency list was developed from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This competency list contains 16 units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational,…

  14. Practical Nursing. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for practical nursing. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that…

  15. Ohio Sampler: Outdoor and Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballbach, Joann, Ed.

    This document provides practical suggestions and meaningful activities for implementing Ohio's model curriculum in science for instruction that emphasizes hands-on experience and diverse learning opportunities. It also includes a variety of nonscience activities that emphasize and utilize the outdoors. This Sampler lists activities by indoor or…

  16. Diesel Mechanics. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for diesel mechanics. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  17. Meat Processor. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for meat processing occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders…

  18. 76 FR 44647 - Ohio Disaster #OH-00029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  19. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    PubMed

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  20. Ohio Business Management. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in business management. Ohio College Tech Prep Program standards are described, and a key to profile codes is provided. Sample occupations in this career area, such as management trainee, product manager, and advertising…

  1. Power Equipment Technology. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for power equipment technology occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and…

  2. 75 FR 72947 - Ohio Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... the August 16, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 34688). You can also find later actions concerning Ohio's... governmental unit may be represented by an employee offering proof of authority.] 1513-3-04: Appeals to the... testimony. (2) The use of a deposition in lieu of the deponent's oral testimony at hearing shall be...

  3. Evaluation of the Instructional Program, Strongsville, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1975

    An intensive study of the K-12 instructional program of the Strongsville, Ohio, City School District was conducted during the 1974-1975 school year by the Educational Research Council of America. Survey teams gathered data and developed recommendations and suggestions for strengthening each subject area within the instruction program. The mental…

  4. Forest Industry Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for forest industry occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders…

  5. Industrial Maintenance. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for industrial maintenance occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency…

  6. Resource Conservation. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for resource conservation occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency…

  7. Preliminary Findings on Rural Homelessness in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First, Richard J.; And Others

    This report is designed to present preliminary findings from the first comprehensive study of rural homelessness in the United States. The study was conducted during the first 6 months of 1990, and data were collected from interviews with 921 homeless adults in 21 randomly selected rural counties in Ohio. The sample counties represent 26% of the…

  8. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    PubMed

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk. PMID:26879965

  9. Substance Abuse Policies in Ohio Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, William

    Ohio substance abuse policies, discipline codes, and educational drug abuse prevention programs are reviewed. An effective substance abuse policy is an essential element in the school's efforts to deal with drug and alcohol use. In many U.S. schools, the use of alcohol and drugs interferes with the education process, and it appears that substance…

  10. Columbus Saves: Saving Money in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockey, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The "Columbus Saves" educational program is a broad-based community coalition made up of more than 40 local organizations from the education, nonprofit, government, faith-based, and private sectors. Common goals of partners in reaching Columbus, Ohio's 1.5 million residents are to: (a) promote increased savings through education and social service…

  11. RESULTS OF A PILOT FIELD STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CLEANING RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND THE IMPACT ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses and gives results of a pilot field study to evaluate the effectiveness of air duct cleaning (ADC) as a source removal technique in residential heating and air-conditioning (HAC) systems and its impact on airborne particle, fiber, and bioaerosol concentrations...

  12. Locations and monitoring well completion logs of wells surveyed by U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, Fort Worth area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, M.D.; Kuniansky, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    Completion logs are presented for 16 monitoring wells installed by the U.S. Geological Survey at Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Carswell Field, in the Fort Worth area, Texas. Natural gamma-ray logs are presented for selected monitoring wells. Also included are survey data for eight wells installed by Geo-Marine, Inc.

  13. Field monitoring and performance evaluation of an in situ air sparging system at a gasoline-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Hall, B L; Lachmar, T E; Dupont, R R

    2000-06-30

    In situ air sparging (IAS) has been used since the mid-1980s, but few carefully designed field studies have been performed to evaluate its effectiveness. In this study, 27 discrete monitoring points (MPs) were installed at a gasoline-contaminated site to investigate the efficacy of IAS. Each MP was instrumented with a pressure transducer and a Technalithics dissolved oxygen (DO) probe, and located so they could be used to characterize subsurface changes in total head and DO with depth, distance and orientation around a central injection well. Because the blower over-heated and automatically shut down after approximately 30 min and short-circuiting of air into two MPs occurred within 2 min, the study was designed as three sets of three 30-min trials. Longer trials would not have yielded different nor more insightful results. A volume of soil was not oxygenated during any injection. Instead, air traveled directly to at least four of seven different MPs during eight of the nine trials, probably as a result of an air bubble forming beneath a confining layer. The order of air arrival at the MPs varied during the first few trials, but once a preferential pathway was established, it did not collapse between trials and provided the shortest distance to the vadose zone during subsequent trials. Oxygen uptake rates estimated for MPs that received air during any trial exceeded the consumption rates of the Technalithics DO probes, and indicate that the probes could be used for estimating oxygen transfer during system operation or for oxygen uptake measurements during shut-down tests. The data from the monitoring system indicate that IAS is infeasible for remediation of soil and groundwater at this site due to its low horizontal hydraulic conductivity. Similar behavior is anticipated when IAS is applied at other sites with low hydraulic conductivity materials. PMID:10794912

  14. Field monitoring and performance evaluation of an in situ air sparging system at a gasoline-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Hall, B L; Lachmar, T E; Dupont, R R

    2000-06-30

    In situ air sparging (IAS) has been used since the mid-1980s, but few carefully designed field studies have been performed to evaluate its effectiveness. In this study, 27 discrete monitoring points (MPs) were installed at a gasoline-contaminated site to investigate the efficacy of IAS. Each MP was instrumented with a pressure transducer and a Technalithics dissolved oxygen (DO) probe, and located so they could be used to characterize subsurface changes in total head and DO with depth, distance and orientation around a central injection well. Because the blower over-heated and automatically shut down after approximately 30 min and short-circuiting of air into two MPs occurred within 2 min, the study was designed as three sets of three 30-min trials. Longer trials would not have yielded different nor more insightful results. A volume of soil was not oxygenated during any injection. Instead, air traveled directly to at least four of seven different MPs during eight of the nine trials, probably as a result of an air bubble forming beneath a confining layer. The order of air arrival at the MPs varied during the first few trials, but once a preferential pathway was established, it did not collapse between trials and provided the shortest distance to the vadose zone during subsequent trials. Oxygen uptake rates estimated for MPs that received air during any trial exceeded the consumption rates of the Technalithics DO probes, and indicate that the probes could be used for estimating oxygen transfer during system operation or for oxygen uptake measurements during shut-down tests. The data from the monitoring system indicate that IAS is infeasible for remediation of soil and groundwater at this site due to its low horizontal hydraulic conductivity. Similar behavior is anticipated when IAS is applied at other sites with low hydraulic conductivity materials.

  15. Spherical Ethylene/Air Diffusion Flames Subject to Concentric DC Electric Field in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Z. -G.; Hegde, U.; Faeth, G. M.

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that microgravity conditions, by eliminating buoyant flow, enable many combustion phenomena to be observed that are not possible to observe at normal gravity. One example is the spherical diffusion flame surrounding a porous spherical burner. The present paper demonstrates that by superimposing a spherical electrical field on such a flame, the flame remains spherical so that we can study the interaction between the electric field and flame in a one-dimensional fashion. Flames are susceptible to electric fields that are much weaker than the breakdown field of the flame gases owing to the presence of ions generated in the high temperature flame reaction zone. These ions and the electric current of the moving ions, in turn, significantly change the distribution of the electric field. Thus, to understand the interplay between the electric field and the flame is challenging. Numerous experimental studies of the effect of electric fields on flames have been reported. Unfortunately, they were all involved in complex geometries of both the flow field and the electric field, which hinders detailed study of the phenomena. In a one-dimensional domain, however, the electric field, the flow field, the thermal field and the chemical species field are all co-linear. Thus the problem is greatly simplified and becomes more tractable.

