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Sample records for air fleet craf

  1. Sustaining the Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    Airlines JAL Thai Airways Japan Air System Tyrolean SN Brussels Airlines United TAM Brazil Varig Grupo Taca Mexicana Spanair Major International...radio and television 6.6 2.7 40.3% 8517 Electrical apparatus for line telephony or telegraphy 8.1 2.6 32.3% 6204 Women’s girls’ suits, jackets, dresses... television 6.5 5.1 78.6% 7108 Gold 5.1 4.9 95.1% 9030 Oscilloscopes, instruments for measuring rays 4.2 3.7 88.5% 8529 Aerials and other radio and TV

  2. Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF): A Participation Analysis 1986-2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    1996: 3). From a positive perspective, the history of CRAF’s ability to meet the needs of mobility planners has a more successful record than that...have significantly increased their CRAF commitments. Operating under Chapter 11 protection for the longest period in aviation history , United...747 at the largest commercial aircraft in history , is also being designed with a freighter variant. Both FedEx and UPS each have ten firm orders

  3. Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-25

    Requirements Center GTN Global Transportation Network xiii IAT.R 0554 GWOT Global War on Terrorism HDPLP High Deck Patient Lift Platform HLS homeland...the requirements against a PACOM plan and/or modify the program. The past several years, USTRANSCOM SG has been unsuccessful in obtaining CRAF AE...flight on September 15, 1991, and the first production model was delivered to Charleston Air Force Base, South Carolina June 14, 1993. The aircraft can

  4. EPA honors Sonoma County for protecting air quality, fighting climate change with one of nations largest hybrid vehicle fleets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - This week, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is honoring Sonoma County Fleet Operations and six other projects across the country for their work on clean air and climate initiatives. The 2015 Clean Air Excellence Awards recogn

  5. Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Task 1includes a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization are used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the assessments and observations of the current non-tactical fleet, fulfilling the Task 1 requirements.

  6. Modeling, simulation & optimization of the landing craft air cushion fleet readiness.

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, Dennis

    2006-10-01

    The Landing Craft Air Cushion is a high-speed, over-the-beach, fully amphibious landing craft capable of carrying a 60-75 ton payload. The LCAC fleet can serve to transport weapons systems, equipment, cargo and personnel from ship to shore and across the beach. This transport system is an integral part of our military arsenal and, as such, its readiness is an important consideration for our national security. Further, the best way to expend financial resources that have been allocated to maintain this fleet is a critical Issue. There is a clear coupling between the measure of Fleet Readiness as defined by the customer for this project and the information that is provided by Sandia's ProOpta methodology. Further, there is a richness in the data that provides even more value to the analyst. This report provides an analytic framework for understanding the connection between Fleet Readiness and the output provided by Sandia's ProOpta software. Further, this report highlights valuable information that can also be made available using the ProOpta output and concepts from basic probability theory. Finally, enabling assumptions along with areas that warrant consideration for further study are identified.

  7. A Life Cycle Cost Analysis of the Proposed Replacement of Pope Air Force Base’s C-130E Fleet Using a Fleet Replacement Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    A LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS OF THE PROPOSED REPLACEMENT OF POPE AIR FORCE BASE’S C-130E FLEET USING A...Date 11 Mar 02 Report Type Final Dates Covered (from... to) Oct 2000 - Mar 2002 Title and Subtitle A Life Cycle Cost Analysis of the Proposed...a lack of spare parts, and structural problems, maintenance costs are rising at an exponential rate. Because of this, there may be a more cost

  8. Civil Reserve Air Fleet Performance in Desert Shield/Desert Storm: A measure of Future Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-16

    simplification of 17 LCOL Nels Wilt, USAF., "CRAF Incentives", Attachment to Internal Point Paper, (Scott AFB, AMC, 1 December 1992), p. 1. Col. Donn P. Kegel ...in a Changing World: Meeting the Challenge", Logistics Spectrum, Spring 1992. Kegel , Donn P, and Williams Mark A, Col’s USAF, "Improving The Civil

  9. [Aviation medicine laboratory of the North Fleet air base celebrates the 70th anniversary].

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, V V; Mazaĭkin, D N; Buldakov, I M; Pisarev, A A

    2013-05-01

    The article is dedicated to the history of formation and development of the oldest aviation medicine department and its role in a flight safety of the North Fleet naval aviation. The aviation medicine laboratory was created in the years of the Great Patriotic war for medical backup of flights, medical review board, delivering of combat casualty care, prophylaxis of hypothermia and exhaustion of flight and ground crew. In a post-war period the aviation medicine laboratory made a great contribution to development of medical backup of educational and combat activity of the North Fleet aviation. Participation in cosmonaut applicants selection (incl. Yu.A. Gagarin), optimization of flight services during the transmeridian flights, research of carrier-based aircraft habitability and body state of the contingent during the longstanding ship-based aviation, development of treatment methods for functional status of sea-based aviation crew are the achievements of aviation medicine laboratory. Nowadays medicine laboratory is performing a research and practice, methodic and consultative activity with the aim of improving the system of medical backup, aviation medicine, psychology, flight safety, improvement of air crew health, prolong of flying proficiency.

  10. Comparisons of air quality impacts of fleet electrification and increased use of biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhajeri, Nawaf S.; McDonald-Buller, Elena C.; Allen, David T.

    2011-04-01

    The air quality impacts of the partial electrification of the transportation fleet and the use of biofuels (E85) were modeled for the Austin Metropolitan Statistical Area, based on a 2030 vision of regional development. Changes in ozone precursor emissions and predicted ozone, carbon monoxide and aldehyde concentrations were estimated for multiple electrification and biofuel scenarios. Maximum changes in hourly ozone concentration from the use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for 17% of the vehicle miles traveled ranged from - 8.5 to 2.2 ppb, relative to a base case with no electrification and minimal biofuel use, depending on time of day and location. Differences in daily maximum 1 h ozone concentration ranged from - 2.3 to 0.004 ppb. Replacement of all gasoline fuels with E85 had a smaller effect than PHEVs on maximum daily ozone concentrations. Maximum ozone changes for this scenario ranged from - 2.1 to 2.8 ppb and the difference in daily maximum 1 h ozone concentrations ranged from - 1.53 to 0 ppb relative to the base case. The smaller improvements in maximum ozone concentrations associated with extensive (100%) use of biofuels, compared to a smaller (17%) penetration of PHEVs, suggests that higher levels of PHEV penetration may lead to even greater improvements; however, the higher penetration would require expansion of the electrical grid capacity. The air quality impacts of the PHEVs would then depend on the emissions associated with the added generation.

  11. A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Fleming, Dennis; Hargrove, Douglas; Koopman, Ronald; Peterman, Keith

    1995-04-01

    We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet's home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

  12. A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Hargrove, D.; Koopman, R.; Peterman, K.

    1995-04-20

    We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet s home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

  13. CRAF R391W is a melanoma driver oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Atefi, Mohammad; Titz, Bjoern; Tsoi, Jennifer; Avramis, Earl; Le, Allison; Ng, Charles; Lomova, Anastasia; Lassen, Amanda; Friedman, Michael; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Ribas, Antoni; Graeber, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 75% of melanomas have known driver oncogenic mutations in BRAF, NRAS, GNA11 or GNAQ, while the mutations providing constitutive oncogenic signaling in the remaining melanomas are not known. We established a melanoma cell line from a tumor with none of the common driver mutations. This cell line demonstrated a signaling profile similar to BRAF-mutants, but lacked sensitivity to the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib. RNA-seq mutation data implicated CRAF R391W as the alternative driver mutation of this melanoma. CRAF R391W was homozygous and over expressed. These melanoma cells were highly sensitive to CRAF, but not BRAF knockdown. In reconstitution experiments, CRAF R391W, but not CRAF WT, transformed NIH3T3 cells in soft-agar colony formation assays, increased kinase activity in vitro, induced MAP kinase signaling and conferred vemurafenib resistance. MAP kinase inducing activity was dependent on CRAF dimerization. Thus, CRAF is a bona fide alternative oncogene for BRAF/NRAS/GNAQ/GNA11 wild type melanomas. PMID:27273450

  14. Commander Naval Air Forces (CNAF) Flight Hour Program: Budgeting and Execution Response to the Implementation of the Fleet Response Plan and OP-20 Pricing Model Changes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    explanations. If over spending is severe, the manager 69 Pappalardo , Joe, "Keeping Up the Fleet," National Defense, January 2005, http...Air Forces Pacific (CNAP) FHP Underfunding. Masters Thesis. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, December 1998. 69 Pappalardo , Joe

  15. Cometary Matter Analyser (COMA/CRAF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechler, K.; Igenbergs, E.; Klein, J. W.; Krueger, F. R.; Kuczera, H.; Morfill, G.; Palme, H.; Roessler, K.; Weishaupt, U.; Zerrull, R.; Schmidt, R.; Strazulla, G.; Brownlee, D.; Clark, B.; Hanner, M.; Johnson, R.; Utterback, N.; Zinner, E.

    1994-01-01

    This project was part of an international program under which the chemical composition of cometary dust particles was to be measured 'in situ' during a rendezvous and flyby mission of a Mariner Mark 2 space probe and a comet (depending on the time of launch). Two necessary tasks, preliminary hardware development and interface definition, have been completed within the projects submitted for approval. As a result a model close to the flight configuration has been created, which was to be made available to the flight hardware contractor and his purposes. The Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission was abandoned after joint resolution adopted by NASA and the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in 1992. Since an instrument like CoMA is an important contribution both to future cometary rendezvous missions, such as ROSETTA, as well as for accompanying laboratory activities, this project was terminated in a 'qualified conclusion'. In the process, components suitable for the laboratory developed from the preliminary units were produced and put into operation.

  16. Fuel consumption and CO2/pollutant emissions of mobile air conditioning at fleet level - new data and model comparison.

    PubMed

    Weilenmann, Martin F; Alvarez, Robert; Keller, Mario

    2010-07-01

    Mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems are the second-largest energy consumers in cars after driving itself. While different measurement series are available to illustrate their behavior in hot ambient conditions, little data are available for lower temperatures. There are also no data available on diesel vehicles, despite these being quite common in Europe (up to 70% of the fleet in some countries). In the present study, six representative modern diesel passenger cars were tested. In combination with data from previous measurements on gasoline cars, a new model was developed - EEMAC = Empa Emission model for Mobile Air Conditioning systems - to predict emissions from air conditioning. The measurements obtained show that A/C activity still occurs at temperatures below the desired interior temperature. The EEMAC model was applied to the average meteorological year of a central European region and compared with the US EPA MOBILE6 model. As temperatures in central Europe are often below 20 degrees C (the point below which the two models differ), the overall results differ clearly. The estimated average annual CO(2) output according to EEMAC is six times higher than that of MOBILE6. EEMAC also indicates that around two-thirds of the fuel used for air conditioning could be saved by switching the MAC system off below 18 degrees C.

  17. California Clean Air Act: A compliance strategy for the City of San Diego`s non-emergency fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Historically, parts of California have had the worst air quality in the nation. The California Energy Commission began experimenting with alternate fuels in the 1970`s in an effort to reduce harmful automobile emissions and hence, improve air quality. It is recognized that the costs to California which result from our air quality problems are immense. Ten to twenty billion dollars each year is the estimated damage in terms of health impacts, materials damages, lost agricultural crop output and forest damages. As the California population increases and health care costs escalate, the total monetary damages from air pollution will increase. The California Energy Commission goal to improve air quality became a mandate in 1988 with the passage of the California Clean Air Act (CCAA). The CCAA requires a revised air quality strategy for the San Diego district since we do not meet State air quality standards for smog, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Smog remains San Diego`s major air quality problem, even though the annual number of days each year over the Federal standard has been reduced by 55 percent in the past ten years. Ten years ago about two-thirds of San Diego`s smog was transported from Los Angeles. Today more than 60 per cent of the days San Diego exceeds the State standard are from locally generated smog. It is estimated that 57% of the reactive hydrocarbon emissions (which react with nitrogen dioxide in the presence of sunlight to form smog) is from cars, trucks and buses. The Air Pollution Control District (part of the County of San Diego) is the office that the Air Resources Board has put in charge of creating regulations and designing strategy to reduce polluting emissions. The purpose of this project is to determine the full cost of acquiring and operating a municipal fleet which meets the mandates of the California Clean Air Act. With that information, a plan to meet the Clear Air Act (CCAA) requirements can be formulated by local government.

  18. Mobilization and Defense Management Technical Reports Series. Contemporary Issues Affecting the Ability of Commercial Air Cargo Carriers to Support the Civil Air Reserve Fleet.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    ansportation systems . Fourth, managers , in recognition of the high costs of t.±chnloqical obsolescence, are striving to minimize high technology...Commercial Use of Enhanced Capability 42 Summary and Conclusions 43 iv I ’] TABLE OF COTENTS CAPER PAGE V. STRAfEGIC AIRLIFT TTENTIAL OF THE BOEING B...effective strategic mobility system must be based on agreements between the military and the commercial sector is embodied in the CRAF program. This

  19. Next Generation Tanker: Optimizing Air Refueling Capabilities in 2030 with a Divested KC-10 Fleet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    BCA-level funding would have similar impacts for non - defense programs, and any increase in defense discretionary caps should be matched by an...equivalent increase in the non -defense caps. For defense, the Estimated Impacts of Sequestration-Level Funding Report illustrates the additional warfighting...and Acquisition of Our Next Generation Tanker (No. AFIT/ GMO /ENS/02E-15). 33 Appendix A: Advanced Air Refueling Capability Concepts Standard

  20. Missile Defensive Systems and the Civil Reserve Air Fleet (Maxwell Paper, Number 45)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Illinois: Pope AFB, North Carolina; Little Rock AFB, Arkansas; and Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona. Colonel Downing entered the Air Force as a distinguished...electronic warfare officer in the EC-130 and instructor/flight examiner navigator in the C-130. He holds the master of military arts and sciences in...Kosovo SA-7 (r) Kurdistan Workers Party Turkey SA-7 (c), Stinger (c) Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Sri Lanka SA-7 (r), SA-14 (r), HN-5 (c) Oromo

  1. Design and Analysis of RTGs for CRAF and Cassini Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred; Noravian, Heros; Sankarankandath

    1990-11-30

    This report consists of two parts. Part 1 describes the development of novel analytical methods needed to predict the BOM performance and the subsequent performance degradation of the mutually obstructed RTGs for the CRAF and Cassini missions. Part II applies those methods to the two missions, presents the resultant predictions, and discusses their programmatic implications. The results indicate that JPL's original power demand goals could have been met with two standard GPHS RTGs for each mission. But subsequently JPL significantly increased both the power level and the mission duration for both missions, so that they can no longer by met by two standard RTGs. The resultant power gap must be closed either by reducing JPL's power demand (e.g., by decreasing contingency reserves) and/or by increasing the power system's output. One way under active consideration which more than meets the system power goal would be the addition of a third RTG for each mission. However, the author concluded that it may be possible to meet or closely approach the CRAF power demand goals with just two RTGs by relatively modest modification of their design and/or operating conditions. To explore that possibility, the effect of various modifications - either singly or in combination - was analyzed by Fairchild. The results indicate that modest modifications can meet or come very close to meeting the CRAF power goals with just two RTGs. Elimination of the third RTG would yield substantial cost and schedule savings. There are three copies in the file.

  2. Demonstration of zinc/air fuel battery to enhance the range and mission of fleet electric vehicles: Preliminary results in the refueling of a multicell module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Fleming, D.; Keene, L.; Maimoni, A.; Peterman, K.; Koopman, R.

    1994-08-01

    We report progress in an effort to develop and demonstrate a refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle applications. A refuelable module consisting of twelve bipolar cells with internal flow system has been refueled at rates of nearly 4 cells per minute, indicating a refueling time of 10 minutes for a 15 kW, 55 kWh battery. The module is refueled by entrainment of 0.5-mm particles in rapidly flowing electrolyte, which delivers the particles into hoppers above each cell in a parallel-flow hydraulic circuit. The concept of user-recovery is presented as an alternative to centralized service infrastructure during market entry.

  3. Demonstration of zinc/air fuel battery to enhance the range and mission of fleet electric vehicles: Preliminary results in the refueling of a multicell module

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Keene, L.; Maimoni, A.; Peterman, K.; Koopman, R.

    1994-08-08

    We report progress in an effort to develop and demonstrate a refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle applications. A refuelable module consisting of twelve bipolar cells with internal flow system has been refueled at rates of nearly 4 cells per minute refueling time of 10 minutes for a 15 kW, 55 kWh battery. The module is refueled by entrainment of 0.5-mm particles in rapidly flowing electrolyte, which delivers the particles into hoppers above each cell in a parallel-flow hydraulic circuit. The concept of user-recovery is presented as an alternative to centralized service infrastructure during market entry.

  4. Climate impact of supersonic air traffic: an approach to optimize a potential future supersonic fleet - results from the EU-project SCENIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, V.; Stenke, A.; Ponater, M.; Sausen, R.; Pitari, G.; Iachetti, D.; Rogers, H.; Dessens, O.; Pyle, J.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Gulstad, L.; Søvde, O. A.; Marizy, C.; Pascuillo, E.

    2007-10-01

    The demand for intercontinental transportation is increasing and people are requesting short travel times, which supersonic air transportation would enable. However, besides noise and sonic boom issues, which we are not referring to in this investigation, emissions from supersonic aircraft are known to alter the atmospheric composition, in particular the ozone layer, and hence affect climate significantly more than subsonic aircraft. Here, we suggest a metric to quantitatively assess different options for supersonic transport with regard to the potential destruction of the ozone layer and climate impacts. Options for fleet size, engine technology (nitrogen oxide emission level), cruising speed, range, and cruising altitude, are analyzed, based on SCENIC emission scenarios for 2050, which underlay the requirements to be as realistic as possible in terms of e.g., economic markets and profitable market penetration. This methodology is based on a number of atmosphere-chemistry and climate models to reduce model dependencies. The model results differ significantly in terms of the response to a replacement of subsonic aircraft by supersonic aircraft, e.g., concerning the ozone impact. However, model differences are smaller when comparing the different options for a supersonic fleet. Those uncertainties were taken into account to make sure that our findings are robust. The base case scenario, where supersonic aircraft get in service in 2015, a first fleet fully operational in 2025 and a second in 2050, leads in our simulations to a near surface temperature increase in 2050 of around 7 mK and with constant emissions afterwards to around 21 mK in 2100. The related total radiative forcing amounts to 22 mWm2 in 2050, with an uncertainty between 9 and 29

  5. Climate impact of supersonic air traffic: an approach to optimize a potential future supersonic fleet - results from the EU-project SCENIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, V.; Stenke, A.; Ponater, M.; Sausen, R.; Pitari, G.; Iachetti, D.; Rogers, H.; Dessens, O.; Pyle, J.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Gulstad, L.; Søvde, O. A.; Marizy, C.; Pascuillo, E.

    2007-05-01

    The demand for intercontinental transportation is increasing and people are requesting short travel times, which supersonic air transportation would enable. However, besides noise and sonic boom issues, which we are not referring to in this investigation, emissions from supersonic aircraft are known to alter the atmospheric composition, in particular the ozone layer, and hence affect climate significantly more than subsonic aircraft. Here, we suggest a metric to quantitatively assess different options for supersonic transport with regard to the potential destruction of the ozone layer and climate impacts. Options for fleet size, engine technology (nitrogen oxide emission level), cruising speed, range, and cruising altitude, are analyzed, based on SCENIC emissions scenarios for 2050, which underlay the requirements to be as realistic as possible in terms of e.g. economic markets and profitable market penetration. This methodology is based on a number of atmosphere-chemistry and climate models to reduce model dependencies. The model results differ significantly in terms of the response to a replacement of subsonic aircraft by supersonic aircraft. However, model differences are smaller when comparing the different options for a supersonic fleet. The base scenario, where supersonic aircraft get in service in 2015, a first fleet fully operational in 2025 and a second in 2050, lead in our simulations to a near surface temperature increase in 2050 of around 7 mK and with constant emissions afterwards to around 21 mK in 2100. The related total radiative forcing amounts to 22 mWm²in 2050, with an uncertainty between 9 and 29 mW40 CFR 89.117 - Test fleet selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test fleet selection. 89.117 Section 89.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Certification Provisions § 89.117 Test fleet selection. (a) The manufacturer must select for testing, from...

  6. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  7. 40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.304-94 Clean-fuel Fleet... purchasing clean-fuel vehicles (CFVs) directly and by trading and banking CFFV credits for vehicle...

  8. 40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.304-94 Clean-fuel Fleet... purchasing clean-fuel vehicles (CFVs) directly and by trading and banking CFFV credits for vehicle...

  9. 40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.304-94 Clean-fuel Fleet... purchasing clean-fuel vehicles (CFVs) directly and by trading and banking CFFV credits for vehicle...

  10. 40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.304-94 Clean-fuel Fleet... purchasing clean-fuel vehicles (CFVs) directly and by trading and banking CFFV credits for vehicle...

  11. Fleet DNA (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Walkokwicz, K.; Duran, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Fleet DNA project objectives include capturing and quantifying drive cycle and technology variation for the multitude of medium- and heavy-duty vocations; providing a common data storage warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle fleet data across DOE activities and laboratories; and integrating existing DOE tools, models, and analyses to provide data-driven decision making capabilities. Fleet DNA advantages include: for Government - providing in-use data for standard drive cycle development, R&D, tech targets, and rule making; for OEMs - real-world usage datasets provide concrete examples of customer use profiles; for fleets - vocational datasets help illustrate how to maximize return on technology investments; for Funding Agencies - ways are revealed to optimize the impact of financial incentive offers; and for researchers -a data source is provided for modeling and simulation.

  12. EPA Announces Availability of up to $1.9 Million to Clean Up Diesel Engines in the Southeast Preference given to fleets in areas with poor air quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (02/25/16 - ATLANTA) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today announced the availability of up to $1.9 million in grant funding to establish clean diesel projects aimed at reducing emissions from the existing fleet of diesel engines in the so

  13. InSb linear multiplexed FPAs for the CRAF/Cassini visible and infrared mapping spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niblack, Curtiss; Blessinger, Michael; Forsthoefel, John; Staller, Craig; Sobel, Harold

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a review of a custom multiplexer circuit designed for use with a 256 element InSb linear array in the CRAF/Cassini VIMS instruments. The requirements, operation noise model and test results from a prototype 1 x 64 array are discussed. The infrared focal plane array (FPA) preliminary design and the impact of the new multiplexer on the instruments' predicted performance will be discussed. Emphasis will be placed on the multiplexer that was designed for the CRAF/Cassini missions. The FPA assembly combines electronic and optical components into a single hermetically sealed hybrid package. The detector configuration is that of a linear dual-multiplexed indium antimonide array with 256 elements, each 103 x 200 on 123-micron centers.

  14. Barwood CNG Cab Fleet Study: Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, P.; Kelly, K.; John, M.

    1999-05-03

    This report describes a fleet study conducted over a 12-month period to evaluate the operation of dedicated compress natural gas (CNG) Ford Crown Victoria sedans in a taxicab fleet. In the study, we assess the performance and reliability of the vehicles and the cost of operating the CNG vehicles compared to gasoline vehicles. The study results reveal that the CNG vehicles operated by this fleet offer both economic and environmental advantages. The total operating costs of the CNG vehicles were about 25% lower than those of the gasoline vehicles. The CNG vehicles performed as well as the gasoline vehicles, and were just as reliable. Barwood representatives and drivers have come to consider the CNG vehicles an asset to their business and to the air quality of the local community.

  15. Ferment in the Fleet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwigson, John

    1980-01-01

    The future of the academic oceanographic fleet is discussed. The focus of the controversy surrounding the ships appears to be their size and fuel efficiency. Budget constraints and various ways in which to schedule ships for researchers are the primary concerns. (SA)

  16. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.305-94 Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles. (a) All clean-fuel...

  17. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.305-94 Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles. (a) All clean-fuel...

  18. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.305-94 Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles. (a) All clean-fuel...

  19. 40 CFR 88.305-94 - Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.305-94 Clean-fuel fleet vehicle labeling requirements for heavy-duty vehicles. (a) All clean-fuel...

  1. Alternative Fleet Architecture Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    times. The new competitive model is also an integral element of a broader strategic approach to cost. Since predicting the future is all but... approach does not model how these ships might be lost but is offered to show the consequences of losses. A fixed number of losses is typically...latter input parameter is directly related to the number of removal platforms the fleet employs in the given operation. When applying this model to

  2. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fleet Definitions Veh. No. Fuel system Catalyst Air injection EGR Tech. group Manufacturer 1 Multi 3W No... B—Tech Group Definitions in Table A Tech group Fuel system Catalyst Air injection EGR 1 Multi 3W...

  3. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fleet Definitions Veh. No. Fuel system Catalyst Air injection EGR Tech. group Manufacturer 1 Multi 3W No... B—Tech Group Definitions in Table A Tech group Fuel system Catalyst Air injection EGR 1 Multi 3W...

  4. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fleet Definitions Veh. No. Fuel system Catalyst Air injection EGR Tech. group Manufacturer 1 Multi 3W No... B—Tech Group Definitions in Table A Tech group Fuel system Catalyst Air injection EGR 1 Multi 3W...

  5. The Tumor Suppressor DiRas3 Forms a Complex with H-Ras and C-RAF Proteins and Regulates Localization, Dimerization, and Kinase Activity of C-RAF*

    PubMed Central

    Baljuls, Angela; Beck, Matthias; Oenel, Ayla; Robubi, Armin; Kroschewski, Ruth; Hekman, Mirko; Rudel, Thomas; Rapp, Ulf R.

    2012-01-01

    The maternally imprinted Ras-related tumor suppressor gene DiRas3 is lost or down-regulated in more than 60% of ovarian and breast cancers. The anti-tumorigenic effect of DiRas3 is achieved through several mechanisms, including inhibition of cell proliferation, motility, and invasion, as well as induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Re-expression of DiRas3 in cancer cells interferes with the signaling through Ras/MAPK and PI3K. Despite intensive research, the mode of interference of DiRas3 with the Ras/RAF/MEK/ERK signal transduction is still a matter of speculation. In this study, we show that DiRas3 associates with the H-Ras oncogene and that activation of H-Ras enforces this interaction. Furthermore, while associated with DiRas3, H-Ras is able to bind to its effector protein C-RAF. The resulting multimeric complex consisting of DiRas3, C-RAF, and active H-Ras is more stable than the two protein complexes H-Ras·C-RAF or H-Ras·DiRas3, respectively. The consequence of this complex formation is a DiRas3-mediated recruitment and anchorage of C-RAF to components of the membrane skeleton, suppression of C-RAF/B-RAF heterodimerization, and inhibition of C-RAF kinase activity. PMID:22605333

  6. Epidermal Growth Factor-dependent Activation of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway by DJ-1 Protein through Its Direct Binding to c-Raf Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Kato-Ose, Izumi; Murata, Hiroaki; Maita, Hiroshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2015-01-01

    DJ-1 is an oncogene and also a causative gene for familial Parkinson disease. DJ-1 has various functions, and the oxidative status of cysteine at position 106 (Cys-106) is crucial for determination of the activation level of DJ-1. Although DJ-1 requires activated Ras for its oncogenic activity and although it activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, a cell growth pathway downstream of Ras, the precise mechanism underlying activation of the ERK pathway by DJ-1 is still not known. In this study, we found that DJ-1 directly bound to the kinase domain of c-Raf but not to Ras and that Cys-106 mutant DJ-1 bound to c-Raf more weakly than did wild-type DJ-1. Co-localization of DJ-1 with c-Raf in the cytoplasm was enhanced in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-treated cells. Knockdown of DJ-1 expression attenuated the phosphorylation level of c-Raf in EGF-treated cells, resulting in reduced activation of MEK and ERK1/2. Although EGF-treated DJ-1 knock-out cells also showed attenuated c-Raf activation, reintroduction of wild-type DJ-1, but not C106S DJ-1, into DJ-1 knock-out cells restored c-Raf activation in a DJ-1 binding activity in a c-Raf-dependent manner. DJ-1 was not responsible for activation of c-Raf in phorbol myristate acetate-treated cells. Furthermore, DJ-1 stimulated self-phosphorylation activity of c-Raf in vitro, but DJ-1 was not a target for Raf kinase. Oxidation of Cys-106 in DJ-1 was not affected by EGF treatment. These findings showed that DJ-1 is a positive regulator of the EGF/Ras/ERK pathway through targeting c-Raf. PMID:26048984

  7. Epidermal Growth Factor-dependent Activation of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway by DJ-1 Protein through Its Direct Binding to c-Raf Protein.

    PubMed

    Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Kato-Ose, Izumi; Murata, Hiroaki; Maita, Hiroshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2015-07-17

    DJ-1 is an oncogene and also a causative gene for familial Parkinson disease. DJ-1 has various functions, and the oxidative status of cysteine at position 106 (Cys-106) is crucial for determination of the activation level of DJ-1. Although DJ-1 requires activated Ras for its oncogenic activity and although it activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, a cell growth pathway downstream of Ras, the precise mechanism underlying activation of the ERK pathway by DJ-1 is still not known. In this study, we found that DJ-1 directly bound to the kinase domain of c-Raf but not to Ras and that Cys-106 mutant DJ-1 bound to c-Raf more weakly than did wild-type DJ-1. Co-localization of DJ-1 with c-Raf in the cytoplasm was enhanced in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-treated cells. Knockdown of DJ-1 expression attenuated the phosphorylation level of c-Raf in EGF-treated cells, resulting in reduced activation of MEK and ERK1/2. Although EGF-treated DJ-1 knock-out cells also showed attenuated c-Raf activation, reintroduction of wild-type DJ-1, but not C106S DJ-1, into DJ-1 knock-out cells restored c-Raf activation in a DJ-1 binding activity in a c-Raf-dependent manner. DJ-1 was not responsible for activation of c-Raf in phorbol myristate acetate-treated cells. Furthermore, DJ-1 stimulated self-phosphorylation activity of c-Raf in vitro, but DJ-1 was not a target for Raf kinase. Oxidation of Cys-106 in DJ-1 was not affected by EGF treatment. These findings showed that DJ-1 is a positive regulator of the EGF/Ras/ERK pathway through targeting c-Raf.

  8. The Precious Sortie: The United States Air Force at the Intersection of Rising Energy Prices, an Aging Fleet, a Struggling Recapitalization Effort, and Stressed Defense Budgets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    them at their own peril. 26 NOTES 1 Gayle Putrich and Vago Muridan, "Rising Oil Prices Change USAF Ops," DefenseNews, July 14, 200S, http...accessed July 30, 200S). 4 Vago Muridan, "Oil Prices Reshape How the Air Force Flies," AirForceTimes, July 14, 200S,_ http://www.airforcetimes.com...Lori. "Congress Urges Spending Restraint." The Washington Post, January 8, 2009. 31 Muridan, Vago . "Oil Prices Reshape How the Air Force Flies." Air

  9. 40 CFR 88.308-94 - Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Programmatic requirements for clean... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.308-94 Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. (a) Multi-State nonattainment areas. The...

  10. 40 CFR 88.308-94 - Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Programmatic requirements for clean... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.308-94 Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. (a) Multi-State nonattainment areas. The...

  11. 40 CFR 88.308-94 - Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Programmatic requirements for clean... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.308-94 Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. (a) Multi-State nonattainment areas. The...

  12. 40 CFR 88.308-94 - Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Programmatic requirements for clean... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.308-94 Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. (a) Multi-State nonattainment areas. The...

  13. 40 CFR 88.308-94 - Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Programmatic requirements for clean... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.308-94 Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. (a) Multi-State nonattainment areas. The...

  14. Fleet retrofit report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Flight tests are evaluated of an avionics system which aids the pilot in making two-segment approaches for noise abatement. The implications are discussed of equipping United's fleet of Boeing 727-200 aircraft with two-segment avionics for use down to Category 2 weather operating minima. The experience is reported of incorporating two-segment approach avionics systems on two different aircraft. The cost of installing dual two-segment approach systems is estimated to be $37,015 per aircraft, including parts, labor, and spares. This is based on the assumption that incremental out-of-service and training costs could be minimized by incorporating the system at airframe overhaul cycle and including training in regular recurrent training. Accelerating the modification schedule could add up to 50 percent to the modification costs. Recurring costs of maintenance of the installation are estimated to be of about the same magnitude as the potential recurrent financial benefits due to fuel savings.

  15. Cask fleet operations study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system.

  16. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 8, fleet economics

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The costs that face a fleet operator in implementing alternative motor fuels into fleet operations are examined. Five alternatives studied in the CleanFleet project are considered for choice of fuel: compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The cost assessment is built upon a list of thirteen cost factors grouped into the three categories: infrastructure costs, vehicle owning costs, and operating costs. Applicable taxes are included. A commonly used spreadsheet was adapted as a cost assessment tool. This tool was used in a case study to estimate potential costs to a typical fleet operator in package delivery service in the 1996 time frame. In addition, because electric cargo vans are unlikely to be available for the 1996 model year from original equipment manufacturers, the case study was extended to the 1998 time frame for the electric vans. Results of the case study are presented in cents per mile of vehicle travel for the fleet. Several options available to the fleet for implementing the fuels are examined.

  17. Fleet DNA Project (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    The Fleet DNA Project - designed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory - aims to accelerate the evolution of advanced vehicle development and support the strategic deployment of market-ready technologies that reduce costs, fuel consumption, and emissions. At the heart of the Fleet DNA Project is a clearinghouse of medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet transportation data for optimizing the design of advanced vehicle technologies or for selecting a given technology to invest in. An easy-to-access online database will help vehicle manufacturers and fleets understand the broad operational range for many of today's commercial vehicle vocations.

