Science.gov

Sample records for air filtration systems

  1. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF AIR FILTRATION SYSTEMS IN USE AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES: RESEARCH IN PROGRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filtration systems serve as the principal engineering control to remove asbestos particulate from airstreams at abatement projects. owever, little quantitative information is available on the integrity of these air filtration systems in prev...

  2. [Air decontamination and the fine filtration system "Potok 150MK"].

    PubMed

    Kapustina, E A; Volodina, E V

    2004-01-01

    Longevity of space stations is dependent on efficiency and robustness of the life support systems. The article describes the principle of operation of air decontamination system Potok 150MK intended for providing microbial safety of the orbital station environment. High quality of air disinfection and decontamination has been demonstrated aboard SS Mir and the International space station. PMID:15233040

  3. ALTERNATE HIGH EFFICIENCY PARTICULATE AIR (HEPA) FILTRATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bishop; Robert Goldsmith; Karsten Nielsen; Phillip Paquette

    2002-08-16

    In Phase IIA of this project, CeraMem has further developed and scaled up ceramic HEPA filters that are appropriate for use on filtration of vent gas from HLW tanks at DOE sites around the country. This work included procuring recrystallized SiC monoliths, developing membrane and cement materials, and defining a manufacturing process for the production of prototype full sizes HEPA filters. CeraMem has demonstrated that prototype full size filters can be manufactured by producing 9 full size filters that passed DOP aerosol testing at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. One of these filters was supplied to the Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC) for process tests using simulated HLW tank waste. SRTC has reported that the filter was regenerable (with some increase in pressure drop) and that the filter retained its HEPA retention capability. CeraMem has also developed a Regenerable HEPA Filter System (RHFS) design and acceptance test plan that was reviewed by DOE personnel. The design and acceptance test plan form the basis of the system proposal for follow-on work in Phase IIB of this project.

  4. Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system

    DOEpatents

    Beeck, Alexander R.

    2012-05-15

    A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

  5. Selection of the most advantageous gas turbine air filtration system: Comparative study of actual operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Gilani, S.I.; Mehr, M.Z.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses relative merits of three types of air filtration systems used by Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Ltd. (Pakistan), on its gas turbine compressor packages. These Filtration systems are: (i) Two stage inertial plus auto oil bath type multi-duty filters by AAF used on Saturn Mark-1 packages manufactured by Solar Turbines Inc. (ii) Three stage high efficiency barrier filters by AAF used on Centaur packages by Solar. (iii) Single stage pulse-jet self-cleaning filter by Donaldson again used on a Centaur package. The selection is primarily based in package performance data collected over a 15 month period analyzing power loss due to fouling effects and related operation and maintenance costs for the three systems. The Company's operating experience indicates that on new installations the pulse clean system offers the best advantage both in terms of filtration costs as well as availability of additional horse power when operating under moderate to severe environmental conditions.

  6. Financial implications of installing air filtration systems to prevent PRRSV infection in large sow herds.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Carmen; Davies, Peter R; Polson, Dale D; Dee, Scott A; Lazarus, William F

    2013-09-01

    Air filtration systems implemented in large sow herds have been demonstrated to decrease the probability of having a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) outbreak. However, implementation of air filtration represents a considerable capital investment, and does not eliminate the risk of new virus introductions. The specific objectives of the study were: 1) to determine productivity differences between a cohort of filtered and non-filtered sow farms; and 2) to employ those productivity differences to model the profitability of filtration system investments in a hypothetical 3000 sow farm. Variables included in the study were production variables (quarterly) from respective herds; air filtration status; number of pig sites within 4.7 km of the farm; occurrence of a PRRSV outbreak in a quarter, and season. For the investment analyses, three Scenarios were compared in a deterministic spreadsheet model of weaned pig cost: (1) control, (2) filtered conventional attic, and (3) filtered tunnel ventilation. Model outputs indicated that a filtered farm produced 5927 more pigs than unfiltered farms. The payback periods for the investments, were estimated to be 5.35 years for Scenario 2 and 7.13 years for Scenario 3 based solely on sow herd productivity. Payback period sensitivity analyses were performed for both biological and financial inputs. The payback period was most influenced by the premium for weaned pig sales price for PRRSV-negative pigs, and the relative proportions of time that filtered vs. unfiltered farms produced PRRSV-negative pigs. A premium of $5 per pig for PRRS-negative weaned pigs reduced the estimated payback periods to 2.1 years for Scenario 2 and 2.8 years for Scenario 3. PMID:23735427

  7. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  8. Epidemiological study of air filtration systems for preventing PRRSV infection in large sow herds.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Carmen; Murtaugh, Michael P; Dee, Scott A; Davies, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most economically significant pathogen in the US swine industry. Aerosol transmission among herds is a major concern in pig dense regions and filtration of incoming air, in combination with standard biosecurity procedures, has been demonstrated to prevent transmission of PRRSV into susceptible herds. To quantify the impact of air filtration on reducing risk of PRRSV outbreaks, we compared the incidence rate of new PRRSV introductions in 20 filtered and 17 non-filtered control sow herds in a swine dense region of North America during a 7 year study period. Events of novel virus introduction were ascertained by phylogenetic analysis of PRRSV ORF5 gene sequences. Putative new viruses were defined as exogenous (introduced) based on ORF5 nucleotide sequence differences compared to previous farm isolates. The influence of sequence difference cut-off values ranging from 2 to 10% on case definition and relative risk were evaluated. Non-filtered farms incurred about 0.5 outbreaks per year, with a seasonal increase in risk in cooler periods. Baseline risk, prior to filtration, in treatment farms was approximately 0.75 per year, approximately 50% higher than in control farms. Air filtration significantly reduced risk of PRRSV introduction events to 0.06-0.22 outbreaks per year, depending on the cut-off values used to classify a virus isolate as new to the herd. Overall, air filtration led to an approximately 80% reduction in risk of introduction of novel PRRSV, indicating that on large sow farms with good biosecurity in swine-dense regions, approximately four-fifths of PRRSV outbreaks may be attributable to aerosol transmission. PMID:23870693

  9. Evaluation of an air-filtration system for preventing aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a commercial air-filtration system to reduce aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The system consisted of a pre-filter and 2 filters with EU8 and EU13 ratings. In each of 4 trials, 5 PRRSV-infected donor pigs and 1 naïve recipient pig (each 25 kg) were housed in opposing chambers connected by a 1.3-m-long duct. The system filtered air entering 1 recipient-pig chamber (filtered facility) from the donor- chamber but not a 2nd recipient-pig chamber (nonfiltered facility). The donor pigs had been experimentally infected with PRRSV MN-184, an isolate previously documented to be shed at a high frequency in contagious aerosols. On days 3 to 7 after infection of the donors, the 2 groups were housed in their respective chambers for 6 h and then in separate facilities, where samples were collected for testing by polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay over 14 d. Aerosol transmission was observed in 6 of the 20 replicates in the nonfiltered facility, whereas all pigs remained PRRSV-negative in the filtered facility; the difference was significant at P < 0.01. Thus, under the conditions of this study, the air-filtration system evaluated appeared to be highly effective at reducing aerosol transmission of PRRSV. PMID:16479728

  10. Further evaluation of alternative air-filtration systems for reducing the transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by aerosol.

    PubMed

    Dee, Scott A; Deen, John; Cano, Jean Paul; Batista, Laura; Pijoan, Carlos

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 4 methods for the reduction of aerosol transmission of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration, 2x-low-cost filtration, bag filtration, and use of a filter tested against particles derived from dioctylphthalate (DOP). The HEPA-filtration system used a prefilter screen, a bag filter (Eurovent [EU] 8 rating), and a HEPA filter (EU13 rating). The low-cost-filtration system contained mosquito netting (prefilter), 2 fiberglass furnace filters, and 2 electrostatic furnace filters. Bag filtration involved the use of a filter rated EU8 and a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 14. The 95%-DOP, 0.3-microm-filtration system involved a pleat-in-pleat V-bank disposable filter with a 95% efficiency rating for particles 0.3 microm or greater in diameter and ratings of EU9 and MERV 15. No form of intervention was used in the control group. The experimental facilities consisted of 2 chambers connected by a 1.3-m-long duct containing the treatments. Recipient pigs, housed in chamber 2, were exposed to artificial aerosols created by a mechanically operated mister containing modified live PRRSV vaccine located in chamber 1. Aerosol transmission of PRRSV occurred in 0 of the 10 HEPA-filtration replicates, 2 of the 10 bag-filtration replicates, 4 of the 10 low-cost-filtration replicates, 0 of the 10 95%-DOP, 0.3-microm-filtration replicates, and all 10 of the control replicates. Using a similar approach, we further evaluated the HEPA- and 95%-DOP, 0.3-microm-filtration systems. Infection was not observed in any of the 76 HEPA-filtration replicates but was observed in 2 of the 76 95%-DOP, 0.3-microm replicates and 42 of the 50 control replicates. Although the difference between the 95%-DOP, 0.3-microm and control replicates was significant (P < 0.0005), so was the level of failure of the 95%-DOP, 0.3-microm system (P = 0.02). In conclusion, under the conditions of

  11. Evaluation of a high efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration system for reducing particulate pollutants inside school buses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eon S; Fung, Cha-Chen D; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-03-17

    An increasing number of studies have reported deleterious health effects of vehicle-emitted particulate matter (PM), including PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter≤2.5 μm), black carbon (BC), and ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter≤100 nm). When commuting inside school buses, children are exposed to high level of these pollutants due to emissions from both school bus itself and other on-road vehicles. This study developed an on-board high efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration system for reducing children's exposure inside school buses. Six school buses were driven on two typical routes to evaluate to what extent the system reduces particulate pollutant levels inside the buses. The testing routes included freeways and major arterial roadways in Los Angeles, CA. UFP number concentrations and size distributions as well as BC and PM2.5 concentrations were monitored concurrently inside and outside of each bus. With the HECA filtration system on, in-cabin UFP and BC levels were reduced by 88±6% and 84±5% on averages across all driving conditions, respectively. The system was less effective for PM2.5 (55±22%) but successfully kept its levels below 12 μg/m3 inside all the buses. For all three types of particulate pollutants, in-cabin reductions were higher on freeways than on arterial roadways. PMID:25728749

  12. Rotary filtration system

    DOEpatents

    Herman, David T.; Maxwell, David N.

    2011-04-19

    A rotary filtration apparatus for filtering a feed fluid into permeate is provided. The rotary filtration apparatus includes a container that has a feed fluid inlet. A shaft is at least partially disposed in the container and has a passageway for the transport of permeate. A disk stack made of a plurality of filtration disks is mounted onto the shaft so that rotation of the shaft causes rotation of the filtration disks. The filtration disks may be made of steel components and may be welded together. The shaft may penetrate a filtering section of the container at a single location. The rotary filtration apparatus may also incorporate a bellows seal to prevent leakage along the shaft, and an around the shaft union rotary joint to allow for removal of permeate. Various components of the rotary filtration apparatus may be removed as a single assembly.

  13. Experimental investigation of the formaldehyde removal mechanisms in a dynamic botanical filtration system for indoor air purification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Pei, Jingjing; Zhang, Jensen S

    2014-09-15

    Botanical filtration has been proved to be effective for indoor gas pollutant removal. To understand the roles of different transport, storage and removal mechanism by a dynamic botanical air filter, a series of experimental investigations were designed and conducted in this paper. Golden Pothos (Epipremnum aureum) plants was selected for test, and its original soil or activated/pebbles root bed was used in different test cases. It was found that flowing air through the root bed with microbes dynamically was essential to obtain meaningful formaldehyde removal efficiency. For static potted plant as normally place in rooms, the clean air delivery rate (CADR), which is often used to quantify the air cleaning ability of portable air cleaners, was only ∼ 5.1m(3)/h per m(2) bed, while when dynamically with air flow through the bed, the CADR increased to ∼ 233 m(3)/h per m(2) bed. The calculated CADR due to microbial activity is ∼ 108 m(3)/h per m(2) bed. Moisture in the root bed also played an important role, both for maintaining a favorable living condition for microbes and for absorbing water-soluble compounds such as formaldehyde. The role of the plant was to introduce and maintain a favorable microbe community which effectively degraded the volatile organic compounds adsorbed or absorbed by the root bed. The presence of the plant increased the removal efficiency by a factor of two based on the results from the bench-scale root bed experiments. PMID:25164387

  14. Tailoring Supramolecular Nanofibers for Air Filtration Applications.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Daniel; Skrybeck, Dominik; Misslitz, Holger; Nardini, David; Kern, Alexander; Kreger, Klaus; Schmidt, Hans-Werner

    2016-06-15

    The demand of new materials and processes for nanofiber fabrication to enhance the performance of air filters is steadily increasing. Typical approaches to obtain nanofibers are based on top-down processes such as melt blowing, centrifugal spinning, and electrospinning of polymer materials. However, fabrication of polymer nanofibers is limited with respect to either a sufficiently high throughput or the smallest achievable fiber diameter. This study reports comprehensively on a fast and simple bottom-up process to prepare supramolecular nanofibers in situ inside viscose/polyester microfiber nonwovens. Here, selected small molecules of the materials class of 1,3,5-benzenetrisamides are employed. The microfiber-nanofiber composites exhibit a homogeneous nanofiber distribution and morphology throughout the entire nonwoven scaffold. Small changes in molecular structure and processing solvent have a strong influence on the final nanofiber diameter and diameter distribution and, consequently, on the filtration performance. Choosing proper processing conditions, microfiber-nanofiber composites with surprisingly high filtration efficiencies of particulate matter are obtained. In addition, the microfiber-nanofiber composite integrity at elevated temperatures was determined and revealed that the morphology of supramolecular nanofibers is maintained compared to that of the utilized polymer nonwoven. PMID:27183242

  15. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a) Adequate ventilation shall be provided. (b) Equipment for adequate control over air pressure, micro-organisms,...

  16. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a) Adequate ventilation shall be provided. (b) Equipment for adequate control over air pressure, micro-organisms,...

  17. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a) Adequate ventilation shall be provided. (b) Equipment for adequate control over air pressure, micro-organisms,...

  18. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a) Adequate ventilation shall be provided. (b) Equipment for adequate control over air pressure, micro-organisms,...

  19. Nosocomial invasive aspergillosis in a heart transplant patient acquired during a break in the HEPA air filtration system.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, P; Guinea, J; Peláez, T; Durán, C; Blanco, J L; Bouza, E

    2004-03-01

    We report a case of nosocomially acquired invasive aspergillosis (IA) in a low-risk heart transplant recipient due to a break in the air conditioning system. A high overload of Aspergillus spores in the intensive care unit room led this patient to acquire IA. Identical environmental and patient isolates allowed our hypothesis to be confirmed and a very precise incubation time to be estimated. PMID:15225229

  20. Development of hot gas filtration for air blown gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, P.; Dutton, M.; Tustin, M.; Rasmussen, G.; Sage, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes some of the development work carried out on hot gas filtration for the Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC). The ABGC comprises partial gasification of coal at elevated pressure with combustion of the fuel gas produced in a gas turbine. The residual carbon from gasification is burned in an atmospheric pressure circulating fluidized bed combustor raising steam to drive a steam turbine. A critical requirement in the ABGC is to ensure that the fuel gas is free of dust, in order to avoid damage to the gas turbine. Ceramic filter elements are the preferred technology for this clean-up. The required operating temperature is 400--600 C, based on optimizing efficiency and to allow use of other hot gas clean-up systems, for instance for sulfur polishing. A development program on hot gas filtration has been carried out at CTDD in order to ensure that this component of the cycle can be used with minimum risk. To date, over 2,000 h of operation at up to 600 C has been achieved on two pilot scale hot gas filters, each taking full flow of gas from air blown gasifiers. The filters have operated with high availability and there have been no incidents of breakage of filter elements. Information has been generated for effect of filtration velocity and temperature, cleaning gas requirements, changing dust and gas composition, and for design of critical components such as fast opening valves, venturi ejectors and sealing mechanisms. The effect of different operating conditions on filter element strength has been evaluated for a range of filter elements.

  1. Filtration and indoor air quality: A practical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R.T.; Huza, M.A.

    1995-02-01

    This article describes how filtration systems can be a practical and effective means to control indoor contaminants when properly designed and applied. Although indoor air quality appears to be a complex subject, in reality it reduces to two simple concerns: human health and human comfort. While the interactions exist, the environmental factors that affect human comfort are different from those factors that affect human health. Generally speaking, temperature, relative humidity, air movement and noise level contribute to human comfort, and indoor contaminants affect human health, but they can also cause comfort problems, such as odors. It is important to point out this distinction because many IAQ problems can be solved simply by a small adjustment of the temperature, humidity o ventilation rate, especially when the environment of concern is outside of the comfort zone and the air is perceived as stuffy. However, when the occupants experience headaches, fatigue, eye irritation or coughing or when they smell odors, it is likely that the problems are caused by contaminants in the indoor air. Indoor contaminants may be grouped into four categories: bioaerosols (microorganisms); respirable particulates; gaseous contaminants; and vaporous contaminants. While their concentrations may vary, all of these contaminants may exist regardless of types of building, HVAC system and occupant activity.

  2. Antimicrobial nanoparticle-coated electrostatic air filter with high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop.

    PubMed

    Sim, Kyoung Mi; Park, Hyun-Seol; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-11-15

    In this study, we demonstrated an antimicrobial nanoparticle-coated electrostatic (ES) air filter. Antimicrobial natural-product Sophora flavescens nanoparticles were produced using an aerosol process, and were continuously deposited onto the surface of air filter media. For the electrostatic activation of the filter medium, a corona discharge electrification system was used before and after antimicrobial treatment of the filter. In the antimicrobial treatment process, the deposition efficiency of S. flavescens nanoparticles on the ES filter was ~12% higher than that on the pristine (Non-ES) filter. In the evaluation of filtration performance using test particles (a nanosized KCl aerosol and submicron-sized Staphylococcus epidermidis bioaerosol), the ES filter showed better filtration efficiency than the Non-ES filter. However, antimicrobial treatment with S. flavescens nanoparticles affected the filtration efficiency of the filter differently depending on the size of the test particles. While the filtration efficiency of the KCl nanoparticles was reduced on the ES filter after the antimicrobial treatment, the filtration efficiency was improved after the recharging process. In summary, we prepared an antimicrobial ES air filter with >99% antimicrobial activity, ~92.5% filtration efficiency (for a 300-nm KCl aerosol), and a ~0.8 mmAq pressure drop (at 13 cm/s). This study provides valuable information for the development of a hybrid air purification system that can serve various functions and be used in an indoor environment. PMID:26172593

  3. Integrated photocatalytic filtration array for indoor air quality control.

    PubMed

    Denny, Frans; Permana, Eric; Scott, Jason; Wang, Jing; Pui, David Y H; Amal, Rose

    2010-07-15

    Photocatalytic and filtration technologies were integrated to develop a hybrid system capable of removing and oxidizing organic pollutants from an air stream. A fluidized bed aerosol generator (FBAG) was adapted to prepare TiO(2)-loaded ventilation filters for the photodegradation of gas phase ethanol. Compared to a manually loaded filter, the ethanol photodegradation rate constant for the FBAG coated filter increased by 361%. Additionally, the presence of the photogenerated intermediate product, acetaldehyde, was reduced and the time for mineralization to CO(2) was accelerated. These improvements were attributed to the FBAG system providing a more uniform distribution of TiO(2) particles across the filter surface leading to greater accessibility by the UV light. A dual-UV-lamp system, as opposed to a single-lamp system, enhanced photocatalytic filter performance demonstrating the importance of high light irradiance and light distribution across the filter surface. Substituting the blacklight blue lamps with a UV-light-emitting-diode (UV-LED) array led to further improvement as well as suppressed the electrical energy per order (EE/O) by a factor of 6. These improvements derived from the more uniform distribution of light irradiance as well as the higher efficiency of UV-LEDs in converting electrical energy to photons. PMID:20550189

  4. 77 FR 38857 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1280, ``Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal Atmosphere Cleanup Systems in Light-Water- Cooled Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes a method for design, inspection, and testing of normal atmosphere cleanup......

  5. Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system

    DOEpatents

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-22

    The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

  6. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. 211.46 Section 211.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.46...

  7. Tools for Schools: Filtration for Improved Air Quality. Technical Services Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This product bulletin addresses air pollution control in educational facilities to enhance educational performance, provides air quality recommendations for schools, and examines the filtration needs of various school areas. The types of air particles typically present are highlighted, and the use of proper filtration to control gases and vapors…

  8. Investigation of Microgranular Adsorptive Filtration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhenxiao

    Over the past few decades, enormous advances have been made in the application of low-pressure membrane filtration to both drinking water and wastewater treatment. Nevertheless, the full potential of this technology has not been reached, due primarily to limitations imposed by membrane fouling. In drinking water treatment, much of the fouling is caused by soluble and particulate natural organic matter (NOM). Efforts to overcome the problem have focused on removal of NOM from the feed solution, usually by addition of conventional coagulants like alum and ferric chloride (FeCl3) or adsorbents like powdered activated carbon (PAC). While coagulants and adsorbents can remove a portion of the NOM, their performance with respect to fouling control has been inconsistent, often reducing fouling but sometimes having no effect or even exacerbating fouling. This research investigated microgranular adsorptive filtration (muGAF), a process that combines three existing technologies---granular media filtration, packed bed adsorption, and membrane filtration---in a novel way to reduce membrane fouling while simultaneously removing NOM from water. In this technology, a thin layer of micron-sized adsorbent particles is deposited on the membrane prior to delivering the feed to the system. The research reported here represents the first systematic study of muGAF, and the results demonstrate the promising potential of this process. A new, aluminum-oxide-based adsorbent---heated aluminum oxide particles (HAOPs)---was synthesized and shown to be very effective for NOM removal as well as fouling reduction in muGAF systems. muGAF has also been demonstrated to work well with powdered activated carbon (PAC) as the adsorbent, but not as well as when HAOPs are used; the process has also been successful when used with several different membrane types and configurations. Experiments using a wide range of operational parameters and several analytical tools lead to the conclusion that the fouling

  9. IN-PLACE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF HEPA-FILTRATION SYSTEMS AT ASBESTOS-ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to assess the in-place performance of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration systems at asbestos-abatement siteS in New Jersey to determine each systems particle-removal efficiency. n air-generated dioctyl phthalate aerosol was used to challeng...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - AIR PURATOR CORPORATION HUYGLAS 1405M FILTER SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  11. Ventilation or filtration? The use of gas-phase air filtration for compliance with ASRAE Standard 62

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, C.O.

    1996-05-01

    ASHRAE Standard 62, in its current form, employs two procedures to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ) in buildings. These are the Ventilation Rate and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Procedures. This standard further endeavors to achieve the necessary balance between IAQ and energy consumption by specifying minimum ventilation rates and IAQ that will be acceptable to human occupants. The standard acknowledges that air cleaning, along with recirculation, is an effective means for controlling contaminants when using the IAQ Procedure. Employing this procedure allows the amount of outside ventilation air to be reduced below standard levels if it can be demonstrated that the resulting air quality meets the required criteria. More buildings are using, or will be using, gas-phase air filtration as part of their overall design for providing and maintaining acceptable IAQ. This trend is being seen in retrofit applications as well as new construction. Among the driving forces behind this are the increased awareness of people to their environment and how it may affect their well-being, legislative actions which are in effect or have been proposed, and, of course, that members of the legal community litigating complaints of sick building syndrome (SBS) and building-related illness (BRI). This paper will focus on the use of gas-phase air filtration for compliance with ASHRAE Standard 62 by using the IAQ Procedure. It will cover the requirements of using this procedure, the information required, and will describe several projects where this procedure was successfully used to realize both acceptable IAQ and energy savings.

  12. Identification of processes affecting excess air formation during natural bank filtration and managed aquifer recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massmann, Gudrun; Sültenfuß, Jürgen

    2008-09-01

    SummaryManaged aquifer recharge is gaining importance as a practice to bank and treat surface water for drinking water production. Neon (Ne) concentrations were analysed at four different recharge sites in and near Berlin, where groundwater is recharged directly from surface water courses, either by near-natural bank filtration, induced bank filtration or engineered basin recharge. Neon concentrations in excess of saturation (ΔNe) were used to identify excess air in the infiltrates. Excess air concentrations were around saturation at the near-natural bank filtration site, where river water infiltrates through a permeable river bed into a confined aquifer under completely saturated conditions. At two induced unconfined bank filtration sites, samples generally contained excess air (up to 60% ΔNe). Highest excess air concentrations (up to 81% ΔNe) were encountered at the engineered basin recharge site. The degree of water table fluctuations, the water saturation of the sediments in the infiltration zone and the presence of a confining layer affect the formation of excess air. Excess air can only be used to trace bank filtrate or artificially recharged water in a setting where the ambient groundwater in the near vicinity of production wells is not affected by large water-table fluctuations. Nevertheless, excess air concentrations provide valuable additional information on the type of recharge (saturated or unsaturated, degree of water table fluctuations).

  13. Particle Collection Efficiency of a Lens-Liquid Filtration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ross Y. M.; Ng, Moses L. F.; Chao, Christopher Y. H.; Li, Z. G.

    2011-09-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that indoor air quality has substantial impact on the health of building occupants [1]. Possible sources of indoor air contamination include hazardous gases as well as particulate matters (PMs) [2]. Experimental studies show that the size distribution of PMs in indoor air ranges from tens of nanometers to a few hundreds of micrometers [3]. Vacuum cleaners can be used as a major tool to collect PMs from floor/carpets, which are the main sources of indoor PMs. However, the particle collection efficiency of typical cyclonic filters in the vacuums drops significantly for particles of diameter below 10 μm. In this work, we propose a lens-liquid filtration system (see Figure 1), where the flow channel is formed by a liquid free surface and a planar plate with fin/lens structures. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed by using FLUENT to optimize the structure of the proposed system toward high particle collection efficiency and satisfactory pressure drop. Numerical simulations show that the system can collect 250 nm diameter particles with collection efficiency of 50%.

  14. Field Assessment of Enclosed Cab Filtration System Performance Using Particle Counting Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Organiscak, John A.; Cecala, Andrew B.; Noll, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Enclosed cab filtration systems are typically used on mobile mining equipment to reduce miners’ exposure to airborne dust generated during mining operations. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (OMSHR) has recently worked with a mining equipment manufacturer to examine a new cab filtration system design for underground industrial minerals equipment. This cab filtration system uses a combination of three particulate filters to reduce equipment operators’ exposure to dust and diesel particulates present in underground industrial mineral mines. NIOSH initially examined this cab filtration system using a two-instrument particle counting method at the equipment company’s manufacturing shop facility to assess several alternative filters. This cab filtration system design was further studied on several pieces of equipment during a two- to seven-month period at two underground limestone mines. The two-instrument particle counting method was used outside the underground mine at the end of the production shifts to regularly test the cabs’ long-term protection factor performance with particulates present in the ambient air. This particle counting method showed that three of the four cabs achieved protection factors greater than 1,000 during the field studies. The fourth cab did not perform at this level because it had a damaged filter in the system. The particle counting measurements of submicron particles present in the ambient air were shown to be a timely and useful quantification method in assessing cab performance during these field studies. PMID:23915268

  15. Efficient and reusable polyamide-56 nanofiber/nets membrane with bimodal structures for air filtration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bowen; Zhang, Shichao; Wang, Xueli; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Nanofibrous media that both possess high airborne particle interception efficiency and robust air permeability would have broad technological implications for areas ranging from individual protection and industrial security to environmental governance; however, creating such filtration media has proved extremely challenging. Here we report a strategy to construct the bio-based polyamide-56 nanofiber/nets (PA-56 NFN) membranes with bimodal structures for effective air filtration via one-step electrospinning/netting. The PA-56 membranes are composed of completely covered two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin (∼20 nm) nanonets which are optimized by facilely regulating the solution concentration, and the bonded scaffold fibers constructed cavity structures which are synchronously created by using the CH3COOH inspiration. With integrated properties of small aperture, high porosity, and bonded scaffold, the resulting PA-56 NFN membranes exhibit high filtration efficiency of 99.995%, low pressure drop of 111 Pa, combined with large dust holding capacity of 49 g/m(2) and dust-cleaning regeneration ability, for filtrating ultrafine airborne particles in the most safe manner involving sieving principle and surface filtration. The successful synthesis of PA-56 NFN medium would not only make it a promising candidate for air filtration, but also provide new insights into the design and development of nanonet-based bimodal structures for various applications. PMID:26188726

  16. Soil-based filtration technology for air purification: potentials for environmental and space life support application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Bohn, Hinrich

    Soil biofiltration, also known as Soil bed reactor (SBR), technology was originally developed in Germany to take advantage of the diversity in microbial mechanisms to control gases producing malodor in industrial processes. The approach has since gained wider international acceptance and seen numerous improvements, for example, by the use of high-organic compost beds to maximize microbial processes. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms which underlay soil processes involved in air purification, advantages and limitations of the technology and the cur-rent research status of the approach. Soil biofiltration has lower capital and operating/energetic costs than conventional technologies and is well adapted to handle contaminants in moderate concentrations. The systems can be engineered to optimize efficiency though manipulation of temperature, pH, moisture content, soil organic matter and airflow rates. SBR technology was modified for application in the Biosphere 2 project, which demonstrated in preparatory research with a number of closed system testbeds that soil could also support crop plants while also serving as soil filters with air pumps to push air through the soil. This Biosphere 2 research demonstrated in several closed system testbeds that a number of important trace gases could be kept under control and led to the engineering of the entire agricultural soil of Biosphere 2 to serve as a soil filtration unit for the facility. Soil biofiltration, coupled with food crop produc-tion, as a component of bioregenerative space life support systems has the advantages of lower energy use and avoidance of the consumables required for other air purification approaches. Expanding use of soil biofiltration can aid a number of environmental applications, from the mitigation of indoor air pollution, improvement of industrial air emissions and prevention of accidental release of toxic gases.

  17. Development of an Indexing Media Filtration System for Long Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    The effective maintenance of air quality aboard spacecraft cabins will be vital to future human exploration missions. A key component will be the air cleaning filtration system which will need to remove a broad size range of particles derived from multiple biological and material sources. In addition, during surface missions any extraterrestrial planetary dust, including dust generated by near-by ISRU equipment, which is tracked into the habitat will also need to be managed by the filtration system inside the pressurized habitat compartments. An indexing media filter system is being developed to meet the demand for long-duration missions that will result in dramatic increases in filter service life and loading capacity, and will require minimal crew involvement. The filtration system consists of three stages: an inertial impactor stage, an indexing media stage, and a high-efficiency filter stage, packaged in a stacked modular cartridge configuration. Each stage will target a specific range of particle sizes that optimize the filtration and regeneration performance of the system. An 1/8th scale and full-scale prototype of the filter system have been fabricated and have been tested in the laboratory and reduced gravity environments that simulate conditions on spacecrafts, landers and habitats. Results from recent laboratory and reduce-gravity flight tests data will be presented. The features of the new filter system may also benefit other closed systems, such as submarines, and remote location terrestrial installations where servicing and replacement of filter units is not practical.

  18. Development of an Indexing Media Filtration System for Long Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    The effective maintenance of air quality aboard spacecraft cabins will be vital to future human exploration missions. A key component will be the air cleaning filtration system which will need to remove a broad size range of particles including skin flakes, hair and clothing fibers, other biological matter, and particulate matter derived from material and equipment wear. In addition, during surface missions any extraterrestrial planetary dust, including dust generated by near-by ISRU equipment, which is tracked into the habitat will also need to be managed by the filtration system inside the pressurized habitat compartments. An indexing media filter system is being developed to meet the demand for long-duration missions that will result in dramatic increases in filter service life and loading capacity, and will require minimal crew involvement. These features may also benefit other closed systems, such as submarines, and remote location terrestrial installations where servicing and replacement of filter units is not practical. The filtration system consists of three stages: an inertial impactor stage, an indexing media stage, and a high-efficiency filter stage, packaged in a stacked modular cartridge configuration. Each stage will target a specific range of particle sizes that optimize the filtration and regeneration performance of the system. An 1/8th scale and full-scale prototype of the filter system have been fabricated and have been tested in the laboratory and reduced gravity environments that simulate conditions on spacecrafts, landers and habitats. Results from recent laboratory and reducegravity flight tests data will be presented.

  19. FRACTIONAL AEROSOL FILTRATION EFFICIENCY OF IN-DUCT VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The filtration efficiency of ventilation air cleaners is highly particle-size dependent over the 0.01 to 3 μm diameter size range. Current standardized test methods, which determine only overall efficiencies for ambient aerosol or other test aerosols, provide data of limited util...

  20. ELECTROSTATIC AUGMENTATION OF FABRIC FILTRATION: REVERSE-AIR PILOT UNIT EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the use of a pilot unit (consisting of two baghouses in a parallel-flow arrangement on a slipstream from an industrial pulverized-coal boiler house) to test electrostatically augmented fabric filtration (ESFF) in a reverse-air cleaning mode. ESFF is character...

  1. Soy-Protein-Based Nanofabrics for Highly Efficient and Multifunctional Air Filtration.

    PubMed

    Souzandeh, Hamid; Johnson, Kyle S; Wang, Yu; Bhamidipaty, Keshava; Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2016-08-10

    Proteins are well-known by their numerous active functional groups along the polypeptide chain. The variety of functional groups of proteins provides a great potential for proteins to interact with airborne pollutants with varying surface properties. However, to our knowledge, a successful demonstration of this potential has not been reported before. In this work, soy protein, a type of abundant plant protein, has been employed for the first time to fabricate multifunctional air-filtration materials. To take advantage of the functional groups of soy protein for air filtration, the soy protein was first well denatured to unfold the polypeptide chains and then fabricated into nanofibers with the help of poly(vinyl alcohol). It was found that the resultant nanofabrics showed high filtration efficiency not only for airborne particulates with a broad range of size but also for various toxic gaseous chemicals (e.g., formaldehyde and carbon monoxide), a capability that has not been realized by conventional air-filtering materials. This study indicates that protein-based nanofabrics are promising nanomaterials for multifunctional air-filtration applications. PMID:27439677

  2. An indoor air filtration study in homes of elderly: cardiovascular and respiratory effects of exposure to particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate air pollution increases respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly, possibly through inflammation and vascular dysfunction. Methods We examined potential beneficial effects of indoor air filtration in the homes of elderly, including people taking vasoactive drugs. Forty-eight nonsmoking subjects (51 to 81 years) in 27 homes were included in this randomized, double-blind, crossover intervention study with consecutive two-week periods with or without the inclusion of a high-efficiency particle air filter in re-circulating custom built units in their living room and bedroom. We measured blood pressure, microvascular and lung function and collected blood samples for hematological, inflammation, monocyte surface and lung cell damage markers before and at day 2, 7 and 14 during each exposure scenario. Results The particle filters reduced the median concentration of PM2.5 from approximately 8 to 4 μg/m3 and the particle number concentration from 7669 to 5352 particles/cm3. No statistically significant effects of filtration as category were observed on microvascular and lung function or the biomarkers of systemic inflammation among all subjects, or in the subgroups taking (n = 11) or not taking vasoactive drugs (n = 37). However, the filtration efficacy was variable and microvascular function was within 2 days significantly increased with the actual PM2.5 decrease in the bedroom, especially among 25 subjects not taking any drugs. Conclusion Substantial exposure contrasts in the bedroom and no confounding by drugs appear required for improved microvascular function by air filtration, whereas no other beneficial effect was found in this elderly population. PMID:24373585

  3. Influence of combined dust reducing carpet and compact air filtration unit on the indoor air quality of a classroom.

    PubMed

    Scheepers, Paul T J; de Hartog, Jeroen J; Reijnaerts, Judith; Beckmann, Gwendolyn; Anzion, Rob; Poels, Katrien; Godderis, Lode

    2015-02-01

    Primary schools mostly rely on natural ventilation but also have an interest in affordable technology to improve indoor air quality (IAQ). Laboratory tests show promising results for dust reducing carpets and compact air filtration systems but there is no information available on the performance of these interventions in actual operating classrooms. An exploratory study was performed to evaluate a combination of the two systems in a primary school. Measurements of PM-10 and PM-2.5 were performed by filter sampling and aerosol spectrometry. Other IAQ parameters included black smoke (BS), volatile organic compounds (VOC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde. Both interventions were introduced in one classroom during one week, using another classroom as a reference. In a second week the interventions were moved to the other classroom, using the first as a reference (cross-over design). In three remaining weeks the classrooms were compared without interventions. Indoor IAQ parameters were compared to the corresponding outdoor parameters using the indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio. When the classrooms were occupied (teaching hours) interventions resulted in 27-43% reductions of PM-10, PM-2.5 and BS values. During the weekends the systems reduced these levels by 51-87%. Evaluations using the change in I/O ratios gave comparable results. Levels of VOC, NO2 and formaldehyde were rather low and a contribution of the interventions to the improvement of these gas phase IAQ parameters was inconclusive. PMID:25380291

  4. Hierarchically structured polysulfone/titania fibrous membranes with enhanced air filtration performance.

    PubMed

    Wan, Huigao; Wang, Na; Yang, Jianmao; Si, Yinsong; Chen, Kun; Ding, Bin; Sun, Gang; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Yu, Jianyong

    2014-03-01

    Hierarchically structured, superhydrophobic filter medium exhibiting robust filtration performance to airborne particulate were prepared by a facile deposition of electrospun polysulfone/titania nanoparticles (PSU/TiO2 NPs) on a conventional nonwoven substrate. The air permeability, tensile strength and abrasion resistance of pristine PSU fibrous membranes could be finely controlled by regulating the solvent composition and number ratios of jets. By employing the TiO2 NPs incorporation, the pristine PSU fibers were endowed with promising superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of up to 152°. The quantitative hierarchical roughness analysis using N2 adsorption method has confirmed the major contribution of TiO2 NPs on enhancing the porous structure and surface fractal features with irregular rough structure. Filtration performance studies have revealed that the filtration efficiency and pressure drop of resultant hybrid membranes could be manipulated by tuning the surface composition as well as the hierarchical structures. Furthermore, the as-prepared PSU/TiO2-5 membrane exhibited improved filtration efficiency (99.997%) and pressure drop (45.3 Pa) compared with pristine PSU membrane, which would make them a promising media for fine particle filtration, and a new insight was also provided into the design and development of high performance filter medium based on hierarchical structured fibers. PMID:24407655

  5. Modelling contaminant transport for pumping wells in riverbank filtration systems.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Shaymaa; Bahar, Arifah; Aziz, Zainal Abdul; Suratman, Saim

    2016-01-01

    Analytical study of the influence of both the pumping well discharge rate and pumping time on contaminant transport and attenuation is significant for hydrological and environmental science applications. This article provides an analytical solution for investigating the influence of both pumping time and travelling time together for one-dimensional contaminant transport in riverbank filtration systems by using the Green's function approach. The basic aim of the model is to understand how the pumping time and pumping rate, which control the travelling time, can affect the contaminant concentration in riverbank filtration systems. Results of analytical solutions are compared with the results obtained using a MODFLOW numerical model. Graphically, it is found that both analytical and numerical solutions have almost the same behaviour. Additionally, the graphs indicate that any increase in the pumping rate or simulation pumping time should increase the contamination in groundwater. The results from the proposed analytical model are well matched with the data collected from a riverbank filtration site in France. After this validation, the model is then applied to the first pilot project of a riverbank filtration system conducted in Malaysia. Sensitivity analysis results highlight the importance of degradation rates of contaminants on groundwater quality, for which higher utilization rates lead to the faster consumption of pollutants. PMID:26433356

  6. Control strategies for sub-micrometer particles indoors: model study of air filtration and ventilation.

    PubMed

    Jamriska, M; Morawska, L; Ensor, D S

    2003-06-01

    The effects of air filtration and ventilation on indoor particles were investigated using a single-zone mathematical model. Particle concentration indoors was predicted for several I/O conditions representing scenarios likely to occur in naturally and mechanically ventilated buildings. The effects were studied for static and dynamic conditions in a hypothetical office building. The input parameters were based on real-world data. For conditions with high particle concentrations outdoors, it is recommended to reduce the amount of outdoor air delivered indoors and the necessary reduction level can be quantified by the model simulation. Consideration should also be given to the thermal comfort and minimum outdoor air required for occupants. For conditions dominated by an indoor source, it is recommended to increase the amount of outdoor air delivered indoors and to reduce the amount of return air. Air filtration and ventilation reduce particle concentrations indoors, with the overall effect depending on efficiency, location and the number of filters applied. The assessment of indoor air quality for specific conditions could be easily calculated by the model using user-defined input parameters. PMID:12756003

  7. Recent trends in nanofibrous membranes and their suitability for air and water filtrations.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Ramalingam; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, engineered membranes have become a viable separation technology for a wide range of applications in environmental, food and biomedical fields. Membranes are now competitive compared to conventional techniques such as adsorption, ion exchangers and sand filters. The main advantage of membrane technology is the fact that it works without the addition of any chemicals, with relatively high efficiency and low energy consumption with well arranged process conductions. Hence they are widely utilized in biotechnology, food and drink manufacturing, air filtration and medical uses such as dialysis for kidney failure patients. Membranes from nanofibrous materials possess high surface area to volume ratio, fine tunable pore sizes and their ease of preparation prompted both industry and academic researchers to study their use in many applications. In this paper, modern concepts and current research progress on various nanofibrous membranes, such as water and air filtration media, are presented. PMID:24957734

  8. Recent Trends in Nanofibrous Membranes and Their Suitability for Air and Water Filtrations

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Ramalingam; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, engineered membranes have become a viable separation technology for a wide range of applications in environmental, food and biomedical fields. Membranes are now competitive compared to conventional techniques such as adsorption, ion exchangers and sand filters. The main advantage of membrane technology is the fact that it works without the addition of any chemicals, with relatively high efficiency and low energy consumption with well arranged process conductions. Hence they are widely utilized in biotechnology, food and drink manufacturing, air filtration and medical uses such as dialysis for kidney failure patients. Membranes from nanofibrous materials possess high surface area to volume ratio, fine tunable pore sizes and their ease of preparation prompted both industry and academic researchers to study their use in many applications. In this paper, modern concepts and current research progress on various nanofibrous membranes, such as water and air filtration media, are presented. PMID:24957734

  9. Filtration Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Ken; Hunsaker, Scot

    1997-01-01

    Examines how choice of commercial swimming-pool filtration systems is driven by the project-specific needs of the pools. Also highlighted are definitions of specific terms used when discussing filtration systems. Questions that pool designers can answer to make filtration-system purchasing decisions are listed. (GR)

  10. EFFECT ON 105KW NORTH WALL DUE TO ADDITION OF FILTRATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    CHO CS

    2010-03-08

    CHPRC D&D Projects is adding three filtration system on two 1-ft concrete pads adjacent to the north side of existing KW Basin building. This analysis is prepared to provide qualitative assessment based on the review of design information available for 105KW basin substructure. In the proposed heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) filtration pad designs a 2 ft gap will be maintained between the pads and the north end of the existing 1 05KW -Basin building. Filtration Skids No.2 and No.3 share one pad. It is conservative to evaluate the No.2 and No.3 skid pad for the wall assessment. Figure 1 shows the plan layout of the 105KW basin site and the location of the pads for the filtration system or HVAC skids. Figure 2 shows the cross-section elevation view of the pad. The concrete pad Drawing H-1-91482 directs the replacement of the existing 8-inch concrete pad with two new 1-ft think pads. The existing 8-inch pad is separated from the 105KW basin superstructure by an expansion joint of only half an inch. The concrete pad Drawing H-1-91482 shows the gap between the new proposed pads and the north wall and any overflow pits and sumps is 2-ft. Following analysis demonstrates that the newly added filtration units and their pads do not exceed the structural capacity of existing wall. The calculation shows that the total bending moment on the north wall due to newly added filtration units and pads including seismic load is 82.636 ft-kip/ft and is within the capacity of wall which is 139.0ft-kip/ft.