  16. Cost effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shindel, H.L.; Bartlett, W.P.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents the results of the cost effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in Ohio. Data uses and funding sources were identified for 107 continuous stream gages currently being operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Ohio with a budget of $682,000; this budget includes field work for other projects and excludes stations jointly operated with the Miami Conservancy District. No stream gage were identified as having insufficient reason to continue their operation; nor were any station identified as having uses specifically only for short-term studies. All 107 station should be maintained in the program for the foreseeable future. The average standard error of estimation of stream flow records is 29.2 percent at its present level of funding. A minimum budget of $679,000 is required to operate the 107-gage program; a budget less than this does no permit proper service and maintenance of the gages and recorders. At the minimum budget, the average standard error is 31.1 percent The maximum budget analyzed was $1,282,000, which resulted in an average standard error of 11.1 percent. A need for additional gages has been identified by the other agencies that cooperate in the program. It is suggested that these gage be installed as funds can be made available.

  17. Study of Various Slanted Air-Gap Structures of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Brushless Field Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, Leon M; Lee, Seong T

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows how to maximize the effect of the slanted air-gap structure of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor with brushless field excitation (BFE) for application in a hybrid electric vehicle. The BFE structure offers high torque density at low speed and weakened flux at high speed. The unique slanted air-gap is intended to increase the output torque of the machine as well as to maximize the ratio of the back-emf of a machine that is controllable by BFE. This irregularly shaped air-gap makes a flux barrier along the d-axis flux path and decreases the d-axis inductance; as a result, the reluctance torque of the machine is much higher than a uniform air-gap machine, and so is the output torque. Also, the machine achieves a higher ratio of the magnitude of controllable back-emf. The determination of the slanted shape was performed by using magnetic equivalent circuit analysis and finite element analysis (FEA).

  18. Near-rail yard air quality--assessment through field measurements and computational fluid dynamics modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Compared to truck transport, goods movement by rail produces generally lower air pollutant emissions (e.g., particulate matter, carbon dioxide) per ton of freight transported. Emissions associated with rail transport are also confined to rail corridors which may lower the risk of...

  19. Compressed-air work is entering the field of high pressures.

    PubMed

    Le Péchon, J Cl; Gourdon, G

    2010-01-01

    Since 1850, compressed-air work has been used to prevent shafts or tunnels under construction from flooding. Until the 1980s, workers were digging in compressed-air environments. Since the introduction of tunnel boring machines (TBMs), very little digging under pressure is needed. However, the wearing out of cutter-head tools requires inspection and repair. Compressed-air workers enter the pressurized working chamber only occasionally to perform such repairs. Pressures between 3.5 and 4.5 bar, that stand outside a reasonable range for air breathing, were reached by 2002. Offshore deep diving technology had to be adapted to TBM work. Several sites have used mixed gases: in Japan for deep shaft sinking (4.8 bar), in The Netherlands at Western Scheldt Tunnels (6.9 bar), in Russia for St. Petersburg Metro (5.8 bar) and in the United States at Seattle (5.8 bar). Several tunnel projects are in progress that may involve higher pressures: Hallandsås (Sweden) interventions in heliox saturation up to 13 bar, and Lake Mead (U.S.) interventions to about 12 bar (2010). Research on TBMs and grouting technologies tries to reduce the requirements for hyperbaric works. Adapted international rules, expertise and services for saturation work, shuttles and trained personnel matching industrial requirements are the challenges. PMID:20737925

  20. Non-Print Instructional Materials for the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Maintenance Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golitko, Raymond L., Ed.; And Others

    This catalog contains a listing of air conditioning/refrigeration maintenance audiovisual training materials from the Houston Community College System library media collection. The material is organized by subject heading. The media titles are listed in alphabetical order by title under each subject heading in the catalog. The citation for each…

  1. Reform Process in the University of Buenos Aires: Perspective of the Professional Fields of Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Camilloni, Alicia W.; Fernandez, Marcela; Zadunaisky, Diana

    The University of Buenos Aires (UBA) is committed to a reform process which involves, among others, the curricular axis. The work described in this paper is part of the activities specially concerned with the studies of engineering. Seventy-five professionals were invited to discuss new possible patterns for the perspective of the professional…

  2. Single-crystal field-effect transistors of new Cl₂-NDI polymorph processed by sublimation in air.

    PubMed

    He, Tao; Stolte, Matthias; Burschka, Christian; Hansen, Nis Hauke; Musiol, Thomas; Kälblein, Daniel; Pflaum, Jens; Tao, Xutang; Brill, Jochen; Würthner, Frank

    2015-01-12

    Physical properties of active materials built up from small molecules are dictated by their molecular packing in the solid state. Here we demonstrate for the first time the growth of n-channel single-crystal field-effect transistors and organic thin-film transistors by sublimation of 2,6-dichloro-naphthalene diimide in air. Under these conditions, a new polymorph with two-dimensional brick-wall packing mode (β-phase) is obtained that is distinguished from the previously reported herringbone packing motif obtained from solution (α-phase). We are able to fabricate single-crystal field-effect transistors with electron mobilities in air of up to 8.6 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (α-phase) and up to 3.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (β-phase) on n-octadecyltriethoxysilane-modified substrates. On silicon dioxide, thin-film devices based on β-phase can be manufactured in air giving rise to electron mobilities of 0.37 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The simple crystal and thin-film growth procedures by sublimation under ambient conditions avoid elaborate substrate modifications and costly vacuum equipment-based fabrication steps.

  3. Radiation Detection Field Test at the Federal Express (FedEx) Air Cargo Facility at Denver International Airport (DIA)

    SciTech Connect

    Weirup, D; Waters, A; Hall, H; Dougan, A; Trombino, D; Mattesich, G; Hull, E; Bahowick, S; Loshak, A; Gruidl, J

    2004-02-11

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) recently conducted a field-test of radiation detection and identification equipment at the air cargo facility of Federal Express (FedEx) located at Denver International Airport (DIA) over a period of two weeks. Comprehensive background measurements were performed and were analyzed, and a trial strategy for detection and identification of parcels displaying radioactivity was implemented to aid in future development of a comprehensive protection plan. The purpose of this project was threefold: {sm_bullet} Quantify background radiation environments at an air cargo facility. {sm_bullet} Quantify and identify ''nuisance'' alarms. {sm_bullet} Evaluate the performance of various isotope identifiers deployed in an operational environment (in this case, the operational environment included the biggest blizzard in over 90 years!).

  4. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  5. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  6. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  7. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  8. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  9. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  10. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  11. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  12. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  13. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  14. The 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryerson, T. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Angevine, W. M.; Bates, T. S.; Brock, C. A.; Cairns, B.; Cohen, R. C.; Cooper, O. R.; Gouw, J. A.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Ferrare, R. A.; Fischer, M. L.; Flagan, R. C.; Goldstein, A. H.; Hair, J. W.; Hardesty, R. M.; Hostetler, C. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Langford, A. O.; McCauley, E.; McKeen, S. A.; Molina, L. T.; Nenes, A.; Oltmans, S. J.; Parrish, D. D.; Pederson, J. R.; Pierce, R. B.; Prather, K.; Quinn, P. K.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Senff, C. J.; Sorooshian, A.; Stutz, J.; Surratt, J. D.; Trainer, M.; Volkamer, R.; Williams, E. J.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2013-06-01

    The California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study was conducted throughout California in May, June, and July of 2010. The study was organized to address issues simultaneously relevant to atmospheric pollution and climate change, including (1) emission inventory assessment, (2) atmospheric transport and dispersion, (3) atmospheric chemical processing, and (4) cloud-aerosol interactions and aerosol radiative effects. Measurements from networks of ground sites, a research ship, tall towers, balloon-borne ozonesondes, multiple aircraft, and satellites provided in situ and remotely sensed data on trace pollutant and greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol chemical composition and microphysical properties, cloud microphysics, and meteorological parameters. This overview report provides operational information for the variety of sites, platforms, and measurements, their joint deployment strategy, and summarizes findings that have resulted from the collaborative analyses of the CalNex field study. Climate-relevant findings from CalNex include that leakage from natural gas infrastructure may account for the excess of observed methane over emission estimates in Los Angeles. Air-quality relevant findings include the following: mobile fleet VOC significantly declines, and NOx emissions continue to have an impact on ozone in the Los Angeles basin; the relative contributions of diesel and gasoline emission to secondary organic aerosol are not fully understood; and nighttime NO3 chemistry contributes significantly to secondary organic aerosol mass in the San Joaquin Valley. Findings simultaneously relevant to climate and air quality include the following: marine vessel emissions changes due to fuel sulfur and speed controls result in a net warming effect but have substantial positive impacts on local air quality.