  18. Fleet Logistics Center, Puget Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Supply Systems Command,Fleet Logistics Center, Puget Sound,467 W Street , Bremerton ,WA,98314-5100 8... Bremerton , WA Established: October 1967 Name Changes: Naval Supply Center Puget Sound, Fleet and Industrial Supply Center Puget...or Sasebo) deployed Ships in the Western Pacific (WestPac) Naval Base Kitsap at Bremerton and Bangor (NBK at Bremerton or Bangor) Navy Region

  19. A Novel Class of Small Molecule Compounds that Inhibit Hepatitis C Virus Infection by Targeting the Prohibitin-CRaf Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shufeng; Wang, Wenyu; Brown, Lauren E.; Qiu, Chao; Lajkiewicz, Neil; Zhao, Ting; Zhou, Jianhua; Porco, John A.; Wang, Tony T.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of novel drug targets and affordable therapeutic agents remains a high priority in the fight against chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Here, we report that the cellular proteins prohibitin 1 (PHB1) and 2 (PHB2) are pan-genotypic HCV entry factors functioning at a post-binding step. While predominantly found in mitochondria, PHBs localize to the plasma membrane of hepatocytes through their transmembrane domains and interact with both EGFR and CRaf. Targeting PHB by rocaglamide (Roc-A), a natural product that binds PHB1 and 2, reduced cell surface PHB1 and 2, disrupted PHB-CRaf interaction, and inhibited HCV entry at low nanomolar concentrations. A structure-activity analysis of 32 synthetic Roc-A analogs indicated that the chiral, racemic version of aglaroxin C, a natural product biosynthetically related to Roc-A, displayed improved potency and therapeutic index against HCV infection. This study reveals a new class of HCV entry inhibitors that target the PHB1/2-CRaf pathway. PMID:26870784

  20. Cooperation of c-raf-1 and c-myc protooncogenes in the neoplastic transformation of simian virus 40 large tumor antigen-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, A M; Mark, G E; Malan-Shibley, L; Graziano, S; Amstad, P; Harris, C C

    1989-01-01

    Overexpression of c-raf-1 and the myc family of protooncogenes is primarily associated with small cell carcinoma, which accounts for approximately 25% of human lung cancer. To determine the functional significance of the c-raf-1 and/or c-myc gene expression in lung carcinogenesis and to delineate the relationship between protooncogene expression and tumor phenotype, we introduced both protooncogenes, alone or in combination, into human bronchial epithelial cells. Two retroviral recombinants, pZip-raf and pZip-myc, containing the complete coding sequences of the human c-raf-1 and murine c-myc genes, respectively, were constructed and transfected into simian virus 40 large tumor antigen-immortalized bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B); this was followed by selection for G418 resistance. BEAS-2B cells expressing both the transfected c-raf-1 and c-myc sequences formed large cell carcinomas in athymic nude mice with a latency of 4-21 weeks, whereas either pZip-raf- or pZip-myc-transfected cells were nontumorigenic after 12 months. Cell lines established from tumors (designated RMT) revealed the presence of the cotransfected c-raf-1 and c-myc sequences and expressed morphological, chromosomal, and isoenzyme markers, which identified BEAS-2B cells as the progenitor line of the tumors. A significant increase in the mRNA levels of neuron-specific enolase was detected in BEAS-2B cells containing both the c-raf-1 and c-myc genes and derived tumor cell lines. The data demonstrate that the concomitant expression of the c-raf and c-myc protooncogenes causes neoplastic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells resulting in large cell carcinomas with certain neuroendocrine markers. The presented model system should be useful in studies of molecular events involved in multistage lung carcinogenesis. Images PMID:2557616

  1. Preliminary report on AED deployment on the entire Air France commercial fleet: a joint venture with Paris XII University Training Programme.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, C; Rodriguez Redington, P; Lecarpentier, E; Bellaiche, G; Michel, D; Teiger, E; Morris, W; Le Bourgeois, J P; Barthout, M

    2004-11-01

    The positive effect of early defibrillation on survival from cardiac arrest has been demonstrated. We describe the use of AEDs over 1 year following the training of flight attendants. Air France and the University of Paris XII together designed a 1 year training programme for 14000 flight attendants. The university emergency departments (SAMU) provided 250 instructors. AEDs training and certification was conducted for crew members between November 2001 and November 2002. By January 2003, all aircraft were fully equipped with AEDs. All cases of cardiac arrest that occurred during the study were reviewed comprehensively. Comments from the crew were collected. Twelve cardiac arrests were reported between November 2002 and November 2003 out of 4194 cases of emergency care delivered to passengers. Shock treatment was advised initially in 5/12 cases. The survival rate after in-flight cardiac arrest was 3/12. The survival rate at discharge from hospital following in flight shock was 2/5. No complications arose from the use of AEDs. Training by professionals gave the flight attendants confidence and allowed for the survival of two young passengers. Our study highlights the ability of flight attendants to give better onboard care for the future. The next step is to consolidate the network between in-flight care and the medical dispatch centre in Paris.

  2. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product distribution theory is a new collective intelligence-based framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Its usefulness in distributed stochastic optimization is illustrated here through an airline fleet assignment problem. This problem involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of linear and non-linear constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of this new stochastic optimization algorithm to a non-linear objective cold start fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly-constrained problems (130 variables, 184 constraints).

  3. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Airline fleet assignment involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of an agent-based integer optimization algorithm to a "cold start" fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly- constrained problems (129 variables, 184 constraints).

  4. Biophysical Characterization of Essential Phosphorylation at the Flexible C-Terminal Region of C-Raf with 14-3-3ζ Protein

    PubMed Central

    Gayen, Nilanjan; Mroue, Kamal H.; Kar, Rajiv K.; Mandal, Atin K.; Bhunia, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation at the C-terminal flexible region of the C-Raf protein plays an important role in regulating its biological activity. Auto-phosphorylation at serine 621 (S621) in this region maintains C-Raf stability and activity. This phosphorylation mediates the interaction between C-Raf and scaffold protein 14-3-3ζ to activate the downstream MEK kinase pathway. In this study, we have defined the interaction of C-terminal peptide sequence of C-Raf with 14-3-3ζ protein and determined the possible structural adaptation of this region. Biophysical elucidation of the interaction was carried out using phosphopeptide (residue number 615–630) in the presence of 14-3-3ζ protein. Using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), a high binding affinity with micro-molar range was found to exist between the peptide and 14-3-3ζ protein, whereas the non-phosphorylated peptide did not show any appreciable binding affinity. Further interaction details were investigated using several biophysical techniques such as circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in addition to molecular modeling. This study provides the molecular basis for C-Raf C-terminal-derived phosphopeptide interaction with 14-3-3ζ protein as well as structural insights responsible for phosphorylated S621-mediated 14-3-3ζ binding at an atomic resolution. PMID:26295714

  5. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  6. Discovery of highly selective CRAF inhibitors, 3-carboxamido-2H-indazole-6-arylamide: In silico FBLD design, synthesis and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Aman, Waqar; Lee, Junghun; Kim, Minjung; Yang, Songyi; Jung, Hoyong; Hah, Jung-Mi

    2016-02-15

    The recent success of vemurafenib shows the importance of selective BRAF V600E inhibition in melanoma. However, paradoxical activation by structurally diverse ATP-competitive RAF kinase inhibitors strongly suggests that selective CRAF inhibitors, not BRAF inhibitors, would be ideal for some Ras mutation cancer treatment. In this respect, we approached designing selective CRAF inhibitors starting from in silico fragment screening and synthesized a 3-carboxamido-2H-indazole-6-arylamide scaffold. Most of the compounds showed potent antiproliferative activity against the WM3629 melanoma cell line and the most promising compound, compound 10d, was found to be a potent and selective CRAF inhibitor with an IC50 value of 38.6 nM, which shows greater than 270-fold selectivity over BRAF kinase (9.45 μM).

  7. c-Raf, but not B-Raf, is essential for development of K-Ras oncogene driven non-small cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Blasco, Rafael B.; Francoz, Sarah; Santamaría, David; Cañamero, Marta; Dubus, Pierre; Charron, Jean; Baccarini, Manuela; Barbacid, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We have interrogated the role of individual members of the Raf/Mek/Erk cascade in the onset of K-Ras oncogene-driven non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Ablation of Erk1 or Erk2 in K-Ras oncogene expressing lung cells had no significant effect due to compensatory activities. Yet, elimination of both Erk kinases completely blocked tumor development. Similar results were obtained with Mek kinases. Ablation of B-Raf had no significant effect on tumor development. However, c-Raf expression was absolutely essential for the onset of NSCLC. Interestingly, concomitant elimination of c-Raf and B-Raf in adult mice had no deleterious consequences for normal homeostasis. These results indicate that c-Raf plays a unique role in mediating K-Ras signaling and makes it a suitable target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21514245

  8. 40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 fleet average credit programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fleet average program described in § 86.1865-12 by implementing specific air conditioning system... (grams CO2-equivalent/mile) for air conditioning systems using a refrigerant with a lower global warming... impact of air conditioning leakage in units of grams/year. GWPREF means the global warming potential...

  9. Distributed Intelligence for Air Fleet Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Callero and Philip Klahr, and the development of the ROSIE prog ramming lan- guage by Daniel Gorlin, Frederick Hayes-Roth, and Henry...Environmental data Model of current situation Changes in environment o ’~>"-1> 9\\1>(\\ (\\ ..... ~ ~e~. o <’’((’e ·~\\)’<.e ~(\\"’’( \\(\\0., \\~ ,_ <:f\\1...t: t.>cvr,· e">"-"’ ’<.eO.~ ’ o , ~,(/ fl1o,. ’tor· ’"u Fig. 1-The structure of the kernel planner COMMUNI- CATOR

  10. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  11. Development of the Damage Tolerance Criteria for an Aging Fleet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-20

    Laboratory Air Force Materiel Command REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY... Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Development of the damage tolerance criteria for an ageing fleet. Principal Researcher

  12. A cask fleet operations study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    This document describes the cask fleet currently available to transport spent nuclear fuels. The report describes the proposed operational procedures for these casks and the vehicles intended to transport them. Included are techniques for loading the cask, lifting it onto the transport vehicle, preparing the invoices, and unloading the cask at the destination. The document concludes with a discussion on the maintenance and repair of the casks. (tem) 29 figs.

  13. CNG and Fleets: Building Your Business Case

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    Two online resources help fleets evaluate the economic soundness of a compressed natural gas program. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Vehicle Infrastructure and Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE 2.0) model and the accompanying report, Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications, are uniquely designed for fleet managers considering an investment in CNG and can help ensure wise investment decisions about CNG vehicles and infrastructure.

  14. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fleet Definitions Veh. No. Fuel system Catalyst Air injection EGR Tech. group Manufacturer 1 Multi 3W No... B—Tech Group Definitions in Table A Tech group Fuel system Catalyst Air injection EGR 1 Multi 3W No...: Multi = Multi-point fuel injection TBI = Throttle body fuel injection Carb = Carburetted Catalyst:...

  15. 40 CFR 80.60 - Test fleet requirements for exhaust emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fleet Definitions Veh. No. Fuel system Catalyst Air injection EGR Tech. group Manufacturer 1 Multi 3W No... B—Tech Group Definitions in Table A Tech group Fuel system Catalyst Air injection EGR 1 Multi 3W No...: Multi = Multi-point fuel injection TBI = Throttle body fuel injection Carb = Carburetted Catalyst:...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 fleet average credit programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fleet average program described in § 86.1865-12 by implementing specific air conditioning system... (grams CO2-equivalent/mile) for air conditioning systems using a refrigerant with a lower global warming... conditioning leakage in units of grams/year; GWPREF means the global warming potential of the refrigerant...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 fleet average credit programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fleet average program described in § 86.1865-12 by implementing specific air conditioning system... (grams CO2-equivalent/mile) for air conditioning systems using a refrigerant with a lower global warming... conditioning leakage in units of grams/year; GWPREF means the global warming potential of the refrigerant...

  18. Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

  19. Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

    2001-07-02

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

  20. Theatre fleet's vital additional capacity.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Vanguard Healthcare's fleet of mobile surgical facilities has been deployed to healthcare sites throughout Europe and beyond for over a decade, providing vital additional clinical capacity when existing buildings are refurbished or upgraded, in the event of flood or fire, or simply to help hospitals cater for rising demand. It is a combination of careful planning, teamwork, and the specialist expertise of Vanguard's personnel--many with a clinical background--that ensures not only each unit's successful installation, but equally its subsequent running, servicing, and maintenance, the company explains.

  1. Clean Cities Helps Fleets Go Green (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-08-01

    Green fleet programs, like those in Ohio and Illinois, certify vehicle fleets based on environmental and fuel-use requirements. The programs encourage the use of alternative fuels and provide a way to recognize fleets for participating.

  2. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets - Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    SciTech Connect

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. Covered fleets may meet their EPAct requirements through one of two compliance methods: Standard Compliance or Alternative Compliance. For model year (MY) 2015, the compliance rate with this program for the more than 3011 reporting fleets was 100%. More than 294 fleets used Standard Compliance and exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 acquisition requirements by 8% through acquisitions alone. The seven covered fleets that used Alternative Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 petroleum use reduction requirements by 46%.

  3. Attitude and articulation control of the CRAF/Cassini spacecraft in the presence of structural flexibilities and propellant slosh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enright, Paul J.; Macala, Glenn A.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary attitude and articulation controller designs for the CRAF/Cassini spacecraft have prompted a consideration of potential interactions with structural dynamics and propellant motion. The two algorithms significantly affected are attitude control during main engine burns, and articulation control of the high-precision scan platform (HPSP). For main engine burns, the primary concerns are the sloshing of the bipropellant, which constitutes 70 percent of initial spacecraft mass, and the vibration of the three large appendages, especially the HPSP, on which the gyros are mounted. For the HPSP pointing algorithm, the main concern is the fairly large offset of the HPSP center-of-mass from the gimbals, which is motivated by other system and subsystem considerations. This offset results in significant coupling between HPSP articulation and HPSP boom structural dynamics. This paper surveys the operational scenarios of these algorithms, and the impacts of nonrigid dynamics on controller design and performance.

  4. Future Fleet Project. What Can We Afford

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-21

    today and its long-term plans for recapitalizing the force. The size and makeup of the Navy’s fleet of ships are frequent catalysts for debate...and its long-term plans for recapitalizing the force. The size and makeup of the Navy’s fleet of ships are frequent catalysts for debate

  5. Requirement of B-Raf, C-Raf, and A-Raf for the growth and survival of mouse embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Wenjing; Hao, Baixia; Wang, Qian; Lu, Yingying; Yue, Jianbo

    2013-11-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) have been implicated to be dispensable for self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and simultaneous inhibition of both ERK signaling and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) not only allows mouse ES cells to self-renew independent of extracellular stimuli but also enables more efficient derivation of naïve ES cells from mouse and rat strains. Interestingly, some ERKs stay active in mouse ES cells which are maintained in regular medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Yet, the upstream signaling for ERK activation and their roles in mouse ES cells, other than promoting or priming differentiation, have not been determined. Here we found that mouse ES cells express three forms of Raf kinases, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf. Knocking-down each single Raf member failed to affect the sustained ERK activity, neither did A-Raf and B-Raf double knockdown or B-Raf and C-Raf double knockdown change it in ES cells. Interestingly, B-Raf and C-Raf double knockdown, not A-Raf and B-Raf knockdown, inhibited the maximal ERK activation induced by LIF, concomitant with the slower growth of ES cells. On the other hand, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf triple knockdown markedly inhibited both the maximal and sustained ERK activity in ES cells. Moreover, Raf triple knockdown, similar to the treatment of U-0126, an MEK inhibitor, significantly inhibited the survival and proliferation of ES cells, thereby compromising the colony propagation of mouse ES cells. In summary, our data demonstrate that all three Raf members are required for ERK activation in mouse ES cells and are involved in growth and survival of mouse ES cells. - Highlights: ●Mouse ES (mES) cells express all three Raf members, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf. ●Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) temporally activates ERKs in mES cells. ●B-Raf and C-Raf are required for LIF-induced maximal ERKs activity in mES cells. ●All Raf members are

  6. Documentation for propane fleet conversion cost-effectiveness model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D.; Euritt, M.; Mahmassani, H.

    1992-10-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas instituted an alternative fuels program for public fleet operations beginning in the 1991-92 fiscal year. Life-cycle cost/benefit models for evaluating the economic implications of the action have been developed at the University of Texas at Austin Center for Transportation Research for both compressed natural gas (CNG) and propane. The report documents the various input data, calculations, and assumptions of the Propane Net Present Value (NPV) model. A similar report (number 983-1) documents the same for the CNG model. Input data with constant values across different fleets and locations are discussed first and include basic parameters for on-board storage capacity, vehicle conversion costs, equipment salvage values, etc. Variable input data, reflecting a given fleet size, composition, and location, include the number and types of vehicles, fuel consumption, etc. The next section presents the formulas for the internal model calculations. The final section discusses the basic assumptions underlying the model.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma cases with high levels of c-Raf-1 expression may benefit from postoperative adjuvant sorafenib after hepatic resection even with high risk of recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Jianyong; Zhong, Jinjing; Hao, Jingcheng; Liu, Zhengni; Zhang, Peng; Wu, Lixue; Yan, Lunan; Zhu, Jinqiang; Zeng, Yong; Li, Bo; Wen, Tianfu; Wang, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Liver resection combined with postoperative sorafenib to prevent recurrence remains a controversial approach for cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially cases with a high risk of recurrence. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of liver resection combined with sorafenib for HCC with a high risk of recurrence. Results Most of the cases of HCC were caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (23 cases, 92%). Most of these tumors (21 cases, 84%) were stage III according to the TNM staging system (12 cases with IIIa, 9 cases with IIIb). In the months after hepatic resection, 19 of the 25 cases (76%) were diagnosed with HCC recurrence or metastasis. Based on the tumor histological biomarker grading system, the group with higher expression levels of c-Raf-1 showed significantly longer overall survival than the group with lower expression of c-Raf-1 (P = 0.012). However, the long-term tumor-free survival advantage disappeared (P = 0.061). Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that higher expression of c-Raf-1 was significantly associated with better overall survival (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.842; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.211–2.542; P = 0.031) and tumor-free survival (HR: 1.319; 95% CI: 1.017–1.543; P = 0.046) in HCC patients who underwent radical hepatic resection. Patients and Methods We retrospectively collected 25 HCC cases with a high risk of recurrence who underwent radical liver resection and who took sorafenib postoperatively from Jan 2010 to Dec 2012. Factors that might contribute to tumor recurrence and treatment failure such as clinical factors, tumor features, and molecular biomarkers were included in our analysis. Conclusions HCC patients with a high risk of post-hepatic resection recurrence may benefit from postoperative sorafenib administered as an adjuvant therapy, especially in cases with high levels of c-Raf-1 expression on histological examination. PMID:26981887

  8. 2012 Earth-Orbiting Heliophysics Fleet

    NASA Video Gallery

    Since Sentinels of the Heliosphere in 2008, there have been a few new missions, and a few missions have been shut down. As of Fall of 2012, here's a tour of the NASA Near-Earth Heliophysics fleet, ...

  9. Evaluation of Fleeting Operations in Ports.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-31

    industrial sites and their cargo handling I locations in the port area. 3) Based on (1) and (2) above, develop a fleeting evaluation technique which may be...within it. Phase 1, com- posed of four tasks, was designed to provide familiarity with respect to St. Louis port, harbor and fleeting operations. Task...1.1 reviewed the conventional professional literature of AAPA, ASCE, TRB and MARAD and the World Bank with respect to port and harbor design and

  10. The Consolidated Fleet XN2Y-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1935-01-01

    The Consolidated Fleet XN2Y-1 was a Fleet 1 trainer purchased by the Navy for evaluation. The purchase of several N2Y-1 aircraft followed, for use as trainers for the pilots who would fly the 'parasite' fighters attached to the airships Akron and Macon. The XN2Y-1 was turned over to the NACA for research work. Note the that vertical surfaces are instrumented for NACA spin work.

  11. Consolidated Fleet N2Y-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Consolidated Fleet N2Y-1: The Consolidated Fleet N2Y-1 aircraft were used as trainers for the pilots who would fly the 'parasite' fighters attached to the airships Akron and Macon. This N2Y-1 was turned over to the NACA for research work. Note that the vertical surfaces are instrumented for NACA work. This N2Y was used for landing gear tests.

  12. C-21 Fleet: Base Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    assigned to the operational support airlift mission, located at Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland and Scott Air Force Base, Illinois. The missions flown... Scott and Andrews AFB is the optimal assignment. If nine total assets were optimized, five would be assigned to Scott AFB and four to Andrews AFB

  13. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  14. Contributing Data to the Fleet DNA Project (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    The Fleet DNA clearinghouse of commercial fleet transportation data helps vehicle manufacturers and developers optimize vehicle designs and helps fleet managers choose advanced technologies for their fleets. This online tool - available at www.nrel.gov/fleetdna - provides data summaries and visualizations similar to real-world 'genetics' for medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles operating within a variety of vocations. To contribute your fleet data, please contact Adam Duran of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at adam.duran@nrel.gov or 303-275-4586.

  15. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 7, vehicle emissions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions from Clean Fleet vans running on M-85, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), propane gas, and a control gasoline (RF-A) are presented. Three vans from each combination of vehicle manufacturer and fuel were tested at the California Air Resources Board (ARB) as they accumulated mileage in the demonstration. Data are presented on regulated emissions, ozone precursors, air toxics, and greenhouse gases. The emissions tests provide information on in-use emissions. That is, the vans were taken directly from daily commercial service and tested at the ARB. The differences in alternative fuel technology provide the basis for a range of technology options. The emissions data reflect these differences, with classes of vehicle/fuels producing either more or less emissions for various compounds relative to the control gasoline.

  16. Fleet Tools; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-01

    From beverage distributors to shipping companies and federal agencies, industry leaders turn to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to help green their fleet operations. Cost, efficiency, and reliability are top priorities for fleets, and NREL partners know the lab’s portfolio of tools can pinpoint fuel efficiency and emissions-reduction strategies that also support operational the bottom line. NREL is one of the nation’s foremost leaders in medium- and heavy-duty vehicle research and development (R&D) and the go-to source for credible, validated transportation data. NREL developers have drawn on this expertise to create tools grounded in the real-world experiences of commercial and government fleets. Operators can use this comprehensive set of technology- and fuel-neutral tools to explore and analyze equipment and practices, energy-saving strategies, and other operational variables to ensure meaningful performance, financial, and environmental benefits.

  17. Long Term Hydrogen Vehicle Fleet Operational Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-21

    Economy (mi/kg) Average Fuel Economy (mi/ gge ) 1 26.9 26.8 2 25.0 24.9 3 23.2 23.1 4 22.5 22.4 5 25.7 25.6 6 33.5 33.4 7 31.7 31.6 8 25.4 25.3 9 21.8...Fleet Fuel Economy was 26.2 mi/kg or 26.1 mi/ gge • The fuel economy of the fleet of H2ICEs was comparable to the standard hybrid-electric gasoline

  18. Phase I Trial of ISIS 5132, an antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor of c-raf-1, administered by 24-hour weekly infusion to patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Rudin, C M; Holmlund, J; Fleming, G F; Mani, S; Stadler, W M; Schumm, P; Monia, B P; Johnston, J F; Geary, R; Yu, R Z; Kwoh, T J; Dorr, F A; Ratain, M J

    2001-05-01

    Raf-1 is a serine/threonine kinase that functions as a critical effector of Ras-mediated signal transduction via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Constitutive activation of this pathway directly contributes to malignant transformation in many human tumors. A 20-base phosphorothioate oligonucleotide complementary to c-raf-1 mRNA (ISIS 5132; CGP 69846A) has been shown to specifically suppress Raf-1 expression both in vitro and in vivo. This Phase I trial, involving 22 patients with advanced cancer, was designed to evaluate the safety, feasibility, and maximum tolerated dose of ISIS 5132 administration as a weekly 24-h i.v. infusion. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed, and c-raf-1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were assessed using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. This trial defined a maximum tolerated dose of 24 mg/kg/week on this schedule. Two of four patients treated at 30 mg/kg/week had serious adverse events after the first dose of ISIS 5132, including acute hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure and anasarca. There were no major responses documented. Dose-dependent complement activation was demonstrated on this schedule, but not on previously evaluated schedules, of ISIS 5132 administration. In contrast to other trials of ISIS 5132, there appeared to be no consistent suppression of peripheral blood mononuclear cell c-raf-1 mRNA level on this schedule at any of the dose levels analyzed. These data suggest that the efficacy and toxicity profiles of antisense oligonucleotides may be highly dependent on the schedule of administration and support the analysis of the putative molecular target in the evaluation of novel therapeutics.

  19. Inhibition of mutant KrasG12D-initiated murine pancreatic carcinoma growth by a dual c-Raf and soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor t-CUPM.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jie; Hwang, Sung Hee; Li, Haonan; Yang, Yihe; Yang, Jun; Wecksler, Aaron T; Liu, Jun-Yan; Hammock, Bruce D; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2016-02-28

    Mutant Kras and chronic pancreatitis are the most common pathological events involved in human pancreatic cancer. It has been demonstrated that c-Raf is responsible for transmitting signals from mutant Ras to its downstream signals including MEK-ERK and for initiating carcinogenesis. The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a pro-inflammatory enzyme, generally inactivates anti-inflammatory and anti-pain epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Herein, we have synthesized a novel compound of trans-4-{4-[3-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methylamide (t-CUPM) via modifying the central phenyl ring of sorafenib and confirmed its dual inhibition of sEH and c-Raf by recombinant kinase activity assay. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that oral dosing of t-CUPM resulted in higher blood levels than that of sorafenib throughout the complete time course (48 h). The effect of t-CUPM on the inhibition of mutant Kras(G12D)-initiated murine pancreatic cancer cell growth was determined using the mouse pancreatic carcinoma cell model obtained from LSL-Kras(G12D)/Pdx1-Cre mice and showed that t-CUPM significantly inhibited this murine pancreatic carcinoma cell growth both in vitro and in mice in vivo. Inhibition of mutant Kras-transmitted phosphorylations of cRAF/MEK/ERK was demonstrated in these pancreatic cancer cells using Western blot assay and immunohistochemical approach. Modulation of oxylipin profile, particularly increased EETs/DHET ratio by sEH inhibition, was observed in mice treated with t-CUPM. These results indicate that t-CUPM is a highly potential agent to treat pancreatic cancer via simultaneously targeting c-Raf and sEH.

  20. Sodium phenylacetate inhibits the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway to induce reduction of the c-Raf-1 protein in human and canine breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Manabu; Miyajima, Nozomi; Igarashi, Maki; Endo, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Natsuko; Sugano, Sumio

    2009-11-01

    An aromatic fatty acid, phenylacetate (PA), has been shown to have cytostatic, antitumor and cell differentiation-inducing effects on various kinds of tumors. Previously, we have demonstrated cell growth inhibition, malignant phenotype reduction and cell differentiation effects of sodium phenylacetate (NaPA) treatment in a canine mammary tumor cell line. To clarify the molecular mechanism of these effects, we examined the expression of Ras/MAPK signaling pathway-related molecules in human and canine breast cancer cell lines, and found that the level of c-Raf-1 protein was reduced by 5, 10 and 20 mM of NaPA treatments, though Ras activation was maintained. Dephosphorylation of c-Raf-1 at Serine (Ser) 259, Ser 338, and Ser 621 were also seen in NaPA-treated cells. Downstream factors in the pathway, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)1/2 and ERK1/2, showed decreased activity, and accordingly, expressions of cyclinD1, c-myc, and inactivation of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), which are MAPK targets, were reduced. We also observed the reduction of cell-cycle-promoted molecules, such as cdc1/cdk2, cdk4, PCNA cyclin A, and cyclin B, and the increased expression of p27kip1. Furthermore, expression of an epithelial marker, E-cadherin, was increased by NaPA treatment. These results suggest that one of the molecular targets of NaPA treatment was the reduction of c-Raf-1 protein, and that its reduction results in the decrease of malignant characteristics of tumor cells through blockage of the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway.

  1. Federal Fleet Files: Vol. 1, No. 2 - June 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-12

    June 2009 issue of the FEMP Federal Fleet Files monthly newsletter for the FEMP Federal Fleet Program that outlines vehicle, alternative fuel, infrastructure, and management strategy updates to Federal agencies.

  2. Recurrent deletion of the short arm of chromosome 3 in human renal cell carcinoma: shift of the c-raf 1 locus.

    PubMed

    Teyssier, J R; Henry, I; Dozier, C; Ferre, D; Adnet, J J; Pluot, M

    1986-12-01

    A cytogenetic study performed on 6 human renal cell carcinomas after short-term culture on extracellular matrix with serum-free medium showed aneuploidy without structural changes in 2 tumors and a rearrangement of the short arm of chromosome 3 in 4 tumors, including deletions and a translocation involving the 3p14 and 3p21 bands. Chromosomal in situ hybridization with a c-raf 1 probe demonstrated that in 2 renal cancers with del3(p14 or 21) the cellular oncogene had shifted from 3p25 to 3p14 as a result of an interstitial deletion.

  3. Three Component Velocity and Acceleration Measurement Using FLEET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Calvert, Nathan; Dogariu, Arthur; Miles, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    The femtosecond laser electronic excitation and tagging (FLEET) method has been used to measure three components of velocity and acceleration for the first time. A jet of pure N2 issuing into atmospheric pressure air was probed by the FLEET system. The femtosecond laser was focused down to a point to create a small measurement volume in the flow. The long-lived lifetime of this fluorescence was used to measure the location of the tagged particles at different times. Simultaneous images of the flow were taken from two orthogonal views using a mirror assembly and a single intensified CCD camera, allowing two components of velocity to be measured in each view. These different velocity components were combined to determine three orthogonal velocity components. The differences between subsequent velocity components could be used to measure the acceleration. Velocity accuracy and precision were roughly estimated to be +/-4 m/s and +/-10 m/s respectively. These errors were small compared to the approx. 100 m/s velocity of the subsonic jet studied.

  4. Fleets of enduring drones to probe atmospheric phenomena with clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Simon; Roberts, Greg; Benard, Emmanuel; Bronz, Murat; Burnet, Frédéric; Bouhoubeiny, Elkhedim; Condomines, Jean-Philippe; Doll, Carsten; Hattenberger, Gautier; Lamraoui, Fayçal; Renzaglia, Alessandro; Reymann, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    technologies are challenged at the low speeds of lightweight UAVs. The overall control of the fleet so as to gather series of synchronized data in the cloud volume is a poorly informed and highly constrained adaptive sampling problem, in which the UAV motions must be defined to maximize the amount of gathered information and the mission duration. The overall approach casts the problem in a hierarchy of two modeling and decision stages. A macroscopic parametrized model of the cloud is built from the gathered data and exploited at the higher level by an operator, who sets information gathering goals. A subset of the UAV fleet is allocated to each goal, considering the current fleet state. These high level goals are handled by the lower level, which autonomously optimizes the selected UAVs trajectories using an on-line updated dense model of the variables of interest. Building the models involves Gaussian processes techniques (kriging) to fuse the gathered data with a generic cumulus conceptual model, the latter being defined from thorough statistics on realistic MesoNH cloud simulations. The model is exploited by a planner to generate trajectories that minimize the uncertainty in the map, while steering the vehicles within the air flows to save energy.

  5. 48 CFR 970.2307-1 - Motor vehicle fleet operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicle fleet..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2307-1 Motor vehicle fleet... that the Federal motor vehicle fleet will serve as an example and provide a leadership role in...

  6. Chronological History of Federal Fleet Actions and Mandates (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    This chronological history of Federal fleet actions and mandates provides a year-by-year timeline of the acts, amendments, executive orders, and other regulations that affect Federal fleets. The fleet actions and mandates included in the timeline span from 1988 to 2009.

  7. Major Impact of Fleet Renewal Over Airports Located in the Most Important Region of Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maters, Rafael Waltz; deRoodeTorres, Roberta; Santo, Respicio A. Espirito, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The present article discusses and analyses the major impacts of the Brazilian carriers fleet renewal regarding Brazilian airport infrastructure in the most important region of the country, the Southeast (SE). A brief historical overview of the country's airline fleet will be presented, demonstrating the need for its renewal (m fact, Brazilian carriers started a major fleet renewal program m the last five years), while analyzing the periods in which a new breed of aircraft was put into service by the major carriers operating in the SE region. The trend of operating the classic regional jets plus the forthcoming entry into service of the "large regional jets" (LRJ, 70-115 seaters) in several point-to-point routes are presented along with the country's carriers" reality of operating these former aircraft in several high-capacity and medium-range routes. The article will focus on the ability of four of the major Southeast's airports to cope with the fleet modernization, mainly due to the fact that the region studied is the most socioeconomic developed, by far, with the largest demand for air transportation, thus making the impacts much more perceptible for the communities and the airport management involved. With the emergence of these impacts, several new projects and investments are being discussed and pushed forward, despite budgetary constrains being a reality in almost every Brazilian city, even in the SE region. In view of this, the paper presents how the general planning could be carried out in order to adapt the airports' infrastructures in function of the proposed (and in some cases, necessary) fleet renewal. Ultimately, we will present the present picture and two future scenarios m order to determine the level of service in the existent passenger terminal facilities in the wake of the possible operation of several new aircraft. Keywords: Airline fleet planning, Airport planning, Regional development, Regional Jets.

  8. Fleet DNA Project Data Summary Report (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Walkowicz, K.; Duran, A.; Burton, E.

    2014-04-01

    This presentation includes graphical data summaries that highlight statistical trends for medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles operating in a variety of vocations. It offers insight for the development of vehicle technologies that reduce costs, fuel consumption, and emission.

