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Sample records for air fleet craf

  1. Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Task 1includes a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization are used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the assessments and observations of the current non-tactical fleet, fulfilling the Task 1 requirements.

  2. Modeling, simulation & optimization of the landing craft air cushion fleet readiness.

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, Dennis

    2006-10-01

    The Landing Craft Air Cushion is a high-speed, over-the-beach, fully amphibious landing craft capable of carrying a 60-75 ton payload. The LCAC fleet can serve to transport weapons systems, equipment, cargo and personnel from ship to shore and across the beach. This transport system is an integral part of our military arsenal and, as such, its readiness is an important consideration for our national security. Further, the best way to expend financial resources that have been allocated to maintain this fleet is a critical Issue. There is a clear coupling between the measure of Fleet Readiness as defined by the customer for this project and the information that is provided by Sandia's ProOpta methodology. Further, there is a richness in the data that provides even more value to the analyst. This report provides an analytic framework for understanding the connection between Fleet Readiness and the output provided by Sandia's ProOpta software. Further, this report highlights valuable information that can also be made available using the ProOpta output and concepts from basic probability theory. Finally, enabling assumptions along with areas that warrant consideration for further study are identified.

  3. Plume-based analysis of vehicle fleet air pollutant emissions and the contribution from high emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. M.; Jeong, C.-H.; Zimmerman, N.; Healy, R. M.; Wang, D. K.; Ke, F.; Evans, G. J.

    2015-03-01

    An automated identification and integration method has been developed to investigate in-use vehicle emissions under real-world conditions. This technique was applied to high time resolution air pollutant measurements of in-use vehicle emissions performed under real-world conditions at a near-road monitoring station in Toronto, Canada during four seasons, through month-long campaigns in 2013-2014. Based on carbon dioxide measurements, over 100 000 vehicle-related plumes were automatically identified and fuel-based emission factors for nitrogen oxides; carbon monoxide; particle number, black carbon; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX); and methanol were determined for each plume. Thus the automated identification enabled the measurement of an unprecedented number of plumes and pollutants over an extended duration. Emission factors for volatile organic compounds were also measured roadside for the first time using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer; this instrument provided the time resolution required for the plume capture technique. Mean emission factors were characteristic of the light-duty gasoline dominated vehicle fleet present at the measurement site, with mean black carbon and particle number emission factors of 35 mg kg-1 and 7.7 × 1014 kg-1, respectively. The use of the plume-by-plume analysis enabled isolation of vehicle emissions, and the elucidation of co-emitted pollutants from similar vehicle types, variability of emissions across the fleet, and the relative contribution from heavy emitters. It was found that a small proportion of the fleet (< 25%) contributed significantly to total fleet emissions; 95, 93, 76, and 75% for black carbon, carbon monoxide, BTEX, and particle number, respectively. Emission factors of a single pollutant may help classify a vehicle as a high emitter. However, regulatory strategies to more efficiently target multi-pollutants mixtures may be better developed by considering the co

  4. Plume-based analysis of vehicle fleet air pollutant emissions and the contribution from high emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. M.; Jeong, C.-H.; Zimmerman, N.; Healy, R. M.; Wang, D. K.; Ke, F.; Evans, G. J.

    2015-08-01

    An automated identification and integration method has been developed for in-use vehicle emissions under real-world conditions. This technique was applied to high-time-resolution air pollutant measurements of in-use vehicle emissions performed under real-world conditions at a near-road monitoring station in Toronto, Canada, during four seasons, through month-long campaigns in 2013-2014. Based on carbon dioxide measurements, over 100 000 vehicle-related plumes were automatically identified and fuel-based emission factors for nitrogen oxides; carbon monoxide; particle number; black carbon; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX); and methanol were determined for each plume. Thus the automated identification enabled the measurement of an unprecedented number of plumes and pollutants over an extended duration. Emission factors for volatile organic compounds were also measured roadside for the first time using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer; this instrument provided the time resolution required for the plume capture technique. Mean emission factors were characteristic of the light-duty gasoline-dominated vehicle fleet present at the measurement site, with mean black carbon and particle number emission factors of 35 mg kg fuel-1 and 7.5 × 1014 # kg fuel-1, respectively. The use of the plume-by-plume analysis enabled isolation of vehicle emissions, and the elucidation of co-emitted pollutants from similar vehicle types, variability of emissions across the fleet, and the relative contribution from heavy emitters. It was found that a small proportion of the fleet (< 25 %) contributed significantly to total fleet emissions: 100, 100, 81, and 77 % for black carbon, carbon monoxide, BTEX, and particle number, respectively. Emission factors of a single pollutant may help classify a vehicle as a high emitter; however, regulatory strategies to more efficiently target multi-pollutant mixtures may be better developed by considering the co

  5. [Aviation medicine laboratory of the North Fleet air base celebrates the 70th anniversary].

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, V V; Mazaĭkin, D N; Buldakov, I M; Pisarev, A A

    2013-05-01

    The article is dedicated to the history of formation and development of the oldest aviation medicine department and its role in a flight safety of the North Fleet naval aviation. The aviation medicine laboratory was created in the years of the Great Patriotic war for medical backup of flights, medical review board, delivering of combat casualty care, prophylaxis of hypothermia and exhaustion of flight and ground crew. In a post-war period the aviation medicine laboratory made a great contribution to development of medical backup of educational and combat activity of the North Fleet aviation. Participation in cosmonaut applicants selection (incl. Yu.A. Gagarin), optimization of flight services during the transmeridian flights, research of carrier-based aircraft habitability and body state of the contingent during the longstanding ship-based aviation, development of treatment methods for functional status of sea-based aviation crew are the achievements of aviation medicine laboratory. Nowadays medicine laboratory is performing a research and practice, methodic and consultative activity with the aim of improving the system of medical backup, aviation medicine, psychology, flight safety, improvement of air crew health, prolong of flying proficiency.

  6. Comparisons of air quality impacts of fleet electrification and increased use of biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhajeri, Nawaf S.; McDonald-Buller, Elena C.; Allen, David T.

    2011-04-01

    The air quality impacts of the partial electrification of the transportation fleet and the use of biofuels (E85) were modeled for the Austin Metropolitan Statistical Area, based on a 2030 vision of regional development. Changes in ozone precursor emissions and predicted ozone, carbon monoxide and aldehyde concentrations were estimated for multiple electrification and biofuel scenarios. Maximum changes in hourly ozone concentration from the use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for 17% of the vehicle miles traveled ranged from - 8.5 to 2.2 ppb, relative to a base case with no electrification and minimal biofuel use, depending on time of day and location. Differences in daily maximum 1 h ozone concentration ranged from - 2.3 to 0.004 ppb. Replacement of all gasoline fuels with E85 had a smaller effect than PHEVs on maximum daily ozone concentrations. Maximum ozone changes for this scenario ranged from - 2.1 to 2.8 ppb and the difference in daily maximum 1 h ozone concentrations ranged from - 1.53 to 0 ppb relative to the base case. The smaller improvements in maximum ozone concentrations associated with extensive (100%) use of biofuels, compared to a smaller (17%) penetration of PHEVs, suggests that higher levels of PHEV penetration may lead to even greater improvements; however, the higher penetration would require expansion of the electrical grid capacity. The air quality impacts of the PHEVs would then depend on the emissions associated with the added generation.

  7. A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Fleming, Dennis; Hargrove, Douglas; Koopman, Ronald; Peterman, Keith

    1995-04-01

    We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet's home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

  8. A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Hargrove, D.; Koopman, R.; Peterman, K.

    1995-04-20

    We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet s home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

  9. Enzymatic characteristics of the c-Raf-1 protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Force, T; Bonventre, J V; Heidecker, G; Rapp, U; Avruch, J; Kyriakis, J M

    1994-02-15

    The c-Raf-1 protein kinase plays a central role in the mitogenic response of cells to growth factors, cytokines, and many oncogenes. Despite the critical importance of this enzyme, very little is known of its biochemical properties or mechanisms of regulation. In these experiments, we used the only candidate physiologic substrate identified as yet for c-Raf-1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK), to examine enzymatic characteristics and candidate modulators of c-Raf-1, c-Raf-1 was purified from Sf9 cells infected with recombinant baculovirus encoding a histidine-tagged c-Raf-1. The Km values of c-Raf-1 for ATP and MAPKK were 11.6 microM and 0.8 microM, respectively, and the stoichiometry of phosphorylation of MAPKK by c-Raf-1 was 1.67 mol of phosphate per mol of MAPKK. In contrast to prior reports, Mg2+ was the preferred cation at Mg2+ and Mn2+ concentrations > 5 mM. c-Raf-1 substrate specificity was extremely restricted, consistent with the identification of only one candidate physiologic substrate to date and highlighting the necessity of using MAPKK rather than artificial substrates in c-Raf-1 activity assays. Of multiple potential substrates tested, the only one phosphorylated to > 20% of the level of MAPKK phosphorylation was myelin basic protein (22%). Heat-denatured MAPKK was phosphorylated at only 2% the level of native MAPKK, indicating that the restricted substrate specificity may be due to tertiary-structural requirements. We also examined whether c-Raf-1 activity is modulated by lipid binding to the cysteine finger region in its regulatory domain. Of multiple mitogen-stimulated or cell-membrane lipids tested, only phosphatidylserine and diacylglycerol in the presence of Ca2+ (2.5 mM) increased c-Raf-1 kinase activity significantly (1.5-fold). The increase is probably not of physiologic significance because it was about two orders of magnitude less than the stimulation of protein kinase C by these lipids. On gel-filtration chromatography, the

  10. Enzymatic characteristics of the c-Raf-1 protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Force, T; Bonventre, J V; Heidecker, G; Rapp, U; Avruch, J; Kyriakis, J M

    1994-01-01

    The c-Raf-1 protein kinase plays a central role in the mitogenic response of cells to growth factors, cytokines, and many oncogenes. Despite the critical importance of this enzyme, very little is known of its biochemical properties or mechanisms of regulation. In these experiments, we used the only candidate physiologic substrate identified as yet for c-Raf-1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK), to examine enzymatic characteristics and candidate modulators of c-Raf-1, c-Raf-1 was purified from Sf9 cells infected with recombinant baculovirus encoding a histidine-tagged c-Raf-1. The Km values of c-Raf-1 for ATP and MAPKK were 11.6 microM and 0.8 microM, respectively, and the stoichiometry of phosphorylation of MAPKK by c-Raf-1 was 1.67 mol of phosphate per mol of MAPKK. In contrast to prior reports, Mg2+ was the preferred cation at Mg2+ and Mn2+ concentrations > 5 mM. c-Raf-1 substrate specificity was extremely restricted, consistent with the identification of only one candidate physiologic substrate to date and highlighting the necessity of using MAPKK rather than artificial substrates in c-Raf-1 activity assays. Of multiple potential substrates tested, the only one phosphorylated to > 20% of the level of MAPKK phosphorylation was myelin basic protein (22%). Heat-denatured MAPKK was phosphorylated at only 2% the level of native MAPKK, indicating that the restricted substrate specificity may be due to tertiary-structural requirements. We also examined whether c-Raf-1 activity is modulated by lipid binding to the cysteine finger region in its regulatory domain. Of multiple mitogen-stimulated or cell-membrane lipids tested, only phosphatidylserine and diacylglycerol in the presence of Ca2+ (2.5 mM) increased c-Raf-1 kinase activity significantly (1.5-fold). The increase is probably not of physiologic significance because it was about two orders of magnitude less than the stimulation of protein kinase C by these lipids. On gel-filtration chromatography, the

  11. CRAF R391W is a melanoma driver oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Atefi, Mohammad; Titz, Bjoern; Tsoi, Jennifer; Avramis, Earl; Le, Allison; Ng, Charles; Lomova, Anastasia; Lassen, Amanda; Friedman, Michael; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Ribas, Antoni; Graeber, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 75% of melanomas have known driver oncogenic mutations in BRAF, NRAS, GNA11 or GNAQ, while the mutations providing constitutive oncogenic signaling in the remaining melanomas are not known. We established a melanoma cell line from a tumor with none of the common driver mutations. This cell line demonstrated a signaling profile similar to BRAF-mutants, but lacked sensitivity to the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib. RNA-seq mutation data implicated CRAF R391W as the alternative driver mutation of this melanoma. CRAF R391W was homozygous and over expressed. These melanoma cells were highly sensitive to CRAF, but not BRAF knockdown. In reconstitution experiments, CRAF R391W, but not CRAF WT, transformed NIH3T3 cells in soft-agar colony formation assays, increased kinase activity in vitro, induced MAP kinase signaling and conferred vemurafenib resistance. MAP kinase inducing activity was dependent on CRAF dimerization. Thus, CRAF is a bona fide alternative oncogene for BRAF/NRAS/GNAQ/GNA11 wild type melanomas. PMID:27273450

  12. Fuel consumption and CO2/pollutant emissions of mobile air conditioning at fleet level - new data and model comparison.

    PubMed

    Weilenmann, Martin F; Alvarez, Robert; Keller, Mario

    2010-07-01

    Mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems are the second-largest energy consumers in cars after driving itself. While different measurement series are available to illustrate their behavior in hot ambient conditions, little data are available for lower temperatures. There are also no data available on diesel vehicles, despite these being quite common in Europe (up to 70% of the fleet in some countries). In the present study, six representative modern diesel passenger cars were tested. In combination with data from previous measurements on gasoline cars, a new model was developed - EEMAC = Empa Emission model for Mobile Air Conditioning systems - to predict emissions from air conditioning. The measurements obtained show that A/C activity still occurs at temperatures below the desired interior temperature. The EEMAC model was applied to the average meteorological year of a central European region and compared with the US EPA MOBILE6 model. As temperatures in central Europe are often below 20 degrees C (the point below which the two models differ), the overall results differ clearly. The estimated average annual CO(2) output according to EEMAC is six times higher than that of MOBILE6. EEMAC also indicates that around two-thirds of the fuel used for air conditioning could be saved by switching the MAC system off below 18 degrees C.

  13. California Clean Air Act: A compliance strategy for the City of San Diego`s non-emergency fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Historically, parts of California have had the worst air quality in the nation. The California Energy Commission began experimenting with alternate fuels in the 1970`s in an effort to reduce harmful automobile emissions and hence, improve air quality. It is recognized that the costs to California which result from our air quality problems are immense. Ten to twenty billion dollars each year is the estimated damage in terms of health impacts, materials damages, lost agricultural crop output and forest damages. As the California population increases and health care costs escalate, the total monetary damages from air pollution will increase. The California Energy Commission goal to improve air quality became a mandate in 1988 with the passage of the California Clean Air Act (CCAA). The CCAA requires a revised air quality strategy for the San Diego district since we do not meet State air quality standards for smog, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Smog remains San Diego`s major air quality problem, even though the annual number of days each year over the Federal standard has been reduced by 55 percent in the past ten years. Ten years ago about two-thirds of San Diego`s smog was transported from Los Angeles. Today more than 60 per cent of the days San Diego exceeds the State standard are from locally generated smog. It is estimated that 57% of the reactive hydrocarbon emissions (which react with nitrogen dioxide in the presence of sunlight to form smog) is from cars, trucks and buses. The Air Pollution Control District (part of the County of San Diego) is the office that the Air Resources Board has put in charge of creating regulations and designing strategy to reduce polluting emissions. The purpose of this project is to determine the full cost of acquiring and operating a municipal fleet which meets the mandates of the California Clean Air Act. With that information, a plan to meet the Clear Air Act (CCAA) requirements can be formulated by local government.

  14. Optogenetically controlled RAF to characterize BRAF and CRAF protein kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Chatelle, Claire V.; Hövermann, Désirée; Müller, Anne; Wagner, Hanna J.; Weber, Wilfried; Radziwill, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Here, we applied optoRAF, an optogenetic tool for light-controlled clustering and activation of RAF proteins that mimics the natural occurring RAS-mediated dimerization. This versatile tool allows studying the effect on BRAF and CRAF homodimer- as well as heterodimer-induced RAF signaling. Vemurafenib and dabrafenib are two clinically approved inhibitors for BRAF that efficiently suppress the kinase activity of oncogenic BRAF (V600E). However in wild-type BRAF expressing cells, BRAF inhibitors can exert paradoxical activation of wild-type CRAF. Using optoRAF, vemurafenib was identified as paradoxical activator of BRAF and CRAF homo- and heterodimers. Dabrafenib enhanced activity of light-stimulated CRAF at low dose and inhibited CRAF signaling at high dose. Moreover, dabrafenib increased the protein level of CRAF proteins but not of BRAF proteins. Increased CRAF levels correlate with elevated RAF signaling in a dabrafenib-dependent manner, independent of light activation. PMID:27025703

  15. Analysis of motorcycle fleet in Hanoi for estimation of air pollution emission and climate mitigation co-benefit of technology implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Thuy Phuong, Mai Thi; Permadi, Didin Agustian

    2012-11-01

    A fleet of over two million motorcycles (MC) in Hanoi is believed to contribute a substantial emission of air pollutants and climate forcers but has not been thoroughly characterized. This study conducted a survey of the MC technologies and activities in Hanoi using questionnaires, GPS monitoring, and video camera in 2008. The data were collected for three typical road types (highways, arterials, residential streets) in 3 zones of the city. Majority of MC in Hanoi were relatively new (3.6 years), had 4-stroke engine, but only 6% was equipped with catalyst exhaust control devices. About 35% of the fleet did not comply with any EURO standards. The MC daily driving was 20 km, mostly done on arterial streets. The main driving features in Hanoi arterials and residential streets were of low speeds with frequent starts/stops and idling. International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model produced adjusted emission factors (EFs) that were compared with the limited available measurement data. The fleet emission was estimated for 2008 as a base case and for two “what-if” faster technology implementation scenarios: scenario 1 assumed that the entire fleet in 2008 conformed at least EURO2 and scenario 2 assumed 100% MC met the EURO3 standard. Total emissions from the fleet in 2008 of CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, PM10, and CH4 were 158, 51.5, 9.5, 0.17, 2.4 and 9.5 kt, respectively. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehydes, formaldehydes and benzene were 0.26, 1.2, 4.9 and 2.1 kt, respectively. Faster EURO3 technology intrusion in scenario 2 would significantly reduce the emission of pollutants (by 53-94%) and climate forcers in CO2-equivalent (53% for 20-year and 38% for 100-year horizon), which tripled the reductions obtained under scenario 1. Substantial co-benefits for air quality and climate forcer mitigation could be achieved by the faster technology implementation.

  16. Ancillary benefits for climate change mitigation and air pollution control in the world's motor vehicle fleets.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael P

    2008-01-01

    The global motor vehicle population has grown very rapidly in the past half century and is expected to continue to grow rapidly for the next several decades, especially in developing countries. As a result, vehicles are a major source of urban air pollution in many cities and are the fastest-growing source of greenhouse emissions. Strategies exist to reduce both problems, but many countries emphasize one over the other rather than pursuing strategies that reduce both concerns. Using diesel as an example, this article illustrates that it is now possible not only to reduce carbon dioxide with the increased use of diesel vehicles but also to improve urban air pollution. Doing so requires both stringent emissions regulations and clean fuels. Several principles contained in the Bellagio Memorandum are highlighted as guides for policy makers.

  17. Design and Analysis of RTGs for CRAF and Cassini Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred; Noravian, Heros; Or, Chuen; Sankarankandath, Kumar

    1991-01-01

    The design and analysis of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators integrated with JPL's CRAF and Cassini spacecraft are described. The principal purposed of the CRAF mission are the study of asteroids and comets, and the principal purposes of the Cassini mission are the study of asteroids, Saturn, and its moons (particularly Titan). Both missions will employ the Mariner/Mark-2 spacecraft, and each will be powered by two GPHS-RTGs. JPL's spacecraft designers wish to locate the two RTGs in close proximity to each other, resulting in mutual and unsymmetrical obstruction of their heat rejection paths. To support JPL's design studies, the U.S. Department of Energy asked Fairchild to determine the effect of the RTGs' proximity on their power output. This required the development of novel analysis methods and computer codes, described in this report, for the coupled thermal and electrical analysis of obstructed RTGs with axial and circumferential temperature, voltage, and current variations. The code was validated against measured data of unobstructed RTG tests, and was used for the detailed analysis of the obstructed CRAF/Cassini RTGs. Also described is a new method for predicting the combined effect of fuel decay and thermoelectric degradation on the output of obstructed RTGs, which accounts for the effect of diminishing temperatures on degradation rates. The computed results indicate that for the 24-degree separation angle of JPL's baseline design, the mutually obstructed standard GPHS/RTGs show adequate power margins for the CRAF mission, but slightly negative margins for the Cassini mission.

  18. Phospholipase A(2) and Lipids as Potential Modulators of c-Raf-1 Kinase.

    PubMed

    Bonventre, Joseph V.; Kyriakis, John M.; Spech, Richard; Witzgall, Ralph; Force, Thomas

    1996-04-01

    c-Raf-1 is a proximal serine/threonine kinase in the signaling cascade of many mitogens. The cellular mechanisms responsible for regulation of this kinase remain ill-defined. Although c-Raf-1-associated proteins have been identified, including Ras, none of these have been found to activate c-Raf-1 kinase in vitro. To evaluate whether arachidonic acid or one of its products is implicated in c-Raf-1 activation, c-Raf-1 activity was measured in LLC-PK(1) kidney epithelial cells overexpressing the 100 kDa phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)). As compared to control neomycin plasmid transfected cells, the cells overexpressing PLA(2) had a greater activation of c-Raf-1 in response to A23187 and phorbol ester stimulation. To explore the possibility that c-Raf-1 activity may be modulated directly by lipids, the enzymatic characteristics of c-Raf-1 were determined, and the effects of various possible lipid modulators on c-Raf-1 activity were examined. The K(m) of c-Raf-1 for ATP and mitogen-activiated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK), the only known physiologic substrate of c-Raf-1, were 11.6 &mgr;M and 0.8 &mgr;M, respectively. Of 13 lipids or combinations of lipids tested, including arachidonic acid and several eicosanoids, only phosphatidylserine and diacylglycerol in the presence of CA(2+) (2.5 mM) increased c-Raf-1 kinase activity significantly. The increase (1.5-fold) was approximately two orders of magnitude less than the stimulation of protein kinase C by these lipids. c-Raf-1 kinase activity and immunoreactivity eluted on gel filtration at a predicted molecular mass of greater than 150 kDa, suggesting that active c-Raf-1 is part of a multimeric complex. The absence of immunoreactive Ras in the active fractions confirms that the interaction is not necessary to maintain c-Raf-1 in an active state. In conclusion, a product of PLA(2) may play a role, together with Ras and another unidentified cofactor, in activating c-Raf-1. This lipid mediator(s) may directly or indirectly

  19. Design and Analysis of RTGs for CRAF and Cassini Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred; Noravian, Heros; Sankarankandath

    1990-11-30

    This report consists of two parts. Part 1 describes the development of novel analytical methods needed to predict the BOM performance and the subsequent performance degradation of the mutually obstructed RTGs for the CRAF and Cassini missions. Part II applies those methods to the two missions, presents the resultant predictions, and discusses their programmatic implications. The results indicate that JPL's original power demand goals could have been met with two standard GPHS RTGs for each mission. But subsequently JPL significantly increased both the power level and the mission duration for both missions, so that they can no longer by met by two standard RTGs. The resultant power gap must be closed either by reducing JPL's power demand (e.g., by decreasing contingency reserves) and/or by increasing the power system's output. One way under active consideration which more than meets the system power goal would be the addition of a third RTG for each mission. However, the author concluded that it may be possible to meet or closely approach the CRAF power demand goals with just two RTGs by relatively modest modification of their design and/or operating conditions. To explore that possibility, the effect of various modifications - either singly or in combination - was analyzed by Fairchild. The results indicate that modest modifications can meet or come very close to meeting the CRAF power goals with just two RTGs. Elimination of the third RTG would yield substantial cost and schedule savings. There are three copies in the file.

  20. Demonstration of zinc/air fuel battery to enhance the range and mission of fleet electric vehicles: Preliminary results in the refueling of a multicell module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Fleming, D.; Keene, L.; Maimoni, A.; Peterman, K.; Koopman, R.

    1994-08-01

    We report progress in an effort to develop and demonstrate a refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle applications. A refuelable module consisting of twelve bipolar cells with internal flow system has been refueled at rates of nearly 4 cells per minute, indicating a refueling time of 10 minutes for a 15 kW, 55 kWh battery. The module is refueled by entrainment of 0.5-mm particles in rapidly flowing electrolyte, which delivers the particles into hoppers above each cell in a parallel-flow hydraulic circuit. The concept of user-recovery is presented as an alternative to centralized service infrastructure during market entry.

  1. Demonstration of zinc/air fuel battery to enhance the range and mission of fleet electric vehicles: Preliminary results in the refueling of a multicell module

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Keene, L.; Maimoni, A.; Peterman, K.; Koopman, R.

    1994-08-08

    We report progress in an effort to develop and demonstrate a refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle applications. A refuelable module consisting of twelve bipolar cells with internal flow system has been refueled at rates of nearly 4 cells per minute refueling time of 10 minutes for a 15 kW, 55 kWh battery. The module is refueled by entrainment of 0.5-mm particles in rapidly flowing electrolyte, which delivers the particles into hoppers above each cell in a parallel-flow hydraulic circuit. The concept of user-recovery is presented as an alternative to centralized service infrastructure during market entry.

  2. C-Raf deficiency leads to hearing loss and increased noise susceptibility.

    PubMed

    de Iriarte Rodríguez, Rocío; Magariños, Marta; Pfeiffer, Verena; Rapp, Ulf R; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

    2015-10-01

    The family of RAF kinases transduces extracellular information to the nucleus, and their activation is crucial for cellular regulation on many levels, ranging from embryonic development to carcinogenesis. B-RAF and C-RAF modulate neurogenesis and neuritogenesis during chicken inner ear development. C-RAF deficiency in humans is associated with deafness in the rare genetic insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), Noonan and Leopard syndromes. In this study, we show that RAF kinases are expressed in the developing inner ear and in adult mouse cochlea. A homozygous C-Raf deletion in mice caused profound deafness with no evident cellular aberrations except for a remarkable reduction of the K(+) channel Kir4.1 expression, a trait that suffices as a cause of deafness. To explore the role of C-Raf in cellular protection and repair, heterozygous C-Raf (+/-) mice were exposed to noise. A reduced C-RAF level negatively affected hearing preservation in response to noise through mechanisms involving the activation of JNK and an exacerbated apoptotic response. Taken together, these results strongly support a role for C-RAF in hearing protection.

  3. Coma and tail trajectory design for the CRAF mission. [Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ionasescu, Rodica

    1989-01-01

    The design of the trajectory for the proposed Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission to study comet coma and tail development is examined. A two part trajectory is planned for the CRAF mission to study comet Kopff. It is proposed that, during the 213 day perihelion phase of the trajectory, CRAF should perform multiple petallike flybys at 50-5000 km from the comet's nucleus. Nine days after the perihelion, the spacecraft would transition into the comet tail in the antisun direction to a maximum distance of 50,000 km. The objectives of these two phases of exploration are discussed.

  4. Fleet Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebe, D. I.; Colorado College Student Astronomy Instrument Team; Pikes Peak Observatory Team

    1999-12-01

    The Colorado College Student Astronomy Instrument Team (CCSAIT) and the Pikes Peak Observatory (PPO) present preliminary optical and mechanical designs as well as discussion on a fleet of small research-class 0.4-0.5-meter telescopes. Each telescope is being designed to accommodate a variety of visible and near-infrared instrumentation, ranging from wide-field imaging cameras to moderate resolution spectrometers. The design of these telescopes is predicated on the use of lightweight primary mirrors, which will enable the entire optical telescope assembly (OTA) including instrumentation to come in under 50 kilograms. The lightweight OTA’s will further allow the use of inexpensive high-quality off-the-shelf robotic telescope mounts for future access and computer control of these telescopes over the Internet. The basic idea is to provide astronomers with a comprehensive arsenal of modest instrumentation at their fingertips in order to conduct a wide variety of interesting scientific research programs. Some of these research programs are discussed and input from the astronomical community is strongly encouraged. Connectivity and Internet control issues are also briefly discussed as development in this area is already underway through a collaborative effort between the PPO and the Cowan-Fouts Foundation of Woodland Park, Colorado.

  5. Climate impact of supersonic air traffic: an approach to optimize a potential future supersonic fleet - results from the EU-project SCENIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, V.; Stenke, A.; Ponater, M.; Sausen, R.; Pitari, G.; Iachetti, D.; Rogers, H.; Dessens, O.; Pyle, J.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Gulstad, L.; Søvde, O. A.; Marizy, C.; Pascuillo, E.

    2007-05-01

    The demand for intercontinental transportation is increasing and people are requesting short travel times, which supersonic air transportation would enable. However, besides noise and sonic boom issues, which we are not referring to in this investigation, emissions from supersonic aircraft are known to alter the atmospheric composition, in particular the ozone layer, and hence affect climate significantly more than subsonic aircraft. Here, we suggest a metric to quantitatively assess different options for supersonic transport with regard to the potential destruction of the ozone layer and climate impacts. Options for fleet size, engine technology (nitrogen oxide emission level), cruising speed, range, and cruising altitude, are analyzed, based on SCENIC emissions scenarios for 2050, which underlay the requirements to be as realistic as possible in terms of e.g. economic markets and profitable market penetration. This methodology is based on a number of atmosphere-chemistry and climate models to reduce model dependencies. The model results differ significantly in terms of the response to a replacement of subsonic aircraft by supersonic aircraft. However, model differences are smaller when comparing the different options for a supersonic fleet. The base scenario, where supersonic aircraft get in service in 2015, a first fleet fully operational in 2025 and a second in 2050, lead in our simulations to a near surface temperature increase in 2050 of around 7 mK and with constant emissions afterwards to around 21 mK in 2100. The related total radiative forcing amounts to 22 mWm²in 2050, with an uncertainty between 9 and 29 mWClimate impact of supersonic air traffic: an approach to optimize a potential future supersonic fleet - results from the EU-project SCENIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, V.; Stenke, A.; Ponater, M.; Sausen, R.; Pitari, G.; Iachetti, D.; Rogers, H.; Dessens, O.; Pyle, J.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Gulstad, L.; Søvde, O. A.; Marizy, C.; Pascuillo, E.

    2007-10-01

    The demand for intercontinental transportation is increasing and people are requesting short travel times, which supersonic air transportation would enable. However, besides noise and sonic boom issues, which we are not referring to in this investigation, emissions from supersonic aircraft are known to alter the atmospheric composition, in particular the ozone layer, and hence affect climate significantly more than subsonic aircraft. Here, we suggest a metric to quantitatively assess different options for supersonic transport with regard to the potential destruction of the ozone layer and climate impacts. Options for fleet size, engine technology (nitrogen oxide emission level), cruising speed, range, and cruising altitude, are analyzed, based on SCENIC emission scenarios for 2050, which underlay the requirements to be as realistic as possible in terms of e.g., economic markets and profitable market penetration. This methodology is based on a number of atmosphere-chemistry and climate models to reduce model dependencies. The model results differ significantly in terms of the response to a replacement of subsonic aircraft by supersonic aircraft, e.g., concerning the ozone impact. However, model differences are smaller when comparing the different options for a supersonic fleet. Those uncertainties were taken into account to make sure that our findings are robust. The base case scenario, where supersonic aircraft get in service in 2015, a first fleet fully operational in 2025 and a second in 2050, leads in our simulations to a near surface temperature increase in 2050 of around 7 mK and with constant emissions afterwards to around 21 mK in 2100. The related total radiative forcing amounts to 22 mWm2 in 2050, with an uncertainty between 9 and 29

  6. The CRAF/Cassini power subsystem - Preliminary design update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, Kenneth L.; Brisendine, Philip; Clark, Karla; Klein, John; Smith, Richard

    1991-01-01

    A chronology is provided of the rationale leading from the early Mariner spacecraft to the CRAF/Cassini Mariner Mark II power subsystem architecture. The display pathway began with a hybrid including a solar photovoltaic array, a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), and a battery supplying a power profile with a peak loading of about 300 W. The initial concept was to distribute power through a new solid-state, programmable switch controlled by an embedded microprocessor. As the overall mission, science, and project design matured, the power requirements increased. The design evolved from the hybrid to two RTG plus batteries to meet peak loadings of near 500 W in 1989. Later that year, circumstances led to abandonment of the distributed computer concept and a return to centralized control. Finally, as power requirements continued to grow, a third RTG was added to the design and the battery removed, with the return to the discharge-controller for transients during fault recovery procedures.

  7. 40 CFR 88.310-94 - Applicability to covered Federal fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fleets. 88.310-94 Section 88.310-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.310-94 Applicability to covered Federal fleets. (a) Compliance by Federal vehicles. As per section 258(a) of the Act, fleets...

  8. Compressed/reconstructed test images for CRAF/Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S.; Cheung, K.-M.; Onyszchuk, I.; Pollara, F.; Arnold, S.

    1991-01-01

    A set of compressed, then reconstructed, test images submitted to the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF)/Cassini project is presented as part of its evaluation of near lossless high compression algorithms for representing image data. A total of seven test image files were provided by the project. The seven test images were compressed, then reconstructed with high quality (root mean square error of approximately one or two gray levels on an 8 bit gray scale), using discrete cosine transforms or Hadamard transforms and efficient entropy coders. The resulting compression ratios varied from about 2:1 to about 10:1, depending on the activity or randomness in the source image. This was accomplished without any special effort to optimize the quantizer or to introduce special postprocessing to filter the reconstruction errors. A more complete set of measurements, showing the relative performance of the compression algorithms over a wide range of compression ratios and reconstruction errors, shows that additional compression is possible at a small sacrifice in fidelity.

  9. Survival signaling by C-RAF: mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and Ca2+ are critical targets.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Andrey V; Smigelskaite, Julija; Doblander, Christine; Janakiraman, Manickam; Hermann, Martin; Wurm, Martin; Scheidl, Stefan F; Sucher, Robert; Deutschmann, Andrea; Troppmair, Jakob

    2008-04-01

    Survival signaling by RAF occurs through largely unknown mechanisms. Here we provide evidence for the first time that RAF controls cell survival by maintaining permissive levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+). Interleukin-3 (IL-3) withdrawal from 32D cells resulted in ROS production, which was suppressed by activated C-RAF. Oncogenic C-RAF decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells following treatment with staurosporine or the oxidative stress-inducing agent tert-butyl hydroperoxide. However, it was also the case that in parental 32D cells growing in the presence of IL-3, inhibition of RAF signaling resulted in elevated mitochondrial ROS and Ca(2+) levels. Cell death is preceded by a ROS-dependent increase in mitochondrial Ca(2+), which was absent from cells expressing transforming C-RAF. Prevention of mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload after IL-3 deprivation increased cell viability. MEK was essential for the mitochondrial effects of RAF. In summary, our data show that survival control by C-RAF involves controlling ROS production, which otherwise perturbs mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis. PMID:18212057

  10. 40 CFR 86.418-78 - Test fleet selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fleet selection. 86.418-78 Section 86.418-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.418-78 Test fleet selection. (a) Test...

  11. 40 CFR 86.422-78 - Administrator's fleet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrator's fleet. 86.422-78 Section 86.422-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.422-78 Administrator's fleet. The...

  12. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  13. 40 CFR 88.308-94 - Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-fuel fleet vehicles. 88.308-94 Section 88.308-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.308-94 Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. (a) Multi-State nonattainment areas. The...

  14. NREL Fleet Analysis Toolkit

    2006-12-31

    The software analyzes large time-dependent data sets from fleets of vehicles and their fueling infrastructure to characterize performance metrics including efficiency, durability, fueling rates and usage patterns.

  15. Computerized Fleet Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldo, John J.

    1985-01-01

    The Computerized Fleet Maintenance (CFM) program of a New York school district has major component areas of garage operation, vehicle replacement, and fuel consumption. CFM detects high expenditures and provides the rationale for bus replacement. (MLF)

  16. Fleet DNA (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Walkokwicz, K.; Duran, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Fleet DNA project objectives include capturing and quantifying drive cycle and technology variation for the multitude of medium- and heavy-duty vocations; providing a common data storage warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle fleet data across DOE activities and laboratories; and integrating existing DOE tools, models, and analyses to provide data-driven decision making capabilities. Fleet DNA advantages include: for Government - providing in-use data for standard drive cycle development, R&D, tech targets, and rule making; for OEMs - real-world usage datasets provide concrete examples of customer use profiles; for fleets - vocational datasets help illustrate how to maximize return on technology investments; for Funding Agencies - ways are revealed to optimize the impact of financial incentive offers; and for researchers -a data source is provided for modeling and simulation.

  17. Overlapping and specific functions of Braf and Craf-1 proto-oncogenes during mouse embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wojnowski, L; Stancato, L F; Larner, A C; Rapp, U R; Zimmer, A

    2000-03-01

    The three mammalian Raf serine/threonine protein kinases mediate the transduction of proliferative and differentiative signals from cell surface receptors to the nucleus. In vertebrates, Raf signaling has been implicated in the progression of mouse embryos through the two-cell stage and in the induction of posterior mesoderm. However, mouse embryos mutant for each of the Raf genes exhibit no developmental defects before mid-gestation. Here we describe the phenotype of mouse mutants with different combinations of mutant Craf-1 and Braf alleles. Our results show that Raf signaling is indeed indispensable for normal development beyond the blastocyst stage. However, due to a significant redundancy between Craf-1 and Braf, either gene is sufficient for normal development until mid-gestation. The molecular and developmental mechanisms for this redundancy were investigated by monitoring the expression of Raf genes throughout embryogenesis and by biochemical studies in mutant cell lines.

  18. Analysis of Possible Stratagems for Enhancing the EOM Power of RTGs for the CRAF Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T; Noravian, Heros

    1991-08-01

    Paper presented at the 26th IECEC in Boston, MA August 4-9, 1991. This paper describes the various stratagems investigated and discusses their drawbacks and their effectiveness. The analytical results indicated that a combination of relatively modest RTG modifications that could be implemented in time for the mission could come very close to meeting the CRAF power demand goals specified by JPL. However, since even with the modifications the two RTGs did not provide sufficient margin for possible further growth in power demand, the JPL project team ultimately decided to use 3 RTGs for the CRAF mission also. This had the decisive advantage of eliminating the need for load switching to reduce the power demand peaks. The purpose of this paper is to document the various power enhancement schemes analyzed and their computed effectiveness, for possible future applications. There are three copies in the file.

  19. Induction of cell proliferation in quiescent NIH 3T3 cells by oncogenic c-Raf-1.

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoff, E; Rapp, U R

    1997-01-01

    The c-Raf-1 kinase is activated by different mitogenic stimuli and has been shown to be an important mediator of growth factor responses. Fusion of the catalytic domain of the c-Raf-1 kinase with the hormone binding domain of the estrogen receptor (deltaRaf-ER) provides a hormone-regulated form of oncogenic activated c-Raf-1. We have established NIH 3T3 cells stably expressing a c-Raf-1 deletion mutant-estrogen receptor fusion protein (c-Raf-1-BxB-ER) (N-BxB-ER cells). The transformed morphology of these cells is dependent on the presence of the estrogen antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Addition of 4-hydroxytamoxifen to N-BxB-ER cells arrested by density or serum starvation causes reentry of these cells into cell proliferation. Increases in the cell number are obvious by 24 h after activation of the oncogenic c-Raf-1 protein in confluent cells. The onset of proliferation in serum-starved cells is further delayed and takes about 48 h. In both cases, the proliferative response of the oncogenic c-Raf-1-induced cell proliferation is weaker than the one mediated by serum and does not lead to exponential growth. This is reflected in a markedly lower expression of the late-S- and G2/M-phase-specific cyclin B protein and a slightly lower expression of the cyclin A protein being induced at the G1/S transition. Oncogenic activation of c-Raf-1 induces the expression of the heparin binding epidermal growth factor. The Jnk1 kinase is putatively activated by the action of the autocrine growth factor. The kinetics of Jnk1 kinase activity is delayed and occurs by a time when we also detect DNA synthesis and the expression of the S-phase-specific cyclin A protein. This finding indicates that oncogenic activation of the c-Raf-1 protein can trigger the entry into the cell cycle without the action of the autocrine growth factor loop. The activation of the c-Raf-1-BxB-ER protein leads to an accumulation of high levels of cyclin D1 protein and a repression of the p27Kip1 cyclin

  1. Ferment in the Fleet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwigson, John

    1980-01-01

    The future of the academic oceanographic fleet is discussed. The focus of the controversy surrounding the ships appears to be their size and fuel efficiency. Budget constraints and various ways in which to schedule ships for researchers are the primary concerns. (SA)

  2. Lung-targeted expression of the c-Raf-1 kinase in transgenic mice exposes a novel oncogenic character of the wild-type protein.

    PubMed

    Kerkhoff, E; Fedorov, L M; Siefken, R; Walter, A O; Papadopoulos, T; Rapp, U R

    2000-04-01

    The c-Raf-1 kinase is a downstream effector of Ras signaling. Both proteins are highly oncogenic when they are mutationally activated, but only the Ras GTPase is frequently mutated in naturally occurring tumors. Although the c-Raf-1 protein was found to be amplified in different lung cancer cell lines, overexpression of the wild-type c-Raf-1 protein was shown to be insufficient to transform cultured cells. Here we have addressed the question of whether overexpression of the wild-type c-Raf-1 kinase can induce lung cancer in mice. We show that lung-targeted expression of oncogenically activated or wild-type c-Raf-1 proteins induces morphologically indistinguishable lung adenomas in transgenic mice. Compared with mice transgenic for the activated c-Raf-1-BxB, tumor development is delayed and occurs at a lower incidence in wild-type c-Raf-1 transgenic mice. Our studies show that the c-Raf-1 expression level is a critical parameter in tumor development and should be analyzed in more detail to evaluate its potential in the induction of cancer.