  15. Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.W.

    1983-05-01

    As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

  16. Geophysical Characterization for a CO2 Sequestration Potential in the Ohio River Valley Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, N.; Jagucki, P.; Meggyesy, D.; Janosy, R.; Sminchak, J.; Ramakrishan, T.; Boyd, A.

    2003-12-01

    A site at the American Electric Power's (AEP) Mountaineer Power Plant, WV in the Ohio River Valley in the Midwestern U.S., a region with the economy heavily dependent on fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and gas, is being evaluated to determine the potential for geologic sequestration. The project is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Battelle, AEP, BP, The Ohio Air Quality Development Office, and Schlumberger. The major objective of the current phase is to characterize the reservoir at the plant site. Future decisions with regard to CO2 injection will be subject to the evaluated reservoir properties. The effort includes acquisition of 2-dimensional seismic data, assessment of regional geology, drilling to PreCambrian rocks and formation analysis and testing in a 2,800 meters deep well, reservoir simulations, risk assessment, and stakeholder outreach. The test well reached total depth in summer 2003. Wireline logging and reservoir testing was performed for each section of the borehole, including extensive tests in the lowermost 885 meters to estimate formation properties and pressure gradients. The logs included gamma-ray, neutron and density, and array resistivity, magnetic resonance relaxation for permeability information, elemental composition via capture spectroscopy, and resistivity based formation image. The seismic survey was conducted over approximately 11 miles along 2 lines: one along strike and one along dip. The results of the geophysical surveys combined with the field observations provide an integrated assessment of the major injection parameters for the two main injection reservoirs of interest, the Rose Run Formation and the Lower Maryville formation. In addition, the properties of the potential caprock formations overlying the candidate injection zones were also determined. The results of this characterization will be presented with emphasis on geophysical testing and seismic survey. These results are also being used to conduct reservoir

  17. Small field diode correction factors derived using an air core fibre optic scintillation dosimeter and EBT2 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, Anna; Liu, Paul; Warrener, Kirbie; McKenzie, David; Suchowerska, Natalka

    2012-05-01

    There is no commercially available real-time dosimeter that can accurately measure output factors for field sizes down to 4 mm without the use of correction factors. Silicon diode detectors are commonly used but are not dosimetrically water equivalent, resulting in energy dependence and fluence perturbation. In contrast, plastic scintillators are nearly dosimetrically water equivalent. A fibre optic dosimeter (FOD) with a 0.8 mm3 plastic scintillator coupled to an air core light guide was used to measure the output factors for Novalis/BrainLab stereotactic cones of diameter 4-30 mm and Novalis MLC fields of width 5-100 mm. The FOD data matched the output factors measured by a 0.125 cm3 Semiflex ion chamber for the MLC fields above 30 mm and those measured with the EBT2 radiochromic film for the cones and MLC fields below 30 mm. Relative detector readings were obtained with four diode types (IBA SFD, EFD, PFD, PTW 60012) for the same fields. Empirical diode correction factors were determined by taking the ratio of FOD output factors to diode relative detector readings. The diodes were found to over-respond by 3%-16% for the smallest field. There was good agreement between different diodes of the same model number.

  18. The Use of Field Trips in Air-Photo Interpretation and Remote-Sensing Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giardino, John Richard; Fish, Ernest Bertley

    1986-01-01

    Advocates the use of field trips for improving students' image-interpretation abilities. Presents guidelines for developing a field trip for an aerial-photo interpretation class or a remote-sensing class. Reviews methodology employed, content emphasis, and includes an exercise that was used on a trip. (ML)

  19. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in fine particulates in oil field air: possible impacts on production of natural silk.

    PubMed

    Devi, Gitumani; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Gopal

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of fine particulates (PM2.5) from the upper Assam oil fields of India indicated considerable presence of higher hydrocarbons (C22-C35) and heavy metals, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. This has raised serious concern for the sustainability of the exotic Muga (Antheraea assama) silk production, which has been a prime activity of a large number of people living in the area. The Muga worm feeds on the leaves of Machilus bombycina plant, and the impacts of air quality on its survival were further investigated by analyzing the leaves of the plant, the plantation soil, and the Muga cocoons. PM2.5 content in the air was much more during the winter due to near calm conditions and high humidity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of PM2.5 showed the presence of higher alkanes (C22-C35) that could be traced to crude oil. Cr, Ni, and Zn were found in higher concentrations in PM2.5, M. bombycina leaves, and the plantation soil indicating a common origin. The winter has been the best period for production of the silk cocoons, and the unhealthy air during this period is likely to affect the production, which is already reflected in the declining yield of Muga cocoons from the area. SEM and protein analyses of the Muga silk fiber produced in the oil field area have exhibited the deteriorating quality of the silk. This is the first report from India on hydrocarbons and associated metals in PM2.5 collected from an oil field and on their possible effects on production of silk by A. assama.

  20. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in fine particulates in oil field air: possible impacts on production of natural silk.

    PubMed

    Devi, Gitumani; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Gopal

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of fine particulates (PM2.5) from the upper Assam oil fields of India indicated considerable presence of higher hydrocarbons (C22-C35) and heavy metals, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. This has raised serious concern for the sustainability of the exotic Muga (Antheraea assama) silk production, which has been a prime activity of a large number of people living in the area. The Muga worm feeds on the leaves of Machilus bombycina plant, and the impacts of air quality on its survival were further investigated by analyzing the leaves of the plant, the plantation soil, and the Muga cocoons. PM2.5 content in the air was much more during the winter due to near calm conditions and high humidity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of PM2.5 showed the presence of higher alkanes (C22-C35) that could be traced to crude oil. Cr, Ni, and Zn were found in higher concentrations in PM2.5, M. bombycina leaves, and the plantation soil indicating a common origin. The winter has been the best period for production of the silk cocoons, and the unhealthy air during this period is likely to affect the production, which is already reflected in the declining yield of Muga cocoons from the area. SEM and protein analyses of the Muga silk fiber produced in the oil field area have exhibited the deteriorating quality of the silk. This is the first report from India on hydrocarbons and associated metals in PM2.5 collected from an oil field and on their possible effects on production of silk by A. assama. PMID:26490906

  1. Velocity Fields of Axisymmetric Hydrogen-Air Counterflow Diffusion Flames from LDV, PIV, and Numerical Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Wilson, Lloyd G.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Bartram, Scott M.; Gartrell, Luther R.; Isaac, K. M.

    1995-01-01

    Laminar fuel-air counterflow diffusion flames (CFDFs) were studied using axisymmetric convergent-nozzle and straight-tube opposed jet burners (OJBs). The subject diagnostics were used to probe a systematic set of H2/N2-air CFDFs over wide ranges of fuel input (22 to 100% Ha), and input axial strain rate (130 to 1700 Us) just upstream of the airside edge, for both plug-flow and parabolic input velocity profiles. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was applied along the centerline of seeded air flows from a convergent nozzle OJB (7.2 mm i.d.), and Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) was applied on the entire airside of both nozzle and tube OJBs (7 and 5 mm i.d.) to characterize global velocity structure. Data are compared to numerical results from a one-dimensional (1-D) CFDF code based on a stream function solution for a potential flow input boundary condition. Axial strain rate inputs at the airside edge of nozzle-OJB flows, using LDV and PIV, were consistent with 1-D impingement theory, and supported earlier diagnostic studies. The LDV results also characterized a heat-release hump. Radial strain rates in the flame substantially exceeded 1-D numerical predictions. Whereas the 1-D model closely predicted the max I min axial velocity ratio in the hot layer, it overpredicted its thickness. The results also support previously measured effects of plug-flow and parabolic input strain rates on CFDF extinction limits. Finally, the submillimeter-scale LDV and PIV diagnostics were tested under severe conditions, which reinforced their use with subcentimeter OJB tools to assess effects of aerodynamic strain, and fueVair composition, on laminar CFDF properties, including extinction.

  2. Air Quality Impacts of Atmospheric Particles & Trace Gases: Field Studies in Diverse Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwaniki, George R.