  9. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Wankerl, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 46 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the Department of Energy (DOE) consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.

    2001-01-25

    Waste Management, Inc., began operating a fleet of heavy-duty LNG refuse trucks at its Washington, Pennsylvania, facility. The objective of the project was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  11. How Fleet Bank fought employee flight.

    PubMed

    Nalbantian, Haig R; Szostak, Anne

    2004-04-01

    In the late 1990s, Fleet Bank was facing high and rising employee turnover, particularly in its retail operations. Overall turnover had reached 25% annually, and among some groups, such as tellers and customer service reps, turnover was as high as 40%. Using a new methodology developed by Mercer Human Resource Consulting, Fleet set out to determine why so many employees were leaving and what could be done to retain them. It began examining data from HR, finance, operations, and sales about employee behavior and the factors that influence it in different locations and labor markets, departments or work groups, in positions with different pay and benefits, and under different supervisors. Fleet's analysis showed that people were leaving not so much for better pay--their personal testimony notwithstanding--but for broader experience, which they thought would enhance their marketability. Additionally, the analysis revealed a link between the turnover problem and the company's busy history of mergers and acquisitions. Fleet's mergers and acquisitions. frequently meant that it had to consolidate operations. That consolidation resulted in layoffs, which provoked higher levels of voluntary turnover, perhaps because remaining employees began worrying about their job security. While the obvious solution to the turnover problem might have been to compensate the remaining employees--say, with higher pay--the more effective and less costly solution, Fleet discovered, was to focus on employees' career opportunities within the company. Those who moved up the hierarchy, or who even made lateral moves, stayed longer. By offering better internal opportunities for career development, the bank was able to stanch much of the hemorrhaging in personnel. Its solutions required only modest investments, which in the end saved the company millions of dollars.

  12. CleanFleet. Volume 2, Project Design and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The CleanFleet alternative fuels demonstration project evaluated five alternative motorfuels in commercial fleet service over a two-year period. The five fuels were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent RFG), and electric vans. Eight-four vans were operated on the alternative fuels and 27 vans were operated on gasoline as baseline controls. Throughout the demonstration information was collected on fleet operations, vehicle emissions, and fleet economics. In this volume of the CleanFleet findings, the design and implementation of the project are summarized.

  13. Application of Strategic Planning Process with Fleet Level Analysis Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Pfaender, Holger; Jimenez, Hernando; Garcia, Elena; Feron, Eric; Bernardo, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify and characterize the potential system-wide reduction of fuel consumption and corresponding CO2 emissions, resulting from the introduction of N+2 aircraft technologies and concepts into the fleet. Although NASA goals for this timeframe are referenced against a large twin aisle aircraft we consider their application across all vehicle classes of the commercial aircraft fleet, from regional jets to very large aircraft. In this work the authors describe and discuss the formulation and implementation of the fleet assessment by addressing the main analytical components: forecasting, operations allocation, fleet retirement, fleet replacement, and environmental performance modeling.

  14. Helminth-excreted/secreted products are recognized by multiple receptors on DCs to block the TLR response and bias Th2 polarization in a cRAF dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Terrazas, César A.; Alcántara-Hernández, Marcela; Bonifaz, Laura; Terrazas, Luis I.; Satoskar, Abhay R.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) recognize pathogens and initiate the T-cell response. The DC-helminth interaction induces an immature phenotype in DCs; as a result, these DCs display impaired responses to TLR stimulation and prime Th2-type responses. However, the DC receptors and intracellular pathways targeted by helminth molecules and their importance in the initiation of the Th2 response are poorly understood. In this report, we found that products excreted/secreted by Taenia crassiceps (TcES) triggered cRAF phosphorylation through MGL, MR, and TLR2. TcES interfered with the LPS-induced NFκB p65 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. In addition, TcES-induced cRAF signaling pathway was critical for down-regulation of the TLR-mediated DC maturation and secretion of IL-12 and TNF-α. Finally, we show for the first time that blocking cRAF in DCs abolishes their ability to induce Th2 polarization in vitro after TcES exposure. Our data demonstrate a new mechanism by which helminths target intracellular pathways to block DC maturation and efficiently program Th2 polarization.—Terrazas, C. A., Alcántara-Hernández, M., Bonifaz, L., Terrazas, L. I., Satoskar, A. R. Helminth-excreted/secreted products are recognized by multiple receptors on DCs to block the TLR response and bias Th2 polarization in a cRAF dependent pathway. PMID:23907435

  15. Fleet Readiness Office FY 78 Activity Summary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    SHAREM 17 4 Naval war gaming support 17 Programmable calculator fleet support program 18 Chapman number program 19 Surface ship machinery vibration...The project includes development of a computer program for the Wang 2200 programmable calculator that will manually accept pressure, temper...displays suitable for either 1729 and RC-292. line printer or cathode ray tube, as deter- mined by the programmable calculator These tests indicate that

  16. LNG fleet increases in size and capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Linser, H.J. Jr.; Drudy, M.J.; Endrizzi, F.; Urbanelli, A.A.

    1997-06-02

    The LNG fleet as of early 1997 consisted of 99 vessels with total cargo capacity of 10.7 million cu m, equivalent to approximately 4.5 million tons. One of the newest additions to the fleet, the 137,000-cu m tanker Al Zubarah, is five times the size of the original commercial vessel Methane Princess. Al Zubarah`s first loading of more than 60,000 tons occurred in December 1996 for deliver to Japanese buyers from the newly commissioned Qatargas LNG plant at Ras Laffan. That size cargo contains enough clean-burning energy to heat 60,000 homes in Japan for 1 month. Measuring nearly 1,000 ft long, the tanker is among the largest in the industry fleet and joined 70 other vessels of more than 100,000 cu m. Most LNG tankers built since 1975 have been larger-capacity vessels. The paper discusses LNG shipping requirements, containment systems, vessel design, propulsion, construction, operations and maintenance, and the future for larger vessels.

  17. Impact of environmental constraints and aircraft technology on airline fleet composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moolchandani, Kushal A.

    This thesis models an airline's decisions about fleet evolution in order to maintain economic and regulatory viability. The aim is to analyze the fleet evolution under different scenarios of environmental policy and technology availability in order to suggest an optimal fleet under each case. An understanding of the effect of aircraft technologies, fleet size and age distribution, and operational procedures on airline performance may improve the quality of policies to achieve environmental goals. Additionally, the effect of decisions about fleet evolution on air travel is assessed as the change in market demand and profits of an abstracted, benevolent monopolist airline. Attention to the environmental impact of aviation has grown, and this has prompted several organizations such as ICAO (and, in response, NASA) to establish emissions reduction targets to reduce aviation's global climate impact. The introduction of new technology, change in operational procedures, etc. are some of the proposed means to achieve these targets. Of these, this thesis studies the efficacy of implementation of environmental policies in form of emissions constraints as a means to achieve these goals and assesses their impact on an airline's fleet evolution and technology use (along with resulting effects on air travel demand). All studies in this thesis are conducted using the Fleet-level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET), a NASA sponsored simulation tool developed at Purdue University. This tool models airline operational decisions via a resource allocation problem and uses a system dynamics type approach to mimic airline economics, their decisions regarding retirement and acquisition of aircraft and evolution of market demand in response to the economic conditions. The development of an aircraft acquisition model for FLEET is a significant contribution of the author. Further, the author conducted a study of various environmental policies using FLEET. Studies introduce constraints on

  18. The Application of Work Domain Analysis to Defining Australia’s Air Combat Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Australian Air Force’s Air Combat Capability is currently undergoing a significant restructure as new , advanced platforms are introduced to the fleet...the combat fleet of the Royal Australian Air Force has undergone a major shift in force structure, with new platforms and capabilities being...University of Auckland, New Zealand , in 1996. ____________________ ________________________________________________ UNCLASSIFIED

  19. Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-03-25

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport.

  20. A phase I trial of c-Raf kinase antisense oligonucleotide ISIS 5132 administered as a continuous intravenous infusion in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C C; Holmlund, J T; Schiller, J H; Geary, R S; Kwoh, T J; Dorr, A; Nemunaitis, J

    2000-05-01

    Raf proteins play a central role in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and hence are involved in oncogenic transformation and tumor cell proliferation. ISIS 5132 is a 20-base antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxyribonucleotide that specifically down-regulates c-raf expression. We report here an initial study of the safety and tolerability of an i.v. infusion of ISIS 5132 in patients with advanced cancer. A continuous i.v. infusion of ISIS 5132 was administered for 21 days every 4 weeks to 34 patients with a variety of solid tumors refractory to standard therapy. The dose of ISIS 5132 was increased in sequential cohorts of patients, as toxicity allowed, until a final dose of 5.0 mg/kg body weight was reached. Toxicity was scored by common toxicity criteria, and tumor response was monitored. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed for 30 patients treated at doses of < or =4.0 mg/kg/day. The initial dose of ISIS 5132 was 0.5 mg/kg body weight and was successfully increased incrementally to 5.0 mg/kg body weight. Toxicities through the 4.0 mg/kg dose level were not dose limiting. Side effects were minimal and could not be specifically related to ISIS 5132. Two patients had prolonged stabilization of their disease, and one patient with ovarian carcinoma had a significant response with a 97% reduction in CA-125 levels. ISIS 5132, an antisense oligonucleotide against c-raf, was well tolerated at doses up to and including 4.0 mg/kg/day by 21-day continuous i.v. infusion and demonstrated antitumor activity at the doses tested.

  1. Cancer Genomics Identifies Regulatory Gene Networks Associated with the Transition from Dysplasia to Advanced Lung Adenocarcinomas Induced by c-Raf-1

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Borlak, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer morbidity. To improve an understanding of molecular causes of disease a transgenic mouse model was investigated where targeted expression of the serine threonine kinase c-Raf to respiratory epithelium induced initialy dysplasia and subsequently adenocarcinomas. This enables dissection of genetic events associated with precancerous and cancerous lesions. Methodology/Principal Findings By laser microdissection cancer cell populations were harvested and subjected to whole genome expression analyses. Overall 473 and 541 genes were significantly regulated, when cancer versus transgenic and non-transgenic cells were compared, giving rise to three distinct and one common regulatory gene network. At advanced stages of tumor growth predominately repression of gene expression was observed, but genes previously shown to be up-regulated in dysplasia were also up-regulated in solid tumors. Regulation of developmental programs as well as epithelial mesenchymal and mesenchymal endothelial transition was a hall mark of adenocarcinomas. Additionaly, genes coding for cell adhesion, i.e. the integrins and the tight and gap junction proteins were repressed, whereas ligands for receptor tyrosine kinase such as epi- and amphiregulin were up-regulated. Notably, Vegfr- 2 and its ligand Vegfd, as well as Notch and Wnt signalling cascades were regulated as were glycosylases that influence cellular recognition. Other regulated signalling molecules included guanine exchange factors that play a role in an activation of the MAP kinases while several tumor suppressors i.e. Mcc, Hey1, Fat3, Armcx1 and Reck were significantly repressed. Finally, probable molecular switches forcing dysplastic cells into malignantly transformed cells could be identified. Conclusions/Significance This study provides insight into molecular pertubations allowing dysplasia to progress further to adenocarcinoma induced by exaggerted c-Raf kinase activity. PMID:19812696

  2. Estimation of local fleet characteristics data for improved emission inventory development

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, J.; Pollack, A.; Austin, B.

    1996-12-31

    Considerable effort in recent years has been focused on the improvement of on-road mobile source emission factors with much less attention paid to the refinement of activity and fleet characteristics estimates. Current emissions modeling practices commonly use emission factor model defaults or statewide averages for fleet and activity data. As part of the US EPA`s Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP), ENVIRON developed methodologies to derive locality-specific fleet characteristics data from existing data sources in order to improve local emission inventory estimates. Data sources examined included remote sensing studies and inspection and maintenance (I/M) program data. In this paper, we focus on two specific examples: (1) the calculation of mileage accumulation rates from Arizona I/M program data, and (2) the calculation of registration distribution from a Sacramento remote sensing database. In both examples, differences exist between the calculated distributions and those currently used for air quality modeling, resulting in significant impacts on the estimated mobile source emissions inventory. For example, use of the automobile registration distribution data derived from the Sacramento Pilot I/M Program remote sensing database results in an increase in estimated automobile TOG, CO and NO{sub x} of 15, 24 and 17 percent, respectively, when used in place of the default registration distribution in the current California Air Resources Board MVEI7G emissions model.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Passenger Traffic Fleets in Asian Cities: Technology, Driving Activities, and Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM Oanh, N. T.; Huynh, H. V.; Saikawa, E.

    2015-12-01

    The road transport sector is the major emission source of toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) in large Asian cities. This paper comparatively analyzed on-road passenger traffic fleets (cars, buses, taxis, motorcycles), using local data collected in cities of Bangkok (BKK), Kathmandu, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), and Yangon. Surveys were done in 2010-2014 to obtain information on vehicle technology, driving activities (speed, distance, number, and types of starts), traffic density, and fuel characteristics. Large shares of pre-Euro vehicles were still observed, especially for public buses. The most advanced technology was Euro4, which was observed in small shares (<5%) of the personal car fleets in BKK, HCMC, and Yangon. Euro3 was generally the most advanced technology found in other fleets in these cities. Motorcycles (MC) was the most dominant fleet in all cities, except in Yangon, where they were not allowed. Low vehicle speeds, mainly below 25 km/h, were observed for all vehicle types, indicating traffic jams. Natural gas and LPG had considerable shares in BKK and Yangon while for other cities diesel and gasoline were still the two major fuels used in transportation. Running emission factors (EF) of buses and taxis in Kathmandu were considerably higher than other cities due to its hilly topography, low speeds, high mileage, and less advanced vehicle technologies. The number of passenger vehicles per 1000 people were 400-500 in HCMC and Hanoi (mainly by MC) and in BKK (also by cars), moderate in Kathmandu (200) and the lowest in Yangon (40) because of the MC ban. Annual emissions of the passenger fleets were calculated for each city using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) for 14 species. BC and OC emissions were estimated using their fractions of PM10 emission. Annual emission per capita of toxic air pollutants and GHGs was analyzed. For example, the emission in kg/year/person for CO, VOC, NOx and PM10 in these cities was 24-150 for CO, 0

  4. 78 FR 64499 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles AGENCY... previously approved information collection requirement concerning contractor use of interagency fleet... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0032, Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...

  5. 78 FR 23935 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles AGENCY... with ``Information Collection 9000-0032, Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles... cite Information Collection 9000-0032, Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System...

  6. 40 CFR 86.421-78 - Test fleet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test fleet. 86.421-78 Section 86.421... Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.421-78 Test fleet. (a) A test vehicle will be selected by... to operate and test additional vehicles which are identical to those selected by the...

  7. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  8. 40 CFR 86.421-78 - Test fleet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test fleet. 86.421-78 Section 86.421... Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.421-78 Test fleet. (a) A test vehicle will be selected by... to operate and test additional vehicles which are identical to those selected by the...

  9. 40 CFR 86.421-78 - Test fleet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test fleet. 86.421-78 Section 86.421... Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.421-78 Test fleet. (a) A test vehicle will be selected by... to operate and test additional vehicles which are identical to those selected by the...

  10. Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBorgesPan, Alexis George; EspiritoSanto, Respicio A., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Quantifying subjective aspects is a difficult task that requires a great dedication of time from researchers and analysts. Nevertheless, one of the main objectives of it is to pave the way for a better understanding of the focused aspects. Fleet standardization is one of these subjective aspects that is extremely difficult to mm into numbers. Although, it is of great importance to know the benefits that may come with a higher level of standardization for airlines, which may be economical advantages, maintenance facilitation and others. A more standardized fleet may represent lower costs of operations and maintenance facilitation and others. A more standardized fleet may represent lower costs of operations and maintenance plus a much better planning of routes and flights. This study presents the first step on developing an index, hereto called "Fleet Standardization Index" or FSI (or IPF in Portuguese, for "Indice de Padronizacao de Frotas"), that will allow senior airline planners to compare different fleets and also simulate some results from maintaining or renewing their fleets. Although being a preliminary study, the results obtained may already be tested to compare different fleets (different airlines) and also analyze some possible impacts of a fleet renewal before it takes place. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to introduce the proposed IPF index and to demonstrate that it is inversely proportional to the number of different airplane models, engines and other equipment, such as avionics.

  11. Characterization of on-road CO, HC and NO emissions for petrol vehicle fleet in China city*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hui; Zhang, Qing-yu; Shi, Yao; Wang, Da-hui; Ding, Shu-ying; Yan, Sha-sha

    2006-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are a major source of air pollution in urban areas. The impact on urban air quality could be reduced if the trends of vehicle emissions are well understood. In the present study, the real-world emissions of vehicles were measured using a remote sensing system at five sites in Hangzhou, China from February 2004 to August 2005. More than 48000 valid gasoline powered vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were measured. The results show that petrol vehicle fleet in Hangzhou has considerably high CO emissions, with the average emission concentration of 2.71%±0.02%, while HC and NO emissions are relatively lower, with the average emission concentration of (153.72±1.16)×10−6 and (233.53±1.80)×10−6, respectively. Quintile analysis of both average emission concentration and total amount emissions by model year suggests that in-use emission differences between well maintained and badly maintained vehicles are larger than the age-dependent deterioration of emissions. In addition, relatively new high polluting vehicles are the greatest contributors to fleet emissions with, for example, 46.55% of carbon monoxide fleet emissions being produced by the top quintile high emitting vehicles from model years 2000~2004. Therefore, fleet emissions could be significantly reduced if new highly polluting vehicles were subject to effective emissions testing followed by appropriate remedial action. PMID:16773726

  12. Modeling and Simulation of Fleet Air Defense Systems Using EADSIM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Value method, the simulation is run once using individual weapon kill probabilities, and a prediction is made with respect to the probability of...assigned to the track. This method is used to represent IFF system reliability , as no IFF system is always accurate. In simple scenarios, IFF may be...WEAPONS DIVISION ATTN DALE KNUTSEN CHINA LAKE CA 935556001 11 ARINC RESEARCH CORPORATION PCC: Elizabeth Thomson Addr. ARINC RESEARCH CORPORATION 2551

  13. Helminth-excreted/secreted products are recognized by multiple receptors on DCs to block the TLR response and bias Th2 polarization in a cRAF dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Terrazas, César A; Alcántara-Hernández, Marcela; Bonifaz, Laura; Terrazas, Luis I; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2013-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) recognize pathogens and initiate the T-cell response. The DC-helminth interaction induces an immature phenotype in DCs; as a result, these DCs display impaired responses to TLR stimulation and prime Th2-type responses. However, the DC receptors and intracellular pathways targeted by helminth molecules and their importance in the initiation of the Th2 response are poorly understood. In this report, we found that products excreted/secreted by Taenia crassiceps (TcES) triggered cRAF phosphorylation through MGL, MR, and TLR2. TcES interfered with the LPS-induced NFκB p65 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. In addition, TcES-induced cRAF signaling pathway was critical for down-regulation of the TLR-mediated DC maturation and secretion of IL-12 and TNF-α. Finally, we show for the first time that blocking cRAF in DCs abolishes their ability to induce Th2 polarization in vitro after TcES exposure. Our data demonstrate a new mechanism by which helminths target intracellular pathways to block DC maturation and efficiently program Th2 polarization.

  14. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 3, vehicle maintenance and durability

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    CleanFleet is a demonstration of panel vans operating on five alternative motorfuels in commercial package delivery operations in the South Coast Air Basin of California. The five alternative fuels are propane gas, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85 with 15 percent RFG), and electricity. Data were gathered on in-use emissions, operations, and fleet economics. This volume of the final report summarizes the maintenance required on these vans from the time they were introduced into the demonstration (April through early November 1992) until the end of the demonstration in September 1994. The vans were used successfully in FedEx operations; but, to varying degrees, the alternative fuel vehicles required more maintenance than the unleaded gasoline control vehicles. The maintenance required was generally associated with the development state of the fuel-related systems. During the demonstration, no non-preventive maintenance was required on the highly developed fuel-related systems in any of the unleaded gasoline production vehicles used either as controls or as RFG test vehicles. The maintenance problems encountered with the less developed systems used in this demonstration may persist in the short term with vehicles featuring the same or similar systems. This means that fleet operators planning near-term acquisitions of vehicles incorporating such systems should consider the potential for similar problems when (1) selecting vendors and warranty provisions and (2) planning maintenance programs.

  15. Web Map Apps using NASA's Earth Observing Fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boller, R.; Baynes, K.; Pressley, N.; Thompson, C.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J.; Alarcon, C.; De Cesare, C.; Gunnoe, T.; Wong, M.; King, B.; Roberts, J.; Rodriguez, J.; De Luca, A.; King, J.

    2016-01-01

    Through the miracle of open web mapping services for satellite imagery, a garden of new applications has sprouted to monitor the planet across a variety of domains. The Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) provide free and open access to full resolution imagery captured by NASAs Earth observing fleet. Spanning 15+ years and running through as recently as a few hours ago, GIBS aims to provide a general-purpose window into NASA's vast archive of the planet. While the vast nature of this archive can be daunting, many domain-specific applications have been built to meet the needs of their respective communities. This presentation will demonstrate a diverse set of these new applications which can take planetarium visitors into (virtual) orbit, guide fire resource managers to hotspots, help anglers find their next catch, illustrate global air quality patterns to local regulators, and even spur a friendly competition to find clouds which are shaped the most like cats. We hope this garden will continue to grow and will illustrate upcoming upgrades to GIBS which may open new pathways for development. data visualization, web services, open access

  16. Real-driving emissions of circulating Spanish car fleet in 2015 using RSD Technology.

    PubMed

    Pujadas, M; Domínguez-Sáez, A; De la Fuente, J

    2017-01-15

    In this paper we present the results corresponding to on-road traffic emissions measurements obtained during two field campaigns developed in the Madrid region (Spain) during 2014 and 2015 in the framework of the CORETRA project. The experimental strategy was based on the use of a RSD 4600 remote sensor in interurban roads. These measurements have produced a global database of >190,000 vehicles with their associated emission data (NO/CO2, HC/CO2 and CO/CO2), which can be considered representative of the current Spanish circulating fleet. The results of M1 vehicles were analysed according to their distribution by Euro Standard and engine model. One of the relevant findings is that, despite the progressive introduction of increasingly stringent standards, no NO emission reduction is observed for diesel vehicles with time, although this behavior shows significative differences among brands and engine models. We have also investigated the presence of "high emitter" (HE) vehicles in the Spanish M1 circulating fleet and most of the HE detected corresponded to diesel vehicles with very high NO/CO2 values. With these results at hand, we strongly propose the future incorporation of the "high emitter vehicle" definition into the European environmental legislation, as well as the establishment of specific strategies in each country/region in order to identify these anomalous vehicles. Identification and repair of HE vehicles within the European circulating fleets, although are not easy tasks, should be considered very important for the improvement of air quality in the EU. The use of non-intrusive optical technologies (i.e. RSD) is an excellent option to provide instantaneous real emission data of each individual vehicle without disturbing traffic and for on-road fleet monitoring. In summary, it is a good strategy to obtain valuable information about the long term surveillance of real vehicle emission trends, specially after the introduction of new standard.

  17. Preliminary assessment of fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Wang, M.Q.

    1994-12-31

    To facilitate the goal of decreasing oil imports by 10 percent by the year 2000 and 30 percent by 2010, two sections of the Energy Policy Act encourage and mandate alternative fuel vehicles in the acquisition of fleet vehicles. The first step in estimating the contribution of these mandates toward meeting the aforementioned goal entails identifying affected fleets. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of potential vehicle fleet coverage. Only a limited number of companies in the methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen industries are likely to quality for this mandate. Whereas, many of the oil producers, petroleum refiners, and electricity companies are likely to be regulated.

  18. Precision of FLEET Velocimetry Using High-speed CMOS Camera Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Christopher J.; Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Jiang, Naibo; Calvert, Nathan D.; Miles, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) is an optical measurement technique that permits quantitative velocimetry of unseeded air or nitrogen using a single laser and a single camera. In this paper, we seek to determine the fundamental precision of the FLEET technique using high-speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras. Also, we compare the performance of several different high-speed CMOS camera systems for acquiring FLEET velocimetry data in air and nitrogen free-jet flows. The precision was defined as the standard deviation of a set of several hundred single-shot velocity measurements. Methods of enhancing the precision of the measurement were explored such as digital binning (similar in concept to on-sensor binning, but done in post-processing), row-wise digital binning of the signal in adjacent pixels and increasing the time delay between successive exposures. These techniques generally improved precision; however, binning provided the greatest improvement to the un-intensified camera systems which had low signal-to-noise ratio. When binning row-wise by 8 pixels (about the thickness of the tagged region) and using an inter-frame delay of 65 micro sec, precisions of 0.5 m/s in air and 0.2 m/s in nitrogen were achieved. The camera comparison included a pco.dimax HD, a LaVision Imager scientific CMOS (sCMOS) and a Photron FASTCAM SA-X2, along with a two-stage LaVision High Speed IRO intensifier. Excluding the LaVision Imager sCMOS, the cameras were tested with and without intensification and with both short and long inter-frame delays. Use of intensification and longer inter-frame delay generally improved precision. Overall, the Photron FASTCAM SA-X2 exhibited the best performance in terms of greatest precision and highest signal-to-noise ratio primarily because it had the largest pixels.

  19. Precision of FLEET Velocimetry Using High-Speed CMOS Camera Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Christopher J.; Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Jiang, Naibo; Calvert, Nathan D.; Miles, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) is an optical measurement technique that permits quantitative velocimetry of unseeded air or nitrogen using a single laser and a single camera. In this paper, we seek to determine the fundamental precision of the FLEET technique using high-speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras. Also, we compare the performance of several different high-speed CMOS camera systems for acquiring FLEET velocimetry data in air and nitrogen free-jet flows. The precision was defined as the standard deviation of a set of several hundred single-shot velocity measurements. Methods of enhancing the precision of the measurement were explored such as digital binning (similar in concept to on-sensor binning, but done in post-processing), row-wise digital binning of the signal in adjacent pixels and increasing the time delay between successive exposures. These techniques generally improved precision; however, binning provided the greatest improvement to the un-intensified camera systems which had low signal-to-noise ratio. When binning row-wise by 8 pixels (about the thickness of the tagged region) and using an inter-frame delay of 65 microseconds, precisions of 0.5 meters per second in air and 0.2 meters per second in nitrogen were achieved. The camera comparison included a pco.dimax HD, a LaVision Imager scientific CMOS (sCMOS) and a Photron FASTCAM SA-X2, along with a two-stage LaVision HighSpeed IRO intensifier. Excluding the LaVision Imager sCMOS, the cameras were tested with and without intensification and with both short and long inter-frame delays. Use of intensification and longer inter-frame delay generally improved precision. Overall, the Photron FASTCAM SA-X2 exhibited the best performance in terms of greatest precision and highest signal-to-noise ratio primarily because it had the largest pixels.

  20. Fleet Readiness Center - Southeast Technology Development Program (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Air Systems Command,Fleet Readiness Center...FRCSE Cd - NSN Total 70 ---------------------------------- 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Battery Meta l Metals Solde r Standard Fin ish ing N y HM (Y/N...Cateqcry • • N BATTERY • Y COATINGS •v I AK • Y METAL • Y PlATING • Y SEALANT • Y SOLDCR • N Ba l lery • Y Mela l • Y Meta ls Finishing

  1. 33 CFR 138.90 - Individual and Fleet Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR WATER POLLUTION (VESSELS) AND OPA 90 LIMITS OF LIABILITY (VESSELS AND DEEPWATER PORTS) Financial Responsibility for Water Pollution (Vessels) § 138.90 Individual and Fleet Certificates. (a) The Director,...

  2. 33 CFR 138.90 - Individual and Fleet Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR WATER POLLUTION (VESSELS) AND OPA 90 LIMITS OF LIABILITY (VESSELS AND DEEPWATER PORTS) Financial Responsibility for Water Pollution (Vessels) § 138.90 Individual and Fleet Certificates. (a) The Director,...

  3. 33 CFR 138.90 - Individual and Fleet Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR WATER POLLUTION (VESSELS) AND OPA 90 LIMITS OF LIABILITY (VESSELS AND DEEPWATER PORTS) Financial Responsibility for Water Pollution (Vessels) § 138.90 Individual and Fleet Certificates. (a) The Director,...

  4. 33 CFR 138.90 - Individual and Fleet Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR WATER POLLUTION (VESSELS) AND OPA 90 LIMITS OF LIABILITY (VESSELS AND DEEPWATER PORTS) Financial Responsibility for Water Pollution (Vessels) § 138.90 Individual and Fleet Certificates. (a) The Director,...

  5. 33 CFR 138.90 - Individual and Fleet Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR WATER POLLUTION (VESSELS) AND OPA 90 LIMITS OF LIABILITY (VESSELS AND DEEPWATER PORTS) Financial Responsibility for Water Pollution (Vessels) § 138.90 Individual and Fleet Certificates. (a) The Director,...

  6. Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    SciTech Connect

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. This report details compliance for model year 2015, fiscal year 2016.

  7. Polo-like kinase 1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and promotes epithelial cell motility by activating CRAF/ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianguo; Ivanov, Andrei I; Fisher, Paul B; Fu, Zheng

    2016-03-22

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is a key cell cycle regulator implicated in the development of various cancers, including prostate cancer. However, the functions of PLK1 beyond cell cycle regulation remain poorly characterized. Here, we report that PLK1 overexpression in prostate epithelial cells triggers oncogenic transformation. It also results in dramatic transcriptional reprogramming of the cells, leading to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stimulation of cell migration and invasion. Consistently, PLK1 downregulation in metastatic prostate cancer cells enhances epithelial characteristics and inhibits cell motility. The signaling mechanisms underlying the observed cellular effects of PLK1 involve direct PLK1-dependent phosphorylation of CRAF with subsequent stimulation of the MEK1/2-ERK1/2-Fra1-ZEB1/2 signaling pathway. Our findings highlight novel non-canonical functions of PLK1 as a key regulator of EMT and cell motility in normal prostate epithelium and prostate cancer. This study also uncovers a previously unanticipated role of PLK1 as a potent activator of MAPK signaling.

  8. Polo-like kinase 1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and promotes epithelial cell motility by activating CRAF/ERK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianguo; Ivanov, Andrei I; Fisher, Paul B; Fu, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is a key cell cycle regulator implicated in the development of various cancers, including prostate cancer. However, the functions of PLK1 beyond cell cycle regulation remain poorly characterized. Here, we report that PLK1 overexpression in prostate epithelial cells triggers oncogenic transformation. It also results in dramatic transcriptional reprogramming of the cells, leading to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stimulation of cell migration and invasion. Consistently, PLK1 downregulation in metastatic prostate cancer cells enhances epithelial characteristics and inhibits cell motility. The signaling mechanisms underlying the observed cellular effects of PLK1 involve direct PLK1-dependent phosphorylation of CRAF with subsequent stimulation of the MEK1/2-ERK1/2-Fra1-ZEB1/2 signaling pathway. Our findings highlight novel non-canonical functions of PLK1 as a key regulator of EMT and cell motility in normal prostate epithelium and prostate cancer. This study also uncovers a previously unanticipated role of PLK1 as a potent activator of MAPK signaling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10734.001 PMID:27003818

  9. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    PubMed

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41).

  10. FLEET Velocimetry Measurements on a Transonic Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) velocimetry was used to study the flowfield around a symmetric, transonic airfoil in the NASA Langley 0.3-m TCT facility. A nominal Mach number of 0.85 was investigated with a total pressure of 125 kPa and total temperature of 280 K. Two-components of velocity were measured along vertical profiles at different locations above, below, and aft of the airfoil at angles of attack of 0 deg, 3.5 deg, and 7deg. Measurements were assessed for their accuracy, precision, dynamic range, spatial resolution, and overall measurement uncertainty in the context of the applied flowfield. Measurement precisions as low as 1 m/s were observed, while overall uncertainties ranged from 4 to 5 percent. Velocity profiles within the wake showed sufficient accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to resolve both the mean and fluctuating velocities and general flow physics such as shear layer growth. Evidence of flow separation is found at high angles of attack.

  11. Detecting and categorizing fleeting emotions in faces.

    PubMed

    Sweeny, Timothy D; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A

    2013-02-01

    Expressions of emotion are often brief, providing only fleeting images from which to base important social judgments. We sought to characterize the sensitivity and mechanisms of emotion detection and expression categorization when exposure to faces is very brief, and to determine whether these processes dissociate. Observers viewed 2 backward-masked facial expressions in quick succession, 1 neutral and the other emotional (happy, fearful, or angry), in a 2-interval forced-choice task. On each trial, observers attempted to detect the emotional expression (emotion detection) and to classify the expression (expression categorization). Above-chance emotion detection was possible with extremely brief exposures of 10 ms and was most accurate for happy expressions. We compared categorization among expressions using a d' analysis, and found that categorization was usually above chance for angry versus happy and fearful versus happy, but consistently poor for fearful versus angry expressions. Fearful versus angry categorization was poor even when only negative emotions (fearful, angry, or disgusted) were used, suggesting that this categorization is poor independent of decision context. Inverting faces impaired angry versus happy categorization, but not emotion detection, suggesting that information from facial features is used differently for emotion detection and expression categorizations. Emotion detection often occurred without expression categorization, and expression categorization sometimes occurred without emotion detection. These results are consistent with the notion that emotion detection and expression categorization involve separate mechanisms.