  3. Design, Analysis, and Spacecraft Integration of RTGs for CRAF and Cassini Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T; Noravian, Heros

    1991-04-02

    This report consists of two parts. Part 1 describes the development of novel analytical methods needed to predict the BOM performance and the subsequent performance degradation of the mutually obstructed RTGs for the CRAF and Cassini missions. Part II applies those methods to the two missions, presents the resultant predictions, and discusses their programmatic implications. The results indicate that JPL's original power demand goals could have been met with two standard GPHS RTGs for each mission. However, JPL subsequently raised both the power demand profile and the duration for both missions, to the point where two standard RTGs could no longer provide the desired power margin. Each mission can be satisfied by adding a third RTG, and in the case of the Cassini mission the use of three RTGs appears to be unavoidable. In the case of the CRAF mission, there appears to be a possibility that modest modifications of the RTGs' design and/or operating scheme and meet the missions' power demand without the addition of a third RTG. The potential saving in cost and schedule pressure prompted Fairchild to undertake a study of various obvious and not-so-obvious stratagems, either singly or in combination, to determine whether they would make it possible to meet the specified power demand with two RTSs. The various stratagems investigated by Fairchild and their effect on performance are presented. The analytical results indicate that a combination of relatively modest RTG modifications could come very close to meeting the JPL-specified CRAF power demand goals. However, since even with the modifications the two RTGs did not provide sufficient margin for possible further growth in power demand, the JPL project team ultimately decided to use three RTGs for the CRAF mission also. This had the decisive advantage of eliminating the need for load switching to reduce the power demand peaks. The report documents the various power enhancement schemes and their computed effectiveness

  4. Design, Analysis, and Spacecraft Integration of RTGs for CRAF and Cassini Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T; Noravian, Heros

    1991-07-10

    This report consists of two parts. Part 1 describes the development of novel analytical methods needed to predict the BOM performance and the subsequent performance degradation of the mutually obstructed RTGs for the CRAF and Cassini missions. Part II applies those methods to the two missions, presents the resultant predictions, and discusses their programmatic implications.; The results indicate that JPL's original power demand goals could have been met with two standard GPHS RTGs for each mission. However, JPL subsequently raised both the power demand profile and the duration for both missions, to the point where two standard RTGs could no longer provide the desired power margin. Each mission can be satisfied by adding a third RTG, and in the case of the Cassini mission the use of three RTGs appears to be unavoidable. In the case of the CRAF mission, there appears to be a possibility that modest modifications of the RTGs' design and/or operating scheme and meet the missions' power demand without the addition of a third RTG. The potential saving in cost and schedule pressure prompted Fairchild to undertake a study of various obvious and not-so-obvious stratagems, either singly or in combination, to determine whether they would make it possible to meet the specified power demand with two RTGs.; The various stratagems investigated by Fairchild and their effect on performance are presented. The analytical results indicate that a combination of relatively modest RTG modifications could come very close to meeting the JPL-specified CRAF power demand goals. However, since even with the modifications the two RTGs did not provide sufficient margin for possible further growth in power demand, the JPL project team ultimately decided to use three RTGs for the CRAF mission also. This had the decisive advantage of eliminating the need for load switching to reduce the power demand peaks. The report documents the various power enhancement schemes and their computed effectiveness

  5. Design, Analysis, and Spacecraft Integration of RTGs for CRAF and Cassini Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T; Noravian, Heros

    1991-04-02

    This report consists of two parts. Part 1 describes the development of novel analytical methods needed to predict the BOM performance and the subsequent performance degradation of the mutually obstructed RTGs for the CRAF and Cassini missions. Part II applies those methods to the two missions, presents the resultant predictions, and discusses their programmatic implications.; The results indicate that JPL's original power demand goals could have been met with two standard GPHS RTGs for each mission. However, JPL subsequently raised both the power demand profile and the duration for both missions, to the point where two standard RTGs could no longer provide the desired power margin. Each mission can be satisfied by adding a third RTG, and in the case of the Cassini mission the use of three RTGs appears to be unavoidable. In the case of the CRAF mission, there appears to be a possibility that modest modifications of the RTGs' design and/or operating scheme and meet the missions' power demand without the addition of a third RTG. The potential saving in cost and schedule pressure prompted Fairchild to undertake a study of various obvious and not-so-obvious stratagems, either singly or in combination, to determine whether they would make it possible to meet the specified power demand with two RTSs.; The various stratagems investigated by Fairchild and their effect on performance are presented. The analytical results indicate that a combination of relatively modest RTG modifications could come very close to meeting the JPL-specified CRAF power demand goals. However, since even with the modifications the two RTGs did not provide sufficient margin for possible further growth in power demand, the JPL project team ultimately decided to use three RTGs for the CRAF mission also. This had the decisive advantage of eliminating the need for load switching to reduce the power demand peaks. The report documents the various power enhancement schemes and their computed effectiveness

  6. The Tumor Suppressor DiRas3 Forms a Complex with H-Ras and C-RAF Proteins and Regulates Localization, Dimerization, and Kinase Activity of C-RAF*

    PubMed Central

    Baljuls, Angela; Beck, Matthias; Oenel, Ayla; Robubi, Armin; Kroschewski, Ruth; Hekman, Mirko; Rudel, Thomas; Rapp, Ulf R.

    2012-01-01

    The maternally imprinted Ras-related tumor suppressor gene DiRas3 is lost or down-regulated in more than 60% of ovarian and breast cancers. The anti-tumorigenic effect of DiRas3 is achieved through several mechanisms, including inhibition of cell proliferation, motility, and invasion, as well as induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Re-expression of DiRas3 in cancer cells interferes with the signaling through Ras/MAPK and PI3K. Despite intensive research, the mode of interference of DiRas3 with the Ras/RAF/MEK/ERK signal transduction is still a matter of speculation. In this study, we show that DiRas3 associates with the H-Ras oncogene and that activation of H-Ras enforces this interaction. Furthermore, while associated with DiRas3, H-Ras is able to bind to its effector protein C-RAF. The resulting multimeric complex consisting of DiRas3, C-RAF, and active H-Ras is more stable than the two protein complexes H-Ras·C-RAF or H-Ras·DiRas3, respectively. The consequence of this complex formation is a DiRas3-mediated recruitment and anchorage of C-RAF to components of the membrane skeleton, suppression of C-RAF/B-RAF heterodimerization, and inhibition of C-RAF kinase activity. PMID:22605333

  7. Registered report: Kinase-dead BRAF and oncogenic RAS cooperate to drive tumor progression through CRAF

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Ajay; Anant, Madan; Mack, Hildegard

    2016-01-01

    The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of selected experiments from a number of high-profile papers in the field of cancer biology. The papers, which were published between 2010 and 2012, were selected on the basis of citations and Altmetric scores (Errington et al., 2014). This Registered Report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from "Kinase-dead BRAF and oncogenic RAS cooperate to drive tumor progression through CRAF" by Heidorn and colleagues, published in Cell in 2010 (Heidorn et al., 2010). The experiments to be replicated are those reported in Figures 1A, 1B, 3A, 3B, and 4D. Heidorn and colleagues report that paradoxical activation of the RAF-RAS-MEK-ERK pathway by BRAF inhibitors when applied to BRAFWT cells is a result of BRAF/CRAF heterodimer formation upon inactivation of BRAF kinase activity, and occurs only in the context of active RAS. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange, and the results of the replications will be published by eLife. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11999.001 PMID:26885666

  8. Secondary Tumors Arising in Patients Undergoing BRAF Inhibitor Therapy Exhibit Increased BRAF-CRAF Heterodimerization.

    PubMed

    Boussemart, Lise; Girault, Isabelle; Malka-Mahieu, Hélène; Mateus, Christine; Routier, Emilie; Rubington, Margot; Kamsu-Kom, Nyam; Thomas, Marina; Tomasic, Gorana; Agoussi, Sandrine; Breckler, Marie; Laporte, Mélanie; Lacroix, Ludovic; Eggermont, Alexander M; Cavalcanti, Andrea; Grange, Florent; Adam, Julien; Vagner, Stéphan; Robert, Caroline

    2016-03-15

    BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) elicit therapeutic responses in metastatic melanoma, but alarmingly, also induce the formation of secondary benign and malignant skin tumors. Here, we report the emergence and molecular characterization of 73 skin and extracutaneous tumors in 31 patients who underwent BRAFi therapy. The majority of patients presented with classic epidermal tumors such as verrucous papillomas, keratoacanthomas, and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). However, 15 patients exhibited new or rapidly progressing tumors distinct from these classic subtypes, such as lymph node metastasis, new melanomas, and genital and oral mucosal SCCs. Genotyping of the tumors revealed that oncogenic RAS mutations were found in 58% of the evaluable tumor samples (38/66) and 49% of the control tumors from patients not treated with BRAFi (30/62). Notably, proximity ligation assays demonstrated that BRAF-CRAF heterodimerization was increased in fixed tumor samples from BRAFi-treated patients compared with untreated patients. Our findings reveal that BRAF-CRAF complex formation is significantly associated with BRAFi treatment, and may therefore serve as a useful biomarker of BRAFi-induced cutaneous and extracutaneous tumor formation.

  9. 40 CFR 88.308-94 - Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Programmatic requirements for clean... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.308-94 Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. (a) Multi-State nonattainment areas. The...

  10. 40 CFR 88.308-94 - Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Programmatic requirements for clean... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.308-94 Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. (a) Multi-State nonattainment areas. The...

  11. 40 CFR 88.308-94 - Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Programmatic requirements for clean... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.308-94 Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. (a) Multi-State nonattainment areas. The...

  12. 40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contained in 40 CFR part 88, subpart A. (b) Program administration. (1)(i) Each state in which there is all... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.304-94 Clean-fuel...

  13. 40 CFR 88.308-94 - Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Programmatic requirements for clean... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.308-94 Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. (a) Multi-State nonattainment areas. The...

  14. 40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contained in 40 CFR part 88, subpart A. (b) Program administration. (1)(i) Each state in which there is all... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.304-94 Clean-fuel...

  15. 40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contained in 40 CFR part 88, subpart A. (b) Program administration. (1)(i) Each state in which there is all... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.304-94 Clean-fuel...

  16. 40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contained in 40 CFR part 88, subpart A. (b) Program administration. (1)(i) Each state in which there is all... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.304-94 Clean-fuel...

  17. Fleet retrofit report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Flight tests are evaluated of an avionics system which aids the pilot in making two-segment approaches for noise abatement. The implications are discussed of equipping United's fleet of Boeing 727-200 aircraft with two-segment avionics for use down to Category 2 weather operating minima. The experience is reported of incorporating two-segment approach avionics systems on two different aircraft. The cost of installing dual two-segment approach systems is estimated to be $37,015 per aircraft, including parts, labor, and spares. This is based on the assumption that incremental out-of-service and training costs could be minimized by incorporating the system at airframe overhaul cycle and including training in regular recurrent training. Accelerating the modification schedule could add up to 50 percent to the modification costs. Recurring costs of maintenance of the installation are estimated to be of about the same magnitude as the potential recurrent financial benefits due to fuel savings.

  18. Cask fleet operations study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system.

  19. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 8, fleet economics

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The costs that face a fleet operator in implementing alternative motor fuels into fleet operations are examined. Five alternatives studied in the CleanFleet project are considered for choice of fuel: compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The cost assessment is built upon a list of thirteen cost factors grouped into the three categories: infrastructure costs, vehicle owning costs, and operating costs. Applicable taxes are included. A commonly used spreadsheet was adapted as a cost assessment tool. This tool was used in a case study to estimate potential costs to a typical fleet operator in package delivery service in the 1996 time frame. In addition, because electric cargo vans are unlikely to be available for the 1996 model year from original equipment manufacturers, the case study was extended to the 1998 time frame for the electric vans. Results of the case study are presented in cents per mile of vehicle travel for the fleet. Several options available to the fleet for implementing the fuels are examined.

  20. Preliminary report on AED deployment on the entire Air France commercial fleet: a joint venture with Paris XII University Training Programme.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, C; Rodriguez Redington, P; Lecarpentier, E; Bellaiche, G; Michel, D; Teiger, E; Morris, W; Le Bourgeois, J P; Barthout, M

    2004-11-01

    The positive effect of early defibrillation on survival from cardiac arrest has been demonstrated. We describe the use of AEDs over 1 year following the training of flight attendants. Air France and the University of Paris XII together designed a 1 year training programme for 14000 flight attendants. The university emergency departments (SAMU) provided 250 instructors. AEDs training and certification was conducted for crew members between November 2001 and November 2002. By January 2003, all aircraft were fully equipped with AEDs. All cases of cardiac arrest that occurred during the study were reviewed comprehensively. Comments from the crew were collected. Twelve cardiac arrests were reported between November 2002 and November 2003 out of 4194 cases of emergency care delivered to passengers. Shock treatment was advised initially in 5/12 cases. The survival rate after in-flight cardiac arrest was 3/12. The survival rate at discharge from hospital following in flight shock was 2/5. No complications arose from the use of AEDs. Training by professionals gave the flight attendants confidence and allowed for the survival of two young passengers. Our study highlights the ability of flight attendants to give better onboard care for the future. The next step is to consolidate the network between in-flight care and the medical dispatch centre in Paris.

  1. Fleet DNA Project (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    The Fleet DNA Project - designed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory - aims to accelerate the evolution of advanced vehicle development and support the strategic deployment of market-ready technologies that reduce costs, fuel consumption, and emissions. At the heart of the Fleet DNA Project is a clearinghouse of medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet transportation data for optimizing the design of advanced vehicle technologies or for selecting a given technology to invest in. An easy-to-access online database will help vehicle manufacturers and fleets understand the broad operational range for many of today's commercial vehicle vocations.

  2. 40 CFR 86.421-78 - Test fleet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test fleet. 86.421-78 Section 86.421-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978...

  3. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product distribution theory is a new collective intelligence-based framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Its usefulness in distributed stochastic optimization is illustrated here through an airline fleet assignment problem. This problem involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of linear and non-linear constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of this new stochastic optimization algorithm to a non-linear objective cold start fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly-constrained problems (130 variables, 184 constraints).

  4. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Airline fleet assignment involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of an agent-based integer optimization algorithm to a "cold start" fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly- constrained problems (129 variables, 184 constraints).

  5. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  6. 30 CFR 57.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 57.19037 Section 57.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 57.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 56.19037 Section 56.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 56.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not...

  8. T cell antigen receptor engagement stimulates c-raf phosphorylation and induces c-raf-associated kinase activity via a protein kinase C-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J N; Klausner, R D; Rapp, U R; Samelson, L E

    1990-10-25

    The c-raf kinase has been shown to be activated following stimulation of several tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors. We examined changes in c-raf following engagement of the T cell receptor for antigen (TCR), a stimulus which activates both a non-receptor tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C (PKC). We found that activation of the T-cell receptor on the T cell hybridoma 2B4 causes a rapid and stoichiometric hyperphosphorylation of c-raf and an increase in c-raf-associated kinase activity. Phosphoamino acid analysis showed that the phosphorylation was entirely on serine residues. High-resolution phosphopeptide mapping showed the appearance of a single major new phosphopeptide with TCR stimulation. That phosphopeptide was shown to comigrate with the major new phosphopeptide induced in response to phorbol ester. When cells were depleted of PKC by pretreatment with high concentrations of phorbol ester, TCR stimulation was no longer capable of inducing c-raf-associated kinase activity. To determine whether activation of the tyrosine kinase alone would activate c-raf, we examined the 2B4 variant cell line FL.8. In response to Thy-1 stimulation, these cells activate the tyrosine kinase but not protein kinase C due to a deficiency in TCR eta chain expression. We found that in contrast to Thy-1 stimulation of 2B4 cells, stimulation of FL.8 cells does not lead to the induction of c-raf-associated kinase activity, although phorbol ester activates the kinase to an equivalent degree in both cells. We conclude that T cell receptor activation of c-raf occurs via phosphorylation by the serine/threonine kinase PKC. Activation of c-raf through PKC represents a mechanism distinct from that reported for tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors.

  9. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  10. Recognition properties of peptides hydropathically complementary to residues 356-375 of the c-raf protein.

    PubMed

    Fassina, G; Roller, P P; Olson, A D; Thorgeirsson, S S; Omichinski, J G

    1989-07-01

    Two peptides with hydropathic complementarity to residues 356-375 of the c-raf protein were synthesized to determine if they recognize the raf-(356-375) peptide as well as the entire protein. One peptide was deduced from the complementary mRNA for the raf protein corresponding to residues 356-375, whereas the other was deduced solely from the amino acid sequence of the 20-mer segment using a computer program able to generate peptide sequences with hydropathic complementarity to a given sequence. Specific binding of both peptides to the raf 20-mer segment was demonstrated when either the raf 20-mer peptide or the complementary peptides were immobilized on a column. Binding affinities were in the millimolar-micromolar range. Identical binding properties were observed with peptides synthesized with either all D- or all L-amino acids, suggesting a lack of conformational dependence. Binding was also unaffected by the presence of 8 M urea or detergents, was dependent on solvent characteristics of pH and ionic strength, and was abolished by the presence of competing peptides in the eluting buffer. Recognition between raf complementary peptides was accompanied by spectral changes in the far and near UV region, as monitored by circular dichroism. Proteolytic degradation was retarded by the binding of these peptides. Once immobilized on a column, these peptides proved useful for the isolation by affinity chromatography of a recombinant c-raf protein from an Escherichia coli crude cell extract. PMID:2472393

  11. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  12. Associations of B- and C-Raf with cholesterol, phosphatidylserine, and lipid second messengers: preferential binding of Raf to artificial lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Hekman, Mirko; Hamm, Heike; Villar, Ana V; Bader, Benjamin; Kuhlmann, Jurgen; Nickel, Joachim; Rapp, Ulf R

    2002-07-01

    The serine/threonine kinase C-Raf is a key mediator in cellular signaling. Translocation of Raf to membranes has been proposed to be facilitated by Ras proteins in their GTP-bound state. In this study we provide evidence that both purified B- and C-Raf kinases possess lipophilic properties and associate with phospholipid membranes. In the presence of phosphatidylserine and lipid second messengers such as phosphatidic acid and ceramides these associations were very specific with affinity constants (K(D)) in the range of 0.5-50 nm. Raf association with liposomes was accompanied by displacement of 14-3-3 proteins and inhibition of Raf kinase activities. Interactions of Raf with cholesterol are of particular interest, since cholesterol has been shown to be involved, together with sphingomyelin and glycerophospholipids in the formation of specialized lipid microdomains called rafts. We demonstrate here that purified Raf proteins have moderate binding affinity for cholesterol. However, under conditions of lipid raft formation, Raf association with cholesterol (or rafts) increased dramatically. Since ceramides also support formation of rafts and interact with Raf we propose that Raf may be present at the plasma membrane in two distinct microdomains: in raft regions via association with cholesterol and ceramides and in non-raft regions due to interaction with phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid. At either location Raf kinase activity was inhibited by lipid binding in the absence or presence of Ras. Ras-Raf interactions with full-length C-Raf were studied both in solution and in phospholipid environment. Ras association with Raf was GTP dependent as previously demonstrated for C-Raf-RBD fragments. In the presence of liposomes the recruitment of C-Raf by reconstituted Ras-farnesyl was only marginal, since almost 70% of added C-Raf was bound by the lipids alone. Thus Ras-Raf binding in response to activation of Ras-coupled receptors may utilize Raf protein that is

  13. CNG and Fleets: Building Your Business Case

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    Two online resources help fleets evaluate the economic soundness of a compressed natural gas program. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Vehicle Infrastructure and Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE 2.0) model and the accompanying report, Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications, are uniquely designed for fleet managers considering an investment in CNG and can help ensure wise investment decisions about CNG vehicles and infrastructure.

  14. Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

  15. Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

    2001-07-02

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

  16. Clean Cities Helps Fleets Go Green (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-08-01

    Green fleet programs, like those in Ohio and Illinois, certify vehicle fleets based on environmental and fuel-use requirements. The programs encourage the use of alternative fuels and provide a way to recognize fleets for participating.

  17. Oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM/ALK induces activation of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway independently of c-Raf.

    PubMed

    Marzec, M; Kasprzycka, M; Liu, X; Raghunath, P N; Wlodarski, P; Wasik, M A

    2007-02-01

    The mechanisms of cell transformation mediated by the highly oncogenic, chimeric NPM/ALK tyrosine kinase remain only partially understood. Here we report that cell lines and native tissues derived from the NPM/ALK-expressing T-cell lymphoma (ALK+ TCL) display phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1/2 complex. Transfection of BaF3 cells with NPM/ALK induces phosphorylation of EKR1/2 and of its direct activator mitogen-induced extracellular kinase (MEK) 1/2. Depletion of NPM/ALK by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or its inhibition by WHI-154 abrogates the MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The NPM/ALK-induced MEK/ERK activation is independent of c-Raf as evidenced by the lack of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation upon c-Raf inactivation by two different inhibitors, RI and ZM336372, and by its siRNA-mediated depletion. In contrast, ERK1/2 activation is strictly MEK1/2 dependent as shown by suppression of the ERK1/2 phosphorylation by the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. The U0126-mediated inhibition of ERK1/2 activation impaired proliferation and viability of the ALK+ TCL cells and expression of antiapoptotic factor Bcl-xL and cell cycle-promoting CDK4 and phospho-RB. Finally, siRNA-mediated depletion of both ERK1 and ERK2 inhibited cell proliferation, whereas depletion of ERK 1 (but not ERK2) markedly increased cell apoptosis. These findings identify MEK/ERK as a new signaling pathway activated by NPM/ALK and indicate that the pathway represents a novel therapeutic target in the ALK-induced malignancies.

  18. Requirement of B-Raf, C-Raf, and A-Raf for the growth and survival of mouse embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Wenjing; Hao, Baixia; Wang, Qian; Lu, Yingying; Yue, Jianbo

    2013-11-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) have been implicated to be dispensable for self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and simultaneous inhibition of both ERK signaling and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) not only allows mouse ES cells to self-renew independent of extracellular stimuli but also enables more efficient derivation of naïve ES cells from mouse and rat strains. Interestingly, some ERKs stay active in mouse ES cells which are maintained in regular medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Yet, the upstream signaling for ERK activation and their roles in mouse ES cells, other than promoting or priming differentiation, have not been determined. Here we found that mouse ES cells express three forms of Raf kinases, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf. Knocking-down each single Raf member failed to affect the sustained ERK activity, neither did A-Raf and B-Raf double knockdown or B-Raf and C-Raf double knockdown change it in ES cells. Interestingly, B-Raf and C-Raf double knockdown, not A-Raf and B-Raf knockdown, inhibited the maximal ERK activation induced by LIF, concomitant with the slower growth of ES cells. On the other hand, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf triple knockdown markedly inhibited both the maximal and sustained ERK activity in ES cells. Moreover, Raf triple knockdown, similar to the treatment of U-0126, an MEK inhibitor, significantly inhibited the survival and proliferation of ES cells, thereby compromising the colony propagation of mouse ES cells. In summary, our data demonstrate that all three Raf members are required for ERK activation in mouse ES cells and are involved in growth and survival of mouse ES cells. - Highlights: ●Mouse ES (mES) cells express all three Raf members, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf. ●Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) temporally activates ERKs in mES cells. ●B-Raf and C-Raf are required for LIF-induced maximal ERKs activity in mES cells. ●All Raf members are

  19. B- and C-RAF display essential differences in their binding to Ras: the isotype-specific N terminus of B-RAF facilitates Ras binding.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andreas; Hekman, Mirko; Kuhlmann, Jürgen; Rubio, Ignacio; Wiese, Stefan; Rapp, Ulf R

    2007-09-01

    Recruitment of RAF kinases to the plasma membrane was initially proposed to be mediated by Ras proteins via interaction with the RAF Ras binding domain (RBD). Data reporting that RAF kinases possess high affinities for particular membrane lipids support a new model in which Ras-RAF interactions may be spatially restricted to the plane of the membrane. Although the coupling features of Ras binding to the isolated RAF RBD were investigated in great detail, little is known about the interactions of the processed Ras with the functional and full-length RAF kinases. Here we present a quantitative analysis of the binding properties of farnesylated and nonfarnesylated H-Ras to both full-length B- and C-RAF in the presence and absence of lipid environment. Although isolated RBD fragments associate with high affinity to both farnesylated and nonfarnesylated H-Ras, the full-length RAF kinases revealed fundamental differences with respect to Ras binding. In contrast to C-RAF that requires farnesylated H-Ras, cytosolic B-RAF associates effectively and with significantly higher affinity with both farnesylated and nonfarnesylated H-Ras. To investigate the potential farnesyl binding site(s) we prepared several N-terminal fragments of C-RAF and found that in the presence of cysteine-rich domain only the farnesylated form of H-Ras binds with high association rates. The extreme N terminus of B-RAF turned out to be responsible for the facilitation of lipid independent Ras binding to B-RAF, since truncation of this region resulted in a protein that changed its kinase properties and resembles C-RAF. In vivo studies using PC12 and COS7 cells support in vitro results. Co-localization measurements using labeled Ras and RAF documented essential differences between B- and C-RAF with respect to association with Ras. Taken together, these data suggest that the activation of B-RAF, in contrast to C-RAF, may take place both at the plasma membrane and in the cytosolic environment.

  20. Design and Analysis of RTGs for CRAF and Cassini Missions; two copies - one dated 8/3/1990 and the other dated 11/8/1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1990-10-08

    The paper describes the design and analysis of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators Integrated with JPL's CRAF and Cassini spacecraft. The principal purpose of the CRAF mission is the study of asteroids and comets, and the principal purpose of the Cassini mission is the study of asteroids, Saturn, and its moons (particularly Titan). Both missions will employ the Mariner/Mark-2 spacecraft, and each will be powered by two GPHS-RTGs. JPL's spacecraft designers wish to locate the two RTGs in close proximity to each other, resulting in mutual and unsymmetrical obstruction of their heat rejection paths. To support JPL's design studies, the U.S. Department of Energy asked Fairchild to determine the effect of the RTGs' proximity on their power output. As described in the paper, this required the development of novel analysis methods and computer codes for the coupled thermal and electrical analysis of obstructed RTGs with axial and circumferential temperature, voltage, and current variations. The code was validated against measured data of unobstructed RTG tests, and was used for the detailed analysis of the obstructed CRAF and Cassini RTGs. Also described is a new method for predicting the combined effect of fuel decay and thermoelectric degradation on the output of obstructed RTGs, which accounts for the effect of diminishing temperatures on degradation rates. For the 24-degree separation angle of JPL's original baseline design, and for the 35-degree RTG separation of JPL's revised design, the computed results indicate that the mutually obstructed GPHS/RTGs with standard fuel loading and operating temperatures can comfortably meet the JPL-specified power requirements for the CRAF mission and almost meet the specified requirements for the Cassini mission.

  1. Impaired Binding of 14-3-3 to C-RAF in Noonan Syndrome Suggests New Approaches in Diseases with Increased Ras Signaling▿

    PubMed Central

    Molzan, Manuela; Schumacher, Benjamin; Ottmann, Corinna; Baljuls, Angela; Polzien, Lisa; Weyand, Michael; Thiel, Philipp; Rose, Rolf; Rose, Micheline; Kuhenne, Philipp; Kaiser, Markus; Rapp, Ulf R.; Kuhlmann, Jürgen; Ottmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The Ras-RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras-RAF-MAPK) pathway is overactive in many cancers and in some developmental disorders. In one of those disorders, namely, Noonan syndrome, nine activating C-RAF mutations cluster around Ser259, a regulatory site for inhibition by 14-3-3 proteins. We show that these mutations impair binding of 14-3-3 proteins to C-RAF and alter its subcellular localization by promoting Ras-mediated plasma membrane recruitment of C-RAF. By presenting biophysical binding data, the 14-3-3/C-RAFpS259 crystal structure, and cellular analyses, we indicate a mechanistic link between a well-described human developmental disorder and the impairment of a 14-3-3/target protein interaction. As a broader implication of these findings, modulating the C-RAFSer259/14-3-3 protein-protein interaction with a stabilizing small molecule may yield a novel potential approach for treatment of diseases resulting from an overactive Ras-RAF-MAPK pathway. PMID:20679480

  2. 40 CFR 610.32 - Test fleet selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fleet selection. 610.32 Section... fleet selection. (a) The composition and size of the test fleet will be determined by the Administrator... test fleet will be determined by the Administrator in consultation with the FTC. (b) The goal of...

  3. 2012 Earth-Orbiting Heliophysics Fleet

    NASA Video Gallery

    Since Sentinels of the Heliosphere in 2008, there have been a few new missions, and a few missions have been shut down. As of Fall of 2012, here's a tour of the NASA Near-Earth Heliophysics fleet, ...

  4. Consolidated Fleet N2Y-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Consolidated Fleet N2Y-1: The Consolidated Fleet N2Y-1 aircraft were used as trainers for the pilots who would fly the 'parasite' fighters attached to the airships Akron and Macon. This N2Y-1 was turned over to the NACA for research work. Note that the vertical surfaces are instrumented for NACA work. This N2Y was used for landing gear tests.

  5. The Consolidated Fleet XN2Y-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1935-01-01

    The Consolidated Fleet XN2Y-1 was a Fleet 1 trainer purchased by the Navy for evaluation. The purchase of several N2Y-1 aircraft followed, for use as trainers for the pilots who would fly the 'parasite' fighters attached to the airships Akron and Macon. The XN2Y-1 was turned over to the NACA for research work. Note the that vertical surfaces are instrumented for NACA spin work.

  6. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 7, vehicle emissions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions from Clean Fleet vans running on M-85, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), propane gas, and a control gasoline (RF-A) are presented. Three vans from each combination of vehicle manufacturer and fuel were tested at the California Air Resources Board (ARB) as they accumulated mileage in the demonstration. Data are presented on regulated emissions, ozone precursors, air toxics, and greenhouse gases. The emissions tests provide information on in-use emissions. That is, the vans were taken directly from daily commercial service and tested at the ARB. The differences in alternative fuel technology provide the basis for a range of technology options. The emissions data reflect these differences, with classes of vehicle/fuels producing either more or less emissions for various compounds relative to the control gasoline.

  7. Ideas for a three-aircraft planetary observing fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, David J.; Schumann, Ulrich

    2003-04-01

    A new generation of research aircraft, based on modern mid-sized business jets, will provide access to upper regions of the atmosphere and remote regions of the planet not reachable by the current research aircraft. Equipped with extensive research modifications, modern instruments, and advanced air-to-ground communication systems, these new aircraft will allow investigators to attack key questions in global atmospheric dynamics, global cycles of water and carbon, global energy budgets, and regional and global air quality and chemical transport. A three-aircraft fleet of these aircraft could provide unprecedented coordinated intercalibrated coverage of the planetary atmosphere and surfaces in a manner that greatly enhances the total ground, ocean, and satellite observing system.

  8. Contributing Data to the Fleet DNA Project (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    The Fleet DNA clearinghouse of commercial fleet transportation data helps vehicle manufacturers and developers optimize vehicle designs and helps fleet managers choose advanced technologies for their fleets. This online tool - available at www.nrel.gov/fleetdna - provides data summaries and visualizations similar to real-world 'genetics' for medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles operating within a variety of vocations. To contribute your fleet data, please contact Adam Duran of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at adam.duran@nrel.gov or 303-275-4586.

  9. Fleet Tools; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-01

    From beverage distributors to shipping companies and federal agencies, industry leaders turn to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to help green their fleet operations. Cost, efficiency, and reliability are top priorities for fleets, and NREL partners know the lab’s portfolio of tools can pinpoint fuel efficiency and emissions-reduction strategies that also support operational the bottom line. NREL is one of the nation’s foremost leaders in medium- and heavy-duty vehicle research and development (R&D) and the go-to source for credible, validated transportation data. NREL developers have drawn on this expertise to create tools grounded in the real-world experiences of commercial and government fleets. Operators can use this comprehensive set of technology- and fuel-neutral tools to explore and analyze equipment and practices, energy-saving strategies, and other operational variables to ensure meaningful performance, financial, and environmental benefits.

  10. Inhibition of mutant KrasG12D-initiated murine pancreatic carcinoma growth by a dual c-Raf and soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor t-CUPM.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jie; Hwang, Sung Hee; Li, Haonan; Yang, Yihe; Yang, Jun; Wecksler, Aaron T; Liu, Jun-Yan; Hammock, Bruce D; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2016-02-28

    Mutant Kras and chronic pancreatitis are the most common pathological events involved in human pancreatic cancer. It has been demonstrated that c-Raf is responsible for transmitting signals from mutant Ras to its downstream signals including MEK-ERK and for initiating carcinogenesis. The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a pro-inflammatory enzyme, generally inactivates anti-inflammatory and anti-pain epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Herein, we have synthesized a novel compound of trans-4-{4-[3-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methylamide (t-CUPM) via modifying the central phenyl ring of sorafenib and confirmed its dual inhibition of sEH and c-Raf by recombinant kinase activity assay. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that oral dosing of t-CUPM resulted in higher blood levels than that of sorafenib throughout the complete time course (48 h). The effect of t-CUPM on the inhibition of mutant Kras(G12D)-initiated murine pancreatic cancer cell growth was determined using the mouse pancreatic carcinoma cell model obtained from LSL-Kras(G12D)/Pdx1-Cre mice and showed that t-CUPM significantly inhibited this murine pancreatic carcinoma cell growth both in vitro and in mice in vivo. Inhibition of mutant Kras-transmitted phosphorylations of cRAF/MEK/ERK was demonstrated in these pancreatic cancer cells using Western blot assay and immunohistochemical approach. Modulation of oxylipin profile, particularly increased EETs/DHET ratio by sEH inhibition, was observed in mice treated with t-CUPM. These results indicate that t-CUPM is a highly potential agent to treat pancreatic cancer via simultaneously targeting c-Raf and sEH.

  11. Inhibition of mutant KrasG12D-initiated murine pancreatic carcinoma growth by a dual c-Raf and soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor t-CUPM.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jie; Hwang, Sung Hee; Li, Haonan; Yang, Yihe; Yang, Jun; Wecksler, Aaron T; Liu, Jun-Yan; Hammock, Bruce D; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2016-02-28

    Mutant Kras and chronic pancreatitis are the most common pathological events involved in human pancreatic cancer. It has been demonstrated that c-Raf is responsible for transmitting signals from mutant Ras to its downstream signals including MEK-ERK and for initiating carcinogenesis. The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a pro-inflammatory enzyme, generally inactivates anti-inflammatory and anti-pain epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Herein, we have synthesized a novel compound of trans-4-{4-[3-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methylamide (t-CUPM) via modifying the central phenyl ring of sorafenib and confirmed its dual inhibition of sEH and c-Raf by recombinant kinase activity assay. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that oral dosing of t-CUPM resulted in higher blood levels than that of sorafenib throughout the complete time course (48 h). The effect of t-CUPM on the inhibition of mutant Kras(G12D)-initiated murine pancreatic cancer cell growth was determined using the mouse pancreatic carcinoma cell model obtained from LSL-Kras(G12D)/Pdx1-Cre mice and showed that t-CUPM significantly inhibited this murine pancreatic carcinoma cell growth both in vitro and in mice in vivo. Inhibition of mutant Kras-transmitted phosphorylations of cRAF/MEK/ERK was demonstrated in these pancreatic cancer cells using Western blot assay and immunohistochemical approach. Modulation of oxylipin profile, particularly increased EETs/DHET ratio by sEH inhibition, was observed in mice treated with t-CUPM. These results indicate that t-CUPM is a highly potential agent to treat pancreatic cancer via simultaneously targeting c-Raf and sEH. PMID:26683769

  12. Phase I Trial of ISIS 5132, an antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor of c-raf-1, administered by 24-hour weekly infusion to patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Rudin, C M; Holmlund, J; Fleming, G F; Mani, S; Stadler, W M; Schumm, P; Monia, B P; Johnston, J F; Geary, R; Yu, R Z; Kwoh, T J; Dorr, F A; Ratain, M J

    2001-05-01

    Raf-1 is a serine/threonine kinase that functions as a critical effector of Ras-mediated signal transduction via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Constitutive activation of this pathway directly contributes to malignant transformation in many human tumors. A 20-base phosphorothioate oligonucleotide complementary to c-raf-1 mRNA (ISIS 5132; CGP 69846A) has been shown to specifically suppress Raf-1 expression both in vitro and in vivo. This Phase I trial, involving 22 patients with advanced cancer, was designed to evaluate the safety, feasibility, and maximum tolerated dose of ISIS 5132 administration as a weekly 24-h i.v. infusion. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed, and c-raf-1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were assessed using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. This trial defined a maximum tolerated dose of 24 mg/kg/week on this schedule. Two of four patients treated at 30 mg/kg/week had serious adverse events after the first dose of ISIS 5132, including acute hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure and anasarca. There were no major responses documented. Dose-dependent complement activation was demonstrated on this schedule, but not on previously evaluated schedules, of ISIS 5132 administration. In contrast to other trials of ISIS 5132, there appeared to be no consistent suppression of peripheral blood mononuclear cell c-raf-1 mRNA level on this schedule at any of the dose levels analyzed. These data suggest that the efficacy and toxicity profiles of antisense oligonucleotides may be highly dependent on the schedule of administration and support the analysis of the putative molecular target in the evaluation of novel therapeutics.

  13. Launch site integration for mixed fleet operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, L. P.

    1990-01-01

    Launch site impacts and integration planning issues are presented to support launch operations for a mixed vehicle fleet (manned and cargo). Proposed ground systems and launch site configurations are described. Prelaunch processing scenarios and schedules are developed for candidate launch vehicles. Earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicle architectures are presented to meet future launch requirements, including the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. The significance of operational designs for future launch vehicles is shown to be a critical factor in planning for mixed fleet launch site operations.

  14. Federal Fleet Files: Vol. 1, No. 2 - June 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-12

    June 2009 issue of the FEMP Federal Fleet Files monthly newsletter for the FEMP Federal Fleet Program that outlines vehicle, alternative fuel, infrastructure, and management strategy updates to Federal agencies.

  15. Three Component Velocity and Acceleration Measurement Using FLEET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Calvert, Nathan; Dogariu, Arthur; Miles, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    The femtosecond laser electronic excitation and tagging (FLEET) method has been used to measure three components of velocity and acceleration for the first time. A jet of pure N2 issuing into atmospheric pressure air was probed by the FLEET system. The femtosecond laser was focused down to a point to create a small measurement volume in the flow. The long-lived lifetime of this fluorescence was used to measure the location of the tagged particles at different times. Simultaneous images of the flow were taken from two orthogonal views using a mirror assembly and a single intensified CCD camera, allowing two components of velocity to be measured in each view. These different velocity components were combined to determine three orthogonal velocity components. The differences between subsequent velocity components could be used to measure the acceleration. Velocity accuracy and precision were roughly estimated to be +/-4 m/s and +/-10 m/s respectively. These errors were small compared to the approx. 100 m/s velocity of the subsonic jet studied.

  16. Fleets of enduring drones to probe atmospheric phenomena with clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Simon; Roberts, Greg; Benard, Emmanuel; Bronz, Murat; Burnet, Frédéric; Bouhoubeiny, Elkhedim; Condomines, Jean-Philippe; Doll, Carsten; Hattenberger, Gautier; Lamraoui, Fayçal; Renzaglia, Alessandro; Reymann, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    technologies are challenged at the low speeds of lightweight UAVs. The overall control of the fleet so as to gather series of synchronized data in the cloud volume is a poorly informed and highly constrained adaptive sampling problem, in which the UAV motions must be defined to maximize the amount of gathered information and the mission duration. The overall approach casts the problem in a hierarchy of two modeling and decision stages. A macroscopic parametrized model of the cloud is built from the gathered data and exploited at the higher level by an operator, who sets information gathering goals. A subset of the UAV fleet is allocated to each goal, considering the current fleet state. These high level goals are handled by the lower level, which autonomously optimizes the selected UAVs trajectories using an on-line updated dense model of the variables of interest. Building the models involves Gaussian processes techniques (kriging) to fuse the gathered data with a generic cumulus conceptual model, the latter being defined from thorough statistics on realistic MesoNH cloud simulations. The model is exploited by a planner to generate trajectories that minimize the uncertainty in the map, while steering the vehicles within the air flows to save energy.

  17. Chronological History of Federal Fleet Actions and Mandates (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    This chronological history of Federal fleet actions and mandates provides a year-by-year timeline of the acts, amendments, executive orders, and other regulations that affect Federal fleets. The fleet actions and mandates included in the timeline span from 1988 to 2009.

  18. 40 CFR 86.422-78 - Administrator's fleet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrator's fleet. 86.422-78... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.422-78 Administrator's fleet. The Administrator... accordance with § 86.421. The number of vehicles selected shall not increase the size of the test fleet...

  19. 46 CFR 296.21 - Participating Fleet Vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participating Fleet Vessels. 296.21 Section 296.21... OPERATORS MARITIME SECURITY PROGRAM (MSP) Priority for Granting Applications § 296.21 Participating Fleet... priority, tank vessels, in § 296.20, the second priority is applicable to Participating Fleet Vessels....

  20. 40 CFR 89.117 - Test fleet selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fleet selection. 89.117 Section... Certification Provisions § 89.117 Test fleet selection. (a) The manufacturer must select for testing, from each... of maximum torque and secondarily at rated speed. (b) Each engine in the test fleet must...

  1. 41 CFR 102-34.330 - What is the Federal Fleet Report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fleet Report? 102-34.330 Section 102-34.330 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.330 What is the Federal Fleet Report? The Federal Fleet Report (FFR) is an annual summary of Federal fleet statistics based upon fleet composition at the end of...

  2. Major Impact of Fleet Renewal Over Airports Located in the Most Important Region of Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maters, Rafael Waltz; deRoodeTorres, Roberta; Santo, Respicio A. Espirito, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The present article discusses and analyses the major impacts of the Brazilian carriers fleet renewal regarding Brazilian airport infrastructure in the most important region of the country, the Southeast (SE). A brief historical overview of the country's airline fleet will be presented, demonstrating the need for its renewal (m fact, Brazilian carriers started a major fleet renewal program m the last five years), while analyzing the periods in which a new breed of aircraft was put into service by the major carriers operating in the SE region. The trend of operating the classic regional jets plus the forthcoming entry into service of the "large regional jets" (LRJ, 70-115 seaters) in several point-to-point routes are presented along with the country's carriers" reality of operating these former aircraft in several high-capacity and medium-range routes. The article will focus on the ability of four of the major Southeast's airports to cope with the fleet modernization, mainly due to the fact that the region studied is the most socioeconomic developed, by far, with the largest demand for air transportation, thus making the impacts much more perceptible for the communities and the airport management involved. With the emergence of these impacts, several new projects and investments are being discussed and pushed forward, despite budgetary constrains being a reality in almost every Brazilian city, even in the SE region. In view of this, the paper presents how the general planning could be carried out in order to adapt the airports' infrastructures in function of the proposed (and in some cases, necessary) fleet renewal. Ultimately, we will present the present picture and two future scenarios m order to determine the level of service in the existent passenger terminal facilities in the wake of the possible operation of several new aircraft. Keywords: Airline fleet planning, Airport planning, Regional development, Regional Jets.