    Air pollution impacts occur at all scales, meaning that policies and air quality management practices must be implemented and coordinated at the local, regional, national, and global scales. This dissertation is part of a continuing effort to improve our understanding of various air quality related issues in different environments. The dissertation consists of four studies. In the first study, wintertime chemical composition of water-soluble particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) was monitored in the Treasure Valley region near Boise, Idaho. This study was aimed at understanding the major drivers of wintertime PM2.5 within the locality of Boise and its suburbs. From this study, organics and particulate nitrate were the dominant contributors to the PM2.5 mass during wintertime. In the second study, particle size distribution, light scattering coefficient, speciated water soluble PM2.5, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration were monitored in a mixed deciduous forest in Northern Michigan during the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiment (CABINEX-2009). The overall goal of this study was to understand on how emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) affect the gas-phase and particle-phase chemistry in the near-canopy environment, and the implications on local and regional air quality. From this study aerosol derived from the oxidation of BVOCs exhibited reduced hygroscopicity and CCN activation potential compared to aerosols derived from anthropogenic activities. The third study employed the eddy covariance (EC) technique to understand source-sink interactions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH 4), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in Xi'an, China. In this study urban vegetation were found to play a major role in regulating CO2 emissions within the city while vehicular activities were a major driver for CO and CH4 fluxes. In the fourth study, visibility degradation effects of

  3. Field study of exhaust fans for mitigating indoor air quality problems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grimsrud, D.T.; Szydlowski, R.F.; Turk, B.H.

    1986-09-01

    Residential ventilation in the United States housing stock is provided primarily by infiltration, the natural leakage of outdoor air into a building through cracks and holes in the building shell. Since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for control of indoor pollutant concentrations, low infiltration rates caused fluctuation in weather conditions may lead to high indoor pollutant concentrations. Supplemental mechanical ventilation can be used to eliminate these periods of low infiltration. This study examined effects of small continuously-operating exhaust fan on pollutant concentrations and energy use in residences.

  4. Distribution and status of Ohio River fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, W.D.; Krumholz, L.A.

    1984-02-01

    The Ohio River has been modified extensively by the activities of the nearly 40 million people living within its basin. The effects of siltation following clearing of the forests in the 19th century and the construction of a system of dams for maintaining navigation between 1900 and 1929 affected the entire river, while pollution (industrial and domestic) was most severe in the upper third of the river in the 1940's. This assesses the current status and distributions of fish in the Ohio River and relates then to river habitats and conditions. We found records of 154 species of fishes reported from the Ohio River between 1817 and 1983. Fourteen of these species were introduced by man. Only 13 species which were represented before 1970 were not found in the river between 1970 and 1983. Of these 13 species only the lake sturgeon was ever an abundant fish in the Ohio River. However, several other important or unique fishes have declined alarmingly in abundance or distribution since 1900. These include the shovelnose sturgeon, paddlefish, muskellunge, and blue sucker. The ten most-abundant fishes in collections of 1957 to 1980 were: emerald shiner, gizzard shad, freshwater drum, mimic shiner, channel catfish, common carp, bullheads, skipjack herring, white crappie, and threadfin shad. Between 1957 and 1980 fish densities increased dramatically in the upper 100 miles of the river where water quality improvements were greatest. Fish populations remained relatively stable in the lower two-thirds of the river between 1957 and 1980. 272 references, 143 figures, 32 tables.

  5. Unencapsulated Air-stable Organic Field Effect Transistor by All Solution Processes for Low Power Vapor Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Linrun; Tang, Wei; Zhao, Jiaqing; Yang, Ruozhang; Hu, Wei; Li, Qiaofeng; Wang, Ruolin; Guo, Xiaojun

    2016-02-01

    With its excellent mechanical flexibility, low-cost and low-temperature processing, the solution processed organic field-effect transistor (OFET) is a promising platform technology for developing ubiquitous sensor applications in digital health, environment monitoring and Internet of Things. However, a contradiction between achieving low voltage operation and having stable performance severely hinder the technology to become commercially viable. This work shows that, by reducing the sub-gap density of states (DOS) at the channel for low operation voltage and using a proper low-k non-polar polymer dielectric layer, such an issue can be addressed. Stable electrical properties after either being placed for weeks or continuously prolonged bias stressing for hours in ambient air are achieved for all solution processed unencapsulated OFETs with the channel being exposed to the ambient air for analyte detection. The fabricated device presents a steep subthreshold swing less than 100 mV/decade, and an ON/OFF ratio of 106 at a voltage swing of 3 V. The low voltage and stable operation allows the sensor made of the OFET to be incorporated into a battery-powered electronic system for continuously reliable sensing of ammonia vapor in ambient air with very small power consumption of about 50 nW.

  6. Unencapsulated Air-stable Organic Field Effect Transistor by All Solution Processes for Low Power Vapor Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Linrun; Tang, Wei; Zhao, Jiaqing; Yang, Ruozhang; Hu, Wei; Li, Qiaofeng; Wang, Ruolin; Guo, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    With its excellent mechanical flexibility, low-cost and low-temperature processing, the solution processed organic field-effect transistor (OFET) is a promising platform technology for developing ubiquitous sensor applications in digital health, environment monitoring and Internet of Things. However, a contradiction between achieving low voltage operation and having stable performance severely hinder the technology to become commercially viable. This work shows that, by reducing the sub-gap density of states (DOS) at the channel for low operation voltage and using a proper low-k non-polar polymer dielectric layer, such an issue can be addressed. Stable electrical properties after either being placed for weeks or continuously prolonged bias stressing for hours in ambient air are achieved for all solution processed unencapsulated OFETs with the channel being exposed to the ambient air for analyte detection. The fabricated device presents a steep subthreshold swing less than 100 mV/decade, and an ON/OFF ratio of 106 at a voltage swing of 3 V. The low voltage and stable operation allows the sensor made of the OFET to be incorporated into a battery-powered electronic system for continuously reliable sensing of ammonia vapor in ambient air with very small power consumption of about 50 nW. PMID:26861412

  7. Technically recoverable Devonian shale gas in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Kuushraa, V.A.; Wicks, D.E.; Sawyer, W.K.; Esposito, P.R.

    1983-07-01

    The technically recoverable gas from Devonian shale (Lower and Middle Huron) in Ohio is estimated to range from 6.2 to 22.5 Tcf, depending on the stimulation method and pattern size selected. This estimate of recovery is based on the integration of the most recent data and research on the Devonian Age gas-bearing shales of Ohio. This includes: (1) a compilation of the latest geologic and reservoir data for the gas in-place; (2) analysis of the key productive mechanisms; and, (3) examination of alternative stimulation and production strategies for most efficiently recovering this gas. Beyond a comprehensive assembly of the data and calculation of the technically recoverable gas, the key findings of this report are as follows: a substantial volume of gas is technically recoverable, although advanced (larger scale) stimulation technology will be required to reach economically attractive gas production rates in much of the state; well spacing in certain of the areas can be reduced by half from the traditional 150 to 160 acres per well without severely impairing per-well gas recovery; and, due to the relatively high degree of permeability anisotropy in the Devonian shales, a rectangular, generally 3 by 1 well pattern leads to optimum recovery. Finally, although a consistent geological interpretation and model have been constructed for the Lower and Middle Huron intervals of the Ohio Devonian shale, this interpretation is founded on limited data currently available, along with numerous technical assumptions that need further verification. 11 references, 21 figures, 32 tables.

  8. The Challenges of Field Testing the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) in an Operational Air Traffic Control Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoang, Ty; Swenson, Harry N.

    1997-01-01

    The Traffic Management Advisor (TMA), the sequence and schedule tool of the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), was evaluated at the Fort Worth Center (ZFW) in the summer of 1996. This paper describes the challenges encountered during the various phases of the TMA field evaluation, which included system (hardware and software) installation, personnel training, and data collection. Operational procedures were developed and applied to the evaluation process that would ensure air safety. The five weeks of field evaluation imposed minimal impact on the hosting facility and provided valuable engineering and human factors data. The collection of data was very much an opportunistic affair, due to dynamic traffic conditions. One measure of the success of the TMA evaluation is that, rather than remove TMA after the evaluation until it could be fully implemented, the prototype TMA is in continual use at ZFW as the fully operational version is readied for implementation.