  12. On-board gaseous emissions of LPG taxis and estimation of taxi fleet emissions.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jason; Hung, W T; Cheung, C S

    2011-11-15

    Instantaneous CO, NO, and HC emissions and exhaust flow rates from four LPG taxis, which adhered to Euro 2-4 emission standards, were measured using a sophisticated portable emission measurement system (PEMS). Instantaneous air/fuel ratios, emission rates, and emission factors at different operating modes were derived to explore the emission characteristics of these four taxis. Results show that gaseous emissions from these four taxis exceed emission standards, due to extended vehicle use and poor maintenance. NO emissions from newer taxis are lower whilst CO and HC emissions of the Euro 4 taxi are similar to those of Euro 2 taxis during idling and low speed travel. The taxis emit lower amounts of gaseous pollutants whilst idling and emit the highest amounts of CO and NO whilst accelerating. Large fluctuations in air/fuel ratios can be observed from the Euro 4 taxi during idling, indicating a malfunction of fuel supply control to the engine. Such fluctuations are not observed from the other taxis. This shows that a Euro 4 taxi is not necessarily cleaner than a Euro 3 taxi. Emission factors derived from on-board measurements are applied to estimate gaseous emissions from the taxi fleet; these results show that emissions are higher during peak hour traffic conditions. An estimate of the taxi fleet's emissions whilst the older taxis are replaced is also calculated. It can be seen that faster replacement of older taxis can lead to reductions in gaseous emissions from the taxi fleet. This study shows that the PEMS is an adequate tool for measuring emissions from LPG vehicles and that there is an urgent need to enforce emission standards on taxis. This study also shows that on-board measurements should be incorporated in the estimation of emissions from other vehicle types. This would result in better emission estimations under local traffic conditions.

  13. Exemplary Clean Air and Climate Initiatives Win EPA Honors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - This week, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is honoring seven projects for their work on clean air and climate initiatives, including investment in alternative fuel vehicle fleets, business partnerships to reduce pollutant

  14. PM, NOx and butane emissions from on-road vehicle fleets in Hong Kong and their implications on emission control policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Zhi; Wubulihairen, Maimaitireyimu; Yang, Fenhuan

    2012-12-01

    Vehicular emissions are the major sources of air pollution in urban areas. For metropolitan cities with large population working and living in environments with direct traffic impact, emission control is of great significance to protect public health. Implementation of more stringent emission standards, retrofitting fleet with emission control devices and switching to clearer fuel has been commonly practiced in different cities including Hong Kong. The present study employed a new plume chasing method for effective and quick evaluation of on-road fleet emission factors of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and butane from heavy duty diesel trucks, diesel buses and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles. The results showed distinct profiles of the emissions from different fleets with excessive butane emissions from LPG fleet and contrasting PM and NOx emissions from diesel trucks and buses fleets. A cross comparison was also made with emission data from other cities and from historic local studies. The implications of the observed difference on the effectiveness of emission control measures and policy are discussed with recommendations of direction for future research and policy making.

  15. Strategies to Sustain an Aging Fleet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-17

    of the AF SAB during the SAB Winter Board Meeting.” The above chart from the United States Air Force Logistics section displays a snapshot of the...Monica, CA: Rand, 2005) 10. 14Elizabeth Arledge, “AF/A4L Perspective on Sustainment of Aging Aircraft. Briefing, SAA Study Panel of the AF SAB ...during the SAB Winter Board Meeting,” (presentation, Crystal City, VA, January 2011). 15Robert Worley, “Air Force Programming Process: Scientific

  16. Tele-Supervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefes, Alberto; Podnar, Gregg W.; Dolan, John M.; Hosler, Jeffrey C.; Ames, Troy J.

    2009-01-01

    The Tele-supervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF) is a multi-robot science exploration architecture and system that uses a group of robotic boats (the Ocean-Atmosphere Sensor Integration System, or OASIS) to enable in-situ study of ocean surface and subsurface characteristics and the dynamics of such ocean phenomena as coastal pollutants, oil spills, hurricanes, or harmful algal blooms (HABs). The OASIS boats are extended- deployment, autonomous ocean surface vehicles. The TAOSF architecture provides an integrated approach to multi-vehicle coordination and sliding human-vehicle autonomy. One feature of TAOSF is the adaptive re-planning of the activities of the OASIS vessels based on sensor input ( smart sensing) and sensorial coordination among multiple assets. The architecture also incorporates Web-based communications that permit control of the assets over long distances and the sharing of data with remote experts. Autonomous hazard and assistance detection allows the automatic identification of hazards that require human intervention to ensure the safety and integrity of the robotic vehicles, or of science data that require human interpretation and response. Also, the architecture is designed for science analysis of acquired data in order to perform an initial onboard assessment of the presence of specific science signatures of immediate interest. TAOSF integrates and extends five subsystems developed by the participating institutions: Emergent Space Tech - nol ogies, Wallops Flight Facility, NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Carnegie Mellon University, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The OASIS Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) system, which includes the vessels as well as the land-based control and communications infrastructure developed for them, controls the hardware of each platform (sensors, actuators, etc.), and also provides a low-level waypoint navigation capability. The Multi-Platform Simulation Environment from GSFC is a surrogate

  17. Evaluation of Gear Condition Indicator Performance on Rotorcraft Fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antolick, Lance J.; Branning, Jeremy S.; Wade, Daniel R.; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Army is currently expanding its fleet of Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) equipped aircraft at significant rates, to now include over 1,000 rotorcraft. Two different on-board HUMS, the Honeywell Modern Signal Processing Unit (MSPU) and the Goodrich Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS), are collecting vibration health data on aircraft that include the Apache, Blackhawk, Chinook, and Kiowa Warrior. The objective of this paper is to recommend the most effective gear condition indicators for fleet use based on both a theoretical foundation and field data. Gear diagnostics with better performance will be recommended based on both a theoretical foundation and results of in-fleet use. In order to evaluate the gear condition indicator performance on rotorcraft fleets, results of more than five years of health monitoring for gear faults in the entire HUMS equipped Army helicopter fleet will be presented. More than ten examples of gear faults indicated by the gear CI have been compiled and each reviewed for accuracy. False alarms indications will also be discussed. Performance data from test rigs and seeded fault tests will also be presented. The results of the fleet analysis will be discussed, and a performance metric assigned to each of the competing algorithms. Gear fault diagnostic algorithms that are compliant with ADS-79A will be recommended for future use and development. The performance of gear algorithms used in the commercial units and the effectiveness of the gear CI as a fault identifier will be assessed using the criteria outlined in the standards in ADS-79A-HDBK, an Army handbook that outlines the conversion from Reliability Centered Maintenance to the On-Condition status of Condition Based Maintenance.

  18. Federal Fleet Files, FEMP, Vol. 1, No. 2 - June 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    June 2009 issue of the FEMP Federal Fleet Files monthly newsletter for the FEMP Federal Fleet Program that outlines vehicle, alternative fuel, infrastructure, and management strategy updates to Federal agencies.

  19. Estimating emissions from the Indian transport sector with on-road fleet composition and traffic volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization and rising household incomes in India have led to growing transport demand, particularly during 1990-2010. Emissions from transportation have been implicated in air quality and climate effects. In this work, emissions of particulate matter (PM2.5 or mass concentration of particles smaller than 2.5 um diameter), black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), were estimated from the transport sector in India, using detailed technology divisions and regionally measured emission factors. Modes of transport addressed in this work include road transport, railways, shipping and aviation, but exclude off-road equipment like diesel machinery and tractors. For road transport, a vehicle fleet model was used, with parameters derived from vehicle sales, registration data, and surveyed age-profile. The fraction of extremely high emitting vehicles, or superemitters, which is highly uncertain, was assumed as 20%. Annual vehicle utilization estimates were based on regional surveys and user population. For railways, shipping and aviation, a top-down approach was applied, using nationally reported fuel consumption. Fuel use and emissions from on-road vehicles were disaggregated at the state level, with separate estimates for 30 cities in India. The on-road fleet was dominated by two-wheelers, followed by four-and three-wheelers, with new vehicles comprising the majority of the fleet for each vehicle type. A total of 276 (-156, 270) Gg/y PM2.5, 144 (-99, 207) Gg/y BC, and 95 (-64, 130) Gg/y OC emissions were estimated, with over 97% contribution from on-road transport. Largest emitters were identified as heavy duty diesel vehicles for PM2.5 and BC, but two-stroke vehicles and superemitters for OC. Old vehicles (pre-2005) contributed significantly more (∼70%) emissions, while their share in the vehicle fleet was smaller (∼45%). Emission estimates were sensitive to assumed superemitter fraction. Improvement of emission estimates requires on-road emission factor measurements

  20. 77 FR 40521 - Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving... Coast Guard published a NPRM, Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound... Final Rule (TFR), Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound,...

  1. 76 FR 3646 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... availability of a draft policy regarding distant water tuna fleet vessels manning exemption eligibility and... SECURITY Coast Guard Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet... Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels. DATES: Comments and related material must either be...

  2. 40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.304-94 Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle... purchasing clean-fuel vehicles (CFVs) directly and by trading and banking CFFV credits for vehicle...

  3. 41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... management information system? 102-34.340 Section 102-34.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that —...

  4. 41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... management information system? 102-34.340 Section 102-34.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that —...

  5. 41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... management information system? 102-34.340 Section 102-34.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that —...

  6. 41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... management information system? 102-34.340 Section 102-34.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that —...

  7. 41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... management information system? 102-34.340 Section 102-34.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that —...

  8. 75 FR 20778 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week... Hawthorne and Steel Bridges in Portland, Oregon during the Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week from June 2... Rose Festival Fleet Week, and there is insufficient time to publish a notice of proposed...

  9. Increasing the Size of the Effective United States Control Fleet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    Bottomed; DH – Double Hulled; SH – Single Hulled; SBT – Segregated Ballast Tanks 2. Esso Petrolera Argentina SRL ( Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada ...new name for Esso SAPA ( Sociedad Anonima Petrolera Argentin) Source: Appendix E Table 5.2, M.I.T. EUSC, Militarily Useful Tanker Fleet for June 2002 85

  10. Fatal accidents in the Icelandic fishing fleet 1980-2005.

    PubMed

    Petursdottir, Gudrun; Hjoervar, Tryggvi; Snorrason, Hilmar

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes how the Icelandic fleet increased from 1980 to 2005, as well as the number of fishermen employed in the various sections of the fleet. All categories of the fleet have increased considerably in tonnage, while the number of fishermen has declined. At the same time the catch per man-year at sea has increased, rendering the Icelandic fisheries among the most efficient in the world in terms of catch and value per manpower. The number of fatalities in the Icelandic fisheries has declined steadily in this period. In absolute numbers these accidents are most common on decked vessels under 45m, but when weighed against man-years, fishermen on open boats are in greatest danger of losing their lives. The most common cause of fatalities is foundering of the vessel, which may cause multiple fatalities, then is man-over-board, followed by drowning in harbour and miscellaneous accidents. The reduction in the number of fatal accidents at sea may have several reasons. Mandatory safety and survival training of all fishermen, improved working conditions at sea, better telecommunications, constant VMS surveillance and a 24hr availability of airborne rescue teams have all helped to reduce fatalities in the Icelandic fishing fleet from 1980 until 2005.

  11. Report: EPA’s Fleet Management Program Needs Improvement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #15-P-0001, October 6, 2014. If oversight of the EPA’s fleet is not improved, the $6 million-per-year program could be ineffective and inefficient in supporting the agency’s mission and reporting data to the federal system.

  12. U.S. Liner Fleet and the Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    carried by its merchant fleet is due t.o a variety of reasons. Shipping as a catalyst for economic development is not a new concept. Adam Smith , the...34Our Nation’s Maritime Challenge," Congressional Information Bureau, Vol 96, #157, August 13, 1992. 3 Ibid. 4 Adam Smith , The Wealth of Nations

  13. Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomić, Jasna; Kempton, Willett

    Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th!nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important variables are: (a) the market value of regulation services, (b) the power capacity (kW) of the electrical connections and wiring, and (c) the energy capacity (kWh) of the vehicle's battery. With a few exceptions when the annual market value of regulation was low, we find that vehicle-to-grid power for regulation services is profitable across all four markets analyzed. Assuming now more than current Level 2 charging infrastructure (6.6 kW) the annual net profit for the Th!nk City fleet is from US 7000 to 70,000 providing regulation down only. For the RAV4 fleet the annual net profit ranges from US 24,000 to 260,000 providing regulation down and up. Vehicle-to-grid power could provide a significant revenue stream that would improve the economics of grid-connected electric-drive vehicles and further encourage their adoption. It would also improve the stability of the electrical grid.

  14. JSC Case Study: Fleet Experience with E-85 Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummel, Kirck

    2009-01-01

    JSC has used E-85 as part of an overall strategy to comply with Presidential Executive Order 13423 and the Energy Policy Act. As a Federal fleet, we are required to reduce our petroleum consumption by 2 percent per year, and increase the use of alternative fuels in our vehicles. With the opening of our onsite dispenser in October 2004, JSC became the second federal fleet in Texas and the fifth NASA center to add E-85 fueling capability. JSC has a relatively small number of GSA Flex Fuel fleet vehicles at the present time (we don't include personal vehicles, or other contractor's non-GSA fleet), and there were no reasonably available retail E-85 fuel stations within a 15-minute drive or within five miles (one way). So we decided to install a small 1000 gallon onsite tank and dispenser. It was difficult to obtain a supplier due to our low monthly fuel consumption, and our fuel supplier contract has changed three times in less than five years. We experiences a couple of fuel contamination and quality control issues. JSC obtained good information on E-85 from the National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition (NEVC). We also spoke with Defense Energy Support Center, (DESC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and US Army Fort Leonard Wood. E-85 is a liquid fuel that is dispensed into our Flexible Fuel Vehicles identically to regular gasoline, so it was easy for our vehicle drivers to make the transition.

  15. 40 CFR 610.32 - Test fleet selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.32 Test.... In a device evaluation program initiated at the request of the FTC, the composition and size of the..., the Administrator will specify the test fleet makeup by make, model, model year, engine...

  16. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and

  17. Path Planning Algorithms for the Adaptive Sensor Fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoneking, Eric; Hosler, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The Adaptive Sensor Fleet (ASF) is a general purpose fleet management and planning system being developed by NASA in coordination with NOAA. The current mission of ASF is to provide the capability for autonomous cooperative survey and sampling of dynamic oceanographic phenomena such as current systems and algae blooms. Each ASF vessel is a software model that represents a real world platform that carries a variety of sensors. The OASIS platform will provide the first physical vessel, outfitted with the systems and payloads necessary to execute the oceanographic observations described in this paper. The ASF architecture is being designed for extensibility to accommodate heterogenous fleet elements, and is not limited to using the OASIS platform to acquire data. This paper describes the path planning algorithms developed for the acquisition phase of a typical ASF task. Given a polygonal target region to be surveyed, the region is subdivided according to the number of vessels in the fleet. The subdivision algorithm seeks a solution in which all subregions have equal area and minimum mean radius. Once the subregions are defined, a dynamic programming method is used to find a minimum-time path for each vessel from its initial position to its assigned region. This path plan includes the effects of water currents as well as avoidance of known obstacles. A fleet-level planning algorithm then shuffles the individual vessel assignments to find the overall solution which puts all vessels in their assigned regions in the minimum time. This shuffle algorithm may be described as a process of elimination on the sorted list of permutations of a cost matrix. All these path planning algorithms are facilitated by discretizing the region of interest onto a hexagonal tiling.

  18. Evaluation of diesel fleet emissions and control policies from plume chasing measurements of on-road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Chui Fong; Rakowska, Agata; Townsend, Thomas; Brimblecombe, Peter; Chan, Tat Leung; Yam, Yat Shing; Močnik, Griša; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are an important source of urban air pollution. Diesel fuelled vehicles, although constituting a relatively small fraction of fleet population in many cities, are significant contributors to the emission inventory due to their often long mileage for goods and public transport. Recent classification of diesel exhaust as carcinogenic by the World Health Organization also raises attention to more stringent control of diesel emissions to protect public health. Although various mandatory and voluntary based emission control measures have been implemented in Hong Kong, there have been few investigations to evaluate if the fleet emission characteristics have met desired emission reduction objectives and if adoption of an Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) programme has been effective in achieving these objectives. The limitations are partially due to the lack of cost-effective approaches for the large scale characterisation of fleet based emissions to assess the effectiveness of control measures and policy. This study has used a plume chasing method to collect a large amount of on-road vehicle emission data of Hong Kong highways and a detailed analysis was carried out to provide a quantitative evaluation of the emission characteristics in terms of the role of high and super-emitters in total emission reduction, impact of after-treatment on the multi-pollutants reduction strategy and the trend of NO2 emissions with newer emission standards. The study revealed that not all the high-emitters are from those vehicles of older Euro emission standards. Meanwhile, there is clear evidence that high-emitters for one pollutant may not be a high-emitter for another pollutant. Multi-pollutant control strategy needs to be considered in the enactment of the emission control policy which requires more comprehensive retrofitting technological solutions and matching I/M programme to ensure the proper maintenance of fleets. The plume chasing approach used in this study also

  19. Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Prohaska, Robert; Kelly, Kenneth; Eudy, Leslie

    2016-07-25

    The focus of this interim fleet evaluation is to characterize and evaluate the operating behavior of Foothill Transit's fast charge battery electric buses (BEBs). Future research will compare the BEBs' performance to conventional vehicles. In an effort to better understand the impacts of drive cycle characteristics on advanced vehicle technologies, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed over 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. This analysis provides an unbiased evaluation of advanced vehicle technologies in real-world operation demonstrating the importance of understanding the effects of road grade and heating, ventilating and air conditioning requirements when deploying electric vehicles. The results of this analysis show that the Proterra BE35 demonstrated an operating energy efficiency of 1.34 kWh/km over the data reporting period.

  20. Second Shuttle Join NASA's STS Fleet: Challenger Launches First New Tracking Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA made a major stride in readying a second delivery vehicle for its Space Transportation System (STS) fleet with the perfect landing of Shuttle Orbiter Challenger at Edwards Air Force Base, California, April 9, 1983. Besides being the first flight test of Challenger's performance, the mission marked the orbiting of the first spacecraft in NASA's new Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The new family of orbiting space communications platforms is essential to serve future Shuttle missions. Although the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) second stage engine firing failed to place TDRS in its final 35,888 kilometer (22,300 mile) geosynchronous orbit, its release from the orbiter cargo bay went as planned. Launch officials were confident they can achieve its planned orbit in a matter of weeks.

  1. Fuel Cell Bus Takes a Starring Role in the BurbankBus Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    This fact sheet reports on the City of Burbank, California's fuel cell bus demonstration project and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) involvement. Included are specifications for the fuel cell bus and information about its operation. BurbankBus, the city's mass transit entity, received a grant from the California Air Resources Board to fund its zero-emission bus demonstration and is collaborating with DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program to evaluate the bus performance. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory will collect and analyze performance and operations data for at least one year. Researchers will use the data to better understand the technology and determine future development work. In addition, demonstration information will help fleets make informed purchase decisions.

  2. Fast Charge Battery Electric Transit Bus In-Use Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Prohaska, Robert; Eudy, Leslie; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-05-06

    The focus of this interim fleet evaluation is to characterize and evaluate the operating behavior of Foothill Transit's fast charge battery electric buses (BEBs). Future research will compare the BEBs' performance to conventional vehicles. In an effort to better understand the impacts of drive cycle characteristics on advanced vehicle technologies, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed over 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. This analysis provides an unbiased evaluation of advanced vehicle technologies in real-world operation demonstrating the importance of understanding the effects of road grade and heating, ventilating and air conditioning requirements when deploying electric vehicles. The results of this analysis show that the Proterra BE35 demonstrated an operating energy efficiency of 1.34 kWh/km over the data reporting period.

  3. Raley's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.

    2000-05-03

    Raley's, a large retail grocery company based in Northern California, began operating heavy-duty trucks powered by liquefied natural gas (LNG) in 1997, in cooperation with the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD). The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) sponsored a research project to collect and analyze data on the performance and operation costs of eight of Raley's LNG trucks in the field. Their performance was compared with that of three diesel trucks operating in comparable commercial service. The objective of the DOE research project, which was managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel fuel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  4. CRAF 2002 - An Analysis of CRAF Participation Since September 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Teagan, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /ENS/02E-12 The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do...56 Table 9 – Post-September 2001 Form 312 Data............................................................... 58 AFIT/ GMO ...operating restrictions, and rising fuel and insurance costs resulted in predictions of a bad financial forecast for commercial aviation (Thomchick

  5. System of systems design: Evaluating aircraft in a fleet context using reliability and non-deterministic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommer, Joshua B.

    This work develops and implements a solution framework that allows for an integrated solution to a resource allocation system-of-systems problem associated with designing vehicles for integration into an existing fleet to extend that fleet's capability while improving efficiency. Typically, aircraft design focuses on using a specific design mission while a fleet perspective would provide a broader capability. Aspects of design for both the vehicles and missions may be, for simplicity, deterministic in nature or, in a model that reflects actual conditions, uncertain. Toward this end, the set of tasks or goals for the to-be-planned system-of-systems will be modeled more accurately with non-deterministic values, and the designed platforms will be evaluated using reliability analysis. The reliability, defined as the probability of a platform or set of platforms to complete possible missions, will contribute to the fitness of the overall system. The framework includes building surrogate models for metrics such as capability and cost, and includes the ideas of reliability in the overall system-level design space. The concurrent design and allocation system-of-systems problem is a multi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. This study considered two system-of-systems problems that seek to simultaneously design new aircraft and allocate these aircraft into a fleet to provide a desired capability. The Coast Guard's Integrated Deepwater System program inspired the first problem, which consists of a suite of search-and-find missions for aircraft based on descriptions from the National Search and Rescue Manual. The second represents suppression of enemy air defense operations similar to those carried out by the U.S. Air Force, proposed as part of the Department of Defense Network Centric Warfare structure, and depicted in MILSTD-3013. The two problems seem similar, with long surveillance segments, but because of the complex nature of aircraft design

  6. Executive Order 13514: Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance; Comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, R.; Ahdieh, N.; Bentley, J.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook that builds upon the "Guidance for Federal Agencies on E.O. 13514 Section 12-Federal Fleet Management" and provides information to help fleet managers select optimal greenhouse gas and petroleum reduction strategies for each location, meeting or exceeding related fleet requirements, acquiring vehicles to support these strategies while minimizing fleet size and vehicle miles traveled, and refining strategies based on agency performance.

  7. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  8. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 5, employee attitude assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The experiences of couriers, operations managers, vehicle handlers (refuelers), and mechanics who drove and/or worked with alternative fuel vehicles, and the attitudes and perceptions of people with these experiences, are examined. Five alternative fuels studied in the CleanFleet project are considers& compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The three major areas of interest include comparative analysis of issues such as health, safety and vehicle performance, business issues encompassing several facets of station operations, and personal commentary and opinions about the CleanFleet project and the alterative fuels. Results of the employee attitude assessment are presented as both statistical and qualitative analysis.

  9. Case Study - Propane School Bus Fleets

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-08-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) effort to deploy transportation technologies that reduce U.S. dependence on imported petroleum, this study examines five school districts, one in Virginia and four in Texas, successful use of propane school buses. These school districts used school buses equipped with the newly developed liquid propane injection system that improves vehicle performance. Some of the school districts in this study saved nearly 50% on a cost per mile basis for fuel and maintenance relative to diesel. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool developed for the DOE’s Clean Cities program to help Clean Cities stakeholders estimate petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions and cost of ownership of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, the results showed payback period ranges from 3—8 years, recouping the incremental cost of the vehicles and infrastructure. Overall, fuel economy for these propane vehicles is close to that of displaced diesel vehicles, on an energy-equivalent basis. In addition, the 110 propane buses examined demonstrated petroleum displacement, 212,000 diesel gallon equivalents per year, and GHG benefits of 770 tons per year.

  10. Options for the Navy’s Future Fleet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Ship Fleet the Navy uses to describe its overall approach to linking Against the backdrop to the Bush Administration’s plans networks, sensors ...on ship procurement to carry out its 313-ship plan - more than 70 percent greater than its average spending between 2000 and 2005. At the same time...the Navy has plans to modernize its aircraft that, if fully implemented, would require more resources than the service currently spends on new planes

  11. The Idea of a Fleet in Being in Historical Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Parliament explaining the ratio- nale for his actions in the battle of beachy Head (Cap béveziers). In that action, the comte de tourville, with...parture of a french squadron under the comte d’estaing to North america and then to the West Indies. the government in london now changed its...they fought were indecisive. Meanwhile, in european waters, in the first major naval battle of the war, a french fleet under the comte d’orvilliers

  12. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  13. Alternative Practices to Improve Surface Fleet Fuel Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    extremis level. At the extremis level, a ship will need to be refueled very soon or be in danger of running out of fuel . The numbered fleet...practices that, if changed, could provide significant fuel savings for fossil fuel ships. Recent and potential future budget cuts give fuel conservation...changed, could provide significant fuel savings for fossil fuel ships. Recent and potential future budget cuts give fuel conservation and efficiency

  14. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  15. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report, Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2014/ FY 2015

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-01

    This annual report of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program, which ensures compliance with DOE regulations covering state government and alternative fuel provider fleets pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended, provides fleet compliance results for manufacturing year 2014 / fiscal year 2015.

  16. First interim report of the Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force was created by Executive Order 12844, signed by President Clinton on April 21, 1993. In the Order, the President directed that purchases of alternative fueled vehicles by the Federal Government be substantially increased beyond the levels required by current law. The President charged the Task Force with developing recommendations for carrying out the Executive Order, with special emphasis on setting a course that will lead to the widespread use of alternative fueled vehicles by Federal, State, and local government fleets, by private fleets and, ultimately, by individuals. The chief recommendation of the Task Force is the establishment of a Presidential Clean Cities Initiative. To support creation of the Presidential Initiative, the Task Force identified 38 cities and regions, prioritized into three tiers, for concentrating the Initiative`s efforts in Fiscal Years 1994 through 1996. This concentration of effort is key to the effectiveness of the Initiative. The 38 cities and regions would receive priority funding for Federal vehicle purchases and for infrastructure development. In addition, the Task Force has made specific recommendations for overcoming numerous regulatory, economic, and technical barriers that have slowed the introduction of alternative fueled vehicles into general use.

  17. The Fleet Application for Scheduling and Tracking (FAST) Management Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero-Perez, Radames J.

    2014-01-01

    The FAST application was designed to replace the paper and pen method of checking out and checking in GSA Vehicles at KSC. By innovating from a paper and pen based checkout system to a fully digital one, not only the resources wasted by printing the checkout forms have been reduced, but it also reduces significantly the time that users and fleet managers need to interact with the system as well as improving the record accuracy for each vehicle. The vehicle information is pulled from a centralized database server in the SPSDL. In an attempt to add a new feature to the FAST application, the author of this report (alongside the FAST developers) has been designing and developing the FAST Management Website. The GSA fleet managers had to rely on the FAST developers in order to add new vehicles, edit vehicles and previous transactions, or for generating vehicles reports. By providing an easy-to-use FAST Management Website portal, the GSA fleet managers are now able to easily move vehicles, edit records, and print reports.

  18. Fleet manager's guide to testing vehicles for valid results

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The managers of automotive fleets are vitally interested in saving money. Fleet procurement and operations costs are increasing rapidly. Fuel cost increases have been especially extreme. Conservation measures have included the purchase of more fuel-efficient vehicles, consolidation or reduction of unnecessary or redundant travel, upgraded and/or more frequent vehicle inspection, maintenance, repair, and the installation of fuel-saving components (or removal of fuel-consuming components). Virtually every significant cost saving measure has a cost associated with it, either a tangible financial cost, or an intangible (convenience) cost. In order to justify to his superiors that such measures should be taken, the fleet manager must be able to demonstrate clearly that the benefits derived from implementation of these measures will exceed the costs of doing so. In order to accomplish this, he must have unambiguous measures of both costs and benefits and methods of comparison which are easily usable and which yield unambiguous results. The analysis methods presented in this document are designed to accomplish this end.

  19. Inhibition of Chronic Pancreatitis and Murine Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia by a Dual Inhibitor of c-RAF and Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in LSL-KrasG12D/Pdx-1-Cre Mice

    PubMed Central

    LIAO, JIE; HWANG, SUNG HEE; LI, HAONAN; LIU, JUN-YAN; HAMMOCK, BRUCE D.; YANG, GUANG-YU

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and chronic pancreatitis are the most common pathogenic events involved in human pancreatic carcinogenesis. In the process of long-standing chronic inflammation, aberrant metabolites of arachidonic acid play a crucial role in promoting carcinogenesis, in which the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), as a pro-inflammatory enzyme, generally inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Herein, we determined the effect of our newly-synthesized novel compound trans-4-{4-[3-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methylamide (t-CUPM), a dual inhibitor of sEH and RAF1 proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (c-RAF), on inhibiting the development of pancreatitis and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPanIN) in LSL-KrasG12D/Pdx1-Cre mice. The results showed that t-CUPM significantly reduced the severity of chronic pancreatitis, as measured by the extent of acini loss, inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis. The progression of low-grade mPanIN I to high-grade mPanIN II/III was significantly suppressed. Inhibition of mutant Kras-transmitted phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase’s kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases was demonstrated in pancreatic tissues by western blots. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that t-CUPM treatment significantly reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis facor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, as well as vascular adhesion molecule-1, and the levels of Sonic hedgehog and Gli transcription factor (Hedgehog pathway). Analysis of the eicosanoid profile revealed a significant increase of the EETs/dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids ratio, which further confirmed sEH inhibition by t-CUPM. These results indicate that simultaneous inhibition of sEH and c-RAF by t-CUPM is important in preventing chronic pancreatitis and carcinogenesis

  20. miR-7 reverses the resistance to BRAFi in melanoma by targeting EGFR/IGF-1R/CRAF and inhibiting the MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Li, Jun; Sun, Yanhong; Zhang, Yi; Dong, Liyun; Shen, Chen; Yang, Liu; Yang, Ming; Li, Yan; Shen, Guanxin; Tu, Yating; Tao, Juan

    2016-08-16

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are attractive therapeutic targets for various therapy-resistant tumors. However, the association between miRNA and BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma remains to be elucidated. We used microarray analysis to comprehensively study the miRNA expression profiling of vemurafenib resistant (VemR) A375 melanoma cells in relation to parental A375 melanoma cells. MicroRNA-7 (miR-7) was identified to be the most significantly down-regulated miRNA in VemR A375 melanoma cells. We also found that miR-7 was down-regulated in Mel-CVR cells (vemurafenib resistant Mel-CV melanoma cells). Reestablishment of miR-7 expression could reverse the resistance of both cells to vemurafenib. We showed that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and CRAF were over-expressed in VemR A375 melanoma cells. Introduction of miR-7 mimics could markedly decrease the expressions of EGFR, IGF-1R and CRAF and further suppressed the activation of MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway in VemR A375 melanoma cells. Furthermore, tumor growth was inhibited in an in vivo murine VemR A375 melanoma tumor model transfected with miR-7 mimics. Collectively, our study demonstrated that miR-7 could reverse the resistance to BRAF inhibitors in certain vemurafenib resistant melanoma cell lines. It could advance the field and provide the basis for further studies in BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma.

  1. Victory From Above. Air Power Theory and the Conduct of Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    views air power as an extension of the fleet and does not want to surrender control of its air assets to a land-based commander. The US Marine Corps...7 Centralized Command and Control ............... 7 Offensive Action Dominates ................... 8 Air Superiority Is the First Objective...36 Command and Control ...... ....................... 37 Air Command Structure ..................... 37 Communications

  2. U.S. Coast Guard Fleet Mix Planning: A Decision Support System Prototype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    the baseline fleet mix. 6 * define or modify homeport assignment of each patrol boat within a fleet mix. * compose multiple fleet mix alternatives...conceptually an optimization problem with multiple objectives in an uncertain environment. The authors point out practical problems with a single large...34 A single Pro*C program can be created to operate with data from different Oracle databases. " Multiple Pro*C programs can be separately precompiled

  3. Can the Navy’s Tenth Fleet Effectively Combat the Cyber Threat?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-25

    and the innovation and lessons learned during WWII to better enable the reconstituted Tenth Fleet to protect, deter and defend against the growing...Tenth Fleet and the innovation and lessons learned during WWII to better enable the reconstituted Tenth Fleet to protect, deter and defend against...its Operations Division, that had its own Submarine Tracking Room with ready access to ULTRA (data decrypted from Enigma machines18) and HF/DF (High

  4. Vehicular fleet operation on natural gas and propane: An overview. Final research report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.; Euritt, M.A.

    1992-11-01

    The report attempts to contribute to the timely area of alternative vehicular fuels. It addresses the analysis of fleet operation on alternative fuels, specifically compressed natural gas (CNG) and propane, in terms of both fleet economics and societal impacts. Comprehensive information on engine technology, fueling infrastructure design, and societal impacts are presented. An evaluation framework useful for decisions between any vehicular fuels is developed. The comprehensive fleet cost-effectiveness analysis framework used in previous Project 983 reports is discussed in great detail. This framework/model is flexible enough to allow substantial sensitivity and scenario analysis. The model is used to perform sample analyses of both fleet economic and societal impacts.

  5. Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2010/FY 2011, EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This annual report summarizes the compliance results of state and alternative fuel provider fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) for model year 2010/fiscal year 2011. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state and alternative fuel provider (SFP) fleets under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. For model year (MY) 2010, the compliance rate for the 2911 covered SFP fleets was 100%. Fleets used either Standard Compliance or Alternative Compliance. The 279 fleets that used Standard Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2010 acquisition requirements by 61%. The 12 covered fleets that complied using Alternative Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2010 petroleum-use-reduction requirements by 89%. Overall, DOE saw modest decreases from MY 2009 in biodiesel fuel use credits earned and in the number of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) acquired. Compared to years before MY 2009, these rates were far lower. Because covered fleets acquired fewer new vehicles overall in MY 2010, the requirement for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), which is proportional to new acquisitions, also dropped.