  11. Anti-deformed Polyacrylonitrile/Polysulfone Composite Membrane with Binary Structures for Effective Air Filtration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shichao; Liu, Hui; Yin, Xia; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Airborne particle filtration proposed for fibers requires their assembly into porous structures with small pore size and low packing density. The ability to maintain structural stability upon deformation stress in service is essential to ensure a highly porous packing material that functions reliably; however, it has proven extremely challenging. Here, we report a strategy to create anti-deformed poly(ethylene oxide)@polyacrylonitrile/polysulfone (PEO@PAN/PSU) composite membranes with binary structures for effective air filtration by combining multijet electrospinning and physical bonding process. Our approach allows the ambigenous fiber framework including thin PAN nanofibers and fluffy PSU microfibers, through which run interpenetrating PEO bonding structures, to assemble into stable filtration medium with tunable pore size and packing density by facilely optimizing the bimodal fiber construction and benefiting from the PEO inspiration. With the integrated features of small pore size, high porosity, and robust mechanical properties (8.2 MPa), the resultant composite membrane exhibits high filtration efficiency of 99.992%, low pressure drop of 95 Pa, and desirable quality factor of 0.1 Pa(-1); more significantly, it successfully gets rid of the potential safety hazards caused by unexpected structural collapsing under service stress. The synthesis of PEO@PAN/PSU medium would not only make it a promising candidate for PM2.5 governance but also provide a versatile strategy to design and develop stable porous membranes for various applications. PMID:26958995

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, PUROLATOR PRODUCTS AIR FILTRATION COMPANY, DMK804404 AND PB2424

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paint overspray arrestors (POAs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the particle filtration efficiency as a function of size for particles smaller than...

  13. Use of Recirculating Ventilation with Dust Filtration to Improve Wintertime Air Quality in a Swine Farrowing Room

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, T. Renée; Altmaier, Ralph; Jones, Samuel; Gassman, Rich; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a recirculating ventilation system with dust filtration was evaluated to determine its effectiveness to improve the air quality in a swine farrowing room of a concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO). Air was exhausted from the room (0.47 m3sec−1; 1000 cfm), treated with a filtration unit (Shaker-Dust Collector), and returned to the farrowing room to reduce dust concentrations while retaining heat necessary for livestock health. The air quality in the room was assessed over a winter, during which time limited fresh air is traditionally brought into the building. Over the study period, dust concentrations ranged from 0.005 to 0.31 mg m−3 (respirable) and 0.17 to 2.09 mg m−3 (inhalable). In-room dust concentrations were reduced (41% for respirable and 33% for inhalable) with the system in operation, while gas concentrations (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], carbon monoxide [CO], carbon dioxide [CO2]) were unchanged. The position of the exhaust and return air systems provided reasonably uniform contaminant distributions, although the respirable dust concentrations nearest one of the exhaust ducts was statistically higher than other locations in the room, with differences averaging only 0.05 mg m−3. Throughout the study, CO2 concentrations consistently exceeded 1540 ppm (industry recommendations) and on eight of the 18 study days it exceeded 2500 ppm (50% of the ACGIH TLV), with significantly higher concentrations near a door to a temperature-controlled hallway that was typically often left open. Alternative heaters are recommended to reduce CO2 concentrations in the room. Contaminant concentrations were modeled using production and environmental factors, with NH3 related to the number of sow in the room and outdoor temperatures and CO2 related to the number of piglets and outdoor temperatures. The recirculating ventilation system provided dust reduction without increasing concentrations of hazardous gases. PMID:25950713

  14. Use of Recirculating Ventilation With Dust Filtration to Improve Wintertime Air Quality in a Swine Farrowing Room.

    PubMed

    Anthony, T Renée; Altmaier, Ralph; Jones, Samuel; Gassman, Rich; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a recirculating ventilation system with dust filtration was evaluated to determine its effectiveness to improve the air quality in a swine farrowing room of a concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO). Air was exhausted from the room (0.47 m(3) sec(-1); 1000 cfm), treated with a filtration unit (Shaker-Dust Collector), and returned to the farrowing room to reduce dust concentrations while retaining heat necessary for livestock health. The air quality in the room was assessed over a winter, during which time limited fresh air is traditionally brought into the building. Over the study period, dust concentrations ranged from 0.005-0.31 mg m(-3) (respirable) and 0.17-2.09 mg m(-3) (inhalable). In-room dust concentrations were reduced (41% for respirable and 33% for inhalable) with the system in operation, while gas concentrations (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], carbon monoxide [CO], carbon dioxide [CO2]) were unchanged. The position of the exhaust and return air systems provided reasonably uniform contaminant distributions, although the respirable dust concentrations nearest one of the exhaust ducts was statistically higher than other locations in the room, with differences averaging only 0.05 mg m(-3). Throughout the study, CO2 concentrations consistently exceeded 1540 ppm (industry recommendations) and on eight of the 18 study days it exceeded 2500 ppm (50% of the ACGIH TLV), with significantly higher concentrations near a door to a temperature-controlled hallway that was typically often left open. Alternative heaters are recommended to reduce CO2 concentrations in the room. Contaminant concentrations were modeled using production and environmental factors, with NH3 related to the number of sow in the room and outdoor temperatures and CO2 related to the number of piglets and outdoor temperatures. The recirculating ventilation system provided dust reduction without increasing concentrations of hazardous gases. PMID:25950713

  15. Electrostatic augmentation of fabric filtration: Reverse-air pilot unit experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanosdell, D. W.; Furlong, D. A.

    1984-08-01

    The use of a pilot unit (consisting of two baghouses in a parallel-flow arrangement on a slipstream from an industrial pulverized-coal boiler house) to test electrostatically augmented fabric filtration (ESFF) in a reverse-air cleaning model is described. The method is characterized by electrodes arranged about 2 cm apart around the circumference of the bag and running the length of the bag. An electric field of 2-4 kV/cm is maintained between the electrodes and perpendicular to the gas flow. Results showed that ESFF can reduce fabric filter pressure drops and may allow reverse-air filtration at a 2 cm/s face velocity, rather than the conventional 1 cm/s. A filter bag with stainless steel electrodes woven into the fabric was developed for the reverse-air tests as part of this research. The woven-in electrode and the potential for doubling the face velocity appear to make ESFF economically attractive for commercial baghouse users.

  16. Fine filtration fabric options designed to help meet the increased demand for more efficient air pollution control equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, A.

    1999-07-01

    The ability to successfully design, purchase, install, and operate air pollution control equipment while still maintaining clean air requirements has become a real challenge to the production sector. Fabric selection for fabric filter dust collectors is part of the air pollution control equipment decision that must be made on a site-specific basis and cannot be generalized from dust collector to dust collector. Filter bags/elements represent a major investment as well as a highly technical decision, which warrants extensive evaluation. After choosing the correct filter bags/elements, it is equally important to protect them in order to keep production at maximum capacity while keeping emissions as low as possible. This paper will discuss the fact that each dust collector has its own set of characteristics and system parameters that are important to evaluate in order to choose a fabric that is best suited for the system. Some of the variables include: Temperature; Moisture Level; Particulate Size; Gas Stream Chemistry; Air-To-Cloth Ratio; Particulate Abrasiveness; and mechanical factors, such as cleaning style, installation, etc. All of these variables will be discussed as they relate to fabric selection and dust collector operation. The specific characteristics of traditional filtration fabrics will also be reviewed to give the audience a proper understanding of what products are available in the marketplace. The main focus of the paper will then be devoted to the developments in filtration technology that have improved the efficiency and operation of dust collection systems in all industries and applications. These developments have been mostly in the areas of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane for fine particulate collection and pleated filter elements utilizing spun bonded media to increase cloth area and efficiency.

  17. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  18. Transport of micropollutants in a riverbank filtration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driezum, Inge; Oudega, Thomas; Reiner, Philipp; Zessner, Matthias; Farnleitner, Andreas; Blaschke, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater locations at alluvial backwaters are essential for public water supply. Riverbank filtration (RBF) systems are widely used as a means of obtaining public water supplies. Riverbank filtration is an effective way to remove micropollutants from the receiving surface water. The efficiency of the RBF system strongly depends on the residence time of the water in the aquifer and on the soil properties (Ray, 2011). In order to understand all bio- and geochemical processes within the hyporheic zone (e.g. the region were mixing of surface water and groundwater occurs), exchange rates and flow patterns need to be quantified. The main study area covers the porous groundwater aquifer study site (PGWA) - an urban floodplain extending on the left bank of the River Danube downstream of the City of Vienna. It is one of the main groundwater bodies in Austria. Groundwater quality in the PGWA is influenced by a combination of anthropogenic activities, industry, wastewater treatment plants, heavy precipitation events and floodings. The upper layer of the DPA is impermeable, preventing pollution originating from the surface. The upper layer consists of silt. The underlying confined aquifer consists of sand and gravel layers. Hydraulic conductivities range from 5 x 10-2 m/s up to 5 x 10-5 m/s. Underneath the aquifer are alternating sand an clay/silt layers. Samples are taken from two transects in the DPA. These transects consist of four piezometers in the first few meters of the groundwater aquifer. Several other piezometers are placed downstream from the river-groundwater interface. The behaviour of the micropollutants in the hyporheic zone can therefore be studied intensively. The transport behaviour of several micropollutants is modeled using carbamazepine (CBZ) and acesulfame (ACE) as natural tracers. Furthermore, temperature and electrical conductivity data was used for modeling. The micropollutants are measured using an in house developed online SPE-HPLC-MS/MS method

  19. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  20. Flaws in the design of Fe(0)-based filtration systems?

    PubMed

    Noubactep, Chicgoua

    2014-12-01

    Use of metallic iron (Fe(0)) for water treatment has attracted much attention over the passed two decades. Achieved results have recalled that the formation of voluminous, low-soluble iron oxides and hydroxides within the system is ubiquitous at pH>4.0. These properties imply that efficiency and porosity of Fe(0)-based filtration systems will decrease in the long-term. Some methods have been suggested to solve the identified problems. However, they could be collectively regarded as weak because they are based on a false description of the system. This note reveals two major inherent flaws in the design of Fe(0)-based filters and shows ways to fix them. PMID:24981839

  1. VAV/bypass filtration system controls VOCs, particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Meckler, M. )

    1994-03-01

    This article describes how a proprietary demand control ventilation system equipped with an IAQ sensor helps provide acceptable air quality, comfort, and cost effectiveness, especially with VAV systems. Properly implemented demand control ventilation (DCV) strategies can provide the opportunity to maintain acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ) in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 while offering significant energy savings. This article will introduce a proprietary DCV system already equipped with an IAQ sensor that directly measures the concentration of VOCs in an occupied space and accordingly modulates supply air rates to provide acceptable IAQ, comfort, and cost effectiveness, especially for variable air volume (VAV) systems. In addition, system filter and bypass filter selection criteria for both retrofit and new building applications will be outlined.

  2. Bacterial filtration efficiency of green soy protein based nanofiber air filter.

    PubMed

    Lubasova, D; Netravali, A; Parker, J; Ingel, B

    2014-07-01

    High bacterial filtration efficiency (BFE) filters, based on nanofibers derived from blends of grain proteins and poly-ethylene-oxide (PEO), were produced by an electrospinning process. Specifically, polymer blends consisting of purified soy flour/PEO with a ratio of 7/3 were spun into nanofibers and characterized. A new laboratory based experimental apparatus for testing BFE was designed and used to test BFE of bacterial aerosols consisting of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Performances of soy protein based nanofiber filters with nanofiber mass varying from 1 to 5 g/m2 as well as a nanofiber filters prepared from pure PEO were compared. The results showed that BFE values for filters containing 5 g/m2 protein based nanofibers and PEO nanofiber filter were 100 and 81.5%, respectively. The results also indicated that the BFE increased as the protein content in the nanofiber filter increased. These novel protein based nanofiber filters have demonstrated a clear potential for effective removal and retention of E. coli bacteria during air-filtration. These filters can be effectively deployed in environments such as hospitals and senior residential areas to reduce bacterial infections. PMID:24757959

  3. Ventilation or filtration? The use of gas-phase air filtration for compliance with ASHRAE Standard 62

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, C.O.; Friedman, A.B.

    1997-09-01

    ASHRAE Standard 62, in its current form, employs two procedures to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ) in buildings. These are the Ventilation Rate and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Procedures. This standard further endeavors to achieve the necessary balance between IAQ and energy consumption by specifying minimum ventilation rates and IAQ that will be acceptable to human occupants. The Ventilation Rate Procedure provides only an indirect solution for the control of indoor contaminants. While it does allow for the use of cleaned, recirculated air, it does not allow the use of this air is to be used to reduce the amount of outdoor air required, or for the implementation of energy conservation measures, the IAQ Procedure must be used. The IAQ Procedure provides a direct solution by reducing and controlling the concentrations of air contaminants, through air cleaning, to specified levels. This procedure allows for both quantitative and subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of the air cleaning method(s) employed. The standard acknowledges that air cleaning, along with recirculation, is an effective means for controlling contaminants when using the IAQ Procedure.

  4. Microfluidic filtration system to isolate extracellular vesicles from blood.

    PubMed

    Davies, Ryan T; Kim, Junho; Jang, Su Chul; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Gho, Yong Song; Park, Jaesung

    2012-12-21

    Extracellular vesicles are released by various cell types, particularly tumor cells, and may be potential targets for blood-based cancer diagnosis. However, studies performed on blood-borne vesicles to date have been limited by lack of effective, standardized purification strategies. Using in situ prepared nanoporous membranes, we present a simple strategy employing a microfluidic filtration system to isolate vesicles from whole blood samples. This method can be applied to purify nano-sized particles from blood allowing isolation of intact extracellular vesicles, avoiding the need for laborious and potentially damaging centrifugation steps or overly specific antibody-based affinity purification. Porous polymer monoliths were integrated as membranes into poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic chips by benchtop UV photopolymerization through a mask, allowing precise positioning of membrane elements while preserving simplicity of device preparation. Pore size could be manipulated by changing the ratio of porogenic solvent to prepolymer solution, and was tuned to a size proper for extraction of vesicles. Using the membrane as a size exclusion filter, we separated vesicles from cells and large debris by injecting whole blood under pressure through the microfluidic device. To enhance isolation purity, DC electrophoresis was employed as an alternative driving force to propel particles across the filter and increase the separation efficiency of vesicles from proteins. From the whole blood of melanoma-grown mice, we isolated extracellular vesicles and performed RT-PCR to verify their contents of RNA. Melan A mRNA derived from melanoma tumor cells were found enriched in filtered samples, confirming the recovery of vesicles via their cargo. This filtration system can be incorporated into other on-chip processes enabling integrated sample preparation for the downstream analysis of blood-based extracellular vesicles. PMID:23111789

  5. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  6. Grey water treatment in urban slums by a filtration system: optimisation of the filtration medium.

    PubMed

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2014-12-15

    Two uPVC columns (outer diameter 160 cm, internal diameter 14.6 cm and length 100 cm) were operated in parallel and in series to simulate grey water treatment by media based filtration at unsaturated conditions and constant hydraulic loading rates (HLR). Grey water from bathroom, laundry and kitchen activities was collected from 10 households in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala (Uganda) in separate containers, mixed in equal proportions followed by settling, prior to transferring the influent to the tanks. Column 1 was packed with lava rock to a depth of 60 cm, while column 2 was packed with lava rock (bottom 30 cm) and silica sand, which was later replaced by granular activated carbon (top 30 cm) to further investigate nutrient removal from grey water. Operating the two filter columns in series at a HLR of 20 cm/day resulted in a better effluent quality than at a higher (40 cm/day) HLR. The COD removal efficiencies by filter columns 1 and 2 in series amounted to 90% and 84% at HLR of 20 cm/day and 40 cm/day, respectively. TOC and DOC removal efficiency amounted to 77% and 71% at a HLR of 20 cm/day, but decreased to 72% and 67% at a HLR of 40 cm/day, respectively. The highest log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and total coliforms amounted to 3.68, 3.50 and 3.95 at a HLR of 20 cm/day respectively. The overall removal of pollutants increased with infiltration depth, with the highest pollutant removal efficiency occurring in the top 15 cm layer. Grey water pre-treatment followed by double filtration using coarse and fine media has the potential to reduce the grey water pollution load in slum areas by more than 60%. PMID:25169645

  7. Automated Filtration-Based High-Throughput Plasmid Preparation System

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Masayoshi; Kitsunai, Tokuji; Akiyama, Junichi; Shibata, Kazuhiro; Izawa, Masaki; Kawai, Jun; Tomaru, Yasuhiro; Carninci, Piero; Shibata, Yuko; Ozawa, Yasuhiro; Muramatsu, Masami; Okazaki, Yasushi; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    1999-01-01

    Current methods of plasmid preparation do not allow for large capacity automated processing. We have developed an automated high-throughput system that prepares plasmid DNA for large-scale sequencing. This system is based on our previously reported filtration method. In this method, cell harvesting, alkaline lysis, and plasmid purification occur in a single 96-well microtiter plate from which sequence-ready DNA samples are collected. The plates are designed to allow all reagents to be injected from above the wells and the spent reagents to be aspirated from below. This design has enabled us to build a linear process plasmid preparation system consisting of an automated filter plate stacker and a 21-stage automated plasmid preparator. The 96-well plates used are outfitted with glass-filters that trap Escherichia coli before the plates are stacked in the automated stacker. The plates move from the stacker to each of the 21 stages of the preparator. At specific stages, various reagents or chemicals are injected into the wells from above. Finally, the plates are collected in the second stacker. The optimal throughput of the preparator is 40,000 samples in 17.5 hr. Here, we describe a pilot experiment preparing 15,360 templates in 160 specially designed 96-well glass-filter plates. The prepared plasmids were subjected to restriction digestion, DNA sequencing, and transcriptional sequencing. PMID:10330126

  8. Instituting a filtration/pressurization system to reduce dust concentrations in a control room at a mineral processing plant

    PubMed Central

    Noll, J.; Cecala, A.; Hummer, J.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has observed that many control rooms and operator compartments in the U.S. mining industry do not have filtration systems capable of maintaining low dust concentrations in these areas. In this study at a mineral processing plant, to reduce respirable dust concentrations in a control room that had no cleaning system for intake air, a filtration and pressurization system originally designed for enclosed cabs was modified and installed. This system was composed of two filtering units: one to filter outside air and one to filter and recirculate the air inside the control room. Eighty-seven percent of submicrometer particles were reduced by the system under static conditions. This means that greater than 87 percent of respirable dust particles should be reduced as the particle-size distribution of respirable dust particles is greater than that of submicrometer particles, and filtration systems usually are more efficient in capturing the larger particles. A positive pressure near 0.02 inches of water gauge was produced, which is an important component of an effective system and minimizes the entry of particles, such as dust, into the room. The intake airflow was around 118 cfm, greater than the airflow suggested by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) for acceptable indoor air quality. After one year, the loading of the filter caused the airflow to decrease to 80 cfm, which still produces acceptable indoor air quality. Due to the loading of the filters, the reduction efficiency for submicrometer particles under static conditions increased to 94 percent from 87 percent. PMID:26834293

  9. Polymer filtration systems for dilute metal ion recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Jarvinen, G.D.

    1998-12-01

    Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a metal recovery system that meets the global treatment demands for all kinds of industrial and metal-processing streams. The Polymer Filtration (PF) System--a process that is easily operated and robust--offers metal-finishing businesses a convenient and inexpensive way to recover and recycle metal ions in-house, thus reducing materials costs, waste removal costs, and industrial liability. As a valuable economic and environmental asset, the PF System has been named a winner of a 1995 R and D 100 Award. These awards are presented annually by R and D Magazine to the one hundred most significant technical innovations of the year. The PF System is based on the use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers and on advanced ultrafiltration membranes. Customers for this technology will receive new soluble polymers, especially formulated for their waste stream, and the complete PF processing unit: a reaction reservoir, pumps, plumbing, controls, and the advanced ultrafiltration membranes, all in a skid mounted frame. Metal-bearing waste water is treated in the reaction reservoir, where the polymer binds with the metal ions under balanced acid/base conditions. The reservoir fluid is then pumped through the ultrafiltration system--a cartridge packed with ultrafiltration membranes shaped in hollow fibers. As the fluid travels inside the fiber, water and other small molecules--simple salts such as calcium and sodium, for example--pass through the porous membrane walls of the fibers and are discharged through the outlet as permeate. The polymer-bound metal, which is too large to pass through the pores, is both purified and concentrated inside the hollow fibers and is returned to the fluid reservoir for further waste water treatment.

  10. Portable water filtration system for oil well fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, D. L.

    1985-08-13

    The invention comprises a portable, multi-stage filtration system utilized in filtering water for an oil and gas stimulation process commonly known as fracking. Three stages are used, the first being a straining operation reducing the size of particulate matter in the water to about three-eighths of an inch. The second stage is a centrifugal separator, reducing the particle size to about 50 microns. The final stage utilizes a cartridge-type filter giving a final particle size in the water of about 5 microns. In this manner, water which is injected into the well head during the fracking process and which is obtained from readily available sources such as ponds, streams and the like is relatively free of particulate matter which can foul the fracking process. The invention, by virtue of being mounted on a trailer, is portable and thus can be easily moved from site to site. Water flow rates obtained using the invention are between 250 and 300 gallons per minute, sufficient for processing a small to medium sized well.

  11. NANOSTRUCTURED MEMBRANES FOR FILTRATION, DISINFECTION, AND REMEDIATION OF AQUEOUS AND GASEOUS SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The expected result of this research is a new nanostructured system for the treatment and remediation of aqueous and gaseous environments with improved efficiency over current filtration technologies. The multiple functions that these chitosan membranes will serve (removal,...

  12. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  13. Aerosol generation by blower motors as a bias in assessing aerosol penetration into cabin filtration systems.

    PubMed

    Heitbrink, William A; Collingwood, Scott

    2005-01-01

    In cabin filtration systems, blower motors pressurize a vehicle cabin with clean filtered air and recirculate air through an air-conditioning evaporator coil and a heater core. The exposure reduction offered by these cabins is evaluated by optical particle counters that measure size-dependent aerosol concentration inside and outside the cabin. The ratio of the inside-to-outside concentration is termed penetration. Blower motors use stationary carbon brushes to transmit an electrical current through a rotating armature that abrades the carbon brushes. This creates airborne dust that may affect experimental evaluations of aerosol penetration. To evaluate the magnitude of these dust emissions, blower motors were placed in a test chamber and operated at 12 and 13.5 volts DC. A vacuum cleaner drew 76 m3/hour (45 cfm) of air through HEPA filters, the test chamber, and through a 5 cm diameter pipe. An optical particle counter drew air through an isokinetic sampling probe and measured the size-dependent particle concentrations from 0.3 to 15 microm. The concentration of blower motor aerosol was between 2 x 10(5) and 1.8 x 10(6) particles/m3. Aerosol penetration into three stationary vehicles, two pesticide application vehicles and one tractor were measured at two conditions: low concentration (outside in the winter) and high concentration (inside repair shops and burning incense sticks used as a supplemental aerosol source). For particles smaller than 1 microm, the in-cabin concentrations can be explained by the blower motor emissions. For particles larger than 1 microm, other aerosol sources, such as resuspended dirt, are present. Aerosol generated by the operation of the blower motor and by other sources can bias the exposure reduction measured by optical particle counters. PMID:15764523

  14. Simultaneous reduction of particulate matter and NO(x) emissions using 4-way catalyzed filtration systems.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jacob J; Watts, Winthrop F; Newman, Robert A; Ziebarth, Robin R; Kittelson, David B

    2013-05-01

    The next generation of diesel emission control devices includes 4-way catalyzed filtration systems (4WCFS) consisting of both NOx and diesel particulate matter (DPM) control. A methodology was developed to simultaneously evaluate the NOx and DPM control performance of miniature 4WCFS made from acicular mullite, an advanced ceramic material (ACM), that were challenged with diesel exhaust. The impact of catalyst loading and substrate porosity on catalytic performance of the NOx trap was evaluated. Simultaneously with NOx measurements, the real-time solid particle filtration performance of catalyst-coated standard and high porosity filters was determined for steady-state and regenerative conditions. The use of high porosity ACM 4-way catalyzed filtration systems reduced NOx by 99% and solid and total particulate matter by 95% when averaged over 10 regeneration cycles. A "regeneration cycle" refers to an oxidizing ("lean") exhaust condition followed by a reducing ("rich") exhaust condition resulting in NOx storage and NOx reduction (i.e., trap "regeneration"), respectively. Standard porosity ACM 4-way catalyzed filtration systems reduced NOx by 60-75% and exhibited 99.9% filtration efficiency. The rich/lean cycling used to regenerate the filter had almost no impact on solid particle filtration efficiency but impacted NOx control. Cycling resulted in the formation of very low concentrations of semivolatile nucleation mode particles for some 4WCFS formulations. Overall, 4WCFS show promise for significantly reducing diesel emissions into the atmosphere in a single control device. PMID:23550802

  15. Isolation of the toluene degrading bacteria and application to the biotrickling filtration system of off-gas treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Shigeki

    1999-07-01

    The period of acclimation in biotrickling filtration system was studied using toluene degrading bacteria. Toluene degrading bacteria were isolated from the test biotrickling filtration apparatus used for the degradation of toluene off-gas. Five colonies found in an agar culture medium were identified to be toluene degrading bacteria; one was classified Acinetobacter genospecies 10 and the other four were Rhodococcus erythropolis. The count of the toluene degrading bacteria was 5.6 x 10 to the power 8th Colony Forming Units/ml-packing space. The toluene elimination activity was found to be 7.4 and 2.0 mg-toluene/g-dry cell/min for colony {number{underscore}sign}1 and colony {number{underscore}sign}2, respectively, using batch vial system. They were higher than that obtained when the original sludge in the test biotrickling filtration apparatus was applied to the same system. The performance of colony {number{underscore}sign}1 was also tested by the test biotrickling filtration system. Urethane foam, which constituted a lattice-like structure internally, was used as the microbial carrier. The artificial off-gas of 100ppm toluene/air was prepared with reagent grade chemical. The space velocity (versus the packed bed) was 100/h. Immediately after the start-up, the removal percentages of toluene was 39%, and it became 84% after two days continuous treatment. This result indicates that addition of colony {number{underscore}sign}1 was thus shown to be an effective means of shortening the acclimation period of a trickle bed biofilter.

  16. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  17. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin; Bergey, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  18. Evaluation of environmental filtration control of engineered nanoparticles using the Harvard Versatile Engineered Nanomaterial Generation System (VENGES).

    PubMed

    Tsai, Candace S-J; Echevarría-Vega, Manuel E; Sotiriou, Georgios A; Santeufemio, Christopher; Schmidt, Daniel; Demokritou, Philip; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Applying engineering controls to airborne engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is critical to prevent environmental releases and worker exposure. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two air sampling and six air cleaning fabric filters at collecting ENPs using industrially relevant flame-made engineered nanoparticles generated using a versatile engineered nanomaterial generation system (VENGES), recently designed and constructed at Harvard University. VENGES has the ability to generate metal and metal oxide exposure atmospheres while controlling important particle properties such as primary particle size, aerosol size distribution, and agglomeration state. For this study, amorphous SiO(2) ENPs with a 15.4 nm primary particle size were generated and diluted with HEPA-filtered air. The aerosol was passed through the filter samples at two different filtration face velocities (2.3 and 3.5 m/min). Particle concentrations as a function of particle size were measured upstream and downstream of the filters using a specially designed filter test system to evaluate filtration efficiency. Real time instruments (FMPS and APS) were used to measure particle concentration for diameters from 5 to 20,000 nm. Membrane-coated fabric filters were found to have enhanced nanoparticle collection efficiency by 20-46 % points compared to non-coated fabric and could provide collection efficiency above 95 %. PMID:23412707

  19. Evaluation of environmental filtration control of engineered nanoparticles using the Harvard Versatile Engineered Nanomaterial Generation System (VENGES)

    PubMed Central

    Echevarría-Vega, Manuel E.; Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Santeufemio, Christopher; Schmidt, Daniel; Demokritou, Philip; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Applying engineering controls to airborne engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is critical to prevent environmental releases and worker exposure. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two air sampling and six air cleaning fabric filters at collecting ENPs using industrially relevant flame-made engineered nanoparticles generated using a versatile engineered nanomaterial generation system (VENGES), recently designed and constructed at Harvard University. VENGES has the ability to generate metal and metal oxide exposure atmospheres while controlling important particle properties such as primary particle size, aerosol size distribution, and agglomeration state. For this study, amorphous SiO2 ENPs with a 15.4 nm primary particle size were generated and diluted with HEPA-filtered air. The aerosol was passed through the filter samples at two different filtration face velocities (2.3 and 3.5 m/min). Particle concentrations as a function of particle size were measured upstream and downstream of the filters using a specially designed filter test system to evaluate filtration efficiency. Real time instruments (FMPS and APS) were used to measure particle concentration for diameters from 5 to 20,000 nm. Membrane-coated fabric filters were found to have enhanced nanoparticle collection efficiency by 20–46 % points compared to non-coated fabric and could provide collection efficiency above 95 %. PMID:23412707

  20. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  1. Electret Polyvinylidene Fluoride Nanofibers Hybridized by Polytetrafluoroethylene Nanoparticles for High-Efficiency Air Filtration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Zhao, Xinglei; Yin, Xia; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2016-09-14

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution has become a severe environmental concern calling for electret fibrous materials with high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop. However, restraining the dissipation of the electric charges in service to ensure the stabilized electrostatic force of the fibers for effectively adsorbing particles is extremely important and also challenging. Herein, we report novel electret nanofibrous membranes with numerous charges and desirable charge stability using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as the matrix polymer and polytetrafluoroethylene nanoparticles (PTFE NPs) as an inspiring charge enhancer through the in situ charging technology of electrospinning. Benefiting from the employment of PTFE NPs and optimized injection energy, the fibrous membranes are endowed with elevated surface potentials from 0.42 to 3.63 kV and reduced decrement of charges from 75.4 to 17.5%, which contribute to the ameliorative stability of filtration efficiency. Significantly, an electret mechanism is proposed, while deepened depth of the energy level and incremental polarized dipole charges with increasing PTFE NP concentrations and injection energy have been confirmed through the measurement of open-circuit thermally stimulated discharge and surface potential decay. Ultimately, the resultant fibrous membrane exhibited a high filtration efficiency of 99.972%, a low pressure drop of 57 Pa, a satisfactory quality factor of 0.14 Pa(-1), and superior long-term service performance. The successful fabrication of such an intriguing material may provide a new approach for the design and development of electret materials for PM2.5 governance. PMID:27552028

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, PUROLATOR PRODUCTS AIR FILTRATION CO. D95084415, DMK 80-4404 AND PB2424

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of March 26-29, 1999, tests of Purolator Products Air Filtration Co's D95084415, DMK80-4404, and PB2424 paint overspray arrestors (POAs) as part of an evaluation of POAs by EPA's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Environmental Technology Verificatio...

  3. Description of the surface water filtration and ozone treatment system at the Northeast Fishery Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A water filtration and ozone disinfection system was installed at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania to treat a surface water supply that is used to culture sensitive and endangered fish. The treatment system first passes the surface water through dr...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM: Stormwater Source Area Treatment Device - Arkal Pressurized Stormwater Filtration System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance verification testing of the Arkal Pressurized Stormwater Filtration System was conducted under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program on a 5.5-acre parking lot and grounds of St. Mary's Hospital in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The system consists of a water sto...

  5. SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION OF THE SBP TECHNOLOGIES, INC. MEMBRANE FILTRATION SYSTEM ON CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formed-in-place, membrane filtration system offered by SBP Technologies, Inc. of Stone Mountain, Georgia was evaluated by the U.S. EPA Superfund Inno- vative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The evaluation lasted six days; ap- proximately 1000 gallons per day of water co...

  6. Small Water System Alternatives: Media and Membrane Filtration Alternatives for Small Communities and Households

    EPA Science Inventory

    This webinar presentation will highlight research case studies on innovative drinking water treatment alternatives for small community water systems. Emphasis will be placed on media and membrane filtration technologies capable of meeting the requirements of the Long-Term 2 Enha...

  7. REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: ARS CFU-50 APC ELECTROFLOCCULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETV testing of the ARS CFU-50 APC Electroflocculation and Filtration Water Treatment System (ARS CFU-50 APC) for arsenic removal was conducted at the Town of Bernalillo Well #3 site from April 18 through May 2, 2006. The source water was chlorinated groundwater from two supply w...

  8. ASSESSMENT OF A HIGH-VELOCITY FABRIC FILTRATION SYSTEM USED TO CONTROL FLY ASH EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a full-scale investigation (following a pilot plant study) of applying high-velocity fabric filtration to coal-fired boiler fly ash control. Two filter systems were applied separately to two 60,000 lb steam/hr coal-fired boilers. Performance evaluated ...

  9. Air cleaning system

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, J.H.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes an air cleaning system comprising: a motor housing; a motor mounted within the housing; a fan attached to and rotatably driven by the motor; a fan chamber surrounding the fan and having an air inlet and outlet; a separator housing means mounted adjacent to and in spaced relation with the motor housing, the separator housing means having an inlet disposed in communication with a chamber within separator housing means; an outlet disposed in communication with the fan chamber; an air driven separator means mounted in chamber of the separator housing means to receive airflow from inlet for rotation of the separator means and removal of foreign matter from airflow by centrifugal force responsive to rotation of the separator means; the airflow is further directed through the outlet of separator housing means to the fan chamber to be ejected by the fan.

  10. Self-Driven Desalination and Advanced Treatment of Wastewater in a Modularized Filtration Air Cathode Microbial Desalination Cell.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Kuichang; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Zuo, Jiaolan; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2016-07-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) extract organic energy from wastewater for in situ desalination of saline water. However, to desalinate salt water, traditional MDCs often require an anolyte (wastewater) and a catholyte (other synthetic water) to produce electricity. Correspondingly, the traditional MDCs also produced anode effluent and cathode effluent, and may produce a concentrate solution, resulting in a low production of diluate. In this study, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube membranes and Pt carbon cloths were utilized as filtration material and cathode to fabricate a modularized filtration air cathode MDC (F-MDC). With real wastewater flowing from anode to cathode, and finally to the middle membrane stack, the diluate volume production reached 82.4%, with the removal efficiency of salinity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reached 93.6% and 97.3% respectively. The final diluate conductivity was 68 ± 12 μS/cm, and the turbidity was 0.41 NTU, which were sufficient for boiler supplementary or industrial cooling. The concentrate production was only 17.6%, and almost all the phosphorus and salt, and most of the nitrogen were recovered, potentially allowing the recovery of nutrients and other chemicals. These results show the potential utility of the modularized F-MDC in the application of municipal wastewater advanced treatment and self-driven desalination. PMID:27269411

  11. Electric air filtration: theory, laboratory studies, hardware development, and field evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.; Kuhl, W.; Lum, B.; Bogdanoff, A.; Hebard, H.; Hall, M.; Banks, D.; Mazumder, M.; Johnson, J.

    1983-09-01

    We summarize the results of a seven-year research project for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop electric air filters that extend the service life of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used in the nuclear industry. This project was unique to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and it entailed comprehensive theory, laboratory studies, and hardware development. We present our work in three major areas: (1) theory of and instrumentation for filter test methods, (2) theoretical and laboratory studies of electric air filters, and (3) development and evaluation of eight experimental electric air filters.

  12. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  13. Filtration and flocculation in industrial processes. (Latest citations from Fluidex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical aspects, system design, evaluations, and standards for filtration and flocculation techniques and equipment used in various industrial processes. Applications include air filtration, dust collection, water filtration, dewatering, and flocculant separation. A variety of filter types and flocculation mechanisms is discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    A. Rudd and D. Bergey

    2015-08-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs.