  3. Fleet DNA Project Data Summary Report (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Walkowicz, K.; Duran, A.; Burton, E.

    2014-04-01

    This presentation includes graphical data summaries that highlight statistical trends for medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles operating in a variety of vocations. It offers insight for the development of vehicle technologies that reduce costs, fuel consumption, and emission.

  4. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.

    2001-01-25

    Waste Management, Inc., began operating a fleet of heavy-duty LNG refuse trucks at its Washington, Pennsylvania, facility. The objective of the project was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  5. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Wankerl, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 46 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the Department of Energy (DOE) consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. Payload flight assignments: NASA mixed fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starkey, Norman

    1993-01-01

    This mixed fleet manifest, which serves as the baseline for planning purposes, includes payload flight assignments for the Space Shuttle through FY 1995 and NASA expendable launch vehicle (EVL) missions through FY 1999. The FY 1996-1999 Shuttle manifest planning is omitted pending Space Station redesign. Also included in this document are a list of previous flights, payload requests, and payload/acronyms.

  7. School Bus Fleet Safety: Planning and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    To ensure worker safety, fleet safety managers need professional staffs, good access to top management, and sufficient authority to discharge their duties. Safety programs should include careful driver hiring; training, including orientation, testing, and practice; comprehensive accident reporting; and cooperative compliance programs with…

  8. How Fleet Bank fought employee flight.

    PubMed

    Nalbantian, Haig R; Szostak, Anne

    2004-04-01

    In the late 1990s, Fleet Bank was facing high and rising employee turnover, particularly in its retail operations. Overall turnover had reached 25% annually, and among some groups, such as tellers and customer service reps, turnover was as high as 40%. Using a new methodology developed by Mercer Human Resource Consulting, Fleet set out to determine why so many employees were leaving and what could be done to retain them. It began examining data from HR, finance, operations, and sales about employee behavior and the factors that influence it in different locations and labor markets, departments or work groups, in positions with different pay and benefits, and under different supervisors. Fleet's analysis showed that people were leaving not so much for better pay--their personal testimony notwithstanding--but for broader experience, which they thought would enhance their marketability. Additionally, the analysis revealed a link between the turnover problem and the company's busy history of mergers and acquisitions. Fleet's mergers and acquisitions. frequently meant that it had to consolidate operations. That consolidation resulted in layoffs, which provoked higher levels of voluntary turnover, perhaps because remaining employees began worrying about their job security. While the obvious solution to the turnover problem might have been to compensate the remaining employees--say, with higher pay--the more effective and less costly solution, Fleet discovered, was to focus on employees' career opportunities within the company. Those who moved up the hierarchy, or who even made lateral moves, stayed longer. By offering better internal opportunities for career development, the bank was able to stanch much of the hemorrhaging in personnel. Its solutions required only modest investments, which in the end saved the company millions of dollars. PMID:15077372

  9. CleanFleet. Volume 2, Project Design and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The CleanFleet alternative fuels demonstration project evaluated five alternative motorfuels in commercial fleet service over a two-year period. The five fuels were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent RFG), and electric vans. Eight-four vans were operated on the alternative fuels and 27 vans were operated on gasoline as baseline controls. Throughout the demonstration information was collected on fleet operations, vehicle emissions, and fleet economics. In this volume of the CleanFleet findings, the design and implementation of the project are summarized.

  10. Application of Strategic Planning Process with Fleet Level Analysis Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Pfaender, Holger; Jimenez, Hernando; Garcia, Elena; Feron, Eric; Bernardo, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify and characterize the potential system-wide reduction of fuel consumption and corresponding CO2 emissions, resulting from the introduction of N+2 aircraft technologies and concepts into the fleet. Although NASA goals for this timeframe are referenced against a large twin aisle aircraft we consider their application across all vehicle classes of the commercial aircraft fleet, from regional jets to very large aircraft. In this work the authors describe and discuss the formulation and implementation of the fleet assessment by addressing the main analytical components: forecasting, operations allocation, fleet retirement, fleet replacement, and environmental performance modeling.

  11. Helminth-excreted/secreted products are recognized by multiple receptors on DCs to block the TLR response and bias Th2 polarization in a cRAF dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Terrazas, César A.; Alcántara-Hernández, Marcela; Bonifaz, Laura; Terrazas, Luis I.; Satoskar, Abhay R.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) recognize pathogens and initiate the T-cell response. The DC-helminth interaction induces an immature phenotype in DCs; as a result, these DCs display impaired responses to TLR stimulation and prime Th2-type responses. However, the DC receptors and intracellular pathways targeted by helminth molecules and their importance in the initiation of the Th2 response are poorly understood. In this report, we found that products excreted/secreted by Taenia crassiceps (TcES) triggered cRAF phosphorylation through MGL, MR, and TLR2. TcES interfered with the LPS-induced NFκB p65 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. In addition, TcES-induced cRAF signaling pathway was critical for down-regulation of the TLR-mediated DC maturation and secretion of IL-12 and TNF-α. Finally, we show for the first time that blocking cRAF in DCs abolishes their ability to induce Th2 polarization in vitro after TcES exposure. Our data demonstrate a new mechanism by which helminths target intracellular pathways to block DC maturation and efficiently program Th2 polarization.—Terrazas, C. A., Alcántara-Hernández, M., Bonifaz, L., Terrazas, L. I., Satoskar, A. R. Helminth-excreted/secreted products are recognized by multiple receptors on DCs to block the TLR response and bias Th2 polarization in a cRAF dependent pathway. PMID:23907435

  12. LNG fleet increases in size and capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Linser, H.J. Jr.; Drudy, M.J.; Endrizzi, F.; Urbanelli, A.A.

    1997-06-02

    The LNG fleet as of early 1997 consisted of 99 vessels with total cargo capacity of 10.7 million cu m, equivalent to approximately 4.5 million tons. One of the newest additions to the fleet, the 137,000-cu m tanker Al Zubarah, is five times the size of the original commercial vessel Methane Princess. Al Zubarah`s first loading of more than 60,000 tons occurred in December 1996 for deliver to Japanese buyers from the newly commissioned Qatargas LNG plant at Ras Laffan. That size cargo contains enough clean-burning energy to heat 60,000 homes in Japan for 1 month. Measuring nearly 1,000 ft long, the tanker is among the largest in the industry fleet and joined 70 other vessels of more than 100,000 cu m. Most LNG tankers built since 1975 have been larger-capacity vessels. The paper discusses LNG shipping requirements, containment systems, vessel design, propulsion, construction, operations and maintenance, and the future for larger vessels.

  13. Impact of environmental constraints and aircraft technology on airline fleet composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moolchandani, Kushal A.

    This thesis models an airline's decisions about fleet evolution in order to maintain economic and regulatory viability. The aim is to analyze the fleet evolution under different scenarios of environmental policy and technology availability in order to suggest an optimal fleet under each case. An understanding of the effect of aircraft technologies, fleet size and age distribution, and operational procedures on airline performance may improve the quality of policies to achieve environmental goals. Additionally, the effect of decisions about fleet evolution on air travel is assessed as the change in market demand and profits of an abstracted, benevolent monopolist airline. Attention to the environmental impact of aviation has grown, and this has prompted several organizations such as ICAO (and, in response, NASA) to establish emissions reduction targets to reduce aviation's global climate impact. The introduction of new technology, change in operational procedures, etc. are some of the proposed means to achieve these targets. Of these, this thesis studies the efficacy of implementation of environmental policies in form of emissions constraints as a means to achieve these goals and assesses their impact on an airline's fleet evolution and technology use (along with resulting effects on air travel demand). All studies in this thesis are conducted using the Fleet-level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET), a NASA sponsored simulation tool developed at Purdue University. This tool models airline operational decisions via a resource allocation problem and uses a system dynamics type approach to mimic airline economics, their decisions regarding retirement and acquisition of aircraft and evolution of market demand in response to the economic conditions. The development of an aircraft acquisition model for FLEET is a significant contribution of the author. Further, the author conducted a study of various environmental policies using FLEET. Studies introduce constraints on

  14. Size and transportation capabilities of the existing US cask fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Danese, F.L. ); Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S. )

    1990-01-01

    This study investigates the current spent nuclear fuel cask fleet capability in the United States. In addition, it assesses the degree to which the current fleet would be available, as a contingency, until proposed Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management casks become operational. A limited fleet of ten spent fuel transportation casks is found to be readily available for use in Federal waste management efforts over the next decade.

  15. Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-03-25

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport.

  16. Cancer Genomics Identifies Regulatory Gene Networks Associated with the Transition from Dysplasia to Advanced Lung Adenocarcinomas Induced by c-Raf-1

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Borlak, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer morbidity. To improve an understanding of molecular causes of disease a transgenic mouse model was investigated where targeted expression of the serine threonine kinase c-Raf to respiratory epithelium induced initialy dysplasia and subsequently adenocarcinomas. This enables dissection of genetic events associated with precancerous and cancerous lesions. Methodology/Principal Findings By laser microdissection cancer cell populations were harvested and subjected to whole genome expression analyses. Overall 473 and 541 genes were significantly regulated, when cancer versus transgenic and non-transgenic cells were compared, giving rise to three distinct and one common regulatory gene network. At advanced stages of tumor growth predominately repression of gene expression was observed, but genes previously shown to be up-regulated in dysplasia were also up-regulated in solid tumors. Regulation of developmental programs as well as epithelial mesenchymal and mesenchymal endothelial transition was a hall mark of adenocarcinomas. Additionaly, genes coding for cell adhesion, i.e. the integrins and the tight and gap junction proteins were repressed, whereas ligands for receptor tyrosine kinase such as epi- and amphiregulin were up-regulated. Notably, Vegfr- 2 and its ligand Vegfd, as well as Notch and Wnt signalling cascades were regulated as were glycosylases that influence cellular recognition. Other regulated signalling molecules included guanine exchange factors that play a role in an activation of the MAP kinases while several tumor suppressors i.e. Mcc, Hey1, Fat3, Armcx1 and Reck were significantly repressed. Finally, probable molecular switches forcing dysplastic cells into malignantly transformed cells could be identified. Conclusions/Significance This study provides insight into molecular pertubations allowing dysplasia to progress further to adenocarcinoma induced by exaggerted c-Raf kinase activity. PMID:19812696

  17. A phase I trial of c-Raf kinase antisense oligonucleotide ISIS 5132 administered as a continuous intravenous infusion in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C C; Holmlund, J T; Schiller, J H; Geary, R S; Kwoh, T J; Dorr, A; Nemunaitis, J

    2000-05-01

    Raf proteins play a central role in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and hence are involved in oncogenic transformation and tumor cell proliferation. ISIS 5132 is a 20-base antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxyribonucleotide that specifically down-regulates c-raf expression. We report here an initial study of the safety and tolerability of an i.v. infusion of ISIS 5132 in patients with advanced cancer. A continuous i.v. infusion of ISIS 5132 was administered for 21 days every 4 weeks to 34 patients with a variety of solid tumors refractory to standard therapy. The dose of ISIS 5132 was increased in sequential cohorts of patients, as toxicity allowed, until a final dose of 5.0 mg/kg body weight was reached. Toxicity was scored by common toxicity criteria, and tumor response was monitored. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed for 30 patients treated at doses of < or =4.0 mg/kg/day. The initial dose of ISIS 5132 was 0.5 mg/kg body weight and was successfully increased incrementally to 5.0 mg/kg body weight. Toxicities through the 4.0 mg/kg dose level were not dose limiting. Side effects were minimal and could not be specifically related to ISIS 5132. Two patients had prolonged stabilization of their disease, and one patient with ovarian carcinoma had a significant response with a 97% reduction in CA-125 levels. ISIS 5132, an antisense oligonucleotide against c-raf, was well tolerated at doses up to and including 4.0 mg/kg/day by 21-day continuous i.v. infusion and demonstrated antitumor activity at the doses tested.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Passenger Traffic Fleets in Asian Cities: Technology, Driving Activities, and Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM Oanh, N. T.; Huynh, H. V.; Saikawa, E.

    2015-12-01

    The road transport sector is the major emission source of toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) in large Asian cities. This paper comparatively analyzed on-road passenger traffic fleets (cars, buses, taxis, motorcycles), using local data collected in cities of Bangkok (BKK), Kathmandu, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), and Yangon. Surveys were done in 2010-2014 to obtain information on vehicle technology, driving activities (speed, distance, number, and types of starts), traffic density, and fuel characteristics. Large shares of pre-Euro vehicles were still observed, especially for public buses. The most advanced technology was Euro4, which was observed in small shares (<5%) of the personal car fleets in BKK, HCMC, and Yangon. Euro3 was generally the most advanced technology found in other fleets in these cities. Motorcycles (MC) was the most dominant fleet in all cities, except in Yangon, where they were not allowed. Low vehicle speeds, mainly below 25 km/h, were observed for all vehicle types, indicating traffic jams. Natural gas and LPG had considerable shares in BKK and Yangon while for other cities diesel and gasoline were still the two major fuels used in transportation. Running emission factors (EF) of buses and taxis in Kathmandu were considerably higher than other cities due to its hilly topography, low speeds, high mileage, and less advanced vehicle technologies. The number of passenger vehicles per 1000 people were 400-500 in HCMC and Hanoi (mainly by MC) and in BKK (also by cars), moderate in Kathmandu (200) and the lowest in Yangon (40) because of the MC ban. Annual emissions of the passenger fleets were calculated for each city using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) for 14 species. BC and OC emissions were estimated using their fractions of PM10 emission. Annual emission per capita of toxic air pollutants and GHGs was analyzed. For example, the emission in kg/year/person for CO, VOC, NOx and PM10 in these cities was 24-150 for CO, 0

  19. Electric propulsion -- Fleet readiness at affordable costs

    SciTech Connect

    Orndorff, C.M.; Egan, C.J.

    1996-11-01

    The successful development and demonstration of the Al-AgO primary battery system dramatically demonstrated the viability of electric power plants for torpedo propulsion. Present efforts are focused on the development and demonstration of very low cost, quiet, high performance, safe, environmentally compatible, rechargeable batteries for heavyweight and lightweight torpedoes and tactical-sized UUVs. Electric power plants consisting of a rechargeable battery and a high reliability motor must be affordable to own and operate and enable turn around without teardown for today`s Fleet assets.

  20. 78 FR 23935 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles AGENCY... with ``Information Collection 9000-0032, Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles... cite Information Collection 9000-0032, Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System...

  1. Condition Monitoring of the SSE Generation Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twiddle, J.; Muthuraman, S.; Connolly, N.

    2012-05-01

    SSE (previously known as Scottish and Southern Energy) operates a diverse portfolio of generation plant, including coal, gas and renewable plant with a total generation capacity of 11,375MW (Sept 2011). In recent years a group of specialists dedicated to providing condition monitoring services has been established at the Equipment Performance Centre (EPC) based at Knottingley, West Yorkshire. We aim to illustrate the role of the EPC and the methods used for monitoring the generation fleet with the objective of maintaining asset integrity, reducing risk of plant failure and unplanned outages and describe the challenges which have been overcome in establishing the EPC. This paper describes methods including vibration and process data analysis, model-based techniques and on-site testing used for monitoring of generation plant, including gas turbines, steam turbines, generators and steam raising plant. These condition monitoring processes utilise available data, adding value to the business, by bringing services in-house and capturing knowledge of plant operation for the benefit of the whole fleet.

  2. Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBorgesPan, Alexis George; EspiritoSanto, Respicio A., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Quantifying subjective aspects is a difficult task that requires a great dedication of time from researchers and analysts. Nevertheless, one of the main objectives of it is to pave the way for a better understanding of the focused aspects. Fleet standardization is one of these subjective aspects that is extremely difficult to mm into numbers. Although, it is of great importance to know the benefits that may come with a higher level of standardization for airlines, which may be economical advantages, maintenance facilitation and others. A more standardized fleet may represent lower costs of operations and maintenance facilitation and others. A more standardized fleet may represent lower costs of operations and maintenance plus a much better planning of routes and flights. This study presents the first step on developing an index, hereto called "Fleet Standardization Index" or FSI (or IPF in Portuguese, for "Indice de Padronizacao de Frotas"), that will allow senior airline planners to compare different fleets and also simulate some results from maintaining or renewing their fleets. Although being a preliminary study, the results obtained may already be tested to compare different fleets (different airlines) and also analyze some possible impacts of a fleet renewal before it takes place. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to introduce the proposed IPF index and to demonstrate that it is inversely proportional to the number of different airplane models, engines and other equipment, such as avionics.

  3. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  4. 40 CFR 86.421-78 - Test fleet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test fleet. 86.421-78 Section 86.421... Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.421-78 Test fleet. (a) A test vehicle will be selected by... to operate and test additional vehicles which are identical to those selected by the...

  5. 40 CFR 86.421-78 - Test fleet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test fleet. 86.421-78 Section 86.421... Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.421-78 Test fleet. (a) A test vehicle will be selected by... to operate and test additional vehicles which are identical to those selected by the...

  6. 40 CFR 86.421-78 - Test fleet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fleet. 86.421-78 Section 86.421... Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.421-78 Test fleet. (a) A test vehicle will be selected by... prior to the start of testing and not later than 30 days following notification of the test...

  7. Helminth-excreted/secreted products are recognized by multiple receptors on DCs to block the TLR response and bias Th2 polarization in a cRAF dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Terrazas, César A; Alcántara-Hernández, Marcela; Bonifaz, Laura; Terrazas, Luis I; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2013-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) recognize pathogens and initiate the T-cell response. The DC-helminth interaction induces an immature phenotype in DCs; as a result, these DCs display impaired responses to TLR stimulation and prime Th2-type responses. However, the DC receptors and intracellular pathways targeted by helminth molecules and their importance in the initiation of the Th2 response are poorly understood. In this report, we found that products excreted/secreted by Taenia crassiceps (TcES) triggered cRAF phosphorylation through MGL, MR, and TLR2. TcES interfered with the LPS-induced NFκB p65 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. In addition, TcES-induced cRAF signaling pathway was critical for down-regulation of the TLR-mediated DC maturation and secretion of IL-12 and TNF-α. Finally, we show for the first time that blocking cRAF in DCs abolishes their ability to induce Th2 polarization in vitro after TcES exposure. Our data demonstrate a new mechanism by which helminths target intracellular pathways to block DC maturation and efficiently program Th2 polarization.

  8. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 3, vehicle maintenance and durability

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    CleanFleet is a demonstration of panel vans operating on five alternative motorfuels in commercial package delivery operations in the South Coast Air Basin of California. The five alternative fuels are propane gas, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85 with 15 percent RFG), and electricity. Data were gathered on in-use emissions, operations, and fleet economics. This volume of the final report summarizes the maintenance required on these vans from the time they were introduced into the demonstration (April through early November 1992) until the end of the demonstration in September 1994. The vans were used successfully in FedEx operations; but, to varying degrees, the alternative fuel vehicles required more maintenance than the unleaded gasoline control vehicles. The maintenance required was generally associated with the development state of the fuel-related systems. During the demonstration, no non-preventive maintenance was required on the highly developed fuel-related systems in any of the unleaded gasoline production vehicles used either as controls or as RFG test vehicles. The maintenance problems encountered with the less developed systems used in this demonstration may persist in the short term with vehicles featuring the same or similar systems. This means that fleet operators planning near-term acquisitions of vehicles incorporating such systems should consider the potential for similar problems when (1) selecting vendors and warranty provisions and (2) planning maintenance programs.

  9. Spacecraft fleet to comet Halley - an introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurutani, B.T.

    1985-01-01

    Questions related to the formation and the characteristics of comets are discussed, and it is suggested that an evolutionary link exists between comets, prebiotic organic synthesis, and the origin of life as it is known. Fundamental questions about the solar wind interaction with comets, are considered, giving attention to the ionization mechanisms in the different cometary regions, the presence of field-aligned currents, and the cometary plasma tail. It is pointed out that some of the questions will soon be answered when the NASA-ESA International Cometary Explorer (ICE) goes through the tail of Giacobini-Zinner in September 1985, and when a five spacecraft fleet arrives at comet Halley in March 1986. 14 references.

  10. How Packaging Fleet Renewal Fits French CEA Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Dumesnil, J.; Malvache, P.; Hugon, F.C.; Sollacaro, M.

    2006-07-01

    CEA's (French Atomic Energy Agency) packaging fleet is dedicated to transportation of test irradiated fuels, of research reactors fuels, of navy propulsion fuels, and of waste coming from and to nuclear plants or facilities. This fleet encompasses more than 30 types of casks ranging from 5 to 30 tons, with either recent designs or other dating back to the seventies. A study has been launched in order to perform a global analysis of the life expectancy of the existing CEA and COGEMA Logistics cask fleets with respect to a 2015 target, in order to anticipate its renewal, while limiting the number of type of cask. Key elements like periodical evolutions of design and transport regulations, lessons learnt of existing casks (design, approval and extensions, operational feedback, maintenance and dismantling) are taken into account in order to ensure compliance and availability of the fleet. Moreover, from design to cask delivery, including regulatory tests, safety analysis report/ CoC, and manufacturing, 3 to 5 years is needed. Therefore cask development should be taken into account earlier of invest and research's programs. The paper will address the current life expectancy study of CEA and COGEMA Logistics packaging fleet, based on lessons learnt and regulation evolution and on general R and D plans by user facilities. It will show how a comprehensive optimized fleet is made available to CEA and other customers. Such a fleet combines optimized investment and uses, thus entailing synergies for well-mastered costs of transports. (authors)

  11. Analysis of the NAFA fleet data base: passenger cars only

    SciTech Connect

    Shonka, D.

    1980-09-01

    To assess the potential market penetration of new vehicular concepts, it is first necessary to determine the current level of demand in terms of physical capabilities and economic constraints. The survey described in this report attempts to measure these characteristics for the fleet market sector in the U.S. The data analyzed come from a survey taken in March 1979 of members of the National Association of Fleet Administrators (NAFA). Each respondent was asked to specify a set of characteristics for electric cars that would meet his specific fleet demands and assign the maximum price he would be willing to pay for each option. From the 139 responses, it is possible to relate the physical specifications of fleet vehicles to economic utility. Two other reports (BNL-51286; BNL-51312) deal with the simulator (CPEN) which was designed by BNL to estimate market penetration rates of new technologies in the fleet market, using the data base described within this report: Joseph R. Wagner, A Method for Estimating TeA methodhnological Penetration Rates in Commercial Automobile Fleets, BNL 51312, May 1980, and Richard Weil, Fleet Car Market Penetration Simulator (CPEN): A User's Guide, BNL 51286, August 1980.

  12. Precision of FLEET Velocimetry Using High-Speed CMOS Camera Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Christopher J.; Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Jiang, Naibo; Calvert, Nathan D.; Miles, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) is an optical measurement technique that permits quantitative velocimetry of unseeded air or nitrogen using a single laser and a single camera. In this paper, we seek to determine the fundamental precision of the FLEET technique using high-speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras. Also, we compare the performance of several different high-speed CMOS camera systems for acquiring FLEET velocimetry data in air and nitrogen free-jet flows. The precision was defined as the standard deviation of a set of several hundred single-shot velocity measurements. Methods of enhancing the precision of the measurement were explored such as digital binning (similar in concept to on-sensor binning, but done in post-processing), row-wise digital binning of the signal in adjacent pixels and increasing the time delay between successive exposures. These techniques generally improved precision; however, binning provided the greatest improvement to the un-intensified camera systems which had low signal-to-noise ratio. When binning row-wise by 8 pixels (about the thickness of the tagged region) and using an inter-frame delay of 65 microseconds, precisions of 0.5 meters per second in air and 0.2 meters per second in nitrogen were achieved. The camera comparison included a pco.dimax HD, a LaVision Imager scientific CMOS (sCMOS) and a Photron FASTCAM SA-X2, along with a two-stage LaVision HighSpeed IRO intensifier. Excluding the LaVision Imager sCMOS, the cameras were tested with and without intensification and with both short and long inter-frame delays. Use of intensification and longer inter-frame delay generally improved precision. Overall, the Photron FASTCAM SA-X2 exhibited the best performance in terms of greatest precision and highest signal-to-noise ratio primarily because it had the largest pixels.

  13. Precision of FLEET Velocimetry Using High-speed CMOS Camera Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Christopher J.; Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Jiang, Naibo; Calvert, Nathan D.; Miles, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) is an optical measurement technique that permits quantitative velocimetry of unseeded air or nitrogen using a single laser and a single camera. In this paper, we seek to determine the fundamental precision of the FLEET technique using high-speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras. Also, we compare the performance of several different high-speed CMOS camera systems for acquiring FLEET velocimetry data in air and nitrogen free-jet flows. The precision was defined as the standard deviation of a set of several hundred single-shot velocity measurements. Methods of enhancing the precision of the measurement were explored such as digital binning (similar in concept to on-sensor binning, but done in post-processing), row-wise digital binning of the signal in adjacent pixels and increasing the time delay between successive exposures. These techniques generally improved precision; however, binning provided the greatest improvement to the un-intensified camera systems which had low signal-to-noise ratio. When binning row-wise by 8 pixels (about the thickness of the tagged region) and using an inter-frame delay of 65 micro sec, precisions of 0.5 m/s in air and 0.2 m/s in nitrogen were achieved. The camera comparison included a pco.dimax HD, a LaVision Imager scientific CMOS (sCMOS) and a Photron FASTCAM SA-X2, along with a two-stage LaVision High Speed IRO intensifier. Excluding the LaVision Imager sCMOS, the cameras were tested with and without intensification and with both short and long inter-frame delays. Use of intensification and longer inter-frame delay generally improved precision. Overall, the Photron FASTCAM SA-X2 exhibited the best performance in terms of greatest precision and highest signal-to-noise ratio primarily because it had the largest pixels.

  14. Electric vehicles look promising for use in utility fleets

    SciTech Connect

    Minner, D.

    1984-06-01

    The Electric Vehicle Development Corp. (EVDV) expects EV fleets to find a market for urban driving, especially among service fleets, once mass production begins. Electric utilities joined to form EVDC in order to keep abreast of research developments and the results of demonstrations taking place in several cities, where driver acceptance in utility demonstration programs is high. Major auto makers still need persuasion to develop a commercial prototype. Marketing will focus on controlled fleets having the management skills and the motivation to make the program work.

  15. Preliminary assessment of fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Wang, M.Q.

    1994-12-31

    To facilitate the goal of decreasing oil imports by 10 percent by the year 2000 and 30 percent by 2010, two sections of the Energy Policy Act encourage and mandate alternative fuel vehicles in the acquisition of fleet vehicles. The first step in estimating the contribution of these mandates toward meeting the aforementioned goal entails identifying affected fleets. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of potential vehicle fleet coverage. Only a limited number of companies in the methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen industries are likely to quality for this mandate. Whereas, many of the oil producers, petroleum refiners, and electricity companies are likely to be regulated.

  16. Maintaining the safety of an aging fleet of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoggard, Amos W.

    1992-01-01

    The current status of the Douglas Aging Fleet is examined in light of increasing concern for the possibility of the onset of widespread cracking and recent industry activity to minimize the concern. A fleet monitoring program together with an augmented maintenance program is proposed as a possible means to reduce the concern. Six candidate options for maintenance program augmentation are examined which have been shown to be effective in detection of widespread fatigue damage. A brief example of how this system might be applied to the DC-9 Fleet is presented.

  17. 40 CFR 80.59 - General test fleet requirements for vehicle testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General test fleet requirements for... test fleet requirements for vehicle testing. (a) The test fleet must consist of only 1989-91 MY... test fleet shall have no fewer than 4,000 miles of accumulated mileage prior to being included in...

  18. 50 CFR 660.338 - Limited entry permits-small fleet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited entry permits-small fleet. 660.338... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.338 Limited entry permits-small fleet. (a) Small limited entry fisheries fleets... another vessel that will continue to operate in the same certified small fleet, provided that the...

  19. 41 CFR 101-39.104 - Notice of establishment of a fleet management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of a fleet management system. 101-39.104 Section 101-39.104 Public Contracts and Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104 Notice of establishment of a fleet...

  20. 41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fleet management system. 101-39.104-1 Section 101-39.104-1 Public Contracts and Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104-1 Consolidations into a fleet...

  1. 77 FR 21448 - Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort... Fleet Week. 2012 Fleet Week will take place from Wednesday, April 25, 2012 through Monday, April 30... vessels participating in 2012 Fleet Week transit into and out of Port Everglades. The security zone...

  2. 33 CFR 138.90 - Individual and Fleet Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR WATER POLLUTION (VESSELS) AND OPA 90 LIMITS OF LIABILITY (VESSELS AND DEEPWATER PORTS) Financial Responsibility for Water Pollution (Vessels) § 138.90 Individual and Fleet Certificates. (a) The Director,...

  3. 33 CFR 138.90 - Individual and Fleet Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR WATER POLLUTION (VESSELS) AND OPA 90 LIMITS OF LIABILITY (VESSELS AND DEEPWATER PORTS) Financial Responsibility for Water Pollution (Vessels) § 138.90 Individual and Fleet Certificates. (a) The Director,...

  4. 33 CFR 138.90 - Individual and Fleet Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR WATER POLLUTION (VESSELS) AND OPA 90 LIMITS OF LIABILITY (VESSELS AND DEEPWATER PORTS) Financial Responsibility for Water Pollution (Vessels) § 138.90 Individual and Fleet Certificates. (a) The Director,...

  5. 33 CFR 138.90 - Individual and Fleet Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR WATER POLLUTION (VESSELS) AND OPA 90 LIMITS OF LIABILITY (VESSELS AND DEEPWATER PORTS) Financial Responsibility for Water Pollution (Vessels) § 138.90 Individual and Fleet Certificates. (a) The Director,...

  6. 33 CFR 138.90 - Individual and Fleet Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR WATER POLLUTION (VESSELS) AND OPA 90 LIMITS OF LIABILITY (VESSELS AND DEEPWATER PORTS) Financial Responsibility for Water Pollution (Vessels) § 138.90 Individual and Fleet Certificates. (a) The Director,...

  7. Polo-like kinase 1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and promotes epithelial cell motility by activating CRAF/ERK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianguo; Ivanov, Andrei I; Fisher, Paul B; Fu, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is a key cell cycle regulator implicated in the development of various cancers, including prostate cancer. However, the functions of PLK1 beyond cell cycle regulation remain poorly characterized. Here, we report that PLK1 overexpression in prostate epithelial cells triggers oncogenic transformation. It also results in dramatic transcriptional reprogramming of the cells, leading to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stimulation of cell migration and invasion. Consistently, PLK1 downregulation in metastatic prostate cancer cells enhances epithelial characteristics and inhibits cell motility. The signaling mechanisms underlying the observed cellular effects of PLK1 involve direct PLK1-dependent phosphorylation of CRAF with subsequent stimulation of the MEK1/2-ERK1/2-Fra1-ZEB1/2 signaling pathway. Our findings highlight novel non-canonical functions of PLK1 as a key regulator of EMT and cell motility in normal prostate epithelium and prostate cancer. This study also uncovers a previously unanticipated role of PLK1 as a potent activator of MAPK signaling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10734.001 PMID:27003818

  8. National Federal Fleet Loaner Program, Interim Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James Edward

    2000-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Loaner Program is to increase the awareness, deployment, and use of electric vehicles (EVs) in Federal fleets. The Loaner Program accomplishes this by providing free EVs to Federal fleets on a loaner basis, generally for 1 or 2 months. The Program partners DOE with six electric utilities, with DOE providing financial support and some leads on Federal fleets interested in obtaining EVs. The utilities obtain the vehicles, identify candidate loaner fleets, loan the vehicles, provide temporary charging infrastructure, provide overall support to participating Federal fleets, and support fleets with their leasing decisions. While the utilities have not had the success initially envisioned by themselves, DOE, the Edison Electric Institute, and the Electric Vehicle Association of the Americas, the utilities can not be faulted for their efforts, as they are not the entity that makes the ultimate lease or no-lease decision. Some external groups have suggested to DOE that they direct other federal agencies to change their processes to make loaning vehicles easier; this is simply not within the power of DOE. By law, a certain percentage of all new vehicle acquisitions are supposed to be alternative fuel vehicles (AFV); however, with no enforcement, the federal agencies are not compelled to lease AFVs such as electric vehicles.

  9. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    PubMed

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41).

  10. Detecting and categorizing fleeting emotions in faces.

    PubMed

    Sweeny, Timothy D; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A

    2013-02-01

    Expressions of emotion are often brief, providing only fleeting images from which to base important social judgments. We sought to characterize the sensitivity and mechanisms of emotion detection and expression categorization when exposure to faces is very brief, and to determine whether these processes dissociate. Observers viewed 2 backward-masked facial expressions in quick succession, 1 neutral and the other emotional (happy, fearful, or angry), in a 2-interval forced-choice task. On each trial, observers attempted to detect the emotional expression (emotion detection) and to classify the expression (expression categorization). Above-chance emotion detection was possible with extremely brief exposures of 10 ms and was most accurate for happy expressions. We compared categorization among expressions using a d' analysis, and found that categorization was usually above chance for angry versus happy and fearful versus happy, but consistently poor for fearful versus angry expressions. Fearful versus angry categorization was poor even when only negative emotions (fearful, angry, or disgusted) were used, suggesting that this categorization is poor independent of decision context. Inverting faces impaired angry versus happy categorization, but not emotion detection, suggesting that information from facial features is used differently for emotion detection and expression categorizations. Emotion detection often occurred without expression categorization, and expression categorization sometimes occurred without emotion detection. These results are consistent with the notion that emotion detection and expression categorization involve separate mechanisms.

  11. The telesupervised adaptive ocean sensor fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfes, Alberto; Podnar, Gregg W.; Dolan, John M.; Stancliff, Stephen; Lin, Ellie; Hosler, Jeffrey C.; Ames, Troy J.; Moisan, John; Moisan, Tiffany A.; Higinbotham, John; Kulczycki, Eric A.

    2007-09-01

    We are developing a multi-robot science exploration architecture and system called the Telesupervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF). TAOSF uses a group of robotic boats (the OASIS platforms) to enable in-situ study of ocean surface and sub-surface phenomena. The OASIS boats are extended-deployment autonomous ocean surface vehicles, whose development is funded separately by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The TAOSF architecture provides an integrated approach to multi-vehicle coordination and sliding human-vehicle autonomy. It allows multiple mobile sensing assets to function in a cooperative fashion, and the operating mode of the vessels to range from autonomous control to teleoperated control. In this manner, TAOSF increases data-gathering effectiveness and science return while reducing demands on scientists for tasking, control, and monitoring. It combines and extends prior related work done by the authors and their institutions. The TAOSF architecture is applicable to other areas where multiple sensing assets are needed, including ecological forecasting, water management, carbon management, disaster management, coastal management, homeland security, and planetary exploration. The first field application chosen for TAOSF is the characterization of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Several components of the TAOSF system have been tested, including the OASIS boats, the communications and control interfaces between the various hardware and software subsystems, and an airborne sensor validation system. Field tests in support of future HAB characterization were performed under controlled conditions, using rhodamine dye as a HAB simulant that was dispersed in a pond. In this paper, we describe the overall TAOSF architecture and its components, discuss the initial tests conducted and outline the next steps.

  12. Integrated operations/payloads/fleet analysis. Volume 1: Summary, study overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The preparation of payload input data for analysis, and the capture and cost analyses are described for the current fleet, a low cost expendable fleet, and the space shuttle/space tug fleet. The data preparation consisted of formatting, extending, and correcting the input data which were broken down in terms of satellite gross weight. The results of the analyses indicate a significant reduction in the required total number of new payload units for the space shuttle/space tug fleet. Another result is that 26% of the payloads for the new low cost expendable fleet and 26% for the space shuttle/space tug fleet are of low cost payload designs.

  13. Transfer of PCBs via lactation simultaneously induces the expression of P450 isoenzymes and the protooncogenes c-Ha-ras and c-raf in neonates.

    PubMed

    Borlak, J T; Scott, A; Henderson, C J; Jenke, H J; Wolf, C R

    1996-02-23

    At the first day of lactation, maternal rats were injected with a single i.p. dose of 100 or 250 mg/kg body weight of a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254). This treatment caused significant increases in both material and neonatal hepatic cytochrome P-450, cytochrome b5, and cytochrome-c-(P-450) reductase. Transfer of PCBs via lactation resulted in significant increases in hepatic enzyme activities catalysed by neonatal CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP3A1, and CYP2E1 using a variety of substrates. In contrast, the metabolism of dimethylnitrosamine and aminopyrine was only marginally (up to 2-fold) increased in maternal animals four days post treatment. Further measurements showed significant increases in maternal and neonatal epoxide hydrolase, glutathione-S-transferase, and UDP-glucuronyl transferase activities, thus suggesting a coordinated response for an induction of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A1, CYP2B1, CYP2E1, CYP3A1, and CYP4A1 in both maternal and neonatal CYP2C6, and at the higher dose the expression of neonatal CYP2E1 was significantly reduced. Northern blot analysis provided further evidence for significant increases in maternal and neonatal hepatic CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1, and CYP2E1 mRNA, but reduced amounts of CYP2C7 and CYP4A1 mRNA. Additional Northern blot hybridization experiments may suggest an increased expression of the protooncogenes c-Ha-ras and c-raf in the mother and the neonate upon treatment of maternal rats with Aroclor 1254. Lactation itself may result in an increased expression of the latter protooncogenes, but the mRNA of the protooncogenes c-erb A and c-erb B was not detected in any of the tissues examined.

  14. Safety and proof-of-concept efficacy of inhaled drug loaded nano- and immunonanoparticles in a c-Raf transgenic lung cancer model.

    PubMed

    Karra, Nour; Nassar, Taher; Laenger, Florian; Benita, Simon; Borlak, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary delivery of drug-loaded nanoparticles is a novel approach for lung cancer treatment and the conjugation of nanoparticles to a targeting ligand further promotes specificity of the carrier cargo to cancer cells. Notably, the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, CD326) is over expressed in lung cancer. Here, we report the safety and proof-of-concept efficacy of drug-loaded nanoparticles and EpCAM immunonanoparticles in a c-Raf transgenic lung cancer model. PEG-PLA nanoparticles and immunonanoparticles were prepared whereby paclitaxel palmitate (Pcpl) was incorporated as a medication for its common use in lung cancer treatment. Four doses of aerosolized nanoparticle formulations or vehicle were endotracheally administered to mice by consecutive or alternate regimes. Pulmonary delivery of drug loaded nano- and/or immunonanoparticle formulations elicited mild inflammation as evidenced by the slightly increased neutrophil and activated macrophage counts in bronchoalveolar lavage. No evidence for pulmonary toxicity following treatment with either blank or drug-loaded nano- and/or immunonanoparticles was observed. Proof-of-concept efficacy was determined by serial CT scanning and histopathology. Animals treated with either EpCAM antibody or Pcpl solution or drug loaded nano- or immunonanoparticles inhibited disease progression. Conversely, disease progression was noted with vehicle treated animals with nearly 30% loss of their aerated lung volume. Importantly, treatment of mice with either Pcpl or EpCAM antibody solution caused 80% mortality and/or haemorrhage, respectively, thus causing unacceptable toxicity. In contrast, the survival of animals treated with either nano- or immunonanoparticles was 60 and 70%, respectively. Taken collectively, pulmonary delivered drug-loaded nano- and EpCAM immunonanoparticles were well tolerated and can be considered a promising strategy for improving lung cancer treatment.

  15. Tele-Supervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefes, Alberto; Podnar, Gregg W.; Dolan, John M.; Hosler, Jeffrey C.; Ames, Troy J.

    2009-01-01

    The Tele-supervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF) is a multi-robot science exploration architecture and system that uses a group of robotic boats (the Ocean-Atmosphere Sensor Integration System, or OASIS) to enable in-situ study of ocean surface and subsurface characteristics and the dynamics of such ocean phenomena as coastal pollutants, oil spills, hurricanes, or harmful algal blooms (HABs). The OASIS boats are extended- deployment, autonomous ocean surface vehicles. The TAOSF architecture provides an integrated approach to multi-vehicle coordination and sliding human-vehicle autonomy. One feature of TAOSF is the adaptive re-planning of the activities of the OASIS vessels based on sensor input ( smart sensing) and sensorial coordination among multiple assets. The architecture also incorporates Web-based communications that permit control of the assets over long distances and the sharing of data with remote experts. Autonomous hazard and assistance detection allows the automatic identification of hazards that require human intervention to ensure the safety and integrity of the robotic vehicles, or of science data that require human interpretation and response. Also, the architecture is designed for science analysis of acquired data in order to perform an initial onboard assessment of the presence of specific science signatures of immediate interest. TAOSF integrates and extends five subsystems developed by the participating institutions: Emergent Space Tech - nol ogies, Wallops Flight Facility, NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Carnegie Mellon University, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The OASIS Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) system, which includes the vessels as well as the land-based control and communications infrastructure developed for them, controls the hardware of each platform (sensors, actuators, etc.), and also provides a low-level waypoint navigation capability. The Multi-Platform Simulation Environment from GSFC is a surrogate

  16. Evaluation of Gear Condition Indicator Performance on Rotorcraft Fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antolick, Lance J.; Branning, Jeremy S.; Wade, Daniel R.; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Army is currently expanding its fleet of Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) equipped aircraft at significant rates, to now include over 1,000 rotorcraft. Two different on-board HUMS, the Honeywell Modern Signal Processing Unit (MSPU) and the Goodrich Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS), are collecting vibration health data on aircraft that include the Apache, Blackhawk, Chinook, and Kiowa Warrior. The objective of this paper is to recommend the most effective gear condition indicators for fleet use based on both a theoretical foundation and field data. Gear diagnostics with better performance will be recommended based on both a theoretical foundation and results of in-fleet use. In order to evaluate the gear condition indicator performance on rotorcraft fleets, results of more than five years of health monitoring for gear faults in the entire HUMS equipped Army helicopter fleet will be presented. More than ten examples of gear faults indicated by the gear CI have been compiled and each reviewed for accuracy. False alarms indications will also be discussed. Performance data from test rigs and seeded fault tests will also be presented. The results of the fleet analysis will be discussed, and a performance metric assigned to each of the competing algorithms. Gear fault diagnostic algorithms that are compliant with ADS-79A will be recommended for future use and development. The performance of gear algorithms used in the commercial units and the effectiveness of the gear CI as a fault identifier will be assessed using the criteria outlined in the standards in ADS-79A-HDBK, an Army handbook that outlines the conversion from Reliability Centered Maintenance to the On-Condition status of Condition Based Maintenance.