  6. Measurements of real-world vehicle CO and NOx fleet average emissions in urban tunnels of two cities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yiwen; Chen, Chao; Li, Qiong; Hu, Qinqiang; Yuan, Haoting; Li, Junmei; Li, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Urban tunnels located in the city center areas, can alleviate traffic pressure and provide more convenient traffic for people. Vehicles emit pollutants that are significant contributors to air pollution inside and at the outlet of tunnels. Ventilation is the most widely used method to dilute pollutants in tunnels. To calculate the design required air volume flow accurately, vehicle emissions should be exactly determined. Emission factors are important parameters to estimate vehicle emissions. To characterize carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emission factors for a mixed vehicle fleet under real-world driving conditions of urban China, we measured CO and NOX concentrations in Shanghai East Yan'an Road tunnel and Changsha Yingpan Road tunnel in 2012 and 2013. In-use fleet average CO and NOX emission factors were calculated according to tunnel pollutants mass balance models. The results showed that the maximum CO concentration in August was 86 ppm, while in October it was 45 ppm in Shanghai East Yan'an Road tunnel. The maximum concentrations of CO and NOX were 33 ppm and 2 ppm in Changsha Yingpan Road tunnel, respectively. In-use fleet average CO emission factors of East Yan'an Road tunnel, with gradient of -3% ∼ 3%, were 1.266 (±0.889) ∼ 3.974 (±2.189) g km-1 vehicle-1. In-use fleet average CO and NOX emission factors of Yingpan Road tunnel with gradient of -6% ∼ 6% amounted to 0.754 (±0.561) ∼ 6.050 (±5.940) g km-1 vehicle-1 and 0.121 (±0.022) ∼ 0.818 (±0.755) g km-1 vehicle-1, respectively. The dependences of CO and NOX emission on roadway gradient and vehicle speed were found. The average CO and NOX emission factors increased with the ascending of roadway gradient as well as reverse with vehicle speed. These findings provide meaningful reference for ventilation design and environmental assessment of urban tunnels, and further help provide basic data to formulate relevant standards and norms.

  7. Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Air Force’s Air Mobility Command (AMC) is changing the way it does business. It is saving energy and money through an aircraft fleet fuel-efficiency program inspired by private industry best practices and ideas resulting from the empowered fuel savings culture.

  8. Designing a Methodology for Future Air Travel Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuebbles, Donald J.; Baughcum, Steven L.; Gerstle, John H.; Edmonds, Jae; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Krull, Nick; Metwally, Munir; Mortlock, Alan; Prather, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    The growing demand on air travel throughout the world has prompted several proposals for the development of commercial aircraft capable of transporting a large number of passengers at supersonic speeds. Emissions from a projected fleet of such aircraft, referred to as high-speed civil transports (HSCT's), are being studied because of their possible effects on the chemistry and physics of the global atmosphere, in particular, on stratospheric ozone. At the same time, there is growing concern about the effects on ozone from the emissions of current (primarily subsonic) aircraft emissions. Evaluating the potential atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions from HSCT's requires a scientifically sound understanding of where the aircraft fly and under what conditions the aircraft effluents are injected into the atmosphere. A preliminary set of emissions scenarios are presented. These scenarios will be used to understand the sensitivity of environment effects to a range of fleet operations, flight conditions, and aircraft specifications. The baseline specifications for the scenarios are provided: the criteria to be used for developing the scenarios are defined, the required data base for initiating the development of the scenarios is established, and the state of the art for those scenarios that have already been developed is discussed. An important aspect of the assessment will be the evaluation of realistic projections of emissions as a function of both geographical distribution and altitude from an economically viable commercial HSCT fleet. With an assumed introduction date of around the year 2005, it is anticipated that there will be no HSCT aircraft in the global fleet at that time. However, projections show that, by 2015, the HSCT fleet could reach significant size. We assume these projections of HSCT and subsonic fleets for about 2015 can the be used as input to global atmospheric chemistry models to evaluate the impact of the HSCT fleets, relative to an all

  9. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report; Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2013/FY 2014

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    Compliance rates for covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets under the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (pursuant to the Energy Policy Act or EPAct) are reported for MY 2013/FY 2014 in this publication.

  10. Nuclear power fleets and uranium resources recovered from phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, S.; Baschwitz, A.; Mathonniere, G.

    2013-07-01

    Current light water reactors (LWR) burn fissile uranium, whereas some future reactors, as Sodium fast reactors (SFR) will be capable of recycling their own plutonium and already-extracted depleted uranium. This makes them a feasible solution for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. Nonetheless, a sufficient quantity of plutonium is needed to start up an SFR, with the plutonium already being produced in light water reactors. The availability of natural uranium therefore has a direct impact on the capacity of the reactors (both LWR and SFR) that we can build. It is therefore important to have an accurate estimate of the available uranium resources in order to plan for the world's future nuclear reactor fleet. This paper discusses the correspondence between the resources (uranium and plutonium) and the nuclear power demand. Sodium fast reactors will be built in line with the availability of plutonium, including fast breeders when necessary. Different assumptions on the global uranium resources are taken into consideration. The largely quoted estimate of 22 Mt of uranium recovered for phosphate rocks can be seriously downscaled. Based on our current knowledge of phosphate resources, 4 Mt of recoverable uranium already seems to be an upper bound value. The impact of the downscaled estimate on the deployment of a nuclear fleet is assessed accordingly. (authors)

  11. 77 FR 35862 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay... Guard will enforce the Fleet Week Maritime Festival's Pier 66 Safety Zone in Elliott Bay, WA from 8...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1333 - Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week moving vessels, Puget Sound, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week moving vessels, Puget Sound, WA. 165.1333 Section 165.1333 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1333 Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week moving vessels, Puget...

  13. Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  14. Modelling the Spatial Behaviour of a Tropical Tuna Purse Seine Fleet

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Tim K.; Mees, Chris C.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Industrial tuna fisheries operate in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but concerns over sustainability and environmental impacts of these fisheries have resulted in increased scrutiny of how they are managed. An important but often overlooked factor in the success or failure of tuna fisheries management is the behaviour of fishers and fishing fleets. Uncertainty in how a fishing fleet will respond to management or other influences can be reduced by anticipating fleet behaviour, although to date there has been little research directed at understanding and anticipating the human dimension of tuna fisheries. The aim of this study was to address gaps in knowledge of the behaviour of tuna fleets, using the Indian Ocean tropical tuna purse seine fishery as a case study. We use statistical modelling to examine the factors that influence the spatial behaviour of the purse seine fleet at broad spatiotemporal scales. This analysis reveals very high consistency between years in the use of seasonal fishing grounds by the fleet, as well as a forcing influence of biophysical ocean conditions on the distribution of fishing effort. These findings suggest strong inertia in the spatial behaviour of the fleet, which has important implications for predicting the response of the fleet to natural events or management measures (e.g., spatial closures). PMID:25462165

  15. 76 FR 31351 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... availability of Office of Vessel Activities Policy Letter 11-05 regarding Distant Water Tuna Fleet vessels... Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels policy.\\1\\ A general summary of the comments received and the... SECURITY Coast Guard Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna...

  16. 41 CFR 102-34.330 - What is the Federal Fleet Report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) is an annual summary of Federal fleet statistics based upon fleet composition at the end of each... submitted by Federal agencies. The FFR is designed to provide essential statistical data for worldwide... reduced. The FFR is posted on GSA's Motor Vehicle Management Policy Internet Web site...

  17. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, carbon monoxide NAAQS, United States Postal Service substitute...

  18. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, carbon monoxide NAAQS, United States Postal Service substitute...

  19. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, carbon monoxide NAAQS, United States Postal Service substitute...

  20. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, carbon monoxide NAAQS, United States Postal Service substitute...

  1. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, carbon monoxide NAAQS, United States Postal Service substitute...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1333 - Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week moving vessels, Puget Sound, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fleet Week moving vessels, Puget Sound, WA. 165.1333 Section 165.1333 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1333 Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week moving vessels, Puget Sound... each designated participating vessel while each such vessel is in the Sector Puget Sound Captain of...

  3. Modelling the spatial behaviour of a tropical tuna purse seine fleet.

    PubMed

    Davies, Tim K; Mees, Chris C; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2014-01-01

    Industrial tuna fisheries operate in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but concerns over sustainability and environmental impacts of these fisheries have resulted in increased scrutiny of how they are managed. An important but often overlooked factor in the success or failure of tuna fisheries management is the behaviour of fishers and fishing fleets. Uncertainty in how a fishing fleet will respond to management or other influences can be reduced by anticipating fleet behaviour, although to date there has been little research directed at understanding and anticipating the human dimension of tuna fisheries. The aim of this study was to address gaps in knowledge of the behaviour of tuna fleets, using the Indian Ocean tropical tuna purse seine fishery as a case study. We use statistical modelling to examine the factors that influence the spatial behaviour of the purse seine fleet at broad spatiotemporal scales. This analysis reveals very high consistency between years in the use of seasonal fishing grounds by the fleet, as well as a forcing influence of biophysical ocean conditions on the distribution of fishing effort. These findings suggest strong inertia in the spatial behaviour of the fleet, which has important implications for predicting the response of the fleet to natural events or management measures (e.g., spatial closures).

  4. Effects of diesel particle filter retrofits and accelerated fleet turnover on drayage truck emissions at the Port of Oakland.

    PubMed

    Dallmann, Timothy R; Harley, Robert A; Kirchstetter, Thomas W

    2011-12-15

    Heavy-duty diesel drayage trucks have a disproportionate impact on the air quality of communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. In an attempt to mitigate this impact, the state of California has mandated new emission control requirements for drayage trucks accessing ports and rail yards in the state beginning in 2010. This control rule prompted an accelerated diesel particle filter (DPF) retrofit and truck replacement program at the Port of Oakland. The impact of this program was evaluated by measuring emission factor distributions for diesel trucks operating at the Port of Oakland prior to and following the implementation of the emission control rule. Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) were quantified in terms of grams of pollutant emitted per kilogram of fuel burned using a carbon balance method. Concentrations of these species along with carbon dioxide were measured in the exhaust plumes of individual diesel trucks as they drove by en route to the Port. A comparison of emissions measured before and after the implementation of the truck retrofit/replacement rule shows a 54 ± 11% reduction in the fleet-average BC emission factor, accompanied by a shift to a more highly skewed emission factor distribution. Although only particulate matter mass reductions were required in the first year of the program, a significant reduction in the fleet-average NO(x) emission factor (41 ± 5%) was observed, most likely due to the replacement of older trucks with new ones.

  5. Public Works Center Pearl Harbor Fleet Moorings Underwater Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    CHESNAVFACENGCOM REPORT FPO-1-83, "PWC PEARL HARBOR FLEET MOORINGS INSPECTION REPORT... -’..-.-..;-.-. . s,’. v V’* vi. 0.0 o 4. t!J IA -0 iiiA a𔃼 𔃺’ CL :2I...8217 . . 7 - - - -- - - ". iA Avi << o, .t2.% -AAl ZLI. ,1* . . . . . . . . 4 vi * U)A 0 a 7 -uj z .13 Zn x- -I-z 0 z d= -3 I =- I u2 (N N I...I * * J .p II VI%’ I1. IA IIIq 9> <-- - - - - - - - - - _us: * > 13 Z - - - -A- - zz C6 aa wi a 06 > cc - - _=j = - =Il p 2 Z

  6. Expanding the Telepresence Paradigm to the UNOLS Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, D.; Scowcroft, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Inner Space Center (ISC) at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography (URI-GSO) has been at the forefront of developing the tools, techniques, and protocols for telepresence-enabled ocean science exploration and education programs. Working primarily with the Ocean Exploration Trust's E/V Nautilus and the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, the ISC facility and staff have supported dozens of research cruises with significant shore-based support, while delivering related educational programming across the globe. Through a partnership with the University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS), the ISC is broadening its reach and capabilities to serve vessels in the U.S. academic research fleet, managed by UNOLS. The ISC has developed and used a portable shipboard "mobile telepresence unit" (MTU) on several UNOLS ships to support projects led by ocean scientists that employed the telepresence paradigm as part of their research and outreach programs. Utilizing the ISC facilities provides opportunities for effective, successful broader impact activities and shore-based remote science connectivity. With new UNOLS ships coming online, including the R/V Sikuliaq, the R/V Neil Armstrong, and the R/V Sally Ride, in addition to future Regional Class Research Vessels (RCRVs), telepresence capability has become a technical requirement for a variety of reasons. Older vessels are being retrofit with this forward-looking technology, and URI's research vessel, the R/V Endeavor, has been recently configured with technology to support telepresence operations. This presentation will provide an overview of the future of telepresence technology, its use in ocean science research and education, and advantages for using this capability to support broader impact activities. In addition, ISC successes, challenges, and lessons learned in employing telepresence technologies and methodologies onboard the academic research fleet will be discussed.

  7. Design and synthesis of new potent anticancer benzothiazole amides and ureas featuring pyridylamide moiety and possessing dual B-Raf(V600E) and C-Raf kinase inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    El-Damasy, Ashraf Kareem; Lee, Ju-Hyeon; Seo, Seon Hee; Cho, Nam-Chul; Pae, Ae Nim; Keum, Gyochang

    2016-06-10

    A new series of benzothiazole amide and urea derivatives tethered with the privileged pyridylamide moiety by ether linkage at the 6-position of benzothiazole (22 final compounds) has been designed and synthesized as potent anticancer sorafenib analogs. A selected group of twelve derivatives was appraised for its antiproliferative activity over a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines at a single dose concentration of 10 μM at National Cancer Institute (NCI, USA). Compounds 4b, 5a, 5b and 5d exhibited promising growth inhibitions and thus were further tested in advanced 5-dose testing assay to determine their GI50 values. The cellular based assay results revealed that 3,5-bis-trifluoromethylphenyl (5b) urea member is the best derivative with superior potency and efficacy compared to sorafenib as well as notable extended spectrum activity covering 57 human cancer cell lines. Kinase screening of compound 5b showed its kinase inhibitory effect against both B-Raf(V600E) and C-Raf. Moreover, the most potent derivatives in cells were investigated for their RAF inhibitory activities, and the results were rationalized with the molecular docking study. Profiling of CYP450 and hERG channel inhibitory effects for the active compounds revealed their low possibilities to exhibit undesirable drug-drug interactions and cardiac side effects.

  8. An Optimization Method for Condition Based Maintenance of Aircraft Fleet Considering Prognostics Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiran; Sun, Bo; Li, Songjie

    2014-01-01

    An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM) of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL) distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM) has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success. PMID:24892046

  9. U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Retail Warehouse, Fleet Landing Halawa, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Retail Warehouse, Fleet Landing Halawa, near Kamehameha Highway between Richardson Recreation Center & USS Arizona Memorial Visitor Center, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report summarizes the fleets studied to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  11. Studies in Interactive Techniques and Systems for Reconstruction of Fleet Exercise.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    general performance, design, development and test requirements study for the Fleet Analysis and Reconstruction of Exercise Facility (FAREF); and research and testing of interactive techniques and computer algorithms . (Author)

  12. Mission Engineering of a Rapid Cycle Spacecraft Logistics Fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; McClendon, Randy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The requirement for logistics re-supply of the International Space Station has provided a unique opportunity for engineering the implementation of NASA's first dedicated pressurized logistics carrier fleet. The NASA fleet is comprised of three Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLM) provided to NASA by the Italian Space Agency in return for operations time aboard the International Space Station. Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for oversight of the hardware development from preliminary design through acceptance of the third flight unit, and currently manages the flight hardware sustaining engineering and mission engineering activities. The actual MPLM Mission began prior to NASA acceptance of the first flight unit in 1999 and will continue until the de-commission of the International Space Station that is planned for 20xx. Mission engineering of the MPLM program requires a broad focus on three distinct yet inter-related operations processes: pre-flight, flight operations, and post-flight turn-around. Within each primary area exist several complex subsets of distinct and inter-related activities. Pre-flight processing includes the evaluation of carrier hardware readiness for space flight. This includes integration of payload into the carrier, integration of the carrier into the launch vehicle, and integration of the carrier onto the orbital platform. Flight operations include the actual carrier operations during flight and any required real-time ground support. Post-flight processing includes de-integration of the carrier hardware from the launch vehicle, de-integration of the payload, and preparation for returning the carrier to pre-flight staging. Typical space operations are engineered around the requirements and objectives of a dedicated mission on a dedicated operational platform (i.e. Launch or Orbiting Vehicle). The MPLM, however, has expanded this envelope by requiring operations with both vehicles during flight as well as pre-launch and post

  13. Vehicle Real Driving Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides in an Urban Area from a large Vehicle Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhler, Denis; Horbanski, Martin; Oesterle, Tobias; Adler, Tim; Reh, Miriam; Tirpitz, Lukas; Kanatschnig, Florian; Lampel, Joahnnes; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen Oxide (NOx=NO +NO2) emissions by road vehicles are the major contributor for poor air quality in urban areas. High NOx concentrations, and especially NO2, are typically the most problematic pollution in cities. However, emissions vary significantly depending on the type of vehicle, its engine, the age, condition of the vehicle, driving properties, modifications and many more. Even if official NOx emission data of the manufacturer exist, they are only valid for new vehicles and the current vehicle emission scandal shows clearly that these data are often wrong. Thus, real driving emissions (RDE) of the current vehicle fleet is required. With such data the contribution of individual vehicles to the NO2 and NOx levels in urban areas can be estimated. Significant reduction of NOx concentrations can be achieved by identifying the strong emitting vehicles and excluding, replace or modify them. We developed a precise and fast ICAD (Iterative CAvity DOAS) NO2 instrument which can measure the concentration within the emission plume of vehicles under real driving conditions. The sampling was performed with an inlet at the front of a car which was following the investigated vehicles. The instrument measure NO2 and additionally CO2 with a time resolution of 2 seconds. With the observed NO2 values already strong emitters can easily be identified. With the use of known CO2 emissions, more reliable emissions for NO2 can be calculated for each vehicle. Currently the system is expanded with a NOx channel to derive the total nitrogen oxide emissions. The system was successfully applied in several studies over the last two years to investigate NO2 RDE. More than thousand vehicles were investigated. We observed that several vehicles from various brands show much higher emissions than allowed (more than a factor of 5). Highest emissions correlate for trucks and busses typically to older vehicles, what is not the case for cars. A large variability between different cars was

  14. Reengineering the Fleet and Industrial Supply Center’s Procurement Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL SMonterey. CQlifonrda N MAR 0 7 1994 lE -J THESiS ___ Reengineering the Fleet and Industrial Supply Center’s Procurement...AND SUBTITLE REENGINEERING THE FLEET AND 5. FDING NUMBERS INDUSTRIAL SUPPLY CENTER’S PROCUREMENT PROCESS. 6. AUTHOR(S) Wayne J. Bergeron 7. PERFORMING... Industrial Supply Center. 84 16. _ 16. PRICE CODE 17. 18. 19. 20. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION SECURITY CLASSIFICATION SECURITY CLASSIFICATION LIMITATION OF OF

  15. High-Mileage Light-Duty Fleet Vehicle Emissions: Their Potentially Overlooked Importance.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gary A; Stedman, Donald H; Burgard, Daniel A; Atkinson, Oscar

    2016-05-17

    State and local agencies in the United States use activity-based computer models to estimate mobile source emissions for inventories. These models generally assume that vehicle activity levels are uniform across all of the vehicle emission level classifications using the same age-adjusted travel fractions. Recent fuel-specific emission measurements from the SeaTac Airport, Los Angeles, and multi-year measurements in the Chicago area suggest that some high-mileage fleets are responsible for a disproportionate share of the fleet's emissions. Hybrid taxis at the airport show large increases in carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and oxide of nitrogen emissions in their fourth year when compared to similar vehicles from the general population. Ammonia emissions from the airport shuttle vans indicate that catalyst reduction capability begins to wane after 5-6 years, 3 times faster than is observed in the general population, indicating accelerated aging. In Chicago, the observed, on-road taxi fleet also had significantly higher emissions and an emissions share that was more than double their fleet representation. When compounded by their expected higher than average mileage accumulation, we estimate that these small fleets (<1% of total) may be overlooked as a significant emission source (>2-5% of fleet emissions).

  16. Modeling the Spatial Dynamics of International Tuna Fleets.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jenny; Hinton, Michael G; Webster, D G

    2016-01-01

    We developed an iterative sequential random utility model to investigate the social and environmental determinants of the spatiotemporal decision process of tuna purse-seine fishery fishing effort in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Operations of the fishing gear mark checkpoints in a continuous complex decision-making process. Individual fisher behavior is modeled by identifying diversified choices over decision-space for an entire fishing trip, which allows inclusion of prior and current vessel locations and conditions among the explanatory variables. Among these factors are vessel capacity; departure and arrival port; duration of the fishing trip; daily and cumulative distance travelled, which provides a proxy for operation costs; expected revenue; oceanographic conditions; and tons of fish on board. The model uses a two-step decision process to capture the probability of a vessel choosing a specific fishing region for the first set and the probability of switching to (or staying in) a specific region to fish before returning to its landing port. The model provides a means to anticipate the success of marine resource management, and it can be used to evaluate fleet diversity in fisher behavior, the impact of climate variability, and the stability and resilience of complex coupled human and natural systems.

  17. Modeling the Spatial Dynamics of International Tuna Fleets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We developed an iterative sequential random utility model to investigate the social and environmental determinants of the spatiotemporal decision process of tuna purse-seine fishery fishing effort in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Operations of the fishing gear mark checkpoints in a continuous complex decision-making process. Individual fisher behavior is modeled by identifying diversified choices over decision-space for an entire fishing trip, which allows inclusion of prior and current vessel locations and conditions among the explanatory variables. Among these factors are vessel capacity; departure and arrival port; duration of the fishing trip; daily and cumulative distance travelled, which provides a proxy for operation costs; expected revenue; oceanographic conditions; and tons of fish on board. The model uses a two-step decision process to capture the probability of a vessel choosing a specific fishing region for the first set and the probability of switching to (or staying in) a specific region to fish before returning to its landing port. The model provides a means to anticipate the success of marine resource management, and it can be used to evaluate fleet diversity in fisher behavior, the impact of climate variability, and the stability and resilience of complex coupled human and natural systems. PMID:27537545

  18. Analysis of the vehicle fleet in the Kathmandu Valley for estimation of environment and climate co-benefits of technology intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Shreejan Ram; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Xu, Quishi; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2013-12-01

    Technologies and activities of the on-road traffic fleets, including bus, van, 3-wheeler, taxi and motorcycle (MC) in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, during 2010, were investigated with the aim to produce emission estimates, using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model, for the base year and for an optimistic technology scenario. The parking lot survey, GPS monitoring and video camera monitoring were conducted over four typical road types (arterial, highway, residential and outskirt roads). The average age of vehicles in the bus, van, 3-wheeler, taxi and MC fleet was 9, 8.7, 11, 9.5 and 4 years, respectively. There were some extremely old buses (over 40 years old) which had extremely high emission factors. Except for MCs that had a large share of Euro III technology (75%), other types of surveyed vehicles were at most Euro II or lower. The average vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) for each vehicle type was estimated based on odometer readings which showed comparable results with the GPS survey. The emission factors (EFs) produced by the IVE model for the driving and meteorological conditions in Kathmandu were used to estimate emissions for the base case of 2010. EFs in Kathmandu were higher than other developing cities, especially for PM and NOx from the bus fleet. Diurnal variations of the emissions were consistent with the diurnal vehicle density. From the fleet in 2010, total emissions of the major pollutants, i.e., CO, VOC, NOx, PM, BC, and CO2, were 31, 7.7, 16, 4.7, 2.1, and 1554 Gg, respectively. If the entire fleet in the Kathmandu Valley would comply with Euro III then the emission would decrease, as compared to the base case, by 44% for toxic air pollutants (excluding CO2) and 31% for climate-forcers in terms of the 20-year horizon CO2-equivalent. Future surveys should include other vehicle types such as trucks, personal cars, and non-road vehicles. The EFs obtained for the Euro III scenario in Kathmandu were well above those in other parts of the

  19. Development of molecular marker source profiles for emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicle fleets.

    PubMed

    Lough, Glynis C; Christensen, Charles G; Schauer, James J; Tortorelli, James; Mani, Erin; Lawson, Douglas R; Clark, Nigel N; Gabele, Peter A

    2007-10-01

    As part of the Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study, relatively large fleets of gasoline vehicles and diesel vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer to develop chemical source profiles for source attribution of atmospheric particulate matter in California's South Coast Air Basin. Gasoline vehicles were tested in cold-start and warm-start conditions, and diesel vehicles were tested through several driving cycles. Tailpipe emissions of particulate matter were analyzed for organic tracer compounds, including hopanes, steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Large intervehicle variation was seen in emission rate and composition, and results were averaged to examine the impacts of vehicle ages, weight classes, and driving cycles on the variation. Average profiles, weighted by mass emission rate, had much lower uncertainty than that associated with intervehicle variation. Mass emission rates and elemental carbon/organic carbon (EC/OC) ratios for gasoline vehicle age classes were influenced most by use of cold-start or warm-start driving cycle (factor of 2-7). Individual smoker vehicles had a large range of mass and EC/OC (factors of 40 and 625, respectively). Gasoline vehicle age averages, data on vehicle ages and miles traveled in the area, and several assumptions about smoker contributions were used to create emissions profiles representative of on-road vehicle fleets in the Los Angeles area in 2001. In the representative gasoline fleet profiles, variation was further reduced, with cold-start or warm-start and the representation of smoker vehicles making a difference of approximately a factor of two in mass emission rate and EC/OC. Diesel vehicle profiles were created on the basis of vehicle age, weight class, and driving cycle. Mass emission rate and EC/OC for diesel averages were influenced by vehicle age (factor of 2-5), weight class (factor of 2-7), and driving cycle (factor of 10-20). Absolute and relative emissions of molecular marker compounds showed

  20. The influence of tree stands and a noise barrier on near-roadway air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prediction of air pollution exposure levels of people living near or commuting on roadways is still very problematic due to the highly localized nature of traffic intensity, fleet composition, and extremely complex air flow patterns in urban areas. Both modelling and field studie...

  1. Revisiting Nitrous Acid (HONO) Emission from On-road Vehicles: A Tunnel Study with a Mixed Fleet.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yutong; Zha, Qiaozhi; Wang, Weihao; Cui, Long; Lui, Ka Hei; Ho, Kin Fai; Wang, Zhe; Lee, Shun-Cheng; Wang, Tao

    2017-02-21

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important precursor of OH radicals in the atmosphere. In urban areas, emissions from vehicles are the main source of air pollutants including reactive nitrogen. Previously reported emission ratios of HONO (HONO/NOx) from vehicles were measured in the late 1990s which needs to be updated due to the significant changes in emission control technologies. We measured the emission ratio of a fleet of vehicles (38% diesel on average) from 11 to 21 March, 2015 in a road tunnel in Hong Kong. The emission ratio 1.24% (± 0.35%) obtained is greater than the commonly adopted 0.8% or 0.3%. The elevated emission ratio is found to be related to the presence of vehicles equipped with Diesel Particle Filters (DPFs). Positive correlation between HONO and Black Carbon (BC) shows that HONO and BC were emitted together, while the lack of correlation or even anti-correlation between HONO/NOx and BC indicates that the BC-mediated conversion of NO2 to HONO in the dark was insignificant in the immediate vicinity of the emission sources. Implications Vehicular emission is a key source for HONO in the urban atmosphere. However, the most commonly used emission ratio HONO/NOx in modeling studies were measured more than 15 years ago. Our tunnel study suggests that a mixed fleet nowadays has a higher emission ratio, possibly because of the Diesel Particle Filter (DPF) retrofit program and the growing share of Euro IV or more advanced diesel vehicles. Our study also provides new insight into the role of Black Carbon in HONO formation from vehicles.

  2. A comparative multi-fleet analysis of socio-economic indicators for fishery management in SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasalla, Maria A.; Rodrigues, Amanda R.; Duarte, Luis F. A.; Rashid Sumaila, U.

    2010-10-01

    One of the problems in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management is the lack of economic analyses which clearly define the performance of different fishing fleets within the system. We describe a comparative multi-fleet analysis of socio-economic indicators applicable for inclusion into ecosystem modeling and management. Based on a survey of different industrial fishing fleets in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, an inter-fleet comparison of economic attributes such as investment, fixed costs, effort, labour, sailing-related costs and profits, as well as a set of performance indicators, was conducted. Costs varied between fleets with fuel being the largest component on average, representing almost 37% of total costs. Similarities between fleets were driven by fuel costs, gross incomes and profits. In general, the best economic performance was associated with indicators of profitability and economic efficiency. Bottom-longliners and both surface and bottom-gillnet fleets showed the best economic performance per fishing trip due to their low percentage of variable costs. Purse-seiners and pink-shrimp trawlers had the lowest average rate of return and economic efficiency because of their high variable costs and relatively low catch values, and were considered economically net losers. However, in terms of jobs generated, purse-seiners had the greatest value creating about 49% of total jobs by all fleets. The sea-bob-shrimp fleet had the lowest crew size per vessel but generated the second highest total number of direct jobs (23%), with high economic viability as a whole. The inter-fleet cost and socio-economic performance analysis revealed that additional attention should be given to the poor profitability and overcapacity of fleets, fishing impacts, and open-access related issues, while social indicators may also be considered. This study provides information useful for evaluating different fisheries management scenarios and fleet size optimization in the South

  3. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  4. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 4, fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Fuel economy estimates are provided for the CleanFleet vans operated for two years by FedEx in Southern California. Between one and three vehicle manufacturers (Chevrolet, Dodge, and Ford) supplied vans powered by compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85), and unleaded gasoline as a control. Two electric G-Vans, manufactured by Conceptor Corporation, were supplied by Southern California Edison. Vehicle and engine technologies are representative of those available in early 1992. A total of 111 vans were assigned to FedEx delivery routes at five demonstration sites. The driver and route assignments were periodically rotated within each site to ensure that each vehicle would experience a range of driving conditions. Regression analysis was used to estimate the relationships between vehicle fuel economy and factors such as the number of miles driven and the number of delivery stops made each day. The energy adjusted fuel economy (distance per energy consumed) of the alternative fuel vans operating on a typical FedEx duty cycle was between 13 percent lower and 4 percent higher than that of control vans from the same manufacturer. The driving range of vans operating on liquid and gaseous alternative fuels was 1 percent to 59 percent lower than for vans operating on unleaded gasoline. The driving range of the electric G-Vans was less than 50 miles. These comparisons are affected to varying degrees by differences in engine technology used in the alterative fuel and control vehicles. Relative fuel economy results from dynamometer emissions tests were generally consistent with those obtained from FedEx operations.

  5. Creating new cities through the large air-cushion vehicle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The air-cushion vehicle (ACV) can travel over concrete roads, grass, sand, mud, swamp, snow, ice, and water. This mobility makes possible a totally new geographical freedom in choosing transportation routes, locating ports, and laying out a city. By the 1980s fleets of large ACV freighters could begin carrying ocean-going cargo. The mobility of an ACV fleet would allow placing hoverports away from areas now crowded. New cities could rise along shallow or reef-bound seacoasts and rivers, just as cities once rose around deep-water seaports.

  6. Mitsubishi iMiEV: An Electric Mini-Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Mitsubishi iMiEV, an electric mini-car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's fast-charging research efforts, NREL engineers are conducting charge and discharge performance testing on the vehicle. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

  7. Tug fleet and ground operations schedules and controls. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This study presents Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls plan. This plan was developed and optimized out of a combination of individual Tug program phased subplans, special emphasis studies, contingency analyses and sensitivity analyses. The subplans cover the Tug program phases: (1) Tug operational, (2) Interim Upper Stage (IUS)/Tug fleet utilization, (3) and IUS/Tug payload integration, (4) Tug site activation, (5) IUS/Tug transition, (6) Tug acquisition. Resource requirements (facility, GSE, TSE, software, manpower, logistics) are provided in each subplan, as are appropriate Tug processing flows, active and total IUS and Tug fleet requirements, fleet management and Tug payload integration concepts, facility selection recommendations, site activation and IUS to Tug transition requirements. The impact of operational concepts on Tug acquisition is assessed and the impact of operating Tugs out of KSC and WTR is analyzed and presented showing WTR as a delta. Finally, cost estimates for fleet management and ground operations of the DDT&E and operational phases of the Tug program are given.