  9. Field comparison of portable and stationary instruments for outdoor urban air exposure assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, M.; Rivas, I.; Reche, C.; Fonseca, A. S.; Pérez, N.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Sunyer, J.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of three portable monitors (micro-aethalometer AE51, DiscMini, Dusttrak DRX) was assessed for outdoor air exposure assessment in a representative Southern European urban environment. The parameters evaluated were black carbon, particle number concentration, alveolar lung-deposited surface area, mean particle diameter, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1. The performance was tested by comparison with widely used stationary instruments (MAAP, CPC, SMPS, NSAM, GRIMM aerosol spectrometer). Results evidenced a good agreement between most portable and stationary instruments, with R2 values mostly >0.80. Relative differences between portable and stationary instruments were mostly <20%, and <10% between different units of the same instrument. The only exception was found for the Dusttrak DRX measurements, for which occasional concentration jumps in the time series were detected. Our results validate the performance of the black carbon, particle number concentration, particle surface area and mean particle diameter monitors as indicative instruments (tier 2) for outdoor air exposure assessment studies.

  10. Long-term biological effects of air ions and D.C. electric fields on Namru mice: First year report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, E. W.; Yost, M. G.; Reed, E. J.; Krueger, A. P.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes for the first time the effects of long-term continuous exposures of animals to small air ions and D.C. electric fields. In this study we exposed 200 female NAMRU mice (25/cage) to the following conditions: ± high ions (2×105/cm3), ± low ions (2×103/cm3), ± field only and ground (ion depleted, no field). Specially designed cages provided a defined D.C. field of about 2 kV/meter in ionized environments, with somewhat lower values in the field only cages. Detailed mapping of ion flux originating from a tritium foil generating system (multiple sources in an overhead plate) indicated a well defined, but heterogenous pattern with eight peak areas. Using a 100 cm2 probe, ion flux values ranged from 10-12 10-14 A/cm2, with an average flux of 8.7±6.8×10-13 A/cm2 in high negative ion cages, with good reproducibility between cages. Measurements of serum glucose, cholesterol, and urea nitrogen (samples taken every three months) showed a number of small but consistent and statistically significant differences between animals maintained in different environments during the first year of exposure. Serum globulin and whole blood serotonin, however, did not show any significant environmental effects. Interestingly, pairwise comparisons between high negative and low negative ion conditions, or between high positive and low positive ion conditions, or between the two ground conditions, revealed no significant differences between cages. This argues for a similarity of environmental responses for the mice maintained in each of the compared conditions. The results of a multiple classification analysis for the entire first year showed a preponderence of effects for the ionized cages, although other conditions also had highly significant differences as compared to the grand mean value. While this study has shown effects of only small magnitude (compared to normal physiological variations) in the female NAMRU mice studied here, the significance of these results

  11. Ground-water resources of the Dayton area, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norris, Stanley Eugene; Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1966-01-01

    The principal aquifers of the Dayton area are sand and gravel layers in the 150- to 250-foot thick glacial deposits filling the river valleys (Miami River and its tributaries), which were originally cut in bedrock by preglacial streams. The upper and lower aquifers are separated by a poorly permeable till-rich zone, which confines the water in the lower aquifer; recharge to the lower aquifer is by vertical leakage through the till zone. The upper aquifer is pumped extensively only at Rohrers Island well field of Dayton, where water levels are kept high by artificial recharge. Although few cities in Ohio are as abundantly endowed with ground-water resources as Dayton, the demand is estimated to rise to quantities that cannot be supplied by the year 2000. A comprehensive plan for conservation is needed to meet future growth.

  12. Pollutant transport in a shallow unconfined aquifer in Perry, Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis, J. Mark; Matisoff, Gerald; Kelly, Walton Ross

    1986-12-01

    The groundwater system in northern Perry Township in Lake County, Ohio, is a shallow, unconfined aquifer consisting of periglacial lake beach deposits and less permeable lacustrine plain deposits. Groundwater flow is generally toward Lake Erie from south to north and is controlled by the top of the Ashtabula Till, but strong, local variations are caused by northward flowing streams During the study period, water levels in most wells exhibited a seasonal fluctuation of less than 0 3 m from their mean values. The areal distributions of chloride and nitrate concentrations indicate that road salt runoff easily infiltrates the aquifer and that nitrate may be sourced from fertilizer application. Ground-water flow and solute transport models indicate that in excess of 27 years are required to obtain chemical steady-state under hydrologic steady-state conditions. The simulations also demonstrate that nitrate loading must occur in more than one cultivated field in order to obtain the observed wide-spread nitrate distribution.

  13. Growth and yield response of field-grown tropical rice to increasing carbon dioxide and air temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ziska, L.H.; Namuco, O.; Moya, T.; Quilang, J.

    1997-01-01

    Although the response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and air temperature has been examined at the greenhouse or growth chamber level, no field studies have been conducted under the tropical, irrigated conditions where the bulk of the world`s rice is grown. At the International Rice Research Institute, rice (cv. IR 72) was grown from germination until maturity for the 1994 wet and 1995 dry seasons at three different CO{sub 2} concentrations (ambient, ambient + 200, and ambient + 300 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}) resulted in a significant increase in total plant biomass (+31%, +40%) and crop yield (+15%, + 27%) compared with the ambient control. The increase in crop yield was associated with an increase in the number of panicles per square meter and a greater percentage of filled spikelets. Simultaneous increases in CO{sub 2} and air temperature did not alter the biomass at maturity (relative to elevated CO{sub 2} alone), but plant development was accelerated at the higher growth temperature regardless of CO{sub 2} concentration. Grain yield, however, became insensitive to CO{sub 2} concentration at the higher growth temperature. Increasing both CO{sub 2} and air temperature also reduced grain quality (e.g., protein content). The combination of CO{sub 2} and temperature effects suggests that, in warmer regions (i.e., >34{degrees}C) where rice is grown, quantitative and qualitative changes in rice supply are possible if both CO{sub 2} and air temperature continue to increase. 24 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Failure to produce taste-aversion learning in rats exposed to static electric fields and air ions

    SciTech Connect

    Creim, J.A.; Lovely, R.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Forsythe, W.C.; Anderson, L.E.

    1995-12-01

    Taste-aversion (TA) learning was measured to determine whether exposure to high-voltage direct current (HVdc) static electric fields can produce TA learning in male Long Evans rats. Fifty-six rats were randomly distributed into four groups of 14 rats each. All rats were placed on a 20 min/day drinking schedule for 12 consecutive days prior to receiving five conditioning trials. During the conditioning trials, access to 0.1% sodium saccharin-flavored water was given for 20 min, followed 30 min later by one of four treatments. Two groups of 14 rats each were individually exposed to static electric fields and air ions, one group to +75 kV/m (+2 {times} 10{sup 5} air ions/cm{sup 3}) and the other group to {minus}75 kV/m ({minus}2 {times} 10{sup 5} air ions/cm{sup 3}). Two other groups of 14 rats each served as sham-exposed controls, with the following variation in one of the sham-exposed groups: this group was subdivided into two subsets of seven rats each, so that a positive control group could be included to validate the experimental design. The positive control group (n = 7) was injected with cyclophosphamide 25 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min after access to saccharin-flavored water on conditioning days, whereas the other subset of seven rats was similarly injected with an equivalent volume of saline. Access to saccharin-flavored water on conditioning days was followed by the treatments described above and was alternated daily with water recovery sessions in which the rats received access to water for 20 min in the home cage without further treatment. Following the last water-recovery session, a 20 min, two-bottle preference test (between water and saccharin-flavored water) was administered to each group. The positive control group did show TA learning, thus validating the experimental protocol.

  15. Field comparison of air sampling methods for monomeric and polymeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate.