  17. NASA space transportation plans and roles of a mixed fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of the results of a September, 1987 NASA 'mixed fleet' launching resources/scheduling study that predicated capability projections on a fleet of available ELVs. The launch capability projections extended as far as 1995, and in their later phases encompassed the resumption of Space Shuttle operations and the availability of Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle, which could accomplish such things as the reboosting of the Hubble Space Telescope in 1991, and even the Shuttle-Derived Vehicle, of which two distinct concepts are presently being considered; both would heavily rely on Space Shuttle hardware, but would be unmanned.

  18. [Rate of injuries in military men of the North Fleet].

    PubMed

    Khankevich, Iu R; Myznikov, I L; Askerko, I V; Sil'chenko, E S; Matochkina, A A

    2012-07-01

    Statistics of the rate of injuries in military men of the North Fleet during 2002-2010 is analyzed. Over the specified period rate of injuries, poisonings and consequences of influence of other external actions was 30,06% among the conscripts, 30,23% among the contract military men. The authors analyzed reasons and circumstances of injuries, prevention measures, and orgnisation of military physician expertise and indemnity insurance for the military men injured during the service. Ways of improvement of the system of injury prevention on the North Fleet are suggested.

  19. Federal Fleet Files, FEMP, Vol. 1, No. 2 - June 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    June 2009 issue of the FEMP Federal Fleet Files monthly newsletter for the FEMP Federal Fleet Program that outlines vehicle, alternative fuel, infrastructure, and management strategy updates to Federal agencies.

  20. Estimating emissions from the Indian transport sector with on-road fleet composition and traffic volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization and rising household incomes in India have led to growing transport demand, particularly during 1990-2010. Emissions from transportation have been implicated in air quality and climate effects. In this work, emissions of particulate matter (PM2.5 or mass concentration of particles smaller than 2.5 um diameter), black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), were estimated from the transport sector in India, using detailed technology divisions and regionally measured emission factors. Modes of transport addressed in this work include road transport, railways, shipping and aviation, but exclude off-road equipment like diesel machinery and tractors. For road transport, a vehicle fleet model was used, with parameters derived from vehicle sales, registration data, and surveyed age-profile. The fraction of extremely high emitting vehicles, or superemitters, which is highly uncertain, was assumed as 20%. Annual vehicle utilization estimates were based on regional surveys and user population. For railways, shipping and aviation, a top-down approach was applied, using nationally reported fuel consumption. Fuel use and emissions from on-road vehicles were disaggregated at the state level, with separate estimates for 30 cities in India. The on-road fleet was dominated by two-wheelers, followed by four-and three-wheelers, with new vehicles comprising the majority of the fleet for each vehicle type. A total of 276 (-156, 270) Gg/y PM2.5, 144 (-99, 207) Gg/y BC, and 95 (-64, 130) Gg/y OC emissions were estimated, with over 97% contribution from on-road transport. Largest emitters were identified as heavy duty diesel vehicles for PM2.5 and BC, but two-stroke vehicles and superemitters for OC. Old vehicles (pre-2005) contributed significantly more (∼70%) emissions, while their share in the vehicle fleet was smaller (∼45%). Emission estimates were sensitive to assumed superemitter fraction. Improvement of emission estimates requires on-road emission factor measurements

  1. 41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... management information system? 102-34.340 Section 102-34.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that —...

  2. 41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and... the fleet management system. Those vehicles specifically exempt by: (1) Section 101-39.106 and § 101... of Government-owned motor vehicles to the control and responsibility of the fleet management...

  3. 41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... management information system? 102-34.340 Section 102-34.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that —...

  4. 40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contained in 40 CFR part 88, subpart A. (b) Program administration. (1)(i) Each state in which there is all... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.304-94 Clean-fuel Fleet...

  5. 41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.300 Section 102-34.300 Public Contracts and Property Management... fleet motor vehicle? After meeting the replacement standards under subpart E of this part, you may dispose of a Government-owned domestic fleet motor vehicle. Detailed instructions for the transfer of...

  6. 75 FR 82141 - Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Maritime Administration Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study... and comments to inform the Maritime Administration's U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study... different locations to maximize stakeholder participation. The U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet...

  7. 77 FR 18718 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets (77 FR 14,482 (Mar. 12... Requirements for Federal Fleets AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets. With this Request for Information (RFI),...

  8. 33 CFR 162.270 - Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets. 162.270 Section 162.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.270 Restricted areas in vicinity of Maritime Administration Reserve Fleets. (a) The... National Defense Reserve Fleets of the Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation: (1)...

  9. 76 FR 40617 - Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving... while each vessel is participating in the Seafair Fleet Week Parade of Ships and while moored following... security of the vessels from sabotage or other subversive acts during Seafair Fleet Week Parade of...

  10. 77 FR 44475 - Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving...: The Coast Guard will enforce Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels Security Zones from 12:00 p.m... ensure the security of the vessels from sabotage or other subversive acts during Seafair Fleet...

  11. 47 CFR 80.55 - Application for a fleet station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for a fleet station license. 80.55... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.55 Application for a fleet... different vessels on the same application. Under these circumstances a fleet station license may be...

  12. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fleet requirements for exhaust... fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing. (a) Candidate vehicles which conform to the emission... the in-use fleet and tested in their as-received condition. (b) Candidate vehicles for the test...

  13. 75 FR 45055 - Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving... acts during Seafair Fleet Week and will do so by prohibiting any person or vessel from entering or... of visiting foreign vessels in the 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week event. Basis and Purpose...

  14. 41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1 Section 101-39.105-1 Public Contracts and... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.105-1 Transfers...

  15. 76 FR 1521 - Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San... Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier. The pier is no longer owned by the U.S. Navy and the existing... of the San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. The existing security zone is around the former Fleet...

  16. 77 FR 35862 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay... Guard will enforce the Fleet Week Maritime Festival's Pier 66 Safety Zone in Elliott Bay, WA from 8 a.m... Guard will enforce the Safety Zone for the Fleet Week Maritime Festival in 33 CFR 165.1330 on August...

  17. 75 FR 20778 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week... Hawthorne and Steel Bridges in Portland, Oregon during the Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week from June 2... and other vessels participating in Fleet Week as well as the maritime public in general and will do...

  18. 78 FR 72070 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing... Atlantic Fleet study area as described in Alternative 2 for the proposed action. Under Alternative 2, the... for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing, dated August 2013 and supporting documents. Single copies...

  19. 41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... management information system? 102-34.340 Section 102-34.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that —...

  20. 41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... management information system? 102-34.340 Section 102-34.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that —...

  1. 41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... management information system? 102-34.340 Section 102-34.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that —...

  2. 40 CFR 610.32 - Test fleet selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test fleet selection. 610.32 Section 610.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.32...

  3. 40 CFR 610.32 - Test fleet selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test fleet selection. 610.32 Section 610.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.32...

  4. 40 CFR 610.32 - Test fleet selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test fleet selection. 610.32 Section 610.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.32...

  5. JSC Case Study: Fleet Experience with E-85 Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummel, Kirck

    2009-01-01

    JSC has used E-85 as part of an overall strategy to comply with Presidential Executive Order 13423 and the Energy Policy Act. As a Federal fleet, we are required to reduce our petroleum consumption by 2 percent per year, and increase the use of alternative fuels in our vehicles. With the opening of our onsite dispenser in October 2004, JSC became the second federal fleet in Texas and the fifth NASA center to add E-85 fueling capability. JSC has a relatively small number of GSA Flex Fuel fleet vehicles at the present time (we don't include personal vehicles, or other contractor's non-GSA fleet), and there were no reasonably available retail E-85 fuel stations within a 15-minute drive or within five miles (one way). So we decided to install a small 1000 gallon onsite tank and dispenser. It was difficult to obtain a supplier due to our low monthly fuel consumption, and our fuel supplier contract has changed three times in less than five years. We experiences a couple of fuel contamination and quality control issues. JSC obtained good information on E-85 from the National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition (NEVC). We also spoke with Defense Energy Support Center, (DESC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and US Army Fort Leonard Wood. E-85 is a liquid fuel that is dispensed into our Flexible Fuel Vehicles identically to regular gasoline, so it was easy for our vehicle drivers to make the transition.

  6. 48 CFR 970.2307-1 - Motor vehicle fleet operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that the Federal motor vehicle fleet will serve as an example and provide a leadership role in the... of products with recycled content to be procured pursuant to the clause at 48 CFR 970.5223-2. Section... order. Effective Date Note: At 75 FR 57695, Sept. 22, 2010, 970.2307-1 was removed, effective October...

  7. [Disease control on the Russian fleet in XVIII century].

    PubMed

    Kostiuk, A V

    2014-03-01

    Disease control in domestic fleet in XVIII century was a part of government measures concerning protection of the territory of the Russian Empire from the penetration of dangerous infectious diseases. Understanding the role fleet could play in the spread of infection, the government sought to prevent its entry from the sea. Following this task, in the early 20-s of XVIII century on islands of the Gulf Seskar and Wolf organized sanitary quarantine stations where ships from unfavorable in relation to the epidemic areas stayed before they pester the Russian shore. Eventually when the Black Sea Fleet was created, similar items appeared in Ochakov, Sevastopol, Feodosia, Yalta and Kerch. In XVIII century health legislation was supplemented by a number of regulations relating to the activities of the fleet. In particular, during the reign of Peter I epidemic rules were composed, which, as it became known, lasted for about sixty years. In 1786, the band released a set of quarantine rules designed to streamline the work of sanitary and quarantine stations. Important for protection against the penetration of Russian borders infectious diseases had timely warning of epidemics broke out abroad. Cooperating with European countries in the prevention and control of communicable diseases, Russia has successfully developed methods antiepidemic protection.

  8. Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomić, Jasna; Kempton, Willett

    Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th!nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important variables are: (a) the market value of regulation services, (b) the power capacity (kW) of the electrical connections and wiring, and (c) the energy capacity (kWh) of the vehicle's battery. With a few exceptions when the annual market value of regulation was low, we find that vehicle-to-grid power for regulation services is profitable across all four markets analyzed. Assuming now more than current Level 2 charging infrastructure (6.6 kW) the annual net profit for the Th!nk City fleet is from US 7000 to 70,000 providing regulation down only. For the RAV4 fleet the annual net profit ranges from US 24,000 to 260,000 providing regulation down and up. Vehicle-to-grid power could provide a significant revenue stream that would improve the economics of grid-connected electric-drive vehicles and further encourage their adoption. It would also improve the stability of the electrical grid.

  9. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fleet and Baseline Performance Testing

    SciTech Connect

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2006-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts baseline performance and fleet testing of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on seven HEV models and accumulated 1.4 million fleet testing miles on 26 HEVs. The HEV models tested or in testing include: Toyota Gen I and Gen II Prius, and Highlander; Honda Insight, Civic and Accord; Chevrolet Silverado; Ford Escape; and Lexus RX 400h. The baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed track testing to document the HEV’s fuel economy (SAE J1634) and performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model are driven to 160,000 miles per vehicle within 36 months, during which maintenance and repair events, and fuel use is recorded and used to compile life-cycle costs. At the conclusion of the 160,000 miles of fleet testing, the SAE J1634 tests are rerun and each HEV battery pack is tested. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory, Electric Transportation Applications, and Exponent Failure Analysis Associates. This paper discusses the testing methods and results.

  10. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and

  11. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and

  12. Path Planning Algorithms for the Adaptive Sensor Fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoneking, Eric; Hosler, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The Adaptive Sensor Fleet (ASF) is a general purpose fleet management and planning system being developed by NASA in coordination with NOAA. The current mission of ASF is to provide the capability for autonomous cooperative survey and sampling of dynamic oceanographic phenomena such as current systems and algae blooms. Each ASF vessel is a software model that represents a real world platform that carries a variety of sensors. The OASIS platform will provide the first physical vessel, outfitted with the systems and payloads necessary to execute the oceanographic observations described in this paper. The ASF architecture is being designed for extensibility to accommodate heterogenous fleet elements, and is not limited to using the OASIS platform to acquire data. This paper describes the path planning algorithms developed for the acquisition phase of a typical ASF task. Given a polygonal target region to be surveyed, the region is subdivided according to the number of vessels in the fleet. The subdivision algorithm seeks a solution in which all subregions have equal area and minimum mean radius. Once the subregions are defined, a dynamic programming method is used to find a minimum-time path for each vessel from its initial position to its assigned region. This path plan includes the effects of water currents as well as avoidance of known obstacles. A fleet-level planning algorithm then shuffles the individual vessel assignments to find the overall solution which puts all vessels in their assigned regions in the minimum time. This shuffle algorithm may be described as a process of elimination on the sorted list of permutations of a cost matrix. All these path planning algorithms are facilitated by discretizing the region of interest onto a hexagonal tiling.

  13. Evaluation of diesel fleet emissions and control policies from plume chasing measurements of on-road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Chui Fong; Rakowska, Agata; Townsend, Thomas; Brimblecombe, Peter; Chan, Tat Leung; Yam, Yat Shing; Močnik, Griša; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are an important source of urban air pollution. Diesel fuelled vehicles, although constituting a relatively small fraction of fleet population in many cities, are significant contributors to the emission inventory due to their often long mileage for goods and public transport. Recent classification of diesel exhaust as carcinogenic by the World Health Organization also raises attention to more stringent control of diesel emissions to protect public health. Although various mandatory and voluntary based emission control measures have been implemented in Hong Kong, there have been few investigations to evaluate if the fleet emission characteristics have met desired emission reduction objectives and if adoption of an Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) programme has been effective in achieving these objectives. The limitations are partially due to the lack of cost-effective approaches for the large scale characterisation of fleet based emissions to assess the effectiveness of control measures and policy. This study has used a plume chasing method to collect a large amount of on-road vehicle emission data of Hong Kong highways and a detailed analysis was carried out to provide a quantitative evaluation of the emission characteristics in terms of the role of high and super-emitters in total emission reduction, impact of after-treatment on the multi-pollutants reduction strategy and the trend of NO2 emissions with newer emission standards. The study revealed that not all the high-emitters are from those vehicles of older Euro emission standards. Meanwhile, there is clear evidence that high-emitters for one pollutant may not be a high-emitter for another pollutant. Multi-pollutant control strategy needs to be considered in the enactment of the emission control policy which requires more comprehensive retrofitting technological solutions and matching I/M programme to ensure the proper maintenance of fleets. The plume chasing approach used in this study also

  14. Fuel Cell Bus Takes a Starring Role in the BurbankBus Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    This fact sheet reports on the City of Burbank, California's fuel cell bus demonstration project and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) involvement. Included are specifications for the fuel cell bus and information about its operation. BurbankBus, the city's mass transit entity, received a grant from the California Air Resources Board to fund its zero-emission bus demonstration and is collaborating with DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program to evaluate the bus performance. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory will collect and analyze performance and operations data for at least one year. Researchers will use the data to better understand the technology and determine future development work. In addition, demonstration information will help fleets make informed purchase decisions.

  15. Second Shuttle Join NASA's STS Fleet: Challenger Launches First New Tracking Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA made a major stride in readying a second delivery vehicle for its Space Transportation System (STS) fleet with the perfect landing of Shuttle Orbiter Challenger at Edwards Air Force Base, California, April 9, 1983. Besides being the first flight test of Challenger's performance, the mission marked the orbiting of the first spacecraft in NASA's new Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The new family of orbiting space communications platforms is essential to serve future Shuttle missions. Although the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) second stage engine firing failed to place TDRS in its final 35,888 kilometer (22,300 mile) geosynchronous orbit, its release from the orbiter cargo bay went as planned. Launch officials were confident they can achieve its planned orbit in a matter of weeks.

  16. Raley's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.

    2000-05-03

    Raley's, a large retail grocery company based in Northern California, began operating heavy-duty trucks powered by liquefied natural gas (LNG) in 1997, in cooperation with the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD). The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) sponsored a research project to collect and analyze data on the performance and operation costs of eight of Raley's LNG trucks in the field. Their performance was compared with that of three diesel trucks operating in comparable commercial service. The objective of the DOE research project, which was managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel fuel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  17. Case Study - Propane School Bus Fleets

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-08-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) effort to deploy transportation technologies that reduce U.S. dependence on imported petroleum, this study examines five school districts, one in Virginia and four in Texas, successful use of propane school buses. These school districts used school buses equipped with the newly developed liquid propane injection system that improves vehicle performance. Some of the school districts in this study saved nearly 50% on a cost per mile basis for fuel and maintenance relative to diesel. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool developed for the DOE’s Clean Cities program to help Clean Cities stakeholders estimate petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions and cost of ownership of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, the results showed payback period ranges from 3—8 years, recouping the incremental cost of the vehicles and infrastructure. Overall, fuel economy for these propane vehicles is close to that of displaced diesel vehicles, on an energy-equivalent basis. In addition, the 110 propane buses examined demonstrated petroleum displacement, 212,000 diesel gallon equivalents per year, and GHG benefits of 770 tons per year.

  18. SIMONE: A fleet of Near-Earth Object rendezvous microsatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, S. F.; Wells, N. S.; Ball, A. J.; Bernelli-Zazzera, F.; Perozzi, E.; Townend, M.; Walker, R. G.; Zarnecki, J. C.

    2003-04-01

    The SIMONE (Spacecraft Intercept Missions to Objects Near Earth) concept has recently been developed as part of an ESA-funded study (Near Earth Objects Space Mission Preparation). The SIMONE study, led by QinetiQ, with scientific aspects led by the Open University's Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, is to help understand the diversity of the NEO population using a fleet of microsatellite-class (~120 kg) interplanetary spacecraft with solar electric propulsion. The low cost approach (<50 MEuro for the first and 30 MEuro for subsequent spacecraft) allows a fleet of spacecraft to be deployed for the budget of a typical interplanetary mission. Each spacecraft will rendezvous with a different Near-Earth Object to perform key physical, morphological and compositional measurements relevant to NEO risk assessment as well as scientific investigation. We present the main features of the spacecraft design, measurement objectives, payload, target NEOs and mission operations.

  19. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 5, employee attitude assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The experiences of couriers, operations managers, vehicle handlers (refuelers), and mechanics who drove and/or worked with alternative fuel vehicles, and the attitudes and perceptions of people with these experiences, are examined. Five alternative fuels studied in the CleanFleet project are considers& compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The three major areas of interest include comparative analysis of issues such as health, safety and vehicle performance, business issues encompassing several facets of station operations, and personal commentary and opinions about the CleanFleet project and the alterative fuels. Results of the employee attitude assessment are presented as both statistical and qualitative analysis.

  20. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  1. Executive Order 13514: Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance; Comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, R.; Ahdieh, N.; Bentley, J.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook that builds upon the "Guidance for Federal Agencies on E.O. 13514 Section 12-Federal Fleet Management" and provides information to help fleet managers select optimal greenhouse gas and petroleum reduction strategies for each location, meeting or exceeding related fleet requirements, acquiring vehicles to support these strategies while minimizing fleet size and vehicle miles traveled, and refining strategies based on agency performance.

  2. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  3. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  4. [Health status of military men serving on the North Fleet].

    PubMed

    Myznikov, I L; Askerko, N V; Khankevich, Iu R; Ustimenko, L I; Burtsev, N N; Kuz'minov, O V; Sadchenko, S N; Matochkina, A A; Trofimova, A Iu

    2014-06-01

    Authors analyzed data characterizing health status of military men serving on the North Fleet, peculiarities of changes in category of fitness for military service in 2002-2011. It was found that 75.1% of conscripts fell into first health group, 20.1%--fell into second health group, 4.8%--fell into third health group. Authors gave detailed characteristics of frequent diseases in military men. Authors formulated organizational solutions, ways of improvement of conscripts' health status.

  5. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Volume 1. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtold, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    Volume 1 of this report provides: (1) information about the purpose and scope of the Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP); (2) summary of AFV-FDP findings, organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) a short review of the status of AFV technology developments, including examples of companies in New York State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) a brief overview of AFV deployment status in New York State.

  6. Fleet manager's guide to testing vehicles for valid results

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The managers of automotive fleets are vitally interested in saving money. Fleet procurement and operations costs are increasing rapidly. Fuel cost increases have been especially extreme. Conservation measures have included the purchase of more fuel-efficient vehicles, consolidation or reduction of unnecessary or redundant travel, upgraded and/or more frequent vehicle inspection, maintenance, repair, and the installation of fuel-saving components (or removal of fuel-consuming components). Virtually every significant cost saving measure has a cost associated with it, either a tangible financial cost, or an intangible (convenience) cost. In order to justify to his superiors that such measures should be taken, the fleet manager must be able to demonstrate clearly that the benefits derived from implementation of these measures will exceed the costs of doing so. In order to accomplish this, he must have unambiguous measures of both costs and benefits and methods of comparison which are easily usable and which yield unambiguous results. The analysis methods presented in this document are designed to accomplish this end.

  7. Through-tunnel estimates of vehicle fleet emission factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Townsend, Thomas; Lau, Chui Fong; Rakowska, Agata; Chan, Tat Leung; Močnik, Griša; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    On-road measurements of traffic-related gas and particle pollutant concentrations in three tunnels in Hong Kong and high resolution pollutant concentration profiles obtained while driving through the tunnels were used to derive the individual pollutant gradients using parametric and non-parametric (Sen-Thiel) slopes and compared with the commonly used entrance-exit two points calculation. The fuel based emission factors of measured pollutants for individual tunnels at different times of day were derived from gradients using a new method based on fuel carbon balance principle. Combined with the tunnel traffic volume and composition, the average tunnel emission factors were analyzed by linear regression to derive the diesel fleet emission factors. Average nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) emission factor for diesel fleets are 29.3 ± 11.0 gNO2 kg-1 and 1.28 ± 0.76 g kg-1 of fuel, respectively. The results from the study were compared with the emission data from vehicle chasing approaches and the literature, showing reasonable agreement. Practical limitations and future direction for improvement of our method were also discussed. The method presented in this study provides a convenient drive-through approach for fast determination of tunnel and individual vehicle fleet emission factors. It can be used as an effective and fast approach to validate the emission inventory and to evaluate the effectiveness of policy intervention on the traffic emissions.

  8. First interim report of the Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force was created by Executive Order 12844, signed by President Clinton on April 21, 1993. In the Order, the President directed that purchases of alternative fueled vehicles by the Federal Government be substantially increased beyond the levels required by current law. The President charged the Task Force with developing recommendations for carrying out the Executive Order, with special emphasis on setting a course that will lead to the widespread use of alternative fueled vehicles by Federal, State, and local government fleets, by private fleets and, ultimately, by individuals. The chief recommendation of the Task Force is the establishment of a Presidential Clean Cities Initiative. To support creation of the Presidential Initiative, the Task Force identified 38 cities and regions, prioritized into three tiers, for concentrating the Initiative`s efforts in Fiscal Years 1994 through 1996. This concentration of effort is key to the effectiveness of the Initiative. The 38 cities and regions would receive priority funding for Federal vehicle purchases and for infrastructure development. In addition, the Task Force has made specific recommendations for overcoming numerous regulatory, economic, and technical barriers that have slowed the introduction of alternative fueled vehicles into general use.

  9. The Federal Methanol Fleet: Summary of technical data

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, R.N.; Graves, R.L.; West, B.H. ); Hodgson, J.W. )

    1991-04-01

    The Federal Methanol Fleet, initiated in 1985 with an appropriation from the US Congress, is now in its final stages of operation. A great deal has been learned while vehicles have accumulated approximately 1.4 million miles (2.2 million kilometers) in routine government fleet service. This paper summarizes those results that are technical in nature and that reveal the status of methanol engine technology. Specifically, results from emissions test, special lubricant tests, and cold-starting experiments are reported herein. Emissions control systems in methanol vehicles were found generally to decline somewhat in performance over time as compared to their gasoline counterpart vehicles, although this was not universally true. The severe effects on methanol engine lubricant performance resulting from cold-engine, short-trip service was demonstrated in a series of special tests of two cars, methanol and gasoline, in side-by-side service. Methanol fleet vehicles incorporated a variety of approaches to the cold-start problem -- ranging from no special engineering or systems to sophisticated systems designed to overcome the problem entirely. Cold-start systems specially designed for these vehicles did not perform as well as had been expected, probably because they were early prototype versions and were subject to some early, unforeseen problems.

  10. The Fleet Application for Scheduling and Tracking (FAST) Management Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero-Perez, Radames J.

    2014-01-01

    The FAST application was designed to replace the paper and pen method of checking out and checking in GSA Vehicles at KSC. By innovating from a paper and pen based checkout system to a fully digital one, not only the resources wasted by printing the checkout forms have been reduced, but it also reduces significantly the time that users and fleet managers need to interact with the system as well as improving the record accuracy for each vehicle. The vehicle information is pulled from a centralized database server in the SPSDL. In an attempt to add a new feature to the FAST application, the author of this report (alongside the FAST developers) has been designing and developing the FAST Management Website. The GSA fleet managers had to rely on the FAST developers in order to add new vehicles, edit vehicles and previous transactions, or for generating vehicles reports. By providing an easy-to-use FAST Management Website portal, the GSA fleet managers are now able to easily move vehicles, edit records, and print reports.

  11. Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Air Force’s Air Mobility Command (AMC) is changing the way it does business. It is saving energy and money through an aircraft fleet fuel-efficiency program inspired by private industry best practices and ideas resulting from the empowered fuel savings culture.

  12. Inhibition of Chronic Pancreatitis and Murine Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia by a Dual Inhibitor of c-RAF and Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in LSL-KrasG12D/Pdx-1-Cre Mice

    PubMed Central

    LIAO, JIE; HWANG, SUNG HEE; LI, HAONAN; LIU, JUN-YAN; HAMMOCK, BRUCE D.; YANG, GUANG-YU

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and chronic pancreatitis are the most common pathogenic events involved in human pancreatic carcinogenesis. In the process of long-standing chronic inflammation, aberrant metabolites of arachidonic acid play a crucial role in promoting carcinogenesis, in which the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), as a pro-inflammatory enzyme, generally inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Herein, we determined the effect of our newly-synthesized novel compound trans-4-{4-[3-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methylamide (t-CUPM), a dual inhibitor of sEH and RAF1 proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (c-RAF), on inhibiting the development of pancreatitis and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPanIN) in LSL-KrasG12D/Pdx1-Cre mice. The results showed that t-CUPM significantly reduced the severity of chronic pancreatitis, as measured by the extent of acini loss, inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis. The progression of low-grade mPanIN I to high-grade mPanIN II/III was significantly suppressed. Inhibition of mutant Kras-transmitted phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase’s kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases was demonstrated in pancreatic tissues by western blots. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that t-CUPM treatment significantly reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis facor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, as well as vascular adhesion molecule-1, and the levels of Sonic hedgehog and Gli transcription factor (Hedgehog pathway). Analysis of the eicosanoid profile revealed a significant increase of the EETs/dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids ratio, which further confirmed sEH inhibition by t-CUPM. These results indicate that simultaneous inhibition of sEH and c-RAF by t-CUPM is important in preventing chronic pancreatitis and carcinogenesis

  13. Inhibition of Chronic Pancreatitis and Murine Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia by a Dual Inhibitor of c-RAF and Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in LSL-KrasG¹²D/Pdx-1-Cre Mice.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jie; Hwang, Sung Hee; Li, Haonan; Liu, Jun-Yan; Hammock, Bruce D; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and chronic pancreatitis are the most common pathogenic events involved in human pancreatic carcinogenesis. In the process of long-standing chronic inflammation, aberrant metabolites of arachidonic acid play a crucial role in promoting carcinogenesis, in which the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), as a pro-inflammatory enzyme, generally inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Herein, we determined the effect of our newly-synthesized novel compound trans-4-{4-[3-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methylamide (t-CUPM), a dual inhibitor of sEH and RAF1 proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (c-RAF), on inhibiting the development of pancreatitis and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPanIN) in LSL-Kras(G12D)/Pdx1-Cre mice. The results showed that t-CUPM significantly reduced the severity of chronic pancreatitis, as measured by the extent of acini loss, inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis. The progression of low-grade mPanIN I to high-grade mPanIN II/III was significantly suppressed. Inhibition of mutant Kras-transmitted phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase's kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases was demonstrated in pancreatic tissues by western blots. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that t-CUPM treatment significantly reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis facor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, as well as vascular adhesion molecule-1, and the levels of Sonic hedgehog and Gli transcription factor (Hedgehog pathway). Analysis of the eicosanoid profile revealed a significant increase of the EETs/dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids ratio, which further confirmed sEH inhibition by t-CUPM. These results indicate that simultaneous inhibition of sEH and c-RAF by t-CUPM is important in preventing chronic pancreatitis and carcinogenesis

  14. Inhibition of Chronic Pancreatitis and Murine Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia by a Dual Inhibitor of c-RAF and Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in LSL-KrasG¹²D/Pdx-1-Cre Mice.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jie; Hwang, Sung Hee; Li, Haonan; Liu, Jun-Yan; Hammock, Bruce D; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and chronic pancreatitis are the most common pathogenic events involved in human pancreatic carcinogenesis. In the process of long-standing chronic inflammation, aberrant metabolites of arachidonic acid play a crucial role in promoting carcinogenesis, in which the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), as a pro-inflammatory enzyme, generally inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Herein, we determined the effect of our newly-synthesized novel compound trans-4-{4-[3-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methylamide (t-CUPM), a dual inhibitor of sEH and RAF1 proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (c-RAF), on inhibiting the development of pancreatitis and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPanIN) in LSL-Kras(G12D)/Pdx1-Cre mice. The results showed that t-CUPM significantly reduced the severity of chronic pancreatitis, as measured by the extent of acini loss, inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis. The progression of low-grade mPanIN I to high-grade mPanIN II/III was significantly suppressed. Inhibition of mutant Kras-transmitted phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase's kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases was demonstrated in pancreatic tissues by western blots. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that t-CUPM treatment significantly reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis facor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, as well as vascular adhesion molecule-1, and the levels of Sonic hedgehog and Gli transcription factor (Hedgehog pathway). Analysis of the eicosanoid profile revealed a significant increase of the EETs/dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids ratio, which further confirmed sEH inhibition by t-CUPM. These results indicate that simultaneous inhibition of sEH and c-RAF by t-CUPM is important in preventing chronic pancreatitis and carcinogenesis.

  15. Designing a Methodology for Future Air Travel Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuebbles, Donald J.; Baughcum, Steven L.; Gerstle, John H.; Edmonds, Jae; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Krull, Nick; Metwally, Munir; Mortlock, Alan; Prather, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    The growing demand on air travel throughout the world has prompted several proposals for the development of commercial aircraft capable of transporting a large number of passengers at supersonic speeds. Emissions from a projected fleet of such aircraft, referred to as high-speed civil transports (HSCT's), are being studied because of their possible effects on the chemistry and physics of the global atmosphere, in particular, on stratospheric ozone. At the same time, there is growing concern about the effects on ozone from the emissions of current (primarily subsonic) aircraft emissions. Evaluating the potential atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions from HSCT's requires a scientifically sound understanding of where the aircraft fly and under what conditions the aircraft effluents are injected into the atmosphere. A preliminary set of emissions scenarios are presented. These scenarios will be used to understand the sensitivity of environment effects to a range of fleet operations, flight conditions, and aircraft specifications. The baseline specifications for the scenarios are provided: the criteria to be used for developing the scenarios are defined, the required data base for initiating the development of the scenarios is established, and the state of the art for those scenarios that have already been developed is discussed. An important aspect of the assessment will be the evaluation of realistic projections of emissions as a function of both geographical distribution and altitude from an economically viable commercial HSCT fleet. With an assumed introduction date of around the year 2005, it is anticipated that there will be no HSCT aircraft in the global fleet at that time. However, projections show that, by 2015, the HSCT fleet could reach significant size. We assume these projections of HSCT and subsonic fleets for about 2015 can the be used as input to global atmospheric chemistry models to evaluate the impact of the HSCT fleets, relative to an all

  16. Fleet and backup tank sizing under regular and impulse stochastic demand patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Ronald Gerard

    The focus of this study involves logistics issues surrounding the industrial gas business. The industrial gas business is a major industry (approximately $30 billion/year) and has been experiencing substantial growth in recent years. The industrial gas business supports two types of customers. The first type is the traditional merchant customers who rely entirely on the logistics system for product. Their demand is of a stochastic nature. The second type of customers is referred to as customers. These customers have air separation plants on their own sites and they must rely on the logistics system when their separation plant fails. To assist in providing a continuous flow of product, all onsite plants also have a backup tank which can provide sufficient product for relatively short durations of time, 24 to 96 hours of supply. The onsite separation plants are approximately 98% reliable, but when they fail, the customer generally requires a significant amount of product. This type of demand pattern will be defined as impulse stochastic. This study focuses on two areas of the logistics support system. The first part deals with the economic sizing of onsite backup tanks. For a given onsite, we determine the most economical choice for a backup system considering numerous characteristics of the onsite customer as well as the logistics system. In the second part, we develop methods for determining the optimal fleet size under both regular and impulse stochastic demand patterns. The methods provide support for long range forecasting, short-term vehicle reallocation and private verses contract carrier vehicle mix determination. The methods further provide a means to describe the effect future onsite growth will have on distribution as it is related to vehicle fleet size.

  17. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation.

  18. Measurements of real-world vehicle CO and NOx fleet average emissions in urban tunnels of two cities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yiwen; Chen, Chao; Li, Qiong; Hu, Qinqiang; Yuan, Haoting; Li, Junmei; Li, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Urban tunnels located in the city center areas, can alleviate traffic pressure and provide more convenient traffic for people. Vehicles emit pollutants that are significant contributors to air pollution inside and at the outlet of tunnels. Ventilation is the most widely used method to dilute pollutants in tunnels. To calculate the design required air volume flow accurately, vehicle emissions should be exactly determined. Emission factors are important parameters to estimate vehicle emissions. To characterize carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emission factors for a mixed vehicle fleet under real-world driving conditions of urban China, we measured CO and NOX concentrations in Shanghai East Yan'an Road tunnel and Changsha Yingpan Road tunnel in 2012 and 2013. In-use fleet average CO and NOX emission factors were calculated according to tunnel pollutants mass balance models. The results showed that the maximum CO concentration in August was 86 ppm, while in October it was 45 ppm in Shanghai East Yan'an Road tunnel. The maximum concentrations of CO and NOX were 33 ppm and 2 ppm in Changsha Yingpan Road tunnel, respectively. In-use fleet average CO emission factors of East Yan'an Road tunnel, with gradient of -3% ∼ 3%, were 1.266 (±0.889) ∼ 3.974 (±2.189) g km-1 vehicle-1. In-use fleet average CO and NOX emission factors of Yingpan Road tunnel with gradient of -6% ∼ 6% amounted to 0.754 (±0.561) ∼ 6.050 (±5.940) g km-1 vehicle-1 and 0.121 (±0.022) ∼ 0.818 (±0.755) g km-1 vehicle-1, respectively. The dependences of CO and NOX emission on roadway gradient and vehicle speed were found. The average CO and NOX emission factors increased with the ascending of roadway gradient as well as reverse with vehicle speed. These findings provide meaningful reference for ventilation design and environmental assessment of urban tunnels, and further help provide basic data to formulate relevant standards and norms.

  19. Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2010/FY 2011, EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This annual report summarizes the compliance results of state and alternative fuel provider fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) for model year 2010/fiscal year 2011. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state and alternative fuel provider (SFP) fleets under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. For model year (MY) 2010, the compliance rate for the 2911 covered SFP fleets was 100%. Fleets used either Standard Compliance or Alternative Compliance. The 279 fleets that used Standard Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2010 acquisition requirements by 61%. The 12 covered fleets that complied using Alternative Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2010 petroleum-use-reduction requirements by 89%. Overall, DOE saw modest decreases from MY 2009 in biodiesel fuel use credits earned and in the number of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) acquired. Compared to years before MY 2009, these rates were far lower. Because covered fleets acquired fewer new vehicles overall in MY 2010, the requirement for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), which is proportional to new acquisitions, also dropped.

  20. New Zealand traffic and local air quality.

    PubMed

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-12-01

    Since 1996 the New Zealand Ministry of Transport (MOT) has been investigating the effects of road transport on local air quality. The outcome has been the government's Vehicle Fleet Emissions Control Strategy (VFECS). This is a programme of measures designed to assist with the improvement in local air quality, and especially in the appropriate management of transport sector emissions. Key to the VFECS has been the development of tools to assess and predict the contribution of vehicle emissions to local air pollution, in a given urban situation. Determining how vehicles behave as an emissions source, and more importantly, how the combined traffic flows contribute to the total emissions within a given airshed location was an important element of the programme. The actual emissions output of a vehicle is more than that determined by a certified emission standard, at the point of manufacture. It is the engine technology's general performance capability, in conjunction with the local driving conditions, that determines its actual emissions output. As vehicles are a mobile emissions source, to understand the effect of vehicle technology, it is necessary to work with the average fleet performance, or "fleet-weighted average emissions rate". This is the unit measure of performance of the general traffic flow that could be passing through a given road corridor or network, as an average, over time. The flow composition can be representative of the national fleet population, but also may feature particular vehicle types in a given locality, thereby have a different emissions 'signature'. A summary of the range of work that has been completed as part of the VFECS programme is provided. The NZ Vehicle Fleet Emissions Model and the derived data set available in the NZ Traffic Emission Rates provide a significant step forward in the consistent analysis of practical, sustainable vehicle emissions policy and air-quality management in New Zealand.

  1. SuperShuttle CNG Fleet Start-Up Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Eudy.

    1999-05-18

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), along with several industry partners, are collaborating with SuperShuttle of Denver, Colorado, to evaluate natural gas vans added to the SuperShuttle fleet in 1999. Brand new (1999 model year) dedicated and bi-fuel compressed natural gas (CNG) vans manufactured by Ford Motor Company will be operated side-by-side with several similar gasoline vehicles in normal revenue service. Once the study is complete, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory will analyze and compile the results for release.

  2. Electric vehicles in fleet operation at Detroit Edison

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, G.O.; Ostrowski, G.J.

    1982-06-01

    Detroit Edison operates a fleet of 24 electric cars in a cost-sharing demonstration program with the United States Department of Energy. The program features a unique lease program in which electric passenger cars are used by Detroit Edison employees for their personal driving needs, such as commuting to work, shopping, etc. Over 50,000 miles have been logged on the 24 cars during the first six months of operation. The project began in June, 1981. This paper describes the lease program and the Electric Car Service Center, charging stations and other facilities which Detroit Edison has set up to support the program.

  3. Cooperative aquatic sensing using the telesupervised adaptive ocean sensor fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, John M.; Podnar, Gregg W.; Stancliff, Stephen; Low, Kian Hsiang; Elfes, Alberto; Higinbotham, John; Hosler, Jeffrey; Moisan, Tiffany; Moisan, John

    2009-09-01

    Earth science research must bridge the gap between the atmosphere and the ocean to foster understanding of Earth's climate and ecology. Typical ocean sensing is done with satellites or in situ buoys and research ships which are slow to reposition. Cloud cover inhibits study of localized transient phenomena such as Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB). A fleet of extended-deployment surface autonomous vehicles will enable in situ study of characteristics of HAB, coastal pollutants, and related phenomena. We have developed a multiplatform telesupervision architecture that supports adaptive reconfiguration based on environmental sensor inputs. Our system allows the autonomous repositioning of smart sensors for HAB study by networking a fleet of NOAA OASIS (Ocean Atmosphere Sensor Integration System) surface autonomous vehicles. In situ measurements intelligently modify the search for areas of high concentration. Inference Grid and complementary information-theoretic techniques support sensor fusion and analysis. Telesupervision supports sliding autonomy from high-level mission tasking, through vehicle and data monitoring, to teleoperation when direct human interaction is appropriate. This paper reports on experimental results from multi-platform tests conducted in the Chesapeake Bay and in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania waters using OASIS platforms, autonomous kayaks, and multiple simulated platforms to conduct cooperative sensing of chlorophyll-a and water quality.

  4. Nuclear power fleets and uranium resources recovered from phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, S.; Baschwitz, A.; Mathonniere, G.

    2013-07-01

    Current light water reactors (LWR) burn fissile uranium, whereas some future reactors, as Sodium fast reactors (SFR) will be capable of recycling their own plutonium and already-extracted depleted uranium. This makes them a feasible solution for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. Nonetheless, a sufficient quantity of plutonium is needed to start up an SFR, with the plutonium already being produced in light water reactors. The availability of natural uranium therefore has a direct impact on the capacity of the reactors (both LWR and SFR) that we can build. It is therefore important to have an accurate estimate of the available uranium resources in order to plan for the world's future nuclear reactor fleet. This paper discusses the correspondence between the resources (uranium and plutonium) and the nuclear power demand. Sodium fast reactors will be built in line with the availability of plutonium, including fast breeders when necessary. Different assumptions on the global uranium resources are taken into consideration. The largely quoted estimate of 22 Mt of uranium recovered for phosphate rocks can be seriously downscaled. Based on our current knowledge of phosphate resources, 4 Mt of recoverable uranium already seems to be an upper bound value. The impact of the downscaled estimate on the deployment of a nuclear fleet is assessed accordingly. (authors)

  5. Integrated operations/payloads/fleet analysis (executive summary)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Integrated Operations/Payloads/Fleet Analysis predicts total national space program costs and launch vehicle traffic assuming either an expendable, a partially reusable or a fully reusable launch vehicle fleet. The payload system costs are estimated and reported for each payload program at the subsystem level, payload program level, user level and national level, providing complete system cost traceability. The analysis determines the primary changes to be expected for space payload programs and space operations in the space shuttle era. When the space shuttle becomes fully operational, not only will launch costs be reduced but refurbished satellite units will be flown instead of new units and maintenance will be performed on failing satellites. It is possible to implement the concepts of satellite refurbishment and maintenance because of the space shuttle's capability to retrieve and return payloads to the earth's surface. The two-way satellite transportation capability is extended to high energy orbits by use of the space shuttle/space tug combination.

  6. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report; Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2013/FY 2014

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    Compliance rates for covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets under the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (pursuant to the Energy Policy Act or EPAct) are reported for MY 2013/FY 2014 in this publication.

  7. 41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1 Section 101-39.105-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS...

  8. 41 CFR 101-39.104 - Notice of establishment of a fleet management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of a fleet management system. 101-39.104 Section 101-39.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification,...

  9. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  10. 41 CFR 101-39.104 - Notice of establishment of a fleet management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of a fleet management system. 101-39.104 Section 101-39.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification,...

  11. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  12. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  13. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in...