  8. Centralized Control With Decentralized Execution: Never Divide the Fleet?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Garreau, “Cell Biology Like the Bee , This Evolving Species Buzzes and Swarms,” Washington Post, July 31, 2002; Page C01. 124 Arquilla and Ronfeldt...1989. Garreau, Joel, “Cell Biology Like the Bee , This Evolving Species Buzzes and Swarms,” Washington Post, July 31, 2002; Page C01. Gerber, David, K...Tony Mason , Air Vice Marshal, Air Power: A Centennial Appraisal, London, Brassey’s, 1994, p. 243 141 Thomas C. Schelling, Arms and Influence, New

  9. The Use of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet in Evacuation of Battlefield Casualties - An Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    reduce their revenue- earning potential, and not doing any modification that would * require a long layup of any airplane. The best solution to this...that least affects the owners’ use of them. In other words, the planes should not be modified in any manner that would reduce their revenue- earning ...September 1981. * 20. Dreyfuss, U.Y., Faktor , J.H., and Charnilas, J.Z. "Aeromedical Evacuation in Israel: A Study of 884 Cases." Aviation, Space, and

  10. Fuel Cell Vehicle Fleet and Hydrogen Infrastructure at Hickam Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-27

    include: a fuel cell powered light cart using metal hydride storage technology for hydrogen, another fuel cell powered shuttle bus, a fuel cell powered...redesigned to com- pletely eliminate any metallic contact between the fuel cell process fluids and any stack components. Since implementing these changes...eliminated in the new tech- nology fuel cell power modules. The metal ion contamination from the corrosion and the gas crossover leaks resulted in rapid

  11. The F-22 Acquisition Program: Consequences for the US Air Force’s Fighter Fleet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    The F-22 program survived, but the aircraft needed to do more. Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition John Deutch was initially undecided on the...Quadrennial Defense Review Just a year after the BUR, the F-22 program again came under pres- sure. Deputy Secretary of Defense Deutch sent a memo to...the services on 18 August 1994, calling for a review of several major acquisition programs. Deutch himself noted that the reduced threat made the F

  12. Civil Reserve Air Fleet - 60/40 Rule: The Case for Reinstatement using Block Hours

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Credit Portal: Ratings Direct” 3 June 2009. 12 April 2011 http://www2.standardandpoors.com/ spf /pdf/media/understanding_ratings_definito ns.pdf...Standard and Poor’s. “Guide to Credit Ratings Criteria.” Version 1, 2010. 12 April 2011 http://www2.standardandpoors.com/ spf /pdf/media...standardandpoors.com/ spf /pdf/fixedincome/SP_CreditRatingsGuide. pdf United States Congress. National Defense Authorization Act for FY1987. Public Law 99-661

  13. Platform Design for Fleet-Level Efficiency: Application for Air Mobility Command (AMC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Purdue University,School of Aeronautics...and Astronautics,701 W. Stadium Ave,West Lafayette,IN,47907-2045 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND...reflect this kind of problem, solution of the resulting mixed-integer, non -linear programming problem (MINLP) is difficult, if not impossible. The

  14. Femtosecond laser flow tagging in non-air flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yibin; Calvert, Nathan

    2015-11-01

    The Femtosecond Laser Electronic Excitation Tagging (FLEET) [Michael, J. B. et al., Applied optics, 50(26), 2011] method is studied in nitrogen-containing gaseous flows. The underlying mechanism behind the FLEET process is the dissociation of molecular nitrogen into atomic nitrogen, which produces long-lived florescence as the nitrogen atoms recombine. Spectra and images of the resulting tagged line provide insight into the effects of different atmospheric gases on the FLEET process. The ionization cross-section, conductivity and energy states of the gaseous particles are each brought into consideration. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility for long-lived flow tagging on the order of hundreds of microseconds in non-air environments. Of particular interest are the enhancement of the FLEET signal with the addition of argon gas, and the non-monotonic quenching effect of oxygen on the length, duration and intensity of the resulting signal and spectra. FLEET is characterized in number of different atmospheric gases, including that simulating Mar's atmospheric composition.

  15. A multiscale forecasting method for power plant fleet management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongmei

    In recent years the electric power industry has been challenged by a high level of uncertainty and volatility brought on by deregulation and globalization. A power producer must minimize the life cycle cost while meeting stringent safety and regulatory requirements and fulfilling customer demand for high reliability. Therefore, to achieve true system excellence, a more sophisticated system-level decision-making process with a more accurate forecasting support system to manage diverse and often widely dispersed generation units as a single, easily scaled and deployed fleet system in order to fully utilize the critical assets of a power producer has been created as a response. The process takes into account the time horizon for each of the major decision actions taken in a power plant and develops methods for information sharing between them. These decisions are highly interrelated and no optimal operation can be achieved without sharing information in the overall process. The process includes a forecasting system to provide information for planning for uncertainty. A new forecasting method is proposed, which utilizes a synergy of several modeling techniques properly combined at different time-scales of the forecasting objects. It can not only take advantages of the abundant historical data but also take into account the impact of pertinent driving forces from the external business environment to achieve more accurate forecasting results. Then block bootstrap is utilized to measure the bias in the estimate of the expected life cycle cost which will actually be needed to drive the business for a power plant in the long run. Finally, scenario analysis is used to provide a composite picture of future developments for decision making or strategic planning. The decision-making process is applied to a typical power producer chosen to represent challenging customer demand during high-demand periods. The process enhances system excellence by providing more accurate market

  16. Tug fleet and ground operations schedules and controls. Volume 2: part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls Study addresses both ground operational data and technical requirements that span the Tug planning phase and operations phase. A similar study covering mission operations (by others) provides the complimentary flight operations details. The two studies provide the planning data requirements, resource allocation, and control milestones for supporting the requirements of the STS program. This Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls Study incorporates the basic ground operations requirements and concepts provided by previous studies with the interrelationships of the planning, IUS transition, and Tug fleet operations phases. The interrelationships of these phases were studied as a system to optimize overall program benefits and minimize operational risk factors.

  17. Integrated operations/payloads/fleet analysis. Volume 5: Mission, capture and operations analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The current baseline mission model consists of the DOD Option B prepared for space transportation system mission analysis and a NASA model prepared for the integrated operations /payloads/ fleet analysis. Changes from the previous mission model are discussed, and additional benefits of the reusable space shuttle system are identified. The methodology and assumptions used in the capture analysis are described, and satellite and launch vehicle traffic models for the current and low cost expendable launch vehicle systems and the reusable space shuttle system are presented. The areas of fleet sizing, limitations and abort modes, system ground support requirements, and ground support systems assessment are covered. Current and extended launch azimuth limitations used for both ETR and WTR are presented for the current and low cost expendable vehicles and also the reusable space shuttle system. The results of a survey of launch support capability for the launch vehicle fleets are reported.

  18. Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

  19. Energy use and taxation policy in the New Zealand car fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    The report describes the composition of the New Zealand car fleet and the relationship between design factors, fleet composition, vehicle useage and fuel consumption. The indirect energy content of the vehicle and roadway are discussed. Existing and potential Government policy instruments for promoting fuel economy in the car fleet are discussed and evaluated. The report conclusions favor flat rate sales tax on vehicles regardless of engine size together with an appropriate level of petrol tax in preference to taxation that varies with vehicle size or engine capacity. A review of hire purchase regulations is proposed. Prior to publication of this report the Industries Development Commission Plan for the motor vehicle industry was released which proposes changes to the tariff, taxation and credit purchase regime applying to motor vehicles. These changes are summarized.

  20. Characterization of large fleets of vehicle exhaust emissions in middle Taiwan by remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ya-Wen; Cho, Chi-Hung

    2006-01-15

    Measurement of fleet emissions by means of remote sensing was conducted in middle Taiwan and the distributions and governing factors were characterized and examined. Results show the type of sampling sites is a dominant factor for the emission levels, and driving speeds and accelerations of the vehicles. In this study, the mean CO, HC, and NO concentrations at the urban and rural sites are apparently higher. The quantitative relationship between the pollutant concentration and mean speed or acceleration was established. Analysis of effect of the vehicle model year on the average fleet emissions was also conducted. It indicates those relatively older vehicles are higher emitters and contribute significantly more to total fleet emissions. On the other hand, the variation trends with model year are independent of the site characteristics and the effect of vehicle age on CO, HC, and NO emission is similar.

  1. Greenhouse gas implications of fleet electrification based on big data-informed individual travel patterns.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hua; Xu, Ming

    2013-08-20

    Environmental implications of fleet electrification highly depend on the adoption and utilization of electric vehicles at the individual level. Past research has been constrained by using aggregated data to assume all vehicles with the same travel pattern as the aggregated average. This neglects the inherent heterogeneity of individual travel behaviors and may lead to unrealistic estimation of environmental impacts of fleet electrification. Using "big data" mining techniques, this research examines real-time vehicle trajectory data for 10,375 taxis in Beijing in one week to characterize the travel patterns of individual taxis. We then evaluate the impact of adopting plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in the taxi fleet on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions based on the characterized individual travel patterns. The results indicate that 1) the largest gasoline displacement (1.1 million gallons per year) can be achieved by adopting PHEVs with modest electric range (approximately 80 miles) with current battery cost, limited public charging infrastructure, and no government subsidy; 2) reducing battery cost has the largest impact on increasing the electrification rate of vehicle mileage traveled (VMT), thus increasing gasoline displacement, followed by diversified charging opportunities; 3) government subsidies can be more effective to increase the VMT electrification rate and gasoline displacement if targeted to PHEVs with modest electric ranges (80 to 120 miles); and 4) while taxi fleet electrification can increase greenhouse gas emissions by up to 115 kiloton CO2-eq per year with the current grid in Beijing, emission reduction of up to 36.5 kiloton CO2-eq per year can be achieved if the fuel cycle emission factor of electricity can be reduced to 168.7 g/km. Although the results are based on a specific public fleet, this study demonstrates the benefit of using large-scale individual-based trajectory data (big data) to better understand environmental implications

  2. Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

    2009-05-01

    Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

  3. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for National Institute of Health

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the National Institute of Health (NIH) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  4. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Glenn Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2014-10-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  5. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA White Sands Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  6. Lessons from cross-fleet/cross-airline observations - Evaluating the impact of CRM/LOFT training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Roy E.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the crew resource management/line oriented flight training (CRM/LOFT) program to help determine the level of standardization across fleets and airlines in the critical area of evaluating crew behavior and performance. One of the goals of the project is to verify that check airmen and LOFT instructors within organizations are evaluating CRM issues consistently and that differences observed between fleets are not a function of idiosyncracies on the part of observers. Attention is given to the research tools for crew evaluation.

  7. A Performance-Oriented Electronics Technician Training Program. V. Final Fleet Follow-Up Evaluation of Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Nicholas H.; Harrigan, Robert J.

    An investigation was made of the job proficiency of the graduates of an experimental job-oriented training program for Electronics Technician (X-ET). This program was designed to train lower-aptitude personnel in a relatively shorter time to assume ET duties in the fleet. The fleet performance capabilities of 51 X-ET's and a matched sample of 43…

  8. 75 FR 5055 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy's Atlantic Fleet Active Sonar Training (AFAST)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    .... Navy's Atlantic Fleet Active Sonar Training (AFAST) AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., testing, and evaluation (RDT&E) activities to be conducted within the Atlantic Fleet Active Sonar Training... side mine hunting sonar in the AFAST Study area, which reduces use from 4474 hours annually to 0....

  9. 76 FR 1665 - Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... Maritime Administration Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study... public listening- session meetings it is conducting to gather data and comments to inform the Maritime Administration's U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study. MARAD inadvertently listed the incorrect...

  10. 49 CFR 37.185 - Fleet accessibility requirement for OTRB fixed-route systems of large operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37... percent of the buses in its fleet with which it provides fixed-route service are readily accessible to and..., 2012, 100 percent of the buses in its fleet with which it provides fixed-route service are...

  11. 49 CFR 37.185 - Fleet accessibility requirement for OTRB fixed-route systems of large operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37... percent of the buses in its fleet with which it provides fixed-route service are readily accessible to and..., 2012, 100 percent of the buses in its fleet with which it provides fixed-route service are...

  12. 49 CFR 37.185 - Fleet accessibility requirement for OTRB fixed-route systems of large operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37... percent of the buses in its fleet with which it provides fixed-route service are readily accessible to and..., 2012, 100 percent of the buses in its fleet with which it provides fixed-route service are...

  13. 49 CFR 37.185 - Fleet accessibility requirement for OTRB fixed-route systems of large operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37... percent of the buses in its fleet with which it provides fixed-route service are readily accessible to and..., 2012, 100 percent of the buses in its fleet with which it provides fixed-route service are...

  14. 49 CFR 37.185 - Fleet accessibility requirement for OTRB fixed-route systems of large operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37... percent of the buses in its fleet with which it provides fixed-route service are readily accessible to and..., 2012, 100 percent of the buses in its fleet with which it provides fixed-route service are...

  15. 75 FR 34927 - Safety Zone; Parade of Ships, Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Parade of Ships, Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week... with the Parade of Ships for the annual Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week. This action is intended to restrict... associated with event activities, such as the pass and review of ships and accompanying aerial...

  16. 77 FR 59749 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Fleet Week Parade of Ships and Blue Angels Demonstration, San Francisco Bay, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... sponsored Fleet Week Parade of Navy Ships, Blue Angels Flight Demonstrations, Ship Tours, and America's Cup... Parade of Ships, will be enforced from 10:30 a.m. to 12:15 p.m. on October 6, 2012. The regulations in...

  17. Methods of characterizing the distribution of exhaust emissions from light-duty, gasoline-powered motor vehicles in the U.S. fleet.

    PubMed

    Fulper, Carl R; Kishan, Sandeep; Baldauf, Richard W; Sabisch, Michael; Warila, Jim; Fujit, Eric M; Scarbro, Carl; Crews, William S; Snow, Richard; Gabele, Peter; Santos, Robert; Tierney, Eugene; Cantrell, Bruce

    2010-11-01

    Mobile sources significantly contribute to ambient concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM). Source apportionment studies for PM10 (PM < or = 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) indicate that mobile sources can be responsible for over half of the ambient PM measured in an urban area. Recent source apportionment studies attempted to differentiate between contributions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicle combustion. Several source apportionment studies conducted in the United States suggested that gasoline combustion from mobile sources contributed more to ambient PM than diesel combustion. However, existing emission inventories for the United States indicated that diesels contribute more than gasoline vehicles to ambient PM concentrations. A comprehensive testing program was initiated in the Kansas City metropolitan area to measure PM emissions in the light-duty, gasoline-powered, on-road mobile source fleet to provide data for PM inventory and emissions modeling. The vehicle recruitment design produced a sample that could represent the regional fleet, and by extension, the national fleet. All vehicles were recruited from a stratified sample on the basis of vehicle class (car, truck) and model-year group. The pool of available vehicles was drawn primarily from a sample of vehicle owners designed to represent the selected demographic and geographic characteristics of the Kansas City population. Emissions testing utilized a portable, light-duty chassis dynamometer with vehicles tested using the LA-92 driving cycle, on-board emissions measurement systems, and remote sensing devices. Particulate mass emissions were the focus of the study, with continuous and integrated samples collected. In addition, sample analyses included criteria gases (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide/nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons), air toxics (speciated volatile organic compounds), and PM constituents (elemental

  18. 77 FR 75257 - Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty... medium- and heavy-duty truck fleet managers. DATES: Comments must be received within 60 days of... Information Collection: New collection. OMB Control Number: To be issued at time of approval. Title:...

  19. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  20. An Integrated Design Approach for Evaluating the Utility and Cost of a Fleet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    biodiesel vehicles. Again the variety of vehicles was small, and the cost was restricted to only operational cost (maintenance, repair and fuel). Fu and...and cost metrics associated with a diesel to biodiesel fleet transition”. Energy Policy, 38(11, SI), NOV, pp. 7451–7456. [15] Fu, L., and Ishkhanov, G

  1. 33 CFR 105.296 - Additional requirements-barge fleeting facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.296 Additional requirements-barge fleeting facilities. (a) At MARSEC Level 1, in addition to the requirements of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional...

  2. 33 CFR 105.296 - Additional requirements-barge fleeting facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.296 Additional requirements-barge fleeting facilities. (a) At MARSEC Level 1, in addition to the requirements of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional...

  3. 33 CFR 105.296 - Additional requirements-barge fleeting facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.296 Additional requirements-barge fleeting facilities. (a) At MARSEC Level 1, in addition to the requirements of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional...

  4. 33 CFR 105.296 - Additional requirements-barge fleeting facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.296 Additional requirements-barge fleeting facilities. (a) At MARSEC Level 1, in addition to the requirements of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional...

  5. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  6. New trends in robotics for agriculture: integration and assessment of a real fleet of robots.

    PubMed

    Emmi, Luis; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis.

  7. 41 CFR 102-34.330 - What is the Federal Fleet Report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the Federal Fleet Report? 102-34.330 Section 102-34.330 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR...

  8. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are there fleet average... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.55 Are there...

  9. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are there fleet average... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.55 Are there...

  10. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34.55 Section 102-34.55 Public Contracts and Property... average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes. 49 U.S.C. 32917 and Executive Order 12375 require that each executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January 1...

  11. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34.55 Section 102-34.55 Public Contracts and Property... average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes. 49 U.S.C. 32917 and Executive Order 12375 require that each executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January 1...

  12. Guidelines for the Establishment of a Model Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Roberta Brayer; Donald Karner; Kevin Morrow; James Francfort

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in both track and fleet testing environments. NEVs, which are also known as low speed vehicles, are light-duty vehicles with top speeds of between 20 and 25 mph, and total gross vehicle weights of approximately 2,000 pounds or less. NEVs have been found to be very viable alternatives to internal combustion engine vehicles based on their low operating costs. However, special charging infrastructure is usually necessary for successful NEV fleet deployment. Maintenance requirements are also unique to NEVs, especially if flooded lead acid batteries are used as they have watering requirements that require training, personnel protection equipment, and adherence to maintenance schedules. This report provides guidelines for fleet managers to follow in order to successfully introduce and operate NEVs in fleet environments. This report is based on the NEV testing and operational experience of personnel from the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Electric Transportation Applications, and the Idaho National Laboratory.

  13. 40 CFR 80.59 - General test fleet requirements for vehicle testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General test fleet requirements for vehicle testing. 80.59 Section 80.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... systems and possess adaptive learning. (b) No maintenance or replacement of any vehicle component...

  14. INL Fleet Vehicle Characterization Study for the U.S. Department of Navy

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Brion Dale; Francfort, James Edward; Smart, John Galloway

    2015-09-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC collected and evaluated data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate use of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on US Department of Navy's fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  15. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, A.

    2011-04-01

    A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

  16. 77 FR 18718 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 438 RIN 1904-AB98 Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request for information. SUMMARY: On March 12, 2012, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued...

  17. 41 CFR 102-34.330 - What is the Federal Fleet Report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is the Federal Fleet Report? 102-34.330 Section 102-34.330 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR...

  18. New Trends in Robotics for Agriculture: Integration and Assessment of a Real Fleet of Robots

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis. PMID:25143976

  19. Navy Force Structure: A Bigger Fleet Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-20

    National Interest, August 30, 2016; Dmitry Gorenburg, “ Black Sea Fleet Projects Power Westward,” Russian Military Reform, July 20, 2016; Dave...1994 edition, p. 15; Statement of VADM T. Joseph Lopez, U.S. Navy, Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Resources, Warfare Requirements & Assessments

  20. 78 FR 72070 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... DoN analyzed areas where training and testing will continue as in the past, but were not considered... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing... proposed action, announces its decision to support and conduct training and testing activities in...

  1. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34.55 Section 102-34.55 Public Contracts and Property... average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes. 49 U.S.C. 32917 and Executive Order 12375 require that each executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January 1...

  2. Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.

    2000-11-07

    In 1998, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, a public transit agency in Dallas, Texas, began operating a large fleet of heavy-duty buses powered by liquefied natural gas. As part of a $16 million commitment to alternative fuels, DART operates 139 LNG buses serviced by two new LNG fueling stations.

  3. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transporation Program - State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets: Frequently Asked Questions

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-01

    Factsheet answering frequently asked questions about the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (the Program) that implements provisions of Titles III–V of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). Answers to questions that are frequently asked about the Program by managers of state government and alternative fuel provider fleets are provided in the factsheet.

  4. 40 CFR 86.1865-12 - How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of § 86.1801-12(j) or (k), CO2 fleet average exhaust emission standards apply to: (i) 2012 and later model year passenger automobiles and light trucks. (ii) (iii) Vehicles imported by ICIs as defined in 40 CFR 85.1502. (2) The terms “passenger automobile” and “light truck” as used in this section have...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1865-12 - How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-12(j) or (k), CO2 fleet average exhaust emission standards of this subpart apply to: (i) 2012 and later model year passenger automobiles and light trucks. (ii) Heavy-duty vehicles subject to standards... “passenger automobile” and “light truck” as used in this section have the meanings as defined in §...

  6. Fleet DNA Phase 1 Refinement & Phase 2 Implementation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Kenneth; Duran, Adam

    2015-06-11

    Fleet DNA acts as a secure data warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle data. It demonstrates that vehicle drive cycle data can be collected and stored for large-scale analysis and modeling applications. The data serve as a real-world data source for model development and validation. Storage of the results of past/present/future data collection efforts improves analysis efficiency through pooling of shared data and provides the opportunity for 'big data' type analyses. Fleet DNA shows it is possible to develop a common database structure that can store/analyze/report on data sourced from multiple parties, each with unique data formats/types. Data filtration and normalization algorithms developed for the project allow for a wide range of data types and inputs, expanding the project’s potential. Fleet DNA demonstrates the power of integrating Big Data with existing and future tools and analyses: it provides an enhanced understanding and education of users, users can explore greenhouse gases and economic opportunities via AFLEET and ADOPT modeling, drive cycles can be characterized and visualized using DRIVE, high-level vehicle modeling can be performed using real-world drive cycles via FASTSim, and data reporting through Fleet DNA Phase 1 and 2 websites provides external users access to analysis results and gives the opportunity to explore on their own.

  7. Geospatial Analysis and Optimization of Fleet Logistics to Exploit Alternative Fuels and Advanced Transportation Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, W.; Singer, M.

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is developing geographical information system (GIS) tools to evaluate alternative fuel availability in relation to garage locations and to perform automated fleet-wide optimization to determine where to deploy alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles and fueling infrastructure.

  8. 48 CFR 970.5223-5 - DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... fuel efficiency. 970.5223-5 Section 970.5223-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... efficiency. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57695, Sept. 22, 2010. As prescribed in 48 CFR 970.2307-2.... DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency (OCT 2003) When managing Government-owned vehicles for...

  9. Fleet Reliability Assessment Program. Volume 1. General Program Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    64 ATTACK AIRCRAFT CARRIER DRUM SSN-677 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE FLASHER SSN-613 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE GUARDFISH SSN-612 NUCLEAR SUBMARINE GURNARD SSN-662...rotating print drum . Another reported problem was with the RD-397 air filter which was picking up chaff from the paper tape resulting in overheatinq if...tics1- snare computer network which is accessible from nearly any location via local telephone and an acoustically coupled computer terminal from 149

  10. Challenges and Opportunities of Air Quality Management in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramo, V.

    2013-05-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is located in the central plateau of Mexico and is the capital of the country. Its natural characteristics present favorable conditions for air pollution formation and accumulation: mountains surrounding the city, frequent thermal inversions, high isolation all around the year and weak winds. To these natural conditions, a population of more than 20 million inhabitants, a fleet of 4.5 million vehicles and more than 4 thousands industries, make air quality management a real challenge for governments of the region. Intensive air quality improvement actions and programs began at the end of the 1980's and continued nowadays. Since then criteria air pollutants concentrations have decreased in such a way that currently most of pollutants meet the Mexican air quality standards, except for ozone and particulate matter. Applied measures comprised of fuel quality improvements, fuel replacements, regulations for combustion processes, closing of high polluting refineries and industries, regulations of emissions for new and on road vehicles, mandatory I/M programs for vehicles, circulation restrictions for vehicles (Day without car program), alert program for elevated air pollution episodes, improvement of public transportation, among others. Recent researches (MILAGRO 2006 campaign) found that currently it is necessary to implement emissions reduction actions for Volatile Organic Compounds, particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers PM2.5 and Nitrogen Oxides, in order to reduce concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter. Among the new measures to be implemented are: regulations for VOCs emissions in the industry and commercial sectors; regulation of the diesel fleet that includes fleets renewal, filters and particulate traps for in use vehicles and regulation of the cargo fleet; new schemes for reducing the number of vehicles circulating in the city; implementation of non-motorized mobility programs; among

  11. CRAF Mission: An opportunity for exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, Marcia; Weissman, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The Halley missions of 1986 gave us a first, quick glimpse of a comet nucleus and the first in situ measurements of cometary gas and dust. Many of our basic ideas about cometary nuclei were confirmed while a number of startling new discoveries were also made. However, in many respects the very fast Halley flybys raised more questions than they answered. We learned, for example, that comets contain a large amount of organic material but we were unable to determine precisely which organic molecules were present. We learned, too, that the nucleus of a comet is a dark, irregularly shaped body, but we could determine very little about the physical state and structure of the ices and grains within the comet nucleus.

  12. Dual-Fuel Truck Fleet: Start-Up Experience

    SciTech Connect

    NREL

    1998-09-30

    Although dual-fuel engine technology has been in development and limited use for several years, it has only recently moved toward full-scale operational capability for heavy-duty truck applications. Unlike a bifuel engine, which has two separate fuel systems that are used one at a time, a dual-fuel engine uses two fuel systems simultaneously. One of California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) current programs is a demonstration of dual-fuel engine technology in heavy-duty trucks. These trucks are being studied as part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Alternative Fuel Truck Program. This report describes the start-up experience from the program.

  13. Assessing the Link between Environmental Concerns and Consumers' Decisions to Use Clean-Air Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plax, Timothy G.; Kearney, Patricia; Ross, Ted J.; Jolly, J. Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A consulting contract with the California Air Resources Board led to a project examining how California drivers' and fleet managers' perceptions, attitudes, and consumer behavior regarding Clean Vehicle Technologies influenced their own energy choices when it came to purchasing vehicles. The consultants examined archival research, conducted focus…

  14. 14 CFR 204.3 - Applicants for new certificate or commuter air carrier authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... applicant for a type of certificate authority it does not currently hold or for commuter air carrier... interest in the applicant are related by blood or marriage, such relationship(s) shall be included in the... description of the applicant's fleet of aircraft, including: (1) The number of each type of aircraft...

  15. 14 CFR 204.3 - Applicants for new certificate or commuter air carrier authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... applicant for a type of certificate authority it does not currently hold or for commuter air carrier... interest in the applicant are related by blood or marriage, such relationship(s) shall be included in the... description of the applicant's fleet of aircraft, including: (1) The number of each type of aircraft...

  16. 14 CFR 204.3 - Applicants for new certificate or commuter air carrier authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... applicant for a type of certificate authority it does not currently hold or for commuter air carrier... interest in the applicant are related by blood or marriage, such relationship(s) shall be included in the... description of the applicant's fleet of aircraft, including: (1) The number of each type of aircraft...

  17. 14 CFR 204.3 - Applicants for new certificate or commuter air carrier authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... applicant for a type of certificate authority it does not currently hold or for commuter air carrier... interest in the applicant are related by blood or marriage, such relationship(s) shall be included in the... description of the applicant's fleet of aircraft, including: (1) The number of each type of aircraft...

  18. 76 FR 34801 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In... (PATH) has requested the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) grant a modification of the single car... FRA-2010-0174. PATH operates a fleet of 25 flat cars in consist with revenue cars utilized...

  19. Electric Vehicle Preparedness: Task 1, Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies were conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 included a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization will be used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure.

  20. Application of FLEET Velocimetry in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Halls, Benjamin R.; Jiang, Naibo

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation and tagging (FLEET) velocimetry is demonstrated in a large-scale transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Test conditions include total pressures, total temperatures, and Mach numbers ranging from 15 to 58 psia, 200 to 295 K, and 0.2 to 0.75, respectively. Freestream velocity measurements exhibit accuracies within 1 percent and precisions better than 1 m/s. The measured velocities adhere closely to isentropic flow theory over the domain of temperatures and pressures that were tested. Additional velocity measurements are made within the tunnel boundary layer; virtual trajectories traced out by the FLEET signal are indicative of the characteristic turbulent behavior in this region of the flow, where the unsteadiness increases demonstrably as the wall is approached. Mean velocities taken within the boundary layer are in agreement with theoretical velocity profiles, though the fluctuating velocities exhibit a greater deviation from theoretical predictions.

  1. AVTA federal fleet PEV readiness data logging and characterization study for the National Park Service: Grand Canyon National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim; Nienhueser, Ian

    2014-08-01

    This report focuses on the Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  2. Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    1 Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization David N. Ford...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization 5a...Manufacturing ( 3D printing ) 2 Research Context Problem: Learning curve savings forecasted in SHIPMAIN maintenance initiative have not materialized

  3. The Transformation of the Fleet Hospital Program from a Platform-Based Hospital to a Modular, Capability-Based Hospital

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    dental services and facilities maintained by the Department of the Navy. BUMED is responsible for active duty fleet hospital staffing decisions and...exception of dental -oral surgery. 10 Assembly of this facility requires three-to-five days and eleven acres of clear land (Fleet Hospitals 2001, 2-3...utilize digital radiography , each service has adopted the use of these systems. These systems allow the hospitals to copy x-ray images to a CD that is

  4. INL receives GreenGov Presidential Award for fleet fuel efficiency improvements

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory has received a 2010 GreenGov Presidential Award for outstanding achievement in fuel efficiency in its bus and automotive fleets. The award was presented today in Washington, D.C., as part of a three-day symposium on improving sustainability and energy efficiency across the federal government. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. Improving Recapitalization Planning: Toward a Fleet Management Model for the High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    the modified VaRooM model yielded concrete information to guide deci- sions about the optimal timing of, and cost trade-offs associated with, HMMWV...the links among age, usage, and costs of Army vehicles has been relatively scarce, the idea of adapting an existing vehicle replacement model for...CAA study is notable for its illustration of how a fleet-manage- ment optimization model can yield more-specific recommendations for RECAP. But again

  6. A Market Analysis of Publications, Trade Conferences, and Key Events for Fleet Readiness Center Southwest

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    logistics and engineering capabilities and solutions for the fleet. A mobile facilities program manufactures mobile vans in support of deploying Marines...and Special Forces units. These mobile vans are diverse, having the capability to be configured up to 150 different ways to include medical...MAINT PLNG BR, 6.7.1.2 J. Chudy MOBILE MAINT FACILITIES BR, 6.7.6.2 H. Saldivar LOGISTICS & MAINT INFO SYS & TECHNOLOGY DIV, 6.8.4 M. Warren

  7. A Cost Analysis of Forward Positioning Material in the Fifth Fleet Area of Responsibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Responsibility and the impact to lead time before and after the standup of the Defense Logistics Agency conunercially owned commercially operated ( COCO ...Navy’s share of the holding cost at the COCO warehouse is relat ively small when compared to how much money is saved by shipping material via smface...reduction in overall lead time is a direct result of the f01ward staging effot1s in the Fifth Fleet at the COCO warehouse. We anticipate additional cost

  8. Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

  9. Rebuilding Naval Fleets: Lessons Learned from the UK Experience (Briefing charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Rebuilding Naval Fleets Lessons Learned from the UK Experience Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...NUMBER OF PAGES 16 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298...2011 In 2000, the UK Announced an Ambitious Shipbuilding Plan Future Sub Future MH 4 ? MARS FSC 10 14 Astute JCTS 8 1 T45 OPV (H) CVF 2 2 12 LSD(A

  10. INL receives GreenGov Presidential Award for fleet fuel efficiency improvements

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Idaho National Laboratory has received a 2010 GreenGov Presidential Award for outstanding achievement in fuel efficiency in its bus and automotive fleets. The award was presented today in Washington, D.C., as part of a three-day symposium on improving sustainability and energy efficiency across the federal government. Lots more content like this is available at INL's facebook page http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  11. Manpower Planning Handbook. Volume 4. NavCommSta Fleet Center Division

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    categories doing each job. • Columns 4 through 7 of work table 2 list these positions: - Watchstander direct labor . - Watchstander supervisor. - Day worker...the fleet center. For example. If there were 10 civilian to 40 military direct labor personnel at a site, the weighted average would be: TAW = 10...duty holding this position. • A percentage indicates the percent of time each person In this position spends In nonsupervlsory (direct labor ) work; 10

  12. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Puneet; Casey, Dan

    2011-03-29

    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14286 by Chevron Technology Ventures (CTV, a division of Chevron U.S.A., Inc.), Hyundai Motor Company (HMC), and UTC Power (UTCP, a United Technologies company) to validate hydrogen (H2) infrastructure technology and fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Chevron established hydrogen filling stations at fleet operator sites using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage, and dispensing. CTV constructed five demonstration stations to support a vehicle fleet of 33 fuel cell passenger vehicles, eight internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, three fuel cell transit busses, and eight internal combustion engine shuttle busses. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2010. HMC introduced 33 fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV) in the course of the project. Generation I included 17 vehicles that used UTCP fuel cell power plants and operated at 350 bar. Generation II included 16 vehicles that had upgraded UTC fuel cell power plants and demonstrated options such as the use of super-capacitors and operation at 700 bar. All 33 vehicles used the Hyundai Tucson sports utility vehicle (SUV) platform. Fleet operators demonstrated commercial operation of the vehicles in three climate zones (hot, moderate, and cold) and for various driving patterns. Fleet operators were Southern California Edison (SCE), AC Transit (of Oakland, California), Hyundai America Technical Center Inc. (HATCI), and the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC, in a site agreement with Selfridge Army National Guard Base in Selfridge, Michigan).

  13. Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-03-19

    Natural gas is a clean-burning, abundant, and domestically produced source of energy. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has recently garnered interest as a transportation fuel because of these attributes and because of its cost savings and price stability compared to conventional petroleum fuels. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Vehicle Infrastructure and Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) model to help businesses and fleets evaluate the financial soundness of CNG vehicle and CNG fueling infrastructure projects.

  14. Granger Causality and National Procurement Spending: Applications to the CC130 Hercules Fleet Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Assistant Deputy Minister (Materiel) DRDC CORA TM 2011-154 September 2011 Granger Causality and National Procurement Spending Applications to the CC130...Hercules Fleet Performance David W. Maybury Materiel Group Operational Research Dr aft Co py Dr aft Co py Granger Causality and National Procurement...Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2011 Dr aft Co py Abstract Using Granger causality tests, we look for relationships

  15. How do demersal fishing fleets interact with aggregate extraction in a congested sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, Paul; Desprez, Michel; Vermard, Youen; Tidd, Alex

    2014-08-01

    The effects of the aggregate extraction intensity and the distance to extraction sites on the distribution of fishing effort were investigated for a broad selection of French and English demersal fleets operating in the Eastern English Channel. The most prominent result was that most fleets fishing near to aggregate extraction sites were not deterred by extraction activities. The fishing effort of dredgers and potters could be greater adjacent to marine aggregates sites than elsewhere, and also positively correlated to extraction intensity with a lag of 0-9 months. The distribution of fishing effort of French netters remained consistent over the study period. However, it is of note that the fishing effort of netters has increased substantially in the impacted area of the Dieppe site (where it is correlated to extraction intensity with a lag of 6 months), while slightly decreasing in the intermediate and reference areas. The attraction of fishing fleets is likely due to a local temporary concentration of their main target species. However, knowledge of their life-history characteristics and habitat preferences suggests that some of these species could be particularly vulnerable to aggregate extractions in the longer term.