  15. Development of a novel bag-mediated filtration system for environmental recovery of poliovirus.

    PubMed

    Fagnant, Christine Susan; Beck, Nicola Koren; Yang, Ming-Fong; Barnes, Kilala Sayisha; Boyle, David S; Meschke, John Scott

    2014-12-01

    Poliovirus (PV) is on the verge of global eradication. Due to asymptomatic shedding, eradication certification requires environmental and clinical surveillance. Current environmental surveillance methods involve collection and processing of 400-mL to 1-L grab samples by a two-phase separation method, where sample volume limits detection sensitivity. Filtration of larger sample volumes facilitates increased detection sensitivity. This study describes development of a pumpless in-field filtration system for poliovirus recovery from environmental waters. Recovery of PV types 1, 2, and 3 were compared for glass wool, ViroCap, and NanoCeram (PV1 only) filters. Seeded experiments were performed using 10(5) plaque forming units of PV inoculated into 10-L volumes of secondary effluent, surface water, or a 50:50 mixture of each at pH 7.0. Filter eluates were plated onto buffalo green monkey kidney cells for virus enumeration by plaque assay. Across all water types, recovery from glass wool filters for PV1, PV2, and PV3 averaged 17%, 28%, and 6%, respectively. Recovery from ViroCaps for PV1, PV2, and PV3 averaged 44%, 70%, and 81%, respectively. 10-L samples of moderate turbidity water were processed through ViroCap filters in less than 30 minutes using a pumpless, bag-mediated filtration system. Bag-mediated filtration offers a simple, compact, and efficient method for enhanced environmental PV surveillance. PMID:25473984

  16. Membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation to treat recirculating aquaculture system effluents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling; Zhou, Hongde; Moccia, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Effluents from recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contain high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous wastes and thus often require proper treatment to prevent potential detrimental impacts on receiving water bodies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation as a pretreatment step with emphasis on phosphorus removal from RAS effluents. Chemical precipitation tests were conducted by adding magnesium chloride and alum at different chemical concentrations and pH values, respectively. Crossflow, flat-sheet membrane filtration modules were used to examine the effects of transmembrane pressure and crossflow velocity in terms of solid/liquid separation efficiency and permeate flux decline. The results showed that membrane filtration can effectively separate the phosphorus precipitates after chemical precipitation. The total phosphorus in the treated effluent was reduced to less than 0.05 mg L(-1) with a removal efficiency of more than 90%. However, much lower removal efficiencies were obtained for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, and turbidity. It was concluded that membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation can become an effective, compact treatment technology to meet the stringent regulatory requirements for RAS effluent discharge. PMID:17071913

  17. Canine Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. TRANSMISSION OF SEROLOGIC ABNORMALITIES BY CELL-FREE FILTRATES

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Robert M.; Andre-Schwartz, Janine; Harbis, Gerald S.; Hirsch, Martin S.; Black, Paul H.; Schwartz, Robert S.

    1973-01-01

    The presence of viruses was sought in a colony of dogs bred from parents with systemic lupus crythematosus (SLE). Cell-free filtrates prepared from the spleens of these animals were injected into newborn dogs, mice, and rats. The canine recipients developed antinuclear antibody (ANA) and positive lupus erythematosus (LE) cell tests: ANA and, in some cases, antinative DNA antibodies were produced by the murine recipients: no abnormalities were detected in the rats. Serial passage of spleen cells or cell-free filtrates of spleen tissue in syngeneic mice reduced the time required for appearance of ANA from 9 to 4 mo. Some murine recipients of the canine filtrate developed malignant lymphomas. Murine leukemia viruses were identified in these tumors by electron microscopic, virologic, and serologic technics. These neoplasms, but not other tumors known to contain murine leukemia viruses, were associated with the production of ANA. Puppies inoculated with the canine filtrate-induced mouse lymphoma developed ANA and positive LE cell tests within 4 mo. The results were interpreted to indicate the presence in canine SLE of a virus capable of: (a) inducing the serologic abnormalities of SLE in normal dogs and mice: (b) activating latent murine leukemia viruses: and (c) spreading by both horizonal and vertical routes. Images PMID:4124208

  18. Development of floating plastic media filtration system for water treatment and wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Chiemchaisri, C; Panchawaranon, C; Rutchatanunti, S; Kludpiban, A; Ngo, H H; Vigneswaran, S

    2003-01-01

    Floating plastic media coupled with sand filtration system was applied for treating surface water and secondary effluent from municipal sewage treatment plant. The system employed floating plastic media for the removal of suspended solids in surface water and precipitated phosphorus from secondary effluent of sewage treatment plant. Sand filtration was then used to remove further the suspended solids. For the purposes of wastewater reuse, a zeolite layer was used instead of sand filter to absorb ammonium nitrogen. Application of system for surface water treatment suggested appropriate filtration rate of 5 m3/m2 h. Polyaluminum chloride was found to be the best coagulant with an appropriate plastic and sand bed depth of 40 cm. The system could produce average effluent turbidity and suspended solids of 0.71 NTU and 0.94 mg/L respectively. Average turbidity and suspended solids removal efficiencies were 96.26% and 95.48% with low headloss development of 40.4 cm at the end of 6 h operation period. When applying 1.50 m. floating plastic media bed for the treatment of synthetic raw water, short and long-term turbidity removal efficiencies were 96.79-97.72% and 81.81-94.61% for raw water containing turbidity of 20 and 40 NTU. It could produce the effluent with turbidity less than 5NTU while having less than 1.0 m. headloss. The system was also applied for the secondary effluent treatment. An optimum filtration rate of 5 m3/m2 h was obtained when using plastic and sand bed depth of 60 and 20cm under direct filtration mode. Average turbidity removal was 60.3% and 59.6% after 6 and 48 h of operation. It was also found that 1 m3/m2 h filtration rate and 50:30 cm of plastic:zeolite bed could be used to achieve both ammonium nitrogen and phosphate removal. Suspended solids, turbidity, BOD5, NH4+, and PO4(3-) removal efficiencies were 91.9, 94.6, 95.4, 97.3, and 99.5% respectively after 24 h. As a result, the effluent from the system had average NH4+ and PO4(3-) of 0.5 mg N

  19. FIELD METHODS TO MEASURE CONTAMINANT REMOVAL EFFECTIVENESS OF GAS-PHASE AIR FILTRATION EQUIPMENT - PHASE 1: SEARCH OF LITERATURE AND PRIOR ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, Phase 1 of a two-phase research project, gives results of a literature search into the
    effectiveness of in-field gas-phase air filtration equipment (GPAFE) test methods, including required instrumentation and costs. GPAFE has been used in heating, ventilation, and ...

  20. Acoustic Filtration, Fractionation, and Mixing in Microfluidic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, A; Fisher, K

    2002-02-04

    This project is concerned with the research and development of a technique to manipulate small particles using acoustic energy coupled into a fluid filled plastic or glass sample chamber. These resulting miniaturized systems combine high functionality with an inexpensive, disposable sample chamber. Our approach to this problem is based on a combination of sophisticated modeling tools in conjunction with laboratory experiments. The design methodology is summarized in Figure 1. The process begins by investigating a wide range of device parameters using a one-dimensional analytical approximation. The results of these initial parameter studies are incorporated into a sophisticated three-dimensional multi-physics finite element code. From these simulations the optimized designs are prototyped and experimentally tested. The results of the experimental observations are then used to improve analytical approximations and the process is repeated as necessary.

  1. Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Jeffrey J.

    2010-04-30

    cyclonefiltration hybrid unit in the E-Gas (TM) gasification process. These reductions would help to keep the E-Gas (TM) technology competitive among other coal-fired power generation technologies. The Wabash combined cyclone and gas filtration slipstream test program was developed to provide design information, equipment specification and process control parameters of a hybrid cyclone and candle filter particulate removal system in the E-Gas (TM) gasification process that would provide the optimum performance and reliability for future commercial use. The test program objectives were as follows: 1. Evaluate the use of various cyclone materials of construction; 2. Establish the optimal cyclone efficiency that provides stable long term gas filter operation; 3. Determine the particle size distribution of the char separated by both the cyclone and candle filters. This will provide insight into cyclone efficiency and potential future plant design; 4. Determine the optimum filter media size requirements for the cyclone-filtration hybrid unit; 5. Determine the appropriate char transfer rates for both the cyclone and filtration portions of the hybrid unit; 6. Develop operating procedures for the cyclone-filtration hybrid unit; and, 7. Compare the installed capital cost of a scaled-up commercial cyclone-filtration hybrid unit to the current gas filtration design without a cyclone unit, such as currently exists at the Wabash facility.

  2. Future Air Force systems.

    PubMed

    Tremaine, S A

    1986-10-01

    Planning for the future is under way in earnest at the Aeronautical Systems Division (ASD) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It has been statistically established that it takes from 14-16 years from the generation of a new system idea to enter into engineering development. With this unpleasing, but realistic, schedule in mind, ASD has, during the last 3 years, been initiating long-term planning projects that are pre-starts for new system ideas. They are generated from throughout the Air Force and are locally managed and funded. Through this process, which spans from 12-14 months, specific and revolutionary new ideas for the systems of the future are generated. This article addresses more than a dozen specific new ideas in work at ASD today. These ideas range from a need to replace the C-130 type aircraft after the year 2000 to planning a follow-on to the B-18 well into the 21st century. Among other specific projects are investigation into an immortal fighter intended to be free of reliability and maintenance demands for an especially long period of operation, a new training system and advanced trainer to replace the T-38, a transatmospheric vehicle that could operate in the 100,000-500,000 foot flight region (30,480-152,400 m), and a new means of defending against hostile cruise missile launchers and cruise missiles. Other ideas are also addressed. The article concludes with emphasis on systems that can operate hypersonically in and out of the known atmosphere and greater use of airbreathing propulsion systems operating between Mach 3 and Mach 6. PMID:3778403

  3. Air ventilation and filtration. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the methods and equipment used to remove indoor particulate matter and the control of toxic vapors in industrial, residential and office buildings, and in mining operations. The citations discuss devices being developed and tested by private industry and government agencies to comply with federal clean-air regulations. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Measurement-Based Evaluation of Installed Filtration System Performance in Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wanyu Rengie; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-04-03

    This guide discusses important study design issues to consider when conducting an on-site evaluation of filtration system performance. The two most important dichotomies to consider in developing a study protocol are (1) whether systems are being evaluated in occupied or unoccupied homes and (2) whether different systems are being compared in the same homes or if the comparison is between systems installed in different homes. This document provides perspective and recommendations about a suite of implementation issues including the choice of particle measurement devices, selection of sampling locations, ways to control and/or monitor factors and processes that can impact particle concentrations, and data analysis approaches.

  5. Evaluating the Long-Term Health and Economic Impacts of Central Residential Air Filtration for Reducing Premature Mortality Associated with Indoor Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) of Outdoor Origin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dan; Azimi, Parham; Stephens, Brent

    2015-07-01

    Much of human exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) of outdoor origin occurs in residences. High-efficiency particle air filtration in central heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is increasingly being used to reduce concentrations of particulate matter inside homes. However, questions remain about the effectiveness of filtration for reducing exposures to PM2.5 of outdoor origin and adverse health outcomes. Here we integrate epidemiology functions and mass balance modeling to estimate the long-term health and economic impacts of HVAC filtration for reducing premature mortality associated with indoor PM2.5 of outdoor origin in residences. We evaluate 11 classifications of filters (MERV 5 through HEPA) using six case studies of single-family home vintages and ventilation system combinations located in 22 U.S. cities. We estimate that widespread use of higher efficiency filters would reduce premature mortality by 0.002-2.5% and increase life expectancy by 0.02-1.6 months, yielding annual monetary benefits ranging from $1 to $1348 per person in the homes and locations modeled herein. Large differences in the magnitude of health and economic impacts are driven largely by differences in rated filter efficiency and building and ventilation system characteristics that govern particle infiltration and persistence, with smaller influences attributable to geographic location. PMID:26197328

  6. Evaluating the Long-Term Health and Economic Impacts of Central Residential Air Filtration for Reducing Premature Mortality Associated with Indoor Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) of Outdoor Origin

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dan; Azimi, Parham; Stephens, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Much of human exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) of outdoor origin occurs in residences. High-efficiency particle air filtration in central heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is increasingly being used to reduce concentrations of particulate matter inside homes. However, questions remain about the effectiveness of filtration for reducing exposures to PM2.5 of outdoor origin and adverse health outcomes. Here we integrate epidemiology functions and mass balance modeling to estimate the long-term health and economic impacts of HVAC filtration for reducing premature mortality associated with indoor PM2.5 of outdoor origin in residences. We evaluate 11 classifications of filters (MERV 5 through HEPA) using six case studies of single-family home vintages and ventilation system combinations located in 22 U.S. cities. We estimate that widespread use of higher efficiency filters would reduce premature mortality by 0.002–2.5% and increase life expectancy by 0.02–1.6 months, yielding annual monetary benefits ranging from $1 to $1348 per person in the homes and locations modeled herein. Large differences in the magnitude of health and economic impacts are driven largely by differences in rated filter efficiency and building and ventilation system characteristics that govern particle infiltration and persistence, with smaller influences attributable to geographic location. PMID:26197328

  7. Investigation of optimum X-ray beam tube voltage and filtration for chest radiography with a computed radiography system.

    PubMed

    Moore, C S; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum tube voltage and amount of added copper (Cu) filtration for processed chest radiographs obtained with an Agfa 75.0 Computed Radiography (CR) system. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured in the lung, heart/spine and diaphragm compartments of a validated chest phantom using various tube voltages and amounts of Cu filtration. The CNR was derived as a function of air kerma at the CR plate and with the effective dose. As rib contrast can interfere with detection of nodules in chest radiography, a tissue-to-rib ratio (TRR) was derived to investigate which tube voltages suppress the contrast of rib. Although processing algorithms affect the signal and noise in a way that is hard to predict, we found that, for a given set of processing parameters, the CNR was related to the plate air kerma and effective dose in a logarithmic manner (all R(2) >or=0.97). For imaging of the lung region, a low voltage (60 kVp) produced the highest CNR, whereas a high voltage (125 kVp) produced the highest TRR. In the heart/spine region, 80-125 kVp produced the highest CNR, while in the diaphragm region 60-90 kVp produced the highest CNR. For chest radiography with this CR system, the optimal tube voltage depends upon the region of interest. Of the filters tested, a 0.1 mm Cu thickness was found to provide a statistically significant increase in the CNR in the diaphragm region with tube potentials of 60 kVp and 80 kVp, without affecting the CNR in the other anatomical compartments. PMID:18662964

  8. Gravimetric Analysis of Particulate Matter using Air Samplers Housing Internal Filtration Capsules

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Sean; O'Connor, Paula Fey; Feng, H. Amy

    2015-01-01

    Summary An evaluation was carried out to investigate the suitability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) internal capsules, housed within air sampling devices, for gravimetric analysis of airborne particles collected in workplaces. Experiments were carried out using blank PVC capsules and PVC capsules spiked with 0,1 – 4 mg of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material® (NIST SRM) 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) and Arizona Road Dust (Air Cleaner Test Dust). The capsules were housed within plastic closed-face cassette samplers (CFCs). A method detection limit (MDL) of 0,075 mg per sample was estimated. Precision Sr at 0,5 - 4 mg per sample was 0,031 and the estimated bias was 0,058. Weight stability over 28 days was verified for both blanks and spiked capsules. Independent laboratory testing on blanks and field samples verified long-term weight stability as well as sampling and analysis precision and bias estimates. An overall precision estimate Ŝrt of 0,059 was obtained. An accuracy measure of ±15,5% was found for the gravimetric method using PVC internal capsules. PMID:26435581

  9. Power Systems Development Facility: High Temperature, High Pressure Filtration in Gasification Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.A.; Guan, X.; Gardner, B.; Hendrix, H.

    2002-09-18

    High temperature, high pressure gas filtration is a fundamental component of several advanced coal-fired power systems. This paper discusses the hot-gas filter vessel operation in coal gasification mode at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The PSDF, near Wilsonville, Alabama, is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company, and other industrial participants currently including the Electric Power Research Institute, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, Kellogg Brown & Root Inc. (KBR), and Peabody Energy. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems designed at sufficient size to provide data for commercial scale-up.

  10. 76 FR 82323 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... Postaccident Engineered-Safety-Feature Atmosphere Cleanup Systems in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants... of engineered-safety-feature (ESF) atmosphere cleanup systems in light-water-cooled nuclear power... Postaccident Engineered-Safety-Feature Atmosphere Cleanup Systems in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power...

  11. Air sampling filtration media: Collection efficiency for respirable size-selective sampling

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Monaghan, Keenan; Lee, Taekhee; Kashon, Mike; Harper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The collection efficiencies of commonly used membrane air sampling filters in the ultrafine particle size range were investigated. Mixed cellulose ester (MCE; 0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polycarbonate (0.4, 0.8, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; 0.45, 1, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 0.8 and 5 μm pore sizes), and silver membrane (0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes) filters were exposed to polydisperse sodium chloride (NaCl) particles in the size range of 10–400 nm. Test aerosols were nebulized and introduced into a calm air chamber through a diffusion dryer and aerosol neutralizer. The testing filters (37 mm diameter) were mounted in a conductive polypropylene filter-holder (cassette) within a metal testing tube. The experiments were conducted at flow rates between 1.7 and 11.2 l min−1. The particle size distributions of NaCl challenge aerosol were measured upstream and downstream of the test filters by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Three different filters of each type with at least three repetitions for each pore size were tested. In general, the collection efficiency varied with airflow, pore size, and sampling duration. In addition, both collection efficiency and pressure drop increased with decreased pore size and increased sampling flow rate, but they differed among filter types and manufacturer. The present study confirmed that the MCE, PTFE, and PVC filters have a relatively high collection efficiency for challenge particles much smaller than their nominal pore size and are considerably more efficient than polycarbonate and silver membrane filters, especially at larger nominal pore sizes. PMID:26834310

  12. Water Filtration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2004-01-01

    A water filtration column is devised by students using a two-liter plastic bottle containing gravel, sand, and activated charcoal, to test the filtration potential of the column. Results indicate that the filtration column eliminates many of the contaminating materials, but does not kill bacteria.

  13. Treatment of Wastewater From Car Washes Using Natural Coagulation and Filtration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Rahman, M. A. A.; Johari, M. R.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Wastewater generated from carwash is one of the main wastewater resources, which contribute effectively in the increasing of environmental contamination due to the chemical characteristics of the car wastes. The present work aimed to develop an integrated treatment system for carwash wastewater based on coagulation and flocculation using Moringa oleifera and Ferrous Sulphate (FeSO4.7H2O) as well as natural filtration system. The carwash wastewater samples were collected from carwash station located at Parit Raja, Johor, Malaysia. The treatment system of car wash wastewater was designed in the lab scale in four stages included, aeration, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation and filtration. The coagulation and flocculation unit was carried out using different dosage (35, 70, 105 and 140 mg L-1) of M. oleifera and FeSO4.7H2O, respectively. The efficiency of the integrated treatment system to treat carwash wastewater and to meet Environmental Quality Act (EQA 1974) was evaluated based on the analysis of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity (NTU). The integrated treatment system was efficient for treatment of raw carwash wastewater. The treated carwash wastewaters meet EQA 1974 regulation 2009 (Standards A) in the term of pH and DO while, turbidity and COD reduced in the wastewater to meet Standards B. The integrated treatment system designed here with natural coagulant (M. oleifera) and filtration unit were effective for primary treatment of carwash wastewater before the final disposal or to be reused again for carwash process.

  14. Building America Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts, Tyler, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    ?Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy.

  15. Hollow fiber membranes for advanced life support systems. [permeable capillaries for medical filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Lysaght, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the practicability of utilizing hollow fiber membranes in vehicular and portable life support system applications. A preliminary screening of potential advanced life support applications resulted in the selection of five applications for feasibility study and testing. As a result of the feasibility study and testing, three applications, heat rejection, deaeration, and bacteria filtration, were chosen for breadboard development testing. Breadboard hardware has been manufactured and tested, and the physical properties of the three hollow fiber membrane assemblies applicable to use aboard future spacecraft have been characterized.

  16. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  17. Riverbed Clogging Associated with a California Riverbank Filtration System: An Assessment of Mechanisms and Monitoring Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Craig; Hubbard, Susan S.; Florsheim, Joan; Rosenberry, Donald; Borglin, Sharon; Trotta, Marcus; Seymour, Donald

    2015-10-01

    An experimental field study was performed to investigate riverbed clogging processes and associated monitoring approaches near a dam-controlled riverbank filtration facility in Northern California. Motivated by previous studies at the site that indicated riverbed clogging plays an important role in the performance of the riverbank filtration system, we investigated the spatiotemporal variability and nature of the clogging. In particular, we investigated whether the clogging was due to abiotic or biotic mechanisms. A secondary aspect of the study was the testing of different methods to monitor riverbed clogging and related processes, such as seepage. Monitoring was conducted using both point-based approaches and spatially extensive geophysical approaches, including: grain-size analysis, temperature sensing, electrical resistivity tomography, seepage meters, microbial analysis, and cryocoring, along two transects. The point monitoring measurements suggested a substantial increase in riverbed biomass (2 orders of magnitude) after the dam was raised compared to the small increase (∼2%) in fine-grained sediment. These changes were concomitant with decreased seepage. The decreased seepage eventually led to the development of an unsaturated zone beneath the riverbed, which further decreased infiltration capacity. Comparison of our time-lapse grain-size and biomass datasets suggested that biotic processes played a greater role in clogging than did abiotic processes. Cryocoring and autonomous temperature loggers were most useful for locally monitoring clogging agents, while electrical resistivity data were useful for interpreting the spatial extent of a pumping-induced unsaturated zone that developed beneath the riverbed after riverbed clogging was initiated. The improved understanding of spatiotemporally variable riverbed clogging and monitoring approaches is expected to be useful for optimizing the riverbank filtration system operations.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR FP-98 MINIPLEAT V-BLANK FILTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar FP-98 Minipleat V-Bank Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 137 Pa clean and 348 Pa ...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR "C-SERIES" POLYESTER PANEL FILTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar "C-Series" Polyester Panel Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 126 Pa clean and 267...

  20. Integrating membrane filtration into bioelectrochemical systems as next generation energy-efficient wastewater treatment technologies for water reclamation: A review.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Heyang; He, Zhen

    2015-11-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) represent an energy-efficient approach for wastewater treatment, but the effluent still requires further treatment for direct discharge or reuse. Integrating membrane filtration in BES can achieve high-quality effluents with additional benefits. Three types of filtration membranes, dynamic membrane, ultrafiltration membrane and forward osmosis membrane that are grouped based on pore size, have been studied for integration in BES. The integration can be accomplished either in an internal or an external configuration. In an internal configuration, membranes can act as a separator between the electrodes, or be immersed in the anode/cathode chamber as a filtration component. The external configuration allows BES and membrane module to be operated independently. Given much progress and interest in the integration of membrane filtration into BES, this paper has reviewed the past studies, described various integration methods, discussed the advantages and limitations of each integration, and presented challenges for future development. PMID:26026232

  1. Efficacy of fixed filtration for rapid kVp-switching dual energy x-ray systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Yuan; Wang, Adam S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Dose efficiency of dual kVp imaging can be improved if the two beams are filtered to remove photons in the common part of their spectra, thereby increasing spectral separation. While there are a number of advantages to rapid kVp-switching for dual energy, it may not be feasible to have two different filters for the two spectra. Therefore, the authors are interested in whether a fixed added filter can improve the dose efficiency of kVp-switching dual energy x-ray systems. Methods: The authors hypothesized that a K-edge filter would provide the energy selectivity needed to remove overlap of the spectra and hence increase the precision of material separation at constant dose. Preliminary simulations were done using calcium and water basis materials and 80 and 140 kVp x-ray spectra. Precision of the decomposition was evaluated based on the propagation of the Poisson noise through the decomposition function. Considering availability and cost, the authors chose a commercial Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S screen as the filter for their experimental validation. Experiments were conducted on a table-top system using a phantom with various thicknesses of acrylic and copper and 70 and 125 kVp x-ray spectra. The authors kept the phantom exposure roughly constant with and without filtration by adjusting the tube current. The filtered and unfiltered raw data of both low and high energy were decomposed into basis material and the variance of the decomposition for each thickness pair was calculated. To evaluate the filtration performance, the authors measured the ratio of material decomposition variance with and without filtration. Results: Simulation results show that the ideal filter material depends on the object composition and thickness, and ranges across the lanthanide series, with higher atomic number filters being preferred for more attenuating objects. Variance reduction increases with filter thickness, and substantial reductions (40%) can be achieved with a 2× loss in

  2. High-efficiency filtration meets IAQ goals

    SciTech Connect

    Aaronson, E.L. ); Fencl, F. )

    1994-12-01

    This article describes multi-stage filtration system which provided initial cost savings and is expected to save even more in energy costs while fulfilling IAQ requirements. The use of high-efficiency filtration has enabled the city of Kansas City, Mo., to save an estimated $500,000 in initial HVAC system costs for its Bartle Hall expansion project, which is currently under construction. Once operational, the new HVAC system, with its high-efficiency filters, is expected to save thousands of dollars per week more in energy costs while also delivering superior indoor air quality (IAQ).

  3. Assessing the fate of organic micropollutants during riverbank filtration utilizing field studies and laboratory test systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C. K.; Lange, F. T.; Sacher, F.; Baus, C.; Brauch, H.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Germany and other highly populated countries, several waterworks use riverbank filtration as a first step in the treatment of river water for water supplies. Unfortunately, industrial and municipal discharges and the influence of agriculture lead to the pollution of rivers and lakes by a number of organic chemicals. In order to assess the impact of those organic micropollutants on the quality of drinking water, it is necessary to clarify their fate during infiltration and underground passage. The fate of organic micropollutants in a river water-groundwater infiltration system is mainly determined by adsorption mechanisms and biological transformations. One possibility to simulate the microbial degradation of single compounds during riverbank filtration is the use of laboratory test filter systems, that are operated as biological fixed-bed reactors under aerobic conditions. The benefit and meaningfulness of those test filters was evaluated on the basis of selected target compounds by comparing the results derived from test filter experiments with field studies under environmental conditions at the River Rhine. Samples from the river and from groundwater of a well characterized aerobic infiltration pathway were analyzed over a time period of several years for a spectrum of organic micropollutants. Target compounds comprised several contaminants relevant for the aquatic environment, such as complexing agents, aromatic sulfonates, pharmaceuticals (including iodinated X ray contrast media), and MTBE. Furthermore, the behaviour of some target compounds during aerobic riverbank filtration was compared to their fate along a section of an anaerobic (oxygen-depleted) aquifer at the River Ruhr that is characterized by a transition state between sulfate reduction and methane production. While some organic micropollutants showed no major differences, the elimination of others turned out to be clearly dependent on the underlying redox processes in the groundwater. The

  4. Fundamentals of air quality systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, K.E.

    1999-08-01

    The book uses numerous examples to demonstrate how basic design concepts can be applied to the control of air emissions from industrial sources. It focuses on the design of air pollution control devices for the removal of gases and particles from industrial sources, and provides detailed, specific design methods for each major air pollution control system. Individual chapters provide design methods that include both theory and practice with emphasis on the practical aspect by providing numerous examples that demonstrate how air pollution control devices are designed. Contents include air pollution laws, air pollution control devices; physical properties of air, gas laws, energy concepts, pressure; motion of airborne particles, filter and water drop collection efficiency; fundamentals of particulate emission control; cyclones; fabric filters; wet scrubbers; electrostatic precipitators; control of volatile organic compounds; adsorption; incineration; absorption; control of gaseous emissions from motor vehicles; practice problems (with solutions) for the P.E. examination in environmental engineering. Design applications are featured throughout.

  5. Advanced air revitalization system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Schubert, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    A previously developed experimental air revitalization system was tested cyclically and parametrically. One-button startup without manual interventions; extension by 1350 hours of tests with the system; capability for varying process air carbon dioxide partial pressure and humidity and coolant source for simulation of realistic space vehicle interfaces; dynamic system performance response on the interaction of the electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator, the Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction subsystem, and the static feed water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem, the carbon dioxide concentrator module with unitized core technology for the liquid cooled cell; and a preliminary design for a regenerative air revitalization system for the space station are discussed.

  6. The orbiter air data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillje, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Air data parameters are required during Orbiter atmospheric entry for use by the autoguidance, navigation, and flight control systems, and for crew displays. Conventional aircraft calibrations of the Orbiter air data system were not practicable for the Space Shuttle, therefore extensive wind tunnel testing was required to give confidence in the preflight calibrations. Many challenges became apparent as the program developed; in the overall system design, in the wind tunnel testing program, in the implementation of the air data system calibration, and in the use of the flight data to modify the wind tunnel results. These challenges are discussed along with the methods used to solve the problems.

  7. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  8. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  9. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  10. Geometric filtration of classification-based object detectors in realtime road scene recognition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prun, Viktor; Bocharov, Dmitry; Koptelov, Ivan; Sholomov, Dmitry; Postnikov, Vassily

    2015-12-01

    We study the issue of performance improvement of classification-based object detectors by including certain geometric-oriented filters. Configurations of the observed 3D scene may be used as a priori or a posteriori information for object filtration. A priori information is used to select only those object parameters (size and position on image plane) that are in accordance with the scene, restricting implausible combinations of parameters. On the other hand the detection robustness can be enhanced by rejecting detection results using a posteriori information about 3D scene. For example, relative location of detected objects can be used as criteria for filtration. We have included proposed filters in object detection modules of two different industrial vision-based recognition systems and compared the resulting detection quality before detectors improving and after. Filtering with a priori information leads to significant decrease of detector's running time per frame and increase of number of correctly detected objects. Including filter based on a posteriori information leads to decrease of object detection false positive rate.

  11. Application of bacteriophages to selectively remove Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water and wastewater filtration systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Hunt, Heather K; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2013-09-01

    Water and wastewater filtration systems often house pathogenic bacteria, which must be removed to ensure clean, safe water. Here, we determine the persistence of the model bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in two types of filtration systems, and use P. aeruginosa bacteriophages to determine their ability to selectively remove P. aeruginosa. These systems used beds of either anthracite or granular activated carbon (GAC), which were operated at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 45 min. The clean bed filtration systems were loaded with an instantaneous dose of P. aeruginosa at a total cell number of 2.3 (± 0.1 [standard deviation]) × 10(7) cells. An immediate dose of P. aeruginosa phages (1 mL of phage stock at the concentration of 2.7 × 10(7) PFU (Plaque Forming Units)/mL) resulted in a reduction of 50% (± 9%) and >99.9% in the effluent P. aeruginosa concentrations in the clean anthracite and GAC filters, respectively. To further evaluate the effects of P. aeruginosa phages, synthetic stormwater was run through anthracite and GAC biofilters where mixed-culture biofilms were present. Eighty five days after an instantaneous dose of P. aeruginosa (2.3 × 10(7) cells per filter) on day 1, 7.5 (± 2.8) × 10(7) and 1.1 (± 0.5) × 10(7) P. aeruginosa cells/g filter media were detected in the top layer (close to the influent port) of the anthracite and GAC biofilters, respectively, demonstrating the growth and persistence of pathogenic bacteria in the biofilters. A subsequent 1-h dose of phages, at the concentration of 5.1 × 10(6) PFU/mL and flow rate of 1.6 mL/min, removed the P. aeruginosa inside the GAC biofilters and the anthracite biofilters by 70% (± 5%) and 56% (± 1%), respectively, with no P. aeruginosa detected in the effluent, while not affecting ammonia oxidation or the ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community inside the biofilters. These results suggest that phage treatment can selectively remove pathogenic bacteria with minimal impact on beneficial

  12. Design of the monitoring system at the Sant'Alessio induced riverbank filtration plant (Lucca, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Borsi, Iacopo; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Picciaia, Daniele; Vienken, Thomas; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    In Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes the monitoring system, for both water quality and quantity issues, plays a key role in assuring that a groundwater recharge plant is really managed. Considering induced Riverbank Filtration (RBF) schemes, while the effect of the augmented filtration consists in an improvement of the quality and quantity of the water infiltrating the aquifer, there is in turn the risk for groundwater contamination, as surface water bodies are highly susceptible to contamination. Within the framework of the MARSOL (2014) EU FPVII-ENV-2013 project, an experimental monitoring system has been designed and will be set in place at the Sant'Alessio RBF well field (Lucca, Italy) to demonstrate the sustainability and the benefits of managing induced RBF versus the unmanaged option. The RBF scheme in Sant'Alessio (Borsi et al. 2014) allows abstraction of an overall amount of about 0,5 m3/s groundwater providing drinking water for about 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany. Water is derived by ten vertical wells set along the Serchio River embankments inducing river water filtration into a high yield (10-2m2/s transmissivity) sand and gravel aquifer. Prior to the monitoring system design, a detailed site characterization has been completed taking advantage of previous and new investigations, the latter performed by means of MOSAIC on-site investigation platform (UFZ). A monitoring network has been set in place in the well field area using existing wells. There groundwater head and the main physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and redox potential) are routinely monitored. Major geochemical compounds along with a large set of emerging pollutants are analysed (in cooperation with IWW Zentrum Wasser, Germany) both in surface-water and ground-water. The experimental monitoring system (including sensors in surface- and ground-water) has been designed focusing on managing abstraction efficiency and safety at

  13. Cold air systems: Sleeping giant

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, C.D. )

    1994-04-01

    This article describes how cold air systems help owners increase the profits from their buildings by reducing electric costs and improving indoor air quality through lower relative humidity levels. Cold air distribution involves energy savings, cost savings, space savings, greater comfort, cleaner air, thermal storage, tighter ducting, coil redesign, lower relative humidities, retrofitting, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). It opens a door for architects, engineers, owners, builders, environmentalists, retrofitters, designers, occupants, and manufacturers. Three things have held up cold air's usage: multiple fan-powered boxes that ate up the energy savings of primary fans. Cold air room diffusers that provided inadequate comfort. Condensation from ducts, boxes, and diffusers. Such problems have been largely eliminated through research and development by utilities and manufacturers. New cold air diffusers no longer need fan powered boxes. It has also been found that condensation is not a concern so long as the ducts are located in air conditioned space, such as drop ceilings or central risers, where relative humidity falls quickly during morning startup.

  14. Modeling water chemistry change and contaminant transport in riverbank filtration systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Shaymaa; Bahar, Arifah; Aziz, Zainal Abdul; Suratman, Saim

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration system is river water treatment approach based on natural removal of contaminants due to physical, chemical and biological processes. In this article, an analytical model is developed by using Green's function method to simulate the effects of pumping well and microbial activity that occurs in riverbed sediments on contaminant transport and evolution of water chemistry. The model is tested with data collected previously for RBF site in France. The results are compared with numerical simulation conducted in the literature by using finite difference method. Graphically, it is noticed that both numerical and analytical results have almost the same behavior. Also it is found that the model can simulate the decreasing of one pollutant concentration at the zone where the bacteria starts to consume this pollutant.

  15. Radiocolloids in sorption systems. XIX. Filtration concentration of iron from salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaftailov, V.V.; Mitrofanova, S.A.; Betenekov, N.D.

    1987-09-01

    The filtration mechanism for the concentration of iron under dynamic conditions has been substantuated. The static and dynamic conditions has been substantiated. The static and dynamic characteristics of the filtration process for two materials, viz., a copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene and cellulose, have been found.

  16. AIR CLEANING FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses air cleaning for acceptable indoor air quality. ir cleaning has performed an important role in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems for many years. raditionally, general ventilation air-filtration equipment has been used to protect cooling coils ...

  17. A Randomized Cross-over Air Filtration Intervention Trial for Reducing Cardiovascular Health Risks in Residents of Public Housing near a Highway

    PubMed Central

    Padró-Martínez, Luz T.; Owusu, Emmanuel; Reisner, Ellen; Zamore, Wig; Simon, Matthew C.; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Brown, Carrie A.; Chung, Mei; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to traffic-generated ultrafine particles (UFP; particles <100 nm) is likely a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We conducted a trial of high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtration in public housing near a highway. Twenty residents in 19 apartments living <200 m from the highway participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover trial. A HEPA filter unit and a particle counter (measuring particle number concentration (PNC), a proxy for UFP) were installed in living rooms. Participants were exposed to filtered air for 21 days and unfiltered air for 21 days. Blood samples were collected and blood pressure measured at days 0, 21 and 42 after a 12-hour fasting period. Plasma was analyzed for high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha-receptor II (TNF-RII) and fibrinogen. PNC reductions ranging from 21% to 68% were recorded in 15 of the apartments. We observed no significant differences in blood pressure or three of the four biomarkers (hsCRP, fibrinogen, and TNF-RII) measured in participants after 21-day exposure to HEPA-filtered air compared to measurements after 21-day exposure to sham-filtered air. In contrast, IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher following HEPA filtration (0.668 pg/mL; CI = 0.465–0.959) compared to sham filtration. Likewise, PNC adjusted for time activity were associated with increasing IL-6 in 14- and 21-day moving averages, and PNC was associated with decreasing blood pressure in Lags 0, 1 and 2, and in a 3-day moving average. These negative associations were unexpected and could be due to a combination of factors including exposure misclassification, unsuccessful randomization (i.e., IL-6 and use of anti-inflammatory medicines), or uncontrolled confounding. Studies with greater reduction in UFP levels and larger sample sizes are needed. There also needs to be more complete assessment of resident time activity and of outdoor vs. indoor source contributions

  18. A Randomized Cross-over Air Filtration Intervention Trial for Reducing Cardiovascular Health Risks in Residents of Public Housing near a Highway.

    PubMed

    Padró-Martínez, Luz T; Owusu, Emmanuel; Reisner, Ellen; Zamore, Wig; Simon, Matthew C; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Brown, Carrie A; Chung, Mei; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to traffic-generated ultrafine particles (UFP; particles <100 nm) is likely a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We conducted a trial of high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtration in public housing near a highway. Twenty residents in 19 apartments living <200 m from the highway participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover trial. A HEPA filter unit and a particle counter (measuring particle number concentration (PNC), a proxy for UFP) were installed in living rooms. Participants were exposed to filtered air for 21 days and unfiltered air for 21 days. Blood samples were collected and blood pressure measured at days 0, 21 and 42 after a 12-hour fasting period. Plasma was analyzed for high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha-receptor II (TNF-RII) and fibrinogen. PNC reductions ranging from 21% to 68% were recorded in 15 of the apartments. We observed no significant differences in blood pressure or three of the four biomarkers (hsCRP, fibrinogen, and TNF-RII) measured in participants after 21-day exposure to HEPA-filtered air compared to measurements after 21-day exposure to sham-filtered air. In contrast, IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher following HEPA filtration (0.668 pg/mL; CI = 0.465-0.959) compared to sham filtration. Likewise, PNC adjusted for time activity were associated with increasing IL-6 in 14- and 21-day moving averages, and PNC was associated with decreasing blood pressure in Lags 0, 1 and 2, and in a 3-day moving average. These negative associations were unexpected and could be due to a combination of factors including exposure misclassification, unsuccessful randomization (i.e., IL-6 and use of anti-inflammatory medicines), or uncontrolled confounding. Studies with greater reduction in UFP levels and larger sample sizes are needed. There also needs to be more complete assessment of resident time activity and of outdoor vs. indoor source contributions

  19. Experimental study on filtration and continuous regeneration of a particulate filter system for heavy-duty diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tao; Zhang, Jun; Cao, Dongxiao; Shuai, Shijin; Zhao, Yanguang

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the filtration and continuous regeneration of a particulate filter system on an engine test bench, consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF). Both the DOC and the CDPF led to a high conversion of NO to NO2 for continuous regeneration. The filtration efficiency on solid particle number (SPN) was close to 100%. The post-CDPF particles were mainly in accumulation mode. The downstream SPN was sensitively influenced by the variation of the soot loading. This phenomenon provides a method for determining the balance point temperature by measuring the trend of SPN concentration. PMID:25499491

  20. Dynamic simulation tools for the analysis and optimization of novel collection, filtration and sample preparation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clague, D; Weisgraber, T; Rockway, J; McBride, K

    2006-02-12

    The focus of research effort described here is to develop novel simulation tools to address design and optimization needs in the general class of problems that involve species and fluid (liquid and gas phases) transport through sieving media. This was primarily motivated by the heightened attention on Chem/Bio early detection systems, which among other needs, have a need for high efficiency filtration, collection and sample preparation systems. Hence, the said goal was to develop the computational analysis tools necessary to optimize these critical operations. This new capability is designed to characterize system efficiencies based on the details of the microstructure and environmental effects. To accomplish this, new lattice Boltzmann simulation capabilities where developed to include detailed microstructure descriptions, the relevant surface forces that mediate species capture and release, and temperature effects for both liquid and gas phase systems. While developing the capability, actual demonstration and model systems (and subsystems) of national and programmatic interest were targeted to demonstrate the capability. As a result, where possible, experimental verification of the computational capability was performed either directly using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry or published results.