    PubMed

    Thomasen, Jennifer M; Fent, Kenneth W; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2011-03-01

    This study was to critically compared 13 different air samplers for their ability to monitor air exposures to monomeric and polymeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) in the automotive refinishing industry. Using both fast- and slow-drying clearcoat, we tested the following types of samplers: single- and dual-stage 37-mm polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) samplers (open- and closed-face), IOM (with plastic and stainless steel inserts), OSHA42, IsoChek, and WA-DOSH samplers. Midget impingers with frit were used as reference samplers. We observed the PP, PS, and IOM samplers to measure greater levels of HDI monomer and biuret when a fast-drying clearcoat was applied compared with a slow-drying clearcoat. When a slow-drying clearcoat was applied, the open-face PP and PS samplers measured significantly more monomeric and polymeric HDI (2-fold; p < 0.003) than the closed-face PP and PS samplers. We determined that significantly more monomeric and polymeric HDI were measured by impingers (1.3-1.9-fold) compared with single-stage PP/PS (N = 59), dual-stage PP/PS (N = 59), or IOM (N = 24) samplers. However, when stratified by cassette characteristics, the open-face single-stage PP and PS samplers performed equally to the impingers for HDI monomer when a fast-drying clearcoat was applied, and for all analytes when a slow-drying clearcoat was applied. Significantly higher HDI monomer concentrations (1.2-3.1-fold; p = 0.001) were measured with OSHA42 compared with the impinger. The IsoChek did not detect HDI monomer, and of the three samplers analyzed by laboratories other than UNC (i.e., OSHA42, IsoChek, and WA-DOSH), the WA-DOSH was in the best agreement with the impingers. The influence of clearcoat drying time on the sampler's ability to measure monomeric and polymeric HDI emphasizes the importance of the speciation of diisocyanates in chemical analysis and the careful consideration for the selection of the air sampler to be used when measuring exposures during

  16. Ohio`s Voluntary Action Program: An economic development tool or a subtle environmental loophole?

    SciTech Connect

    Akinmoladun, T.M.; Lewis, R.A.

    1998-05-01

    In an effort to remediate and reuse abandoned or contaminated industrial properties, the Ohio State legislature passed a law in 1994 that created the Ohio Voluntary Action Program (VAP). VAP consists of a series of incentives for property owners and prospective buyers to accelerate cleanup and reuse of abandoned sites or brownfields. This paper examines the essence of this unconventional approach to socio-economic development and environmental restoration. The weaknesses of the program are discussed, and recommendations are made to make the program more workable, more realistic, and conducive to environmental protection and public health.

  17. Photodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in passive air samplers: Field testing different deployment chambers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartkow, M.E.; Kennedy, K.E.; Huckins, J.N.; Holling, N.; Komarova, T.; Muller, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were loaded with deuterated anthracene and pyrene as performance reference compounds (PRCs) and deployed at a test site in four different chambers (open and closed box chamber, bowl chamber and cage chamber) for 29 days. The losses of PRCs and the uptake of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the ambient air were quantified. UV-B levels measured in each deployment chamber indicated that SPMDs would be exposed to the most UV-B in the cage chamber and open box chamber. Significantly less PAHs were quantified in SPMDs deployed in the cage chamber and open box chamber compared to samplers from the other two chambers, suggesting that photodegradation of PAHs had occurred. The loss of PRCs confirmed these results but also showed that photodegradation was occurring in the closed box chamber. The bowl chamber appears to provide the best protection from the influence of direct photodegradation. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Occupational and public field exposure from communication, navigation, and radar systems used for air traffic control.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Wout; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc

    2012-12-01

    Electromagnetic exposure (occupational and general public) to 14 types of air traffic control (ATC) systems is assessed. Measurement methods are proposed for in situ exposure assessment of these ATC systems. In total, 50 sites are investigated at 1,073 locations in the frequency range of 255 kHz to 24 GHz. For all installations, typical and maximal exposure values for workers and the general public are provided. Two of the 14 types of systems, Non-Directional Beacons (NDB) (up to 881.6 V m) and Doppler Very High Frequency (VHF) Omni-directional Range (DVOR) (up to 92.3 V m), exhibited levels requiring recommended minimum distances such that the ICNIRP reference levels are not exceeded. Cumulative exposure of all present radiofrequency (RF) sources is investigated, and it is concluded that the ATC source dominates the total exposure in its neighborhood. PMID:23111522

  19. Occupational and public field exposure from communication, navigation, and radar systems used for air traffic control.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Wout; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc

    2012-12-01

    Electromagnetic exposure (occupational and general public) to 14 types of air traffic control (ATC) systems is assessed. Measurement methods are proposed for in situ exposure assessment of these ATC systems. In total, 50 sites are investigated at 1,073 locations in the frequency range of 255 kHz to 24 GHz. For all installations, typical and maximal exposure values for workers and the general public are provided. Two of the 14 types of systems, Non-Directional Beacons (NDB) (up to 881.6 V m) and Doppler Very High Frequency (VHF) Omni-directional Range (DVOR) (up to 92.3 V m), exhibited levels requiring recommended minimum distances such that the ICNIRP reference levels are not exceeded. Cumulative exposure of all present radiofrequency (RF) sources is investigated, and it is concluded that the ATC source dominates the total exposure in its neighborhood.

  20. Scale Dependence of Soil Permeability to Air: Measurement Method and Field Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, K.; Sextro, R.G.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Wooley, J.D.; Owens, J.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    1995-11-01

    This work investigates the dependence soil air-permeability on sampling scale in near-surface unsaturated soils. A new dual-probe dynamic pressure technique was developed to measure permeability in situ over different length scales and different spatial orientations in the soil. Soils at three sites were studied using the new technique. Each soil was found to have higher horizontal than vertical permeability. Significant scale dependence of permeability was also observed at each site. Permeability increased by a factor of 20 as sampling scale increased from 0.1 to 2 m in a sand soil vegetated with dry grass, and by a factor of 15 as sampling scale increased from 0.1 to 3.5 m in a sandy loam with mature Coast Live Oak trees (Quercus agrifolia). The results indicate that standard methods of permeability assessment can grossly underestimate advective transport of gas-phase contaminants through soils.

  1. The exposure of children to deploying side air bags: an initial field assessment.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Kallan, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Tremendous effort has been invested in the laboratory to ensure side air bag (SAB) deployments minimize injury metrics in pediatric anthropometric test devices (ATDs). Little is known, however, about the experience of children exposed to this technology in real world crashes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of SAB exposure in children and provide estimates of injury risk among those exposed. This study utilized data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to identify a probability sample of 348 child occupants, age 0-15 years, weighted to represent 6,600 children, in vehicles of model year 1998 and newer, equipped with SABs, in side impact crashes from three large U.S. regions between 1/1/05 and 12/31/06. In the study sample, 27 children per 1000 children in crashes were exposed to a deployed side air bag. Over 75% of these children were seated in the rear seat and 83% were exposed to a head curtain SAB. 65% of those exposed were less than 9 years of age. Of those exposed, 10.6% sustained an AIS2+ injury; all injuries were of the AIS 2 level and limited to the head or upper extremity. This paper provides the first population-based estimates of the exposure of children to SABs. Initial experience suggests that the risk of injury is fairly low with only one in ten sustaining injury - none of which were serious or life threatening. These findings offer assurance that efforts by regulators and the automotive industry to minimize negative consequences from SABs to vulnerable occupants appear to be effective and cause no change in the current recommendation of safe seating for children next to SABs. PMID:18184496

  2. Global fields of soil moisture and land surface evapotranspiration derived from observed precipitation and surface air temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Y.; Walker, G. K.

    1993-01-01

    The global fields of normal monthly soil moisture and land surface evapotranspiration are derived with a simple water budget model that has precipitation and potential evapotranspiration as inputs. The precipitation is observed and the potential evapotranspiration is derived from the observed surface air temperature with the empirical regression equation of Thornthwaite (1954). It is shown that at locations where the net surface radiation flux has been measured, the potential evapotranspiration given by the Thornthwaite equation is in good agreement with those obtained with the radiation-based formulations of Priestley and Taylor (1972), Penman (1948), and Budyko (1956-1974), and this provides the justification for the use of the Thornthwaite equation. After deriving the global fields of soil moisture and evapotranspiration, the assumption is made that the potential evapotranspiration given by the Thornthwaite equation and by the Priestley-Taylor equation will everywhere be about the same; the inverse of the Priestley-Taylor equation is used to obtain the normal monthly global fields of net surface radiation flux minus ground heat storage. This and the derived evapotranspiration are then used in the equation for energy conservation at the surface of the earth to obtain the global fields of normal monthly sensible heat flux from the land surface to the atmosphere.