  14. Modelling the Spatial Behaviour of a Tropical Tuna Purse Seine Fleet

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Tim K.; Mees, Chris C.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Industrial tuna fisheries operate in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but concerns over sustainability and environmental impacts of these fisheries have resulted in increased scrutiny of how they are managed. An important but often overlooked factor in the success or failure of tuna fisheries management is the behaviour of fishers and fishing fleets. Uncertainty in how a fishing fleet will respond to management or other influences can be reduced by anticipating fleet behaviour, although to date there has been little research directed at understanding and anticipating the human dimension of tuna fisheries. The aim of this study was to address gaps in knowledge of the behaviour of tuna fleets, using the Indian Ocean tropical tuna purse seine fishery as a case study. We use statistical modelling to examine the factors that influence the spatial behaviour of the purse seine fleet at broad spatiotemporal scales. This analysis reveals very high consistency between years in the use of seasonal fishing grounds by the fleet, as well as a forcing influence of biophysical ocean conditions on the distribution of fishing effort. These findings suggest strong inertia in the spatial behaviour of the fleet, which has important implications for predicting the response of the fleet to natural events or management measures (e.g., spatial closures). PMID:25462165

  15. Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  16. 75 FR 8563 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66... aerial spectator events associated with the annual Fleet Week Maritime Festival. Entry into,...

  17. 78 FR 28625 - American Airlines, a Subsidiary of AMR Corporation, Tulsa International Airport, Fleet Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... the Federal Register on March 26, 2013 (78 FR 18370). Pursuant to 29 CFR 90.18(c) reconsideration may... International Airport, Fleet Services Clerks, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding... workers of American Airlines, a subsidiary of AMR Corporation, Tulsa International Airport, Fleet...

  18. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the...

  19. 33 CFR 105.296 - Additional requirements-barge fleeting facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to handle those barges carrying, in bulk, cargoes regulated by 46 CFR chapter I, subchapters D or O... fleeting facilities. 105.296 Section 105.296 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Additional requirements-barge fleeting facilities. (a) At MARSEC Level 1, in addition to the requirements...

  20. Modelling the spatial behaviour of a tropical tuna purse seine fleet.

    PubMed

    Davies, Tim K; Mees, Chris C; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2014-01-01

    Industrial tuna fisheries operate in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but concerns over sustainability and environmental impacts of these fisheries have resulted in increased scrutiny of how they are managed. An important but often overlooked factor in the success or failure of tuna fisheries management is the behaviour of fishers and fishing fleets. Uncertainty in how a fishing fleet will respond to management or other influences can be reduced by anticipating fleet behaviour, although to date there has been little research directed at understanding and anticipating the human dimension of tuna fisheries. The aim of this study was to address gaps in knowledge of the behaviour of tuna fleets, using the Indian Ocean tropical tuna purse seine fishery as a case study. We use statistical modelling to examine the factors that influence the spatial behaviour of the purse seine fleet at broad spatiotemporal scales. This analysis reveals very high consistency between years in the use of seasonal fishing grounds by the fleet, as well as a forcing influence of biophysical ocean conditions on the distribution of fishing effort. These findings suggest strong inertia in the spatial behaviour of the fleet, which has important implications for predicting the response of the fleet to natural events or management measures (e.g., spatial closures).

  1. 77 FR 57494 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco... will enforce the safety zone for the Fleet Week Fireworks in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco... William Hawn, U.S. ] Coast Guard Sector San Francisco; telephone (415) 399-7442 or email at...

  2. 76 FR 31351 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ...The Coast Guard announces the availability of Office of Vessel Activities Policy Letter 11-05 regarding Distant Water Tuna Fleet vessels manning exemption eligibility and safety requirements. This final policy clarifies the requirements to allow a distant water tuna fleet vessel to engage foreign citizens under a temporary manning...

  3. Effects of diesel particle filter retrofits and accelerated fleet turnover on drayage truck emissions at the Port of Oakland.

    PubMed

    Dallmann, Timothy R; Harley, Robert A; Kirchstetter, Thomas W

    2011-12-15

    Heavy-duty diesel drayage trucks have a disproportionate impact on the air quality of communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. In an attempt to mitigate this impact, the state of California has mandated new emission control requirements for drayage trucks accessing ports and rail yards in the state beginning in 2010. This control rule prompted an accelerated diesel particle filter (DPF) retrofit and truck replacement program at the Port of Oakland. The impact of this program was evaluated by measuring emission factor distributions for diesel trucks operating at the Port of Oakland prior to and following the implementation of the emission control rule. Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) were quantified in terms of grams of pollutant emitted per kilogram of fuel burned using a carbon balance method. Concentrations of these species along with carbon dioxide were measured in the exhaust plumes of individual diesel trucks as they drove by en route to the Port. A comparison of emissions measured before and after the implementation of the truck retrofit/replacement rule shows a 54 ± 11% reduction in the fleet-average BC emission factor, accompanied by a shift to a more highly skewed emission factor distribution. Although only particulate matter mass reductions were required in the first year of the program, a significant reduction in the fleet-average NO(x) emission factor (41 ± 5%) was observed, most likely due to the replacement of older trucks with new ones. PMID:22039954

  4. Effects of diesel particle filter retrofits and accelerated fleet turnover on drayage truck emissions at the Port of Oakland.

    PubMed

    Dallmann, Timothy R; Harley, Robert A; Kirchstetter, Thomas W

    2011-12-15

    Heavy-duty diesel drayage trucks have a disproportionate impact on the air quality of communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. In an attempt to mitigate this impact, the state of California has mandated new emission control requirements for drayage trucks accessing ports and rail yards in the state beginning in 2010. This control rule prompted an accelerated diesel particle filter (DPF) retrofit and truck replacement program at the Port of Oakland. The impact of this program was evaluated by measuring emission factor distributions for diesel trucks operating at the Port of Oakland prior to and following the implementation of the emission control rule. Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) were quantified in terms of grams of pollutant emitted per kilogram of fuel burned using a carbon balance method. Concentrations of these species along with carbon dioxide were measured in the exhaust plumes of individual diesel trucks as they drove by en route to the Port. A comparison of emissions measured before and after the implementation of the truck retrofit/replacement rule shows a 54 ± 11% reduction in the fleet-average BC emission factor, accompanied by a shift to a more highly skewed emission factor distribution. Although only particulate matter mass reductions were required in the first year of the program, a significant reduction in the fleet-average NO(x) emission factor (41 ± 5%) was observed, most likely due to the replacement of older trucks with new ones.

  5. 40 CFR 86.094-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject to adjustment for certification and...; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject to adjustment for certification and... may approve the application and select a test fleet in accordance with § 86.094-24. (b) Disapproval...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1862-04 - Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to compliance with fleet average NOX...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of information relevant to compliance with fleet average NOX standards. 86.1862-04 Section 86.1862-04... compliance with fleet average NOX standards. (a) Maintenance of records. (1) The manufacturer producing any... year: (i) Model year; (ii) Applicable fleet average NOX standard: 0.07g/mi for Tier 2 LDV/Ts; 0.30...

  7. 77 FR 59749 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Fleet Week Parade of Ships and Blue Angels Demonstration, San Francisco Bay, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... sponsored Fleet Week Parade of Navy Ships, Blue Angels Flight Demonstrations, Ship Tours, and America's Cup... special local regulation for the annual San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships and Blue...

  8. 75 FR 34927 - Safety Zone; Parade of Ships, Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Parade of Ships, Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week... with the Parade of Ships for the annual Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week. This action is intended to restrict... action is necessary to ensure the safety of spectators and participants attending Fleet Week...

  9. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of Interagency Fleet... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC...

  10. Integrated operations/payloads/fleet analysis. Volume 2: Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The payloads for NASA and non-NASA missions of the integrated fleet are analyzed to generate payload data for the capture and cost analyses for the period 1979 to 1990. Most of the effort is on earth satellites, probes, and planetary missions because of the space shuttle's ability to retrieve payloads for repair, overhaul, and maintenance. Four types of payloads are considered: current expendable payload; current reusable payload; low cost expendable payload, (satellite to be used with expendable launch vehicles); and low cost reusable payload (satellite to be used with the space shuttle/space tug system). Payload weight analysis, structural sizing analysis, and the influence of mean mission duration on program cost are also discussed. The payload data were computerized, and printouts of the data for payloads for each program or mission are included.

  11. The spacecraft 'fleet' to comet Halley - An introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.

    1985-01-01

    Questions related to the formation and the characteristics of comets are discussed, and it is suggested that an evolutionary link exists between comets, prebiotic organic synthesis, and the origin of life as it is known. Fundamental questions about the solar wind interaction with comets, are considered, giving attention to the ionization mechanisms in the different cometary regions, the presence of field-aligned currents, and the cometary plasma tail. It is pointed out that some of the questions will soon be answered when the NASA-ESA International Cometary Explorer (ICE) goes through the tail of Giacobini-Zinner in September 1985, and when a five spacecraft 'fleet' arrives at comet Halley in March 1986.

  12. [Health status of female soldiers serving in the Northern Fleet].

    PubMed

    Myznikov, I L; Askerko, N V; Ustimenko, L I; Miloshevich, Iu R; Volkova, L V; Sadchenko, S N; Matochkina, A A

    2013-09-01

    Authors analyzed the health status and morbidity among female soldiers serving under the contract in the Northern Fleet, age peculiarities, results of medical in-patient examination and expert assessment, put in medical records in accordance with prophylactic medical examination service and medical examination. Annual data about military troops, morbidity and medical examination among female soldiers in the period 2002-2010 (n-14,5 thousand of people) are included into analysis. 502 medical records of female soldiers approved by military physician board were analyzed. Authors presented statistic data about primary diseases and chronic pathology and considered causes of changing of the category of fitness for military service and its gender peculiarities. Authors suggest changing the recruiting concept for female soldiers and the system of medical in-patient examination.

  13. DFRC F-16 fleet 1995 - F-16A, F-16XL, AFTI F-16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Photographed outside their hangar at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, part of Dryden's F-16 fleet is, left to right; an F-16A, the F-16XL no. 1, and the F-16 AFTI. The F-16A (NASA 516), the only civil registered F-16 in existence, was transferred to Dryden from Langley, and is primarily used in engine tests and for parts. Although it is flight-worthy, it is not currently flown at Dryden. The single-seat F-16XL no. 1 (NASA 849) was most recently used in the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project (CAWAP) to test boundary layer pressures and distribution. Previously it had been used in a program to investigate the characteristics of sonic booms for NASA's High Speed Research Program. Data from the program will be used in the development of a high speed civilian transport. During the series of sonic boom research flights, the F-16XL was used to probe the shock waves being generated by a NASA SR-71 and record their shape and intensity. The Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) F-16 was used to develop and demonstrate technologies to improve navigation and a pilot's ability to find and destroy enemy ground targets day or night, including adverse weather. Earlier research in the joint NASA-Air Force AFTI F-16 program demonstrated voice actuated controls, helmet-mounted sighting and integration of forward-mounted canards with the standard flight control system to achieve uncoupled flight.

  14. Expanding the Telepresence Paradigm to the UNOLS Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, D.; Scowcroft, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Inner Space Center (ISC) at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography (URI-GSO) has been at the forefront of developing the tools, techniques, and protocols for telepresence-enabled ocean science exploration and education programs. Working primarily with the Ocean Exploration Trust's E/V Nautilus and the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, the ISC facility and staff have supported dozens of research cruises with significant shore-based support, while delivering related educational programming across the globe. Through a partnership with the University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS), the ISC is broadening its reach and capabilities to serve vessels in the U.S. academic research fleet, managed by UNOLS. The ISC has developed and used a portable shipboard "mobile telepresence unit" (MTU) on several UNOLS ships to support projects led by ocean scientists that employed the telepresence paradigm as part of their research and outreach programs. Utilizing the ISC facilities provides opportunities for effective, successful broader impact activities and shore-based remote science connectivity. With new UNOLS ships coming online, including the R/V Sikuliaq, the R/V Neil Armstrong, and the R/V Sally Ride, in addition to future Regional Class Research Vessels (RCRVs), telepresence capability has become a technical requirement for a variety of reasons. Older vessels are being retrofit with this forward-looking technology, and URI's research vessel, the R/V Endeavor, has been recently configured with technology to support telepresence operations. This presentation will provide an overview of the future of telepresence technology, its use in ocean science research and education, and advantages for using this capability to support broader impact activities. In addition, ISC successes, challenges, and lessons learned in employing telepresence technologies and methodologies onboard the academic research fleet will be discussed.

  15. An optimization method for condition based maintenance of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qiang; Chen, Yiran; Sun, Bo; Li, Songjie

    2014-01-01

    An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM) of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL) distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM) has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success.

  16. Determination of fleet hourly emission and on-road vehicle emission factor using integrated monitoring and modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim Oanh, N. T.; Martel, M.; Pongkiatkul, P.; Berkowicz, R.

    Roadside air quality and vehicle emission are important and challenging issues in urban air quality management which need to be adequately characterized. This study involves designing a monitoring program that produces suitable data to determine the on-road hourly fleet emission and emission factors of individual vehicles in a street canyon. Simultaneous hourly monitoring of roadside gaseous pollutants (both windward and leeward sides), traffic volume and speed, and wind in a busy street of Bangkok was conducted in the rainy season when traffic emission was predominant in the city. Higher pollutant concentrations often occurred at midday (11:00 to 14:00h) when higher traffic density (3700-3800vehicles h - 1, weekdays) was observed. The levels of toluene and xylenes found in this study are higher than the roadside levels reported in other Asian cities. Hourly maximum concentrations reached 258ppb for toluene, 51ppb for m, p-xylenes, 15ppb for o-xylene, 526ppb for NO x, and 10.5ppm for CO. Hourly monitoring data during the periods when the street canyon effects were pronounced were selected for determination of the fleet hourly emission and vehicle emission factors by back calculation using a street canyon model (Operational Street Pollution Model). The average fleet hourly emission at daytime of NO x (6.2kg km - 1 h - 1), CO (54kg km - 1 h - 1), toluene (2.1kg km - 1 h - 1), m, p-xylenes (0.73kg km - 1 h - 1) and o-xylene (0.27kg km - 1 h - 1) did not vary much. However, the emission rates were substantially reduced at nighttime following the traffic pattern. The obtained pollutant emission factors varied within each group of vehicles with the average values agreed reasonably with the chassis dynamometer results for NO x but somewhat higher for CO and TX. The model estimated results are, however, considered to better represent the real driving conditions in the street at the average vehicle travel speed of around 20km h - 1. A statistical sampling design is proposed

  17. The influence of tree stands and a noise barrier on near-roadway air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prediction of air pollution exposure levels of people living near or commuting on roadways is still very problematic due to the highly localized nature of traffic intensity, fleet composition, and extremely complex air flow patterns in urban areas. Both modelling and field studie...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1860-04 - How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards. 86.1860-04 Section 86.1860-04 Protection of Environment... § 86.1860-04 How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards. (a) The fleet average standards referred to in this section are the corporate fleet average standards for...

  19. Creating new cities through the large air-cushion vehicle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The air-cushion vehicle (ACV) can travel over concrete roads, grass, sand, mud, swamp, snow, ice, and water. This mobility makes possible a totally new geographical freedom in choosing transportation routes, locating ports, and laying out a city. By the 1980s fleets of large ACV freighters could begin carrying ocean-going cargo. The mobility of an ACV fleet would allow placing hoverports away from areas now crowded. New cities could rise along shallow or reef-bound seacoasts and rivers, just as cities once rose around deep-water seaports.

  20. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report summarizes the fleets studied to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  1. Vehicle Real Driving Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides in an Urban Area from a large Vehicle Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhler, Denis; Horbanski, Martin; Oesterle, Tobias; Adler, Tim; Reh, Miriam; Tirpitz, Lukas; Kanatschnig, Florian; Lampel, Joahnnes; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen Oxide (NOx=NO +NO2) emissions by road vehicles are the major contributor for poor air quality in urban areas. High NOx concentrations, and especially NO2, are typically the most problematic pollution in cities. However, emissions vary significantly depending on the type of vehicle, its engine, the age, condition of the vehicle, driving properties, modifications and many more. Even if official NOx emission data of the manufacturer exist, they are only valid for new vehicles and the current vehicle emission scandal shows clearly that these data are often wrong. Thus, real driving emissions (RDE) of the current vehicle fleet is required. With such data the contribution of individual vehicles to the NO2 and NOx levels in urban areas can be estimated. Significant reduction of NOx concentrations can be achieved by identifying the strong emitting vehicles and excluding, replace or modify them. We developed a precise and fast ICAD (Iterative CAvity DOAS) NO2 instrument which can measure the concentration within the emission plume of vehicles under real driving conditions. The sampling was performed with an inlet at the front of a car which was following the investigated vehicles. The instrument measure NO2 and additionally CO2 with a time resolution of 2 seconds. With the observed NO2 values already strong emitters can easily be identified. With the use of known CO2 emissions, more reliable emissions for NO2 can be calculated for each vehicle. Currently the system is expanded with a NOx channel to derive the total nitrogen oxide emissions. The system was successfully applied in several studies over the last two years to investigate NO2 RDE. More than thousand vehicles were investigated. We observed that several vehicles from various brands show much higher emissions than allowed (more than a factor of 5). Highest emissions correlate for trucks and busses typically to older vehicles, what is not the case for cars. A large variability between different cars was

  2. Mission Engineering of a Rapid Cycle Spacecraft Logistics Fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; McClendon, Randy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The requirement for logistics re-supply of the International Space Station has provided a unique opportunity for engineering the implementation of NASA's first dedicated pressurized logistics carrier fleet. The NASA fleet is comprised of three Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLM) provided to NASA by the Italian Space Agency in return for operations time aboard the International Space Station. Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for oversight of the hardware development from preliminary design through acceptance of the third flight unit, and currently manages the flight hardware sustaining engineering and mission engineering activities. The actual MPLM Mission began prior to NASA acceptance of the first flight unit in 1999 and will continue until the de-commission of the International Space Station that is planned for 20xx. Mission engineering of the MPLM program requires a broad focus on three distinct yet inter-related operations processes: pre-flight, flight operations, and post-flight turn-around. Within each primary area exist several complex subsets of distinct and inter-related activities. Pre-flight processing includes the evaluation of carrier hardware readiness for space flight. This includes integration of payload into the carrier, integration of the carrier into the launch vehicle, and integration of the carrier onto the orbital platform. Flight operations include the actual carrier operations during flight and any required real-time ground support. Post-flight processing includes de-integration of the carrier hardware from the launch vehicle, de-integration of the payload, and preparation for returning the carrier to pre-flight staging. Typical space operations are engineered around the requirements and objectives of a dedicated mission on a dedicated operational platform (i.e. Launch or Orbiting Vehicle). The MPLM, however, has expanded this envelope by requiring operations with both vehicles during flight as well as pre-launch and post

  3. Monitoring measurement tools: new methods for driving continuous improvements in fleet measurement uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Sendelbach, Matthew; Fiege, Ron; Zaitz, Mary; Shneyder, Dmitriy; Strocchia-rivera, Carlos; Munoz, Andres; Rangarajan, Srinivasan; Muth, William; Brendler, Andrew; Banke, Bill; Schulz, Bernd; Hartig, Carsten; Hoeft, Jon-Tobias; Vaid, Alok; Kelling, Mark; Bunday, Benjamin; Allgair, John

    2009-03-01

    Ever shrinking measurement uncertainty requirements are difficult to achieve for a typical metrology toolset, especially over the entire expected life of the fleet. Many times, acceptable performance can be demonstrated during brief evaluation periods on a tool or two in the fleet. Over time and across the rest of the fleet, the most demanding processes often have measurement uncertainty concerns that prevent optimal process control, thereby limiting premium part yield, especially on the most aggressive technology nodes. Current metrology statistical process control (SPC) monitoring techniques focus on maintaining the performance of the fleet where toolset control chart limits are derived from a stable time period. These tools are prevented from measuring product when a statistical deviation is detected. Lastly, these charts are primarily concerned with daily fluctuations and do not consider the overall measurement uncertainty. It is possible that the control charts implemented for a given toolset suggest a healthy fleet while many of these demanding processes continue to suffer measurement uncertainty issues. This is especially true when extendibility is expected in a given generation of toolset. With this said, there is a need to continually improve the measurement uncertainty of the fleet until it can no longer meet the needed requirements at which point new technology needs to be entertained. This paper explores new methods in analyzing existing SPC monitor data to assess the measurement performance of the fleet and look for opportunities to drive improvements. Long term monitor data from a fleet of overlay and scatterometry tools will be analyzed. The paper also discusses using other methods besides SPC monitors to ensure the fleet stays matched; a set of SPC monitors provides a good baseline of fleet stability but it cannot represent all measurement scenarios happening in product recipes. The analyses presented deal with measurement uncertainty on non

  4. High-Mileage Light-Duty Fleet Vehicle Emissions: Their Potentially Overlooked Importance.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gary A; Stedman, Donald H; Burgard, Daniel A; Atkinson, Oscar

    2016-05-17

    State and local agencies in the United States use activity-based computer models to estimate mobile source emissions for inventories. These models generally assume that vehicle activity levels are uniform across all of the vehicle emission level classifications using the same age-adjusted travel fractions. Recent fuel-specific emission measurements from the SeaTac Airport, Los Angeles, and multi-year measurements in the Chicago area suggest that some high-mileage fleets are responsible for a disproportionate share of the fleet's emissions. Hybrid taxis at the airport show large increases in carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and oxide of nitrogen emissions in their fourth year when compared to similar vehicles from the general population. Ammonia emissions from the airport shuttle vans indicate that catalyst reduction capability begins to wane after 5-6 years, 3 times faster than is observed in the general population, indicating accelerated aging. In Chicago, the observed, on-road taxi fleet also had significantly higher emissions and an emissions share that was more than double their fleet representation. When compounded by their expected higher than average mileage accumulation, we estimate that these small fleets (<1% of total) may be overlooked as a significant emission source (>2-5% of fleet emissions). PMID:27137705

  5. High-Mileage Light-Duty Fleet Vehicle Emissions: Their Potentially Overlooked Importance.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gary A; Stedman, Donald H; Burgard, Daniel A; Atkinson, Oscar

    2016-05-17

    State and local agencies in the United States use activity-based computer models to estimate mobile source emissions for inventories. These models generally assume that vehicle activity levels are uniform across all of the vehicle emission level classifications using the same age-adjusted travel fractions. Recent fuel-specific emission measurements from the SeaTac Airport, Los Angeles, and multi-year measurements in the Chicago area suggest that some high-mileage fleets are responsible for a disproportionate share of the fleet's emissions. Hybrid taxis at the airport show large increases in carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and oxide of nitrogen emissions in their fourth year when compared to similar vehicles from the general population. Ammonia emissions from the airport shuttle vans indicate that catalyst reduction capability begins to wane after 5-6 years, 3 times faster than is observed in the general population, indicating accelerated aging. In Chicago, the observed, on-road taxi fleet also had significantly higher emissions and an emissions share that was more than double their fleet representation. When compounded by their expected higher than average mileage accumulation, we estimate that these small fleets (<1% of total) may be overlooked as a significant emission source (>2-5% of fleet emissions).

  6. Implementing the retrofitting plan for the European rail freight fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, P. H.; Bergendorff, M.; Brennan, M.; van der Zijpp, F.

    2006-06-01

    In 1998, the International Union of Railways (UIC) agreed on an Action Plan, proposing the retrofitting of the complete European rail freight fleet. Early 2003 the European Commission, Directorate General for Transport and Energy, commissioned the study reported here. The scope of the study was to supply an independent assessment of the conclusions of the UIC Action Plan and elaborate on implementation scenarios and funding options. The retrofitting of existing wagons, by an exchange of cast iron brake blocks with composition blocks, is the preferred option to achieve a substantial noise reduction. K-blocks have been homologated by UIC in 2003, but they require an expensive modification of the wagon. The opportunities for LL-blocks, an economically attractive alternative, are still being investigated to date. The retrofitting reflects some 600,000 wagons and, with an expected reduction of 10 dB(A), probably represents the largest single operation for traffic noise reduction ever. The process could best be combined with the maintenance cycle of freight wagons. In that case the process would require up to 10 years. Through a combination of funding options, the financial burden for wagons owners and freight operators could be softened.

  7. Modeling the Spatial Dynamics of International Tuna Fleets.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jenny; Hinton, Michael G; Webster, D G

    2016-01-01

    We developed an iterative sequential random utility model to investigate the social and environmental determinants of the spatiotemporal decision process of tuna purse-seine fishery fishing effort in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Operations of the fishing gear mark checkpoints in a continuous complex decision-making process. Individual fisher behavior is modeled by identifying diversified choices over decision-space for an entire fishing trip, which allows inclusion of prior and current vessel locations and conditions among the explanatory variables. Among these factors are vessel capacity; departure and arrival port; duration of the fishing trip; daily and cumulative distance travelled, which provides a proxy for operation costs; expected revenue; oceanographic conditions; and tons of fish on board. The model uses a two-step decision process to capture the probability of a vessel choosing a specific fishing region for the first set and the probability of switching to (or staying in) a specific region to fish before returning to its landing port. The model provides a means to anticipate the success of marine resource management, and it can be used to evaluate fleet diversity in fisher behavior, the impact of climate variability, and the stability and resilience of complex coupled human and natural systems. PMID:27537545

  8. Modeling the Spatial Dynamics of International Tuna Fleets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We developed an iterative sequential random utility model to investigate the social and environmental determinants of the spatiotemporal decision process of tuna purse-seine fishery fishing effort in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Operations of the fishing gear mark checkpoints in a continuous complex decision-making process. Individual fisher behavior is modeled by identifying diversified choices over decision-space for an entire fishing trip, which allows inclusion of prior and current vessel locations and conditions among the explanatory variables. Among these factors are vessel capacity; departure and arrival port; duration of the fishing trip; daily and cumulative distance travelled, which provides a proxy for operation costs; expected revenue; oceanographic conditions; and tons of fish on board. The model uses a two-step decision process to capture the probability of a vessel choosing a specific fishing region for the first set and the probability of switching to (or staying in) a specific region to fish before returning to its landing port. The model provides a means to anticipate the success of marine resource management, and it can be used to evaluate fleet diversity in fisher behavior, the impact of climate variability, and the stability and resilience of complex coupled human and natural systems. PMID:27537545

  9. Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.

    PubMed

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine. PMID:23288614

  10. A mixed fleet transportation system to low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Based on a provided mission model, this project considered three different classes of launch vehicles for possible use: (1) modifications to the current Space Transportation System, or replacement by a second-generation vehicle using current technology; (2) a heavy-lift cargo vehicle, designed to minimize the cost of bulk cargo to low earth orbit; and (3) an advanced man-rated system incorporating technology anticipated for the year 1995. The mission model provided included commercial, scientific, and military payloads for the years 1990 through 2010. Use of the current Space Transportation System was also permitted in the final fleet sizing analysis. The near-term shuttle group performed trade studies on a number of modifications and variations before selecting a new vehicle design, incorporating a fly-back reusable first stage and reduced-size orbiter. Orbiter payload was limited to 5000 kg (priority items), with up to 25,000 kg of payload carried in a forward payload bay within the nose shroud of the orbiter external tank. This allowed reduction of orbiter size, without significant loss of reusability.

  11. Mixed fleet assessment for on-orbit consumables resupply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.; Dominick, Sam M.

    1988-01-01

    Significant increases in the cost effectiveness and operational flexibility of in-space systems can be realized when the capability to replenish consumable fluids and propellants is incorporated into the designs of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and laboratories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellants to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the Space Station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks have been depleted. This paper documents the impacts of a mixed fleet approach to consumables logistics to orbit. Both storable fluids and propellants, and superfluid helium, are considered. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants and water for Space Station propulsion are discussed. Trade-offs in superfluid helium tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6 months) space-basing, are addressed.

  12. Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.

    PubMed

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine.

  13. Life management of aging Air Force aircraft: NDE perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordell, Tobey M.

    1995-07-01

    Continuing trends toward reduced procurement of new aircraft is forcing the United States Air Force (USAF) to extend the operational life of its current aircraft. In the past, the USAF operator was able to replace fleet aircraft on a fairly regular basis. This process has been drastically altered by the significant reductions in the Defense Department budget as a result of the end of the Cold War. The requirement to extend the fleet's operational life is placing greater importance on the ability to find, characterize, and ameliorate the deleterious effects of operation and maintenance. In addition, many aircraft are being asked to operate with changed mission requirements that were not envisioned when they were originally procured. The life management of the aging fleet is interwoven with the ability to utilize nondestructive evaluation (NDE) to identify and characterize changes in the materials and structures throughout their lifetime.

  14. Analysis of the vehicle fleet in the Kathmandu Valley for estimation of environment and climate co-benefits of technology intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Shreejan Ram; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Xu, Quishi; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2013-12-01

    Technologies and activities of the on-road traffic fleets, including bus, van, 3-wheeler, taxi and motorcycle (MC) in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, during 2010, were investigated with the aim to produce emission estimates, using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model, for the base year and for an optimistic technology scenario. The parking lot survey, GPS monitoring and video camera monitoring were conducted over four typical road types (arterial, highway, residential and outskirt roads). The average age of vehicles in the bus, van, 3-wheeler, taxi and MC fleet was 9, 8.7, 11, 9.5 and 4 years, respectively. There were some extremely old buses (over 40 years old) which had extremely high emission factors. Except for MCs that had a large share of Euro III technology (75%), other types of surveyed vehicles were at most Euro II or lower. The average vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) for each vehicle type was estimated based on odometer readings which showed comparable results with the GPS survey. The emission factors (EFs) produced by the IVE model for the driving and meteorological conditions in Kathmandu were used to estimate emissions for the base case of 2010. EFs in Kathmandu were higher than other developing cities, especially for PM and NOx from the bus fleet. Diurnal variations of the emissions were consistent with the diurnal vehicle density. From the fleet in 2010, total emissions of the major pollutants, i.e., CO, VOC, NOx, PM, BC, and CO2, were 31, 7.7, 16, 4.7, 2.1, and 1554 Gg, respectively. If the entire fleet in the Kathmandu Valley would comply with Euro III then the emission would decrease, as compared to the base case, by 44% for toxic air pollutants (excluding CO2) and 31% for climate-forcers in terms of the 20-year horizon CO2-equivalent. Future surveys should include other vehicle types such as trucks, personal cars, and non-road vehicles. The EFs obtained for the Euro III scenario in Kathmandu were well above those in other parts of the

  15. A Cross-Platform Comparison of Genome-Wide Expression Changes of Laser Microdissected Lung Tissue of C-Raf Transgenic Mice Using 3′IVT and Exon Array

    PubMed Central

    Londhe, Kishor Bapu; Borlak, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Microarrays are widely used to study genome-wide gene expression changes in different conditions most notably disease, growth, or to investigate the effects of drugs on entire genomes. While the number and gene probe sequences to investigate individual gene expression changes differs amongst manufactures, the design for all of the probes is biased towards the 3′ region. With the advent of exon arrays, transcripts of any known or predicted exon can be investigated to facilitate the study of genome-wide alternative splicing events. Thus, the use of exon arrays provides unprecedented opportunities in gene expression studies. However, it remains a major challenge to directly compare gene expression data derived from oligonucleotide to exon arrays. In the present study, genome-wide expression profiling of Laser Micro-dissected Pressure Catapulted (LMPC) samples of c-Raf mouse lung adenocarcinoma, dysplasia, unaltered transgenic and non-transgenic tissues was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array and whole genome Mouse Exon 1.0 ST Array. Based on individual group comparisons 52 to 83% of regulated genes were similar in direction, but fold changes of regulated genes disagreed when data amongst the two platforms were compared. Furthermore, for 27 regulated genes opposite direction of gene expression was observed when the two platforms were compared pointing to the need to assess alternative splicing events at the 3′ end. Taken collectively, exon arrays can be performed even with laser microdissected samples but fold change gene expression changes differ considerably between 3′IVT array and exon arrays with alternative splicing events contributing to apparent differences in gene expression changes. PMID:22815814

  16. Femtosecond laser flow tagging in non-air flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yibin; Calvert, Nathan

    2015-11-01

    The Femtosecond Laser Electronic Excitation Tagging (FLEET) [Michael, J. B. et al., Applied optics, 50(26), 2011] method is studied in nitrogen-containing gaseous flows. The underlying mechanism behind the FLEET process is the dissociation of molecular nitrogen into atomic nitrogen, which produces long-lived florescence as the nitrogen atoms recombine. Spectra and images of the resulting tagged line provide insight into the effects of different atmospheric gases on the FLEET process. The ionization cross-section, conductivity and energy states of the gaseous particles are each brought into consideration. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility for long-lived flow tagging on the order of hundreds of microseconds in non-air environments. Of particular interest are the enhancement of the FLEET signal with the addition of argon gas, and the non-monotonic quenching effect of oxygen on the length, duration and intensity of the resulting signal and spectra. FLEET is characterized in number of different atmospheric gases, including that simulating Mar's atmospheric composition.

  17. A comparative multi-fleet analysis of socio-economic indicators for fishery management in SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasalla, Maria A.; Rodrigues, Amanda R.; Duarte, Luis F. A.; Rashid Sumaila, U.

    2010-10-01

    One of the problems in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management is the lack of economic analyses which clearly define the performance of different fishing fleets within the system. We describe a comparative multi-fleet analysis of socio-economic indicators applicable for inclusion into ecosystem modeling and management. Based on a survey of different industrial fishing fleets in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, an inter-fleet comparison of economic attributes such as investment, fixed costs, effort, labour, sailing-related costs and profits, as well as a set of performance indicators, was conducted. Costs varied between fleets with fuel being the largest component on average, representing almost 37% of total costs. Similarities between fleets were driven by fuel costs, gross incomes and profits. In general, the best economic performance was associated with indicators of profitability and economic efficiency. Bottom-longliners and both surface and bottom-gillnet fleets showed the best economic performance per fishing trip due to their low percentage of variable costs. Purse-seiners and pink-shrimp trawlers had the lowest average rate of return and economic efficiency because of their high variable costs and relatively low catch values, and were considered economically net losers. However, in terms of jobs generated, purse-seiners had the greatest value creating about 49% of total jobs by all fleets. The sea-bob-shrimp fleet had the lowest crew size per vessel but generated the second highest total number of direct jobs (23%), with high economic viability as a whole. The inter-fleet cost and socio-economic performance analysis revealed that additional attention should be given to the poor profitability and overcapacity of fleets, fishing impacts, and open-access related issues, while social indicators may also be considered. This study provides information useful for evaluating different fisheries management scenarios and fleet size optimization in the South

  18. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  19. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 4, fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Fuel economy estimates are provided for the CleanFleet vans operated for two years by FedEx in Southern California. Between one and three vehicle manufacturers (Chevrolet, Dodge, and Ford) supplied vans powered by compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85), and unleaded gasoline as a control. Two electric G-Vans, manufactured by Conceptor Corporation, were supplied by Southern California Edison. Vehicle and engine technologies are representative of those available in early 1992. A total of 111 vans were assigned to FedEx delivery routes at five demonstration sites. The driver and route assignments were periodically rotated within each site to ensure that each vehicle would experience a range of driving conditions. Regression analysis was used to estimate the relationships between vehicle fuel economy and factors such as the number of miles driven and the number of delivery stops made each day. The energy adjusted fuel economy (distance per energy consumed) of the alternative fuel vans operating on a typical FedEx duty cycle was between 13 percent lower and 4 percent higher than that of control vans from the same manufacturer. The driving range of vans operating on liquid and gaseous alternative fuels was 1 percent to 59 percent lower than for vans operating on unleaded gasoline. The driving range of the electric G-Vans was less than 50 miles. These comparisons are affected to varying degrees by differences in engine technology used in the alterative fuel and control vehicles. Relative fuel economy results from dynamometer emissions tests were generally consistent with those obtained from FedEx operations.

  20. Space Weather studies with a fleet of ESA SREM monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdas, Wojtek; Evans, Hugh; Mohammadzadeh, Ali; Nieminen, Petteri; Desorgher, Laurent; Buehler, Paul; Daly, Eamonn

    2012-07-01

    Reliable observations and studies of Space Weather are based on precisely correlated network of specialized and well calibrated instruments. Such devices are able to provide simultaneously a set of 3D data encompassing large volume of the Earth magnetosphere. The fleet of ESA Standard Radiation Environment Monitors (SREM) is an example of such a network. SREM is a particle detector capable of detection of electrons (E > 500 keV) and protons (E > 8 MeV) with fair spectral and angular resolution. Six of them have been already launched onboard of Proba-1, Rosetta, INTEGRAL, Giove-B, Herschel and Planck missions. As single devices they are able to follow local Space Weather conditions providing accurate measurements of proton and electron spectra. As a network they allow for correlated observations of the radiation environments 3D variability. It includes not only the dynamics of the radiation belts but also propagation of Solar Energetic Particles as well as mapping of Forbusch decreases from coupling of Cosmic Rays and Coronal Mass Ejections. We present the SREM Data Bank open to the public and discuss its main features. Typical examples of the raw data corresponding to the physical phenomena listed above will also be shown. We will also discuss several data conversions algorithms leading to the particle spectra. A comparison between various methods such as simple algorithms, neural network or minimization will be discussed. Several other aspects of the SREM data analysis such as particle identification and separation or flux anisotropy level will also be addressed. Finally we provide short introduction for using of the SREM DB and its main analysis tools.

  1. Mitsubishi iMiEV: An Electric Mini-Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Mitsubishi iMiEV, an electric mini-car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's fast-charging research efforts, NREL engineers are conducting charge and discharge performance testing on the vehicle. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

  2. Tug fleet and ground operations schedules and controls. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This study presents Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls plan. This plan was developed and optimized out of a combination of individual Tug program phased subplans, special emphasis studies, contingency analyses and sensitivity analyses. The subplans cover the Tug program phases: (1) Tug operational, (2) Interim Upper Stage (IUS)/Tug fleet utilization, (3) and IUS/Tug payload integration, (4) Tug site activation, (5) IUS/Tug transition, (6) Tug acquisition. Resource requirements (facility, GSE, TSE, software, manpower, logistics) are provided in each subplan, as are appropriate Tug processing flows, active and total IUS and Tug fleet requirements, fleet management and Tug payload integration concepts, facility selection recommendations, site activation and IUS to Tug transition requirements. The impact of operational concepts on Tug acquisition is assessed and the impact of operating Tugs out of KSC and WTR is analyzed and presented showing WTR as a delta. Finally, cost estimates for fleet management and ground operations of the DDT&E and operational phases of the Tug program are given.

  3. Challenges and Opportunities of Air Quality Management in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramo, V.

    2013-05-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is located in the central plateau of Mexico and is the capital of the country. Its natural characteristics present favorable conditions for air pollution formation and accumulation: mountains surrounding the city, frequent thermal inversions, high isolation all around the year and weak winds. To these natural conditions, a population of more than 20 million inhabitants, a fleet of 4.5 million vehicles and more than 4 thousands industries, make air quality management a real challenge for governments of the region. Intensive air quality improvement actions and programs began at the end of the 1980's and continued nowadays. Since then criteria air pollutants concentrations have decreased in such a way that currently most of pollutants meet the Mexican air quality standards, except for ozone and particulate matter. Applied measures comprised of fuel quality improvements, fuel replacements, regulations for combustion processes, closing of high polluting refineries and industries, regulations of emissions for new and on road vehicles, mandatory I/M programs for vehicles, circulation restrictions for vehicles (Day without car program), alert program for elevated air pollution episodes, improvement of public transportation, among others. Recent researches (MILAGRO 2006 campaign) found that currently it is necessary to implement emissions reduction actions for Volatile Organic Compounds, particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers PM2.5 and Nitrogen Oxides, in order to reduce concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter. Among the new measures to be implemented are: regulations for VOCs emissions in the industry and commercial sectors; regulation of the diesel fleet that includes fleets renewal, filters and particulate traps for in use vehicles and regulation of the cargo fleet; new schemes for reducing the number of vehicles circulating in the city; implementation of non-motorized mobility programs; among

  4. A multiscale forecasting method for power plant fleet management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongmei

    In recent years the electric power industry has been challenged by a high level of uncertainty and volatility brought on by deregulation and globalization. A power producer must minimize the life cycle cost while meeting stringent safety and regulatory requirements and fulfilling customer demand for high reliability. Therefore, to achieve true system excellence, a more sophisticated system-level decision-making process with a more accurate forecasting support system to manage diverse and often widely dispersed generation units as a single, easily scaled and deployed fleet system in order to fully utilize the critical assets of a power producer has been created as a response. The process takes into account the time horizon for each of the major decision actions taken in a power plant and develops methods for information sharing between them. These decisions are highly interrelated and no optimal operation can be achieved without sharing information in the overall process. The process includes a forecasting system to provide information for planning for uncertainty. A new forecasting method is proposed, which utilizes a synergy of several modeling techniques properly combined at different time-scales of the forecasting objects. It can not only take advantages of the abundant historical data but also take into account the impact of pertinent driving forces from the external business environment to achieve more accurate forecasting results. Then block bootstrap is utilized to measure the bias in the estimate of the expected life cycle cost which will actually be needed to drive the business for a power plant in the long run. Finally, scenario analysis is used to provide a composite picture of future developments for decision making or strategic planning. The decision-making process is applied to a typical power producer chosen to represent challenging customer demand during high-demand periods. The process enhances system excellence by providing more accurate market

  5. Tug fleet and ground operations schedules and controls. Volume 2: part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls Study addresses both ground operational data and technical requirements that span the Tug planning phase and operations phase. A similar study covering mission operations (by others) provides the complimentary flight operations details. The two studies provide the planning data requirements, resource allocation, and control milestones for supporting the requirements of the STS program. This Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls Study incorporates the basic ground operations requirements and concepts provided by previous studies with the interrelationships of the planning, IUS transition, and Tug fleet operations phases. The interrelationships of these phases were studied as a system to optimize overall program benefits and minimize operational risk factors.

  6. Energy use and taxation policy in the New Zealand car fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    The report describes the composition of the New Zealand car fleet and the relationship between design factors, fleet composition, vehicle useage and fuel consumption. The indirect energy content of the vehicle and roadway are discussed. Existing and potential Government policy instruments for promoting fuel economy in the car fleet are discussed and evaluated. The report conclusions favor flat rate sales tax on vehicles regardless of engine size together with an appropriate level of petrol tax in preference to taxation that varies with vehicle size or engine capacity. A review of hire purchase regulations is proposed. Prior to publication of this report the Industries Development Commission Plan for the motor vehicle industry was released which proposes changes to the tariff, taxation and credit purchase regime applying to motor vehicles. These changes are summarized.