  1. SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS HANDBOOK A GUIDE TO "PACKAGED" FILTRATION AND DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES WITH REMOTE MONITORING AND CONTROL TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this handbook is to highlight information appropriate to small systems with an emphasis on filtration and disinfection technologies and how they can be "packaged" with remote monitoring and control technologies to provide a healthy and affordable solution for small ...

  2. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER ORCA WATER TECHNOLOGIES KEMLOOP 1000 COAGULATION AND FILTRATION WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the ORCA Water Technologies KemLoop 1000 Coagulation and Filtration Water Treatment System for arsenic removal was conducted at the St. Louis Center located in Washtenaw County, Michigan, from March 23 through April 6, 2005. The source water was groundwate...

  3. Air support facilities. [interface between air and surface transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Airports are discussed in terms of the interface between the ground and air for transportation systems. The classification systems, design, facilities, administration, and operations of airports are described.

  4. Magnus air turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Thomas F.

    1982-01-01

    A Magnus effect windmill for generating electrical power is disclosed. A large nacelle-hub mounted pivotally (in Azimuth) atop a support tower carries, in the example disclosed, three elongated barrels arranged in a vertical plane and extending symmetrically radially outwardly from the nacelle. The system provides spin energy to the barrels by internal mechanical coupling in the proper sense to cause, in reaction to an incident wind, a rotational torque of a predetermined sense on the hub. The rotating hub carries a set of power take-off rollers which ride on a stationary circular track in the nacelle. Shafts carry the power, given to the rollers by the wind driven hub, to a central collector or accumulator gear assembly whose output is divided to drive the spin mechanism for the Magnus barrels and the main electric generator. A planetary gear assembly is interposed between the collector gears and the spin mechanism functioning as a differential which is also connected to an auxiliary electric motor whereby power to the spin mechanism may selectively be provided by the motor. Generally, the motor provides initial spin to the barrels for start-up after which the motor is braked and the spin mechanism is driven as though by a fixed ratio coupling from the rotor hub. During high wind or other unusual conditions, the auxiliary motor may be unbraked and excess spin power may be used to operate the motor as a generator of additional electrical output. Interposed between the collector gears of the rotating hub and the main electric generator is a novel variable speed drive-fly wheel system which is driven by the variable speed of the wind driven rotor and which, in turn, drives the main electric generator at constant angular speed. Reference is made to the complete specification for disclosure of other novel aspects of the system such as, for example, the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the novel Magnus barrels as well as novel gearing and other power coupling

  5. Microfabrication of a High-Throughput Nanochannel Delivery/Filtration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, Mauro; Liu, Xuewu; Grattoni, Alessandro; Fine, Daniel; Hosali, Sharath; Goodall, Randi; Medema, Ryan; Hudson, Lee

    2011-01-01

    A microfabrication process is proposed to produce a nanopore membrane for continuous passive drug release to maintain constant drug concentrations in the patient s blood throughout the delivery period. Based on silicon microfabrication technology, the dimensions of the nanochannel area, as well as microchannel area, can be precisely controlled, thus providing a steady, constant drug release rate within an extended time period. The multilayered nanochannel structures extend the limit of release rate range of a single-layer nanochannel system, and allow a wide range of pre-defined porosity to achieve any arbitrary drug release rate using any preferred nanochannel size. This membrane system could also be applied to molecular filtration or isolation. In this case, the nanochannel length can be reduced to the nanofabrication limit, i.e., 10s of nm. The nanochannel delivery system membrane is composed of a sandwich of a thin top layer, the horizontal nanochannels, and a thicker bottom wafer. The thin top layer houses an array of microchannels that offers the inlet port for diffusing molecules. It also works as a lid for the nanochannels by providing the channels a top surface. The nanochannels are fabricated by a sacrificial layer technique that obtains smooth surfaces and precisely controlled dimensions. The structure of this nanopore membrane is optimized to yield high mechanical strength and high throughput.

  6. Jet engine air intake system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, N. E.; Latham, E. A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An axisymmetric air intake system for a jet aircraft engine comprising a fixed cowl extending outwardly from the face of the engine, a centerbody coaxially disposed within the cowl, and an actuator for axially displacing the centerbody within the cowl was developed. The cowl and centerbody define a main airflow passageway therebetween, the configuration of which is changed by displacement of the centerbody. The centerbody includes a forwardly-located closeable air inlet which communicates with a centerbody auxiliary airflow passageway to provide auxiliary airflow to the engine. In one embodiment, a system for opening and closing the centerbody air inlet is provided by a dual-member centerbody, the forward member of which may be displaced axially with respect to the aft member.

  7. A crossflow filtration system for constant permeate flux membrane fouling characterization.

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel J; Paul, Donald R; Freeman, Benny D

    2013-03-01

    Membrane fouling is often characterized using a crossflow filtration apparatus. Typically, the transmembrane pressure (TMP) difference is fixed, and the flux is allowed to decline as the membrane fouls and the resistance to mass transfer increases. However, as flux varies, so too does the rate at which foulants are brought to the membrane surface, so the observed fouling behavior is not solely the result of membrane∕foulant interactions. Constant flux experiments, where the permeate flux is fixed and the TMP difference varies, minimize such variations in the hydrodynamic conditions at the membrane surface, but constant TMP difference experiments dominate the fouling literature because they are more straightforward to execute than constant flux experiments. Additionally, most industrial water purification membrane installations operate at constant flux rather than at constant TMP. Here, we describe the construction and operation of a constant flux crossflow fouling apparatus. System measurement accuracy was validated by comparison of pure water permeance measurements to values specified by the membrane manufacturer, reported elsewhere, and measured by another technique. Fouling experiments were performed with two membrane∕foulant systems: polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes with a soybean oil emulsion foulant and PVDF microfiltration membranes with a polystyrene latex bead suspension foulant. Automatic permeate flux control facilitated flux stepping experiments, which are commonly used to determine the threshold flux or critical flux of a membrane∕foulant pair. Comparison of a flux stepping experiment with a literature report yielded good agreement. PMID:23556842

  8. Design of the monitoring system at the Sant'Alessio induced riverbank filtration plant (Lucca, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Borsi, Iacopo; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Picciaia, Daniele; Vienken, Thomas; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    In Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes the monitoring system, for both water quality and quantity issues, plays a key role in assuring that a groundwater recharge plant is really managed. Considering induced Riverbank Filtration (RBF) schemes, while the effect of the augmented filtration consists in an improvement of the quality and quantity of the water infiltrating the aquifer, there is in turn the risk for groundwater contamination, as surface water bodies are highly susceptible to contamination. Within the framework of the MARSOL (2014) EU FPVII-ENV-2013 project, an experimental monitoring system has been designed and will be set in place at the Sant'Alessio RBF well field (Lucca, Italy) to demonstrate the sustainability and the benefits of managing induced RBF versus the unmanaged option. The RBF scheme in Sant'Alessio (Borsi et al. 2014) allows abstraction of an overall amount of about 0,5 m3/s groundwater providing drinking water for about 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany. Water is derived by ten vertical wells set along the Serchio River embankments inducing river water filtration into a high yield (10-2m2/s transmissivity) sand and gravel aquifer. Prior to the monitoring system design, a detailed site characterization has been completed taking advantage of previous and new investigations, the latter performed by means of MOSAIC on-site investigation platform (UFZ). A monitoring network has been set in place in the well field area using existing wells. There groundwater head and the main physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and redox potential) are routinely monitored. Major geochemical compounds along with a large set of emerging pollutants are analysed (in cooperation with IWW Zentrum Wasser, Germany) both in surface-water and ground-water. The experimental monitoring system (including sensors in surface- and ground-water) has been designed focusing on managing abstraction efficiency and safety at

  9. Shuttle Entry Air Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III

    1978-01-01

    The SEADS system (Shuttle Entry Air Data System) is being developed to provide research quality hypersonic (M greater than 3.5) air data. SEADS will accomplish this through the instrumentation of the orbiter's baseline nose cap. The SEADS development program consists of (1) the design and testing program required to define a reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) nose cap penetration concept which will not degrade nose cap performance, (2) the definition of analytical techniques and design criteria for array definition and flight data analysis, (3) the verification of these analytical techniques and array criteria through a comprehensive wind-tunnel test program, (4) the demonstration of the system concept through detailed testing, and (5) the analyses and tests required to flight-certify the SEADS system.

  10. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  11. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II

    1998-12-31

    By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

  12. Air quality data systems integration

    SciTech Connect

    Row, V.K.; Wilson, J.F.

    1998-12-31

    Traditionally, data used for compliance with air quality programs are obtained from various sources within the plant, on site lab, or perhaps from a product movement accounting program. For the most part, the data processing and subsequent calculations and reports were handled individually, thus generating huge spreadsheets and mounds of process data in paper format. The natural reaction to this overwhelming data management problem is to search for an off-the-shelf software package that will hopefully cover all of the plant`s needs for compliance with air quality regulations. Rather than searching for or trying to custom build a single electronic system, the authors suggest using internet browsing software to create links between existing repositories of air quality data and related information.

  13. Use of a portable air disinfecting system to remove seeded coliphage in hospital rooms.

    PubMed

    Verhougstraete, Marc; Reynolds, Kelly

    2016-06-01

    Health care-associated infections are a major problem worldwide, and the airborne route is believed to be a contributory source of secondary health care-associated infections. This study examined the efficacy of a portable air disinfecting system to remove seeded coliphage virus from the air in hospitals rooms. Aerosolized coliphage concentrations were not statistically different between treatment and no treatment measurements. However, future research should focus on additional investigations in the patient rooms that incorporate fomite and air testing alongside portable air filtration devices. PMID:26905789

  14. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  15. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  16. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  17. Filtration: An investment in IAQ

    SciTech Connect

    Burroughs, H.E.B.

    1997-08-01

    Air filtration is a forgotten component in the resiliency engineering equation. This under-utilized asset is becoming more understandable and user-friendly, bringing about giant strides in application technology in commercial buildings for IAQ resiliency. Filtration and air cleaning are highly developed and well-established technologies in industrial and specialized application areas. These include a variety of clean room applications as well as a wide array of highly sophisticated industrial needs for varying degrees and types of cleansed air sources. Application areas include pharmaceutical, health care, process control, and electronic protection, to name a few. Yet filtration generally remains an under-utilized technology in the field of indoor environmental quality in commercial buildings. Although source control is clearly the preferred technique for controlling air contaminants, air cleaning can provide a spectrum of valuable and cost-effective tactics to achieve and maintain an acceptable indoor environment.

  18. TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES DONALDSON COMPANY INC.SERIES 6000 DISEL OXIDATION CATALYST MUFFLER AND SPIRACLE CLOSED CRANKCASE FILTRATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is on testing of a Donaldson Corp. catalytic muffler and closed crankcase filtration system for diesel trucks. It verified the emissions for these systems using low sufur and ultra low sulfur fuel.

  19. Air Sampling System Evaluation Template

    2000-05-09

    The ASSET1.0 software provides a template with which a user can evaluate an Air Sampling System against the latest version of ANSI N13.1 "Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities". The software uses the ANSI N13.1 PIC levels to establish basic design criteria for the existing or proposed sampling system. The software looks at such criteria as PIC level, type of radionuclide emissions, physical state ofmore » the radionuclide, nozzle entrance effects, particulate transmission effects, system and component accuracy and precision evaluations, and basic system operations to provide a detailed look at the subsystems of a monitoring and sampling system/program. A GAP evaluation can then be completed which leads to identification of design and operational flaws in the proposed systems. Corrective measures can then be limited to the GAPs.« less

  20. Effect of operation parameters on the flux stabilization of gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration system for decentralized water supply.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaobin; Ding, An; Qu, Fangshu; Jia, Ruibao; Chang, Haiqing; Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Liu, Bin; Li, Guibai; Liang, Heng

    2016-08-01

    A pilot-scale gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration system under low gravitational pressure without any pre-treatment, backwash, flushing, or chemical cleaning was carried out to investigate the effect of operation parameters (including operation pressure, aeration mode, and intermittent filtration) on the effluent quality and permeability development. The results revealed that GDM system exhibited an efficient performance for the removal of suspended substances and organic compounds. The stabilization of flux occurred and the average values of stable flux were 6.6, 8.1, and 8.6 Lm(-2) h(-1) for pressures of 65, 120, and 200 mbar, respectively. In contrast, flux stabilization was not observed under continuous and intermittent aeration conditions. However, aeration (especially continuous aeration) was effective to improve flux and alleviate membrane fouling during 1-month operation. Moreover, intermittent filtration would influence the stabilization of permeate flux, resulting in a higher stable flux (ranging from 6 to 13 Lm(-2) h(-1)). The stable flux significantly improved with the increase of intermittent period. Additionally, GDM systems exhibited an efficient recovery of flux after simple physical cleaning and the analyses of resistance reversibility demonstrated that most of the total resistance was hydraulic reversible resistance (50-75 %). Therefore, it is expected that the results of this study can develop strategies to increase membrane permeability and reduce energy consumption in GDM systems for decentralized water supply. PMID:27189452

  1. A filtration and column-adsorption system for onsite concentration and fractionation of organic substances from large volumes of water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.

    1984-01-01

    A portable filtration and column-adsorption system which can concentrate suspended sediment and dissolved-aqueous organic substances onsite was developed. Organic solutes also are fractionated into hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-acid, base, and neutral fractions. Subsequent isolation of organic solutes from fraction concentrates and extraction of organic constituents in suspended sediment entrained on filter tubes is performed by a variety of procedures in the laboratory. Three surface-water samples and one ground-water sample ranging in volume from 300 to 1,100 liters were processed through the filtration and column-adsorption system, yielding from about 0.8 to 3.0 grams of recovered organic carbon per sample.

  2. Giardiasis outbreak at a camp after installation of a slow-sand filtration water-treatment system.

    PubMed

    Karon, A E; Hanni, K D; Mohle-Boetani, J C; Beretti, R A; Hill, V R; Arrowood, M; Johnston, S P; Xiao, L; Vugia, D J

    2011-05-01

    In July and August 2007, a giardiasis outbreak affected attendees of a private recreational camp in California. Twenty-six persons had laboratory-confirmed giardiasis; another 24 had giardiasis-like illness with no stool test. A retrospective cohort study determined that showering was associated with illness (adjusted odds ratio 3·1, 95% confidence interval 1·1-9·3). Two days before the outbreak began, the camp had installed a slow-sand water filtration system that included unsterilized sand. Review of historical water-quality data identified substantially elevated total coliform and turbidity levels in sand-filtered spring water used for showering during the suspected exposure period. Unfiltered spring water tested at the same time had acceptable coliform and turbidity levels, implicating the filtration system as the most likely contamination source. To prevent waterborne illness, slow-sand water filtration systems should use sterilized sand, and slow-sand-filtered water should not be used for any purpose where inadvertent ingestion could occur until testing confirms its potability. PMID:20587126

  3. THE PERSISTENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM IN A DRINKING WATER SYSTEM AFTER THE ADDITION OF FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water is increasingly recognized as a major source of pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) associated with human infection. Our goal was to determine if the prevalence of NTM would decrease after the addition of filtration treatment to an unfiltered surface water...

  4. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, e.g., 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  5. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percent age improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  6. Compressed air energy storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    1981-07-28

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  7. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  8. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  9. Dissemination, resuspension, and filtration of carbon fibers. [aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elber, W.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon fiber transport was studied using mathematical models established for other pollution problems. It was demonstrated that resuspension is not a major factor contributing to the risk. Filtration and fragmentation tests revealed that fiber fragmentation shifts the fiber spectrum to shorter mean lengths in high velocity air handling systems.

  10. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  11. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  12. Air Force Training for Instructional Systems Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Ronald R.

    Detailed information is provided about the Air Force Instructional System Development (ISD) Model to supplement the 1979 AECT presentation made in New Orleans. Information of interest to instructional systems designers includes (1) a short overview of the Air Force ISD model, (2) an extended example which demonstrates the Air Training Command…

  13. CENTRIFUGAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel J. Stepan; Bradley G. Stevens; Melanie D. Hetland

    1999-10-01

    The overall project consists of several integrated research phases related to the applicability, continued development, demonstration, and commercialization of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration process. Work performed during this reporting period consisted of Phase 2 evaluation of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration technology and Phase 3, Technology Partnering. During Phase 1 testing conducted at the EERC using the SpinTek ST-IIL unit operating on a surrogate tank waste, a solids cake developed on the membrane surface. The solids cake was observed where linear membrane velocities were less than 17.5 ft/s and reduced the unobstructed membrane surface area up to 25%, reducing overall filtration performance. The primary goal of the Phase 2 research effort was to enhance filtration performance through the development and testing of alternative turbulence promoter designs. The turbulence promoters were designed to generate a shear force across the entire membrane surface sufficient to maintain a self-cleaning membrane capability and improve filtration efficiency and long-term performance. Specific Phase 2 research activities included the following: System modifications to accommodate an 11-in.-diameter, two-disk rotating membrane assembly; Development and fabrication of alternative turbulence promoter designs; Testing and evaluation of the existing and alternative turbulence promoters under selected operating conditions using a statistically designed test matrix; and Data reduction and analysis; The objective of Phase 3 research was to demonstrate the effectiveness of SpinTek's centrifugal membrane filtration as a pretreatment to remove suspended solids from a liquid waste upstream of 3M's WWL cartridge technology for the selective removal of technetium (Tc).

  14. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  15. Treatment of refractory nano-filtration reject from a tannery using Pd-catalyzed wet air oxidation.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Pranav K; Rao, Nageswara N; Chauhan, Chetan; Pophali, Girish R; Kashyap, Sanjay M; Lokhande, Satish K; Gan, Lihua

    2013-10-15

    We attempted catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of nanofiltration (NF)-reject using Pd based catalyst viz., Pd/activated charcoal (AC) and PdCl2 with the objective of degradation of refractory organic pollutants. Refractory organic pollutants in NF-reject before and after WAO and CWAO were confirmed by GC-MS analysis. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of temperature, catalyst dosage and air partial pressure on the rate of removal of total organic carbon (TOC). The reaction kinetics can be conveniently described by considering two-stage first order kinetics. The use of Pd/AC afforded 85% TOC removal, the corresponding rate constant (k) was 2.90 ± 0.075 × 10(-3)min(-1) (Pd/AC, 100mg/L; T, 473.15K; Pair, 0.69 MPa). On the other hand, 75% TOC was removed with k=2.31 ± 0.075 × 10(-3)min(-1) using Pd(2+) catalyst (Pd(2+), 16.66 mg/L; T, 473.15K; Pair, 0.69 MPa). The observed rate of mineralization under Pd-catalyzed conditions was significantly higher than that of the uncatalyzed oxidation (41%) under the similar experimental conditions. Catalyst stability experiments were performed and TEM, SEM, XRD, Raman and XPS characterization data collected. Despite some morphological transformation of support, Pd catalyst was stable under CWAO conditions. PMID:23911829

  16. 40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Filtration. 141.73 Section 141.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system that uses a surface water source or...

  17. 40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Filtration. 141.173 Section 141.173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.173 Filtration. A public...

  18. 40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Filtration. 141.73 Section 141.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system that uses a surface water source or...

  19. The installation and operation of a production scale membrane filtration system to treat and reuse waste water from a dyehouse

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.A.

    1997-11-01

    The waste water from the dyeing of cotton and poly-cotton blends is characterized by high levels of salts and color. The discharged salts are felt to contribute to effluent toxicity and the color is aesthetically unacceptable in the receiving streams. The system of selective membrane filtration offers a method to address both of these problems. By treating only the waste water having the most color and salt concentration, the expensive membrane equipment can be considerably downsized. The volume of the color to be removed is drastically reduced as filtrate material. At these low volumes of color more economical means of removal can be employed. The membranes are designed so that the color and other pollutant materials are rejected but the salt solution is allowed to pass through the membrane. This produces clean water containing the recovered salt suitable for reuse, greatly reducing the salt content of the effluent. After the successful completion of a small pilot scale system, the installation and operation of a production sized system was desired prior to the full incorporation of this technology.

  20. 77 FR 60481 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Post-Accident...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Information DG-1274 was published in the Federal Register on December 30, 2011 (76 FR 82323), for a 60-day... Engineered-Safety-Feature Atmosphere Cleanup Systems in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY...-Feature Atmosphere Cleanup Systems in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide applies to...

  1. EFFECTS OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL FILTRATION AND OZONATION ON HYDROCARBON AND CARBONYL LEVELS OF AMBIENT AIR USED IN CONTROLLED-EXPOSURE CHAMBER STUDIES OF AIR POLLUTANT HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sampling experiments were done in 1985, 1987, and 1993 at the human-exposure chamber facility of the U.S. EPA Health Effects Research Laboratory in Chapel Hill, NC. easurements of VOC's by GC-FID and aldehyde measurements by the DNPH silica gel cartridge method were made, com...

  2. Maintenance requirements in solar air heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lof, G.O.G.; Junk, J.P.

    1983-06-01

    The maintenance requirements of a well designed and constructed solar air-heating system are comparable to those of conventional, forced warm air heating systems. One of the major reasons for this low maintenance is the absence of problems associated with corrosion, freezing, boiling, and leakage often encountered in solar liquid systems. Experience shows that most problems are due to overly complex designs, control problems, faulty installation, and adjustment of the moving parts in the system. Operational histories show negligible requirements for maintenance of air collectors, pebble-bed heat-storage bins, and system ducts and connections. Good quality control in the manufacture and installation of airtight collectors, heat-storage bins, and interconnecting ductwork is essential, however. The paper includes a description of solar air-heating systems and their characteristics, an evaluation of the various maintenance requirements, and several case histories illustrating the handling of solar air system maintenance.

  3. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  4. [Treatment effect of biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system on greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong-Jun; Zhang, Rui; Xiang, Kun; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2014-08-01

    Unorganized discharge of greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater has brought several negative influences on the ecological environment in the rural area of Yangtze River Delta. Biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system is a potential ecological method for greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater treatment. In order to explore the feasibility of this system and evaluate the contribution of vegetable uptake of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in treating greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater, three types of vegetables, including Ipomoea aquatica, lettuce and celery were selected in this study. Results showed the combined system had a high capacity in simultaneous removal of organic matter, N and P. The removal efficiencies of COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and TP from the wastewater reached up to 93.2%-95.6%, 97.2%-99.6%, 73.9%-93.1% and 74.9%-90.0%, respectively. System with I. aquatica had the highest efficiencies in N and P removal, followed by lettuce and celery. However, plant uptake was not the primary pathway for TN arid TP removal in the combined system. The vegetable uptake of N and P accounted for only 9.1%-25.0% of TN and TP removal from the wastewater while the effect of microorganisms would be dominant for N and P removal. In addition, the highest amounts of N and P uptake in I. aquatica were closely related with the biomass of plant. Results from the study indicated that the biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system was an effective approach to treating greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater in China. PMID:25509094

  5. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    SciTech Connect

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  6. Comparison of nonwoven fiberglass and stainless steel microfiber media in aerosol coalescence filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Gabriel

    Coalescing filters are used to remove small liquid droplets from air streams. They have numerous industrial applications including dehumidification, cabin air filtration, compressed air filtration, metal working, CCV, and agriculture. In compressed air systems, oils used for lubrication of compressor parts can aerosolize into the main air stream causing potential contamination concerns for downstream applications. In many systems, humid air can present problems to sensitive equipment and sensors. As the humid air cools, small water drops condense and can disrupt components that need to be kept dry. Fibrous nonwoven filter media are commonly used to coalesce small drops into larger drops for easier removal. The coalescing performance of a medium is dependent upon several parameters including permeability, porosity, and wettability. In many coalescing filters, glass fibers are used. In this work, the properties of steel fiber media are measured to see how these properties compare to glass fiber media. Steel fiber media has different permeability, porosity and wettability to oil and water than fiber glass media. These differences can impact coalescence performance. The impact of these differences in properties on coalescence filtration performance was evaluated in a coalescence test apparatus. The overall coalescence performance of the steel and glass nonwoven fiber media are compared using a filtration efficiency and filtration index. In many cases, the stainless steel media performed comparably to fiber glass media with efficiencies near 90%. Since stainless steel media had lower pressure drops than fiber glass media, its filtration index values were significantly higher. Broader impact of this work is the use of stainless steel fiber media as an alternative to fiber glass media in applications where aerosol filtration is needed to protect the environment or sensitive equipment and sensors.

  7. Solar Hot-Air System --Memphis, Tennessee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar collectors using air as collection medium provide space heating for four-building office complex in Memphis. 98 page report furnishes details on installation, including: description of system; system startup and acceptance-test results; technical data on collector; installation manuals for collectors, air handler and heat-storage unit.

  8. Removal of toluene and benzene from flue gas by a biotrickling filtration system which uses an urethane foam filter

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Shigeki; Kitagawa, Mashayoshi

    1998-12-31

    A lab-scale research was conducted to study the toluene/benzene removal performance of a biotrickling filtration system. Urethane foam, which constituted a lattice-like structure internally, was used as the microbial carrier for the removal. This structure was found to be effective for minimizing drops in pressure (due to clogging), even under high space velocity conditions. The large specific surface area of the carrier (1200 m2/m3) also contributed to better removal performance. The space velocity (versus the packed bed) at 500 h-1(100 h-1 for most conventional biofiltration systems). Provided the target removal performance is obtained by such configuration, it may become possible to reduce the size of the biofiltration packed bed to one-fifth of that of conventional biofiltration systems. The test apparatus included a hard vinyl chloride column into which the microbial carrier was charged (layer of 500 mm). A nutrient solution, consisting of tap water mixed with nitrogen and phosphorus, was intermittently supplied into the column. The supply of nitrogen sources for microbial growth was regulated (ratio by weight versus the organic carbon load: Nitrogen:Carbon = 15:100) for improving removal performance. The temperature inside the column was maintained at 25. The flue gas was prepared by using reagent grade chemicals. The concentration of toluene and benzene was set at about 30 ppm. Following treatment of two months, the average removal percentages of toluene and benzene were 82% and 62%, respectively. On the other hand, average pressure drops (due to clogging) of the same were small, 12.8 mmH{sub 2}O/m and 7.2 mmH{sub 2}O/m, respectively. Such results indicated that this biotrickling filtration system using urethane foam has great potential as a considerably downsized system.

  9. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); Acott, Phillip E. (Inventor); Spaeth, Lisa G. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air includes at least one, and in some embodiments three, transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. The transceivers are scanned or aligned along several different axes. Each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines air temperatures, wind speeds, and wind directions based on the scattered laser radiation. Applications of the system to wind power site evaluation, wind turbine control, traffic safety, general meteorological monitoring and airport safety are presented.

  10. Liquid filtration simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, I.; Bergman, W.

    1996-06-01

    We have a developed a computer code that simulates 3-D filtration of suspended particles in fluids in realistic filter structures. This code, being the most advanced filtration simulation package developed to date, provides LLNL and DOE with new capabilities to address problems in cleaning liquid wastes, medical fluid cleaning, and recycling liquids. The code is an integrated system of commercially available and LLNL-developed software; the most critical are the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and the particle transport program. For the CFD solver, we used a commercial package based on Navier-Stokes equations and a LLNL-developed package based on Boltzman-lattice gas equations. For the particle transport program, we developed a cod based on the 3-D Langevin equation of motion and the DLVO theory of electrical interactions. A number of additional supporting packages were purchased or developed to integrate the simulation tasks and to provide visualization output.

  11. Air leakage in residential solar heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingleton, J. G.; Cassel, D. E.; Overton, R. L.

    1981-02-01

    A series of computer simulations was performed to evaluate the effects of component air leakage on system thermal performance for a typical residential solar heating system, located in Madison, Wisconsin. Auxiliary energy required to supplement solar energy for space heating was determined using the TRNSYS computer program, for a range of air leakage rates at the solar collector and pebble bed storage unit. The effects of heat transfer and mass transfer between the solar equipment room and the heated building were investigated. The effect of reduced air infiltration into the building due to pressurized by the solar air heating system were determined. A simple method of estimating the effect of collector array air leakage on system thermal performance was evaluated, using the f CHART method.

  12. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOEpatents

    Zielinski, Edward A.; Comparato, Joseph R.

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT HYDRO COMPLIANCE MANAGEMENT, INC. HYDRO-KLEEN FILTRATION SYSTEM, 03/07/WQPC-SWP, SEPTEMBER 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Hydro-Kleen(TM) Filtration System, a catch-basin filter designed to reduce hydrocarbon, sediment, and metals contamination from surface water flows, was conducted at NSF International in Ann Arbor, Michigan. A Hydro-Kleen(TM) system was fitted into a ...

  14. Combined chemical oxidation and membrane filtration techniques applied to the removal of some selected pharmaceuticals from water systems.

    PubMed

    Real, Francisco J; Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Roldan, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    The elimination of five selected pharmaceuticals (amoxicillin, hydrochlorothiazide, metoprolol, naproxen and phenacetin) dissolved in different water systems (two natural water matrices and a secondary effluent) was carried out by sequential processes constituted by membrane filtration and chemical oxidation stages. Different configurations of those two stages were applied. In a first group, a pretreatment consisting in a membrane filtration (ultrafiltration or nanofiltration) was conducted; and the permeate and retentate effluents produced were afterwards treated by chemical oxidation, using ozone or chlorine. In a second group, the pretreatment consisted in a chemical oxidation stage (by using ozone, chlorine, O(3)/H(2)O(2), UV or UV/H(2)O(2)) followed by a nanofiltration process. The main objective of this set of experiments was the comparison of the efficiencies reached by using different systems and configurations in order to optimize the elimination of those pollutants from the selected water matrices. Results of removals and rejection coefficients for the five pharmaceuticals showed that the combined treatments involving UV radiation (254 nm monochromatic radiation during 30 min) followed by nanofiltration were very effective, with global removals over 80 % in most of the experiments. Ozonation (initial dose of 2.25 mg L(-1)) followed by nanofiltration also showed high levels of efficiency, with removals over 70 % in the permeate stream generated in experiments carried out with natural waters. The opposite sequence, nanofiltration followed by ozonation, reached removals over 97 % in the natural waters by using an ozone dose of 2.25 mg L(-1); and over 90 % in the secondary effluent with an initial ozone dose of 3.75 mg L(-1). PMID:22375535

  15. Troubleshooting the residential air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Puzio, H.

    1996-01-01

    In order to effectively diagnose problems in a residential air conditioning system, the technician should develop and follow a logical step-by-step troubleshooting procedure. A list of problems, along with possible causes and solutions, that a technician may encounter when servicing a residential air conditioner is presented.

  16. Solar-powered hot-air system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  17. Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

  18. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) - GRAPHICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  19. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) EXECUTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  20. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM - AIRS FACILITY SUBSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  1. Testing Air-Filtering Systems

    PubMed Central

    Songer, Joseph R.; Sullivan, James F.; Hurd, James W.

    1963-01-01

    A procedure was developed for evaluating high-efficiency filters mounted in exhaust ducts at the National Animal Disease Laboratory. An aerosol of the test organism, Escherichia coli B T3 bacteriophage, was generated in a chamber attached to a ceiling exhaust register in concentrations of at least 1000 viable organisms per ft3 of air. Samples were collected from both the pre- and postfilter areas, and the number of organisms per ft3 of air was determined. The efficiency of the filter was calculated from these figures. A total of 269 high-efficiency filters were tested. Of these, 249 had efficiencies of 98% or greater. The remaining 20, with efficiencies of less than 98%, were repaired and retested. No filter was accepted with an efficiency of less than 98%. Images Fig. 2 PMID:14063779

  2. Full-scale validation of an air scour control system for energy savings in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Monclús, Hèctor; Dalmau, Montserrat; Gabarrón, Sara; Ferrero, Giuliana; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi; Comas, Joaquim

    2015-08-01

    Membrane aeration represents between 35 and 50% of the operational cost of membrane bioreactors (MBR). New automatic control systems and/or module configurations have been developed for aeration optimization. In this paper, we briefly describe an innovative MBR air scour control system based on permeability evolution and present the results of a full-scale validation that lasted over a 1-year period. An average reduction in the air scour flow rate of 13% was achieved, limiting the maximum reduction to 20%. This averaged reduction corresponded to a decrease in energy consumption for membrane aeration of 14% (0.025 kWh m(-3)) with maximum saving rates of 22% (0.04 kWh m(-3)). Permeability and fouling rate evolution were not affected by the air scour control system, as very similar behavior was observed for these variables for both filtration lines throughout the entire experimental evaluation period of 1 year. PMID:25965883

  3. Evaluation of Small System Filtration Technologies for the Treatment of Color, Disinfection ByProducts and Microbiological Contaminants in Surface Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) evaluated various filtration systems at the EPA T&E Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio and at a field site in Ely, Minnesota (MN) in collaboration with the Minnesota Department of Health...

  4. Air quality and future energy system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  5. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  6. Glomerular filtration rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007305.htm Glomerular filtration rate To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check ...

  7. System for controlling air-fuel ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Morozumi, T.

    1982-09-14

    A system for controlling the air-fuel ratio for an internal combustion engine having an induction passage, an exhaust passage , a choke valve in the induction passage, an automatic choke device comprising a positive temperature coefficient (Ptc) heater and a bimetal element connected to the choke valve, a detector for detecting the concentration of a constituent of exhaust gases passing through the exhaust passage, an electronic control circuit, an on-off type electromagnetic valve actuated by the output signal from the electronic control circuit for correcting the air-fuel ratio of the air-fuel mixture supplied by an airfuel mixture supplier, and means for actuating the on-off type electromagnetic valve at a fixed duty ratio during cold engine operation. The electronic control circuit comprises a vacuum sensor for converting the amount of the induced air to an electric quantity, an engine temperature detector for converting the engine temperature to an electric quantity, a first calculating circuit for producing a proper desired air-fuel mixture ratio signal from the output signals of the vacuum sensor and of the engine temperature detector, and a second calculation circuit for producing an actual air-fuel ratio signal from output signals of the vacuum sensor and of the ptc heater. A summing circuit for summing the proper air-fuel ratio signal and the actual air-fuel ratio signal produces a pulse duty ratio correcting signal which is applied to the electronic control circuit for correcting the fixed duty ratio.

  8. Dynamic optical filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chretien, Jean-Loup (Inventor); Lu, Edward T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic optical filtration system and method effectively blocks bright light sources without impairing view of the remainder of the scene. A sensor measures light intensity and position so that selected cells of a shading matrix may interrupt the view of the bright light source by a receptor. A beamsplitter may be used so that the sensor may be located away from the receptor. The shading matrix may also be replaced by a digital micromirror device, which selectively sends image data to the receptor.

  9. Dynamic Optical Filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chretien, Jean-Loup (Inventor); Lu, Edward T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic optical filtration system and method effectively blocks bright light sources without impairing view of the remainder of the scene. A sensor measures light intensity and position so that selected cells of a shading matrix may interrupt the view of the bright light source by a receptor. A beamsplitter may be used so that the sensor may be located away from the receptor. The shading matrix may also be replaced by a digital micromirror device, which selectively sends image data to the receptor.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  15. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  16. Fabric filtration for combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the use of large-scale fabric filters. This book documents the improved understanding and technology that has accompanied that growth. It highlights laboratory and field experiences, covering the spectrum of fabric filtration activity. Reverse-air and pulse-jet cleaning technologies are described and equations for operating modes of fabric filters are provided.

  17. A Comprehensive Software and Database Management System for Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation by Radionuclide Plasma Sampling and Serum Creatinine Methods

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation by plasma sampling method is considered as the gold standard. However, this method is not widely used because the complex technique and cumbersome calculations coupled with the lack of availability of user-friendly software. The routinely used Serum Creatinine method (SrCrM) of GFR estimation also requires the use of online calculators which cannot be used without internet access. We have developed user-friendly software “GFR estimation software” which gives the options to estimate GFR by plasma sampling method as well as SrCrM. We have used Microsoft Windows® as operating system and Visual Basic 6.0 as the front end and Microsoft Access® as database tool to develop this software. We have used Russell's formula for GFR calculation by plasma sampling method. GFR calculations using serum creatinine have been done using MIRD, Cockcroft-Gault method, Schwartz method, and Counahan-Barratt methods. The developed software is performing mathematical calculations correctly and is user-friendly. This software also enables storage and easy retrieval of the raw data, patient's information and calculated GFR for further processing and comparison. This is user-friendly software to calculate the GFR by various plasma sampling method and blood parameter. This software is also a good system for storing the raw and processed data for future analysis. PMID:26097422

  18. Lower glomerular filtration rate is associated with higher systemic vascular resistance in patients without prevalent kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Vääräniemi, Kati; Koskela, Jenni; Tahvanainen, Anna; Tikkakoski, Antti; Wilenius, Matias; Kähönen, Mika; Kööbi, Tiit; Niemelä, Onni; Mustonen, Jukka; Pörsti, Ilkka

    2014-10-01

    The authors examined the association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine-cystatin C equation, and hemodynamics in 556 normotensive or never-treated hypertensive patients without kidney disease (mean age, 46 years). Hemodynamic variables were recorded using pulse wave analysis and whole-body impedance cardiography. The mean eGFR was 98 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (range, 64-145 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and one third of the patients had values below 92, while none had proteinuria. In linear regression analyses adjusted for differences in age, weight:height ratio, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and sex, significant associations were found between lower eGFR and higher systolic (P=.001) and diastolic blood pressure (P<.001) and higher systemic vascular resistance (P=.001). There was no association between eGFR and cardiac output or extracellular volume. In the absence of clinical kidney disease, lower eGFR was associated with higher blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. Therefore, early impairment in kidney function may be involved in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. PMID:25228202

  19. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    SciTech Connect

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  20. CENTRIFUGAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Greene; Patricia A. Kirk; Richard Hayes; Joshua Riley

    2005-10-28

    SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., the developer of a centrifugal membrane filtration technology, has engineered and developed a system for use within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. This is a crosscutting technology that falls under the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program, with potential application to tank wastes, contaminated groundwater, landfill leachate, and secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, including decontamination and decommissioning systems. SpinTek II High Shear Rotary Membrane Filtration System is a unique compact crossflow membrane system that has large, demonstrable advantages in performance and cost compared to currently available systems: (1) High fluid shear prevents membrane fouling even with very high solids content; hazardous and radioactive components can be concentrated to the consistency of a pasty slurry without fouling. (2) Induced turbulence and shear across the membrane increases membrane flux by a factor of ten over existing systems and allows operation on fluids not otherwise treatable. (3) Innovative ceramic membrane and mechanical sealing technology eliminates compatibility problems with aggressive DOE waste streams. (4) System design allows rapid, simple disassembly for inspection or complete decontamination. (5) Produces colloidal- and suspended-solids-free filtrate without the addition of chemicals. The first phase of this project (PRDA maturity stage 5) completed the physical scale-up of the SpinTek unit and verified successful scale-up with surrogate materials. Given successful scale-up and DOE concurrence, the second phase of this project (PRDA maturity stage 6) will provide for the installation and

  1. 40 CFR 141.173 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.173 Filtration. A public water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that...