  3. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS USING FIELD PORTABLE AND AIRBORNE REMOTE IMAGING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technologies are a class of instrument and sensor systems that include laser imageries, imaging spectrometers, and visible to thermal infrared cameras. These systems have been successfully used for gas phase chemical compound identification in a variety of field e...

  4. Map of the Field--Higher Education Research at the State Level. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Patricia H.; Adams, Charles S.

    A map of the field of higher education at the state level is presented that defines theoretical and conceptual frameworks, approaches to analysis, research designs, and methodologies that have been used in the study of the relationships between state governments and institutions of higher education or of state policy structures and processes.…

  5. Air core notch-coil magnet with variable geometry for fast-field-cycling NMR.

    PubMed

    Kruber, S; Farrher, G D; Anoardo, E

    2015-10-01

    In this manuscript we present details on the optimization, construction and performance of a wide-bore (71 mm) α-helical-cut notch-coil magnet with variable geometry for fast-field-cycling NMR. In addition to the usual requirements for this kind of magnets (high field-to-power ratio, good magnetic field homogeneity, low inductance and resistance values) a tunable homogeneity and a more uniform heat dissipation along the magnet body are considered. The presented magnet consists of only one machined metallic cylinder combined with two external movable pieces. The optimal configuration is calculated through an evaluation of the magnetic flux density within the entire volume of interest. The magnet has a field-to-current constant of 0.728 mT/A, allowing to switch from zero to 0.125 T in less than 3 ms without energy storage assistance. For a cylindrical sample volume of 35 cm(3) the effective magnet homogeneity is lower than 130 ppm. PMID:26367321

  6. Air core notch-coil magnet with variable geometry for fast-field-cycling NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruber, S.; Farrher, G. D.; Anoardo, E.

    2015-10-01

    In this manuscript we present details on the optimization, construction and performance of a wide-bore (71 mm) α -helical-cut notch-coil magnet with variable geometry for fast-field-cycling NMR. In addition to the usual requirements for this kind of magnets (high field-to-power ratio, good magnetic field homogeneity, low inductance and resistance values) a tunable homogeneity and a more uniform heat dissipation along the magnet body are considered. The presented magnet consists of only one machined metallic cylinder combined with two external movable pieces. The optimal configuration is calculated through an evaluation of the magnetic flux density within the entire volume of interest. The magnet has a field-to-current constant of 0.728 mT/A, allowing to switch from zero to 0.125 T in less than 3 ms without energy storage assistance. For a cylindrical sample volume of 35 cm3 the effective magnet homogeneity is lower than 130 ppm.

  7. Air core notch-coil magnet with variable geometry for fast-field-cycling NMR.

    PubMed

    Kruber, S; Farrher, G D; Anoardo, E

    2015-10-01

    In this manuscript we present details on the optimization, construction and performance of a wide-bore (71 mm) α-helical-cut notch-coil magnet with variable geometry for fast-field-cycling NMR. In addition to the usual requirements for this kind of magnets (high field-to-power ratio, good magnetic field homogeneity, low inductance and resistance values) a tunable homogeneity and a more uniform heat dissipation along the magnet body are considered. The presented magnet consists of only one machined metallic cylinder combined with two external movable pieces. The optimal configuration is calculated through an evaluation of the magnetic flux density within the entire volume of interest. The magnet has a field-to-current constant of 0.728 mT/A, allowing to switch from zero to 0.125 T in less than 3 ms without energy storage assistance. For a cylindrical sample volume of 35 cm(3) the effective magnet homogeneity is lower than 130 ppm.

  8. Fusion of regularized femtosecond filaments in air: far field on-axis emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipilo, D. E.; Panov, N. A.; Sunchugasheva, E. S.; Mokrousova, D. V.; Andreeva, V. A.; Kosareva, O. G.; Seleznev, L. V.; Savel’ev, A. B.; Ionin, A. A.; Chin, S. L.

    2016-11-01

    The fusion of several coherent 800 nm femtosecond filaments is induced experimentally and numerically by transmitting a beam through a mask with circular apertures followed by the focusing lens. The far-field image of the four-filament fusion region reveals bright on-axis maximum and differs drastically from the diffraction pattern of a low energy beam propagating through the mask in the linear regime. In 3D+time numerical simulations with the carrier wave resolved we show a factor-of-5 saturable growth in the peak plasma density with successive increase in the number of mask openings. An overall spectral blueshift of the fundamental and the third harmonics follows the plasma density increase. The simulated far-field on-axis emission agrees with the experiment and serves as the indication of nonlinear interaction in the fusion region.

  9. Flow field studies on a micro-air-vehicle-scale cycloidal rotor in forward flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Andrew H.; Jarugumilli, Tejaswi; Benedict, Moble; Lakshminarayan, Vinod K.; Jones, Anya R.; Chopra, Inderjit

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines the flow physics and principles of force production on a cycloidal rotor (cyclorotor) in forward flight. The cyclorotor considered here consists of two blades rotating about a horizontal axis, with cyclic pitch angle variation about the blade quarter-chord. The flow field at the rotor mid-span is analyzed using smoke flow visualization and particle image velocimeV are compared with flow fields predicted using 2D CFD and time-averaged force measurements acquired in an open-jet wind tunnel at three advance ratios. It is shown that the experimental flow field is nearly two dimensional at μ = 0.73 allowing for qualitative comparisons to be made with CFD. The incoming flow velocity decreases in magnitude as the flow passes through the retreating (upper) half of the rotor and is attributed to power extraction by the blades. A significant increase in flow velocity is observed across the advancing (lower) half of the rotor. The aerodynamic analysis demonstrates that the blades accelerate the flow through the lower aft region of the rotor, where they operate in a high dynamic pressure environment. This is consistent with CFD-predicted values of instantaneous aerodynamic forces which reveal that the aft section of the rotor is the primary region of force production. Phase-averaged flow field measurements showed two blade wakes in the flow, formed by each of the two blades. Analysis of the blades at several azimuthal positions revealed two significant blade-wake interactions. The locations of these blade-wake interactions are correlated with force peaks in the CFD-predicted instantaneous blade forces and highlight their importance to the generation of lift and propulsive force of the cyclorotor.

  10. The effects of aircraft noise at Williams Air Force Base Auxiliary Field on residential property values

    SciTech Connect

    Morey, M.J.

    1990-11-01

    This report considers the environmental consequences of moving the flight training operations of the US Air Force's 82nd Flying Training Wing from the auxiliary airfield, Coolidge-Florence Municipal Airport (CFMA), to a more remote location in Pinal County, Arizona. It examines how actual noise from touch-and-go flights of T-37 aircraft and perceived (anticipated) noise affect the market value of residential property near CFMA. Noise, measured by a noise index, is correlated with market values through a regression analysis applied to a hedonic price model of the Coolidge-Florence housing market. Prices and characteristics of 42 residential properties sold in 1987 and 1988 were used to estimate a perceived noise effect. The report finds that the coefficient on the measure of perceived noise, based on the noise exposure forecast (NEF) index, is statistically insignificant, even though the sign and value are consistent with those estimated in other studies. It concludes that current flights do not have a significant effect on residential property values, partially because there is no housing near CFMA. This and larger studies indicate that flight operations at a new auxiliary airfield would not affect property values if runways were at least 12,000 feet away from housing. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Field demonstration of in-situ air stripping using horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.

    1991-12-31

    Under sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. The 139 day long test was designed to remove volatile chlorinated solvents from the subsurface using two horizontal wells. One well, approximately 90m long and 45m deep drilled below a contaminant plume in the groundwater, was used to inject air and strip the contaminants from the groundwater. A second horizontal well, approximately 50m long and 20m deep in the vadose zone, was used to extract residual contamination in the vadose zone along with the material purged from the groundwater. The test successfully removed approximately 7250 kg of contaminants. A large amount of characterization and monitoring data was collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restorations that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems.

  12. Field demonstration of in-situ air stripping using horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Under sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. The 139 day long test was designed to remove volatile chlorinated solvents from the subsurface using two horizontal wells. One well, approximately 90m long and 45m deep drilled below a contaminant plume in the groundwater, was used to inject air and strip the contaminants from the groundwater. A second horizontal well, approximately 50m long and 20m deep in the vadose zone, was used to extract residual contamination in the vadose zone along with the material purged from the groundwater. The test successfully removed approximately 7250 kg of contaminants. A large amount of characterization and monitoring data was collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restorations that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems.