  7. Selection and implementation of a flagship fleet in a locally undervalued region of high endemicity.

    PubMed

    Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Armesto, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Flagships are one conservation education tool. We present a proposed flagship species fleet for environmental education in central Chile. Our methods followed recent flagship guidelines. We present our selection process and a detailed justification for the fleet of flagship species that we selected. Our results are a list of eight flagship species forming a flagship fleet, including two small- and medium-sized mammals, the degu (Octodon degus) and the culpeo fox (Lycalopex culpeaus), two birds, the turca (Pteroptochos megapoidius) and the burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia), the Chilean iguana (Calopistes palluma), the tarantula (Grammostola mollicoma), and two trees, the litre (Lithrea caustica) and the espino (Acacia caven). We then describe how these flagships can be deployed most effectively, describing their audience, effective narrative frames, and modes of presentation. We conclude that general selection rules paired with social science background data allow for an efficient selection process. PMID:23479265

  8. Integrated operations/payloads/fleet analysis. Volume 5: Mission, capture and operations analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The current baseline mission model consists of the DOD Option B prepared for space transportation system mission analysis and a NASA model prepared for the integrated operations /payloads/ fleet analysis. Changes from the previous mission model are discussed, and additional benefits of the reusable space shuttle system are identified. The methodology and assumptions used in the capture analysis are described, and satellite and launch vehicle traffic models for the current and low cost expendable launch vehicle systems and the reusable space shuttle system are presented. The areas of fleet sizing, limitations and abort modes, system ground support requirements, and ground support systems assessment are covered. Current and extended launch azimuth limitations used for both ETR and WTR are presented for the current and low cost expendable vehicles and also the reusable space shuttle system. The results of a survey of launch support capability for the launch vehicle fleets are reported.

  9. Deriving and validating a road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet passive safety.

    PubMed

    Page, Marianne; Rackliff, Lucy

    2006-01-01

    Road safety performance indicators (RSPI) are policy tools which describe the extent of insecure operational safety conditions within traffic systems. This study describes the production of an RSPI which represents the presence within a country's vehicle fleet, of vehicles that may not effectively protect an occupant in a collision. This work is highly original, as it uses the entire vehicle database of European Union Member States in order to estimate the average level of passive safety offered by the entire fleet in each country. The EuroNCAP safety ratings and vehicle age of each vehicle in each fleet have been obtained to calculate the RSPI. The methodology used could be adopted as an international standard.

  10. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's fleet services department.

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Anastasia Dawn

    2003-06-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Fleet Services Department between December 2001 and August 2002. This is the third PPOA conducted at Fleet in the last decade. The primary purpose of this PPOA was to review progress of past initiatives and to provide recommendations for future waste reduction measures of hazardous and solid waste streams and increasing the purchase of environmentally friendly products. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Pollution Prevention Group will work with SNL/NM's Fleet Services to implement these options.

  11. Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

  12. Selection and implementation of a flagship fleet in a locally undervalued region of high endemicity.

    PubMed

    Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Armesto, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Flagships are one conservation education tool. We present a proposed flagship species fleet for environmental education in central Chile. Our methods followed recent flagship guidelines. We present our selection process and a detailed justification for the fleet of flagship species that we selected. Our results are a list of eight flagship species forming a flagship fleet, including two small- and medium-sized mammals, the degu (Octodon degus) and the culpeo fox (Lycalopex culpeaus), two birds, the turca (Pteroptochos megapoidius) and the burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia), the Chilean iguana (Calopistes palluma), the tarantula (Grammostola mollicoma), and two trees, the litre (Lithrea caustica) and the espino (Acacia caven). We then describe how these flagships can be deployed most effectively, describing their audience, effective narrative frames, and modes of presentation. We conclude that general selection rules paired with social science background data allow for an efficient selection process.

  13. Greenhouse gas implications of fleet electrification based on big data-informed individual travel patterns.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hua; Xu, Ming

    2013-08-20

    Environmental implications of fleet electrification highly depend on the adoption and utilization of electric vehicles at the individual level. Past research has been constrained by using aggregated data to assume all vehicles with the same travel pattern as the aggregated average. This neglects the inherent heterogeneity of individual travel behaviors and may lead to unrealistic estimation of environmental impacts of fleet electrification. Using "big data" mining techniques, this research examines real-time vehicle trajectory data for 10,375 taxis in Beijing in one week to characterize the travel patterns of individual taxis. We then evaluate the impact of adopting plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in the taxi fleet on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions based on the characterized individual travel patterns. The results indicate that 1) the largest gasoline displacement (1.1 million gallons per year) can be achieved by adopting PHEVs with modest electric range (approximately 80 miles) with current battery cost, limited public charging infrastructure, and no government subsidy; 2) reducing battery cost has the largest impact on increasing the electrification rate of vehicle mileage traveled (VMT), thus increasing gasoline displacement, followed by diversified charging opportunities; 3) government subsidies can be more effective to increase the VMT electrification rate and gasoline displacement if targeted to PHEVs with modest electric ranges (80 to 120 miles); and 4) while taxi fleet electrification can increase greenhouse gas emissions by up to 115 kiloton CO2-eq per year with the current grid in Beijing, emission reduction of up to 36.5 kiloton CO2-eq per year can be achieved if the fuel cycle emission factor of electricity can be reduced to 168.7 g/km. Although the results are based on a specific public fleet, this study demonstrates the benefit of using large-scale individual-based trajectory data (big data) to better understand environmental implications

  14. Greenhouse gas implications of fleet electrification based on big data-informed individual travel patterns.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hua; Xu, Ming

    2013-08-20

    Environmental implications of fleet electrification highly depend on the adoption and utilization of electric vehicles at the individual level. Past research has been constrained by using aggregated data to assume all vehicles with the same travel pattern as the aggregated average. This neglects the inherent heterogeneity of individual travel behaviors and may lead to unrealistic estimation of environmental impacts of fleet electrification. Using "big data" mining techniques, this research examines real-time vehicle trajectory data for 10,375 taxis in Beijing in one week to characterize the travel patterns of individual taxis. We then evaluate the impact of adopting plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in the taxi fleet on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions based on the characterized individual travel patterns. The results indicate that 1) the largest gasoline displacement (1.1 million gallons per year) can be achieved by adopting PHEVs with modest electric range (approximately 80 miles) with current battery cost, limited public charging infrastructure, and no government subsidy; 2) reducing battery cost has the largest impact on increasing the electrification rate of vehicle mileage traveled (VMT), thus increasing gasoline displacement, followed by diversified charging opportunities; 3) government subsidies can be more effective to increase the VMT electrification rate and gasoline displacement if targeted to PHEVs with modest electric ranges (80 to 120 miles); and 4) while taxi fleet electrification can increase greenhouse gas emissions by up to 115 kiloton CO2-eq per year with the current grid in Beijing, emission reduction of up to 36.5 kiloton CO2-eq per year can be achieved if the fuel cycle emission factor of electricity can be reduced to 168.7 g/km. Although the results are based on a specific public fleet, this study demonstrates the benefit of using large-scale individual-based trajectory data (big data) to better understand environmental implications

  15. Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

    2009-05-01

    Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

  16. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA White Sands Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  17. MPC and A enhancements for the Murmansk shipping company icebreaker fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoch, O; Bondarev, N; Caskey, D; Forehand, M; Lambert, D; Maltsev, V; O'Brien, M: Gardner, B; Tittemore, G

    1999-07-06

    The United States and the Russian Federation entered into a cooperative agreement in 1994 that resulted in a nuclear weapons non-proliferation program within the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE) currently known as the Russia/Newly Independent States (NIS) Nuclear Material Security Task Force. In 1996, a project was initiated with the Murmansk Shipping Company to enhance material protection, control, and accounting of highly enriched nuclear fuel assemblies used for the Icebreaker Fleet. The commissioning ceremony for this project is scheduled for August 1999. This paper describes the physical protection, material control, and accounting measures implemented for the Icebreaker Fleet.

  18. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Glenn Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2014-10-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  19. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for National Institute of Health

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the National Institute of Health (NIH) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  20. Lessons from cross-fleet/cross-airline observations - Evaluating the impact of CRM/LOFT training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Roy E.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the crew resource management/line oriented flight training (CRM/LOFT) program to help determine the level of standardization across fleets and airlines in the critical area of evaluating crew behavior and performance. One of the goals of the project is to verify that check airmen and LOFT instructors within organizations are evaluating CRM issues consistently and that differences observed between fleets are not a function of idiosyncracies on the part of observers. Attention is given to the research tools for crew evaluation.

  1. [Comorbidity profile of the Russian Northern fleet flying personnel disqualified for health reasons].

    PubMed

    Miloshevskiy, A V; Myznikov, I L

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of 202 medical histories of the Northern fleet naval pilots suggested the necessity to introduce the criteria of comorbidity number and formulation. It has been found that psychosomatic diseases (up to 60% of the cases) with the pathogenesis engendered by stress factor remain the leading cause for medical disqualification of Northern fleet naval pilots. The authors recommend changing over the nosologic diagnostics to physiological to optimize the aeromedical certification process. Probabilistic modeling of chronic pathology pathogenesis may be viewed as a foundation stone for programming as part of the pilots' anti-risk rehabilitation technology.

  2. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC...

  3. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC...

  4. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC...

  5. 40 CFR 86.001-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject to adjustment for certification and..., and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas...; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject to adjustment for certification...

  6. 40 CFR 86.001-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject to adjustment for certification and..., and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas...; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject to adjustment for certification...

  7. 40 CFR 86.001-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject to adjustment for certification and..., and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas...; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject to adjustment for certification...

  8. 40 CFR 86.001-22 - Approval of application for certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... certification; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject to adjustment for certification and..., and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas...; test fleet selections; determinations of parameters subject to adjustment for certification...

  9. 49 CFR 37.185 - Fleet accessibility requirement for OTRB fixed-route systems of large operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37... percent of the buses in its fleet with which it provides fixed-route service are readily accessible to and..., 2012, 100 percent of the buses in its fleet with which it provides fixed-route service are...

  10. 49 CFR 37.185 - Fleet accessibility requirement for OTRB fixed-route systems of large operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37... percent of the buses in its fleet with which it provides fixed-route service are readily accessible to and..., 2012, 100 percent of the buses in its fleet with which it provides fixed-route service are...

  11. 40 CFR 80.62 - Vehicle test procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 86, with gasoline conforming to requirements detailed in 40 CFR 86.113-90. The results shall... vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets. 80.62 Section 80.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Gasoline § 80.62 Vehicle test procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets. One of the...

  12. A Performance-Oriented Electronics Technician Training Program. V. Final Fleet Follow-Up Evaluation of Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Nicholas H.; Harrigan, Robert J.

    An investigation was made of the job proficiency of the graduates of an experimental job-oriented training program for Electronics Technician (X-ET). This program was designed to train lower-aptitude personnel in a relatively shorter time to assume ET duties in the fleet. The fleet performance capabilities of 51 X-ET's and a matched sample of 43…

  13. 41 CFR 102-34.70 - What do we do with completed calculations of our fleet vehicle acquisitions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What do we do with completed calculations of our fleet vehicle acquisitions? 102-34.70 Section 102-34.70 Public Contracts and... What do we do with completed calculations of our fleet vehicle acquisitions? You must maintain...

  14. 76 FR 1665 - Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ...: On December 29, 2010, at 75 FR 82141, the Maritime Administration (MARAD) published notice of three... Maritime Administration Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study... Administration's U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study. MARAD inadvertently listed the incorrect...

  15. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC...

  16. Methods of characterizing the distribution of exhaust emissions from light-duty, gasoline-powered motor vehicles in the U.S. fleet.

    PubMed

    Fulper, Carl R; Kishan, Sandeep; Baldauf, Richard W; Sabisch, Michael; Warila, Jim; Fujit, Eric M; Scarbro, Carl; Crews, William S; Snow, Richard; Gabele, Peter; Santos, Robert; Tierney, Eugene; Cantrell, Bruce

    2010-11-01

    Mobile sources significantly contribute to ambient concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM). Source apportionment studies for PM10 (PM < or = 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) indicate that mobile sources can be responsible for over half of the ambient PM measured in an urban area. Recent source apportionment studies attempted to differentiate between contributions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicle combustion. Several source apportionment studies conducted in the United States suggested that gasoline combustion from mobile sources contributed more to ambient PM than diesel combustion. However, existing emission inventories for the United States indicated that diesels contribute more than gasoline vehicles to ambient PM concentrations. A comprehensive testing program was initiated in the Kansas City metropolitan area to measure PM emissions in the light-duty, gasoline-powered, on-road mobile source fleet to provide data for PM inventory and emissions modeling. The vehicle recruitment design produced a sample that could represent the regional fleet, and by extension, the national fleet. All vehicles were recruited from a stratified sample on the basis of vehicle class (car, truck) and model-year group. The pool of available vehicles was drawn primarily from a sample of vehicle owners designed to represent the selected demographic and geographic characteristics of the Kansas City population. Emissions testing utilized a portable, light-duty chassis dynamometer with vehicles tested using the LA-92 driving cycle, on-board emissions measurement systems, and remote sensing devices. Particulate mass emissions were the focus of the study, with continuous and integrated samples collected. In addition, sample analyses included criteria gases (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide/nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons), air toxics (speciated volatile organic compounds), and PM constituents (elemental

  17. 41 CFR 102-34.335 - How do I submit information to the General Services Administration (GSA) for the Federal Fleet...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information to the General Services Administration (GSA) for the Federal Fleet Report (FFR)? 102-34.335... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report... Fleet Report (FFR)? (a) Annually, agencies must submit to GSA the information needed to produce the...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas....1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks. (a) Fleet average NMOG standards and compliance. (1) Each manufacturer...

  19. Assessing the Link between Environmental Concerns and Consumers' Decisions to Use Clean-Air Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plax, Timothy G.; Kearney, Patricia; Ross, Ted J.; Jolly, J. Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A consulting contract with the California Air Resources Board led to a project examining how California drivers' and fleet managers' perceptions, attitudes, and consumer behavior regarding Clean Vehicle Technologies influenced their own energy choices when it came to purchasing vehicles. The consultants examined archival research, conducted focus…

  20. Computer-Assisted Performance Evaluation for Navy Anti-Air Warfare Training: Concepts, Methods, and Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesler, David J.

    An improved general methodological approach for the development of computer-assisted evaluation of trainee performance in the computer-based simulation environment is formulated in this report. The report focuses on the Tactical Advanced Combat Direction and Electronic Warfare system (TACDEW) at the Fleet Anti-Air Warfare Training Center at San…

  1. 76 FR 34801 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In... (PATH) has requested the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) grant a modification of the single car... FRA-2010-0174. PATH operates a fleet of 25 flat cars in consist with revenue cars utilized...

  2. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34.55 Section 102-34.55 Public Contracts and Property... average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes. 49 U.S.C. 32917 and Executive Order 12375 require that each executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January 1...

  3. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34.55 Section 102-34.55 Public Contracts and Property... average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes. 49 U.S.C. 32917 and Executive Order 12375 require that each executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January 1...

  4. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34.55 Section 102-34.55 Public Contracts and Property... average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes. 49 U.S.C. 32917 and Executive Order 12375 require that each executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January 1...

  5. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34.55 Section 102-34.55 Public Contracts and Property... average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes. 49 U.S.C. 32917 and Executive Order 12375 require that each executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January 1...

  6. 77 FR 75257 - Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty... medium- and heavy-duty truck fleet managers. DATES: Comments must be received within 60 days of... Information Collection: New collection. OMB Control Number: To be issued at time of approval. Title:...

  7. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34.55 Section 102-34.55 Public Contracts and Property... average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes. 49 U.S.C. 32917 and Executive Order 12375 require that each executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January 1...

  8. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 51.204 Section 51.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations... system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services shall comply with the requirements of 41 CFR 101-39 and...

  9. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 51.204 Section 51.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations... system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services shall comply with the requirements of 41 CFR 101-39 and...

  10. 41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.300 Section 102-34.300 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Disposal of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.300 How do we dispose of a...

  11. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 51.204 Section 51.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations... system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services shall comply with the requirements of 41 CFR 101-39 and...

  12. 41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.300 Section 102-34.300 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Disposal of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.300 How do we dispose of a...

  13. INL Fleet Vehicle Characterization Study for the U.S. Department of Navy

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Brion Dale; Francfort, James Edward; Smart, John Galloway

    2015-09-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC collected and evaluated data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate use of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on US Department of Navy's fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  14. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, A.

    2011-04-01

    A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

  15. Fleet DNA Phase 1 Refinement & Phase 2 Implementation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Kenneth; Duran, Adam

    2015-06-11

    Fleet DNA acts as a secure data warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle data. It demonstrates that vehicle drive cycle data can be collected and stored for large-scale analysis and modeling applications. The data serve as a real-world data source for model development and validation. Storage of the results of past/present/future data collection efforts improves analysis efficiency through pooling of shared data and provides the opportunity for 'big data' type analyses. Fleet DNA shows it is possible to develop a common database structure that can store/analyze/report on data sourced from multiple parties, each with unique data formats/types. Data filtration and normalization algorithms developed for the project allow for a wide range of data types and inputs, expanding the project’s potential. Fleet DNA demonstrates the power of integrating Big Data with existing and future tools and analyses: it provides an enhanced understanding and education of users, users can explore greenhouse gases and economic opportunities via AFLEET and ADOPT modeling, drive cycles can be characterized and visualized using DRIVE, high-level vehicle modeling can be performed using real-world drive cycles via FASTSim, and data reporting through Fleet DNA Phase 1 and 2 websites provides external users access to analysis results and gives the opportunity to explore on their own.

  16. Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.

    2000-11-07

    In 1998, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, a public transit agency in Dallas, Texas, began operating a large fleet of heavy-duty buses powered by liquefied natural gas. As part of a $16 million commitment to alternative fuels, DART operates 139 LNG buses serviced by two new LNG fueling stations.

  17. 33 CFR 165.163 - Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week. 165.163 Section 165.163 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation...

  18. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  19. Optimizing Multibeam Data Across the U.S. Academic Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrini, V.; Beaudoin, J.; Johnson, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    Multibeam sonars are fundamental mapping tools for a wide range of oceanographic studies throughout the global oceans. Initially installed on only a few academic research vessels, they have become standard sensors across global- and ocean-class ships in the U.S. academic research fleet. While ongoing efforts including the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R, http://rvdata.us) and the Global Multi-Resolution Topography Synthesis (GMRT, http://www.marine-geo.org/portals/gmrt) are focused on data documentation, preservation, synthesis and dissemination, the Multibeam Advisory Committee (MAC, http://mac.unols.org) was recently established with the primary goal of optimizing multibeam data quality during acquisition. Our strategy is to engage operators, technical specialists and users to develop common protocols, guidelines and tools for use across the fleet. Technical teams are focused on specific aspects of multibeam sonar operation and maintenance, including Sea Acceptance, Acoustic Noise, and Quality Assurance. Key to our effort is working with the community of stakeholders to ensure that protocols and tools suit the needs of the community and can be easily implemented across the fleet. Although MAC efforts are initially focused on deep water systems in the US Academic Research Fleet, we recognize that our community of stakeholders is much broader and also includes operators and users of shallow water. All MAC-generated reports, guidelines and software tools, as well as links to related online resources are being made publicly available through the MAC website (http://mac.unols.org).

  20. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transporation Program - State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets: Frequently Asked Questions

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-01

    Factsheet answering frequently asked questions about the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (the Program) that implements provisions of Titles III–V of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). Answers to questions that are frequently asked about the Program by managers of state government and alternative fuel provider fleets are provided in the factsheet.

  1. New Trends in Robotics for Agriculture: Integration and Assessment of a Real Fleet of Robots

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis. PMID:25143976

  2. Geospatial Analysis and Optimization of Fleet Logistics to Exploit Alternative Fuels and Advanced Transportation Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, W.; Singer, M.

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is developing geographical information system (GIS) tools to evaluate alternative fuel availability in relation to garage locations and to perform automated fleet-wide optimization to determine where to deploy alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles and fueling infrastructure.

  3. New trends in robotics for agriculture: integration and assessment of a real fleet of robots.

    PubMed

    Emmi, Luis; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis. PMID:25143976

  4. 77 FR 40521 - Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... 165.1330 (76 FR 30014), the Coast Guard described these areas, which include the area north and south... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week...

  5. 76 FR 47996 - Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... July 11, 2011 the Coast Guard published a temporary final rule in the Federal Register (76 FR 40617... the temporary final rule FR Doc. 2011-17261, beginning on page 40617 in the Federal Register issue of... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels,...

  6. 78 FR 64499 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... management system vehicles. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 78 FR 23935, on April 23, 2013... Register on March 5, 2010 (75 FR 10267). No public comments were received in prior years that have... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles...

  7. Relationships among Student Ability, School Performance, and Fleet Supervisor Ratings for Navy "A" School Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freda, Jon S.; And Others

    This report evaluates the effectiveness and efficiency of individualized instruction compared to conventional instruction. The report provides information concerning relationships among student ability, school performance, and fleet supervisory ratings for 5,811 graduates of 19 Navy "A" schools and three pre-"A" school basic courses. The graduates…

  8. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  9. New trends in robotics for agriculture: integration and assessment of a real fleet of robots.

    PubMed

    Emmi, Luis; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis.

  10. Guidelines for the Establishment of a Model Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Roberta Brayer; Donald Karner; Kevin Morrow; James Francfort

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in both track and fleet testing environments. NEVs, which are also known as low speed vehicles, are light-duty vehicles with top speeds of between 20 and 25 mph, and total gross vehicle weights of approximately 2,000 pounds or less. NEVs have been found to be very viable alternatives to internal combustion engine vehicles based on their low operating costs. However, special charging infrastructure is usually necessary for successful NEV fleet deployment. Maintenance requirements are also unique to NEVs, especially if flooded lead acid batteries are used as they have watering requirements that require training, personnel protection equipment, and adherence to maintenance schedules. This report provides guidelines for fleet managers to follow in order to successfully introduce and operate NEVs in fleet environments. This report is based on the NEV testing and operational experience of personnel from the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Electric Transportation Applications, and the Idaho National Laboratory.

  11. 33 CFR 165.1121 - Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. 165.1121 Section 165.1121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.1121 Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: the waters of San Diego Bay extending approximately...

  12. The potential impacts of electric vehicles on air quality in the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soret, A.; Guevara, M.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    This work analyses the potential air quality improvements resulting from three fleet electrification scenarios (∼13, 26 and 40%) by replacing conventional vehicles with Electric Battery Vehicles (EBVs), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). This study has been performed for the cities of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain), where road transport is the primary emission source. In these urban areas, several air quality problems are present, mainly related to NO2 and particulate matter. The WRF-ARW/HERMESv2/CMAQ model system has been applied at high spatial (1 × 1 km2) and temporal (1 h) resolution. The results show that fleet electrification offers a potential for emission abatement, especially related to NOx and CO. Regarding the more ambitious scenario (∼40% fleet electrification), reductions of 11% and 17% of the total NOx emissions are observed in Barcelona and Madrid respectively. These emissions reductions involve air quality improvements in NO2 maximum hourly values up to 16%: reductions up to 30 and 35 μg m-3 in Barcelona and Madrid, respectively. Furthermore, an additional scenario has been defined considering electric generation emissions associated with EBVs and PHEVs charging from a combined-cycle power plant. These charging emissions would produce slight NO2 increases in the downwind areas of <3 μg m-3. Thus, fleet electrification would improve urban air quality even when considering emissions associated with charging electric vehicles. However, two further points should be considered. First, fleet electrification cannot be considered a unique solution, and other management strategies may be defined. This is especially important with respect to particulate matter emissions, which are not significantly reduced by fleet electrification (<5%) due to the high weight of non-exhaust emissions. Second, a significant introduction of electric vehicles (26-40%) involving all vehicle categories is required to improve urban

  13. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  14. Air Quality in Mexico City: Policies Implemented for its Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramo, V.

    2007-12-01

    Ozone and suspended particles (PM) are two pollutants in the atmosphere of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) that still exceed the recommended Mexican health standards. The other criteria pollutants very seldom exceed their corresponding standards. In 2006, the maximum ozone concentrations were above the health standard (0.11 ppm in 1 hour) during 59 percent of the days for an average of 2.2 hours and 130 points of the Air Quality Index (Índice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire - IMECA). In contrast, in 1991, 98 percent of the days exceeded the ozone health standard for an average of 6.6 hours and 200 IMECA points. With regards to PM10, in 2006, 80 percent of the sampled concentrations were below the health standard of 120 µg/m3 in 24 hours. However, the annual health standard of 50 µg/m3 is still exceeded. The air quality management in the MCMA is a difficult task due to several adverse factors. The main one is the large population that increased from nearly 15 million in 1992 to more than 18 million at present. As a result, the urban area grows in the adjoined municipalities of the State of Mexico. The vehicular fleet increases also to almost 4 million and the number of industrial facilities is at present 50,000. Consequently, the fuel consumption is very high. The daily energy consumption is estimated to be 44 million liters of equivalent of gasoline. Despite the fact that the air quality has improved in recent years, the related health standards are still exceeded and therefore it is necessary to continue applying the most cost-effective actions to improve the environment quality. Some actions that have contributed most to the reduction of pollutant emissions are the following: Continuous update of the inspection and maintenance program of the vehicular fleet; substitution of the catalytic converters at the end of their useful life; self-regulation of the diesel fleet; use of alternative fuels; update the No-Driving-Day program; establishment of more

  15. CRAF Mission: An opportunity for exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, Marcia; Weissman, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The Halley missions of 1986 gave us a first, quick glimpse of a comet nucleus and the first in situ measurements of cometary gas and dust. Many of our basic ideas about cometary nuclei were confirmed while a number of startling new discoveries were also made. However, in many respects the very fast Halley flybys raised more questions than they answered. We learned, for example, that comets contain a large amount of organic material but we were unable to determine precisely which organic molecules were present. We learned, too, that the nucleus of a comet is a dark, irregularly shaped body, but we could determine very little about the physical state and structure of the ices and grains within the comet nucleus.

  16. Dual-Fuel Truck Fleet: Start-Up Experience

    SciTech Connect

    NREL

    1998-09-30

    Although dual-fuel engine technology has been in development and limited use for several years, it has only recently moved toward full-scale operational capability for heavy-duty truck applications. Unlike a bifuel engine, which has two separate fuel systems that are used one at a time, a dual-fuel engine uses two fuel systems simultaneously. One of California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) current programs is a demonstration of dual-fuel engine technology in heavy-duty trucks. These trucks are being studied as part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Alternative Fuel Truck Program. This report describes the start-up experience from the program.

  17. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  18. Application of FLEET Velocimetry in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Halls, Benjamin R.; Jiang, Naibo

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation and tagging (FLEET) velocimetry is demonstrated in a large-scale transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Test conditions include total pressures, total temperatures, and Mach numbers ranging from 15 to 58 psia, 200 to 295 K, and 0.2 to 0.75, respectively. Freestream velocity measurements exhibit accuracies within 1 percent and precisions better than 1 m/s. The measured velocities adhere closely to isentropic flow theory over the domain of temperatures and pressures that were tested. Additional velocity measurements are made within the tunnel boundary layer; virtual trajectories traced out by the FLEET signal are indicative of the characteristic turbulent behavior in this region of the flow, where the unsteadiness increases demonstrably as the wall is approached. Mean velocities taken within the boundary layer are in agreement with theoretical velocity profiles, though the fluctuating velocities exhibit a greater deviation from theoretical predictions.

  19. Electric Vehicle Preparedness: Task 1, Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies were conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 included a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization will be used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure.

  20. AVTA federal fleet PEV readiness data logging and characterization study for the National Park Service: Grand Canyon National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim; Nienhueser, Ian

    2014-08-01

    This report focuses on the Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  1. Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

  2. INL receives GreenGov Presidential Award for fleet fuel efficiency improvements

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Idaho National Laboratory has received a 2010 GreenGov Presidential Award for outstanding achievement in fuel efficiency in its bus and automotive fleets. The award was presented today in Washington, D.C., as part of a three-day symposium on improving sustainability and energy efficiency across the federal government. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  3. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Puneet; Casey, Dan

    2011-03-29

    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14286 by Chevron Technology Ventures (CTV, a division of Chevron U.S.A., Inc.), Hyundai Motor Company (HMC), and UTC Power (UTCP, a United Technologies company) to validate hydrogen (H2) infrastructure technology and fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Chevron established hydrogen filling stations at fleet operator sites using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage, and dispensing. CTV constructed five demonstration stations to support a vehicle fleet of 33 fuel cell passenger vehicles, eight internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, three fuel cell transit busses, and eight internal combustion engine shuttle busses. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2010. HMC introduced 33 fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV) in the course of the project. Generation I included 17 vehicles that used UTCP fuel cell power plants and operated at 350 bar. Generation II included 16 vehicles that had upgraded UTC fuel cell power plants and demonstrated options such as the use of super-capacitors and operation at 700 bar. All 33 vehicles used the Hyundai Tucson sports utility vehicle (SUV) platform. Fleet operators demonstrated commercial operation of the vehicles in three climate zones (hot, moderate, and cold) and for various driving patterns. Fleet operators were Southern California Edison (SCE), AC Transit (of Oakland, California), Hyundai America Technical Center Inc. (HATCI), and the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC, in a site agreement with Selfridge Army National Guard Base in Selfridge, Michigan).

  4. Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-03-19

    Natural gas is a clean-burning, abundant, and domestically produced source of energy. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has recently garnered interest as a transportation fuel because of these attributes and because of its cost savings and price stability compared to conventional petroleum fuels. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Vehicle Infrastructure and Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) model to help businesses and fleets evaluate the financial soundness of CNG vehicle and CNG fueling infrastructure projects.

  5. Non-linear Total Energy Optimisation of a Fleet of Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolle, Lars; Biegler-König, Friedrich; Deeskow, Peter

    In order to optimise the energy production in a fleet of power plants, it is necessary to solve a mixed integer optimisation problem. Traditionally, the continuous parts of the problem are linearized and a Simplex scheme is applied. Alternatively, heuristic "bionic" optimisation methods can be used without having to linearize the problem. Weare going to demonstrate this approach by modelling power plant blocks with fast Neural Networks and optimising the operation of multi-block power plants over one day with Simulated Annealing.

  6. INL receives GreenGov Presidential Award for fleet fuel efficiency improvements

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory has received a 2010 GreenGov Presidential Award for outstanding achievement in fuel efficiency in its bus and automotive fleets. The award was presented today in Washington, D.C., as part of a three-day symposium on improving sustainability and energy efficiency across the federal government. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  7. Application of fleet ballistic missile components/designs for expendable launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grizzell, Norman E.

    This paper describes the orbital performance and configuration attributes of an expendable launch vehicle (ELV) derived from flight-qualified components. Representative logistical and programmatic data are also provided. The backbone of the ELV program described is the cost-effective use of proven Fleet Ballistic Missile components/designs coupled with other high confidence 'off-the-shelf' equipment. The ELV defined can place over a thousand pounds (1000 lb) of spacecraft (payload) into Low Earth Orbit.

  8. Refueling Behavior of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Drivers in the Federal Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, R.; Nangle, J.; Boeckman, G.; Miller, M.

    2014-05-01

    Federal fleets are a frequent subject of legislative and executive efforts to lead a national transition to alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Section 701 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that all dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles in the federal fleet be operated on alternative fuel 100% of the time when they have access to it. However, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, drivers of federal flex fuel vehicles (FFV) leased through the General Services Administration refueled with E85 24% of the time when it was available--falling well short of the mandate. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory completed a 2-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to identify the factors that influence the refueling behavior of federal FFV drivers. The project began with two primary hypotheses. First, information scarcity increases the tendency to miss opportunities to purchase E85. Second, even with perfect information, there are limits to how far drivers will go out of their way to purchase E85. This paper discusses the results of the project, which included a June 2012 survey of federal fleet drivers and an empirical analysis of actual refueling behavior from FY 2009 to 2012. This research will aid in the design and implementation of intervention programs aimed at increasing alternative fuel use and reducing petroleum consumption.

  9. Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, George

    2015-03-01

    VICE 2.0 is the second generation of the VICE financial model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for fleet managers to assess the financial soundness of converting their fleets to run on CNG. VICE 2.0 uses a number of variables for infrastructure and vehicles to estimate the business case for decision-makers when considering CNG as a vehicle fuel. Enhancements in version 2.0 include the ability to select the project type (vehicles and infrastructure or vehicle acquisitions only), and to decouple vehicle acquisition from the infrastructure investment, so the two investments may be made independently. Outputs now include graphical presentations of investment cash flow, payback period (simple and discounted), petroleum displacement (annual and cumulative), and annual greenhouse gas reductions. Also, the Vehicle Data are now built around several common conventionally fueled (gasoline and diesel) fleet vehicles. Descriptions of the various model sections and available inputs follow. Each description includes default values for the base-case business model, which was created so economic sensitivities can be investigated by altering various project parameters one at a time.

  10. The Neural Mechanisms of Social Learning from Fleeting Experience with Pain

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yang-Teng; Chen, Chenyi; Cheng, Yawei

    2016-01-01

    Social learning is critical for humans to adapt and cope with rapidly changing surroundings. Although, neuroscience has focused on associative learning and pain empathy, the neural mechanisms of social learning through fleeting pain remains to be determined. This functional MRI study included three participant groups, to investigate how the neuro-hemodynamic response and subjective evaluation in response to the observation of hand actions were modulated by first-hand experience (FH), as well as indirect experience through social-observational (SO), and verbal-informed (VI) learning from fleeting pain. The results indicated, that these three learning groups share the common neuro-hemodynamic activations in the brain regions implicated in emotional awareness, memory, mentalizing, perspective taking, and emotional regulation. The anterior insular cortex (AIC) was commonly activated during these learning procedures. The amygdala was only activated by the FH. Dynamic causal modeling further indicated, that the SO and VI learning exhibited weaker connectivity strength from the AIC to superior frontal gyrus than did the FH. These findings demonstrate, that social learning elicits distinct neural responses from associative learning. The ontogeny of human empathy could be better understood with social learning from fleeting experience with pain. PMID:26903828

  11. Space Shuttle Orbiter Fleet Leader Orbital Maneuvering Engine SN 002A injector replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccio, Joseph R.; Hoppe, David L.

    1992-01-01

    During testing of the Fleet Leader Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) Serial Number (SN) 002A at the White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) in 1983 the injector was inadvertently damaged. After testing was completed in 1985, there was a concern that the performance of the engine and its response to specific test conditions might not be sufficiently representative of flight engines to provide valid test results. To correct this damage, the engine was returned to the manufacturer to replace the injector. The task assigned was to evaluate the damage and generate a unique process to repair the Fleet Leader OME while providing minimum impact to the overall life condition of the engine. In addition to successfully performing the repair operation, the as received condition of the engine and its components were documented for Fleet Leader reference. The engine is currently at WSTF where it has accumulated 11,341 seconds of firing time to date, 2615 seconds of which have occurred since the engine repair.

  12. DFRC F-16 aircraft fleet and support crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The support crew for the F-16A, the F-16XL no. 1, and the F-16 AFTI are, top row, left to right: Randy Weaver; mechanic, Susan Ligon; mechanic, Bob Garcia; Crew Chief, Rich Kelly; mechanic, Dale Edminister; Avionics Technician. Bottom row, left to right, Art Cope; mechanic, John Huffman; Avionics Technician, Jaime Garcia; Avionics Technician, Don Griffith, Avionics Tech. Co-op student. The F-16A (NASA 516), the only civil registered F-16 in existence, was transferred to Dryden from Langley, and is primarily used in engine tests and for parts. Although it is flight-worthy, it is not currently flown at Dryden. The single-seat F-16XL no. 1 (NASA 849) was most recently used in the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project (CAWAP) to test boundary layer pressures and distribution. Previously it had been used in a program to investigate the characteristics of sonic booms for NASA's High Speed Research Program. Data from the program will be used in the development of a high speed civilian transport. During the series of sonic boom research flights, the F-16XL was used to probe the shock waves being generated by a NASA SR-71 and record their shape and intensity. The Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) F-16 was used to develop and demonstrate technologies to improve navigation and a pilot's ability to find and destroy enemy ground targets day or night, including adverse weather. Earlier research in the joint NASA-Air Force AFTI F-16 program demonstrated voice actuated controls, helmet-mounted sighting and integration of forward-mounted canards with the standard flight control system to achieve uncoupled flight.

  13. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  14. Testing of a refuelable zinc/air bus battery

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Koopman, R.; Hargrove, D.; Maimoni, A.; Peterman, K.

    1995-02-22

    We report tests of a refuelable zinc/air battery of modular, bipolar-cell design, intended for fleet electric busses and vans. The stack consists of twelve 250-cm{sup 2} cells built of two units: (1) a copper-clad glass-reinforced epoxy board supporting anode and cathode current collectors, and (2) polymer frame providing for air- and electrolyte distribution and zinc fuel storage. The stack was refueled in 4 min. by a hydraulic transfer of zinc particles entrained in solution flow.

  15. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air EGR 1 GM. 2 Multi 3W No Air No EGR 2 Ford. 3 TBI 3W No Air EGR 3 GM. 4 Multi 3W+OX Air EGR 4 Ford... Air EGR 1 Ford. 12 Multi 3W No Air No EGR 2 Chrysler. 13 Carb 3W+OX Air EGR 9 Toyota. 14 TBI 3W No Air EGR 3 Ford. 15 Multi 3W+OX Air EGR 4 GM. 16 Multi 3W No Air EGR 1 Toyota. 17 Multi 3W No Air No EGR...

  16. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air EGR 1 GM. 2 Multi 3W No Air No EGR 2 Ford. 3 TBI 3W No Air EGR 3 GM. 4 Multi 3W+OX Air EGR 4 Ford... Air EGR 1 Ford. 12 Multi 3W No Air No EGR 2 Chrysler. 13 Carb 3W+OX Air EGR 9 Toyota. 14 TBI 3W No Air EGR 3 Ford. 15 Multi 3W+OX Air EGR 4 GM. 16 Multi 3W No Air EGR 1 Toyota. 17 Multi 3W No Air No EGR...

  17. Phase II Characterization Survey of the USNS Bridge (T-AOE 10), Military Sealift Fleet Support Command, Naval Station, Norfolk, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    ALTIC, NICK A

    2012-08-30

    In March 2011, the USNS Bridge was deployed off northeastern Honshu, Japan with the carrier USS Ronald Reagan to assist with relief efforts after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. During that time, the Bridge was exposed to air-borne radioactive materials leaking from the damaged Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. The proximity of the Bridge to the air-borne impacted area resulted in the contamination of the ship’s air-handling systems and the associated components, as well as potential contamination of other ship surfaces due to either direct intake/deposition or inadvertent spread from crew/operational activities. Preliminary surveys in the weeks after the event confirmed low-level contamination within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ductwork and systems, and engine and other auxiliary air intake systems. Some partial decontamination was performed at that time. In response to the airborne contamination event, Military Sealift Fleet Support Command (MSFSC) contracted Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under provisions of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to assess the radiological condition of the Bridge. Phase I identified contamination within the CPS filters, ventilation systems, miscellaneous equipment, and other suspect locations that could not accessed at that time (ORAU 2011b). Because the Bridge was underway during the characterization, all the potentially impacted systems/spaces could not be investigated. As a result, MSFSC contracted with ORAU to perform Phase II of the characterization, specifically to survey systems/spaces previously inaccessible. During Phase II of the characterization, the ship was in port to perform routine maintenance operations, allowing access to the previously inaccessible systems/spaces.

  18. A modelling exercise to examine variations of NOx concentrations on adjacent footpaths in a street canyon: The importance of accounting for wind conditions and fleet composition.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J

    2016-04-15

    Personal measurement studies and modelling investigations are used to examine pollutant exposure for pedestrians in the urban environment: each presenting various strengths and weaknesses in relation to labour and equipment costs, a sufficient sampling period and the accuracy of results. This modelling exercise considers the potential benefits of modelling results over personal measurement studies and aims to demonstrate how variations in fleet composition affects exposure results (presented as mean concentrations along the centre of both footpaths) in different traffic scenarios. A model of Pearse Street in Dublin, Ireland was developed by combining a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model and a semi-empirical equation to simulate pollutant dispersion in the street. Using local NOx concentrations, traffic and meteorological data from a two-week period in 2011, the model were validated and a good fit was presented. To explore the long-term variations in personal exposure due to variations in fleet composition, synthesised traffic data was used to compare short-term personal exposure data (over a two-week period) with the results for an extended one-year period. Personal exposure during the two-week period underestimated the one-year results by between 8% and 65% on adjacent footpaths. The findings demonstrate the potential for relative differences in pedestrian exposure to exist between the north and south footpaths due to changing wind conditions in both peak and off-peak traffic scenarios. This modelling approach may help overcome potential under- or over-estimations of concentrations in personal measurement studies on the footpaths. Further research aims to measure pollutant concentrations on adjacent footpaths in different traffic and wind conditions and to develop a simpler modelling system to identify pollutant hotspots on our city footpaths so that urban planners can implement improvement strategies to improve urban air quality. PMID:26859699

  19. A modelling exercise to examine variations of NOx concentrations on adjacent footpaths in a street canyon: The importance of accounting for wind conditions and fleet composition.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J

    2016-04-15

    Personal measurement studies and modelling investigations are used to examine pollutant exposure for pedestrians in the urban environment: each presenting various strengths and weaknesses in relation to labour and equipment costs, a sufficient sampling period and the accuracy of results. This modelling exercise considers the potential benefits of modelling results over personal measurement studies and aims to demonstrate how variations in fleet composition affects exposure results (presented as mean concentrations along the centre of both footpaths) in different traffic scenarios. A model of Pearse Street in Dublin, Ireland was developed by combining a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model and a semi-empirical equation to simulate pollutant dispersion in the street. Using local NOx concentrations, traffic and meteorological data from a two-week period in 2011, the model were validated and a good fit was presented. To explore the long-term variations in personal exposure due to variations in fleet composition, synthesised traffic data was used to compare short-term personal exposure data (over a two-week period) with the results for an extended one-year period. Personal exposure during the two-week period underestimated the one-year results by between 8% and 65% on adjacent footpaths. The findings demonstrate the potential for relative differences in pedestrian exposure to exist between the north and south footpaths due to changing wind conditions in both peak and off-peak traffic scenarios. This modelling approach may help overcome potential under- or over-estimations of concentrations in personal measurement studies on the footpaths. Further research aims to measure pollutant concentrations on adjacent footpaths in different traffic and wind conditions and to develop a simpler modelling system to identify pollutant hotspots on our city footpaths so that urban planners can implement improvement strategies to improve urban air quality.