  2. Douglas Battery Mfg. Co. achieves outstanding air quality, energy savings - with dust collection/recirculating system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    Douglas Battery Manufacturing Company of Winston-Salem, NC has engineered a filtration system that not only delivers excellent air quality - it also reduces heating costs in the plant, since the filtered air is recirculated through the work area after it leaves the dust-collection unit. Douglas engineers reviewed several alternatives, including pulse jet baghouses, before selecting a Tenkay aspirated cartridge dust collection from Farr Company, El Segundo, CA. At present, Douglas is operating four Tenkay collectors. The average air to filter surface ratio of a Farr cartridge is 1.5:1. Two of the units handle 21,500 cfm each, the others handle 25,000 cfm each. Testing by U.S. EPA Reference Method 12 confirmed that the unit's emissions are significantly lower than those established by federal New Source Performance Standards.

  3. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  4. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to hazardous... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system....

  9. Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stys, Z. S.

    1983-09-01

    The design features and performance capabilities of Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants for transferring off-peak utility electricity to on-peak hours are described. The plant operations involve compressing ambient air with an axial flow compressor and depositing it in an underground reservoir at 70 bar pressure. Released during a peaking cycle, the pressure is reduced to 43 bar, the air is heated to 550 C, passed through an expander after a turbine, and passed through a low pressure combustion chamber to be heated to 850 C. A West German plant built in 1978 to supply over 300 MW continuous power for up to two hours is detailed, noting its availability factor of nearly 98 percent and power delivery cost of $230/kW installed. A plant being constructed in Illinois will use limestone caverns as the air storage tank.

  10. Autoclave inactivation of infectious radioactive laboratory waste contained within a charcoal filtration system.

    PubMed

    Stinson, M C; Green, B L; Marquardt, C J; Ducatman, A M

    1991-07-01

    A model system was developed previously for disposal of solid laboratory waste that is both radioactive and heat sensitive, e.g., HIV. A double polypropylene bag with charcoal vent filter and absorbent was designed to meet requirements for both steam sterilization and disposal as solid radioactive waste. Earlier work demonstrated the effective containment of radioactive gases by the filter and inactivation of organisms as heat sensitive as HIV. We sought to broaden the application of this model to ensure inactivation of microorganisms that are more heat resistant than HIV. The efficacy of steam sterilization using water or solutions of iodophor, hypochlorite, or hydrogen peroxide was studied under constant temperature and time conditions. The systems were monitored with internal probes, physical, chemical, and biological indicators. Biological indicators documented inactivation when bags containing hydrogen peroxide (3%) were autoclaved for 60 min at 121 degrees C. Synergistic activity between hydrogen peroxide and autoclave conditions significantly reduced processing time. PMID:2061040

  11. Autoclave inactivation of infectious radioactive laboratory waste contained within a charcoal filtration system

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, M.C.; Green, B.L.; Marquardt, C.J.; Ducatman, A.M. )

    1991-07-01

    A model system was developed previously for disposal of solid laboratory waste that is both radioactive and heat sensitive, e.g., HIV. A double polypropylene bag with charcoal vent filter and absorbent was designed to meet requirements for both steam sterilization and disposal as solid radioactive waste. Earlier work demonstrated the effective containment of radioactive gases by the filter and inactivation of organisms as heat sensitive as HIV. The authors sought to broaden the application of this model to ensure inactivation of microorganisms that are more heat resistant than HIV. The efficacy of steam sterilization using water or solutions of iodophor, hypochlorite, or hydrogen peroxide was studied under constant temperature and time conditions. The systems were monitored with internal probes, physical, chemical, and biological indicators. Biological indicators documented inactivation when bags containing hydrogen peroxide (3%) were autoclaved for 60 min at 121C. Synergistic activity between hydrogen peroxide and autoclave conditions significantly reduced processing time.

  12. Industrial Membrane Filtration and Short-bed Fractal Separation Systems for Separating Monomers from Heterogeneous Plant Material

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, M; Kochergin, V; Hess, R; Foust, T; Herbst, R; Mann, N

    2005-03-31

    Large-scale displacement of petroleum will come from low-cost cellulosic feedstocks such as straw and corn stover crop residues. This project has taken a step toward making this projection a reality by reducing capital and energy costs, the two largest cost factors associated with converting cellulosic biomass to chemicals and fuels. The technology exists for using acid or enzyme hydrolysis processes to convert biomass feedstock (i.e., waste cellulose such as straw, corn stover, and wood) into their base monomeric sugar building blocks, which can, in turn, be processed into chemicals and fuels using a number of innovative fermentation technologies. However, while these processes are technically possible, practical and economic barriers make these processes only marginally feasible or not feasible at all. These barriers are due in part to the complexity and large fixed and recurring capital costs of unit operations including filtration, chromatographic separation, and ion exchange. This project was designed to help remove these barriers by developing and implementing new purification and separation technologies that will reduce the capital costs of the purification and chromatographic separation units by 50% to 70%. The technologies fundamental to these improvements are: (a) highly efficient clarification and purification systems that use screening and membrane filtration to eliminate suspended solids and colloidal material from feed streams and (b) fractal technology based chromatographic separation and ion exchange systems that can substitute for conventional systems but at much smaller size and cost. A non-hazardous ''raw sugar beet juice'' stream (75 to 100 gal/min) was used for prototype testing of these technologies. This raw beet juice stream from the Amalgamated Sugar LLC plant in Twin Falls, Idaho contained abrasive materials and membrane foulants. Its characteristics were representative of an industrial-scale heterogeneous plant extract/hydrolysis stream

  13. Development and Deployment of a Full-Scale Cross-Flow Filtration System for Treatment of Liquid Low-Level Waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, T.E.

    2000-05-12

    A full-scale modular solid/liquid separation (SLS) system was designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully deployed for treatment of liquid low-level waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The SLS module, utilizing cross-flow filtration, was operated as part of an integrated tank waste pretreatment system (otherwise known as the Wastewater Triad) to remove suspended solids and prevent fouling of ion-exchange materials and heat exchange surfaces. The information gained from this testing was used to complete design specifications for the full-scale modular SLS system in May 1997. The contract for detailed design and fabrication of the system was awarded to NUMET in July 1997, and the design was completed in January 1998. Fabrication began in March 1998, and the completed system was delivered to ORNL on December 29, 1998. Installation of the system at the MVST facility was completed in May 1999. After completing an operational readiness assessment, approval was given to commence hot operations on June 7, 1999. Operations involving two of the eight MVSTs were performed safely and with very little unscheduled downtime. Filtration of supernatant from tank W-31 was completed on June 24, 1999 and W-26 processing was completed on August 20, 1999. The total volume processed during these two campaigns was about 45,000 gal. The suspended solids content of the liquid processed from tank W-31 was lower than expected, resulting in higher-than-expected filtrate production for nearly the entire operation. The liquid processed from tank W-26 was higher in suspended solids content, and filtrate production was lower, but comparable to the rates expected based on the results of previous pilot-scale, single-element filtration tests. The quality of the filtrate consistently met the requirements for feed to the downstream ion-exchange and evaporation processes. From an equipment and controls standpoint, the modular system (pumps

  14. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  15. Air Pressure Controlled Mass Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ruilin; Wang, Jian; Cai, Changqing; Yao, Hong; Ding, Jin'an; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Xiaolei

    Mass measurement is influenced by air pressure, temperature, humidity and other facts. In order to reduce the influence, mass laboratory of National Institute of Metrology, China has developed an air pressure controlled mass measurement system. In this system, an automatic mass comparator is installed in an airtight chamber. The Chamber is equipped with a pressure controller and associate valves, thus the air pressure can be changed and stabilized to the pre-set value, the preferred pressure range is from 200 hPa to 1100 hPa. In order to keep the environment inside the chamber stable, the display and control part of the mass comparator are moved outside the chamber, and connected to the mass comparator by feed-throughs. Also a lifting device is designed for this system which can easily lift up the upper part of the chamber, thus weights can be easily put inside the mass comparator. The whole system is put on a marble platform, and the temperature and humidity of the laboratory is very stable. The temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide content inside the chamber are measured in real time and can be used to get air density. Mass measurement cycle from 1100 hPa to 200 hPa and back to 1100 hPa shows the effective of the system.

  16. Secondary air injection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  17. Advanced Air Data Systems for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to get a crude estimate of wind speed and direction while driving a car at night in the rain, with the motion of the raindrop reflections in the headlights providing clues about the wind. The clues are difficult to interpret, though, because of the relative motions of ground, car, air, and raindrops. More subtle interpretation is possible if the rain is replaced by fog, because the tiny droplets would follow the swirling currents of air around an illuminated object, like, for example, a walking pedestrian. Microscopic particles in the air (aerosols) are better for helping make assessments of the wind, and reflective air molecules are best of all, providing the most refined measurements. It takes a bright light to penetrate fog, so it is easy to understand how other factors, like replacing the headlights with the intensity of a searchlight, can be advantageous. This is the basic principle behind a lidar system. While a radar system transmits a pulse of radiofrequency energy and interprets the received reflections, a lidar system works in a similar fashion, substituting a near-optical laser pulse. The technique allows the measurement of relative positions and velocities between the transmitter and the air, which allows measurements of relative wind and of air temperature (because temperature is associated with high-frequency random motions on a molecular level). NASA, as well as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), have interests in this advanced lidar technology, as much of their explorative research requires the ability to measure winds and turbulent regions within the atmosphere. Lidar also shows promise for providing warning of turbulent regions within the National Airspace System to allow commercial aircraft to avoid encounters with turbulence and thereby increase the safety of the traveling public. Both agencies currently employ lidar and optical sensing for a variety of weather-related research projects, such as analyzing

  18. Emissions from a Diesel Engine using Fe-based Fuel Additives and a Sintered Metal Filtration System

    PubMed Central

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D.; Hummer, Jon A.; Stachulak, Jozef S.; Miller, Arthur; Patts, Larry D.; Cauda, Emanuele G.

    2015-01-01

    A series of laboratory tests were conducted to assess the effects of Fe-containing fuel additives on aerosols emitted by a diesel engine retrofitted with a sintered metal filter (SMF) system. Emission measurements performed upstream and downstream of the SMF system were compared, for cases when the engine was fueled with neat ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and with ULSD treated with two formulations of additives containing Fe-based catalysts. The effects were assessed for four steady-state engine operating conditions and one transient cycle. The results showed that the SMF system reduced the average total number and surface area concentrations of aerosols by more than 100-fold. The total mass and elemental carbon results confirmed that the SMF system was indeed very effective in the removal of diesel aerosols. When added at the recommended concentrations (30 p.p.m. of iron), the tested additives had minor adverse impacts on the number, surface area, and mass concentrations of filter-out (FOut) aerosols. For one of the test cases, the additives may have contributed to measurable concentrations of engine-out (EOut) nucleation mode aerosols. The additives had only a minor impact on the concentration and size distribution of volatile and semi-volatile FOut aerosols. Metal analysis showed that the introduction of Fe with the additives substantially increased Fe concentration in the EOut, but the SMF system was effective in removal of Fe-containing aerosols. The FOut Fe concentrations for all three tested fuels were found to be much lower than the corresponding EOut Fe concentrations for the case of untreated ULSD fuel. The results support recommendations that these additives should not be used in diesel engines unless they are equipped with exhaust filtration systems. Since the tested SMF system was found to be very efficient in removing Fe introduced by the additives, the use of these additives should not result in a measurable increase in emissions of de novo generated

  19. Emissions from a Diesel Engine using Fe-based Fuel Additives and a Sintered Metal Filtration System.

    PubMed

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D; Hummer, Jon A; Stachulak, Jozef S; Miller, Arthur; Patts, Larry D; Cauda, Emanuele G

    2016-03-01

    A series of laboratory tests were conducted to assess the effects of Fe-containing fuel additives on aerosols emitted by a diesel engine retrofitted with a sintered metal filter (SMF) system. Emission measurements performed upstream and downstream of the SMF system were compared, for cases when the engine was fueled with neat ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and with ULSD treated with two formulations of additives containing Fe-based catalysts. The effects were assessed for four steady-state engine operating conditions and one transient cycle. The results showed that the SMF system reduced the average total number and surface area concentrations of aerosols by more than 100-fold. The total mass and elemental carbon results confirmed that the SMF system was indeed very effective in the removal of diesel aerosols. When added at the recommended concentrations (30 p.p.m. of iron), the tested additives had minor adverse impacts on the number, surface area, and mass concentrations of filter-out (FOut) aerosols. For one of the test cases, the additives may have contributed to measurable concentrations of engine-out (EOut) nucleation mode aerosols. The additives had only a minor impact on the concentration and size distribution of volatile and semi-volatile FOut aerosols. Metal analysis showed that the introduction of Fe with the additives substantially increased Fe concentration in the EOut, but the SMF system was effective in removal of Fe-containing aerosols. The FOut Fe concentrations for all three tested fuels were found to be much lower than the corresponding EOut Fe concentrations for the case of untreated ULSD fuel. The results support recommendations that these additives should not be used in diesel engines unless they are equipped with exhaust filtration systems. Since the tested SMF system was found to be very efficient in removing Fe introduced by the additives, the use of these additives should not result in a measurable increase in emissions of de novo generated

  20. The solubility of gallium oxide in vapor and two-phase fluid filtration in hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, Andrew; Matveeva, Svetlana; Nekrasov, Stanislav

    2010-05-01

    The solubility of gallium and aluminum oxides in gas phase in the system Ga2O3 (Al2O3)-HCl-H2O was studied at 150-350°C and pressure up to saturated vapor. The concentration of gallium increases with the increasing of HCl pressure. The formulae of gallium gaseous specie was determined as GaOHCl2. The constant of gallium oxide solubility reaction was calculated at 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350°C. The concentration of aluminum in gas phase is insignificant in the same conditions. The possibility of gallium transportation in gas phase with small quantity of Al allow to divide this elements in hydrothermal processes with gas phase. The Ga/Al ratio in muscovite can be used as the indicator of gas phase separation and condensation. This indicator was not considered in the geochemical literature earlier. The separation of gas and liquid phases was determined in Akchatau (Kazahstan) and Spokoinoe (Russia) greisen W deposit by carbon isotope fractionation of carbon dioxide in fluid inclusion. The important feature of both ore mains is heterogenization and boiling of ore-forming fluids. Greisen ore bodies are formed as a result of strongly focused solution flow in the T-P gradient fields. It is possible to divide ore bodies of Akchatau in two types: muscovite and quartz. Muscovite type veins are thin and have small metasyntactic zone. Quartz type veins are localized in fault with large vertical extent (500 m) and content the large quantity of wolframite. These veins formed in condition of significant pressure decreasing from 2.5 to 0.5 kbar with fluid boiling. Gas and liquid phase separation specifies the vertical zonality of quartz type veins. The gas phase with the high gallium concentration is separated from a flow of liquid phase. Liquid phase react with the granites forming greisen metasomatites. Condensation of the gas phase in upper parts of massive produces the increasing of Ga/Al ratio in muscovite 3-5 times more, then in granites and bottom part of vein (from 2×10

  1. Solar powered desiccant air conditioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    A solar-powered desiccant air conditioning system using silica gel was developed, and modifications to the existing unit and additional testing are proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of the unit. Conversion from a rotating bed to a fixed bed of silica gel is proposed. Some general plans for commercialization are briefly discussed.

  2. Tomorrows' Air Transportation System Breakout Series Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss tomorrow's air transportation system. Section of this presentation includes: chair comments; other general comments; surface congestion alleviation; runway productivity; enhanced arrival/departure tools; integrated airspace decision support tools; national traffic flow management, runway independent operations; ATM TFM weather; and terminal weather.

  3. CONTROLLING AIR TOXICS: AN ADVISORY SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the development and use of a computerized advisory system for the control of air toxics. The program, is written for the IBM PC using Microsoft C V3.0 compiler and Windows for Data Library V1.0 for screen and keyboard interaction. The permit reviewer inputs in...

  4. Testing the Patriot air defense weapon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, W. L.; McClay, L. F.

    1983-11-01

    A summary of the overall test program of the Patriot air defense weapon system is presented, including preparations for system integration tests and surveillance tests, with particular emphasis placed on the guidance flight test program. The major components of the system are described, and subsystem tests consisting of static and dynamic plume tests, static propulsion tests, dynamic propulsion test firings, and control system test firings are discussed. A series of system-level preflight guidance tests which consisted of a captive carry flight test program and other tests is considered. Tests on more sophisticated missions such as ECM, jamming, and combinations of ECM and chaff are addressed. Test data collection techniques are covered.

  5. EVALUATION OF DRY SORBENTS AND FABRIC FILTRATION FOR FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to assess the use of baghouses (fabric filtration) to control air pollutant emissions (particularly SOx) from large utility combustion sources. The assessment included sorbent costs, and system capital, operating, and disposal costs. SO2 would ...

  6. 40 CFR 141.73 - Filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.73 Filtration. A public water system that uses a surface water source or a ground water source under the direct influence of surface...

  7. Air Conditioning System using Rankine Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi; Yamaguchi, Hiroichi; Hattori, Hitoshi; Futamura, Motonori

    Natural gas is used as the energy source to cope with the recent situation of increasing demand for electricity especially in summer. In this paper, the performance of a Rankine cycle air conditioning system driven by natural gas was studied. The following results were obtained : (1) Basic equations of performance, refrigerant mass flow rate and expander volume were developed by using the values of heating efficiency, regeneration efficiency, expander efficiency and compressor efficiency. (2) R134a refrigerant has been considered to be suitable for the Rankine cycle air conditioning system, compared with other refrigerants. (3)A Rankine cycle cooling system using R134a refrigerant as a single working fluid was developed. System COP of 0.47 was attained at typical operating condition.

  8. Clear air turbulence - An airborne alert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, L. P.; Caracena, F.; Kuhn, P. M.; Kurkowski, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    An infrared radiometer system has been developed that can alert a pilot of an aircraft 2 to 9 minutes in advance of an encounter with clear air turbulence. The time between the warning and the clear air turbulence event varies with the flight altitude of the aircraft. In turbulence-free areas, the incidence of false alarms is found to be less than one in 3.4 hours of flight time compared to less than one per 10 hours of flight time in areas with turbulence.

  9. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  10. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  13. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...

  14. Electreted polyetherimide-silica fibrous membranes for enhanced filtration of fine particles.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqi; Wang, Na; Fan, Gang; Yu, Jianyong; Gao, Jing; Sun, Gang; Ding, Bin

    2015-02-01

    Development of technologies for air filtration and purification is critical to meet the global challenges of threatened human health and accelerated greenhouse effect, especially for point-of-use applications. Here, we report a novel electreted polyetherimide-silica (PEI-SiO2) fibrous membrane by a single-step strategy to achieve effective filtration of fine particles. The hierarchical structured PEI-SiO2 membranes were endowed with promising superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 152°, allowing their better self-cleaning performance compared with commercial polypropylene (PP) filter media. Morphology, electric charge property, porous structure, and filtration performance could be regulated by tuning the type and concentration of electrets as well as the solution properties. Furthermore, unlike the commercial PP-based filter media, the as-prepared membranes can be treated at 200°C for 30min without sacrificing filtration efficiency (99.992%) and pressure drop (61Pa) owing to the combined contribution of polarization and space charges. We anticipate that this promising electreted fibrous medium will act as a core part of numerous air filtration systems, including ultra-low penetration air filters, clean room, respirator, and protective clothing. PMID:25463170

  15. Sublethal effect of silver and chromium in the green mussel Perna viridis with reference to alterations in oxygen uptake, filtration rate and membrane bound ATPase system as biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Vijayavel, K; Gopalakrishnan, S; Balasubramanian, M P

    2007-10-01

    Perna viridis is an ideal animal for studying the impairment caused by the effects of heavy metals that are often detected in coastal areas. Preliminary bioassay tests revealed that the lethal (LC(100)), median lethal (LC(50)) and sublethal (LC(0)) concentration of silver and chromium to P. viridis were 6.5, 4.0, 2.0 mg l(-1) and 4.5, 2.5, 1.0 mg l(-1), respectively. Toxic effect of silver and chromium was evaluated in the green mussel P. viridis, with reference to oxygen consumption, filtration rate and ATPase system in laboratory experiments. These parameters were selected as the end point of sublethal stress. Oxygen consumption and filtration rates were calculated as a measure of decline in the dissolved oxygen level and algal concentration (feed) in the aquaria water, respectively. Silver and chromium affects both oxygen consumption and filtration rate significantly (P<0.01) at 96 h when compared to control. The activity of ATPases system in the gills, hepatopancreas, ovary and muscle of mussels were inhibited by silver and chromium indicating that metals exerted significant toxic effect. The inhibition of Na(+)K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase and Mg(2+) ATPase in the mussels were significant (P<0.05) for silver and highly significant (P<0.01) for chromium, which indicates that chromium was more toxic to mussels when compared to silver. The assessment of oxygen consumption, filtration and ATPases system can thus be used as a valid biomarker in aquatic ecotoxicology studies. PMID:17585996

  16. Observing System Simulation Experiments for air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, R. M. A.; Lahoz, W. A.; Attié, J.-L.; Peuch, V.-H.; Curier, R. L.; Edwards, D. P.; Eskes, H. J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.

    2015-08-01

    This review paper provides a framework for the application of the Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) methodology to satellite observations of atmospheric constituents relevant for air quality. The OSSEs are experiments used to determine the potential benefit of future observing systems using an existing monitoring or forecasting system and by this can help to define optimal characteristics of future instruments. To this end observations from future instruments are simulated from a model representing the realistic state of the atmosphere and an instrument simulator. The added value of the new observations is evaluated through assimilation into another model or model version and comparison with the simulated true state and a control run. This paper provides an overview of existing air quality OSSEs focusing on ozone, CO and aerosol. Using illustrative examples from these studies we present the main elements of an air quality OSSE and associated requirements based on evaluation of the existing studies and experience within the meteorological community. The air quality OSSEs performed hitherto provide evidence of their usefulness for evaluation of future observations although most studies published do not meet all the identified requirements. Especially the evaluation of the OSSE set-up requires more attention; the differences between the assimilation model and the simulated truth should approximate differences between models and real observations. Although this evaluation is missing in many studies, it is required to ensure realistic results. Properly executed air quality OSSEs are a valuable and cost effective tool to space agencies and instrument builders when applied at the start of the development stage to ensure future observations provide added value to users of Earth Observation data.

  17. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-tension shall be sufficient to prevent slippage. Inspection procedure. With the air system charged, open... sufficient to prevent slippage. Inspection procedure. With the air system charged, open the drain cocks...

  18. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-tension shall be sufficient to prevent slippage. Inspection procedure. With the air system charged, open... sufficient to prevent slippage. Inspection procedure. With the air system charged, open the drain cocks...

  19. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-tension shall be sufficient to prevent slippage. Inspection procedure. With the air system charged, open... sufficient to prevent slippage. Inspection procedure. With the air system charged, open the drain cocks...

  20. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-tension shall be sufficient to prevent slippage. Inspection procedure. With the air system charged, open... sufficient to prevent slippage. Inspection procedure. With the air system charged, open the drain cocks...

  1. Dewaterability of five sewage sludges in Guangzhou conditioned with Fenton's reagent/lime and pilot-scale experiments using ultrahigh pressure filtration system.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jialin; Huang, Shaosong; Dai, Yongkang; Li, Lei; Sun, Shuiyu

    2015-11-01

    Sludge conditioning with Fenton's reagent and lime is a valid method for sludge dewatering. This study investigated the influence of different organic matter content sludge on sludge dewatering and discussed the main mechanism of sludge conditioning by combined Fenton's reagent and lime. The results indicated that the specific resistance to filterability (SRF) of sludge was reduced efficiently by approximately 90%, when conditioned with Fenton's reagent and lime. Through single factor experiments, the optimal conditioning combinations were found. In addition, the relationship between VSS% and consumption of the reagents was detected. Furthermore, it was also demonstrated that the SRF and filtrate TOC values had a significant correlation with VSS% of sludge (including raw and conditioned). The main mechanism of sludge dewatering was also investigated. Firstly, it revealed that the dewaterability of sludge was closely correlated to extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and bound water contents. Secondly, the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) stated that sludge particles were to be smaller and thinner after conditioning. And this structure could easily form outflow channels for releasing free water. Additionally, with the ultrahigh pressure filtration system, the water content of sludge cake conditioned with Fenton's reagent and lime could be reduced to below 50%. Moreover, the economic assessment shows that Fenton's reagent and lime combined with ultrahigh pressure filtration system can be an economical and viable technology for sewage sludge dewatering. Finally, three types of sludge were classified: (1) Fast to dewater; (2) Moderately fast to dewater; (3) Slow to dewater sludge. PMID:26253895

  2. Integrated gasification iron-air electrical system

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.T.

    1988-05-17

    An integrated, gasification, iron-air electrical system, capable of generating electrical energy from a carbonaceous material is described comprising: (A) a gasification means for carbonaceous materials comprising at least one gasification reactor, where a carbonaceous material is contacted and reacted with a gaseous medium containing steam and air, at a temperature and for a time effective to gasify the carbonaceous material and produce a hot gaseous reaction product comprising CO and H/sub 2/; (B) an iron-air cell containing at least one discharged iron electrode; (C) means to remove the discharged iron electrode from the cell of (B), and contact it with the gaseous reaction product produced in (A); (D) the discharged iron electrode removed from the cell of (B), containing material consisting essentially of Fe and Fe(OH)/sub 2/, which electrode is contacted with the hot gaseous reaction product produced in the gasification reactor of (A), directly, at a temperature of from about 450/sup 0/C to about 700/sup 0/C, for a time effective to convert, by reduction, discharged iron compounds consisting essentially of Fe and Fe(OH)/sub 2/ to charge iron compounds in the electrode and provide a recharged iron electrode; (E) an iron-air cell into which the recharged iron electrode provided in (D) is placed; (F) means to transport the recharged iron electrode provided in (D) to the iron-air cell of (E); and (G) electrical connection means attached to the iron-air cell of (E), providing the cell with capability of generating electrical energy.

  3. WATER FILTRATION AT DULUTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    After partial completion of the Lakewood Filtration Plant at Duluth, studies were begun with funding provided by the demonstration grant. Research covered a variety of topics and was done with a 10 gpm pilot plant located at the filtration plant, with the full scale plant operati...

  4. 7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING PUMP NO. 1 AND METERING EQUIPMENT - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 8. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. OBLIQUE INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTRATION ROOM IN FILTRATION PLANT (#1773), LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING MEZZANINE WITH FILTER TANKS AT REAR - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. HEDL air filter examination system software

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, E.E.

    1984-10-01

    This document describes the system software and operation of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) air filter sample counting systems. Included are a description of how each program functions with flow charts, sample printouts, program listings and a listing with comments of test routines that exercise the hardware. This effort is a result of a work order from HEDL Operational Safety to the Instrument Calibration and Evaluations section of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to upgrade the HEDL counting systems to include standardization, radon subtraction, and detector cooling.

  7. Air intake side secondary air supply system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, H.; Tomobe, N.

    1987-03-10

    This patent describes an air intake side secondary air supply system for an internal combustion engine having a choke valve and a throttle valve in an intake air passage. The system is adapted to supply an air intake side secondary air into an intake air passage downstream of the throttle valve by a control valve and in response to an operating condition of the engine during a cold operation of the engine. The improvement described here comprises means for detecting a no-load operating state of the engine during the cold operation of the engine in which the choke valve is actuated to close the intake air passage, and means for stopping a supply of the air intake side secondary air upon detection of the non-load operating state so as to enrich an air-fuel mixture supplied to the engine.

  8. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  14. Air Force geographic information and analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Henney, D.A.; Jansing, D.S.; Durfee, R.C.; Margle, S.M.; Till, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputer-based geographic information and analysis system (GIAS) was developed to assist Air Force planners with environmental analysis, natural resources management, and facility and land-use planning. The system processes raster image data, topological data structures, and geometric or vector data similar to that produced by computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems, integrating the data where appropriate. Data types included Landsat imagery, scanned images of base maps, digitized point and chain features, topographic elevation data, USGS stream course data, highway networks, railroad networks, and land use/land cover information from USGS interpreted aerial photography. The system is also being developed to provide an integrated display and analysis capability with base maps and facility data bases prepared on CADD systems. 3 refs.

  15. Electrospinning of nanofibers for filtration media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyoungjun

    Since particulate impurity is regarded as the primary cause of lung diseases, purification of air has been a crucial issue. Filtration is the most conventional method to obtain clean air, whereby particulate matter is collected on a fibrous media. The use of fibrous filters is prevalent because of their high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop. Fibrous filters were fabricated via the electrospinning process which can be used to produce continuous submicron-diameter sized fibers. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers with a mean fiber diameter of 224 nm were electrospun to form fibermats. Filtration tests on fibermats of PAN were conducted to confirm that filters of thinner fibers result in higher collection efficiencies and lower pressure drops than that of thicker fibers as predicted by the theoretical filtration mechanism. Results showed that electrospun PAN nanofibermats had a superior quality factor of 0.067+/-0 compared to 0.031+/-0.001 by the current state-of-the-art microfiber-based high particulate air (HEPA) filtration media. The verified theory implies that nanofibermats of other types of materials could also be considered as promising filtration media since filtration performance is independent of the material used. As materials for advanced next-generation filtration media, ceramics are favored over polymeric materials due to their robustness against environmental factors such as ultraviolet rays, abrasive particles, and high temperature all of which degrade and damage the fibrous structure. Amidst various ceramic materials, the anatase phase of TiO2 was selected due to its mechanical property and versatility as a photocatalyst and microwave-absorbing material. Anatase TiO2 fibers were fabricated by electrospinning followed by heat treatment at 500°C for 3 hours. However, early precipitation or gelation of the organic solvent-based TiO2 sol posed a practical challenge in the sample preparation. In order to enhance stability of the precursor sol, a

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT FOR TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER GENERATED DURING DECONTAMINATION ACTIVITIES - ULTRASTRIP SYSTEMS, INC., MOBILE EMERGENCY FILTRATION SYSTEM (MEFS) - 04/14/WQPC-HS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance verification testing of the UltraStrip Systems, Inc., Mobile Emergency Filtration System (MEFS) was conducted under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program at the EPA Test and Evaluation (T&E) Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio, during November, 2003, thr...

  17. Electrochemical air revitalization system optimization investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Schubert, F. H.; Hallick, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    A program to characterize a Breadboard of an Electrochemical Air Revitalization System (BEARS) was successfully completed. The BEARS is composed of three components: (1) a water vapor electrolysis module (WVEM) for O2 production and partial humidity control, (2) an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module (EDCM) for CO2 control, and (3) a power-sharing controller, designed to utilize the power produced by the EDCM to partially offset the WVEM power requirements. It is concluded from the results of this work that the concept of electrochemical air revitalization with power-sharing is a viable solution to the problem of providing a localized topping force for O2 generation, CO2 removal and partial humidity control aboard manned spacecraft. Continued development of the EARS concept is recommended, applying the operational experience and limits identified during the BEARS program to testing of a one-man capacity system and toward the development of advanced system controls to optimize EARS operation for given interfaces and requirements. Successful completion of this development will produce timely technology necessary to plan future advanced environmental control and life support system programs and experiments.

  18. Effective protection of allogeneic stem cell recipients against Aspergillosis by HEPA air filtration during a period of construction--a prospective survey.

    PubMed

    Krüger, William H; Zöllner, Bernhard; Kaulfers, Paul-Michael; Zander, Axel R

    2003-06-01

    High incidence of aspergillosis on transplant units or hematological wards without HEPA air conditioning during periods of demolishing or construction has been reported by several investigators. Here we report monitoring of fungal air contamination during a period of construction on a stem cell transplantation ward using the gravity air-setting plate (GASP) method. Fungal air contamination in HEPA-conditioned patient rooms was constantly low, independent from construction activity. Outside of the patient rooms at the ward's corridor, the fungal load was significantly higher with some peak values. Outside the transplant unit measures of construction led to a significant increase of fungal spore concentration in air. Transplant activity was not reduced during construction and patients were nursed strictly under HEPA conditions. Patients were monitored prospectively for incidence of infections since 1990 and data of patients grafted during construction (n = 28) were compared to those grafted outside building activity (n = 652). An increase of aspergillosis during construction could be clearly excluded. It can be concluded: Nursing of patients undergoing stem cell transplantation in HEPA-conditioned rooms is an effective protection against acquisition of aspergillus-infection, even under environmental conditions with increased air contamination by conidia. The gravity air-setting plate (GASP) method is not expensive and easy to use and allows reliable and quantitative aerobiological spore monitoring. PMID:12857371

  19. 24 CFR 3280.715 - Circulating air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Circulating air systems. 3280.715... Systems § 3280.715 Circulating air systems. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 73989, Dec. 9, 2013... steel, tin-plated steel, or aluminum, or shall be listed Class 0, Class 1, or Class 2 air ducts. Class...

  20. ELECTROSTATIC STIMULATION OF FABRIC FILTRATION - AN UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the concept of electrostatic stimulation of fabric filtration (ESFF) on a slipstream of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler using reverse-air-cleaned woven fiberglass filter bags. Operation was demonstrated using ESFF at a glass-to-cloth ...

  1. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  2. Effectiveness of a pressurized stormwater filtration system in Green Bay, Wisconsin: a study for the environmental technology verification program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horwatich, J.A.; Corsi, Steven R.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2004-01-01

    A pressurized stormwater filtration system was installed in 1998 as a stormwater-treatment practice to treat runoff from a hospital rooftop and parking lot in Green Bay, Wisconsin. This type of filtration system has been installed in Florida citrus groves and sewage treatment plants around the United States; however, this installation is the first of its kind to be used to treat urban runoff and the first to be tested in Wisconsin. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitored the system between November 2000 and September 2002 to evaluate it as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification Program. Fifteen runoff events were monitored for flow and water quality at the inlet and outlet of the system, and comparison of the event mean concentrations and constituent loads was used to evaluate its effectiveness. Loads were decreased in all particulate-associated constituents monitored, including suspended solids (83 percent), suspended sediment (81 percent), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (26 percent), total phosphorus (54 percent), and total recoverable zinc (62 percent). Total dissolved solids, dissolved phosphorus, and nitrate plus nitrite loads remained similar or increased through the system. The increase in some constituents was most likely due to a ground-water contribution between runoff events. Sand/silt split analysis resulted in the median silt content of 78 percent at the inlet, 87 percent at the outlet, and 3 percent at the flow splitter.

  3. Air and sea rescue via satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, W. C.; Swanson, R.

    1984-03-01

    Two approaches to a satellite system for air and sea rescue to be put into use by the 1990s, one employing polar-orbiting satellites and the other using fixed geosynchronous satellites over the equator, are discussed. A battery-powered transmitter on a ship or aircraft would be activated in an accident to emit a low-power omnidirectional signal that would be relayed by a satellite to an earth station. The polar-orbiting approach, now being evaluated on a small-scale with the Cospas-Sarsat system, allows complete coverage of the earth, including the poles, and provides a fix on the origin of the distress signals by means of the Doppler shift. A parallel effort for the testing of geostationary satellites to measure system sensitivity to various interference sources, to optimize design, and to measure land and sea performance is reviewed.

  4. Water sample filtration unit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skougstad, M.W.; Scarbro, G.F., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    A readily portable, all plastic, pressure filtration unit is described which greatly facilitates rapid micropore membrane field filtration of up to several liters of water with a minimum risk of inorganic chemical alteration or contamination of the sample. The unit accommodates standard 10.2-cm. (4-inch) diameter filters. The storage and carrying case serves as a convenient filter stand for both field and laboratory use.

  5. Water Filtration Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    American Water Corporation manufactures water filtration products which incorporate technology originally developed for manned space operations. The formula involves granular activated charcoal and other ingredients, and removes substances by catalytic reactions, mechanical filtration, and absorption. Details are proprietary. A NASA literature search contributed to development of the compound. The technology is being extended to a deodorizing compound called Biofresh which traps gas and moisture inside the unit. Further applications are anticipated.

  6. The promise of air cargo: System aspects and vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The current operation of the air cargo system is reviewed. An assessment of the future of air cargo is provided by: (1) analyzing statistics and trends, (2) by noting system problems and inefficiencies, (3) by analyzing characteristics of 'air eligible' commodities, and (4) by showing the promise of new technology for future cargo aircraft with significant improvements in costs and efficiency. The following topics are discussed: (1) air cargo demand forecasts; (2) economics of air cargo transport; (3) the integrated air cargo system; (4) evolution of airfreighter design; and (5) the span distributed load concept.

  7. UV disinfection system for cabin air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soojung; Blatchley, Ernest R.

    2009-10-01

    The air of indoor cabin environments is susceptible to contamination by airborne microbial pathogens. A number of air treatment processes are available for inactivation or removal of airborne pathogens; included among these processes is ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The effectiveness of UV-based processes is known to be determined by the combined effects of UV dose delivery by the reactor and the UV dose-response behavior of the target microbe(s). To date, most UV system designs for air treatment have been based on empirical approaches, often involving crude representations of dose delivery and dose-response behavior. The objective of this research was to illustrate the development of a UV system for disinfection of cabin air based on well-defined methods of reactor and reaction characterization. UV dose-response behavior of a test microorganism was measured using a laboratory (bench-scale) system. Target microorganisms (bacterial spores) were first applied to membrane filters at sub-monolayer coverage. The filters were then transferred to a humidity chamber at fixed relative humidity (RH) and allowed to equilibrate with their surroundings. Microorganisms were then subjected to UV exposure under a collimated beam. The experiment was repeated at RH values ranging from 20% to 100%. UV dose-response behavior was observed to vary with RH. For example, at 100% RH, a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm 2 accomplished 99.7% (2.5 log10 U) of the Bacillus subtilis spore inactivation, whereas 99.94% (3.2 log10 U) inactivation was accomplished at this same UV dose under 20% RH conditions. To determine reactor behavior, UV dose-response behavior was combined with simulated results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and radiation intensity field models. This modeling approach allowed estimating the UV dose distribution delivered by the reactor. The advantage of this approach is that simulation of many reactor configurations can be done in a relatively short period of time. Moreover, by

  8. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Second Quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.; Hogg, R.; Fonseca, A.

    1993-06-01

    The normal practice in the coal preparation plant is to remove the water from the fine coal slurry by vacuum filtration and drying. Conventional vacuum filtration typically produces filter cake moisture containing in the range of 25 to 30 weight percent from minus 28 mesh coal slurries. Although the desired product quality can be obtained by using thermal dryers, there are problems associated with these equipment such as high capital costs and the greatest potential source of air pollution in a coal cleaning plant. In the present research project, an alternative to thermal drying, hyperbaric filtration which has shown potential in lowering moisture content in fine coal to about 20 percent level, is being investigated in detail. This project will essentially focus on developing fundamental information on particle-liquid interaction during hyperbaric filtration and applying the knowledge in developing optimum conditions for the pilot plant testing of the hyperbaric filter system.