  16. Space Shuttle Orbiter Fleet Leader Orbital Maneuvering Engine SN 002A injector replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccio, Joseph R.; Hoppe, David L.

    1992-01-01

    During testing of the Fleet Leader Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) Serial Number (SN) 002A at the White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) in 1983 the injector was inadvertently damaged. After testing was completed in 1985, there was a concern that the performance of the engine and its response to specific test conditions might not be sufficiently representative of flight engines to provide valid test results. To correct this damage, the engine was returned to the manufacturer to replace the injector. The task assigned was to evaluate the damage and generate a unique process to repair the Fleet Leader OME while providing minimum impact to the overall life condition of the engine. In addition to successfully performing the repair operation, the as received condition of the engine and its components were documented for Fleet Leader reference. The engine is currently at WSTF where it has accumulated 11,341 seconds of firing time to date, 2615 seconds of which have occurred since the engine repair.

  17. Refueling Behavior of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Drivers in the Federal Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, R.; Nangle, J.; Boeckman, G.; Miller, M.

    2014-05-01

    Federal fleets are a frequent subject of legislative and executive efforts to lead a national transition to alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Section 701 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that all dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles in the federal fleet be operated on alternative fuel 100% of the time when they have access to it. However, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, drivers of federal flex fuel vehicles (FFV) leased through the General Services Administration refueled with E85 24% of the time when it was available--falling well short of the mandate. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory completed a 2-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to identify the factors that influence the refueling behavior of federal FFV drivers. The project began with two primary hypotheses. First, information scarcity increases the tendency to miss opportunities to purchase E85. Second, even with perfect information, there are limits to how far drivers will go out of their way to purchase E85. This paper discusses the results of the project, which included a June 2012 survey of federal fleet drivers and an empirical analysis of actual refueling behavior from FY 2009 to 2012. This research will aid in the design and implementation of intervention programs aimed at increasing alternative fuel use and reducing petroleum consumption.

  18. The Neural Mechanisms of Social Learning from Fleeting Experience with Pain

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yang-Teng; Chen, Chenyi; Cheng, Yawei

    2016-01-01

    Social learning is critical for humans to adapt and cope with rapidly changing surroundings. Although, neuroscience has focused on associative learning and pain empathy, the neural mechanisms of social learning through fleeting pain remains to be determined. This functional MRI study included three participant groups, to investigate how the neuro-hemodynamic response and subjective evaluation in response to the observation of hand actions were modulated by first-hand experience (FH), as well as indirect experience through social-observational (SO), and verbal-informed (VI) learning from fleeting pain. The results indicated, that these three learning groups share the common neuro-hemodynamic activations in the brain regions implicated in emotional awareness, memory, mentalizing, perspective taking, and emotional regulation. The anterior insular cortex (AIC) was commonly activated during these learning procedures. The amygdala was only activated by the FH. Dynamic causal modeling further indicated, that the SO and VI learning exhibited weaker connectivity strength from the AIC to superior frontal gyrus than did the FH. These findings demonstrate, that social learning elicits distinct neural responses from associative learning. The ontogeny of human empathy could be better understood with social learning from fleeting experience with pain. PMID:26903828

  19. Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, George

    2015-03-01

    VICE 2.0 is the second generation of the VICE financial model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for fleet managers to assess the financial soundness of converting their fleets to run on CNG. VICE 2.0 uses a number of variables for infrastructure and vehicles to estimate the business case for decision-makers when considering CNG as a vehicle fuel. Enhancements in version 2.0 include the ability to select the project type (vehicles and infrastructure or vehicle acquisitions only), and to decouple vehicle acquisition from the infrastructure investment, so the two investments may be made independently. Outputs now include graphical presentations of investment cash flow, payback period (simple and discounted), petroleum displacement (annual and cumulative), and annual greenhouse gas reductions. Also, the Vehicle Data are now built around several common conventionally fueled (gasoline and diesel) fleet vehicles. Descriptions of the various model sections and available inputs follow. Each description includes default values for the base-case business model, which was created so economic sensitivities can be investigated by altering various project parameters one at a time.

  20. DFRC F-16 aircraft fleet and support crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The support crew for the F-16A, the F-16XL no. 1, and the F-16 AFTI are, top row, left to right: Randy Weaver; mechanic, Susan Ligon; mechanic, Bob Garcia; Crew Chief, Rich Kelly; mechanic, Dale Edminister; Avionics Technician. Bottom row, left to right, Art Cope; mechanic, John Huffman; Avionics Technician, Jaime Garcia; Avionics Technician, Don Griffith, Avionics Tech. Co-op student. The F-16A (NASA 516), the only civil registered F-16 in existence, was transferred to Dryden from Langley, and is primarily used in engine tests and for parts. Although it is flight-worthy, it is not currently flown at Dryden. The single-seat F-16XL no. 1 (NASA 849) was most recently used in the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project (CAWAP) to test boundary layer pressures and distribution. Previously it had been used in a program to investigate the characteristics of sonic booms for NASA's High Speed Research Program. Data from the program will be used in the development of a high speed civilian transport. During the series of sonic boom research flights, the F-16XL was used to probe the shock waves being generated by a NASA SR-71 and record their shape and intensity. The Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) F-16 was used to develop and demonstrate technologies to improve navigation and a pilot's ability to find and destroy enemy ground targets day or night, including adverse weather. Earlier research in the joint NASA-Air Force AFTI F-16 program demonstrated voice actuated controls, helmet-mounted sighting and integration of forward-mounted canards with the standard flight control system to achieve uncoupled flight.

  1. Air Quality in Mexico City: Policies Implemented for its Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramo, V.

    2007-12-01

    Ozone and suspended particles (PM) are two pollutants in the atmosphere of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) that still exceed the recommended Mexican health standards. The other criteria pollutants very seldom exceed their corresponding standards. In 2006, the maximum ozone concentrations were above the health standard (0.11 ppm in 1 hour) during 59 percent of the days for an average of 2.2 hours and 130 points of the Air Quality Index (Índice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire - IMECA). In contrast, in 1991, 98 percent of the days exceeded the ozone health standard for an average of 6.6 hours and 200 IMECA points. With regards to PM10, in 2006, 80 percent of the sampled concentrations were below the health standard of 120 µg/m3 in 24 hours. However, the annual health standard of 50 µg/m3 is still exceeded. The air quality management in the MCMA is a difficult task due to several adverse factors. The main one is the large population that increased from nearly 15 million in 1992 to more than 18 million at present. As a result, the urban area grows in the adjoined municipalities of the State of Mexico. The vehicular fleet increases also to almost 4 million and the number of industrial facilities is at present 50,000. Consequently, the fuel consumption is very high. The daily energy consumption is estimated to be 44 million liters of equivalent of gasoline. Despite the fact that the air quality has improved in recent years, the related health standards are still exceeded and therefore it is necessary to continue applying the most cost-effective actions to improve the environment quality. Some actions that have contributed most to the reduction of pollutant emissions are the following: Continuous update of the inspection and maintenance program of the vehicular fleet; substitution of the catalytic converters at the end of their useful life; self-regulation of the diesel fleet; use of alternative fuels; update the No-Driving-Day program; establishment of more

  2. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  3. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  4. A modelling exercise to examine variations of NOx concentrations on adjacent footpaths in a street canyon: The importance of accounting for wind conditions and fleet composition.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J

    2016-04-15

    Personal measurement studies and modelling investigations are used to examine pollutant exposure for pedestrians in the urban environment: each presenting various strengths and weaknesses in relation to labour and equipment costs, a sufficient sampling period and the accuracy of results. This modelling exercise considers the potential benefits of modelling results over personal measurement studies and aims to demonstrate how variations in fleet composition affects exposure results (presented as mean concentrations along the centre of both footpaths) in different traffic scenarios. A model of Pearse Street in Dublin, Ireland was developed by combining a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model and a semi-empirical equation to simulate pollutant dispersion in the street. Using local NOx concentrations, traffic and meteorological data from a two-week period in 2011, the model were validated and a good fit was presented. To explore the long-term variations in personal exposure due to variations in fleet composition, synthesised traffic data was used to compare short-term personal exposure data (over a two-week period) with the results for an extended one-year period. Personal exposure during the two-week period underestimated the one-year results by between 8% and 65% on adjacent footpaths. The findings demonstrate the potential for relative differences in pedestrian exposure to exist between the north and south footpaths due to changing wind conditions in both peak and off-peak traffic scenarios. This modelling approach may help overcome potential under- or over-estimations of concentrations in personal measurement studies on the footpaths. Further research aims to measure pollutant concentrations on adjacent footpaths in different traffic and wind conditions and to develop a simpler modelling system to identify pollutant hotspots on our city footpaths so that urban planners can implement improvement strategies to improve urban air quality.

  5. National Defense: Department of Defense’s Waiver of Competitive Prototyping Requirement for the Navy’s Fleet Replenishment Oiler Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-08

    Defense: Department of Defense’s Waiver of Competitive Prototyping Requirement for the Navy’s Fleet Replenishment Oiler Program The Weapon Systems...Department of Defense’s Waiver of Competitive Prototyping Requirement for the Navy’s Fleet Replenishment Oiler Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...15, 2014, we received notice from DOD that it had waived the competitive prototyping requirement for the Fleet Replenishment Oiler (T-AO(X)) program

  6. Phase II Characterization Survey of the USNS Bridge (T-AOE 10), Military Sealift Fleet Support Command, Naval Station, Norfolk, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    ALTIC, NICK A

    2012-08-30

    In March 2011, the USNS Bridge was deployed off northeastern Honshu, Japan with the carrier USS Ronald Reagan to assist with relief efforts after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. During that time, the Bridge was exposed to air-borne radioactive materials leaking from the damaged Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. The proximity of the Bridge to the air-borne impacted area resulted in the contamination of the ship’s air-handling systems and the associated components, as well as potential contamination of other ship surfaces due to either direct intake/deposition or inadvertent spread from crew/operational activities. Preliminary surveys in the weeks after the event confirmed low-level contamination within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ductwork and systems, and engine and other auxiliary air intake systems. Some partial decontamination was performed at that time. In response to the airborne contamination event, Military Sealift Fleet Support Command (MSFSC) contracted Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under provisions of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to assess the radiological condition of the Bridge. Phase I identified contamination within the CPS filters, ventilation systems, miscellaneous equipment, and other suspect locations that could not accessed at that time (ORAU 2011b). Because the Bridge was underway during the characterization, all the potentially impacted systems/spaces could not be investigated. As a result, MSFSC contracted with ORAU to perform Phase II of the characterization, specifically to survey systems/spaces previously inaccessible. During Phase II of the characterization, the ship was in port to perform routine maintenance operations, allowing access to the previously inaccessible systems/spaces.

  7. Fleet Level Environmental Evaluation of Emission Taxing Scheme and Biofuel: A Combined Optimization and Multi-Actor Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jou-Mei

    The Fleet Level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET) can assess environmental impacts of various levels of technology and environmental policies on fleet-level carbon emissions and airline operations. FLEET consists of different models to mimic airlines' behaviors and a resource allocation problem to simulate airlines' aircraft deployments on their networks. Additionally, the Multiactors Biofuel Model can conduct biofuel life-cycle assessments and evaluate biofuel developments and assess the effects of new technology on biofuel production costs and unit carbon emissions as well. In addition, the European Union (EU) initiated an Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in the European Economic Area, while International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is designing a Global Market-Based Measure (GMBM) scheme to limit civil aviation fleet-level carbon emissions after 2021. This work integrates the FLEET and the Multiactors Biofuel Model together to investigate the interactions between airline operations, biofuel production chains, and environmental policies. The interfaces between the two models are bio-refinery firm profit maximization problem and farmers' profits maximization problem. The two maximization problems mimic the bio-refinery firms and farmers behaviors based on environmental policies, airlines performances, and biofuel developments. In the current study, limited impacts of biofuels on fleet-level emissions due to the inconsistency between biofuel demand and feedstock resource distributions and feedstock supplies were observed. Furthermore, the main driving factor for biofuel developments besides newer technologies was distinguished. Conventional jet fuel prices have complex impacts on biofuel developments because conventional jet fuel prices increase biofuel prices and decrease potential biofuel demands at the same time. In the end, with simplified EU ETS and ICAO GMBM models, the integrated tool represents that EU ETS model conducts lower emissions in a short

  8. Toyota Prius Plug-In HEV: A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Toyota Prius plug-in HEV, a plug-in hybrid electric car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In partnership with the University of Colorado, NREL uses the vehicle for grid-integration studies and for testing new hardware and charge-management algorithms. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

  9. Baseline knowledge on vehicle safety and head restraints among Fleet Managers in British Columbia Canada: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Hewapathirane, D. Sesath; Peiris, Dinithi; Romilly, Doug; White, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Whiplash is the most common injury type arising from motor vehicle collisions, often leading to long-term suffering and disability. Prevention of such injuries is possible through the use of appropriate, correctly positioned, vehicular head restraints. Objective: To survey the awareness and knowledge level of vehicle fleet managers in the province of British Columbia, Canada, on the topics of vehicle safety, whiplash injury, and prevention; and to better understand whether these factors influence vehicle purchase/lease decisions. Methods: A survey was administered to municipal vehicle fleet managers at a professional meeting (n = 27). Results: Although many respondents understood the effectiveness of vehicle head restraints in the prevention of whiplash injury, the majority rarely adjusted their own headrests. Fleet managers lacked knowledge about the seriousness of whiplash injuries, their associated costs for Canada’s healthcare system, and appropriate head restraint positions to mitigate such injuries. The majority of respondents indicated that fleet vehicle purchase/lease decisions within their organization did not factor whiplash prevention as an explicit safety priority. Conclusions: There is relatively little awareness and enforcement of whiplash prevention strategies among municipal vehicle fleet managers. PMID:21886279

  10. Office of Inspector General audit report on vehicle fleet management at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    In a prior report, Audit of Light Vehicle Fleet Management at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, WR-B-93-7, September 29, 1993, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) concluded that vehicle fleet operations might be done more cost effectively by the General Services Administration (GSA) than by Idaho Operations Office (Idaho) and its contractor. The report also concluded that a significant number of vehicles were underused and the fleet was too large. Accordingly, the report contained recommendations that a cost comparison study be conducted to ascertain the most economical and efficient method of managing fleet operations and that vehicle usage data be reviewed periodically by the contractor, with prompt reassignment or disposal of significantly underused vehicles. Thus, the purpose of this audit was to determine if action has been taken to implement recommendations in the prior report. Specifically, the objectives of the current audit were to determine whether a cost comparison had been performed and whether the fleet was still too large. In this report, the authors recommend that Idaho annually review individual vehicle use against mileage standards and promptly dispose of or reassign vehicles not meeting the standards. The authors also recommend that the Idaho Deputy Manager be provided a vehicle assignment report for review and approval.

  11. Designing of a Fleet-Leader Program for Carbon Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L.N.; Phoenix, S. Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases on board spacecraft when mass saving is a prime requirement. Substantial weight savings can be achieved compared to all metallic pressure vessels. For example, on the space shuttle, replacement of all metallic pressure vessels with Kevlar COPVs resulted in a weight savings of about 30 percent. Mass critical space applications such as the Ares and Orion vehicles are currently being planned to use as many COPVs as possible in place of all-metallic pressure vessels to minimize the overall mass of the vehicle. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads during long periods of a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is, therefore, important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since it is practically impossible to show by experimental testing the reliability of flight quality vessels. Also, it is a common practice to set aside flight quality vessels as "fleet leaders" in a test program where these vessels are subjected to slightly accelerated operating conditions so that they lead the actual flight vessels both in time and load. The intention of fleet leaders is to provide advanced warning if there is a serious design flaw in the vessels so that a major disaster in the flight vessels can be averted with advance warning. On the other hand, the accelerating conditions must be not so severe as to be prone to false alarms. The primary focus of the present paper is to provide an analytical basis for designing a viable fleet leader program for carbon COPVs. The analysis is based on a stress rupture behavior model incorporating Weibull statistics and power-law sensitivity of life to fiber stress level.

  12. An analysis of the costs of running a station car fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Zurn, R.M.

    1995-02-01

    Station cars are electric vehicles available at transit stations which may be used for transportation between the transit station and home, work, and/or for errands. This transportation service would be provided by the local transit agency. This report discusses an economic model of the costs of running a station car fleet. While some of these costs are highly uncertain, this analysis is a first look at the required user fees for full cost recovery. The model considers the capital costs of the vehicles and the required infrastructure; the annual fixed vehicle costs for insurance, registration, etc.; the mileage-based costs; and the annual non-vehicle costs for administration, infrastructure maintenance, etc. The model also includes various factors such as the fleet size, the annual mileage, the number of transit stations that would have facilities for station cars, and the number of users. The model specifically examines the cost of using of electric vehicles; however, for comparison, the cost of using a fleet of gasoline-powered vehicles also is calculated. This report examines the sensitivity of the model to the various factors. A principal conclusion from the analysis is that the largest cost contributor is the initial vehicle purchase price. For a given initial purchase price, the factor driving the user fee required for full cost recovery is the number of different daily users of a vehicle. The model also compares the annual cost of transportation using station cars and mass transit to the annual cost of solo commuting. If a station car is used by more than one person a day, and this use replaces the ownership of a conventional vehicle, the annual cost of transportation may be similar. However, for the base case assumptions, the station car user fee required for full cost recovery is higher than the cost of solo commuting.

  13. REPORT on the TRUCK BRAKE LINING WORKSHOP and FLEET OPERATORS' SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.

    2003-02-03

    The report summarizes what transpired during brake linings-related workshop held at the Fall 2003 meeting of the Technology and Maintenance Council (TMC) in Charlotte, NC. The title of the workshop was ''Developing a Useful Friction Material Rating System''. It was organized by a team consisting of Peter Blau (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), Jim Britell (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), and Jim Lawrence (Motor and Equipment Manufacturers Association). The workshop was held under the auspices of TMC Task Force S6 (Chassis), chaired by Joseph Stianche (Sanderson Farms, Inc.). Six invited speakers during the morning session provided varied perspectives on testing and rating aftermarket automotive and truck brake linings. They were: James R. Clark, Chief Engineer, Foundation Brakes and Wheel Equipment, Dana Corporation, Spicer Heavy Axle and Brake Division; Charles W. Greening, Jr, President, Greening Test Labs; Tim Duncan, General Manager, Link Testing Services;Dennis J. McNichol, President, Dennis NationaLease; Jim Fajerski, Business Manager, OE Sales and Applications Engineering, Federal Mogul Corporation; and Peter J. Blau, Senior Materials Development Engineer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The afternoon break-out sessions addressed nine questions concerning such issues as: ''Should the federal government regulate aftermarket lining quality?''; ''How many operators use RP 628, and if so, what's good or bad about it?''; and ''Would there be any value to you of a vocation-specific rating system?'' The opinions of each discussion group, consisting of 7-9 participants, were reported and consolidated in summary findings on each question. Some questions produced a greater degree of agreement than others. In general, the industry seems eager for more information that would allow those who are responsible for maintaining truck brakes to make better, more informed choices on aftermarket linings. A written fleet operator survey was also conducted during the

  14. Real-time science and outreach from the UNOLS fleet via HiSeasNet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, S.; Berger, J.; Orcutt, J. A.; Brice, D.; Coleman, D. F.; Grabowski, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    The HiSeasNet satellite communications network has ben providing cost-effective, reliable, continuous Internet connectivity to the UNOLS oceanographic research fleet for nearly nine years. During that time, HiSeasNet has supported science and outreach programs with a variety of real-time interactions back to shore including videoconferencing, webcasting, shared whiteboards, and streaming high-definition video feeds. Solutions have varied in scale, cost, and capability. As real-time science and outreach becomes more common, experience with a variety of technologies continues to build, and more opportunities yet to explore.

  15. Sustainable Federal Fleets: Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for Sustainable Federal Fleets. To assist agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) EVSE Tiger Teams.

  16. Transition of R&D into Operations at Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) plays a significant role in the National capability for operational weather and ocean prediction through its operation of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean. FNMOC uniquely satisfies the military's requirement for a global operational weather prediction capability based on software certified to DoD Information Assurance standards and operated in a secure classified computer environment protected from outside intrusion by DoD certified firewalls. FNMOC operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense, other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high- resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Other models support and supplement the main models with predictions of ocean thermal structure, ocean currents, sea-ice characteristics, and other data. Fleet Numerical operates at the leading edge of science and technology, and benefits greatly from collocation with its supporting

  17. Fracture mechanics research at NASA related to the aging commercial transport fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, James C., Jr.; Harris, Charles E.

    1992-07-01

    NASA is conducting the Airframe Structural Integrity Program in support of the aging commercial transport fleet. This interdisciplinary program is being worked in cooperation with the U.S. airframe manufacturers, airline operators, and the FAA. Advanced analysis methods are under development and an extensive testing program is under way to study fatigue crack growth and fracture in complex built-up shell structures. Innovative nondestructive examination technologies are also being developed to provide large area inspection capability to detect corrosion, disbonds, and cracks. Recent fracture mechanics results applicable to predicting the growth of cracks under monotonic and cyclic loading at rivets in fuselage lap-splice joints are reviewed.

  18. Preserving the Navy’s Forward Presence With a Smaller Fleet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    next 30 years, the Navy’s 2015 shipbuilding plan (which aims to increase the fleet from 281 ships in 2014 to 306 ships by 2022) would cost about...Total 281 313 303 303 281 299 266 † 251 281 298 258 230 281 295 239 208 Combat Ships Aircraft carriers 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 3...ally from its current 281 battle force ships to 251 ships by 2044—17 percent fewer than the 303 ships envisioned for that year in the Navy’s 2015 plan

  19. SAPIR collision alert system as part of IR MWS suite for helicopter fleets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadav, Shavit; Varsano, Louisa; Oz, Saar; Schlisselberg, Raanan

    2009-05-01

    SAPIR system provides a suite of IR based situation awareness functions offered as add on system for ELISRA PAWS family of missile warning solutions. A major operational need for airborne platforms flying in formation is automatic collision alert capability. By using covert IR-MWS technology SAPIR passively tracks and monitors wingman position thereby enabling aircrew to focus on mission goals without compromising their safety. The paper presents results of operational problem study, system design and field testing demonstration of performance for SAPIR collision alert function targeting helicopter fleets.

  20. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  1. The Wave Glider°: A New Autonomous Surface Vehicle to Augment MBARI's Growing Fleet of Ocean Observing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tougher, B. B.

    2011-12-01

    Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) evolving fleet of ocean observing systems has made it possible to collect information and data about a wide variety of ocean parameters, enabling researchers to better understand marine ecosystems. In collaboration with Liquid Robotics Inc, the designer of the Wave Glider autonomous surface vehicle (ASV), MBARI is adding a new capability to its suite of ocean observing tools. This new technology will augment MBARI research programs that use satellites, ships, moorings, drifters, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to improve data collection of temporally and spatially variable oceanographic features. The Wave Glider ASV derives its propulsion from wave energy, while sensors and communications are powered through the use of two solar panels and batteries, enabling it to remain at sea indefinitely. Wave Gliders are remotely controlled via real-time Iridium burst communications, which also permit real-time data telemetry. MBARI has developed Ocean Acidification (OA) moorings to continuously monitor the chemical and physical changes occurring in the ocean as a result of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The moorings are spatially restricted by being anchored to the seafloor, so during the summer of 2011 the ocean acidification sensor suite designed for moorings was integrated into a Wave Glider ASV to increase both temporal and spatial ocean observation capabilities. The OA sensor package enables the measurement of parameters essential to better understanding the changing acidity of the ocean, specifically pCO2, pH, oxygen, salinity and temperature. The Wave Glider will also be equipped with a meteorological sensor suite that will measure air temperature, air pressure, and wind speed and direction. The OA sensor integration into a Wave Glider was part of MBARI's 2011 summer internship program. This project involved designing a new layout for the OA sensors

  2. Testing of a refuelable zinc/air bus battery

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Koopman, R.; Hargrove, D.; Maimoni, A.; Peterman, K.

    1995-02-22

    We report tests of a refuelable zinc/air battery of modular, bipolar-cell design, intended for fleet electric busses and vans. The stack consists of twelve 250-cm{sup 2} cells built of two units: (1) a copper-clad glass-reinforced epoxy board supporting anode and cathode current collectors, and (2) polymer frame providing for air- and electrolyte distribution and zinc fuel storage. The stack was refueled in 4 min. by a hydraulic transfer of zinc particles entrained in solution flow.

  3. Mathematical optimization techniques for managing selective catalytic reduction for a fleet of coal-fired power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanis Pena, Antonio Alejandro

    Major commercial electricity generation is done by burning fossil fuels out of which coal-fired power plants produce a substantial quantity of electricity worldwide. The United States has large reserves of coal, and it is cheaply available, making it a good choice for the generation of electricity on a large scale. However, one major problem associated with using coal for combustion is that it produces a group of pollutants known as nitrogen oxides (NO x). NOx are strong oxidizers and contribute to ozone formation and respiratory illness. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates the quantity of NOx emitted to the atmosphere in the United States. One technique coal-fired power plants use to reduce NOx emissions is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). SCR uses layers of catalyst that need to be added or changed to maintain the required performance. Power plants do add or change catalyst layers during temporary shutdowns, but it is expensive. However, many companies do not have only one power plant, but instead they can have a fleet of coal-fired power plants. A fleet of power plants can use EPA cap and trade programs to have an outlet NOx emission below the allowances for the fleet. For that reason, the main aim of this research is to develop an SCR management mathematical optimization methods that, with a given set of scheduled outages for a fleet of power plants, minimizes the total cost of the entire fleet of power plants and also maintain outlet NO x below the desired target for the entire fleet. We use a multi commodity network flow problem (MCFP) that creates edges that represent all the SCR catalyst layers for each plant. This MCFP is relaxed because it does not consider average daily NOx constraint, and it is solved by a binary integer program. After that, we add the average daily NOx constraint to the model with a schedule elimination constraint (MCFPwSEC). The MCFPwSEC eliminates, one by one, the solutions that do not satisfy the average daily

  4. Best available practices for lng fueling of fleet vehicles. Topical report, March-November 1995, tasks 85 and 86

    SciTech Connect

    Midgett, D.E.

    1996-02-01

    The report provides essential information on the design and operation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueling stations for fleet vehicles. The report serves to evaluate current practices in LNG fleet vehicle fueling station designs, and provide fleet operators with a tool for use in discussions with permitting agencies, engineering firms, fabricators, and contractors who permit, design, or construct LNG fueling stations. Representative sites (i.e., LNG fueling stations) were evaluated for technical feasibility, customer satisfaction, economics, operating and maintenance history, problems encountered/overcome, and regulatory environment. The compiled information in this report reveals that LNG fueling stations have advanced to the point where LNG is a viable alternative to gasoline and/or diesel fuel.

  5. Fleeting Smile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Sally

    2006-01-01

    The author's students were an unhappy, skeptical group of middle school students. Many of them had emotional issues. Many had drug addiction and prostitution in their broken and poverty-ridden families. Her school, which is a small charter school in a remote Arizona town, was a place of last resort for these students, who probably would not…

  6. Fleet Safety

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Brian S.; Pratt, Stephanie G.; Ross, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Millions of U.S. workers are at risk for a work-related motor vehicle crash. Fatality data show that across all industries, motor vehicle crashes are consistently the leading cause of work-related fatalities. Of 43,025 work-related fatalities reported by BLS between 2003 and 2010, 10,202 were the result of single- or multiple-vehicle crashes of workers driving or riding in a vehicle on a public roadway, and 2,707 were pedestrian workers struck by a motor vehicle. During the same period, an additional 2,487 workers died in crashes that occurred off a public roadway or on industrial premises (BLS, 2013). PMID:26251557

  7. Alternative fuel vehicles for the state fleets: Results of the 5-year planning process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report documents the first attempt by the Department of Energy (DOE) to work with states to prepare five-year Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) acquisition plans to identify alternative fuels and vehicles that they are planning on or would like to acquire. The DOE Regional Support Offices (RSOs) met with representatives from the states in their regions and assisted in the preparation of the plans. These plans will be used in conjunction with previously gathered Federal five-year plans to encourage Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to expand the variety of AFVs produced, reduce the incremental cost of AFVs, and to encourage fuel suppliers to expand the alternative fuel infrastructure and alternative fuel availability. By identifying the needs and requirements of state fleets, DOE can begin to describe the specific nature of the future state fleets, and establish a defined market for OEMs and fuel suppliers. DOE initiated the development and collection of the state five-year plans before the signing of the Energy Policy Act, to raise the awareness of states that they will be required by law to acquire AFVs. As a result, several states that had no AFV acquisition plan when queried have developed or are in the process of developing plans. The DOE and its RSOs are still working with the states to develop and refine acquisition plans, and this report should be treated as documentation of work in progress.

  8. Persistent Identifiers for Field Expeditions: A Next Step for the US Oceanographic Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, Robert; Carbotte, Suzanne; Chandler, Cynthia; Smith, Shawn; Stocks, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Oceanographic research cruises are complex affairs, typically requiring an extensive effort to secure the funding, plan the experiment, and mobilize the field party. Yet cruises are not typically published online as first-class digital objects with persistent, citable identifiers linked to the scientific literature. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; info@rvdata.us) program maintains a master catalog of oceanographic cruises for the United States research fleet, currently documenting over 6,000 expeditions on 37 active and retired vessels. In 2015, R2R started routinely publishing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for each completed cruise. Cruise DOIs, in turn, are linked to related persistent identifiers where available including the Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) for members of the science party, the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) for physical specimens collected during the cruise, the Open Funder Registry (FundRef) codes that supported the experiment, and additional DOIs for datasets, journal articles, and other products resulting from the cruise. Publishing a persistent identifier for each field expedition will facilitate interoperability between the many different repositories that hold research products from cruises; will provide credit to the investigators who secured the funding and carried out the experiment; and will facilitate the gathering of fleet-wide altmetrics that demonstrate the broad impact of oceanographic research.

  9. [Gil Eannes--the hospital ship of the Portuguese fishing fleet].

    PubMed

    Ramos, Samuel; Doria, José Luís; Pina, Madalena Esperança

    2008-06-01

    The history of Portuguese hospital-ships dates back to the fleets in the era of the Great Discoveries. In 1916, during the First World War, the Allies appealed to Portugal to act as a neutral country. All the German ships on the river Tagus were impounded and adapted for tasks related to the war. The Hanseatic line vessel Lahneck had its name changed to Gil Eannes and was modified for troop transport and to give assistance to fishing boats. Many years later, when the old Gil Eanes came to the end of its life and needed to be replaced, a new ship was built in the Viana do Castelo shipyard, using up-to-date designs for a hospital-ship. The new ship was launched in 1955, mainly to assist the Portuguese cod fish fleet, working in the seas around Newfoundland. More recently, it has returned to Viana do Castelo docks and, after restoration, has been transformed into a nautical museum and a student residence, to keep alive the memories of this traditional Portuguese fishermen's activity.

  10. In-Use Fleet Evaluation of Fast-Charge Battery Electric Transit Buses

    SciTech Connect

    Prohaska, Robert; Kelly, Kenneth; Eudy; Leslie

    2016-06-27

    With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts real-world performance evaluations of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles. Evaluation results can help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and assist fleet managers in selecting fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their economic and operational goals. In 2015, NREL launched an in-service evaluation of 12 battery electric buses (BEBs) compared to conventional compressed natural gas (CNG) buses operated by Foothill Transit in West Covina, California. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of fast-charge BEBs and associated charging infrastructure in transit operation. To date, NREL researchers have analyzed more than 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. Foothill Transit purchased the BEBs with grant funding from the Federal Transit Administration's Transit Investments for Greenhouse Gas and Energy Reduction Program.

  11. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Health and Human Services – ASPR

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Steve; Francfort, Jim

    2015-06-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Health and Human Services, Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleet. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  12. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  13. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Veterans Affairs – VA Manhattan Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Manhattan Campus (VA- Manhattan) fleet to identify the daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agency’s fleet. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively called PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  14. Tools for improving safety management in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet occupational accidents analysis period of 1998-2006.

    PubMed

    Aasjord, Halvard L

    2006-01-01

    Reporting of human accidents in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet has always been very difficult because there has been no tradition in making reports on all types of working accidents among fishermen, if the accident does not seem to be very serious or there is no economical incentive to report. Therefore reports are only written when the accidents are serious or if the fisherman is reported sick. Reports about an accident are sent to the insurance company, but another report should also be sent to the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD). Comparing of data from one former insurance company and NMD shows that the real numbers of injuries or serious accidents among Norwegian fishermen could be up to two times more than the numbers reported to NMD. Special analyses of 1690 accidents from the so called PUS-database (NMD) for the period 1998-2002, show that the calculated risk was 23.6 accidents per 1000 man-years. This is quite a high risk level, and most of the accidents in the fishing fleet were rather serious. The calculated risks are highest for fishermen on board the deep sea fleet of trawlers (28.6 accidents per 1000 man-years) and also on the deep sea fleet of purse seiners (28.9 accidents per 1000 man-years). Fatal accidents over a longer period of 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006 are also roughly analysed. These data from SINTEF's own database show that the numbers of fatal accidents have been decreasing over this long period, except for the two periods 1980-84 and 1990-94 where we had some casualties with total losses of larger vessels with the loss of most of the crew, but also many others typical work accidents on smaller vessels. The total numbers of registered Norwegian fishermen and also the numbers of man-years have been drastically reduced over the 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006. The risks of fatal accidents have been very steady over time at a high level, although there has been a marked risk reduction since 1990-94. For the last 8.5-year period of January 1998

  15. 41 CFR 102-34.335 - How do I submit information to the General Services Administration (GSA) for the Federal Fleet...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... through the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool (FAST), an Internet-based reporting tool. To find out how to submit motor vehicle data to GSA through FAST, consult the instructions from your agency fleet...; and (5) Fuel used. Note to § 102-34.335: The FAST system is also used by agency Fleet Managers...