  20. The ASAC Air Carrier Investment Model (Second Generation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Johnson, Jesse P.; Sickles, Robin C.; Good, David H.

    1997-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. To accomplish this, NASA is building an Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). The ASAC differs from previous NASA modeling efforts in that the economic behavior of buyers and sellers in the air transportation and aviation industries is central to its conception. To link the economics of flight with the technology of flight, ASAC requires a parametrically based mode with extensions that link airline operations and investments in aircraft with aircraft characteristics. This model also must provide a mechanism for incorporating air travel demand and profitability factors into the airlines' investment decisions. Finally, the model must be flexible and capable of being incorporated into a wide-ranging suite of economic and technical models that are envisioned for ASAC. We describe a second-generation Air Carrier Investment Model that meets these requirements. The enhanced model incorporates econometric results from the supply and demand curves faced by U.S.-scheduled passenger air carriers. It uses detailed information about their fleets in 1995 to make predictions about future aircraft purchases. It enables analysts with the ability to project revenue passenger-miles flown, airline industry employment, airline operating profit margins, numbers and types of aircraft in the fleet, and changes in aircraft manufacturing employment under various user-defined scenarios.

  1. Toyota Prius Plug-In HEV: A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Toyota Prius plug-in HEV, a plug-in hybrid electric car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In partnership with the University of Colorado, NREL uses the vehicle for grid-integration studies and for testing new hardware and charge-management algorithms. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

  2. Baseline knowledge on vehicle safety and head restraints among Fleet Managers in British Columbia Canada: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Hewapathirane, D. Sesath; Peiris, Dinithi; Romilly, Doug; White, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Whiplash is the most common injury type arising from motor vehicle collisions, often leading to long-term suffering and disability. Prevention of such injuries is possible through the use of appropriate, correctly positioned, vehicular head restraints. Objective: To survey the awareness and knowledge level of vehicle fleet managers in the province of British Columbia, Canada, on the topics of vehicle safety, whiplash injury, and prevention; and to better understand whether these factors influence vehicle purchase/lease decisions. Methods: A survey was administered to municipal vehicle fleet managers at a professional meeting (n = 27). Results: Although many respondents understood the effectiveness of vehicle head restraints in the prevention of whiplash injury, the majority rarely adjusted their own headrests. Fleet managers lacked knowledge about the seriousness of whiplash injuries, their associated costs for Canada’s healthcare system, and appropriate head restraint positions to mitigate such injuries. The majority of respondents indicated that fleet vehicle purchase/lease decisions within their organization did not factor whiplash prevention as an explicit safety priority. Conclusions: There is relatively little awareness and enforcement of whiplash prevention strategies among municipal vehicle fleet managers. PMID:21886279

  3. An analysis of the costs of running a station car fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Zurn, R.M.

    1995-02-01

    Station cars are electric vehicles available at transit stations which may be used for transportation between the transit station and home, work, and/or for errands. This transportation service would be provided by the local transit agency. This report discusses an economic model of the costs of running a station car fleet. While some of these costs are highly uncertain, this analysis is a first look at the required user fees for full cost recovery. The model considers the capital costs of the vehicles and the required infrastructure; the annual fixed vehicle costs for insurance, registration, etc.; the mileage-based costs; and the annual non-vehicle costs for administration, infrastructure maintenance, etc. The model also includes various factors such as the fleet size, the annual mileage, the number of transit stations that would have facilities for station cars, and the number of users. The model specifically examines the cost of using of electric vehicles; however, for comparison, the cost of using a fleet of gasoline-powered vehicles also is calculated. This report examines the sensitivity of the model to the various factors. A principal conclusion from the analysis is that the largest cost contributor is the initial vehicle purchase price. For a given initial purchase price, the factor driving the user fee required for full cost recovery is the number of different daily users of a vehicle. The model also compares the annual cost of transportation using station cars and mass transit to the annual cost of solo commuting. If a station car is used by more than one person a day, and this use replaces the ownership of a conventional vehicle, the annual cost of transportation may be similar. However, for the base case assumptions, the station car user fee required for full cost recovery is higher than the cost of solo commuting.

  4. Designing of a Fleet-Leader Program for Carbon Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L.N.; Phoenix, S. Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases on board spacecraft when mass saving is a prime requirement. Substantial weight savings can be achieved compared to all metallic pressure vessels. For example, on the space shuttle, replacement of all metallic pressure vessels with Kevlar COPVs resulted in a weight savings of about 30 percent. Mass critical space applications such as the Ares and Orion vehicles are currently being planned to use as many COPVs as possible in place of all-metallic pressure vessels to minimize the overall mass of the vehicle. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads during long periods of a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is, therefore, important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since it is practically impossible to show by experimental testing the reliability of flight quality vessels. Also, it is a common practice to set aside flight quality vessels as "fleet leaders" in a test program where these vessels are subjected to slightly accelerated operating conditions so that they lead the actual flight vessels both in time and load. The intention of fleet leaders is to provide advanced warning if there is a serious design flaw in the vessels so that a major disaster in the flight vessels can be averted with advance warning. On the other hand, the accelerating conditions must be not so severe as to be prone to false alarms. The primary focus of the present paper is to provide an analytical basis for designing a viable fleet leader program for carbon COPVs. The analysis is based on a stress rupture behavior model incorporating Weibull statistics and power-law sensitivity of life to fiber stress level.

  5. Reactive Nitrogen Species Emission Trends in Three Light-/Medium-Duty United States Fleets.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gary A; Stedman, Donald H

    2015-09-15

    Repeated, fuel-specific, emission measurements in Denver (2005/2013), Los Angeles (LA) (2008/2013), and Tulsa (2005/2013) provide long-term trends in on-road reactive nitrogen emissions from three light-/medium-duty U.S. fleets. Reductions in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions ranged from 21% in Denver (from 5.6 ± 1.3 to 4.4 ± 0.2 g of NOx/kg of fuel) to 43% in Tulsa (from 4.4 ± 0.3 to 2.5 ± 0.1 g of NOx/kg of fuel) since 2005, while decreases in fleet ammonia (NH3) emissions ranged from no change in Denver (from 0.45 ± 0.09 to 0.44 ± 0.02 g of NH3/kg of fuel) since 2005 to a 28% decrease in LA (from 0.80 ± 0.02 to 0.58 ± 0.02 g of NH3/kg of fuel) since 2008. The majority of the reduction in gasoline vehicle NOx emissions occurred prior to the full implementation of the Tier II emission standards in 2009. High in-use NOx emissions from small-engine diesel passenger vehicles produced a significant contribution to the fleet means despite their small numbers. NH3 emissions decreased at a slower rate than NOx emissions as a result of modest NH3 emission reduction among the newest vehicles and increased emissions from a growing number of older vehicles with active catalytic converters. In addition, the reactive nitrogen emissions from many new model year vehicles are now dominated by NH3. PMID:26322956

  6. Mapping sub-surface geostrophic currents from altimetry and a fleet of gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, A.; Chiggiato, J.; Schroeder, K.

    2013-04-01

    Integrating the observations gathered by different platforms into a unique physical picture of the environment is a fundamental aspect of networked ocean observing systems. These are constituted by a spatially distributed set of sensors and platforms that simultaneously monitor a given ocean region. Remote sensing from satellites is an integral part of present ocean observing systems. Due to their autonomy, mobility and controllability, underwater gliders are envisioned to play a significant role in the development of networked ocean observatories. Exploiting synergism between remote sensing and underwater gliders is expected to result on a better characterization of the marine environment than using these observational sources individually. This study investigates a methodology to estimate the three dimensional distribution of geostrophic currents resulting from merging satellite altimetry and in situ samples gathered by a fleet of Slocum gliders. Specifically, the approach computes the volumetric or three dimensional distribution of absolute dynamic height (ADH) that minimizes the total energy of the system while being close to in situ observations and matching the absolute dynamic topography (ADT) observed from satellite at the sea surface. A three dimensional finite element technique is employed to solve the minimization problem. The methodology is validated making use of the dataset collected during the field experiment called Rapid Environmental Picture-2010 (REP-10) carried out by the NATO Undersea Research Center-NURC during August 2010. A marine region off-shore La Spezia (northwest coast of Italy) was sampled by a fleet of three coastal Slocum gliders. Results indicate that the geostrophic current field estimated from gliders and altimetry significantly improves the estimates obtained using only the data gathered by the glider fleet.

  7. Reactive Nitrogen Species Emission Trends in Three Light-/Medium-Duty United States Fleets.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gary A; Stedman, Donald H

    2015-09-15

    Repeated, fuel-specific, emission measurements in Denver (2005/2013), Los Angeles (LA) (2008/2013), and Tulsa (2005/2013) provide long-term trends in on-road reactive nitrogen emissions from three light-/medium-duty U.S. fleets. Reductions in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions ranged from 21% in Denver (from 5.6 ± 1.3 to 4.4 ± 0.2 g of NOx/kg of fuel) to 43% in Tulsa (from 4.4 ± 0.3 to 2.5 ± 0.1 g of NOx/kg of fuel) since 2005, while decreases in fleet ammonia (NH3) emissions ranged from no change in Denver (from 0.45 ± 0.09 to 0.44 ± 0.02 g of NH3/kg of fuel) since 2005 to a 28% decrease in LA (from 0.80 ± 0.02 to 0.58 ± 0.02 g of NH3/kg of fuel) since 2008. The majority of the reduction in gasoline vehicle NOx emissions occurred prior to the full implementation of the Tier II emission standards in 2009. High in-use NOx emissions from small-engine diesel passenger vehicles produced a significant contribution to the fleet means despite their small numbers. NH3 emissions decreased at a slower rate than NOx emissions as a result of modest NH3 emission reduction among the newest vehicles and increased emissions from a growing number of older vehicles with active catalytic converters. In addition, the reactive nitrogen emissions from many new model year vehicles are now dominated by NH3.

  8. 40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 fleet average credit programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... source of air supplied to the air conditioning system shall change from outside air to recirculated air when the operator or the automatic climate control system has engaged the air conditioning system (i.e....e., next vehicle start). The climate control system may delay switching to recirculation mode...

  9. Real-time science and outreach from the UNOLS fleet via HiSeasNet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, S.; Berger, J.; Orcutt, J. A.; Brice, D.; Coleman, D. F.; Grabowski, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    The HiSeasNet satellite communications network has ben providing cost-effective, reliable, continuous Internet connectivity to the UNOLS oceanographic research fleet for nearly nine years. During that time, HiSeasNet has supported science and outreach programs with a variety of real-time interactions back to shore including videoconferencing, webcasting, shared whiteboards, and streaming high-definition video feeds. Solutions have varied in scale, cost, and capability. As real-time science and outreach becomes more common, experience with a variety of technologies continues to build, and more opportunities yet to explore.

  10. Transition of R&D into Operations at Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) plays a significant role in the National capability for operational weather and ocean prediction through its operation of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean. FNMOC uniquely satisfies the military's requirement for a global operational weather prediction capability based on software certified to DoD Information Assurance standards and operated in a secure classified computer environment protected from outside intrusion by DoD certified firewalls. FNMOC operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense, other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high- resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Other models support and supplement the main models with predictions of ocean thermal structure, ocean currents, sea-ice characteristics, and other data. Fleet Numerical operates at the leading edge of science and technology, and benefits greatly from collocation with its supporting

  11. REPORT on the TRUCK BRAKE LINING WORKSHOP and FLEET OPERATORS' SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.

    2003-02-03

    The report summarizes what transpired during brake linings-related workshop held at the Fall 2003 meeting of the Technology and Maintenance Council (TMC) in Charlotte, NC. The title of the workshop was ''Developing a Useful Friction Material Rating System''. It was organized by a team consisting of Peter Blau (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), Jim Britell (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), and Jim Lawrence (Motor and Equipment Manufacturers Association). The workshop was held under the auspices of TMC Task Force S6 (Chassis), chaired by Joseph Stianche (Sanderson Farms, Inc.). Six invited speakers during the morning session provided varied perspectives on testing and rating aftermarket automotive and truck brake linings. They were: James R. Clark, Chief Engineer, Foundation Brakes and Wheel Equipment, Dana Corporation, Spicer Heavy Axle and Brake Division; Charles W. Greening, Jr, President, Greening Test Labs; Tim Duncan, General Manager, Link Testing Services;Dennis J. McNichol, President, Dennis NationaLease; Jim Fajerski, Business Manager, OE Sales and Applications Engineering, Federal Mogul Corporation; and Peter J. Blau, Senior Materials Development Engineer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The afternoon break-out sessions addressed nine questions concerning such issues as: ''Should the federal government regulate aftermarket lining quality?''; ''How many operators use RP 628, and if so, what's good or bad about it?''; and ''Would there be any value to you of a vocation-specific rating system?'' The opinions of each discussion group, consisting of 7-9 participants, were reported and consolidated in summary findings on each question. Some questions produced a greater degree of agreement than others. In general, the industry seems eager for more information that would allow those who are responsible for maintaining truck brakes to make better, more informed choices on aftermarket linings. A written fleet operator survey was also conducted during the

  12. SAPIR collision alert system as part of IR MWS suite for helicopter fleets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadav, Shavit; Varsano, Louisa; Oz, Saar; Schlisselberg, Raanan

    2009-05-01

    SAPIR system provides a suite of IR based situation awareness functions offered as add on system for ELISRA PAWS family of missile warning solutions. A major operational need for airborne platforms flying in formation is automatic collision alert capability. By using covert IR-MWS technology SAPIR passively tracks and monitors wingman position thereby enabling aircrew to focus on mission goals without compromising their safety. The paper presents results of operational problem study, system design and field testing demonstration of performance for SAPIR collision alert function targeting helicopter fleets.

  13. Recent fracture mechanics results from NASA research related to the aging commercial transport fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is conducting the Airframe Structural Integrity Program in support of the aging commercial transport fleet. This interdisciplinary program is being worked in cooperation with the U.S. airframe manufacturers, airline operators, and the FAA. Advanced analysis methods are under development to predict the fatigue crack growth in complex built-up shell structures. Innovative nondestructive examination technologies are also under development to provide large area inspection capability to detect corrosion, disbonds, and fatigue cracks. Recent fracture mechanics results applicable to predicting the growth of cracks initiating at the rivets of fuselage splice joints are reviewed.

  14. An overview of NASA research related to the aging commercial transport fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Heyman, Joseph S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the research activities of the NASA Airframe Structural Integrity Program for the aging commercial transport fleet. Advanced analysis methods are under development to predict the fatigue crack growth in complex built-up shell structures. Innovative nondestructive examination technologies are under development to provide large area inspection capability to detect corrosion, disbonds, and fatigue cracks. The ultimate goal of this interdisciplinary program is to develop and transfer advanced technology to the airline operators and airframe manufacturers. The program is being conducted cooperatively with the FAA and the U.S. industry.

  15. Fracture mechanics research at NASA related to the aging commercial transport fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, James C., Jr.; Harris, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    NASA is conducting the Airframe Structural Integrity Program in support of the aging commercial transport fleet. This interdisciplinary program is being worked in cooperation with the U.S. airframe manufacturers, airline operators, and the FAA. Advanced analysis methods are under development and an extensive testing program is under way to study fatigue crack growth and fracture in complex built-up shell structures. Innovative nondestructive examination technologies are also being developed to provide large area inspection capability to detect corrosion, disbonds, and cracks. Recent fracture mechanics results applicable to predicting the growth of cracks under monotonic and cyclic loading at rivets in fuselage lap-splice joints are reviewed.

  16. Guidance. Requirements for Installing Renewable Fuel Pumps at Federal Fleet Fueling Centers under EISA Section 246

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-05

    On December 19, 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was signed into law as Public Law 110-140. Section 246(a) of EISA directs Federal agencies to install at least one renewable fuel pump at each Federal fleet fueling center under their jurisdiction by January 1, 2010. Section 246(b) requires the President to submit an annual report to Congress on Federal agency progress in meeting this renewable fuel pump installation mandate. This guidance document provides guidelines to help agencies understand these requirements and how to comply with EISA Section 246.

  17. The Wave Glider°: A New Autonomous Surface Vehicle to Augment MBARI's Growing Fleet of Ocean Observing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tougher, B. B.

    2011-12-01

    Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) evolving fleet of ocean observing systems has made it possible to collect information and data about a wide variety of ocean parameters, enabling researchers to better understand marine ecosystems. In collaboration with Liquid Robotics Inc, the designer of the Wave Glider autonomous surface vehicle (ASV), MBARI is adding a new capability to its suite of ocean observing tools. This new technology will augment MBARI research programs that use satellites, ships, moorings, drifters, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to improve data collection of temporally and spatially variable oceanographic features. The Wave Glider ASV derives its propulsion from wave energy, while sensors and communications are powered through the use of two solar panels and batteries, enabling it to remain at sea indefinitely. Wave Gliders are remotely controlled via real-time Iridium burst communications, which also permit real-time data telemetry. MBARI has developed Ocean Acidification (OA) moorings to continuously monitor the chemical and physical changes occurring in the ocean as a result of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The moorings are spatially restricted by being anchored to the seafloor, so during the summer of 2011 the ocean acidification sensor suite designed for moorings was integrated into a Wave Glider ASV to increase both temporal and spatial ocean observation capabilities. The OA sensor package enables the measurement of parameters essential to better understanding the changing acidity of the ocean, specifically pCO2, pH, oxygen, salinity and temperature. The Wave Glider will also be equipped with a meteorological sensor suite that will measure air temperature, air pressure, and wind speed and direction. The OA sensor integration into a Wave Glider was part of MBARI's 2011 summer internship program. This project involved designing a new layout for the OA sensors

  18. An uncertainty analysis of air pollution externalities from road transport in Belgium in 2010.

    PubMed

    Int Panis, L; De Nocker, L; Cornelis, E; Torfs, R

    2004-12-01

    Although stricter standards for vehicles will reduce emissions to air significantly by 2010, a number of problems will remain, especially related to particulate concentrations in cities, ground-level ozone, and CO(2). To evaluate the impacts of new policy measures, tools need to be available that assess the potential benefits of these measures in terms of the vehicle fleet, fuel choice, modal choice, kilometers driven, emissions, and the impacts on public health and related external costs. The ExternE accounting framework offers the most up to date and comprehensive methodology to assess marginal external costs of energy-related pollutants. It combines emission models, air dispersion models at local and regional scales with dose-response functions and valuation rules. Vito has extended this accounting framework with data and models related to the future composition of the vehicle fleet and transportation demand to evaluate the impact of new policy proposals on air quality and aggregated (total) external costs by 2010. Special attention was given to uncertainty analysis. The uncertainty for more than 100 different parameters was combined in Monte Carlo simulations to assess the range of possible outcomes and the main drivers of these results. Although the impacts from emission standards and total fleet mileage look dominant at first, a number of other factors were found to be important as well. This includes the number of diesel vehicles, inspection and maintenance (high-emitter cars), use of air conditioning, and heavy duty transit traffic.

  19. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  20. Best available practices for lng fueling of fleet vehicles. Topical report, March-November 1995, tasks 85 and 86

    SciTech Connect

    Midgett, D.E.

    1996-02-01

    The report provides essential information on the design and operation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueling stations for fleet vehicles. The report serves to evaluate current practices in LNG fleet vehicle fueling station designs, and provide fleet operators with a tool for use in discussions with permitting agencies, engineering firms, fabricators, and contractors who permit, design, or construct LNG fueling stations. Representative sites (i.e., LNG fueling stations) were evaluated for technical feasibility, customer satisfaction, economics, operating and maintenance history, problems encountered/overcome, and regulatory environment. The compiled information in this report reveals that LNG fueling stations have advanced to the point where LNG is a viable alternative to gasoline and/or diesel fuel.

  1. Fleet Safety

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Brian S.; Pratt, Stephanie G.; Ross, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Millions of U.S. workers are at risk for a work-related motor vehicle crash. Fatality data show that across all industries, motor vehicle crashes are consistently the leading cause of work-related fatalities. Of 43,025 work-related fatalities reported by BLS between 2003 and 2010, 10,202 were the result of single- or multiple-vehicle crashes of workers driving or riding in a vehicle on a public roadway, and 2,707 were pedestrian workers struck by a motor vehicle. During the same period, an additional 2,487 workers died in crashes that occurred off a public roadway or on industrial premises (BLS, 2013). PMID:26251557

  2. Fleeting Smile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Sally

    2006-01-01

    The author's students were an unhappy, skeptical group of middle school students. Many of them had emotional issues. Many had drug addiction and prostitution in their broken and poverty-ridden families. Her school, which is a small charter school in a remote Arizona town, was a place of last resort for these students, who probably would not…

  3. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  4. Persistent Identifiers for Field Expeditions: A Next Step for the US Oceanographic Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, Robert; Carbotte, Suzanne; Chandler, Cynthia; Smith, Shawn; Stocks, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Oceanographic research cruises are complex affairs, typically requiring an extensive effort to secure the funding, plan the experiment, and mobilize the field party. Yet cruises are not typically published online as first-class digital objects with persistent, citable identifiers linked to the scientific literature. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; info@rvdata.us) program maintains a master catalog of oceanographic cruises for the United States research fleet, currently documenting over 6,000 expeditions on 37 active and retired vessels. In 2015, R2R started routinely publishing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for each completed cruise. Cruise DOIs, in turn, are linked to related persistent identifiers where available including the Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) for members of the science party, the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) for physical specimens collected during the cruise, the Open Funder Registry (FundRef) codes that supported the experiment, and additional DOIs for datasets, journal articles, and other products resulting from the cruise. Publishing a persistent identifier for each field expedition will facilitate interoperability between the many different repositories that hold research products from cruises; will provide credit to the investigators who secured the funding and carried out the experiment; and will facilitate the gathering of fleet-wide altmetrics that demonstrate the broad impact of oceanographic research.

  5. Preliminary investigation Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This report documents the characterization activities and findings of a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site. The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12 east of Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The characterization project was completed as a required condition of the ``Temporary Water Pollution Control Permit for the Discharge From Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Facility`` issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The project objective was to collect shallow soil samples in eight locations in the former surface discharge area. Based upon field observations, twelve locations were sampled on September 6, 1995 to better define the area of potential impact. Samples were collected from the surface to a depth of approximately 0.3 meters (one foot) below land surface. Discoloration of the surface soil was observed in the area of the discharge pipe and in localized areas in the natural drainage channel. The discoloration appeared to be consistent with the topographically low areas of the site. Hydrocarbon odors were noted in the areas of discoloration only. Samples collected were analyzed for bulk asbestos, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (Semi-VOCs), and gamma scan.

  6. Optimal contracts for providing load-side frequency regulation service using fleets of electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarkoob, Hadi; Keshav, Srinivasan; Rosenberg, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    We focus on the charging process of a fleet of electric vehicles overnight for providing load-side regulation service. At the heart of this complex problem, the goal is to transfer a certain amount of energy to the fleet by a given deadline; however, when and how fast the energy is sent is flexible. We examine a unidirectional setting in the cases where regulation signals are deterministic (worst case) and stochastic. We study both a single-shot optimization scenario carried at the start of the charging period, and a dynamic optimization scenario, where the optimal control strategy is re-evaluated several times over the duration of the charging interval. We show that most of the gains from dynamic optimization can be obtained by re-evaluating the optimization problem at the midpoint of the charging interval. Moreover, the optimal value of the regulation service in the worst-case deterministic setting nearly matches the stochastic setting with dynamic optimization. We validate our results using both simulation and real-world data.

  7. Mobile source CO2 mitigation through smart growth development and vehicle fleet hybridization.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brian; Mednick, Adam C; Holloway, Tracey; Spak, Scott N

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the effectiveness of smart growth development patterns and vehicle fleet hybridization in reducing mobile source emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) across 11 major metropolitan regions of the Midwestern U.S. over a 50-year period. Through the integration of a vehicle travel activity modeling framework developed by researchers atthe Oak Ridge National Laboratory with small area population projections, we model mobile source emissions of CO2 associated with alternative land development and technology change scenarios between 2000 and 2050. Our findings suggest that under an aggressive smart growth scenario, growth in emissions expected to occur under a business as usual scenario is reduced by 34%, while the full dissemination of hybrid-electric vehicles throughout the light vehicle fleet is found to offset the expected growth in emissions by 97%. Our results further suggest that high levels of urban densification could achieve reductions in 2050 CO2 emissions equivalent to those attainable through the full dissemination of hybrid-electric vehicle technologies. PMID:19368160

  8. [Gil Eannes--the hospital ship of the Portuguese fishing fleet].

    PubMed

    Ramos, Samuel; Doria, José Luís; Pina, Madalena Esperança

    2008-06-01

    The history of Portuguese hospital-ships dates back to the fleets in the era of the Great Discoveries. In 1916, during the First World War, the Allies appealed to Portugal to act as a neutral country. All the German ships on the river Tagus were impounded and adapted for tasks related to the war. The Hanseatic line vessel Lahneck had its name changed to Gil Eannes and was modified for troop transport and to give assistance to fishing boats. Many years later, when the old Gil Eanes came to the end of its life and needed to be replaced, a new ship was built in the Viana do Castelo shipyard, using up-to-date designs for a hospital-ship. The new ship was launched in 1955, mainly to assist the Portuguese cod fish fleet, working in the seas around Newfoundland. More recently, it has returned to Viana do Castelo docks and, after restoration, has been transformed into a nautical museum and a student residence, to keep alive the memories of this traditional Portuguese fishermen's activity. PMID:19579337

  9. Improving Multibeam Data Quality Across the U.S. Academic Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, P. D.; Beaudoin, J.; Ferrini, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Multibeam Advisory Committee (MAC) is an NSF funded project with the goal of improving the quality of multibeam across the U.S. academic research fleet. There are many facets to the Committee's plan to reach this goal, one of which is to have a team of multibeam specialists visiting vessels in the fleet. During their ship visits, the MAC's Quality Assurance Team (QAT) deploys software tools, disseminates "best practice" documentation, assesses the state of the system as a whole and does everything they can to help ship operators better understand and operate their multibeam systems. A big part of these ship visits is simply outreach: we want to let the operators know that they have access to help if they need it. In addition to developing working relationships with the operating institutions, the MAC seeks to reach out to the end user: the scientific community that uses these facilities to further their research. By presenting the MAC and QAT concepts to the community, we hope to raise awareness of our efforts, introduce the software tools and best-practice documentation that we are deploying and also solicit feedback on what future directions the MAC should focus.

  10. Alternative fuel vehicles for the state fleets: Results of the 5-year planning process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report documents the first attempt by the Department of Energy (DOE) to work with states to prepare five-year Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) acquisition plans to identify alternative fuels and vehicles that they are planning on or would like to acquire. The DOE Regional Support Offices (RSOs) met with representatives from the states in their regions and assisted in the preparation of the plans. These plans will be used in conjunction with previously gathered Federal five-year plans to encourage Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to expand the variety of AFVs produced, reduce the incremental cost of AFVs, and to encourage fuel suppliers to expand the alternative fuel infrastructure and alternative fuel availability. By identifying the needs and requirements of state fleets, DOE can begin to describe the specific nature of the future state fleets, and establish a defined market for OEMs and fuel suppliers. DOE initiated the development and collection of the state five-year plans before the signing of the Energy Policy Act, to raise the awareness of states that they will be required by law to acquire AFVs. As a result, several states that had no AFV acquisition plan when queried have developed or are in the process of developing plans. The DOE and its RSOs are still working with the states to develop and refine acquisition plans, and this report should be treated as documentation of work in progress.

  11. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system. Volume 2: Market and economic analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs, and airline profits when implemented into the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets is assessed. The potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system over the forecast period, 1973-1990, are estimated.

  12. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Health and Human Services – ASPR

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Steve; Francfort, Jim

    2015-06-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Health and Human Services, Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleet. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  13. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  14. Tools for improving safety management in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet occupational accidents analysis period of 1998-2006.

    PubMed

    Aasjord, Halvard L

    2006-01-01

    Reporting of human accidents in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet has always been very difficult because there has been no tradition in making reports on all types of working accidents among fishermen, if the accident does not seem to be very serious or there is no economical incentive to report. Therefore reports are only written when the accidents are serious or if the fisherman is reported sick. Reports about an accident are sent to the insurance company, but another report should also be sent to the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD). Comparing of data from one former insurance company and NMD shows that the real numbers of injuries or serious accidents among Norwegian fishermen could be up to two times more than the numbers reported to NMD. Special analyses of 1690 accidents from the so called PUS-database (NMD) for the period 1998-2002, show that the calculated risk was 23.6 accidents per 1000 man-years. This is quite a high risk level, and most of the accidents in the fishing fleet were rather serious. The calculated risks are highest for fishermen on board the deep sea fleet of trawlers (28.6 accidents per 1000 man-years) and also on the deep sea fleet of purse seiners (28.9 accidents per 1000 man-years). Fatal accidents over a longer period of 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006 are also roughly analysed. These data from SINTEF's own database show that the numbers of fatal accidents have been decreasing over this long period, except for the two periods 1980-84 and 1990-94 where we had some casualties with total losses of larger vessels with the loss of most of the crew, but also many others typical work accidents on smaller vessels. The total numbers of registered Norwegian fishermen and also the numbers of man-years have been drastically reduced over the 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006. The risks of fatal accidents have been very steady over time at a high level, although there has been a marked risk reduction since 1990-94. For the last 8.5-year period of January 1998

  15. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Veterans Affairs – VA Manhattan Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Manhattan Campus (VA- Manhattan) fleet to identify the daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agency’s fleet. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively called PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  16. Yaroslav Okunevsky: Ukrainian doctor and rear-admiral of the military fleet of the Austria-Hungarian Empire.

    PubMed

    Hanitkevych, Yaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Yaroslav Okunevsky (1860 - 1929) was born in Halychyna, Ukraine and graduated from the University of Vienna (1884). He served as a ship's doctor in the military fleet of the Austria-Hungarian Empire. Later, he attained the rank of Rear-admiral of the Military Fleet. He promoted access to healthcare for sailors and instigated the first statute of navy medical service. Many nations awarded him the highest honors. He is also the author of scientific and medical publications as well as interesting memoirs from the trips to many countries of the world. In 1919-1921, he participated in the process of establishing Ukraine as an independent state.

  17. Tools for improving safety management in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet occupational accidents analysis period of 1998-2006.

    PubMed

    Aasjord, Halvard L

    2006-01-01

    Reporting of human accidents in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet has always been very difficult because there has been no tradition in making reports on all types of working accidents among fishermen, if the accident does not seem to be very serious or there is no economical incentive to report. Therefore reports are only written when the accidents are serious or if the fisherman is reported sick. Reports about an accident are sent to the insurance company, but another report should also be sent to the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD). Comparing of data from one former insurance company and NMD shows that the real numbers of injuries or serious accidents among Norwegian fishermen could be up to two times more than the numbers reported to NMD. Special analyses of 1690 accidents from the so called PUS-database (NMD) for the period 1998-2002, show that the calculated risk was 23.6 accidents per 1000 man-years. This is quite a high risk level, and most of the accidents in the fishing fleet were rather serious. The calculated risks are highest for fishermen on board the deep sea fleet of trawlers (28.6 accidents per 1000 man-years) and also on the deep sea fleet of purse seiners (28.9 accidents per 1000 man-years). Fatal accidents over a longer period of 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006 are also roughly analysed. These data from SINTEF's own database show that the numbers of fatal accidents have been decreasing over this long period, except for the two periods 1980-84 and 1990-94 where we had some casualties with total losses of larger vessels with the loss of most of the crew, but also many others typical work accidents on smaller vessels. The total numbers of registered Norwegian fishermen and also the numbers of man-years have been drastically reduced over the 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006. The risks of fatal accidents have been very steady over time at a high level, although there has been a marked risk reduction since 1990-94. For the last 8.5-year period of January 1998

  18. 41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34.290 Public Contracts... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.290 What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? Use the following forms...

  19. 41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34.290 Public Contracts... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.290 What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? Use the following forms...

  20. 41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34.290 Public Contracts... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.290 What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? Use the following forms...

  1. 41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34.290 Public Contracts... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.290 What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? Use the following forms...

  2. 41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34.290 Public Contracts... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.290 What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? Use the following forms...

  3. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  4. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  5. 41 CFR 102-34.335 - How do I submit information to the General Services Administration (GSA) for the Federal Fleet...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... through the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool (FAST), an Internet-based reporting tool. To find out how to submit motor vehicle data to GSA through FAST, consult the instructions from your agency fleet...; and (5) Fuel used. Note to § 102-34.335: The FAST system is also used by agency Fleet Managers...

  6. Reduction on NOx emissions on urban areas by changing specific vehicle fleets: effects on NO2 and O3 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, M.; Jimenez, P.; Baldasano, J.

    2007-12-01

    The largest amount of NOx emissions in urban areas comes from on-road traffic, which is the largest contributor to urban air pollution (Colvile et al., 2001). Currently different strategies are being tested in order to reduce its effects; many of them oriented to the reduction of the unitary vehicles emissions, by alternative fuels use (such as biofuels, natural gas or hydrogen) or introduction of new technologies (such as hybrid electric vehicles or fuel cells). Atmospheric modelling permits to predict their consequences on tropospheric chemistry (Vautard et al., 2007). Hence, this work assesses the changes on NO2 and O3 concentrations when substituting a 10 per cent of the urban private cars fleets by petrol hybrid electric cars (HEC) or by natural gas cars (NGC) in Madrid and Barcelona urban areas (Spain). These two cities are selected in order to highlight the different patterns of pollutants transport (inland vs. coastal city) and the different responses to emissions reductions. The results focus on a typical summertime episode of air pollution, by means of the Eulerian air quality model ARW- WRF/HERMES/CMAQ, applied with high resolution (1-hr, 1km2) since of the complexity of both areas under study. The detailed emissions scenarios are implemented in the HERMES traffic emissions module, based on the Copert III-EEA/EMEP-CORINAIR (Nztiachristos and Samaras, 2000) methodology. The HEC introduction reduces NOx emissions from on-road traffic in a 10.8 per cent and 8.2 per cent; and the NGC introduction in a 10.3 per cent and 7.8 per cent, for Madrid and Barcelona areas, respectively. The scenarios also affect the NMVOCs reduction (ranging from -3.1 to -6.9 per cent), influencing the tropospheric photochemistry through the NOx/NMVOCs ratio. The abatement of the NO photooxidation but also to the reduction on primary NO2 involves a decrease on NO2 levels centred on urban areas. For example, the NO2 24-hr average concentration in downtown areas reduces up to 8 per

  7. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Federal Fleet Use of Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mindy Kirpatrick; J. E. Francfort

    2003-11-01

    Per Executive Order 13031, “Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle Leadership,” the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity provided $998,300 in incremental funding to support the deployment of 220 electric vehicles in 36 Federal fleets. The 145 electric Ford Ranger pickups and 75 electric Chrysler EPIC (Electric Powered Interurban Commuter) minivans were operated in 14 states and the District of Columbia. The 220 vehicles were driven an estimated average of 700,000 miles annually. The annual estimated use of the 220 electric vehicles contributed to 39,000 fewer gallons of petroleum being used by Federal fleets and the reduction in emissions of 1,450 pounds of smog-forming pollution. Numerous attempts were made to obtain information from all 36 fleets. Information responses were received from 25 fleets (69% response rate), as some Federal fleet personnel that were originally involved with the Incremental Funding Project were transferred, retired, or simply could not be found. In addition, many of the Department of Defense fleets indicated that they were supporting operations in Iraq and unable to provide information for the foreseeable future. It should be noted that the opinions of the 25 fleets is based on operating 179 of the 220 electric vehicles (81% response rate). The data from the 25 fleets is summarized in this report. Twenty-two of the 25 fleets reported numerous problems with the vehicles, including mechanical, traction battery, and charging problems. Some of these problems, however, may have resulted from attempting to operate the vehicles beyond their capabilities. The majority of fleets reported that most of the vehicles were driven by numerous drivers each week, with most vehicles used for numerous trips per day. The vehicles were driven on average from 4 to 50 miles per day on a single charge. However, the majority of the fleets reported needing gasoline vehicles for missions beyond the capabilities of the electric

  8. 40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 fleet average credit programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... supplied to the air conditioning system shall change from outside air to recirculated air when the operator or the automatic climate control system has engaged the air conditioning system (i.e., evaporator is... vehicle start). The climate control system may delay switching to recirculation mode until the...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 fleet average credit programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... supplied to the air conditioning system shall change from outside air to recirculated air when the operator or the automatic climate control system has engaged the air conditioning system (i.e., evaporator is... vehicle start). The climate control system may delay switching to recirculation mode until the...

  10. Optimizing Orbit-Instrument Configuration for Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Satellite Fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Adams, James; Baptista, Pedro; Haddad, Ziad; Iguchi, Toshio; Im, Eastwood; Kummerow, Christian; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Following the scientific success of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spearheaded by a group of NASA and NASDA scientists, their external scientific collaborators, and additional investigators within the European Union's TRMM Research Program (EUROTRMM), there has been substantial progress towards the development of a new internationally organized, global scale, and satellite-based precipitation measuring mission. The highlights of this newly developing mission are a greatly expanded scope of measuring capability and a more diversified set of science objectives. The mission is called the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM). Notionally, GPM will be a constellation-type mission involving a fleet of nine satellites. In this fleet, one member is referred to as the "core" spacecraft flown in an approximately 70 degree inclined non-sun-synchronous orbit, somewhat similar to TRMM in that it carries both a multi-channel polarized passive microwave radiometer (PMW) and a radar system, but in this case it will be a dual frequency Ku-Ka band radar system enabling explicit measurements of microphysical DSD properties. The remainder of fleet members are eight orbit-synchronized, sun-synchronous "constellation" spacecraft each carrying some type of multi-channel PMW radiometer, enabling no worse than 3-hour diurnal sampling over the entire globe. In this configuration the "core" spacecraft serves as a high quality reference platform for training and calibrating the PMW rain retrieval algorithms used with the "constellation" radiometers. Within NASA, GPM has advanced to the pre-formulation phase which has enabled the initiation of a set of science and technology studies which will help lead to the final mission design some time in the 2003 period. This presentation first provides an overview of the notional GPM program and mission design, including its organizational and programmatic concepts, scientific agenda, expected instrument package, and basic flight

  11. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... clean-fuel fleet vehicles not regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall have a permanent legible label...-duty engines and vehicles used as LEVs, ULEVs, and ZEVs that are also regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall comply with the labeling requirements of 40 CFR 86.095-35 (or later applicable sections),...

  12. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... clean-fuel fleet vehicles not regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall have a permanent legible label...-duty engines and vehicles used as LEVs, ULEVs, and ZEVs that are also regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall comply with the labeling requirements of 40 CFR 86.095-35 (or later applicable sections),...

  13. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... clean-fuel fleet vehicles not regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall have a permanent legible label...-duty engines and vehicles used as LEVs, ULEVs, and ZEVs that are also regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall comply with the labeling requirements of 40 CFR 86.095-35 (or later applicable sections),...

  14. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... clean-fuel fleet vehicles not regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall have a permanent legible label...-duty engines and vehicles used as LEVs, ULEVs, and ZEVs that are also regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall comply with the labeling requirements of 40 CFR 86.095-35 (or later applicable sections),...

  15. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone. (a) The following is a safety zone: (1) The west and northwest shores of Snake Island; (2)...

  16. 77 FR 23118 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Blessing of the Fleet; Bayou La Batre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Blessing of the Fleet; Bayou La Batre; Bayou La Batre, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce Special Local Regulations for the Blessing...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1864-10 - How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... year HLDT/MDPVs. (3) (4) Vehicles imported by ICIs as defined in 40 CFR 85.1502. (b) Useful life... cold temperature NMHC standards. 86.1864-10 Section 86.1864-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards. (a) Applicability....

  18. 40 CFR 86.1864-10 - How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .../MDPVs. (3) (4) Vehicles imported by ICIs as defined in 40 CFR 85.1502. (b) Useful life requirements... cold temperature NMHC standards. 86.1864-10 Section 86.1864-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards. (a) Applicability. Cold temperature...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1864-10 - How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... year HLDT/MDPVs. (3) (4) Vehicles imported by ICIs as defined in 40 CFR 85.1502. (b) Useful life... cold temperature NMHC standards. 86.1864-10 Section 86.1864-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards. (a) Applicability....

  20. 40 CFR 86.1864-10 - How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... year HLDT/MDPVs. (3) (4) Vehicles imported by ICIs as defined in 40 CFR 85.1502. (b) Useful life... cold temperature NMHC standards. 86.1864-10 Section 86.1864-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards. (a) Applicability....

  1. 76 FR 4637 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy's Atlantic Fleet Active Sonar Training

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...&E) activities to be conducted within the Atlantic Fleet Active Sonar Training (AFAST) Study Area for... Integrated Comprehensive Management Program (ICMP) Plan, which is intended for use as a planning tool to... contacts listed here. The mailbox address for providing e-mail comments on the ICMP Plan is...

  2. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the...

  3. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the...

  4. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the...

  5. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the...

  6. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... clean-fuel fleet vehicles not regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall have a permanent legible label...-duty engines and vehicles used as LEVs, ULEVs, and ZEVs that are also regulated under 40 CFR part 86 shall comply with the labeling requirements of 40 CFR 86.095-35 (or later applicable sections),...

  7. 75 FR 5055 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy's Atlantic Fleet Active Sonar Training (AFAST)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... to AFAST training, maintenance, and RDT&E became effective on January 22, 2009 (74 FR 4843, January... conducted within the AFAST Study Area under regulations issued on January 22, 2009 (74 FR 4843, January 27.... Navy's Atlantic Fleet Active Sonar Training (AFAST) AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  8. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Golden Gate National Recreation Area

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity's Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies' fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. GGNRA identified 182 vehicles in its fleet, which are under the management of the U.S. General Services Administration. Fleet vehicle mission categories are defined in Section 4, and while the GGNRA vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and law enforcement missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The selected vehicles included sedans, trucks, and sport-utility vehicles. This report will show that battery electric vehicles and/or PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for support vehicles and PHEVs provide the same for law enforcement, because each has a sufficient range for individual trips and time is available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These charging events

  9. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Stennis Space Center

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which NASA Stennis Space Center (Stennis) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  10. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for United States Coast Guard Headquarters

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which the United States Coast Guard Headquarters (USCG HQ) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  11. [Analysis of the structure and causes of acute poisoning of chemical etiology in the Northern Fleet].