  9. Optical system for trapping particles in air.

    PubMed

    Kampmann, R; Chall, A K; Kleindienst, R; Sinzinger, S

    2014-02-01

    An innovative optical system for trapping particles in air is presented. We demonstrate an optical system specifically optimized for high precision positioning of objects with a size of several micrometers within a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NPMM). Based on a specification sheet, an initial system design was calculated and optimized in an iterative design process. By combining optical design software with optical force simulation tools, a highly efficient optical system was developed. Both components of the system, which include a refractive double axicon and a parabolic ring mirror, were fabricated by ultra-precision turning. The characterization of the optical elements and the whole system, especially the force simulations based on caustic measurements, represent an important interim result for the subsequently performed trapping experiments. The caustic of the trapping beam produced by the system was visualized with the help of image processing techniques. Finally, we demonstrated the unique efficiency of the configuration by reproducibly trapping fused silica spheres with a diameter of 10 μm at a distance of 2.05 mm from the final optical surface. PMID:24514197

  10. Hot gas filtration technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.

    1995-11-01

    The primary objective of this research has been to provide an understanding of factors pertinent to the development of an effective filtration system for removing particles from high-temperature, high-pressure gas streams in advanced power generation systems under development by the Department of Energy. Information used to define the filtration system issues was compiled from the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) Contractors Conferences, specific tasks assigned to Southern Research Institute, meetings with METC personnel and contractors, and other conferences and workshops organized by METC. Initial research and pilot scale installations have shown that there are some potential problem areas. Thick ash deposits have formed, bridging from passive surfaces to the filter material and between filter candles. A great number of ceramic filters have broken in various experimental and demonstration devices, especially during long-term testing. This paper reviews particulate characteristics (effects on filtration processes, conventional fly ash, gasifier char, PFBC ash, and detailed studies of PFBC ash) and ceramic filter materials (general issues, thermal stress, clay-bonded SiC filter materials, and monolithic ceramic materials).

  11. COMPARISONS OF VARIOUS FILTRATION MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews use of filtering materials in diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration, slow sand filtration, and coagulation-rapid rate filtration. For DE filtration, increased effluent clarity (lower turbidity) is generally attained at the expense of increased rates of head loss i...

  12. Evaluation of an air drilling cuttings containment system

    SciTech Connect

    Westmoreland, J.

    1994-04-01

    Drilling at hazardous waste sites for environmental remediation or monitoring requires containment of all drilling fluids and cuttings to protect personnel and the environment. At many sites, air drilling techniques have advantages over other drilling methods, requiring effective filtering and containment of the return air/cuttings stream. A study of. current containment methods indicated improvements could be made in the filtering of radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, and in equipment like alarms, instrumentation or pressure safety features. Sandia National Laboratories, Dept. 61 11 Environmental Drilling Projects Group, initiated this work to address these concerns. A look at the industry showed that asbestos abatement equipment could be adapted for containment and filtration of air drilling returns. An industry manufacturer was selected to build a prototype machine. The machine was leased and put through a six-month testing and evaluation period at Sandia National Laboratories. Various materials were vacuumed and filtered with the machine during this time. In addition, it was used in an actual air drive drilling operation. Results of these tests indicate that the vacuum/filter unit will meet or exceed our drilling requirements. This vacuum/filter unit could be employed at a hazardous waste site or any site where drilling operations require cuttings and air containment.

  13. Bond strength to root dentin and fluid filtration test of AH Plus/gutta-percha, EndoREZ and RealSeal systems

    PubMed Central

    MAHDI, Alaa Abdul; BOLAÑOS-CARMONA, Victoria; GONZALEZ-LOPEZ, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the bond strength and seal ability produced by AH Plus/gutta-percha, EndoREZ and RealSeal systems to root canal dentin. Material and Methods Sixty extracted single-root human teeth, instrumented manually to size 40, were divided into three groups (n=20) according to the sealer used; G1: AH Plus, G2: EndoREZ, and G3: RealSeal sealers. After filling using the lateral condensation technique, each sealer group was randomly divided into two subgroups according to the tests applied (n=10 for µPush-out test and n=10 for fluid filtration test). A fluid filtration method was used for quantitative evaluation of apical leakage. Four 1-mm-thick slices (cervical and medium level) were obtained from each root sample and a µPush-out test was performed. Failure modes were examined under microscopy at 40x, and a one-way ANOVA was applied to analyze the permeability. Non-parametrical statistics for related (Friedman's and Wilcoxon's rank tests) or unrelated samples (Kruskal-Wallis' and Mann-Whitney's tests) allowed for comparisons of µPush-out strength values among materials at the different levels. Statistical significance was accepted for p values <.05. Results There are no significant differences among fluid filtration of the three sealers. The sealer/core material does not significantly influence the µPush-out bond strength values (F=2.49; p=0.10), although statistically significant differences were detected with regard to root level (Chi2=23.93; p<0.001). AH Plus and RealSeal obtained higher bond strength to intraradicular dentin in the medium root slices. Conclusions There are no significant differences between the permeability and global µPush-out bond strength to root canal dentin achieved by AH Plus/gutta-percha, EndoREZ and RealSeal systems. PMID:24037078

  14. Research on Air Flow Measurement and Optimization of Control Algorithm in Air Disinfection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bing-jie, Li; Jia-hong, Zhao; Xu, Wang; Amuer, Mohamode; Zhi-liang, Wang

    2013-01-01

    As the air flow control system has the characteristics of delay and uncertainty, this research designed and achieved a practical air flow control system by using the hydrodynamic theory and the modern control theory. Firstly, the mathematical model of the air flow distribution of the system is analyzed from the hydrodynamics perspective. Then the model of the system is transformed into a lumped parameter state space expression by using the Galerkin method. Finally, the air flow is distributed more evenly through the estimation of the system state and optimal control. The simulation results show that this algorithm has good robustness and anti-interference ability

  15. Effects of anthracene on filtration rates, antioxidant defense system, and redox proteomics in the Mediterranean clam Ruditapes decussatus (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Sellami, Badreddine; Khazri, Abdelhafidh; Louati, Héla; Dellali, Mohamed; Driss, Mouhamed Ridha; Aïssa, Patricia; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Hamouda, Beyrem; Coelho, Ana Varela; Sheehan, David

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the impact of a toxic polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), anthracene (ANT), on Ruditapes decussatus collected from a Tunisian coastal lagoon (Bizerte Lagoon). Filtration rates, several antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione transferase (GST)--as well as indices of protein oxidation status were determined in various tissues of this bivalve. Specimens were exposed to 100 μg/L of ANT for 2 days. ANT levels were evaluated using HPLC and were detected in the gill and digestive gland at different amounts. ANT exposure altered the behavior of bivalves by changing the siphon movement and decreasing filtration rate significantly. The enzymatic results indicated that ANT exposure affected the oxidative stress status of the gills of R. decussatus. In addition, modification of proteins was detected in the gills using redox proteomics after ANT treatment. Three protein spots were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). These proteins can be roughly related to muscle contraction function. In contrast, no significant modification of enzymatic and protein responses was detected in the digestive gland after ANT treatment. These data demonstrate that combined behavioral and biochemical analyses are a powerful tool to provide valuable insights into possible mechanisms of toxicity of anthracene in R. decussatus. Additionally, the results highlight the potential of the gill as a valuable candidate for investigating PAH toxicity. PMID:25779113

  16. Centrifugal membrane filtration -- Task 9

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has teamed with SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., the developer of a centrifugal membrane filtration technology, to demonstrate applications for the SpinTek technology within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental management (EM) Program. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. This is a crosscutting technology that falls under the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program, with potential application to tank wastes, contaminated groundwater, landfill leachate, and secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, including decontamination and decommissioning systems. Membrane-screening tests were performed with the SpinTek STC-X4 static test cell filtration unit, using five ceramic membranes with different pore size and composition. Based on permeate flux, a 0.25-{micro}m TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane was selected for detailed performance evaluation using the SpinTek ST-IIL centrifugal membrane filtration unit with a surrogate tank waste solution. An extended test run of 100 hr performed on a surrogate tank waste solution showed some deterioration in filtration performance, based on flux, apparently due to the buildup of solids near the inner portion of the membrane where relative membrane velocities were low. Continued testing of the system will focus on modifications to the shear pattern across the entire membrane surface to affect improved long-term performance.

  17. One man electrochemical air revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, J. C.; Aylward, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An integrated water vapor electrolysis (WVE) hydrogen depolarized CO2 concentrator (HDC) system sized for one man support over a wide range of inlet air conditions was designed, fabricated, and tested. Data obtained during 110 days of testing verified that this system can provide the necessary oxygen, CO2 removal, and partial humidity control to support one man (without exceeding a cabin partial pressure of 3.0 mmHg for CO2 and while maintaining a 20% oxygen level), when operated at a WVE current of 50 amperes and an HDC current of 18 amperes. An evaluation to determine the physical properties of tetramethylammonium bicarbonate (TMAC) and hydroxide was made. This provides the necessary electrolyte information for designing an HDC cell using TMAC.

  18. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  19. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  20. Gas turbine engine and its associated air intake system

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, J.R.; Bennett, G.H.; Lee, L.A.

    1984-01-17

    A gas turbine engine and its associated air intake system are disclosed in which the air intake system comprises a generally horizontally extending duct through which an airflow is induced by an ejector pump powered by the engine. A portion of the air passing through the duct is directed through a second duct to the air inlet of the engine. The second duct is connected to the first duct in such a manner that the air directed to the engine air inlet is derived from a vertically upper region of the first duct. The arrangement is intended to reduce the amount of airborne particulate material ingested by the gas turbine engine.

  1. HVAC system performance and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the mid-seventies, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) promulgated ASHRAE Standard 90-75 Energy Conservation in New Building Design, which called for revised minimum ventilation rates and the elimination of energy-wasting HVAC systems. Most building codes which cover energy conservation in the late seventies and eighties referred to this standard. This lowering of ventilation rates, coupled with the tighter building envelope (walls, windows, doors and roof) led to a reduction in outside air, both by engineering design and by minimizing infiltration through the structure. The minimum ventilation rates are based on the assumption that average concentrations of tobacco smoke exist in all enclosed spaces (30 percent of the population being smokers at two cigarettes per hour), rather than having separate rates for smoking and nonsmoking areas, as in the 1981 revision of the Standard. If tobacco smoke is ever declared a carcinogen, it will undoubtedly prompt a review of Standard 62-1989, as well as hasten totally smoke-free buildings.

  2. Waste water filtration enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    Removal of submicron particles from process solutions and waste water is now economically achievable using a new Tyvek{reg sign} media in conventional filtration equipment. This new product greatly enhances filtration and allows use of the much improved filter aids and polymers which were recently developed. It has reduced operating costs and ensures a clean effluent discharge to the environment. This significant technical development is especially important to those who discharge to a small stream with low 7Q10 flow and must soon routinely pass the Toxicity tests that are being required by many States for NPDES permit renewal. The Savannah River Plant produces special nuclear materials for the US Government. Aluminum forming and metal finishing operations in M-Area, that manufacture fuel and target assemblies for the nuclear reactors, discharge to a waste water treatment facility using BAT hydroxide precipitation and filtration. The new Tyvek{reg sign} media and filter aids have achieved 55% less solids in the filtrate discharged to Tims Branch Creek, 15% less hazardous waste (dry filter cake), 150%-370% more filtration capacity, 74% lower materials purchase cost, 10% lower total M-Area manufacturing cost, and have improved safety. Performance with the improved polymers is now being evaluated.

  3. Natural bank filtration: What non-engineered, natural-gradient systems can tell us about removal of microorganisms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Metge, D. W.; Aiken, G.; LeBlanc, D. R.; McCobb, T.

    2012-12-01

    Although engineered bank-filtration has proven to be a cost-effective means of removing pathogens from source water, little is known about the efficacy of non-engineered bank filtration occurring under natural-gradient conditions. Our study focused on removal of microorganisms by bottom sediments within the "pond shadow" of a kettle pond in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Ashumet Pond (pH 7.2, 118-123 μS cm-1 specific conductance, 2.2-2.5 mg/L dissolved organic carbon, DOC) was formed by a deep (up to 20 m) depression into the local aquifer made by melting block(s) of ice left behind during the last glacial retreat, ~12000 ybp. Although there are no inputs or outputs of surface water to the pond, groundwater continuously flows into the north end of the pond and eventually recharges the aquifer on the south end, which serves as source-water for nearby wells. We performed injection-and-recovery studies in the south end of the pond involving the addition of a conservative tracer (bromide) and a suite of colloids, including Synechococcus sp. IU625 (2.6 ± 0.2 μm), unidentified cyanospores (1.6 ± 0.1 μm diameter), and carboxylate-modified polystyrene microspheres (1.7, 2.9, and 4.6-μm diameter size classes). The colloids and bromide were added to the water column within a bag-and-barrel (Lee type) seepage meter and tracked as they moved across the surficial layer and through the underlying aquifer sediments past push-point samplers placed at ~30 cm intervals along a 1.2 m, diagonally (~45 °) downward flow path. The top 25 cm of near-surface bottom sediments removed ~44% of the pond DOC and was more effective (by more than 9 orders of magnitude) at removing colloids than was the underlying sediment. This resulted in a hyperexponential deposition profile along the travel path, in contrast to what is predicted from colloid filtration theory, and underscored the importance of the biologically active layer at the pond bottom. However, once below the top layer, cyanospores

  4. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, D.M.; Sullivan, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    A study is made of several outstanding issues concerning the commercial development of environmental control systems for electric vehicles (EVs). Engineering design constraints such as federal regulations and consumer requirements are first identified. Next, heating and cooling loads in a sample automobile are calculated using a computer model available from the literature. The heating and cooling loads are then used as a basis for estimating the electrical consumption that is to be expected for heat pumps installed in EVs. The heat pump performance is evaluated using an automobile heat pump computer model which has been developed recently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The heat pump design used as input to the model consists of typical finned-tube heat exchangers and a hermetic compressor driven by a variable-speed brushless dc motor. The simulations suggest that to attain reasonable system efficiencies, the interior heat exchangers that are currently installed as automobile air conditioning will need to be enlarged. Regarding the thermal envelope of the automobile itself, calculations are made which show that considerable energy savings will result if steps are taken to reduce {open_quote}hot soak{close_quote} temperatures and if the outdoor air ventilation rate is well controlled. When these changes are made, heating and cooling should consume less than 10% of the total stored electrical energy for steady driving in most U.S. climates. However, this result depends strongly upon the type of driving: The fraction of total power for heating and cooling ({open_quote}range penalty{close_quote}) increases sharply for driving scenarios having low average propulsion power, such as stop-and-go driving.

  5. Microfluidic colloid filtration

    PubMed Central

    Linkhorst, John; Beckmann, Torsten; Go, Dennis; Kuehne, Alexander J. C.; Wessling, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Filtration of natural and colloidal matter is an essential process in today’s water treatment processes. The colloidal matter is retained with the help of micro- and nanoporous synthetic membranes. Colloids are retained in a “cake layer” – often coined fouling layer. Membrane fouling is the most substantial problem in membrane filtration: colloidal and natural matter build-up leads to an increasing resistance and thus decreasing water transport rate through the membrane. Theoretical models exist to describe macroscopically the hydrodynamic resistance of such transport and rejection phenomena; however, visualization of the various phenomena occurring during colloid retention is extremely demanding. Here we present a microfluidics based methodology to follow filter cake build up as well as transport phenomena occuring inside of the fouling layer. The microfluidic colloidal filtration methodology enables the study of complex colloidal jamming, crystallization and melting processes as well as translocation at the single particle level. PMID:26927706

  6. Microfluidic colloid filtration.

    PubMed

    Linkhorst, John; Beckmann, Torsten; Go, Dennis; Kuehne, Alexander J C; Wessling, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Filtration of natural and colloidal matter is an essential process in today's water treatment processes. The colloidal matter is retained with the help of micro- and nanoporous synthetic membranes. Colloids are retained in a "cake layer" - often coined fouling layer. Membrane fouling is the most substantial problem in membrane filtration: colloidal and natural matter build-up leads to an increasing resistance and thus decreasing water transport rate through the membrane. Theoretical models exist to describe macroscopically the hydrodynamic resistance of such transport and rejection phenomena; however, visualization of the various phenomena occurring during colloid retention is extremely demanding. Here we present a microfluidics based methodology to follow filter cake build up as well as transport phenomena occuring inside of the fouling layer. The microfluidic colloidal filtration methodology enables the study of complex colloidal jamming, crystallization and melting processes as well as translocation at the single particle level. PMID:26927706

  7. Microfluidic colloid filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkhorst, John; Beckmann, Torsten; Go, Dennis; Kuehne, Alexander J. C.; Wessling, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Filtration of natural and colloidal matter is an essential process in today’s water treatment processes. The colloidal matter is retained with the help of micro- and nanoporous synthetic membranes. Colloids are retained in a “cake layer” - often coined fouling layer. Membrane fouling is the most substantial problem in membrane filtration: colloidal and natural matter build-up leads to an increasing resistance and thus decreasing water transport rate through the membrane. Theoretical models exist to describe macroscopically the hydrodynamic resistance of such transport and rejection phenomena; however, visualization of the various phenomena occurring during colloid retention is extremely demanding. Here we present a microfluidics based methodology to follow filter cake build up as well as transport phenomena occuring inside of the fouling layer. The microfluidic colloidal filtration methodology enables the study of complex colloidal jamming, crystallization and melting processes as well as translocation at the single particle level.

  8. Microvascular filtration in subjects with connective tissue disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J C; Snaith, M L

    1984-01-01

    A simple non-invasive method for studying microvascular filtration in the non-articular tissues of the forearm is described. Rates of filtration under a standard hydrostatic pressure were measured in 20 normal female subjects and 44 female subjects with connective tissue disorders. An increased mean filtration rate was found in 14 subjects with rheumatoid arthritis. In 20 subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus and 10 subjects with scleroderma no such generalised increase in filtration rates was seen, but isolated cases had very high filtration rates, suggesting a more heterogeneous physiological disturbance. Increased filtration was not associated with the presence of oedema. This confirms doubts raised by other workers about the importance of filtration in the genesis of clinical oedema. Images PMID:6476914

  9. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Novel Liquid Air Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, X. D.; Wang, S. X.; Zhang, X. L.; Cui, C.; Chen, L. B.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J. J.

    In this study, a novel liquid air energy storage system for electrical power load shifting application is introduced. It is a combination of an air liquefaction cycle and a gas turbine power generation cycle without fuel combustion. Thermodynamic analysis is conducted to investigate the performance of this system. The results show that liquid air energy storage systems could be very effective systems for electrical power storage with high efficiency, high energy density and extensive application prospects.

  10. Filtration by eyelashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vistarakula, Krishna; Bergin, Mike; Hu, David

    2010-11-01

    Nearly every mammalian and avian eye is rimmed with lashes. We investigate experimentally the ability of lashes to reduce airborne particle deposition in the eye. We hypothesize that there is an optimum eyelash length that maximizes both filtration ability and extent of peripheral vision. This hypothesis is tested using a dual approach. Using preserved heads from 36 species of animals at the American Museum of Natural History, we determine the relationship between eye size and eyelash geometry (length and spacing). We test the filtration efficacy of these geometries by deploying outdoor manikins and measuring particle deposition rate as a function of eyelash length.

  11. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  12. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  13. Systems evaluation of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, R. W.; Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Methods were studied for improving air transportation to low-density population regions in the U.S. through the application of new aeronautical technology. The low-density air service concepts are developed for selected regions, and critical technologies that presently limit the effective application of low-density air transportation systems are identified.

  14. AIR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN SEED COTTON DRYING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten tests were conducted in the fall of 2007 to measure air temperature variation within various heated air seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring air temperature variation across the airflow ductwork...

  15. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM (IAPCS) COST MODEL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL) Integrated Air Pollution Control System Cost Model is a compiled model written in FORTRAN and C language that is designed to be used on an IBM or compatible PC with 640K or lower RAM and at least 1.5 Mb of hard drive space. It ...

  16. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    North, William Edward

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  17. Effects of boundary conditions on the cleaning efficiency of riverbank filtration and artificial groundwater recharge systems regarding bulk parameters and trace pollutants.

    PubMed

    Storck, Florian R; Schmidt, Carsten K; Wülser, Richard; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water is often produced from surface water by riverbank filtration (RBF) or artificial groundwater recharge (AGR). In this study, an AGR system was exemplarily investigated and results were compared with those of RBF systems, in which the effects of redox milieu, temperature and surface water discharge on the cleaning efficiency were evaluated. Besides bulk parameters such as DOC (dissolved organic carbon), organic trace pollutants including iodinated X-ray contrast media, personal care products, complexing agents, and pharmaceuticals were investigated. At all studied sites, levels of TOC (total organic carbon), DOC, AOX (adsorbable organic halides), SAC (spectral absorption coefficient at 254 nm), and turbidity were reduced significantly. DOC removal was stimulated at higher groundwater temperatures during AGR. Several substances were generally easily removable during both AGR and RBF, regardless of the site, season, discharge or redox regime. For some more refractory substances, however, removal efficiency turned out to be significantly influenced by redox conditions. PMID:22678210

  18. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  19. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment cost and pay back periods were calculated.

  20. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment costmore » and pay back periods were calculated.« less

  1. The air transportation/energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The changing pattern of transportation is discussed, and the energy intensiveness of various modes of transportation is also analyzed. Sociopsychological data affecting why people travel by air are presented, along with governmental regulation and air transportation economics. The aviation user tax structure is shown in tabular form.

  2. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  3. PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems: A new approach to clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Poles, T.; Anderson, D.R.; Durilla, M.; Heck, R.; Hoke, J.; Ober, R.; Rudy, W.

    1996-12-01

    PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems represents a new approach to air pollution control--one that focuses on destroying pollutants already in the air. PremAir is the trademark for a family of developmental catalysts capable of reducing ozone, carbon monoxide and potentially other pollutants in ambient air that comes into contact with catalyst-coated surfaces. The more air that comes into contact with the surface the more pollutants that can be destroyed. For this reason, Engelhard has focused its attention on heat-exchange equipment such as automotive radiators and air-conditioner condensers. It is because of advances in catalysis achieved at Engelhard that PremAir catalysts are active at the low temperatures found in these environments. In Los Angeles, which has the country`s worst smog problem, approximately one trillion cubic feet per day of air pass through car radiators and five trillion cubic feet per day pass through air conditioners. Most of the research, development and testing work performed to date has been on ozone catalysts and their application to car radiators. This paper discusses that work and the potential benefits associated with the PremAir technology. In addition, preliminary work on stationary applications of this new technology is discussed.

  4. The microbiological quality of air improves when using air conditioning systems in cars

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of better comfort, air conditioning systems are a common feature in automobiles these days. However, its impact on the number of particles and microorganisms inside the vehicle - and by this its impact on the risk of an allergic reaction - is yet unknown. Methods Over a time period of 30 months, the quality of air was investigated in three different types of cars (VW Passat, VW Polo FSI, Seat Alhambra) that were all equipped with a automatic air conditioning system. Operation modes using fresh air from outside the car as well as circulating air from inside the car were examined. The total number of microorganisms and the number of mold spores were measured by impaction in a high flow air sampler. Particles of 0.5 to 5.0 μm diameter were counted by a laser particle counter device. Results Overall 32 occasions of sampling were performed. The concentration of microorganisms outside the cars was always higher than it was inside the cars. Few minutes after starting the air conditioning system the total number of microorganisms was reduced by 81.7%, the number of mold spores was reduced by 83.3%, and the number of particles was reduced by 87.8%. There were no significant differences neither between the types of cars nor between the types of operation mode of the air conditioning system (fresh air vs. circulating air). All parameters that were looked for in this study improved during utilization of the car's air conditioning system. Conclusions We believe that the risk of an allergic reaction will be reduced during use also. Nevertheless, we recommend regular maintenance of the system and replacement of older filters after defined changing intervals. PMID:20515449

  5. Urban air quality simulation with community multi-scale air quality (CMAQ) modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, D.; Young, J.; Gipson, G.; Schere, K.; Godowitch, J.

    1998-11-01

    In an effort to provide a state-of-the-science air quality modeling capability, US EPA has developed a new comprehensive and flexible Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The authors demonstrate CMAQ simulations for a high ozone episode in the northeastern US during 12-15 July 1995 and discuss meteorological issues important for modeling of urban air quality.

  6. Reduction of Calcium Concentrations by the Brita® Water Filtration System: A Practical Experiment in Titrimetry and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Kimberly G.; Ulicny, Lisa J.

    2001-07-01

    We have examined the ability of a popular water filtration system to decrease the calcium concentration of solutions passed through the filter. The students' current interest in environmental and medical issues, combined with the scientific examination of a household item often used by the students and their families, results in a successful experiment that generates significant curiosity from the participants while they learn an important set of quantitative tools. The experiment has three parts, which examine the calcium content of standard solutions before and after treatment. The laboratory requires teamwork, titration lab work, and graphical analysis utilizing a common spreadsheet program. An additional instrumental analysis module, included in the Notes to the Instructor, brings to light some limitations of complexometric titrations, the most important being the nonspecificity of chelating molecules.

  7. Temporal behavior of peripheral organ distribution volume in mammillary systems. II. Application to background correction in separate glomerular filtration rate estimation in man

    SciTech Connect

    Decostre, P.L.; Salmon, Y. )

    1990-10-01

    An original approach to background subtraction is presented for 99mTc-DTPA separate glomerular filtration rate (SGFR) estimation in man. The method is based on the properties of the peripheral organ distribution volume (PODV) in mammillary systems. These PODV properties allow easy separation of the components of the renogram, i.e., interstitial fluid, plasma and renal activities. The proposed algorithm takes advantage of the linear time dependence of the kidney distribution volume, during the renal uptake phase, to correct for the plasma residual activity, which always remains after classical background correction. Theoretically, the ratio between kidney uptake and SGFR should be identical for both left and right kidneys, even for very asymmetrical kidney functions. This is best verified when the proposed plasma residual activity correction is applied.

  8. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-Yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for remotely sensing air outside a moving aircraft includes generating laser radiation within a swept frequency range. A portion of the laser radiation is projected from the aircraft into the air to induce scattered laser radiation. Filtered scattered laser radiation, filtered laser radiation, and unfiltered laser radiation are detected. At least one actual ratio is determined from data corresponding to the filtered scattered laser radiation and the unfiltered laser radiation. One or more air parameters are determined by correlating the actual ratio to at least one reference ratio.

  9. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-Yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for remotely sensing air outside a moving aircraft includes generating laser radiation within a swept frequency range. A portion of the laser radiation is projected from the aircraft into the air to induce scattered laser radiation. Filtered scattered laser radiation, filtered laser radiation, and unfiltered laser radiation are detected. At least one actual ratio is determined from data corresponding to the filtered scattered laser radiation and the unfiltered laser radiation. One or more air parameters are determined by correlating the actual ratio to at least one reference ratio.

  10. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOEpatents

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  11. Development of Simulation System for Hot Gas Filtration by Ceramic Candle Filters on High Temperature and/or High Pressure Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.J.; Lim, J.H.; Kim, S.D.; Choi, H.K.; Park, H,S.; Park, Y.O.

    2002-09-19

    Hot gas filtration from industrial processes offers various advantages in terms of improvement of process efficiencies, heat recovery and protection of plant installation. Especially hot gas filtration is an essential technology for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC).

  12. Air pollution and the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Braga, Alfésio Luis Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations. PMID:23147058

  13. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A...

  14. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A...

  15. Thermal Environment for Classrooms. Central System Approach to Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triechler, Walter W.

    This speech compares the air conditioning requirements of high-rise office buildings with those of large centralized school complexes. A description of one particular air conditioning system provides information about the system's arrangement, functions, performance efficiency, and cost effectiveness. (MLF)

  16. COSTS OF AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT SYSTEMS FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capital and annual costs were calculated for applying six different air pollution control systems to municipal sewage sludge incinerators that were using multiple-hearth furnaces. The systems involved three principal types of air pollution equipment-wet scrubbers, fabric filters,...

  17. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A...

  18. EMISSIONS PROCESSING FOR THE ETA/ CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of the...

  19. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  20. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  1. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  2. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  3. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  4. Evaluation of two new filtration systems--Fenwal PS400 and Organon Teknika Curesis--and comparison of results with two centrifugation systems--IBM model 2997 and Haemonetics V50.

    PubMed

    Coffe, C; Couteret, Y; Pujol, J P; Kieffer, Y; Lenys, R; Panouse, J; Peters, A

    1985-07-01

    Two new filtration systems (Fenwal CPS 10TM - PS 400 and Organon Teknika Curesis - M82) were evaluated and compared with two centrifugal cell separators (IBM 2997 and Haemonetics V50). 11 patients with auto immune diseases and dermatological diseases underwent 230 consecutive plasma exchanges. For the filtration systems, the average whole blood rate was 50 ml/min and the plasma separation rate was about 21 ml/min for a transmembrane pressure about 70 mmHg. The pre/post percent reduction and sieving coefficient were calculated for some plasma and blood components. A variety of laboratory studies was monitored to assess the efficacy of plasma separators, their biocompatibility and some yields. These results show that the 2 filters appear safe and efficacious but their modules are too simple and do not offer a great security (no transmembrane pressure control or no extracorporeal fluid balance). For a blood banker, IBM 2997 seems more interesting if we take in account its characteristics during plasma exchanges and the possibility which is offered to carry out cytapheresis procedures. But for a thrombopenic patient the filtration systems keep their advantages. PMID:4055112

  5. Particle Filtration for Ultra Fast Laser Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakschik, S.; Kesslau, D.

    Ultra fast laser processing is marketed for processes which require small thermal impact to the product. The process has its advantages in processing speed and quality. Recent applications have been in photo-voltaic processing, surface treatment or preparation of electrodes for lithium ion batteries. As soon as the fast laser is utilized for ablation, particles are generated. Driven by product quality, tool conservation and governmental restrictions a well-defined air filter is necessary for laser processes. The layout and design of such a filter system is not strait forward. First of all acquisition plays a major role on the overall quality of the system. In addition the filter itself needs to be well defined in terms of deposition rate and endurance. The latter is determined by the generated particles. We present an investigation of particles as generated by ultra fast laser processing of silicon, inox and ceramics. Our investigation proves thermal impact on generated particles by the ultra-fast laser. The particle spectrum is clearly determined by sub micrometer particles, making nano-filtration a necessary step. Based on this investigation an extraction and filter solution was designed and successfully demonstrated on silicon, inox and ceramic process. A filter quality according to governmental regulation is achieved, based on an extraction which delivers best product quality.

  6. Sioux City Riverbank Filtration Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mach, R.; Condon, J.; Johnson, J.

    2003-04-01

    The City of Sioux City (City) obtains a large percentage of their drinking water supply from both a horizontal collector well system and vertical wells located adjacent to the Missouri River. These wells are set in either the Missouri Alluvium or the Dakota Sandstone aquifer. Several of the collector well laterals extend out beneath the Missouri River, with the laterals being over twenty feet below the river channel bottom. Due to concerns regarding ground water under direct surface water influence, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) required the City to expand their water treatment process to deal with potential surface water contaminant issues. With the extensive cost of these plant upgrades, the City and Olsson Associates (OA) approached the IDNR requesting approval for assessing the degree of natural riverbank filtration for water treatment. If this natural process could be ascertained, the level of treatment from the plant could be reduced. The objective of this study was to quantify the degree of surface water (i.e. Missouri River) filtration due to the underlying Missouri River sediments. Several series of microscopic particulate analysis where conducted, along with tracking of turbidity, temperature, bacteria and a full scale particle count study. Six particle sizes from six sampling points were assessed over a nine-month period that spanned summer, fall and spring weather periods. The project was set up in two phases and utilized industry accepted statistical analyses to identify particle data trends. The first phase consisted of twice daily sample collection from the Missouri River and the collector well system for a one-month period. Statistical analysis of the data indicated reducing the sampling frequency and sampling locations would yield justifiable data while significantly reducing sampling and analysis costs. The IDNR approved this modification, and phase II included sampling and analysis under this reduced plant for an eight

  7. Air Pollution Information System, Increasing Usability Through Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Fred; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The conversion of an information system containing air pollution related documents from manual to automatic computer-based operation is outlined with emphasis on the increased services to system users which resulted from the conversion. (Author)

  8. Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2003-11-01

    NREL will produce this sourcebook for DOE's Industrial Technologies Office as part of a series of documents on industrial energy equipment. The sourcebook is a reference for industrial compressed air system users, outlining opportunities to improve system efficiency.

  9. Acceptance Test Report for 241-U compressed air system

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, R.D.

    1994-10-20

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance testing of a newly upgraded compressed air system at 241-U Farm. The system was installed and the test successfully performed under work package 2W-92-01027.

  10. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  11. 40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for systems using filtration treatment. In addition to monitoring required by § 141.74, a public water system subject to the requirements of this subpart that provides conventional filtration treatment....174 Section 141.174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  12. Cold Vacuum Drying Instrument Air System Design Description (SYS 12)

    SciTech Connect

    SHAPLEY, B.J.; TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-06-05

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the instrument air (IA) system of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This IA system provides instrument quality air to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. The IA system is a general service system that supports the operation of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, the process equipment skids, and process instruments in the CVD Facility. The following discussion is limited to the compressor, dryer, piping, and valving that provide the IA as shown in Drawings H-1-82222, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Compressed & Instrument Air P&ID, and H-1.82161, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid P&ID MCO/Cusk Interface. Figure 1-1 shows the physical location of the 1A system in the CVD Facility.

  13. Air cycle machine for an aircraft environmental control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decrisantis, Angelo A. (Inventor); O'Coin, James R. (Inventor); Taddey, Edmund P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An ECS system includes an ACM mounted adjacent an air-liquid heat exchanger through a diffuser that contains a diffuser plate. The diffuser plate receives airflow from the ACM which strikes the diffuser plate and flows radially outward and around the diffuser plate and into the air-liquid heat exchanger to provide minimal pressure loss and proper flow distribution into the air-liquid heat exchanger with significantly less packaging space.

  14. Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates

    SciTech Connect

    Goolsby, G.K.

    1995-01-04

    The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems.

  15. Designing Forced-Air HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-31

    This guide explains proper calculation of heating and cooling design loads for homes.used to calculated for the home using the protocols set forth in the latest edition of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s (ACCA) Manual J (currently the 8th edition), ASHRAE 2009 Handbook of Fundamentals, or an equivalent computation procedure.

  16. New innovative electrocoagulation (EC) treatment technology for BWR colloidal iron utilizing the seeding and filtration electronically (SAFET{sup TM}) system

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, Mark S.; Bostick, William D.

    2007-07-01

    is 1) to break the colloid (i.e., break the outer radius repulsive charges of the similar charged colloidal particles), 2) allow these particles to now flocculate (floc), and 3) form a type of floc that is more readily filterable, and, thus, de-waterable. This task has been carried out with the innovative application of electronically seeding the feed stream with the metal of choice, and without the addition of chemicals common to ferri-flocking, or polymer addition. This patent-pending new system and technique is called Seeding And Filtration Electronically, or the SAFE{sup TM} System. Once the colloid has been broken and flocking has begun, removal of the resultant floc can be carried out by standard, back-washable (or, in simple cases, dead-end) filters; or simply in de-waterable HICs or liners. Such applications include low level radwaste (LLW) from both PWRs and BWRs, fuel pools, storage basins, salt water collection tanks, etc. For the removal of magnetic materials, such as some BWR irons, an Electro Magnetic Filter (EMF) was developed to couple with the Electro Coagulation (EC), (or metal-Flocking) Unit. In the advent that the waste stream primarily contains magnetic materials (e.g., boiler condensates and magnetite, and he-magnetite from BWRs), the material was simply filtered using the EMF. Bench-, pilot- and full-scale systems have been assembled and applied on actual plant waste samples quite successfully. The effects of initial feed pH and conductivity, as well as flocculation retention times was examined prior to applying the production equipment into the field. Since the initial studies (Denton, et al, EPRI, 2006), the ultimate success of field applications is now being demonstrated as the next development phase. For such portable field demonstrations and demand systems, a fully self enclosed (secondary containment) EC system was first developed and assembled in a modified B 25 Box (Floc-In-A-Box) and is being deployed to a number of NPP sites. Finally

  17. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

    Understanding the primary causes of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and how controllable factors--proper heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert problems may help all building owners, operators, and…

  18. Three-Dimensional Air Quality System (3D-AQS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel-Cox, J.; Hoff, R.; Weber, S.; Zhang, H.; Prados, A.

    2007-12-01

    The 3-Dimensional Air Quality System (3DAQS) integrates remote sensing observations from a variety of platforms into air quality decision support systems at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with a focus on particulate air pollution. The decision support systems are the Air Quality System (AQS) / AirQuest database at EPA, Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) system, the U.S. Air Quality weblog (Smog Blog) at UMBC, and the Regional East Atmospheric Lidar Mesonet (REALM). The project includes an end user advisory group with representatives from the air quality community providing ongoing feedback. The 3DAQS data sets are UMBC ground based LIDAR, and NASA and NOAA satellite data from MODIS, OMI, AIRS, CALIPSO, MISR, and GASP. Based on end user input, we are co-locating these measurements to the EPA's ground-based air pollution monitors as well as re-gridding to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model grid. These data provide forecasters and the scientific community with a tool for assessment, analysis, and forecasting of U.S Air Quality. The third dimension and the ability to analyze the vertical transport of particulate pollution are provided by aerosol extinction profiles from the UMBC LIDAR and CALIPSO. We present examples of a 3D visualization tool we are developing to facilitate use of this data. We also present two specific applications of 3D-AQS data. The first is comparisons between PM2.5 monitor data and remote sensing aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, which show moderate agreement but variation with EPA region. The second is a case study for Baltimore, Maryland, as an example of 3D-analysis for a metropolitan area. In that case, some improvement is found in the PM2.5 /LIDAR correlations when using vertical aerosol information to calculate an AOD below the boundary layer.

  19. Development of a multiple-microhole aerostatic air bearing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kuang-Chao; Ho, Chi-Chung; Mou, Jong-I.

    2002-09-01

    New types of aerostatic air bearing and linear slide systems have been developed. The prototype of a multiple-microhole, instead of a porous-type, air bearing was developed and the surface roughness was improved by finished process. Instead of the conventional drilling process, the air bearing pads were fabricated by using microfabrication technology in this research. The spectral element method was employed to simulate the pressure distribution of air bearing and a comparison was made with experimental results. A granite straight edge was used as linear slide to guide the moving table that was supported by the developed air bearing system. A laser interferometer system was used to assess the performance of the stage.

  20. Attenuating noise generated by variable-air-volume systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, R.

    1985-03-01

    Sound generated by HVAC systems is receiving much attention because they are generally the principal contributors to room background sound levels that may become irritating and distracting noise if not controlled. This article discusses the creation of a quiet working environment through an analysis of the three traditional sound paths associated with air handling systems: radiated sound, inlet or return air sound and discharge sound. Recommended standards are given as well as a brief overview of materials used to fabricate HVAC system components.

  1. COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEM (ONE ATMOSPHERE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task supports ORD's strategy by providing responsive technical support of EPA's mission and provides credible state of the art air quality models and guidance. This research effort is to develop and improve the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, a mu...

  2. TAPAS: Topographic air pollution analysis system. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Riebau, A.; Fox, D.A.; Marlatt, W.E.

    1987-05-01

    This report presents information on the Topographic Air Pollution Analysis System (TAPAS), currentlu under development by the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service, and Colorado State University. TAPAS is designed to provide resource managers with air quality dispersion modeling tools to accomplish more efficient and economical air resource studies. TAPAS consists of a group of interactive air quality computer models that can be operated independently, or in combination for more detailed applications. TAPAS applications include support for resource management plans, environmental impact statements, siting of remote automatic weather stations, PSD permit evaluations, and smoke management for prescribed burns.

  3. Test results of lithium pool-air reaction suppression systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.

    1987-02-01

    Engineered reaction suppression systems were demonstrated to be effective in suppressing lithium pool-air reactions for lithium quantities up to 100 kg. Lithium pool-air reaction suppression system tests were conducted to evaluate suppression system effectiveness for potential use in fusion facilities in mitigating consequences of postulated lithium spills. Small-scale perforated and sacrificial cover plate suppression systems with delayed inert gas purging proved effective in controlling the lithium-air interaction for lithium quantities near 15 kg at initial temperatures up to 450/sup 0/C. A large-scale suppression system with a sacrificial cover, a diverter plate, an inert gas atmosphere, and remotely retrievable catch pans proved effective in controlling lithium pool-air interaction for a 100-kg lithium discharge at an initial temperature of 550/sup 0/C. This suppression system limited the maximum pool temperature to about 600/sup 0/C less than that expected for a similar lithium pool-air reaction without a suppression system. Lithium aerosol release from this large-scale suppression system was a factor of about 10,000 less than that expected for a lithium pool-air reaction with no suppression system. Remote retrieval techniques for lithium cleanup, such as (1) in-place lithium siphoning and overhead crane dismantling, and (2) lithium catch pan removal by use of an overhead crane, were demonstrated as part of this large-scale test.