  13. Influence of precipitation on the CO2 air-sea flux, an eddy covariance field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavarsky, Alexander; Steinhoff, Tobias; Marandino, Christa

    2016-04-01

    During the SPACES-OASIS cruise (July-August 2015) from Durban, SA to Male, MV direct fluxes of CO2 and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were measured using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. The cruise covered areas of sources and sinks for atmospheric CO2, where the bulk concentration gradient measurements resembled the Takahashi (2009) climatology. Most of the time, bulk CO2 fluxes (F=k* [cwater-cair]), calculated with the parametrization (k) by Nightingale et al. 2000, were in general agreement with direct EC measurements. However, during heavy rain events, the directly measured CO2 fluxes were 4 times higher than predicted. It has been previously described that rain influences the k parametrization of air-sea gas exchange, but this alone cannot explain the measured discrepancy. There is evidence that freshwater input and a change in the carbonate chemistry causes the water side concentration of ?c=cwater-cair to decrease. Unfortunately this cannot be detected by most bulk measurement systems. Using the flux measurements of an additional gas like DMS, this rain influence can be evaluated as DMS does not react to changes in the carbonate system and has a different solubility. A pending question is if the enhanced flux of CO2 in the ocean is sequestered into the ocean mixed layer and below. This question will be tackled using the GOTM model to understand the implications for the global carbon cycle.

  14. Field observations of turbulent dissipation rate profiles immediately below the air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Binbin; Liao, Qian

    2016-06-01

    Near surface profiles of turbulence immediately below the air-water interface were measured with a free-floating Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system on Lake Michigan. The surface-following configuration allowed the system to measure the statistics of the aqueous-side turbulence in the topmost layer immediately below the water surface (z≈0˜15 cm, z points downward with 0 at the interface). Profiles of turbulent dissipation rate (ɛ) were investigated under a variety of wind and wave conditions. Various methods were applied to estimate the dissipation rate. Results suggest that these methods yield consistent dissipation rate profiles with reasonable scattering. In general, the dissipation rate decreases from the water surface following a power law relation in the top layer, ɛ˜z-0.7, i.e., the slope of the decrease was lower than that predicted by the wall turbulence theory, and the dissipation was considerably higher in the top layer for cases with higher wave ages. The measured dissipation rate profiles collapse when they were normalized with the wave speed, wave height, water-side friction velocity, and the wave age. This scaling suggests that the enhanced turbulence may be attributed to the additional source of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) at the "skin layer" (likely due to micro-breaking), and its downward transport in the water column.

  15. Optimization of air-ejected rocket/missile geometries under validated supersonic flow field simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, D.; Domínguez, D.; Gonzalo, J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper defines a methodology to carry out optimizations of rocket/missile geometries by means of krigingbased algorithms applied to simulations made with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes. The first part of the paper is focused on the validation of the open source CFD code against a well-studied 3-dimmensional test case in supersonic conditions. The impact of several turbulence models, different numerical schemes to discretize the equations and different mesh resolution levels have been analyzed demonstrating the performance of using wall functions for supersonic flow. Good agreements between numerical, theoretical and experimental results are obtained and some general guidelines are extracted. The best accuracy is obtained with SST k-omega turbulence model with meshes suitable for the use of wall functions in the boundary cells. Then, with this configuration for the simulations, an air-ejected rocket fairing is selected to apply a geometrical optimization. The selected method is kriging-based, where a statistical model is generated by means of several numerical experiments dependent on a certain number of design parameters; the final objective is to find the minimum drag coefficient for the model, keeping enough room inside the fairing to install the requested payload. This kriging-based method allows obtaining the samples in a parallel manner, looking for the optimum design at the generated metamodel and hence improving its accuracy adding new samples if needed.

  16. Use of AIRS-derived Products in Tropical Cyclone Intensity Analysis During the HS3 Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garms, E.; Knuteson, R. O.; Plokhenko, Y.; Smith, W.; Weisz, E.; Revercomb, H. E.; Ackerman, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The high-resolution data collected during a field experiment is extremely valuable, but it is equally valuable to have observations that provide context for such in situ measurements. For this reason, satellite data coincident with observations taken from the Global Hawk UAVs during the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) field experiment are vital to a gaining a more complete understanding of tropical cyclone (TC) processes. The primary data used in this study are calibrated hyperspectral infrared radiances obtained from the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), onboard the Aqua satellite. AIRS measures upwelling Earth-emitted infrared spectra using more than 2300 IR channels between 3.7 and 15.4 microns. Several products derived from this high-spectral resolution data are used in this study. These products include a 3-D cloud amount vertical profile (CAVP) product as well as temperature and water vapor profiles retrieved using a Dual-Regression algorithm (DR), both of which were developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS). The CAVP product will be used to measure the slope of the cloud tops of rainbands in a tropical cyclone. Observations from the UW Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS), NASA Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL), and NCAR dropsondes taken during the 2012 Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) field experiment will be used to validate the rainband slope analysis and the DR retrievals. The methodology behind the TC rainband slope analysis, which is hypothesized to correlate with TC intensity, will be discussed. This product will then be used to obtain a TC intensity estimate, which will be compared to other accepted intensity estimates like the Advanced Dvorak Technique (ADT), Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), and Satellite Consensus (SATCON) estimates. Additionally, the DR product will be used to

  17. Outlier Ohio: A Case Study of Ohio Public Libraries and an Analysis of Their Collective Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klentzin, Jacqueline Courtney

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the collective success and "Best in the Nation" status of Ohio public libraries as indicated in by various statistical rankings, like the HAPLR and "Library Journal" Star Libraries, as well as anecdotal reports in the trade literature. The study was qualitative in nature and utilized a single-subject case…

  18. The Granville Invitational Work Conference on Hearing Handicapped Children in Ohio (Granville, Ohio).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Christina C., Ed.

    The proceedings from an interdisciplinary work conference, sponsored by the Ohio Division of Special Education to utilize information from 5 years of an ongoing study (1960-65), include three papers and several discussion summaries. Papers on hearing handicapped and deaf children consider implications for medical services; audiological evaluation,…

  19. Resistance modulation in VO2 nanowires induced by an electric field via air-gap gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanki, Teruo; Chikanari, Masashi; Wei, Tingting; Tanaka, Hidekazu; The Institute of Scientific; Industrial Research Team

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) shows huge resistance change with metal-insulator transition (MIT) at around room temperature. Controlling of the MIT by applying an electric field is a topical ongoing research toward the realization of Mott transistor. In this study, we have successfully switched channel resistance of VO2 nano-wire channels by a pure electrostatic field effect using a side-gate-type field-effect transistor (SG-FET) viaair gap and found that single crystalline VO2 nanowires and the channels with narrower width enhance transport modulation rate. The rate of change in resistance ((R0-R)/R, where R0 and R is the resistance of VO2 channel with off state and on state gate voltage (VG) , respectively) was 0.42 % at VG = 30 V in in-plane poly-crystalline VO2 channels on Al2O3(0001) substrates, while the rate in single crystalline channels on TiO2 (001) substrates was 3.84 %, which was 9 times higher than that using the poly-crystalline channels. With reducing wire width from 3000 nm to 400 nm of VO2 on TiO2 (001) substrate, furthermore, resistance modulation ratio enhanced from 0.67 % to 3.84 %. This change can not be explained by a simple free-electron model. In this presentation, we will compare the electronic properties between in-plane polycrystalline VO2 on Al2O3 (0001) and single crystalline VO2 on TiO2 (001) substrates, and show experimental data in detail..

  20. FACE: Free-Air CO[sub 2] Enrichment for plant research in the field

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G.R.

    1992-08-01

    Research programs concerning the effects of Carbon Dioxide(CO)[sub 2] on cotton plants are described. Biological responses studied include foliage response to CO[sub 2] fluctuations; yield of cotton exposed to CO[sub 2] enrichment; responses of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to elevated CO[sub 2] in field-grown cotton; cotton leaf and boll temperatures; root response to CO[sub 2] enrichment; and evaluations of cotton response to CO[sub 2] enrichment with canopy reflectance observations.