    PubMed

    Khankevich, Iu R; Askerko, I V; Myznikov, I L; Domashov, V I

    2012-02-01

    Data for the incidence of acute poisoning among the personnel of the Northern Fleet in 2002-2010 is analyzed, its dynamics and proportion of primary morbidity of sailors. In the class of clinical entity of "injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes" proportion of poisoning in servicemen of different categories was ranging from 0.5 to 1.8%. Deaths occurred in 23.4% of cases of poisoning. Among the causes of poisoning major were--failure to comply with requirements to ensure safe conditions of military service and safe conduct of work, personal indiscipline of injured. Proposals for the prevention of poisoning in the current conditions of service in the Navy are suggested.

  12. Particle swarm optimization method for the control of a fleet of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkadi, A.; Ciarletta, L.; Theilliol, D.

    2015-11-01

    This paper concerns a control approach of a fleet of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) based on virtual leader. Among others, optimization methods are used to develop the virtual leader control approach, particularly the particle swarm optimization method (PSO). The goal is to find optimal positions at each instant of each UAV to guarantee the best performance of a given task by minimizing a predefined objective function. The UAVs are able to organize themselves on a 2D plane in a predefined architecture, following a mission led by a virtual leader and simultaneously avoiding collisions between various vehicles of the group. The global proposed method is independent from the model or the control of a particular UAV. The method is tested in simulation on a group of UAVs whose model is treated as a double integrator. Test results for the different cases are presented.

  13. Scheduling Earth Observing Fleets Using Evolutionary Algorithms: Problem Description and Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Morris, Robert; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe work in progress concerning multi-instrument, multi-satellite scheduling. Most, although not all, Earth observing instruments currently in orbit are unique. In the relatively near future, however, we expect to see fleets of Earth observing spacecraft, many carrying nearly identical instruments. This presents a substantially new scheduling challenge. Inspired by successful commercial applications of evolutionary algorithms in scheduling domains, this paper presents work in progress regarding the use of evolutionary algorithms to solve a set of Earth observing related model problems. Both the model problems and the software are described. Since the larger problems will require substantial computation and evolutionary algorithms are embarrassingly parallel, we discuss our parallelization techniques using dedicated and cycle-scavenged workstations.

  14. Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public Transit Agency Vehicle Fleet Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Weigel, Brent; Southworth, Frank; Meyer, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews calculation tools available for quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with different types of public transit service, and their usefulness in helping a transit agency to reduce its carbon footprint through informed vehicle and fuel procurement decisions. Available calculators fall into two categories: registry/inventory based calculators most suitable for standardized voluntary reporting, carbon trading, and regulatory compliance; and multi-modal life cycle analysis calculators that seek comprehensive coverage of all direct and indirect emissions. Despite significant progress in calculator development, no single calculator as yet contains all of the information needed by transit agencies to develop a truly comprehensive, life cycle analysis-based accounting of the emissions produced by its vehicle fleet operations, and for a wide range of vehicle/fuel technology options.

  15. Conceptual design of a fleet of autonomous regolith throwing devices for radiation shielding of lunar habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Karem; Mcadams, Daniel A.; Norrell, Jeffery L.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents refinements in two areas of the initial design presented in the report entitled 'Conceptual Design of a Fleet of Autonomous Regolith Throwing Devices for Radiation Shielding of Lunar Habitats'. The first section presents an evaluation of the critical areas of the design and presents alternative solutions for these areas. The areas for design refinement are the traction required by the device and the stability of the device when throwing regolith. Several alternative methods are presented to solve these problems. First, the issue of required traction is covered. Next, the design is refined to provide a more stable device. The issue of stability is addressed both by presenting solutions for the configuration chosen for the computer simulation and by presenting two more device configurations. The next section presents the selected solutions. To prevent inadequate traction, the depth of dig-per-pass is reduced. A method combining a dynamic counterweight and an outrigger is chosen to provide a stable device.

  16. MSAT wide-area fleet management: End-user requirements and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, Allister

    1995-01-01

    MSAT (Mobile SATellite) Services will become a reality in North America in 1995. MSAT will provide wide-area voice, data and fax services to land, marine and aeronautical mobile users anywhere in North America including 200 nautical miles off the coasts and into the Arctic waters. MSAT will also convey GPS position information from mobiles to dispatch centers. One broad application of MSAT is Wide Area Fleet Management (WAFM). This paper defines WAFM, outlines end-user requirements and identifies potential applications of MSAT WAFM. The paper draws from information obtained in several preMSAT WAFM field trials in land, marine and aeronautical mobile environments. The paper concludes with an outline of the potential benefits of MSAT WAFM.

  17. Quality assessment of marine geoscience data collected with the U.S. academic oceanographic research fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbotte, S. M.; O'hara, S. H.; Ferrini, V.; Arko, R. A.; Morton, J. J.; Sweeney, A. D.; Clark, D.; Miller, S. P.; Stocks, K.; Chandler, C. L.; Maffei, A. R.; Smith, S. R.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Marine science data collected using the U.S. academic research fleet support a diverse array of investigations across the ocean sciences, targeting important questions ranging from the impacts of global change on ocean chemistry and ecosystems, to the structure and dynamics of ocean circulation, to the nature of volcanic and earthquake processes at the global plate boundaries. Each vessel within the academic fleet is equipped with a suite of sensors (geophysical, water column, and meteorological) available for continuous operation during each expedition, that provide characterization of basic environmental conditions from sea surface to subseafloor. Given the vast expanse of the oceans, many expeditions collect data in previously unexplored regions and these data are of high value for later re-use to build global syntheses, climatologies, and historical time series of ocean properties. Understanding the quality of these "underway" data streams is essential for any of these science applications. However, documentation of data quality is rare and historically, routine quality assessment (QA) of these data streams has been lacking. In most cases, QA has been the domain of the science party for each expedition but limited to the data types of interest for the scientific goals of the specific program, with the quality of other underway data types remaining unassessed. Under the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, QA of sensor data collected across the academic fleet will be routinely conducted as part of the R2R data pipeline that begins with the submission of cruise data distributions by ship operators. R2R will assemble datasets and documentation, and perform QA for submission to the NOAA National Data Centers (NDCs) for long-term archiving. The goals of the QA are two fold: 1. To provide feedback to shipboard operators to ensure that high quality data are consistently acquired, and 2. To inform future science users of the status of a field data set with

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRU WASTE TRANSPORTATION FLEET--A SUCCESS STORY

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Murthy; Morrison, Cindy; Brown, Mike

    2003-02-27

    Since March 1999, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), as a repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. More than 1,450 shipments of TRU waste for WIPP disposal have been completed, and the WIPP is currently receiving 12 to 16 shipments per week from five DOE sites around the nation. One of the largest fleets of Type B packagings supports the transportation of TRU waste to WIPP. This paper discusses the development of this fleet since the original Certificate of Compliance (C of C) for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) was issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1989. Evolving site programs, closure schedules of major sites, and the TRU waste inventory at the various DOE sites have directed the sizing and packaging mix of this fleet. This paper discusses the key issues that guided this fleet development, including the following: While the average weight of a 55-gallon drum packaging debris could be less than 300 pounds (lbs.), drums containing sludge waste or compacted waste could approach the maximum allowable weight of 1,000 lbs. A TRUPACT-II shipment may consist of three TRUPACT-II packages, each of which is limited to a total weight of 19,250 lbs. Payload assembly weights dictated by ''as-built'' TRUPACT-II weights limit each drum to an average weight of 312 lbs when three TRUPACT-IIs are shipped. To optimize the shipment of heavier drums, the HalfPACT packaging was designed as a shorter and lighter version of the TRUPACT-II to accommodate a heavier load. Additional packaging concepts are currently under development, including the ''TRUPACT-III'' packaging being designed to address ''oversized'' boxes that are currently not shippable in the TRUPACT-II or HalfPACT due to size constraints. Shipment optimization is applicable not only to the addition of new

  19. Characterization of fleet emissions from ships through multi-individual determination of size-resolved particle emissions in a coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerlund, Jonathan; Hallquist, Mattias; Hallquist, Åsa M.

    2015-07-01

    Shipping is becoming a major source of particulate air pollution in coastal cities. Here we describe the use of a stationary measurement site to characterize nanoparticle emissions (5.6-560 nm) from a large ship fleet (154 ships) in a harbor region of an emission control area (ECA) under real-world dilution conditions. Emission factors (EFs) are described with respect to particle number (PN), mass (PM), size and volatility. Automatic Identification System data were used to obtain information on ship class, direction, speed and acceleration. Cargo and passenger ships had similar average EFs: 2.79 ± 0.19 vs. 2.35 ± 0.20 × 1016 # (kg fuel)-1 and 2550 ± 170 vs. 2200 ± 130 mg (kg fuel)-1 respectively. The number size distributions for cargo and passenger ships were unimodal, peaking at ∼40 nm. Tug-boats and pilots emitted smaller particles with lower EFPN and EFPM. For emissions of non-volatile particles from cargo and passenger ships EFPM increased with decreasing speed and acceleration while the EFPN decreased. The size distributions of the non-volatile particles for all ships contained a large mode at ∼10 nm. This peak is believed to be formed during plume aging. A detailed understanding of size-resolved particle emissions from individual ships will be important in designing appropriate emission regulations for coastal areas.

  20. Fossil fleet transition with fuel changes and large scale variable renewable integration

    SciTech Connect

    James, Revis; Hesler, Stephen; Bistline, John

    2015-03-31

    Variability in demand as seen by grid-connected dispatchable generators can increase due to factors such as greater production from variable generation assets (for example, wind and solar), increased reliance on demand response or customer-driven automation, and aggregation of loads. This variability results a need for these generators to operate in a range of different modes, collectively referred to as “flexible operations.” This study is designed to inform power companies, researchers, and policymakers of the scope and trends in increasing levels of flexible operations as well as reliability challenges and impacts for dispatchable assets. Background Because there is rarely a direct monetization of the value of operational flexibility, the decision to provide such flexibility is typically dependent on unit- and region-specific decisions made by asset owners. It is very likely that much greater and more widespread flexible operations capabilities will be needed due to increased variability in demand seen by grid-connected generators, uncertainty regarding investment in new units to provide adequate operational flexibility, and the retirement of older, uncontrolled sub-critical pulverized coal units. Objective To enhance understanding of the technical challenges and operational impacts associated with dispatchable assets needed to increase operational flexibility and support variable demand. Approach The study approach consists of three elements: a literature review of relevant prior studies, analysis of detailed scenarios for evolution of the future fleet over the next 35 years, and engineering assessment of the degree and scope of technical challenges associated with transformation to the future fleet. The study approach integrated two key elements rarely brought together in a single analysis—1) long-term capacity planning, which enables modeling of unit retirements and new asset investments, and 2) unit commitment analysis, which permits examination of

  1. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Building a Reference Cruise Catalog for the Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Clark, P. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. A core element of this infrastructure is a master catalog of research vessels, cruises, sensor systems, underway datasets, navigation products, field reports, event logs, file formats, people, organizations, and funding awards that is maintained uniformly across the research fleet. All NSF-supported vessel operators now submit their underway cruise data and documentation directly to R2R, per the revised Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Sample and Data Policy published in 2011. R2R ingests this content into the fleet catalog, assigning globally unique and persistent identifiers at the cruise, dataset, and file (granule) levels. The catalog is aligned with community-standard vocabularies, working collaboratively with the NOAA Data Centers, UNOLS Office, and pan-European SeaDataNet project; and includes links to related data at other inter/national repositories. In response to community demand, we are extending the catalog to include instrument-specific metadata such as installation details, patch tests, and calibration results. The entire R2R catalog is published on the Web as "Linked Data", making it easily accessible to encourage integration with other repositories. Selected content is also published in formal metadata records according to ISO and W3C standards, suitable for submission to long-term archives. We are deploying both faceted (classification/filter) and Web map-based browse and search interfaces.

  2. Optimal selection of space transportation fleet to meet multi-mission space program needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Montoya, Alex J.

    1989-01-01

    A space program that spans several decades will be comprised of a collection of missions such as low earth orbital space station, a polar platform, geosynchronous space station, lunar base, Mars astronaut mission, and Mars base. The optimal selection of a fleet of several recoverable and expendable launch vehicles, upper stages, and interplanetary spacecraft necessary to logistically establish and support these space missions can be examined by means of a linear integer programming optimization model. Such a selection must be made because the economies of scale which comes from producing large quantities of a few standard vehicle types, rather than many, will be needed to provide learning curve effects to reduce the overall cost of space transportation if these future missions are to be affordable. Optimization model inputs come from data and from vehicle designs. Each launch vehicle currently in existence has a launch history, giving rise to statistical estimates of launch reliability. For future, not-yet-developed launch vehicles, theoretical reliabilities corresponding to the maturity of the launch vehicles' technology and the degree of design redundancy must be estimated. Also, each such launch vehicle has a certain historical or estimated development cost, tooling cost, and a variable cost. The cost of a launch used in this paper includes the variable cost plus an amortized portion of the fixed and development costs. The integer linear programming model will have several constraint equations based on assumptions of mission mass requirements, volume requirements, and number of astronauts needed. The model will minimize launch vehicle logistic support cost and will select the most desirable launch vehicle fleet.

  3. CoalFleet RD&D augmentation plan for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-15

    To help accelerate the development, demonstration, and market introduction of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and other clean coal technologies, EPRI formed the CoalFleet for Tomorrow initiative, which facilitates collaborative research by more than 50 organizations from around the world representing power generators, equipment suppliers and engineering design and construction firms, the U.S. Department of Energy, and others. This group advised EPRI as it evaluated more than 120 coal-gasification-related research projects worldwide to identify gaps or critical-path activities where additional resources and expertise could hasten the market introduction of IGCC advances. The resulting 'IGCC RD&D Augmentation Plan' describes such opportunities and how they could be addressed, for both IGCC plants to be built in the near term (by 2012-15) and over the longer term (2015-25), when demand for new electric generating capacity is expected to soar. For the near term, EPRI recommends 19 projects that could reduce the levelized cost-of-electricity for IGCC to the level of today's conventional pulverized-coal power plants with supercritical steam conditions and state-of-the-art environmental controls. For the long term, EPRI's recommended projects could reduce the levelized cost of an IGCC plant capturing 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from the carbon in coal (for safe storage away from the atmosphere) to the level of today's IGCC plants without CO{sub 2} capture. EPRI's CoalFleet for Tomorrow program is also preparing a companion RD&D augmentation plan for advanced-combustion-based (i.e., non-gasification) clean coal technologies (Report 1013221). 7 refs., 30 figs., 29 tabs., 4 apps.

  4. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  5. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  6. Fleet Fatality Risk and its Sensitivity to Vehicle Mass Change in Frontal Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crashes, Using a Combined Empirical and Theoretical Model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yibing; Nusholtz, Guy S

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to analytically model the fatality risk in frontal vehicle-to-vehicle crashes of the current vehicle fleet, and its sensitivity to vehicle mass change. A model is built upon an empirical risk ratio-mass ratio relationship from field data and a theoretical mass ratio-velocity change ratio relationship dictated by conservation of momentum. The fatality risk of each vehicle is averaged over the closing velocity distribution to arrive at the mean fatality risks. The risks of the two vehicles are summed and averaged over all possible crash partners to find the societal mean fatality risk associated with a subject vehicle of a given mass from a fleet specified by a mass distribution function. Based on risk exponent and mass distribution from a recent fleet, the subject vehicle mean fatality risk is shown to increase, while at the same time that for the partner vehicles decreases, as the mass of the subject vehicle decreases. The societal mean fatality risk, the sum of these, incurs a penalty with respect to a fleet with complete mass equality. This penalty reaches its minimum (~8% for the example fleet) for crashes with a subject vehicle whose mass is close to the fleet mean mass. The sensitivity, i.e., the rate of change of the societal mean fatality risk with respect to the mass of the subject vehicle is assessed. Results from two sets of fully regression-based analyses, Kahane (2012) and Van Auken and Zellner (2013), are approximately compared with the current result. The general magnitudes of the results are comparable, but differences exist at a more detailed level. The subject vehicle-oriented societal mean fatality risk is averaged over all possible subject vehicle masses of a given fleet to obtain the overall mean fatality risk of the fleet. It is found to increase approximately linearly at a rate of about 0.8% for each 100 lb decrease in mass of all vehicles in the fleet.

  7. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... first ten vehicles listed in this paragraph (d)(1)). If more vehicles are tested than the minimum number... and additional vehicles are desired then they shall be added beginning with vehicle number one, and... = 3-Way catalyst 3W+OX = 3-Way catalyst plus an oxidation catalyst Air Injection: Air = Air...

  8. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... first ten vehicles listed in this paragraph (d)(1)). If more vehicles are tested than the minimum number... and additional vehicles are desired then they shall be added beginning with vehicle number one, and... = 3-Way catalyst 3W+OX = 3-Way catalyst plus an oxidation catalyst Air Injection: Air = Air...

  9. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the use of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site (FVNHS) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) into the agencies’ fleet. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to EV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles) could fulfill the mission requirements. FVNHS identified three vehicles in its fleet for consideration. While the FVNHS vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and pool missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The logged vehicles included a pickup truck and a minivan. This report will show that BEVs and PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for both mission categories, because each has sufficient range for individual trips and time available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These charging events could occur at the vehicle’s home base, high-use work areas, or in intermediate areas along routes that the vehicles frequently travel. Replacement of vehicles in the current fleet would result in

  10. Assessment of carbon monoxide (CO) adjusted non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions of a motor fleet - A long tunnel study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Tzu; Chen, Sheng-Po; Chang, Chih-Chung; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Liao, Wei-Cheng; Su, Yuan-Chang; Wu, Yue-Chuen; Wang, Chieh-Heng; Wang, Jia-Lin

    2014-06-01

    Speciated hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and CO were simultaneously measured by evenly distributed samples along the entire length (12.9 km) of the tunnel in different traffic conditions. Four passes (two round-trips) were made at four different fleet speeds (i.e., 45, 65, 75 and 85 km h-1). Individual NMHC and CO mixing ratios were observed to be sensitive to the fleet speed, which is compounded by driving conditions and traffic volumes. We propose using ratios of NMHCs to CO to cancel out the factor of traffic volumes to determine CO-normalized NMHC emissions, such that a less biased comparison can be made between different fleet speeds in this study and even between different studies. Moreover, to obtain robust CO-normalized NMHC emissions which are sufficiently representative of the fleet speeds, only samples collected deep inside the long-tunnels between 8 and 12 km were used. Of the 61 target NMHCs, isomers of butane, pentane, ethylene, acetylene and toluene were the most abundant species regardless of the driving conditions. We observed that different driving conditions not only affected the emission strengths but also altered the compositions of the NMHCs. To simplify the data analysis, the target NMHCs were classified into four chemical groups, i.e., alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and alkynes. For the slower and more congested driving condition (fleet speed = 45 km h-1), the CO-normalized NMHC emissions were the highest, with alkanes contributing to approximately 60% of the total NMHC levels, suggesting poorer fuel utilization at slower driving conditions. In terms of the CO-normalized ozone forming potentials (OFPs), the contribution of the alkanes diminished dramatically to approximately 9-22% despite their high weight percentage, whereas the contribution of the alkenes was enhanced significantly to 50-60% from their weight percent of only approximately 26%. Our total NMHC to CO ratios of 0.06-0.20 for the four fleet speeds generally fall within the range constrained

  11. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  12. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  13. Urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Air pollution and the risk of potential health effects are not sufficiently convincing reasons for people to stop driving their cars, according to a study by the Population Reference Bureau (PRB) released on November 18.While sufficient levels of suspended particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and lead can present health concerns, the study found that many people surveyed for the study were not convinced of the clear linkage between air pollution and health.

  14. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 9, No. 2. Volume 9, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Scarpellini, Nanette (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The following articles from the "Journal of Air Transportation" were processed: Future Requirements and Concepts for Cabins of Blended Wing Body Configurations:A Scenario Approach; Future Scenarios for the European Airline Industry: A Marketing-Based Perspective; An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of the Air Transport System; Modeling the Effect of Enlarged Seating Room on Passenger Preferences of Domestic Airlines in Taiwan; Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Pricing; and Future Airport Capacity Utilization in Germany: Peaked Congestion and/or Idle Capacity).

  15. Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet: Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-Flow Estimation -- VICE 2.0; Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, John

    2015-04-02

    Presentation by Senior Engineer John Gonzales on Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet using the Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-flow Estimation (VICE) 2.0 model.

  16. Homogenization of Vehicle Fleet Frontal Crash Pulses from 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    Locey, Caitlin M.; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Toh, Akira; Belwadi, Aditya; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Maltese, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Full-scale vehicle crash tests are performed globally to assess vehicle structure and restraint system performance. The crash pulse, captured by accelerometers mounted within the occupant compartment, measures the motion of the vehicle during the impact event. From an occupant’s perspective, the crash pulse is the inertial event to which the vehicle’s restraint systems must respond in order to mitigate the forces and accelerations that act on a passenger, and thus reduce injury risk. The objective of this study was to quantify the characteristics of crash pulses for different vehicle types in the contemporary North American fleet, and delineate current trends in crash pulse evolution. NHTSA and Transport Canada crash test databases were queried for full-frontal rigid barrier crash tests of passenger vehicles model year 2000–2010 with impact angle equaling zero degrees. Acceleration-time histories were analyzed for all accelerometers attached to the vehicle structure within the occupant compartment. Custom software calculated the following crash pulse characteristics (CPCs): peak deceleration, time of peak deceleration, onset rate, pulse duration, and change in velocity. Vehicle body types were classified by adapting the Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) methodology, and vehicles were assigned a generation start year in place of model year in order to more accurately represent structural change over time. 1094 vehicle crash tests with 2795 individual occupant compartment-mounted accelerometers were analyzed. We found greater peak decelerations and and shorter pulse durations across multiple vehicle types in newer model years as compared to older. For midsize passenger cars, large passenger cars, and large SUVs in 56 km/h rigid barrier tests, maximum deceleration increased by 0.40, 0.96, and 1.57 g/year respectively, and pulse duration decreased by 0.74, 1.87, and 2.51 ms/year. We also found that the crash pulse characteristics are becoming more homogeneous in

  17. Homogenization of vehicle fleet frontal crash pulses from 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Locey, Caitlin M; Garcia-Espana, J Felipe; Toh, Akira; Belwadi, Aditya; Arbogast, Kristy B; Maltese, Matthew R

    2012-01-01

    Full-scale vehicle crash tests are performed globally to assess vehicle structure and restraint system performance. The crash pulse, captured by accelerometers mounted within the occupant compartment, measures the motion of the vehicle during the impact event. From an occupant's perspective, the crash pulse is the inertial event to which the vehicle's restraint systems must respond in order to mitigate the forces and accelerations that act on a passenger, and thus reduce injury risk. The objective of this study was to quantify the characteristics of crash pulses for different vehicle types in the contemporary North American fleet, and delineate current trends in crash pulse evolution. NHTSA and Transport Canada crash test databases were queried for full-frontal rigid barrier crash tests of passenger vehicles model year 2000-2010 with impact angle equaling zero degrees. Acceleration-time histories were analyzed for all accelerometers attached to the vehicle structure within the occupant compartment. Custom software calculated the following crash pulse characteristics (CPCs): peak deceleration, time of peak deceleration, onset rate, pulse duration, and change in velocity. Vehicle body types were classified by adapting the Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) methodology, and vehicles were assigned a generation start year in place of model year in order to more accurately represent structural change over time. 1094 vehicle crash tests with 2795 individual occupant compartment-mounted accelerometers were analyzed. We found greater peak decelerations and and shorter pulse durations across multiple vehicle types in newer model years as compared to older. For midsize passenger cars, large passenger cars, and large SUVs in 56 km/h rigid barrier tests, maximum deceleration increased by 0.40, 0.96, and 1.57 g/year respectively, and pulse duration decreased by 0.74, 1.87, and 2.51 ms/year. We also found that the crash pulse characteristics are becoming more homogeneous in the

  18. Technical, economic, and environmental impact study of converting Uzbekistan transportation fleets to natural gas operation. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-30

    This study, conducted by Radian International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility (technical, economic and environmental) of converting the Uzbek transportation fleets to natural gas operation. The study focuses on the conversion of high fuel use vehicles and locomotives to liquefied natural gas (LNG) and the conversion of moderate fuel use veicles to compressed natural gas (CNG). The report is divided into the following sections: Executive Summary; (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Country Background; (3.0) Characterization of Uzbek Transportation Fuels; (4.0) Uzbek Vehicle and Locomotive Fleet Characterization; (5.0) Uzbek Natural Gas Vehicle Conversion Shops; (6.0) Uzbek Natural Gas Infrastructure; (7.0) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) for Vehicular Fuel in Uzbekistan; (8.0) Economic Feasibility Study; (9.0) Environmental Impact Analysis; References; Appendices A - S.

  19. Options in the global change fleet architecture provided by the presence of an EOS-A and -B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, Warren D.; Ross, Rogard T.

    1991-01-01

    The baseline architecture of the Global Change Technology Initiative (GCTI) fleet was established by selecting and designing spacecraft and instruments to meet the science requirements developed under the task 1 effort. While attempting to meet the temporal sampling portion of the science requirements, no consideration was given to the presence of the proposed Earth Observing System (EOS) Spacecraft that would be making many of the same measurements with many of the same instruments. After establishing the GCTI baseline independent of the EOS Spacecraft; however, it is now prudent to examine the impact of the presence of the EOS Spacecraft on the GCTI fleet. A small scope, GCTI study supplement was accomplished to assess the impact. The content and results of the supplementary study are presented.

  20. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, E. F.; Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel saving potential and cost effectiveness of numerous operational and technical options proposed for reducing the fuel consumption of the U.S. commercial airline fleet was examined and compared. The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs and airline profits when implemented in the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets was determined. A forecast estimate was made of the potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system. Specifically, the means for reducing the jet fuel consumption of the U.S. scheduled airlines in domestic and international passenger operations were investigated. A design analysis was made of two turboprop aircraft as possible fuel conserving derivatives of the DC-9-30.

  1. The Digital Twin Paradigm for Future NASA and U.S. Air Force Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Stargel, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    Future generations of NASA and U.S. Air Force vehicles will require lighter mass while being subjected to higher loads and more extreme service conditions over longer time periods than the present generation. Current approaches for certification, fleet management and sustainment are largely based on statistical distributions of material properties, heuristic design philosophies, physical testing and assumed similitude between testing and operational conditions and will likely be unable to address these extreme requirements. To address the shortcomings of conventional approaches, a fundamental paradigm shift is needed. This paradigm shift, the Digital Twin, integrates ultra-high fidelity simulation with the vehicle s on-board integrated vehicle health management system, maintenance history and all available historical and fleet data to mirror the life of its flying twin and enable unprecedented levels of safety and reliability.

  2. The Telesupervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF) Architecture: Coordination of Multiple Oceanic Robot Boats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfes, Alberto; Podnar, Gregg W.; Dolan, John M.; Stancliff, Stephen; Lin, Ellie; Hosler, Jeffrey C.; Ames, Troy J.; Higinbotham, John; Moisan, John R.; Moisan, Tiffany A.; Kulczycki, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    Earth science research must bridge the gap between the atmosphere and the ocean to foster understanding of Earth s climate and ecology. Ocean sensing is typically done with satellites, buoys, and crewed research ships. The limitations of these systems include the fact that satellites are often blocked by cloud cover, and buoys and ships have spatial coverage limitations. This paper describes a multi-robot science exploration software architecture and system called the Telesupervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF). TAOSF supervises and coordinates a group of robotic boats, the OASIS platforms, to enable in-situ study of phenomena in the ocean/atmosphere interface, as well as on the ocean surface and sub-surface. The OASIS platforms are extended deployment autonomous ocean surface vehicles, whose development is funded separately by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). TAOSF allows a human operator to effectively supervise and coordinate multiple robotic assets using a sliding autonomy control architecture, where the operating mode of the vessels ranges from autonomous control to teleoperated human control. TAOSF increases data-gathering effectiveness and science return while reducing demands on scientists for robotic asset tasking, control, and monitoring. The first field application chosen for TAOSF is the characterization of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). We discuss the overall TAOSF architecture, describe field tests conducted under controlled conditions using rhodamine dye as a HAB simulant, present initial results from these tests, and outline the next steps in the development of TAOSF.

  3. Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management Suite: Asset Fault Signature Database

    SciTech Connect

    Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck; Randall Bickford; Richard Rusaw

    2015-06-01

    Proactive online monitoring in the nuclear industry is being explored using the Electric Power Research Institute’s Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software. The FW-PHM Suite is a set of web-based diagnostic and prognostic tools and databases that serves as an integrated health monitoring architecture. The FW-PHM Suite has four main modules: (1) Diagnostic Advisor, (2) Asset Fault Signature (AFS) Database, (3) Remaining Useful Life Advisor, and (4) Remaining Useful Life Database. The paper focuses on the AFS Database of the FW-PHM Suite, which is used to catalog asset fault signatures. A fault signature is a structured representation of the information that an expert would use to first detect and then verify the occurrence of a specific type of fault. The fault signatures developed to assess the health status of generator step-up transformers are described in the paper. The developed fault signatures capture this knowledge and implement it in a standardized approach, thereby streamlining the diagnostic and prognostic process. This will support the automation of proactive online monitoring techniques in nuclear power plants to diagnose incipient faults, perform proactive maintenance, and estimate the remaining useful life of assets.

  4. Protein S-sulfenylation is a fleeting molecular switch that regulates non-enzymatic oxidative folding

    PubMed Central

    Beedle, Amy E. M.; Lynham, Steven; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    The post-translational modification S-sulfenylation functions as a key sensor of oxidative stress. Yet the dynamics of sulfenic acid in proteins remains largely elusive due to its fleeting nature. Here we use single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to directly capture the reactivity of an individual sulfenic acid embedded within the core of a single Ig domain of the titin protein. Our results demonstrate that sulfenic acid is a crucial short-lived intermediate that dictates the protein's fate in a conformation-dependent manner. When exposed to the solution, sulfenic acid rapidly undergoes further chemical modification, leading to irreversible protein misfolding; when cryptic in the protein's microenvironment, it readily condenses with a neighbouring thiol to create a protective disulfide bond, which assists the functional folding of the protein. This mechanism for non-enzymatic oxidative folding provides a plausible explanation for redox-modulated stiffness of proteins that are physiologically exposed to mechanical forces, such as cardiac titin. PMID:27546612

  5. Distributed energy storage systems on the basis of electric-vehicle fleets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, A. Z.; Buzoverov, E. A.; Sheindlin, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Several power technologies directed to solving the problem of covering nonuniform loads in power systems are developed at the Joint Institute of High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences (JIHT RAS). One direction of investigations is the use of storage batteries of electric vehicles to compensate load peaks in the power system (V2G—vehicle-to-grid technology). The efficiency of energy storage systems based on electric vehicles with traditional energy-saving technologies is compared in the article by means of performing computations. The comparison is performed by the minimum-cost criterion for the peak energy supply to the system. Computations show that the distributed storage systems based on fleets of electric cars are efficient economically with their usage regime to 1 h/day. In contrast to traditional methods, the prime cost of regulation of the loads in the power system based on V2G technology is independent of the duration of the load compensation period (the duration of the consumption peak).

  6. A heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing model for solving the LPG distribution problem: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onut, S.; Kamber, M. R.; Altay, G.

    2014-03-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an important management problem in the field of distribution and logistics. In VRPs, routes from a distribution point to geographically distributed points are designed with minimum cost and considering customer demands. All points should be visited only once and by one vehicle in one route. Total demand in one route should not exceed the capacity of the vehicle that assigned to that route. VRPs are varied due to real life constraints related to vehicle types, number of depots, transportation conditions and time periods, etc. Heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem is a kind of VRP that vehicles have different capacity and costs. There are two types of vehicles in our problem. In this study, it is used the real world data and obtained from a company that operates in LPG sector in Turkey. An optimization model is established for planning daily routes and assigned vehicles. The model is solved by GAMS and optimal solution is found in a reasonable time.

  7. Protein S-sulfenylation is a fleeting molecular switch that regulates non-enzymatic oxidative folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beedle, Amy E. M.; Lynham, Steven; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi

    2016-08-01

    The post-translational modification S-sulfenylation functions as a key sensor of oxidative stress. Yet the dynamics of sulfenic acid in proteins remains largely elusive due to its fleeting nature. Here we use single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to directly capture the reactivity of an individual sulfenic acid embedded within the core of a single Ig domain of the titin protein. Our results demonstrate that sulfenic acid is a crucial short-lived intermediate that dictates the protein's fate in a conformation-dependent manner. When exposed to the solution, sulfenic acid rapidly undergoes further chemical modification, leading to irreversible protein misfolding; when cryptic in the protein's microenvironment, it readily condenses with a neighbouring thiol to create a protective disulfide bond, which assists the functional folding of the protein. This mechanism for non-enzymatic oxidative folding provides a plausible explanation for redox-modulated stiffness of proteins that are physiologically exposed to mechanical forces, such as cardiac titin.

  8. Assessment of institutional barriers to the use of natural gas fuel in automotive vehicle fleets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jablonski, J.; Lent, L.; Lawrence, M.; White, L.

    1983-01-01

    Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe design and certification of natural gas vehicles and refueling stations; (2) excessively conservative or misapplied state and local regulations, including bridge and tunnel restrictions, restrictions on types of vehicles that may be fueled by natural gas, zoning regulations that prohibit operation of refueling stations, parking restrictions, application of LPG standards to LNG vehicles, and unintentionally unsafe vehicle or refueling station requirements; (3) need for clarification of EPA's tampering enforcement policy; (4) the U.S. hydrocarbon standard; (5) uncertainty concerning state utility commission jurisdiction; (6) sale for resale prohibitions imposed by natural gas utility companies or state utility commissions; (7) uncertainty of the effects of conversions to natural gas on vehicle manufactures warranties; and (8) need for a natural gas to gasoline equivalent units conversion factor for use in calculation of state road use taxes.

  9. An AIS-based approach to calculate atmospheric emissions from the UK fishing fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coello, Jonathan; Williams, Ian; Hudson, Dominic A.; Kemp, Simon

    2015-08-01

    The fishing industry is heavily reliant on the use of fossil fuel and emits large quantities of greenhouse gases and other atmospheric pollutants. Methods used to calculate fishing vessel emissions inventories have traditionally utilised estimates of fuel efficiency per unit of catch. These methods have weaknesses because they do not easily allow temporal and geographical allocation of emissions. A large proportion of fishing and other small commercial vessels are also omitted from global shipping emissions inventories such as the International Maritime Organisation's Greenhouse Gas Studies. This paper demonstrates an activity-based methodology for the production of temporally- and spatially-resolved emissions inventories using data produced by Automatic Identification Systems (AIS). The methodology addresses the issue of how to use AIS data for fleets where not all vessels use AIS technology and how to assign engine load when vessels are towing trawling or dredging gear. The results of this are compared to a fuel-based methodology using publicly available European Commission fisheries data on fuel efficiency and annual catch. The results show relatively good agreement between the two methodologies, with an estimate of 295.7 kilotons of fuel used and 914.4 kilotons of carbon dioxide emitted between May 2012 and May 2013 using the activity-based methodology. Different methods of calculating speed using AIS data are also compared. The results indicate that using the speed data contained directly in the AIS data is preferable to calculating speed from the distance and time interval between consecutive AIS data points.

  10. Sleep disturbances among offshore fleet workers: a questionnaire-based survey.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jakob Hønborg; Holmen, Ingunn Marie

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Shift work is related to fatigue and desynchronization with the external environment. This study investigates how 6-h shifts and 12-h shifts affects sleep and safety in workers onboard offshore supply vessels, and if any differences exist between the two working schedules. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A questionnaire study was carried out in the North Sea, Australia, Africa, South America, and the Far East, with 577 participants. The offshore fleet workers gave information on parameters related to sleep disturbances, causes of sleep disturbances, and safety. Regional differences in these parameters were also investigated. RESULTS. Workers on 6-hour shifts reported significantly more sleep problems than 12-hour shift workers did (p 〈 0.01). The 6-hour workers were more affected by noise (p 〈 0.01) and shift-work itself (p 〈 0.01). CONCLUSIONS. Those working 6-hour shifts suffer more from sleep disturbances than those on 12-hour shifts, but this is not reflected in the perception of safety within the individual. Noise and shift-work itself is more of a problem in the 12-hour workers. Differences in safety culture and work morale are likely to cause the differences between regions.

  11. Lidar Monitoring of Mexico City's Atmosphere During High Air Pollution Episodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quick, C. R., Jr.; Archuleta, F. L.; Hof, D. E.; Karl, R. R., Jr.; Tiee, J. J., Jr.; Eichinger, W. E.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Tellier, L.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Mexico City, like many large industrial and populous urban areas, has developed a serious air pollution problem, especially during the winter months when there are frequent temperature inversions and weak winds. The deteriorating air quality is the result of several factors. The basin within which Mexico City lies in Mexico's center of political, administrative and economic activity, generating 34 percent of the gross domestic product and 42 percent of the industrial revenue, and supporting a population which is rapidly approaching the 20 million mark. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides which end up preventing rapid dispersal of pollutants. Emissions from the transportation fleet (more than 3 million vehicles) are one of the primary pollution sources, and most are uncontrolled. Catalytic converters are just now working their way into the fleet. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative in an international collaboration project between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are dedicated to the investigation of the air quality problem in Mexico City. The main objective of the project is to identify and assess the cost and benefits of major options being proposed to improve the air quality. The project is organized into three main activity areas: (1) modeling and simulation; (2) characterization and measurements; and (3) strategic evaluation.

  12. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  13. 40 CFR 86.1865-12 - How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty... CFR 85.1502. (2) The terms “passenger automobile” and “light truck” as used in this section have...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1865-12 - How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light... under 40 CFR 1037.104. (iii) Vehicles imported by ICIs as defined in 40 CFR 85.1502. (2) The...

  15. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  16. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  17. Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    underlying architecture of ground-air and air-air communications as a whole, rather than as simple "link to function" paired solutions. For the business case analysis, a number of "reference architectures" were developed for both the future technologies and the current systems, based on three typical configurations of current aircraft. Current and future costs were assigned, and various comparisons made between the current and future architectures. In general, it was assumed that if a future architecture offers lower cost than the current typical architecture, while delivering equivalent or better performance, it is likely that the future solution will gain industry acceptance. Conversely, future architectures presenting higher costs than their current counterparts must present a compelling benefit case in other areas or risk a lack of industry acceptance. The business case analysis consistently indicated lower costs for the proposed future architectures, and in most cases, significantly so. The proposed future solutions were found to offer significantly greater functionality, flexibility, and growth potential over time, at lower cost, than current systems. This was true for overall, fleet-wide equipage for domestic and oceanic air carriers, as well as for single, General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The overall research results indicate that all identified requirements can be met by the proposed solutions with significant capacity for future growth. Results also illustrate that the majority of the future communication needs can be met using currently allocated aviation RF spectrum, if used in more effective ways than it is today. A combination of such optimized aviation-specific links and commercial communication systems meets all identified needs for the 50-year future and beyond, with the caveat that a new, overall function will be needed to manage all information exchange, individual links, security, cost, and other factors. This function was labeled "Delivery Manager" (DM

  18. Quantification of vehicle fleet PM10 particulate matter emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources using tunnel measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-03-01

    Road tunnels act like large laboratories; they provide an excellent environment to quantify atmospheric particles emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources due to their known boundary conditions. Current work compares the High Volume, Dichotomous Stacked Filter Unit and Partisol Air Sampler for coarse, PM10 and PM2.5 particle concentration measurement and found that they do not differ significantly (p = 95%). PM2.5 fraction contributes 66% of PM10 proportions and significantly influenced by traffic (turbulence) and meteorological conditions. Mass emission factors for PM10 varies from 21.3 ± 1.9 to 28.8 ± 3.4 mg/vkm and composed of Motorcycle (0.0003-0.001 mg/vkm), Cars (26.1-33.4 mg/vkm), LDVs (2.4-3.0 mg/vkm), HDVs (2.2-2.8 mg/vkm) and Buses (0.1 mg/vkm). Based on Lawrence et al. (2013), source apportionment modelling, the PM10 emission of brake wear (3.8-4.4 mg/vkm), petrol exhaust (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), diesel exhaust (7.2-8.3 mg/vkm), re-suspension (9-10.4 mg/vkm), road surface wear (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), and unexplained (7.2 mg/vkm) were also calculated. The current study determined that the combined non-exhaust fleet PM10 emission factor (16.7-19.3 mg/vkm) are higher than the combined exhaust emission factor (11.1-12.8 mg/vkm). Thus, highlight the significance of non-exhaust emissions and the need for legislation and abatement strategies to reduce their contributions to ambient PM concentrations. PMID:26844787

  19. Quantification of vehicle fleet PM10 particulate matter emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources using tunnel measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-03-01

    Road tunnels act like large laboratories; they provide an excellent environment to quantify atmospheric particles emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources due to their known boundary conditions. Current work compares the High Volume, Dichotomous Stacked Filter Unit and Partisol Air Sampler for coarse, PM10 and PM2.5 particle concentration measurement and found that they do not differ significantly (p = 95%). PM2.5 fraction contributes 66% of PM10 proportions and significantly influenced by traffic (turbulence) and meteorological conditions. Mass emission factors for PM10 varies from 21.3 ± 1.9 to 28.8 ± 3.4 mg/vkm and composed of Motorcycle (0.0003-0.001 mg/vkm), Cars (26.1-33.4 mg/vkm), LDVs (2.4-3.0 mg/vkm), HDVs (2.2-2.8 mg/vkm) and Buses (0.1 mg/vkm). Based on Lawrence et al. (2013), source apportionment modelling, the PM10 emission of brake wear (3.8-4.4 mg/vkm), petrol exhaust (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), diesel exhaust (7.2-8.3 mg/vkm), re-suspension (9-10.4 mg/vkm), road surface wear (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), and unexplained (7.2 mg/vkm) were also calculated. The current study determined that the combined non-exhaust fleet PM10 emission factor (16.7-19.3 mg/vkm) are higher than the combined exhaust emission factor (11.1-12.8 mg/vkm). Thus, highlight the significance of non-exhaust emissions and the need for legislation and abatement strategies to reduce their contributions to ambient PM concentrations.

  20. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program final report. Volume 1: Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional fuel were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and fuel type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled fuel systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. Fuel cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but fuel cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but fuel costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and fuel efficiency is reduced, but the fuel is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but fuel costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and fuel cells.