  4. 40 CFR 141.71 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....71 Section 141.71 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.71 Criteria for avoiding filtration. A public water system that uses a surface water source must meet all...

  5. 40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Filtration sampling requirements. 141.174 Section 141.174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People §...

  6. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H.; Genc, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health. PMID:22523490

  7. Combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wijmans, J.G.; Baker, R.W.; Kamaruddin, H.D.; Kaschemekat, J.; Olsen, R.P.; Rose, M.E.; Segelke, S.V.

    1992-11-01

    Air stripping is an economical and efficient method of removing dissolved volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. Air strippers, however, produce a vent air stream, which must meet the local air quality limits. If the VOC content exceeds the limits, direct discharge is not possible; therefore, a carbon adsorption VOC capture system is used to treat the vent air. This treatment step adds a cost of at least $50/lb of VOC captured. In this program, a combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation system was constructed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The membrane system captures VOCs from the stripper vent stream at a projected cost of $15/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 5 ppmw, and $75/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 1 ppmw. The VOCs are recovered as a small, concentrated liquid fraction for disposal or solvent recycling. The concept has been demonstrated in experiments with a system capable of handling up to 150,000 gpd of water. The existing demonstration system is available for field tests at a DOE facility or remediation site. Replacement of the current short air stripping tower (effective height 3 m) with a taller tower is recommended to improve VOC removal.

  8. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  9. Determination of anti-canine IgG using a continuous filtration/dissolution system based on the formation of a high-molecular size immunocomplex.

    PubMed

    Reyes, F D; Arce, C; Moreno, A; Fernández Romero, J M; Luque de Castro, M D

    2001-10-31

    A method for the determination of monoclonal antibody anti-canine-IgG based on a continuous filtration/dissolution system is presented as prototype for further developments. The basis of the system is the continuous formation of a high-molecular immunocomplex, which is temporally retained on a microfilter located prior to the detector. The immunochemical method consists of the development of a sandwich type heterogeneous non-competitive reaction to yield a high molecular immunocomplex, as a result of the affinity interaction between streptavidin and biotincanine IgG and the immunoreaction between canine IgG and mAb anti-canine IgG, which occurs in solution. Goat anti-mouse IgG labelled with peroxidase is used as tracer. The extension of the immunoreaction is monitored fluorimetrically via the condensation product between 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of the peroxidase retained on the filter. The method provides a dynamic range from 10(-4) to 500 mug l(-1) with an IC(50) of 0.554 mug 1(-1) (for a biotin-IgG dilution of 1:250, chi(2)=0.6085, r(2)=0.9991, n=14) and a precision, expressed as R.S.D.%, lower than 4.7%. After modifications, the method here proposed can be extended for monitoring analytes of interest in the agrochemical, food and environmental areas, as far as permitted by the availability to produce the corresponding monoclonal antibody. PMID:18968430

  10. Prototype air cleaning system for a firing range

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report recommends air cleaning system components for the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory's new large-caliber firing range, which is used for testing depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The new air cleaning system has lower operating costs during the life of the system compared to that anticipated for the existing air cleaning system. The existing system consists of three banks of filters in series; the first two banks are prefilters and the last are high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The principal disadvantage of the existing filters is that they are not cleanable and reusable. Pacific Northwest Laboratory focused the search for alternate air cleaning equipment on devices that do not employ liquids as part of the particle collection mechanism. Collected dry particles were assumed preferable to a liquid waste stream. The dry particle collection devices identified included electrostatic precipitators; inertial separators using turning vanes or cyclones; and several devices employing a filter medium such as baghouses, cartridge houses, cleanable filters, and noncleanable filters similar to those in the existing system. The economics of practical air cleaning systems employing the dry particle collection devices were evaluated in 294 different combinations. 7 references, 21 figures, 78 tables.

  11. View of building 11070 showing vents and forced air system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11070 showing vents and forced air system on east side, looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Maintenance Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  12. 7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system room 25 - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1050, Northwest corner of Doolittle Avenue & D Street; Harrison Township, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  13. Treatment of gaseous alpha-pinene by a combined system containing photo oxidation and aerobic biotrickling filtration.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhuo-Wei; Zhang, Li-Li; Chen, Jian-Meng; Yu, Jian-Ming; Gao, Zeng-Liang; Jiang, Yi-Feng

    2011-09-15

    Biofiltration of hydrophobic and/or recalcitrant volatile pollutants is intrinsically limited. In the present study, a combined ultraviolet-biotrickling filter (UV-BTF) was developed to improve the removal of these compounds, and a single BTF as the control was operated under the same conditions. The experimental results showed that the UV-BTF provided higher removal efficiencies than the single BTF at an inlet concentration range of 600-1500 mg m(-3) under shorter residence times. The maximum elimination capacities (ECs) obtained were 94.2 mg m(-3)h(-1) and 44 mg m(-3)h(-1) in the combined UV-BTF and single BTF, respectively. The mass ratio of carbon dioxide produced to α-pinene removed in the UV-BTF was approximately 2.74, which was much higher than that of the single BTF (1.99). Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis indicated that there was more complicated microbial community in the UV-BTF than that in the single BTF. In addition, we investigated the effect of starvation or stagnation on re-acclimation and removal performance from an engineering standpoint. The results showed that the combined UV-BTF could deal with fluctuating conditions or periods without any flow (air or liquid) supply much better than the single BTF. PMID:21803492

  14. 9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view to the south. The water purification system is visible in the right foreground of the photograph and the instrument air receiver tank is visible in the right background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  15. A reliability study of instrument air system design options

    SciTech Connect

    Guey, C.; Skelley, W. ); Gilbert, L.; Anoba, R.; Stutzke, M. )

    1992-01-01

    The existing instrument air system at Turkey Point station uses mobile diesel-driven air compressors. Although these diesel compressors have performed their function well, they represent a maintenance and financial burden requiring engineering review. An engineering evaluation is ongoing to develop several feasible conceptual design options to upgrade the instrument air systems. This phase-1 study was performed to assess the reliability of the various proposed design options. A phase-2 study will be conducted later to determine the core damage frequency for a selected option.

  16. Analysis of Basis Weight Uniformity of Microfiber Nonwovens and Its Impact on Permeability and Filtration Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirnasr, Elham

    It is widely recognized that nonwoven basis weight non-uniformity affects various properties of nonwovens. However, few studies can be found in this topic. The development of uniformity definition and measurement methods and the study of their impact on various web properties such as filtration properties and air permeability would be beneficial both in industrial applications and in academia. They can be utilized as a quality control tool and would provide insights about nonwoven behaviors that cannot be solely explained by average values. Therefore, for quantifying nonwoven web basis weight uniformity we purse to develop an optical analytical tool. The quadrant method and clustering analysis was utilized in an image analysis scheme to help define "uniformity" and its spatial variation. Implementing the quadrant method in an image analysis system allows the establishment of a uniformity index that can be used to quantify the degree of uniformity. Clustering analysis has also been modified and verified using uniform and random simulated images with known parameters. Number of clusters and cluster properties such as cluster size, member and density was determined. We also utilized this new measurement method to evaluate uniformity of nonwovens produced with different processes and investigated impacts of uniformity on filtration and permeability. The results of quadrant method shows that uniformity index computed from quadrant method demonstrate a good range for non-uniformity of nonwoven webs. Clustering analysis is also been applied on reference nonwoven with known visual uniformity. From clustering analysis results, cluster size is promising to be used as uniformity parameter. It is been shown that non-uniform nonwovens has provide lager cluster size than uniform nonwovens. It was been tried to find a relationship between web properties and uniformity index (as a web characteristic). To achieve this, filtration properties, air permeability, solidity and

  17. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  18. Investigation on wind energy-compressed air power system.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guang-Zheng; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Wu, Gen-Mao

    2004-03-01

    Wind energy is a pollution free and renewable resource widely distributed over China. Aimed at protecting the environment and enlarging application of wind energy, a new approach to application of wind energy by using compressed air power to some extent instead of electricity put forward. This includes: explaining the working principles and characteristics of the wind energy-compressed air power system; discussing the compatibility of wind energy and compressor capacity; presenting the theoretical model and computational simulation of the system. The obtained compressor capacity vs wind power relationship in certain wind velocity range can be helpful in the designing of the wind power-compressed air system. Results of investigations on the application of high-pressure compressed air for pressure reduction led to conclusion that pressure reduction with expander is better than the throttle regulator in energy saving. PMID:14727304

  19. Future Air Transportation System Breakout Series Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This presentation discusses: AvSTAR Future System Effort Critically important; Investment in the future; Need to follow a systems engineering process; and Efforts need to be worked in worldwide context

  20. Accelerating Smith-Waterman Alignment for Protein Database Search Using Frequency Distance Filtration Scheme Based on CPU-GPU Collaborative System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Hong, Yang; Lin, Chun-Yuan; Hung, Che-Lun

    2015-01-01

    The Smith-Waterman (SW) algorithm has been widely utilized for searching biological sequence databases in bioinformatics. Recently, several works have adopted the graphic card with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) and their associated CUDA model to enhance the performance of SW computations. However, these works mainly focused on the protein database search by using the intertask parallelization technique, and only using the GPU capability to do the SW computations one by one. Hence, in this paper, we will propose an efficient SW alignment method, called CUDA-SWfr, for the protein database search by using the intratask parallelization technique based on a CPU-GPU collaborative system. Before doing the SW computations on GPU, a procedure is applied on CPU by using the frequency distance filtration scheme (FDFS) to eliminate the unnecessary alignments. The experimental results indicate that CUDA-SWfr runs 9.6 times and 96 times faster than the CPU-based SW method without and with FDFS, respectively. PMID:26568953

  1. Accelerating Smith-Waterman Alignment for Protein Database Search Using Frequency Distance Filtration Scheme Based on CPU-GPU Collaborative System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Hong, Yang; Lin, Chun-Yuan; Hung, Che-Lun

    2015-01-01

    The Smith-Waterman (SW) algorithm has been widely utilized for searching biological sequence databases in bioinformatics. Recently, several works have adopted the graphic card with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) and their associated CUDA model to enhance the performance of SW computations. However, these works mainly focused on the protein database search by using the intertask parallelization technique, and only using the GPU capability to do the SW computations one by one. Hence, in this paper, we will propose an efficient SW alignment method, called CUDA-SWfr, for the protein database search by using the intratask parallelization technique based on a CPU-GPU collaborative system. Before doing the SW computations on GPU, a procedure is applied on CPU by using the frequency distance filtration scheme (FDFS) to eliminate the unnecessary alignments. The experimental results indicate that CUDA-SWfr runs 9.6 times and 96 times faster than the CPU-based SW method without and with FDFS, respectively. PMID:26568953

  2. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 4: Functional specification for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The functional requirements for the performance, design, and testing for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS) to be demonstrated for the TDRSS S-Band Single Access Return Link are presented.

  3. Advanced air revitalization system modeling and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dall-Baumann, Liese; Jeng, Frank; Christian, Steve; Edeer, Marybeth; Lin, Chin

    1990-01-01

    To support manned lunar and Martian exploration, an extensive evaluation of air revitalization subsystems (ARS) is being conducted. The major operations under study include carbon dioxide removal and reduction; oxygen and nitrogen production, storage, and distribution; humidity and temperature control; and trace contaminant control. A comprehensive analysis program based on a generalized block flow model was developed to facilitate the evaluation of various processes and their interaction. ASPEN PLUS was used in modelling carbon dioxide removal and reduction. Several life support test stands were developed to test new and existing technologies for their potential applicability in space. The goal was to identify processes which use compact, lightweight equipment and maximize the recovery of oxygen and water. The carbon dioxide removal test stands include solid amine/vacuum desorption (SAVD), regenerative silver oxide chemisorption, and electrochemical carbon dioxide concentration (EDC). Membrane-based carbon dioxide removal and humidity control, catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide, and catalytic oxidation of trace contaminants were also investigated.

  4. An Air Quality Data Analysis System for Interrelating Effects, Standards and Needed Source Reductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ralph I.

    1973-01-01

    Makes recommendations for a single air quality data system (using average time) for interrelating air pollution effects, air quality standards, air quality monitoring, diffusion calculations, source-reduction calculations, and emission standards. (JR)

  5. Register Closing Effects on Forced Air Heating System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-11-01

    Closing registers in forced air heating systems and leaving some rooms in a house unconditioned has been suggested as a method of quickly saving energy for California consumers. This study combined laboratory measurements of the changes in duct leakage as registers are closed together with modeling techniques to estimate the changes in energy use attributed to closing registers. The results of this study showed that register closing led to increased energy use for a typical California house over a wide combination of climate, duct leakage and number of closed registers. The reduction in building thermal loads due to conditioning only a part of the house was offset by increased duct system losses; mostly due to increased duct leakage. Therefore, the register closing technique is not recommended as a viable energy saving strategy for California houses with ducts located outside conditioned space. The energy penalty associated with the register closing technique was found to be minimized if registers furthest from the air handler are closed first because this tends to only affect the pressures and air leakage for the closed off branch. Closing registers nearer the air handler tends to increase the pressures and air leakage for the whole system. Closing too many registers (more than 60%) is not recommended because the added flow resistance severely restricts the air flow though the system leading to safety concerns. For example, furnaces may operate on the high-limit switch and cooling systems may suffer from frozen coils.

  6. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems. Water Filtration Challenge. EG-2008-09-134-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Twila, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This educator guide is organized into seven chapters: (1) Overview; (2) The Design Challenge; (3) Connections to National Curriculum Standards; (4) Preparing to Teach; (5) Classroom Sessions; (6) Opportunities for Extension; and (7) Teacher Resources. Chapter 1 provides information about Environmental Control and Life Support Systems used on NASA…

  7. THE PERSISTENCE OF NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA INI A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AFTER THE ADDITION OF FILTRATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is evidence that drinking water may be a source of pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections in humans. One method by which NTM are believed to enter drinking water distribution systems is by their intracellular colonization of protozoa. Our goal was to determ...

  8. THE PERSISTENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM IN A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AFTER THE ADDITION OF FILTRATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is evidence that drinking water may be a source of pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections in humans. One method by which NTM are believed to enter drinking water distribution systems is by their intracellular location within protozoa. Our goal was to determ...

  9. Performance of a photovoltaically powered air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, Jr, E. C.; Millner, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    A vapor-compression air conditioner coupled directly to a photovoltaic array is discussed. Previous analyses of such a system are reviewed, and a development system designed to test the concept is described. Preliminary experiments indicate that the performance of this initial system falls considerably short of analytic expectations.

  10. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Carl; Aldrich, Robb; Arena, Lois

    2012-07-01

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  11. Hot metal runner system with air pollution controls

    SciTech Connect

    La Bate, M.D.

    1982-10-26

    A runner for hot metal as from a blast furnace is formed of a series of interconnected modular units which are prefabricated, preferably from refractory based materials. A plurality of flat slab-like covers are positioned continuously on the runners formed of the interconnected modular units so as to confine fumes , gas, smoke and other air pollutants. Live steam is introduced at selected locations along the runners to collect, absorb and mix with the fumes, gases and air pollutants. Vacuum devices in communication with the covered runners remove the air, steam and pollutants and direct them through scrubbers and/or precipitron equipment to remove the air pollutants before the air entrained in the system is released to the atmosphere.

  12. High-temperature gas filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, H.P.; Laux, S.; Renz, U. . Lehrstuhl fuer Waermeuebertragung und Klimatechnik)

    1992-10-01

    High-temperature, high-pressure filtration is important to the development of fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology. This volume describes the commissioning and testing of a pilot-scale filter module rated at 1 to 4 bar pressure and up to 900[degrees]C. The module consists of an array of six porous sintered silicon carbide filter elements, designed to be cleaned on-line by jet pulses of compressed air. More than 2000 hours of exposure were achieved with FBC combustion gas with inlet dust concentrations of 500 to 40,000 ppM[sub w] at 200 to 650[degrees]C. Another 3500 hours of operation were achieved with simulated gas and injected dust. The filter elements were subjected to 60,000 cleaning cycles. No dust penetration through the filter modules was detected. After an initial stabilizing period, pressure drop remained moderate at less that 50 mbar (0.7 psi). The energy expended in pulse cleaning was negligible. No crusty deposits of dust were found on the filter elements during inspections, and no irreversible blinding occurred.

  13. Pan Air Geometry Management System (PAGMS): A data-base management system for PAN AIR geometry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    A data-base management system called PAGMS was developed to facilitate the data transfer in applications computer programs that create, modify, plot or otherwise manipulate PAN AIR type geometry data in preparation for input to the PAN AIR system of computer programs. PAGMS is composed of a series of FORTRAN callable subroutines which can be accessed directly from applications programs. Currently only a NOS version of PAGMS has been developed.

  14. A PERSPECTIVE OF RIVERBANK FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riverbank filtration is a process in which pumping of wells located along riverbanks induce a portion of the river water to flow toward the pumping wells. The process has many similarities to the slow sand filtration process. River water contaminants are attenuated due to a combi...

  15. MICROBIOLOGY AND DRINKING WATER FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns about waterborne viruses and protozoan cysts developed in the third quarter of the twentieth century, and filtration research for microorganism control in the 1960's through 1980's has reflected these concerns. The chapter briefly reviews historical filtration research f...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction systems ducts and air duct... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1103 Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. (a) Each induction system duct upstream of the...

  17. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  18. Ice storage systems spark air conditioning savings

    SciTech Connect

    Kohlenberger, C.R.

    1981-03-01

    Thermal storage systems similar to giant storage batteries are explained by means of storing energy (either hot or cold) during these off-peak times for use at the more convenient time when the actual load is impressed on to the system. This load shifting, of course, does not actually save energy. It merely shifts the load to a time when the electric utility can more conveniently handle that load. In fact, more actual KW hours may be utilized by this shift, but with the resulting cost to the consumer being reduced. System concepts are described and energy cost comparisons are made. Various methods of ice making systems are presented and analyzed.

  19. Optimal Control of Hybrid Systems in Air Traffic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamgarpour, Maryam

    Growing concerns over the scalability of air traffic operations, air transportation fuel emissions and prices, as well as the advent of communication and sensing technologies motivate improvements to the air traffic management system. To address such improvements, in this thesis a hybrid dynamical model as an abstraction of the air traffic system is considered. Wind and hazardous weather impacts are included using a stochastic model. This thesis focuses on the design of algorithms for verification and control of hybrid and stochastic dynamical systems and the application of these algorithms to air traffic management problems. In the deterministic setting, a numerically efficient algorithm for optimal control of hybrid systems is proposed based on extensions of classical optimal control techniques. This algorithm is applied to optimize the trajectory of an Airbus 320 aircraft in the presence of wind and storms. In the stochastic setting, the verification problem of reaching a target set while avoiding obstacles (reach-avoid) is formulated as a two-player game to account for external agents' influence on system dynamics. The solution approach is applied to air traffic conflict prediction in the presence of stochastic wind. Due to the uncertainty in forecasts of the hazardous weather, and hence the unsafe regions of airspace for aircraft flight, the reach-avoid framework is extended to account for stochastic target and safe sets. This methodology is used to maximize the probability of the safety of aircraft paths through hazardous weather. Finally, the problem of modeling and optimization of arrival air traffic and runway configuration in dense airspace subject to stochastic weather data is addressed. This problem is formulated as a hybrid optimal control problem and is solved with a hierarchical approach that decouples safety and performance. As illustrated with this problem, the large scale of air traffic operations motivates future work on the efficient

  20. Underfloor air distribution systems: Benefits and when to use the system in building design

    SciTech Connect

    McCarry, B.T.

    1995-12-31

    Underfloor air distribution systems are a viable option for mechanical system building design. They are comprised of raised floor panels with a supply air plenum in the void between the raised floor and the concrete structure. Supply air grilles are flush mounted to the floor to create a flat floor and walking surface. The engineering challenge is to determine when to use underfloor air distribution systems and how to effectively apply them. The best places to use this system are in owner-occupied buildings with a high churn rate and/or frequent technology changes. The benefits of this system include fresh air at the level where building occupants are located, forgiveness for variations in internal cooling loads, easy relocation of the supply air grilles to suit revised layouts, a reduction in energy costs for the mechanical system, and an improvement in indoor air quality.

  1. Control of asthma triggers in indoor air with air cleaners: a modeling analysis

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, Theodore A; Minegishi, Taeko; Allen, Joseph G; MacIntosh, David L

    2008-01-01

    Background Reducing exposure to environmental agents indoors shown to increase asthma symptoms or lead to asthma exacerbations is an important component of a strategy to manage asthma for individuals. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that portable air cleaning devices can reduce concentrations of asthma triggers in indoor air; however, their benefits for breathing problems have not always been reproducible. The potential exposure benefits of whole house high efficiency in-duct air cleaners for sensitive subpopulations have yet to be evaluated. Methods We used an indoor air quality modeling system (CONTAM) developed by NIST to examine peak and time-integrated concentrations of common asthma triggers present in indoor air over a year as a function of natural ventilation, portable air cleaners, and forced air ventilation equipped with conventional and high efficiency filtration systems. Emission rates for asthma triggers were based on experimental studies published in the scientific literature. Results Forced air systems with high efficiency filtration were found to provide the best control of asthma triggers: 30–55% lower cat allergen levels, 90–99% lower risk of respiratory infection through the inhalation route of exposure, 90–98% lower environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) levels, and 50–75% lower fungal spore levels than the other ventilation/filtration systems considered. These results indicate that the use of high efficiency in-duct air cleaners provide an effective means of controlling allergen levels not only in a single room, like a portable air cleaner, but the whole house. Conclusion These findings are useful for evaluating potential benefits of high efficiency in-duct filtration systems for controlling exposure to asthma triggers indoors and for the design of trials of environmental interventions intended to evaluate their utility in practice. PMID:18684328

  2. Establishment of urban air quality prediction system

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Jei Tsuang; Jime-Ming Huang

    1996-12-31

    By using the data of Taipei metropolitan and Taichung city, it was found that the concentrations of the PM{sub 10} and SO{sub 2} were strongly associated with wind speed, rain, surface layer stability and their initial concentrations. Among these factors, stability in the atmospheric surface layer was not fully addressed in traditional box model. A new box model formula was derived to include the stability parameter. After analysis of exchange/removal mechanisms operating in the PBL by using this new model, we find that the near ground pollutant concentration after reaching steady state is dose to q{sub 0}l/2ul{sub e} under stable, low wind speed and rainless day, where q{sub 0} is emission rate, 1 length of a city, u wind speed and l{sub e} stability scale length. Under calm wind speed in addition to the aforementioned conditions, the air quality became most deteriorated and close to q{sub 0}/V{sub d}, where V{sub d} is dry deposition rate. This formula works well in simulating PM{sub 10} and SO{sub 2} concentration of Pancho and Taichung city. In addition, this formula also can handle most of the deteriorated days.

  3. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R.

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  4. On the design of distributed air quality monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Alejandro; Ferrero, Renato; Gandino, Filippo; Montrucchio, Bartolomeo; Rebaudengo, Maurizio

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, the air quality is considered a key point, and its monitoring is not only suggested but it is even required in many countries. Since traditional standard monitors for air quality are very expensive, the use of a low-cost distributed network of sensors represents a valid complementary approach. This paper discusses the benefits of a distributed approach and analyzes the main elements that should be taken into account during the design of a distributed system for the air quality monitoring. This paper aims at representing a valuable aid for researchers and practitioners interested in the topic.

  5. Integration of air separation membrane and coalescing filter for use on an inlet air system of an engine

    DOEpatents

    Moncelle, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system suitable for combustion air of an internal combustion engine. An air separation device of the system includes a plurality of fibers, each fiber having a tube with a permeation barrier layer on the outer surface thereof and a coalescing layer on the inner surface thereof, to restrict fluid droplets from contacting the permeation barrier layer.

  6. Integrated Collision Avoidance System for Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Collision with ground/water/terrain and midair obstacles is one of the common causes of severe aircraft accidents. The various data from the coremicro AHRS/INS/GPS Integration Unit, terrain data base, and object detection sensors are processed to produce collision warning audio/visual messages and collision detection and avoidance of terrain and obstacles through generation of guidance commands in a closed-loop system. The vision sensors provide more information for the Integrated System, such as, terrain recognition and ranging of terrain and obstacles, which plays an important role to the improvement of the Integrated Collision Avoidance System.

  7. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  8. The Role of Filtration in Maintaining Clean Heat Exchanger Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yang; James E. Braun; Eckhard A. Groll

    2004-06-30

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the role of filtration in maintaining clean heat exchanger coils and overall performance. Combinations of 6 different levels of filtration (MERV 14, 11, 8, 6, 4, and no filter) and 4 different coils (an eight-row lanced-fin coil, HX8L), (an eight-row wavy-fin coil, HX8W), (a four-row lanced-fin coil, HX4L) and (a two-row lanced-fin coil, HX2L) were tested at 4 different air velocities (1.52, 2.03, 2.54,3.05 m/s (300, 400, 500, 600 ft/min)). The fouled conditions were obtained after injection of 600 grams of ASHRAE standard dust upstream of the filter/coil combination. This magnitude of dust is representative of a year of normal operation for an air conditioning system. The air-side pressure drops of the coils and filters and air-side heat transfer coefficients of the coils were determined from the measurements under the clean and fouled conditions. Depending upon the filter and coil test, the coil pressure drops increased in the range of 6%-30% for an air velocity at 2.54 m/s (500 ft/min). The impact was significantly greater for tests performed without a filter. The largest relative effect of fouling on pressure drop occurs for coils with fewer rows and having lanced fins. Coils with a greater number of rows can hold more dust so that a fixed amount of dust has a relatively smaller impact. The impact of fouling on air-side heat transfer coefficients was found to be relatively small. In some cases, heat transfer was actually enhanced due to additional turbulence caused by the presence of dust. The experimental results for pressure drops and heat transfer coefficients were correlated and the correlations were implemented within computer models of prototypical rooftop air conditioners and used to evaluate the impact of fouling on cooling capacity and EER. The equipment cooling capacity is reduced with fouling primarily because of a decrease in air flow due to the increase pressure drop rather than due to changes in h

  9. Artificial immune system approach for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2007-04-01

    Since future air combat missions will involve both manned and unmanned aircraft, the primary motivation for this research is to enable unmanned aircraft with intelligent maneuvering capabilities. During air combat maneuvering, pilots use their knowledge and experience of maneuvering strategies and tactics to determine the best course of action. As a result, we try to capture these aspects using an artificial immune system approach. The biological immune system protects the body against intruders by recognizing and destroying harmful cells or molecules. It can be thought of as a robust adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. However, another critical aspect of the immune system is that it can remember how previous encounters were successfully defeated. As a result, it can respond faster to similar encounters in the future. This paper describes how an artificial immune system is used to select and construct air combat maneuvers. These maneuvers are composed of autopilot mode and target commands, which represent the low-level building blocks of the parameterized system. The resulting command sequences are sent to a tactical autopilot system, which has been enhanced with additional modes and an aggressiveness factor for enabling high performance maneuvers. Just as vaccinations train the biological immune system how to combat intruders, training sets are used to teach the maneuvering system how to respond to different enemy aircraft situations. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the potential of using immunized maneuver selection for the purposes of air combat maneuvering.

  10. PILOT PLANT EXPLORATION OF SLOW RATE FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternatives to conventional coagulation water filtration plants (those that utilize coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration) may be appropriate for some small water utilities. One such alternative is slow rate filtration. This paper describes pilot plant studies ...

  11. A hybrid froth flotation-filtration system as a pretreatment for oil sands tailings pond recycle water management: Bench- and pilot-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Bromley, David; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-09-15

    Through sustainable water management, oil sands companies are working to reduce their reliance on fresh water by minimizing the amount of water required for their operations and by recycling water from tailings ponds. This study was the first pilot-scale testing of a hybrid technology consisting of froth flotation combined with filtration through precoated submerged stainless steel membranes used to treat recycle water from an oil sands facility. The results indicated that the most important factor affecting the performance of the hybrid system was the influent water quality. Any rise in the levels of suspended solids or total organic carbon of the feed water resulted in changes of chemical consumption rates, flux rates, and operating cycle durations. The selections of chemical type and dosing rates were critical in achieving optimal performance. In particular, the froth application rate heavily affected the overall recovery of the hybrid system as well as the performance of the flotation process. Optimum surfactant usage to generate froth (per liter of treated water) was 0.25 mL/L at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and 0.015 mL/L at approximately 200 NTU of influent turbidity. At the tested conditions, the optimal coagulant dose was 80 mg/L (as Al) at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and <40 mg/L (as Al) at approximately 200 NTU of influent turbidity. Precoat loading per unit membrane surface area tested during the pilot study was approximately 30 g/m(2). The results of this study indicated that this hybrid technology can potentially be considered as a pre-treatment step for reverse osmosis treatment of recycle water. PMID:26164269

  12. Infrared Laser System for Extended Area Monitoring of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowman, L. R.; Gillmeister, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution monitoring system using a spectrally scanning laser has been developed by the General Electric Company. This paper will report on an evaluation of a breadboard model, and will discuss applications of the concept to various ambient air monitoring situations. The system is adaptable to other tunable lasers. Operating in the middle infrared region, the system uses retroreflectors to measure average concentrations over long paths at low, safe power levels. The concept shows promise of meeting operational needs in ambient air monitoring and providing new data for atmospheric research.

  13. One-man electrochemical air revitalization system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schbert, F. H.; Marshall, R. D.; Hallick, T. M.; Woods, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A program to evaluate the performance of a one man capacity, self contained electrochemical air revitalization system was successfully completed. The technology readiness of this concept was demonstrated by characterizing the performance of this one man system over wide ranges in cabin atmospheric conditions. The electrochemical air revitalization system consists of a water vapor electrolysis module to generate oxygen from water vapor in the cabin air, and an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module to remove carbon dioxide from the cabin air. A control/monitor instrumentation package that uses the electrochemical depolarized concentrator module power generated to partially offset the water vapor electrolysis module power requirements and various structural fluid routing components are also part of the system. The system was designed to meet the one man metabolic oxygen generation and carbon dioxide removal requirements, thereby controlling cabin partial pressure of oxygen at 22 kN/sq m and cabin pressure of carbon dioxide at 400 N/sq m over a wide range in cabin air relative humidity conditions.

  14. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. 29.1103 Section 29.1103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1103 Induction systems ducts and air...

  15. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  16. Utilizing air purge to reduce water contamination of lube systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sirois, H.J.

    1994-12-31

    Lubrication systems are exposed to contaminants including dirt, process dilutants and water. Water contamination of lubricating oil is commonly experienced by users of machinery such as steam and gas turbines, compressors, pumps, motors, generators and others. Poorly designed or maintained turbomachinery features such as bearing housing seals and shaft packing do not prevent moisture laden air, the primary source of water, from entering the lube system. This paper presents a case history where a mechanical drive steam turbine and boiler feed pump was experiencing severe water contamination of the lube system. Bearing and control system component failures resulted from water induced corrosion. Various systems and approaches for dealing with this contamination are reviewed. Installation of a very simple and cost effective system using low pressure air applied directly to the bearing housing oil seals proved a most effective method for eliminating measurable water contamination of the lubrication system and can be applied to machinery of all types.

  17. Pulse Detonation Engine Air Induction System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hunter, L. G.; Couch, B. D.

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary mixed-compression inlet design concept for potential pulse-detonation engine (PDE) powered supersonic aircraft was defined and analyzed. The objectives of this research were to conceptually design and integrate an inlet/PDE propulsion system into a supersonic aircraft, perform time-dependent CFD analysis of the inlet flowfield, and to estimate the installed PDE cycle performance. The study was baselined to a NASA Mach 5 Waverider study vehicle in which the baseline over/under turboramjet engines were replaced with a single flowpath PDE propulsion system. As much commonality as possible was maintained with the baseline configuration, including the engine location and forebody lines. Modifications were made to the inlet system's external ramp angles and a rotating cowl lip was incorporated to improve off-design inlet operability and performance. Engines were sized to match the baseline vehicle study's ascent trajectory thrust requirement at Mach 1.2. The majority of this study was focused on a flight Mach number of 3.0. The time-dependent Navier Stokes CFD analyses of a two-dimensional approximation of the inlet was conducted for the Mach 3.0 condition. The Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems-developed FALCON CFD code with a two equation 'k-1' turbulence model was used. The downstream PDE was simulated by an array of four sonic nozzles in which the flow areas were rapidly varied in various opening/closing combinations. Results of the CFD study indicated that the inlet design concept operated successfully at the Mach 3.0 condition, satisfying mass capture, total pressure recovery, and operability requirements. Time-dependent analysis indicated that pressure and expansion waves from the simulated valve perturbations did not effect the inlet's operability or performance.

  18. Stability limit of room air temperature of a VAV system

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuba, Tadahiko; Kamimura, Kazuyuki; Kasahara, Masato; Kimbara, Akiomi; Kurosu, Shigeru; Murasawa, Itaru; Hashimoto, Yukihiko

    1998-12-31

    To control heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, it has been necessary to accept an analog system controlled mainly by proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative (PID) action. However, when conventional PID controllers are replaced with new digital controllers by selecting the same PID parameters as before, the control loops have often got into hunting phenomena, which result in undamped oscillations. Unstable control characteristics (such as huntings) are thought to be one of the crucial problems faced by field operators. The PID parameters must be carefully selected to avoid instabilities. In this study, a room space is simulated as a thermal system that is air-conditioned by a variable-air-volume (VAV) control system. A dynamic room model without infiltration or exfiltration, which is directly connected to a simple air-handling unit without an economizer, is developed. To explore the possible existence of huntings, a numerical system model is formulated as a bilinear system with time-delayed feedback, and a parametric analysis of the stability limit is presented. Results are given showing the stability region affected by the selection of control and system parameters. This analysis was conducted to help us tune the PID controllers for optimal HVAC control.

  19. Regenerable Air Purification System for Gas-Phase Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, Ileana C.; Finn, John E.; LeVan, M. Douglas; Lung, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tests of a pre-prototype regenerable air purification system (RAPS) that uses water vapor to displace adsorbed contaminants from an adsorbent column have been performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A unit based on this design can be used for removing trace gas-phase contaminants from spacecraft cabin air or from polluted process streams including incinerator exhaust. During the normal operation mode, contaminants are removed from the air on the column. Regeneration of the column is performed on-line. During regeneration, contaminants are displaced and destroyed inside the closed oxidation loop. In this presentation we discuss initial experimental results for the performance of RAPS in the removal and treatment of several important spacecraft contaminant species from air.

  20. Underground storage systems for high-pressure air and gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, B. H.; Giovannetti, A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the safety and cost of underground high-pressure air and gas storage systems based on recent experience with a high-pressure air system installed at Moffett Field, California. The system described used threaded and coupled oil well casings installed vertically to a depth of 1200 ft. Maximum pressure was 3000 psi and capacity was 500,000 lb of air. A failure mode analysis is presented, and it is shown that underground storage offers advantages in avoiding catastrophic consequences from pressure vessel failure. Certain problems such as corrosion, fatigue, and electrolysis are discussed in terms of the economic life of such vessels. A cost analysis shows that where favorable drilling conditions exist, the cost of underground high-pressure storage is approximately one-quarter that of equivalent aboveground storage.

  1. Innovative coal gasification system with high temperature air

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, K.; Katsushima, H.; Kasahara, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Tanaka, R.; Ootsuka, T.

    1997-12-31

    This paper proposes innovative coal gasification power generation systems where coal is gasified with high temperature air of about 1300K produced by gasified coal fuel gas. The main features of these systems are high thermal efficiency, low NO{sub x} emission, compact desulfurization and dust removal equipment and high efficiency molten slag removal with a very compact gasifier. Recent experimental results on the pebble bed coal gasifier appropriate for high temperature air coal gasification are reported, where 97.7% of coal ash is successfully caught in the pebble bed and extracted without clogging. A new concept of high temperature air preheating system is proposed which is characterized by its high reliability and low cost.

  2. Compressed Air System Optimization: Case Study Food Industry in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayati, Endang; Nuzahar, Hasril

    2016-01-01

    Compressors and compressed air systems was one of the most important utilities in industries or factories. Approximately 10% of the cost of electricity in the industry was used to produce compressed air. Therefore the potential for energy savings in the compressors and compressed air systems had a big challenge. This field was conducted especially in Indonesia food industry or factory. Compressed air system optimization was a technique approach to determine the optimal conditions for the operation of compressors and compressed air systems that included evaluation of the energy needs, supply adjustment, eliminating or reconfiguring the use and operation of inefficient, changing and complementing some equipment and improving operating efficiencies. This technique gave the significant impact for energy saving and costs. The potential savings based on this study through measurement and optimization e.g. system that lowers the pressure of 7.5 barg to 6.8 barg would reduce energy consumption and running costs approximately 4.2%, switch off the compressor GA110 and GA75 was obtained annual savings of USD 52,947 ≈ 455 714 kWh, running GA75 light load or unloaded then obtained annual savings of USD 31,841≈ 270,685 kWh, install new compressor 2x132 kW and 1x 132 kW VSD obtained annual savings of USD 108,325≈ 928,500 kWh. Furthermore it was needed to conduct study of technical aspect of energy saving potential (Investment Grade Audit) and performed Cost Benefit Analysis. This study was one of best practice solutions how to save energy and improve energy performance in compressors and compressed air system.

  3. New challenges to air/gas cleaning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, J.L.

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the need for changes in the design and manufacturing of air and gas cleaning systems to meet waste management and site remediation requirements. Current design and manufacturing practices are primarily directed toward evaluating operational problems with existing systems in nuclear reactor facilities. However, nuclear waste management needs have developed which are much broader in scope and have different processing conditions. Numerous examples of air cleaning needs for waste management activities are provided; the major differences from operating facility needs are the requirement for continuous effluent treatment under widely different processing conditions. Related regulatory issues are also discussed briefly. 1 ref.

  4. Low power, constant-flow air pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Polito, M.D.; Albert, B.

    1994-01-01

    A rugged, yet small and lightweight constant-flow air pump system has been designed. Flow control is achieved using a novel approach which is three times more power efficient than previous designs. The resultant savings in battery size and weight makes these pumps ideal for sampling air on balloon platforms. The pump package includes meteorological sensors and an onboard computer that stores time and sensor data and turns the constant-flow pump circuit on/off. Some applications of these systems are also presented in this report.

  5. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  6. A knowledge-based control system for air-scour optimisation in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, G; Monclús, H; Sancho, L; Garrido, J M; Comas, J; Rodríguez-Roda, I

    2011-01-01

    Although membrane bioreactors (MBRs) technology is still a growing sector, its progressive implementation all over the world, together with great technical achievements, has allowed it to reach a mature degree, just comparable to other more conventional wastewater treatment technologies. With current energy requirements around 0.6-1.1 kWh/m3 of treated wastewater and investment costs similar to conventional treatment plants, main market niche for MBRs can be areas with very high restrictive discharge limits, where treatment plants have to be compact or where water reuse is necessary. Operational costs are higher than for conventional treatments; consequently there is still a need and possibilities for energy saving and optimisation. This paper presents the development of a knowledge-based decision support system (DSS) for the integrated operation and remote control of the biological and physical (filtration and backwashing or relaxation) processes in MBRs. The core of the DSS is a knowledge-based control module for air-scour consumption automation and energy consumption minimisation. PMID:21902045

  7. HESTIA Phase I Test Results: The Air Revitalization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Sarah E.; Hansen, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    In any human spaceflight mission, a number of Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies work together to provide the conditions astronauts need to live healthily, productively, and comfortably in space. In a long-duration mission, many of these ECLSS technologies may use materials supplied by In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), introducing more interactions between systems. The Human Exploration Spacecraft Test-bed for Integration & Advancement (HESTIA) Project aims to create a test-bed to evaluate ECLSS and ISRU technologies and how they interact in a high-fidelity, closed-loop, human-rated analog habitat. Air purity and conditioning are essential components within any ECLSS and for HESTIA's first test they were achieved with the Air Revitalization System (ARS) described below. The ARS provided four essential functions to the test-bed chamber: cooling the air, removing humidity from the air, removing trace contaminants, and scrubbing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air. In this case, the oxygen supply function was provided by ISRU. In the current configuration, the ARS is a collection of different subsystems. A fan circulates the air, while a condensing heat exchanger (CHX) pulls humidity out of the air. A Trace Contaminant Removal System (TCRS) filters the air of potentially harmful contaminants. Lastly, a Reactive Plastic Lithium Hydroxide (RP-LiOH) unit removes CO2 from the breathing air. During the HESTIA Phase I test in September 2015, the ARS and its individual components each functioned as expected, although further analysis is underway. During the Phase I testing and in prior bench-top tests, the energy balance of heat removed by the CHX was not equal to the cooling it received. This indicated possible instrument error and therefore recalibration of the instruments and follow-up testing is planned in 2016 to address the issue. The ARS was tested in conjunction with two other systems: the Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS) and the

  8. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  9. Air Purification in Closed Environments: An Overview of Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; LeVan, Douglas; Crumbley, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The primary goal for a collective protection system and a spacecraft environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) are strikingly similar. Essentially both function to provide the occupants of a building or vehicle with a safe, habitable environment. The collective protection system shields military and civilian personnel from short-term exposure to external threats presented by toxic agents and industrial chemicals while an ECLSS sustains astronauts for extended periods within the hostile environment of space. Both have air quality control similarities with various aircraft and 'tight' buildings. This paper reviews basic similarities between air purification system requirements for collective protection and an ECLSS that define surprisingly common technological challenges and solutions. Systems developed for air revitalization on board spacecraft are discussed along with some history on their early development as well as a view of future needs. Emphasis is placed upon two systems implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS): the trace contaminant control system (TCCS) and the molecular sieve-based carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). Over its history, the NASA has developed and implemented many life support systems for astronauts. As the duration, complexity, and crew size of manned missions increased from minutes or hours for a single astronaut during Project Mercury to days and ultimately months for crews of 3 or more during the Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, and ISS programs, these systems have become more sophisticated. Systems aboard spacecraft such as the ISS have been designed to provide long-term environmental control and life support. Challenges facing the NASA's efforts include minimizing mass, volume, and power for such systems, while maximizing their safety, reliability, and performance. This paper will highlight similarities and differences among air purification systems

  10. Simulation of the secondary air system of aero engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutz, K. J.; Speer, T. M.

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes a computer program for the simulation of secondary air systems. Typical flow system elements are presented, such as restrictors, tappings, seals, vortices, and coverplates. Two-phase flow as occurring in bearing chamber vent systems is briefly discussed. An algorithm is described for the solution of the resulting nonlinear equations. The validity of the simulation over the engine operation envelope is demonstrated by a comparison with test results.

  11. The Energy Implications of Air-Side Fouling in Constant Air Volume HVAC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Eric J. H.

    2011-12-01

    This thesis examines the effect of air-side fouling on the energy consumption of constant air volume (CAV) heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential and small commercial buildings. There is a particular focus on evaluating the potential energy savings that may result from the remediation of such fouling from coils, filters, and other air system components. A computer model was constructed to simulate the behavior of a building and its duct system under various levels of fouling. The model was verified through laboratory and field testing and then used to run parametric simulations to examine the range of energy impacts for various climates and duct system characteristics. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the impact of parameters like duct insulation, duct leakage, duct location, and duct design on savings potential. Duct system pressures, temperatures, and energy consumption for two houses were monitored for one month. The houses' duct systems, which were both in conditioned space, were given a full cleaning, and were then monitored for another month. The flow rates at the houses improved by 10% and 6%. The improvements were primarily due to installing a new filter, as both houses had only light coil fouling. The results indicate that there was negligible change in heating energy efficiency due to the system cleaning. The parametric simulation results are in agreement with the field experiment: for systems in all eight climates, with flowrates degraded by 20% or less, if ducts are located within the thermal zone, HVAC source energy savings from cleaning are negligible or even slightly negative. However, if ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings are in the 1 to 5% range. For systems with flowrates degraded by 40%, if ducts are within the thermal zone, savings from cleaning occurs only for air conditioning energy, up to 8% in climates like Miami, FL. If ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings occurs with both

  12. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF HEPA FILTRATION UNITS AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to determine-the filtering efficiencies of 31 high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units in use at asbestos-abatement projects. article-removal efficiencies for these units ranged from 90.53 to > 99.99 percent. ineteen (61%) of the units tested ...

  13. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  14. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18–22 g/m3 to a range of 13.5–18.3 g/m3. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  15. TEWI Evaluation for Household Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobue, Atsushi; Watanabe, Koichi

    In the present study, we have quantitatively evaluated the global warming impact by household refrigerator and air-conditioning systems on the basis of reliable TEWI information. In TEWI evaluation of household refrigerators, the percentage of the impact by refrigerant released to the atmosphere (direct effect) is less than 18.6% in TEWI. In case of room air-conditioners, however, the percentage of direct effect is less than 5.4% in TEWI. Therefore, it was confirmed that impact by CO2 released as a result of the energy consumed to drive the refrigeration or air-conditioning systems throughout their lifetime (indirect effect) is far larger than direct effect by the entire system. A reduction of indirect effect by energy saving is the most effective measure in reducing the global warming impact by refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, For a realization of the energy saving, not only the advanced improvement in energy efficiency by household appliance manufacturers but also the improvement of consumer's mind in selecting the systems and a way of using are concluded important.

  16. Improved fireman's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. A.; Morris, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Prototype high pressure glass filament-wound, aluminum-lined pressurant vessels suitable for use in a fireman's compressed air breathing system were designed, fabricated, and acceptance tested in order to demonstrate the feasibility of producing such high performance, lightweight units. The 4000 psi tanks have a 60 standard cubic foot (SCF) air capacity, and have a 6.5 inch diamter, 19 inch length, 415 inch volume, weigh 13 pounds when empty, and contain 33 percent more air than the current 45 SCF (2250 psi) steel units. The current steel 60 SCF (3000 psi) tanks weigh approximately twice as much as the prototype when empty, and are 2 inches, or 10 percent shorter. The prototype units also have non-rusting aluminum interiors, which removes the hazard of corrosion, the need for internal coatings, and the possibility of rust particles clogging the breathing system.

  17. Prototype Systems for Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates in Rooftop Air Handlers

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    The widespread absence of systems for real-time measurement and feedback control, of minimum outdoor air intake rates in HVAC systems contributes to the poor control of ventilation rates in commercial buildings. Ventilation rates affect building energy consumption and influence occupant health. The project designed fabricated and tested four prototypes of systems for measuring rates of outdoor air intake into roof top air handlers. All prototypes met the ±20% accuracy target at low wind speeds, with all prototypes accurate within approximately ±10% after application of calibration equations. One prototype met the accuracy target without a calibration. With two of four prototype measurement systems, there was no evidence that wind speed or direction affected accuracy; however, winds speeds were generally below usually 3.5 m s-1 (12.6 km h-1) and further testing is desirable. The airflow resistance of the prototypes was generally less than 35 Pa at maximum RTU air flow rates. A pressure drop of this magnitude will increase fan energy consumption by approximately 4%. The project did not have resources necessary to estimate costs of mass produced systems. The retail cost of components and materials used to construct prototypes ranged from approximately $1,200 to $1,700. The test data indicate that the basic designs developed in this project, particularly the designs of two of the prototypes, have considerable merit. Further design refinement, testing, and cost analysis would be necessary to fully assess commercial potential. The designs and test results will be communicated to the HVAC manufacturing community.

  18. Merging Air Quality and Public Health Decision Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudspeth, W. B.; Bales, C. L.

    2003-12-01

    The New Mexico Air Quality Mapper (NMAQM) is a Web-based, open source GIS prototype application that Earth Data Analysis Center is developing under a NASA Cooperative Agreement. NMAQM enhances and extends existing data and imagery delivery systems with an existing Public Health system called the Rapid Syndrome Validation Project (RSVP). RSVP is a decision support system operating in several medical and public health arenas. It is evolving to ingest remote sensing data as input to provide early warning of human health threats, especially those related to anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and airborne pathogens. The NMAQM project applies measurements of these atmospheric pollutants, derived from both remotely sensed data as well as from in-situ air quality networks, to both forecasting and retrospective analyses that influence human respiratory health. NMAQM provides a user-friendly interface for visualizing and interpreting environmentally-linked epidemiological phenomena. The results, and the systems made to provide the information, will be applicable not only to decision-makers in the public health realm, but also to air quality organizations, demographers, community planners, and other professionals in information technology, and social and engineering sciences. As an accessible and interactive mapping and analysis application, it allows environment and health personnel to study historic data for hypothesis generation and trend analysis, and then, potentially, to predict air quality conditions from daily data acquisitions. Additional spin off benefits to such users include the identification of gaps in the distribution of in-situ monitoring stations, the dissemination of air quality data to the public, and the discrimination of local vs. more regional sources of air pollutants that may bear on decisions relating to public health and public policy.

  19. Comparison of Garnet Bead Media Filtration and Multimedia Filtration for Turbidity and Microbial Pathogen Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) in Cincinnati, Ohio is evaluating drinking water filtration systems to determine their capability to meet the requirements of the Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule ...

  20. Air Revitalization System Enables Excursions to the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Paragon Space Development Corporation, based in Tucson, Arizona has had a long history of collaboration with NASA, including developing a modular air purification system under the Commercial Crew Development Program, designed to support the commercial space sector. Using that device and other NASA technology, startup company World View is now gearing up to take customers on helium balloon rides to the stratosphere.

  1. Experimental Air Pressure Tank Systems for Process Control Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Christopher E.; Holland, Charles E.; Gatzke, Edward P.

    2006-01-01

    In process control education, particularly in the field of chemical engineering, there is an inherent need for industrially relevant hands-on apparatuses that enable one to bridge the gap between the theoretical content of coursework and real-world applications. At the University of South Carolina, two experimental air-pressure tank systems have…

  2. Compressed air system upgrade results in substantial energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    This case study highlights a compressed air system upgrade at BWX Technologies manufacturing plant in Lynchburg, Virginia, which replaced antiquated compressors and dryers and implemented an improved control strategy, resulting in improved energy efficiency and savings in energy and maintenance costs.

  3. New Compressor Added to Glenn's 450- psig Combustion Air System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    In September 1999, the Central Process Systems Engineering Branch and the Maintenance and the Central Process Systems Operations Branch, released for service a new high pressure compressor to supplement the 450-psig Combustion Air System at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The new compressor, designated C-18, is located in Glenn s Central Air Equipment Building and is remotely operated from the Central Control Building. C-18 can provide 40 pounds per second (pps) of airflow at pressure to our research customers. This capability augments our existing system capacity (compressors C 4 at 38 pps and C-5 at 32 pps), which is generated from Glenn's Engine Research Building. The C-18 compressor was originally part of Glenn's 21-Inch Hypersonic Tunnel, which was transferred from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to Glenn in the mid-1980's. With the investment of construction of facilities funding, the compressor was modified, new mechanical and electrical support equipment were purchased, and the unit was installed in the basement of the Central Air Equipment Building. After several weeks of checkout and troubleshooting, the new compressor was ready for long-term, reliable operations. With a total of 110 pps in airflow now available, Glenn is well positioned to support the high-pressure air test requirements of our research customers.

  4. 15. VIEW OF THE SPECIAL SHROUDING AND AIR HANDLING SYSTEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF THE SPECIAL SHROUDING AND AIR HANDLING SYSTEM USED IN BERYLLIUM PRODUCTION. (3/30/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. 24 CFR 3280.715 - Circulating air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... inches of water or greater. (See § 3280.511). (ii) The refrigerated air cooling supply duct system... greater than 0.3 inches of water when measured at room temperature. In the case of application of external... water manometer or equivalent device calibrated to read in increments not greater than 1/10 inch...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.715 - Circulating air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... inches of water or greater. (See § 3280.511). (ii) The refrigerated air cooling supply duct system... greater than 0.3 inches of water when measured at room temperature. In the case of application of external... water manometer or equivalent device calibrated to read in increments not greater than 1/10 inch...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.715 - Circulating air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... inches of water or greater. (See § 3280.511). (ii) The refrigerated air cooling supply duct system... greater than 0.3 inches of water when measured at room temperature. In the case of application of external... water manometer or equivalent device calibrated to read in increments not greater than 1/10 inch...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.715 - Circulating air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... inches of water or greater. (See § 3280.511). (ii) The refrigerated air cooling supply duct system... greater than 0.3 inches of water when measured at room temperature. In the case of application of external... water manometer or equivalent device calibrated to read in increments not greater than 1/10 inch...

  9. APPCD - INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM (IAPCS)COST MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS)Cost Model is a compiled model written in FORTRAN and C language which is designed to be used on an IBM or compatible PC with 640K or lower RAM and at least 1.5 Mb of hard drive space. It was developed over the past several years...

  10. PHASE I PILOT AIR CONVEYANCE SYSTEM DESIGN, CLEANING, AND CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop and refine surface and airborne contamination
    measurement techniques that can be used to evaluate air conveyance system (ACS) cleaning.
    (NOTE: ACS cleaning is advertized to homeowners as a service having a number of benefits...

  11. Novel air-based system transfers large salmon during harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April of 2015, near the end of our last harvest of 4-6 kg Atlantic salmon, we evaluated an exciting new fish transport technology from Whooshh Innovations (Bellevue, WA) that uses air to move live Atlantic salmon from our growout tank to a finishing/purging tank. The Whooshh system uses a combina...

  12. TETHERED BALLOON SAMPLING SYSTEMS FOR MONITORING AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is an overview of recent studies in which balloons, usually tethered, have been used to investigate the structure and air quality of the planetary boundary layer. It also describes a number of lightweight tethered balloon sampling systems, developed to investigate parti...

  13. EFFECT OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS AND AIR FILTERS ON DECAY RATES OF PARTICLES PRODUCED BY INDOOR SOURCES IN AN OCCUPIED TOWNHOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several studies have shown the importance of particle losses in real homes due to deposition and filtration; however, none have quantitatively shown the impact of using a central forced air fan and in-duct filter on particle loss rates. In an attempt to provide such data, we me...

  14. Mathematical model of one-man air revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for simulating the steady state performance in electrochemical CO2 concentrators which utilize (NMe4)2 CO3 (aq.) electrolyte. This electrolyte, which accommodates a wide range of air relative humidity, is most suitable for one-man air revitalization systems. The model is based on the solution of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations derived from mass transport and rate equations for the processes which take place in the cell. The boundary conditions are obtained by solving the mass and energy transport equations. A shooting method is used to solve the differential equations.

  15. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

    1998-07-21

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

  16. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, David John; Briesch, Michael Scot

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  17. Developments in skirt systems for air cushion vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inch, Peter; Prentice, Mark E.; Lewis, Carol Jean

    The present evaluation of the development status of air-cushion vehicle (ACV) skirts emphasizes the materials employed, with a view to the formulation of materials-performance requirements for next-generation AVCs and, in particular, an 'air-cushion catamaran' surface-effect ship (SES). Attention is given to novel skirt-design features which furnish substantial savings in maintenance costs. The employment of extant test rig data and the use of CAD methods are discussed, and the features of a novel system for the direct fixing of a bow finger onto an SES structure are noted.

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site compressed air system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface compressed air system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  20. An integrated regenerative air revitalization system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, G. P.; Heppner, D. B.; Schubert, F. H.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1982-01-01

    Progress towards development of an air revitalization system (ARS) for spacecraft breathable atmosphere regeneration is assessed, and a preliminary design for a one-person ARS is described. The ARS is considered a necessary component of any permanently manned orbital station, and studies have demonstrated that penalties for expendable air supplies justify an ARS for missions longer than 40 days. CO2 must be removed and O2 returned along with N2, which can be extracted from hydrazine, with the H2 component returning to the operation of the CO2 reduction subsystem. An experimental ARS (ARX-1) features a cabin humidity control unit, a CO2 concentrator, an air-cooled CO2 reduction reactor, an oxygen generator (electrolysis), the hydrazine N2 generator, and a water handling unit. A 120-day test demonstrated one-button startup and 480 hr operation in a normal mode.

  1. Prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmahgary, Y.; Peltola, E.; Sipilae, K.; Vaeaetaeinen, A.

    1991-08-01

    A prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage (CALS) systems was launched in VTT in the course of the year 1990. The study was undertaken partly in the Laboratory of Electrical and Automation Engineering and partly in the Road, Traffic and Geotechnical Laboratory. Information on existing mines in Finland which could be used as storage caverns were collected (part 2). The costs of excavating rock caverns for compressed air storage and those for forming suitable storage caverns in existing mines were also estimated. This information was used in the first (and present) part of the report to calculate the economics of CAES. In the present part (part 1) of the study, an analysis of the different possible systems was given following a review of literature on CAES. This was followed by an economic analysis which comprised two separate systems. The first consisted of conventional oil fueled gas turbine plants provided with the CALS system. In the second system, wind turbines were used to run the compressors which are used in charging the compressed air storage cavern. The results of the current prefeasibility study confirmed the economic attractiveness of the CAES in the first system. Wind turbines still seem, however, to be too expensive to compete with coal power plants. More accurate and straight-forward results could be obtained only in a more comprehensive study.

  2. Calibration of NASA Turbulent Air Motion Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrick, John D. W.; Ritter, John A.; Watson, Catherine E.; Wynkoop, Mark W.; Quinn, John K.; Norfolk, Daniel R.

    1996-01-01

    A turbulent air motion measurement system (TAMMS) was integrated onboard the Lockheed 188 Electra airplane (designated NASA 429) based at the Wallops Flight Facility in support of the NASA role in global tropospheric research. The system provides air motion and turbulence measurements from an airborne platform which is capable of sampling tropospheric and planetary boundary-layer conditions. TAMMS consists of a gust probe with free-rotating vanes mounted on a 3.7-m epoxy-graphite composite nose boom, a high-resolution inertial navigation system (INS), and data acquisition system. A variation of the tower flyby method augmented with radar tracking was implemented for the calibration of static pressure position error and air temperature probe. Additional flight calibration maneuvers were performed remote from the tower in homogeneous atmospheric conditions. System hardware and instrumentation are described and the calibration procedures discussed. Calibration and flight results are presented to illustrate the overall ability of the system to determine the three-component ambient wind fields during straight and level flight conditions.

  3. THE EMISSION PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR THE ETA/CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of th...

  4. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - TETRATEC PTFE TECHNOLOGIES TETRATEX 8005

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - INSPEC FIBRES 5512BRF FILTER SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - BHA GROUP, INC. QG061 FILTER SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - STANDARD FILTER CORPORATION PE16ZU FILTER SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - MENARDI-CRISWELL 50-504 FILTER SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  10. BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS VERIFICATION TESTING, HOW IT BENEFITS THE BOILER BAGHOUSE OPERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program for baghouse filtration products developed by the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center, one of six Centers under the ETV Program, and discusses how it benefits boiler baghouse operators. A...

  11. A Vision of the Future Air Traffic Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2000-01-01

    The air transportation system is on the verge of gridlock, with delays and cancelled flights this summer reaching all time highs. As demand for air transportation continues to increase, the capacity needed to accommodate the growth in traffic is falling farther and farther behind. Moreover, it has become increasingly apparent that the present system cannot be scaled up to provide the capacity increases needed to meet demand over the next 25 years. NASA, working with the Federal Aviation Administration and industry, is pursuing a major research program to develop air traffic management technologies that have the ultimate goal of doubling capacity while increasing safety and efficiency. This seminar will describe how the current system operates, what its limitations are and why a revolutionary "shift in paradigm" is needed to overcome fundamental limitations in capacity and safety. For the near term, NASA has developed a portfolio of software tools for air traffic controllers, called the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS), that provides modest gains in capacity and efficiency while staying within the current paradigm. The outline of a concept for the long term, with a deployment date of 2015 at the earliest, has recently been formulated and presented by NASA to a select group of industry and government stakeholders. Automated decision making software, combined with an Internet in the sky that enables sharing of information and distributes control between the cockpit and the ground, is key to this concept. However, its most revolutionary feature is a fundamental change in the roles and responsibilities assigned to air traffic controllers.

  12. Tailoring wall permeabilities for enhanced filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herterich, J. G.; Vella, D.; Field, R. W.; Hankins, N. P.; Griffiths, I. M.

    2015-05-01

    The build-up of contaminants at the wall of cross-flow membrane filtration systems can be detrimental to the operation of such systems because of, amongst other things, the osmotic backflow it may induce. In this paper, we propose a strategy to avoid the negative effects of backflow due to osmosis by using 2D channels bounded by walls with a combination of permeable and impermeable segments. We show that preventing flow through the final portion of the channel can increase the efficiency of filtration and we determine the optimal fraction occupied by the permeable wall that maximizes efficiency. Our analysis uses a combination of numerical techniques and asymptotic analysis in the limit of low wall permeabilities. Finally, we consider how the energy cost of filtration depends on the Péclet number and show that the energy cost per unit of filtered water may be minimized by appropriately choosing both the Péclet number and the permeable-region fraction.

  13. Numerical characterization of the hydrodynamics and thermal behavior of air flow in flexible air distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharehdaghi, Samad; Moujaes, Samir

    2013-10-01

    Flexible duct air distribution systems are used in a large percentage of residential and small commercial buildings in the United States . Very few empirical or predictive data are available though to help provide the HVAC design engineer with reliable information . Moreover, because of the ducts flexibility, the shapes of these ducts offer a different set of operating fluid flow and thermal conditions from traditional smooth metal ducts. Hence, both the flow field and heat transfer through this kind of ducts are much more complex and merit to be analyzed from a numerical predictive approach. The aim of this research paper is to compute some of the hydrodynamic and heat transfer characteristics of the air flow inside these ducts over a range of Re numbers commonly used in the flow conditions of these air distribution systems. The information resulting from this CFD simulation, where a κ-ɛ turbulent model is used to predict the flow conditions, provide pressure drop and average convective heat transfer coefficients that exist in these ducts and was compared to previously found data. Circulation zones in the depressions of these ducts are found to exist which are suspected of influencing the pressured drop and heat transfer coefficients as compared to smooth ducts. The results show that fully developed conditions exist much earlier with regard to the inlet for both hydrodynamic and thermal entrance regions than what would be expected in smooth ducts under the same turbulent conditions.

  14. Air cargo: An Integrated Systems View. 1978 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, A. (Editor); Eastman, R. (Editor); Hargrove, A. (Editor); Rabiega, W. (Editor); Olsen, R. (Editor); Soberick, M. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The national air cargo system is analyzed and how it should be in 1990 is prescribed in order to operate successfully through 2015; that is through one equipment cycle. Elements of the system which are largely under control of the airlines and the aircraft manufacturers are discussed. The discussion deals with aircraft, networks, facilities, and procedures. The regulations which govern the movement of air freight are considered. The larger public policy interests which must be served by the kind of system proposed, the air cargo integrated system (ACIS), are addressed. The possible social, economical, political, and environment impacts of the system are considered. Recommendations are also given.

  15. Hybrid membrane contactor system for creating semi-breathing air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, D. V.

    2012-02-01

    Typically, the equipment to create an artificial climate does not involve changing the composition of the respiratory air. In particular in medical institutions assumes the existence of plant of artificial climate and disinfection in operating rooms and intensive care wards. The use of a hybrid membrane-absorption systems for the generation of artificial atmospheres are improving the respiratory system, blood is enriched or depleted of various gases, resulting in increased stamina, there is a better, faster or slower metabolism, improves concentration and memory. Application of the system contributes to easy and rapid recovery after the operation. By adding a special component, with drug activity, air ionization, and adjust its composition, you can create a special, more favorable for patients with the atmosphere. These factors allow for the treatment and rehabilitation of patients and reduce mortality of heavy patients.

  16. Development of a Fieldable Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Inspection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, J. J.; Barnard, D. J.; Hsu, D. K.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a non-mechanically encoded, simple, field-worthy air-coupled ultrasonic scanning system that gives quantitative information about the size of damage and underlying structure in composite and aluminum aerospace structures. The system consists of the AIRSCAN® air-coupled ultrasonic testing system, the Flock of Birds® real-time motion tracking equipment, a lightweight composite yoke, and laptop PC with data acquisition and processing software. Through transmission C-scan images are generated manually by moving transducers attached to a yoke across the part's surface. The prototype has produced images for a variety of aircraft composite and metal honeycomb structures containing flaws, damages, and repairs. Field tests on commercial and military aircraft as well as rotor blades have begun. Initial test results are shown.

  17. Assessment of hazardous air pollutants for advanced power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brekke, D.W.; Erickson, T.A.

    1995-12-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) identified 189 substances as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Under the CAAA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must regulate emissions of these HAPs at their sources, including advanced power systems used for the production of electricity. This project focused on evaluating and manipulating the advanced power systems HAP data currently available for presentation to the US Department of Energy (DOE). The data were analyzed for trends associated with emission control systems and operating conditions. This project was an addition to an existing DOE program entitled Trace Element Emissions (TEE), which is being conducted by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The purpose of this addition is to evaluate the current results of HAP emissions sampling from full-scale and demonstration units employing advanced power or hot-gas cleanup systems. The specific objectives of this program are to (1) perform a technical review and assessment of the data accumulated on the fate of trace metals in advanced coal power systems and compare them to emissions from conventional coal-fired power plants, and (2) assess the effectiveness of conventional and innovative control technologies relative to potential regulation requirements.

  18. Transforming the NAS: The Next Generation Air Traffic Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    The next-generation air traffic control system must be designed to safely and efficiently accommodate the large growth of traffic expected in the near future. It should be sufficiently scalable to contend with the factor of 2 or more increase in demand expected by the year 2020. Analysis has shown that the current method of controlling air traffic cannot be scaled up to provide such levels of capacity. Therefore, to achieve a large increase in capacity while also giving pilots increased freedom to optimize their flight trajectories requires a fundamental change in the way air traffic is controlled. The key to achieving a factor of 2 or more increase in airspace capacity is to automate separation monitoring and control and to use an air-ground data link to send trajectories and clearances directly between ground-based and airborne systems. In addition to increasing capacity and offering greater flexibility in the selection of trajectories, this approach also has the potential to increase safety by reducing controller and pilot errors that occur in routine monitoring and voice communication tasks.

  19. Air pollution control and heat recovery system for industrial ovens

    SciTech Connect

    Jamaluddin, A.A.

    1980-12-30

    A system of air pollution control and heat recovery is provided for an arrangement of industrial ovens, especially for drum manufacture. A plurality of paint bake ovens of various capacities, lengths and heat input are provided for multi-stage processing in the manufacture of drums and lids therefor. A supply of high temperature water is provided for multi-stage cleaning and rinsing in the manufacturing operation. The combined exhaust from the oven is preheated in a heat exchanger and then all of the combustible components are burnt off by passing through the flames of an incinerator grid burner. The effluent from the burner first passes through the heat exchanger to preheat said oven exhaust gases and then through hot water coils to provide all of the necessary hot water for the system. High pressure hot water (275/sup 0/) is provided in this heat exchange operation. The hot gasses from the last heat exchanger, completely free of combustible contaminates, are mixed with fresh air to supply hot air for the dryers used in the process. There is a substantially complete recovery of heat and the gasses discharged to atmosphere meet air quality standards.

  20. High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckes, John

    2006-04-15

    R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature

  1. Wood dust particle and mass concentrations and filtration efficiency in sanding of wood materials.

    PubMed

    Welling, Irma; Lehtimäki, Matti; Rautio, Sari; Lähde, Tero; Enbom, Seppo; Hynynen, Pasi; Hämeri, Kaarle

    2009-02-01

    The importance of fine particles has become apparent as the knowledge of their effects on health has increased. Fine particle concentrations have been published for outside air, plasma arc cutting, welding, and grinding, but little data exists for the woodworking industry. Sanding was evaluated as the producer of the woodworking industry's finest particles, and was selected as the target study. The number of dust particles in different particle size classes and the mass concentrations were measured in the following environments: workplace air during sanding in plywood production and in the inlet and return air; in the dust emission chamber; and in filter testing. The numbers of fine particles were low, less than 10(4) particles/cm(3) (10(7) particles/L). They were much lower than typical number concentrations near 10(6) particles/cm(3) measured in plasma arc cutting, grinding, and welding. Ultrafine particles in the size class less than 100 nm were found during sanding of MDF (medium density fiberboard) sheets. When the cleaned air is returned to the working areas, the dust content in extraction systems must be monitored continuously. One way to monitor the dust content in the return air is to use an after-filter and measure pressure drop across the filter to indicate leaks in the air-cleaning system. The best after-filtration materials provided a clear increase in pressure drop across the filter in the loading of the filter. The best after-filtration materials proved to be quite effective also for fine particles. The best mass removal efficiencies for fine particles around 0.3 mum were over 80% for some filter materials loaded with sanding wood dust. PMID:19065389

  2. Liquid Desiccant in Air Conditioners: Nano-Engineered Porous Hollow Fiber Membrane-Based Air Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-02

    BEETIT Project: UTRC is developing an air conditioning system that is optimized for use in warm and humid climates. UTRC’s air conditioning system integrates a liquid drying agent or desiccant and a traditional vapor compression system found in 90% of air conditioners. The drying agent reduces the humidity in the air before it is cooled, using less energy. The technology uses a membrane as a barrier between the air and the liquid salt stream allowing only water vapor to pass through and not the salt molecules. This solves an inherent problem with traditional liquid desiccant systems—carryover of the liquid drying agent into the conditioned air stream—which eliminates corrosion and health issues

  3. Pilot tests on the catalytic filtration of dioxins.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pao Chen; Chang, Shu Hao; Lin, Syuan Hong; Buekens, Alfons; Chang, Moo Been

    2014-04-01

    Tests were conducted to study the removal efficiencies (REs) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from flue gas during a test program involving a pilot-scale catalytic filter (CF) module and a full-scale municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). The REs attained with the CF on a side stream and a conventional activated carbon (AC) injection and baghouse filtration system in the full-scale MSWI are evaluated via simultaneous sampling and analysis of both gas- and particle-phase PCDD/Fs. Flue gas without AC is supplied to the pilot-scale CF module for evaluating its RE capabilities. The REs achieved with the CF at 180 °C are 96.80 and 99.50%, respectively, for the gas phase and the particulate contained. The gas-phase PCDD/F RE rises significantly at 200 and 220 °C. The air/cloth (A/C) ratio defined as is the gas flow rate (m(3)/min) divided by the filtration area (m(2)) also affects the PCDD/F RE, especially in the gas phase. At 180 °C, a RE of gas-phase PCDD/Fs of 95.94% is attained with the CF at 0.8 m/min, yet it decreases at higher A/C ratios (1 and 1.2 m/min). A significantly lower toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentration (0.71 ng I-TEQ/g) was measured in the filter dust of the CF module compared to that collected by the AC adsorption system (4.18 ng I-TEQ/g), apparently because of the destruction of gas-phase PCDD/Fs by the catalyst. PMID:24617498

  4. New research on bioregenerative air/water purification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Ellender, R. D.; Watkins, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    For the past several years, air and water purification systems have been developed and used. This technology is based on the combined activities of plants and microorganisms as they function in a natural environment. More recently, researchers have begun to address the problems associated with indoor air pollution. Various common houseplants are currently being evaluated for their abilities to reduce concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) such as formaldehyde and benzene. With development of the Space Exploration Initiative, missions will increase in duration, and problems with resupply necessitates implementation of regenerative technology. Aspects of bioregenerative technology have been included in a habitat known as the BioHome. The ultimate goal is to use this technology in conjunction with physicochemical systems for air and water purification within closed systems. This study continued the risk assessment of bioregenerative technology with emphasis on biological hazards. In an effort to evaluate the risk for human infection, analyses were directed at enumeration of fecal streptococci and enteric viruses with the BioHome waste water treatment system.

  5. Lehigh Southwest Cement Company: Compressed Air System Improvement Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2003-10-01

    In 2001, Lehigh Southwest Cement Company improved the compressed air system at its cement plant in Tehachapi, California. Consequently, the system was able to operate more efficiently with less compressor capacity and at a lower system pressure. The project yielded total annual savings of 895,000 kWh and $199,000. The initial project cost was $417,000, but Southern California Edison provided a $90,000 incentive payment to reduce the cost to $327,000. Simple payback was about 20 months.

  6. Applied patent RFID systems for building reacting HEPA air ventilation system in hospital operation rooms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jesun; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2012-12-01

    RFID technology, an automatic identification and data capture technology to provide identification, tracing, security and so on, was widely applied to healthcare industry in these years. Employing HEPA ventilation system in hospital is a way to ensure healthful indoor air quality to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections. However, the system consumes lots of electricity which cost a lot. This study aims to apply the RFID technology to offer a unique medical staff and patient identification, and reacting HEPA air ventilation system in order to reduce the cost, save energy and prevent the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. The system, reacting HEPA air ventilation system, contains RFID tags (for medical staffs and patients), sensor, and reacting system which receives the information regarding the number of medical staff and the status of the surgery, and controls the air volume of the HEPA air ventilation system accordingly. A pilot program was carried out in a unit of operation rooms of a medical center with 1,500 beds located in central Taiwan from Jan to Aug 2010. The results found the air ventilation system was able to function much more efficiently with less energy consumed. Furthermore, the indoor air quality could still keep qualified and hospital-acquired infection or other occupational diseases could be prevented. PMID:22081235

  7. D-Zero Instrument Air System Humidity Transmitter Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Serges, T.J.; /Fermilab

    1988-07-15

    This report shows the findings that resulted in the purchase of the optimum dew point hygrometer for use in the D-Zero instrument air system (see diagram 2 on page 9). The hygrometer will monitor the air syste m to insure that the dew point level does not go above the normal operating output of the driers (this precise value will be determined during initial system start-up). The following criteria was used in the evaluation: (1) Long term durability; (2) Minimum calibration; (3) Indicate a dew point level down to -40 C accurately; (4) Designed to work in a low humidity region; (5) Minimum maintenance; (6) Fast response time; and (7) Lowest cost provided all other criteria is met.

  8. Air-ground information transfer in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.; Lozito, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System incident data for a two-year period in order to identify the frequency of air-ground information transfer errors and the factors associated with their occurrence. Of the more than 14,000 primary reports received during the 1985 and 1986 reporting period, one out of four reports concerned problems of information transfer between aircraft and ATC. Approximately half of these errors were associated directly or indirectly with aircraft deviations from assigned heading or altitude. The majority of incidents cited some human-system problem such as workload, cockpit distractions, etc., as the primary contributing factor. Improvements in air-ground information transfer using existing and future (e.g., data link) technology are proposed centering on the development and application of user-centered information management principles.

  9. Performance of Desiccant Particle Dispersion Type Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Koichi; Kojima, Hiromitsu

    An investigation of desiccant air conditioning system is performed to demonstrate its performance in a dispersed desiccant particle systems, based on its higher gas solid contacting efficiency and isothermal dehumidification. Particle dispersion is achieved using the risers of a circulating fluidized bed, CFB, or of a pneumatic conveyer. The risers used for dehumidification are 1390 mm in height and 22 mm in diameter. The former is used to evaluate the overall dehumidification performance and the latter is used to measure the axial humidity distribution under 0.88 m/s of a superficial air velocity. Based on the results of the overall performance by changing solid loading rates, Gs, from 0.4 kg/m2s up to 6 kg/m2s, desiccant particle dispersion shows higher performance in dehumidification, while axial humidity distribution shows very rapid adsorption rate in the entrance zone of the riser. Removal of adsorption heat accelerates dehumidification rate compared to the adiabatic process.

  10. Regenerable Air Purification System for Gas-Phase Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, Ileana C.; Qi, Nan; LeVan, M. Douglas; Finn, Cory K.; Finn, John E.; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A regenerable air purification system (RAPS) that uses water vapor to displace adsorbed contaminants from an. adsorbent column into a closed oxidation loop is under development through cooperative R&D between Vanderbilt University and NASA Ames Research Center. A unit based on this design can be used for removing trace gas-phase contaminants from spacecraft cabin air or from polluted process streams including incinerator exhaust. Recent work has focused on fabrication and operation of a RAPS breadboard at NASA Ames, and on measurement of adsorption isotherm data for several important organic compounds at Vanderbilt. These activities support the use and validation of RAPS modeling software also under development at Vanderbilt, which will in turn be used to construct a prototype system later in the project.

  11. DQE of wireless digital detectors: Comparative performance with differing filtration schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Samei, Ehsan; Murphy, Simon; Christianson, Olav

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Wireless flat panel detectors are gaining increased usage in portable medical imaging. Two such detectors were evaluated and compared with a conventional flat-panel detector using the formalism of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62220-1) for measuring modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) using two different filtration schemes.Methods: Raw images were acquired for three image receptors (DRX-1C and DRX-1, Carestream Health; Inc., Pixium 4600, Trixell) using a radiographic system with a well-characterized output (Philips Super80 CP, Philips Healthcare). Free in-air exposures were measured using a calibrated radiation meter (Unfors Mult-O-Meter Type 407, Unfors Instruments AB). Additional aluminum filtration and a new alternative combined copper-aluminum filtration were used to conform the x ray output to IEC-specified beam quality definitions RQA5 and RQA9. Using the IEC 62220-1 formalism, each detector was evaluated at X{sub N}/2, X{sub N}, and 2X{sub N}, where the normal exposure level to the detector surface (X{sub N}) was set to 8.73 μGy (1.0 mR). The prescribed edge test device was used to evaluate the MTF, while the NNPS was measured using uniform images. The DQE was then calculated from the MTF and NNPS and compared across detectors, exposures, and filtration schemes.Results: The three DR systems had largely comparable MTFs with DRX-1 demonstrating lower values above 1.0 cycles/mm. At each exposure, DRX-1C and Pixium detectors demonstrated better noise performance than that of DRX-1. Zero-frequency DQEs for DRX-1C, Pixium, and DRX-1 detectors were approximately 74%, 63%, and 38% for RQA5 and 50%, 42%, and 28% for RQA9, respectively.Conclusions: DRX-1C detector exhibited superior DQE performance compared to Pixium and DRX-1. In terms of filtration, the alternative filtration was found to provide comparable performance in terms of rank ordering of different

  12. Filtrates and Residues: Gel Filtration--An Innovative Separation Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenfeld, Fred; Gardner, James

    1985-01-01

    Gel filtration is a form of liquid chromatography that separates molecules primarily on the basis of their size. Advantages of using this technique, theoretical aspects, and experiments (including procedures used) are discussed. Several questions for students to answer (with answers) are also provided. (JN)

  13. Integrated pore blockage-cake filtration model for crossflow filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Russell, Renee L.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Smith, Harry D.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-07-01

    Crossflow filtration is to be a key process in the treatment and disposal of approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level radioactive waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is assessing filter performance with waste simulant materials that mimic the chemical and physical properties of Hanford tank waste. Prior simulant studies indicated that waste filtration performance may be limited by pore and cake fouling. To limit the shutdown of waste treatment operations, the pre-treatment facility plans to recover filter flux losses from cake formation and filter fouling by frequently backpulsing the filter elements. The objective of the current paper is to develop a simple model of flux decline resulting from cake and pore fouling and potential flux recovery through backpulsing of the filters for Hanford waste filtration operations. To this end, a model capable of characterizing the decline in waste-simulant filter flux as a function of both irreversible pore blockage and reversible cake formation is proposed. This model is used to characterize the filtration behavior of Hanford waste simulants in both continuous and backpulsed operations. The model is then used to infer the optimal backpulse frequency under specific operating conditions.

  14. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  15. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  16. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  17. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  18. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  19. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  20. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...