  16. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  17. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  18. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Federal Fleet Use of Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mindy Kirpatrick; J. E. Francfort

    2003-11-01

    Per Executive Order 13031, “Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle Leadership,” the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity provided $998,300 in incremental funding to support the deployment of 220 electric vehicles in 36 Federal fleets. The 145 electric Ford Ranger pickups and 75 electric Chrysler EPIC (Electric Powered Interurban Commuter) minivans were operated in 14 states and the District of Columbia. The 220 vehicles were driven an estimated average of 700,000 miles annually. The annual estimated use of the 220 electric vehicles contributed to 39,000 fewer gallons of petroleum being used by Federal fleets and the reduction in emissions of 1,450 pounds of smog-forming pollution. Numerous attempts were made to obtain information from all 36 fleets. Information responses were received from 25 fleets (69% response rate), as some Federal fleet personnel that were originally involved with the Incremental Funding Project were transferred, retired, or simply could not be found. In addition, many of the Department of Defense fleets indicated that they were supporting operations in Iraq and unable to provide information for the foreseeable future. It should be noted that the opinions of the 25 fleets is based on operating 179 of the 220 electric vehicles (81% response rate). The data from the 25 fleets is summarized in this report. Twenty-two of the 25 fleets reported numerous problems with the vehicles, including mechanical, traction battery, and charging problems. Some of these problems, however, may have resulted from attempting to operate the vehicles beyond their capabilities. The majority of fleets reported that most of the vehicles were driven by numerous drivers each week, with most vehicles used for numerous trips per day. The vehicles were driven on average from 4 to 50 miles per day on a single charge. However, the majority of the fleets reported needing gasoline vehicles for missions beyond the capabilities of the electric

  19. The ASAC Air Carrier Investment Model (Second Generation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Johnson, Jesse P.; Sickles, Robin C.; Good, David H.

    1997-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. To accomplish this, NASA is building an Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). The ASAC differs from previous NASA modeling efforts in that the economic behavior of buyers and sellers in the air transportation and aviation industries is central to its conception. To link the economics of flight with the technology of flight, ASAC requires a parametrically based mode with extensions that link airline operations and investments in aircraft with aircraft characteristics. This model also must provide a mechanism for incorporating air travel demand and profitability factors into the airlines' investment decisions. Finally, the model must be flexible and capable of being incorporated into a wide-ranging suite of economic and technical models that are envisioned for ASAC. We describe a second-generation Air Carrier Investment Model that meets these requirements. The enhanced model incorporates econometric results from the supply and demand curves faced by U.S.-scheduled passenger air carriers. It uses detailed information about their fleets in 1995 to make predictions about future aircraft purchases. It enables analysts with the ability to project revenue passenger-miles flown, airline industry employment, airline operating profit margins, numbers and types of aircraft in the fleet, and changes in aircraft manufacturing employment under various user-defined scenarios.

  20. Reduction on NOx emissions on urban areas by changing specific vehicle fleets: effects on NO2 and O3 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, M.; Jimenez, P.; Baldasano, J.

    2007-12-01

    The largest amount of NOx emissions in urban areas comes from on-road traffic, which is the largest contributor to urban air pollution (Colvile et al., 2001). Currently different strategies are being tested in order to reduce its effects; many of them oriented to the reduction of the unitary vehicles emissions, by alternative fuels use (such as biofuels, natural gas or hydrogen) or introduction of new technologies (such as hybrid electric vehicles or fuel cells). Atmospheric modelling permits to predict their consequences on tropospheric chemistry (Vautard et al., 2007). Hence, this work assesses the changes on NO2 and O3 concentrations when substituting a 10 per cent of the urban private cars fleets by petrol hybrid electric cars (HEC) or by natural gas cars (NGC) in Madrid and Barcelona urban areas (Spain). These two cities are selected in order to highlight the different patterns of pollutants transport (inland vs. coastal city) and the different responses to emissions reductions. The results focus on a typical summertime episode of air pollution, by means of the Eulerian air quality model ARW- WRF/HERMES/CMAQ, applied with high resolution (1-hr, 1km2) since of the complexity of both areas under study. The detailed emissions scenarios are implemented in the HERMES traffic emissions module, based on the Copert III-EEA/EMEP-CORINAIR (Nztiachristos and Samaras, 2000) methodology. The HEC introduction reduces NOx emissions from on-road traffic in a 10.8 per cent and 8.2 per cent; and the NGC introduction in a 10.3 per cent and 7.8 per cent, for Madrid and Barcelona areas, respectively. The scenarios also affect the NMVOCs reduction (ranging from -3.1 to -6.9 per cent), influencing the tropospheric photochemistry through the NOx/NMVOCs ratio. The abatement of the NO photooxidation but also to the reduction on primary NO2 involves a decrease on NO2 levels centred on urban areas. For example, the NO2 24-hr average concentration in downtown areas reduces up to 8 per

  1. Optimizing Orbit-Instrument Configuration for Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Satellite Fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Adams, James; Baptista, Pedro; Haddad, Ziad; Iguchi, Toshio; Im, Eastwood; Kummerow, Christian; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Following the scientific success of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spearheaded by a group of NASA and NASDA scientists, their external scientific collaborators, and additional investigators within the European Union's TRMM Research Program (EUROTRMM), there has been substantial progress towards the development of a new internationally organized, global scale, and satellite-based precipitation measuring mission. The highlights of this newly developing mission are a greatly expanded scope of measuring capability and a more diversified set of science objectives. The mission is called the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM). Notionally, GPM will be a constellation-type mission involving a fleet of nine satellites. In this fleet, one member is referred to as the "core" spacecraft flown in an approximately 70 degree inclined non-sun-synchronous orbit, somewhat similar to TRMM in that it carries both a multi-channel polarized passive microwave radiometer (PMW) and a radar system, but in this case it will be a dual frequency Ku-Ka band radar system enabling explicit measurements of microphysical DSD properties. The remainder of fleet members are eight orbit-synchronized, sun-synchronous "constellation" spacecraft each carrying some type of multi-channel PMW radiometer, enabling no worse than 3-hour diurnal sampling over the entire globe. In this configuration the "core" spacecraft serves as a high quality reference platform for training and calibrating the PMW rain retrieval algorithms used with the "constellation" radiometers. Within NASA, GPM has advanced to the pre-formulation phase which has enabled the initiation of a set of science and technology studies which will help lead to the final mission design some time in the 2003 period. This presentation first provides an overview of the notional GPM program and mission design, including its organizational and programmatic concepts, scientific agenda, expected instrument package, and basic flight

  2. Performance Evaluation of INMARSAT Fleet 77 Services Aboard the R/V Ewing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, V. E.; Chayes, D. N.; Gold, E.

    2002-12-01

    In late 2001, the R/V Ewing was asked to conduct a trial installation of the Thrane and Thrane [of Denmark] F77 antennae [TT-3084A Capsat] and the newest IMNARSAT communications channel, INMARSAT F. Branded as "Fleet F77 Service" by INMARSAT, the service provides ISDN 64kbps and 56kbps high quality voice and data connections as well as Mobile Packet Data Service which allows an "always on" connection under which users pay for the packets they send rather than the time they are connected. Fleet F77 also allows low bandwidth [2.4kbps] "Mini-M" voice and fax services. While not currently available, the Capsat antennae also is prepared to take advantage of 4th Generation Inm-IV satellites [expected in 2004] allowing LAN speeds up to 432kbps. The F77 antenna consists of two units, the TT-3084A antenna and a single "Below Deck Unit". The Capsat antennae radome is a mere 84 cm in diameter - considerably smaller than that typically associated with INMARSAT A or B. It was mounted above the forward port corner of the pilot house atop a reinforced mast. Below deck electronics consist of a single unit containing three analog RJ-11 interfaces, a single ISDN interface, two RS-232 serial interfaces, a USB interface [not functional on our test unit] and a standard Handset. This was mounted in the pilot house electronics space. The Capsat antennae and associated electronics were installed in Guam in mid February 2002 and the system began operational trials during the following cruise on February 24th. Tests of the Fleet 77 system consisted of Mini-M voice and fax both to and from the ship, 64kbs voice to and from the ship, MPDS connects to shore, and operational tests with the INMARSAT Command Center. The trial period completed May 12th after which the F77 became an integral part of the Ewing's communication suite. Results of these tests as well as latency and packet loss measurements made over various data connection types will be presented.

  3. An uncertainty analysis of air pollution externalities from road transport in Belgium in 2010.

    PubMed

    Int Panis, L; De Nocker, L; Cornelis, E; Torfs, R

    2004-12-01

    Although stricter standards for vehicles will reduce emissions to air significantly by 2010, a number of problems will remain, especially related to particulate concentrations in cities, ground-level ozone, and CO(2). To evaluate the impacts of new policy measures, tools need to be available that assess the potential benefits of these measures in terms of the vehicle fleet, fuel choice, modal choice, kilometers driven, emissions, and the impacts on public health and related external costs. The ExternE accounting framework offers the most up to date and comprehensive methodology to assess marginal external costs of energy-related pollutants. It combines emission models, air dispersion models at local and regional scales with dose-response functions and valuation rules. Vito has extended this accounting framework with data and models related to the future composition of the vehicle fleet and transportation demand to evaluate the impact of new policy proposals on air quality and aggregated (total) external costs by 2010. Special attention was given to uncertainty analysis. The uncertainty for more than 100 different parameters was combined in Monte Carlo simulations to assess the range of possible outcomes and the main drivers of these results. Although the impacts from emission standards and total fleet mileage look dominant at first, a number of other factors were found to be important as well. This includes the number of diesel vehicles, inspection and maintenance (high-emitter cars), use of air conditioning, and heavy duty transit traffic.

  4. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the...

  5. How Well Do We Know the Future of CO2 Emissions? Projecting Fleet Emissions from Light Duty Vehicle Technology Drivers.

    PubMed

    Martin, Niall P D; Bishop, Justin D K; Boies, Adam M

    2017-03-07

    While the UK has committed to reduce CO2 emissions to 80% of 1990 levels by 2050, transport accounts for nearly a fourth of all emissions and the degree to which decarbonization can occur is highly uncertain. We present a new methodology using vehicle and powertrain parameters within a Bayesian framework to determine the impact of engineering vehicle improvements on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Our results show how design changes in vehicle parameters (e.g., mass, engine size, and compression ratio) result in fuel consumption improvements from a fleet-wide mean of 5.6 L/100 km in 2014 to 3.0 L/100 km by 2030. The change in vehicle efficiency coupled with increases in vehicle numbers and fleet-wide activity result in a total fleet-wide reduction of 41 ± 10% in 2030, relative to 2012. Concerted internal combustion engine improvements result in a 48 ± 10% reduction of CO2 emissions, while efforts to increase the number of diesel vehicles within the fleet had little additional effect. Increasing plug-in and all-electric vehicles reduced CO2 emissions by less (42 ± 10% reduction) than concerted internal combustion engines improvements. However, if the grid decarbonizes, electric vehicles reduce emissions by 45 ± 9% with further reduction potential to 2050.

  6. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the Turning... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety...

  7. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the Turning... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety...

  8. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the Turning... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety...

  9. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the Turning... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1864-10 - How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cold temperature NMHC standards. 86.1864-10 Section 86.1864-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards. (a) Applicability. Cold temperature NMHC.... Full useful life requirements for cold temperature NMHC standards are defined in § 86.1805-04(g)....

  11. 40 CFR 86.1864-10 - How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cold temperature NMHC standards. 86.1864-10 Section 86.1864-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards. (a) Applicability. Cold temperature NMHC exhaust emission standards apply to the following vehicles, subject to the...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1864-10 - How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cold temperature NMHC standards. 86.1864-10 Section 86.1864-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards. (a) Applicability. Cold temperature NMHC exhaust emission standards apply to the following vehicles, subject to the...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1864-10 - How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cold temperature NMHC standards. 86.1864-10 Section 86.1864-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards. (a) Applicability. Cold temperature NMHC exhaust emission standards apply to the following vehicles, subject to the...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1864-10 - How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cold temperature NMHC standards. 86.1864-10 Section 86.1864-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards. (a) Applicability. Cold temperature NMHC exhaust emission standards apply to the following vehicles, subject to the...

  15. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Customer Service Bureau, Attention: Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use...

  16. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Customer Service Bureau, Attention: Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use...

  17. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Customer Service Bureau, Attention: Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use...

  18. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Customer Service Bureau, Attention: Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use...

  19. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Customer Service Bureau, Attention: Motor Equipment Activity. Submit requests for more than five vehicles... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use...

  20. 77 FR 23118 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Blessing of the Fleet; Bayou La Batre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Blessing of the Fleet; Bayou La Batre; Bayou La Batre, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce Special Local Regulations for the Blessing...

  1. Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings: Today's Trends in Project Finance, Clean Fuel Fleets, Combined Heat& Power, Emissions Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-07-01

    The Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings covers today's trends in project finance, combined heat& power, clean fuel fleets and emissions trading. The guide is directed at campus facilities and business managers and contains general guidance, contact information and case studies from colleges and universities across the country.

  2. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system. Volume 2: Market and economic analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs, and airline profits when implemented into the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets is assessed. The potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system over the forecast period, 1973-1990, are estimated.

  3. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Golden Gate National Recreation Area

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity's Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies' fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. GGNRA identified 182 vehicles in its fleet, which are under the management of the U.S. General Services Administration. Fleet vehicle mission categories are defined in Section 4, and while the GGNRA vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and law enforcement missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The selected vehicles included sedans, trucks, and sport-utility vehicles. This report will show that battery electric vehicles and/or PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for support vehicles and PHEVs provide the same for law enforcement, because each has a sufficient range for individual trips and time is available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These charging events

  4. Medium-Duty Plug-in Electric Delivery Truck Fleet Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Prohaska, Robert; Ragatz, Adam; Simpson, Mike; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-06-29

    In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium-duty electric vehicle (EV) operating behavior based on in-use data collected from Smith Newton electric delivery vehicles and compare their performance and operation to conventional diesel trucks operating in the same fleet. The vehicles' drive cycles and operation are analyzed and compared to demonstrate the importance of matching specific EV technologies to the appropriate operational duty cycle. The results of this analysis show that the Smith Newton EVs demonstrated a 68% reduction in energy consumption over the data reporting period compared to the conventional diesel vehicles, as well as a 46.4% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions based on the local energy generation source.

  5. Medium-Duty Plug-In Electric Delivery Truck Fleet Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Prohaska, Robert; Ragatz, Adam; Simpson, Mike; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium-duty electric vehicle (EV) operating behavior based on in-use data collected from Smith Newton electric delivery vehicles and compare their performance and operation to conventional diesel trucks operating in the same fleet. The vehicles' drive cycles and operation are analyzed and compared to demonstrate the importance of matching specific EV technologies to the appropriate operational duty cycle. The results of this analysis show that the Smith Newton EVs demonstrated a 68% reduction in energy consumption over the data reporting period compared to the conventional diesel vehicles, as well as a 46.4% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions based on the local energy generation source.

  6. Medium-Duty Plug-In Electric Delivery Truck Fleet Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Prohaska, Robert; Ragatz, Adam; Simpson, Mike; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-04-13

    In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium-duty electric vehicle (EV) operating behavior based on in-use data collected from Smith Newton electric delivery vehicles and compare their performance and operation to conventional diesel trucks operating in the same fleet. The vehicles' drive cycles and operation are analyzed and compared to demonstrate the importance of matching specific EV technologies to the appropriate operational duty cycle. The results of this analysis show that the Smith Newton EVs demonstrated a 68% reduction in energy consumption over the data reporting period compared to the conventional diesel vehicles, as well as a 46.4% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions based on the local energy generation source.

  7. Scheduling Earth Observing Fleets Using Evolutionary Algorithms: Problem Description and Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Morris, Robert; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe work in progress concerning multi-instrument, multi-satellite scheduling. Most, although not all, Earth observing instruments currently in orbit are unique. In the relatively near future, however, we expect to see fleets of Earth observing spacecraft, many carrying nearly identical instruments. This presents a substantially new scheduling challenge. Inspired by successful commercial applications of evolutionary algorithms in scheduling domains, this paper presents work in progress regarding the use of evolutionary algorithms to solve a set of Earth observing related model problems. Both the model problems and the software are described. Since the larger problems will require substantial computation and evolutionary algorithms are embarrassingly parallel, we discuss our parallelization techniques using dedicated and cycle-scavenged workstations.

  8. Particle swarm optimization method for the control of a fleet of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkadi, A.; Ciarletta, L.; Theilliol, D.

    2015-11-01

    This paper concerns a control approach of a fleet of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) based on virtual leader. Among others, optimization methods are used to develop the virtual leader control approach, particularly the particle swarm optimization method (PSO). The goal is to find optimal positions at each instant of each UAV to guarantee the best performance of a given task by minimizing a predefined objective function. The UAVs are able to organize themselves on a 2D plane in a predefined architecture, following a mission led by a virtual leader and simultaneously avoiding collisions between various vehicles of the group. The global proposed method is independent from the model or the control of a particular UAV. The method is tested in simulation on a group of UAVs whose model is treated as a double integrator. Test results for the different cases are presented.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRU WASTE TRANSPORTATION FLEET--A SUCCESS STORY

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Murthy; Morrison, Cindy; Brown, Mike

    2003-02-27

    Since March 1999, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), as a repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. More than 1,450 shipments of TRU waste for WIPP disposal have been completed, and the WIPP is currently receiving 12 to 16 shipments per week from five DOE sites around the nation. One of the largest fleets of Type B packagings supports the transportation of TRU waste to WIPP. This paper discusses the development of this fleet since the original Certificate of Compliance (C of C) for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) was issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1989. Evolving site programs, closure schedules of major sites, and the TRU waste inventory at the various DOE sites have directed the sizing and packaging mix of this fleet. This paper discusses the key issues that guided this fleet development, including the following: While the average weight of a 55-gallon drum packaging debris could be less than 300 pounds (lbs.), drums containing sludge waste or compacted waste could approach the maximum allowable weight of 1,000 lbs. A TRUPACT-II shipment may consist of three TRUPACT-II packages, each of which is limited to a total weight of 19,250 lbs. Payload assembly weights dictated by ''as-built'' TRUPACT-II weights limit each drum to an average weight of 312 lbs when three TRUPACT-IIs are shipped. To optimize the shipment of heavier drums, the HalfPACT packaging was designed as a shorter and lighter version of the TRUPACT-II to accommodate a heavier load. Additional packaging concepts are currently under development, including the ''TRUPACT-III'' packaging being designed to address ''oversized'' boxes that are currently not shippable in the TRUPACT-II or HalfPACT due to size constraints. Shipment optimization is applicable not only to the addition of new

  10. A comparative analysis of alternative fuels for the INEL vehicle fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Priebe, S.; Boyer, W.; Church, K.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comparative systems analysis of various alternative fuels for use in the buses, mid-size vehicles, and automobiles that make up the vehicle fleet at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The study was performed as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program for EG G Idaho, Inc. Regulations will require the INEL to reduce total gasoline and diesel fuel use 10% by 1995 compared with 1991 levels, and will require that 50% of all new vehicles be fueled by some type of alternative fuel by 1998. A model was developed to analyze how these goals could be achieved, and what the cost would be to implement the goals.

  11. A comparative analysis of alternative fuels for the INEL vehicle fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Priebe, S.; Boyer, W.; Church, K.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comparative systems analysis of various alternative fuels for use in the buses, mid-size vehicles, and automobiles that make up the vehicle fleet at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The study was performed as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program for EG&G Idaho, Inc. Regulations will require the INEL to reduce total gasoline and diesel fuel use 10% by 1995 compared with 1991 levels, and will require that 50% of all new vehicles be fueled by some type of alternative fuel by 1998. A model was developed to analyze how these goals could be achieved, and what the cost would be to implement the goals.

  12. Affordable thermal imaging systems for the UK light-armored vehicle fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Ian

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the background to the planned upgrade of the UK Light Armoured Vehicle fleet, focussing specifically on the introduction of Thermal Imaging and Tactical Navigation systems which meet the requirement to conduct 24 hour operations and enhance the situational awareness of the crew. The main bulk of the paper will concentrate on the Battle Group Thermal Imaging (BGTI) system(s) selected by the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) to be installed on the Warrior Armoured Infantry Fighting Vehicle (AIFV) and Scimitar Close Recce vehicle. In particular the paper will describe the Gunners Sight, the integrated Commanders Crew Station, the Tactical Navigation sub-system and the interfacing of the Thales Optronics BGTI system to the General Dynamics Bowman Radio and Battlefield Management System (BMS). Throughout the paper, the Author will make reference to the need to offer affordable solutions that ensure the total cost to the UK MoD is kept within their budget.

  13. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Stennis Space Center

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which NASA Stennis Space Center (Stennis) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  14. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for United States Coast Guard Headquarters

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which the United States Coast Guard Headquarters (USCG HQ) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  15. [Regularity of psychophysiological adaptation to military-professional activity among staff of Northern Fleet].

    PubMed

    Sementsov, V K; Khankevich, Iu R; Mosiagin, I G; Maruniak, S V; Chesnokova, V N

    2010-03-01

    There were examined regularities of psycho-physiological adaptation of different categories of military-navy specialists, were detected periods of maximum decrease of compensation abilities among sailor-men and staff reserve of Naval Fleet from students. Were educed psycho-physiological strategies of adaptation of military-navy specialists in dependence of reference level of adaptation capabilities. Was detected the influence on the process of psycho-physiological adaptation to service activity of young specialists of a complex of psychological and social factors. Was educed the influence of ulterior motive on success of psycho-physiological adaptation to new conditions of environment. Was elaborated a complex of measures on optimization of accompaniment of adaptation of military-navy specialists and was given financial evaluation of it's implementation.

  16. Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public Transit Agency Vehicle Fleet Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Weigel, Brent; Southworth, Frank; Meyer, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews calculation tools available for quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with different types of public transit service, and their usefulness in helping a transit agency to reduce its carbon footprint through informed vehicle and fuel procurement decisions. Available calculators fall into two categories: registry/inventory based calculators most suitable for standardized voluntary reporting, carbon trading, and regulatory compliance; and multi-modal life cycle analysis calculators that seek comprehensive coverage of all direct and indirect emissions. Despite significant progress in calculator development, no single calculator as yet contains all of the information needed by transit agencies to develop a truly comprehensive, life cycle analysis-based accounting of the emissions produced by its vehicle fleet operations, and for a wide range of vehicle/fuel technology options.

  17. MSAT wide-area fleet management: End-user requirements and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, Allister

    1995-01-01

    MSAT (Mobile SATellite) Services will become a reality in North America in 1995. MSAT will provide wide-area voice, data and fax services to land, marine and aeronautical mobile users anywhere in North America including 200 nautical miles off the coasts and into the Arctic waters. MSAT will also convey GPS position information from mobiles to dispatch centers. One broad application of MSAT is Wide Area Fleet Management (WAFM). This paper defines WAFM, outlines end-user requirements and identifies potential applications of MSAT WAFM. The paper draws from information obtained in several preMSAT WAFM field trials in land, marine and aeronautical mobile environments. The paper concludes with an outline of the potential benefits of MSAT WAFM.

  18. Fossil fleet transition with fuel changes and large scale variable renewable integration

    SciTech Connect

    James, Revis; Hesler, Stephen; Bistline, John

    2015-03-31

    Variability in demand as seen by grid-connected dispatchable generators can increase due to factors such as greater production from variable generation assets (for example, wind and solar), increased reliance on demand response or customer-driven automation, and aggregation of loads. This variability results a need for these generators to operate in a range of different modes, collectively referred to as “flexible operations.” This study is designed to inform power companies, researchers, and policymakers of the scope and trends in increasing levels of flexible operations as well as reliability challenges and impacts for dispatchable assets. Background Because there is rarely a direct monetization of the value of operational flexibility, the decision to provide such flexibility is typically dependent on unit- and region-specific decisions made by asset owners. It is very likely that much greater and more widespread flexible operations capabilities will be needed due to increased variability in demand seen by grid-connected generators, uncertainty regarding investment in new units to provide adequate operational flexibility, and the retirement of older, uncontrolled sub-critical pulverized coal units. Objective To enhance understanding of the technical challenges and operational impacts associated with dispatchable assets needed to increase operational flexibility and support variable demand. Approach The study approach consists of three elements: a literature review of relevant prior studies, analysis of detailed scenarios for evolution of the future fleet over the next 35 years, and engineering assessment of the degree and scope of technical challenges associated with transformation to the future fleet. The study approach integrated two key elements rarely brought together in a single analysis—1) long-term capacity planning, which enables modeling of unit retirements and new asset investments, and 2) unit commitment analysis, which permits examination of

  19. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Building a Reference Cruise Catalog for the Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Clark, P. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. A core element of this infrastructure is a master catalog of research vessels, cruises, sensor systems, underway datasets, navigation products, field reports, event logs, file formats, people, organizations, and funding awards that is maintained uniformly across the research fleet. All NSF-supported vessel operators now submit their underway cruise data and documentation directly to R2R, per the revised Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Sample and Data Policy published in 2011. R2R ingests this content into the fleet catalog, assigning globally unique and persistent identifiers at the cruise, dataset, and file (granule) levels. The catalog is aligned with community-standard vocabularies, working collaboratively with the NOAA Data Centers, UNOLS Office, and pan-European SeaDataNet project; and includes links to related data at other inter/national repositories. In response to community demand, we are extending the catalog to include instrument-specific metadata such as installation details, patch tests, and calibration results. The entire R2R catalog is published on the Web as "Linked Data", making it easily accessible to encourage integration with other repositories. Selected content is also published in formal metadata records according to ISO and W3C standards, suitable for submission to long-term archives. We are deploying both faceted (classification/filter) and Web map-based browse and search interfaces.

  20. Optimal selection of space transportation fleet to meet multi-mission space program needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Montoya, Alex J.

    1989-01-01

    A space program that spans several decades will be comprised of a collection of missions such as low earth orbital space station, a polar platform, geosynchronous space station, lunar base, Mars astronaut mission, and Mars base. The optimal selection of a fleet of several recoverable and expendable launch vehicles, upper stages, and interplanetary spacecraft necessary to logistically establish and support these space missions can be examined by means of a linear integer programming optimization model. Such a selection must be made because the economies of scale which comes from producing large quantities of a few standard vehicle types, rather than many, will be needed to provide learning curve effects to reduce the overall cost of space transportation if these future missions are to be affordable. Optimization model inputs come from data and from vehicle designs. Each launch vehicle currently in existence has a launch history, giving rise to statistical estimates of launch reliability. For future, not-yet-developed launch vehicles, theoretical reliabilities corresponding to the maturity of the launch vehicles' technology and the degree of design redundancy must be estimated. Also, each such launch vehicle has a certain historical or estimated development cost, tooling cost, and a variable cost. The cost of a launch used in this paper includes the variable cost plus an amortized portion of the fixed and development costs. The integer linear programming model will have several constraint equations based on assumptions of mission mass requirements, volume requirements, and number of astronauts needed. The model will minimize launch vehicle logistic support cost and will select the most desirable launch vehicle fleet.

  1. An Analysis of the Impact of Variation in Mean Time Between Demand on Air Force Fleet Level Aircraft Parts Inventories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    21 vi OIM Operating Requirement (OIM OPERATING RQMT) ....................................... 21 Total Base Stock Level TOT BASE STK LVL (FULL...21 Depot Safety Level DEPOT SAFETY LVL (FULL) .................................................... 22...2008). Total Base Stock Level TOT BASE STK LVL (FULL) For each pick-off point, the Total Base Stock Level is the sum of the OIM base Order &Shipping

  2. Military Airlift: DOD Needs to Take Steps to Manage Workload Distributed to the Civil Reserve Air Fleet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    attempt to ensure that smaller carriers earn enough profit from performing peacetime airlift missions. DOD intended for these efforts to strengthen the...will evaluate the market, the carriers and their business base, and the existing business models within industry and government in order to provide...information. Connect with GAO on Facebook, Flickr , Twitter, and YouTube. Subscribe to our RSS Feeds or E-mail Updates. Listen to our Podcasts. Visit GAO on

  3. A Repair Network Concept for Air Force Maintenance: Conclusions from Analysis of C-130, F-16, and KC-135 Fleets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    AF/ A4L); Maj Gen Gary T. McCoy, formerly Director of Logistics Readi- ness, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics, Installations, and...Thomas Lang, Kristin F. Lynch, Amy L. Maletic , Hugh G. Massey, James M. Masters, Raymond A. Pyles, Ricardo Sanchez, Jerry M. Sollinger, Brent Thomas...Lang, Amy L. Maletic , Hugh G. Massey, James M. Masters, Ronald G. McGarvey, Jerry M. Sollinger, Brent Thomas, and Robert S. Tripp, Analysis of the

  4. Executive Order 13693: Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade; Guidance for Federal Agencies on Executive Order 13693 -- Federal Fleet Management

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) are issuing comprehensive guidance on the federal fleet requirements of Executive Order (E.O.) 13693, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade (E.O. 13693), to help federal agencies subject to the executive order develop an overall approach for reducing total fleet greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fleet-wide per-mile GHG emissions, and ensure the approach helps these agencies meet their requirements. Three key GHG emissions reduction strategies - right-sizing fleets to mission, increasing fleet fuel efficiency, and displacing petroleum with alternative fuel use - are essential to meeting the requirements and are discussed further in this document. This guidance document is intended to help agency Chief Sustainability Officers (CSOs) and headquarters fleet managers craft tailored executable plans that achieve the purpose of E.O. 13693. The guidance will assist agencies in completing the first phase of a comprehensive fleet management framework by identifying the strategies each agency will then implement to meet or exceed its requirements.

  5. A Maximum Expected Covering Problem for Locating and Dispatching Two Classes of Military Medical Evacuation Air Assets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    of American Scientists. Uh -60 black hawk, uh - 60l black hawk, uh -60q medevac, mh-60g pave hawk, hh-60g pave hawk, ch-60 sea hawk. Accessed November 13...treated within 24 hours. The fleet includes two classes of air assets to manage: – U.S. Army helicopters such as the UH -60A/L Black Hawk or HH-60...Specifically, the U.S. Army air assets ( UH -60A/L and HH-60 MEDEVAC) and the U.S. Air Force air asset (HH-60G Pave Hawk) are primarily responsible for

  6. Fleet Fatality Risk and its Sensitivity to Vehicle Mass Change in Frontal Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crashes, Using a Combined Empirical and Theoretical Model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yibing; Nusholtz, Guy S

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to analytically model the fatality risk in frontal vehicle-to-vehicle crashes of the current vehicle fleet, and its sensitivity to vehicle mass change. A model is built upon an empirical risk ratio-mass ratio relationship from field data and a theoretical mass ratio-velocity change ratio relationship dictated by conservation of momentum. The fatality risk of each vehicle is averaged over the closing velocity distribution to arrive at the mean fatality risks. The risks of the two vehicles are summed and averaged over all possible crash partners to find the societal mean fatality risk associated with a subject vehicle of a given mass from a fleet specified by a mass distribution function. Based on risk exponent and mass distribution from a recent fleet, the subject vehicle mean fatality risk is shown to increase, while at the same time that for the partner vehicles decreases, as the mass of the subject vehicle decreases. The societal mean fatality risk, the sum of these, incurs a penalty with respect to a fleet with complete mass equality. This penalty reaches its minimum (~8% for the example fleet) for crashes with a subject vehicle whose mass is close to the fleet mean mass. The sensitivity, i.e., the rate of change of the societal mean fatality risk with respect to the mass of the subject vehicle is assessed. Results from two sets of fully regression-based analyses, Kahane (2012) and Van Auken and Zellner (2013), are approximately compared with the current result. The general magnitudes of the results are comparable, but differences exist at a more detailed level. The subject vehicle-oriented societal mean fatality risk is averaged over all possible subject vehicle masses of a given fleet to obtain the overall mean fatality risk of the fleet. It is found to increase approximately linearly at a rate of about 0.8% for each 100 lb decrease in mass of all vehicles in the fleet.

  7. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the use of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site (FVNHS) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) into the agencies’ fleet. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to EV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles) could fulfill the mission requirements. FVNHS identified three vehicles in its fleet for consideration. While the FVNHS vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and pool missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The logged vehicles included a pickup truck and a minivan. This report will show that BEVs and PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for both mission categories, because each has sufficient range for individual trips and time available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These charging events could occur at the vehicle’s home base, high-use work areas, or in intermediate areas along routes that the vehicles frequently travel. Replacement of vehicles in the current fleet would result in

  8. Assessing the Operational Readiness of Landing Craft Air Cushion Vessels Using Statistical Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Beachmaster Unit ONE C/A Craft Alteration CASREP Casualty Report CBM Condition Based Maintenance CCI Corrosion Control Inspection CESE...Allowance List CSMP Current Ship Maintenance Project CSR Craft Status Report CRAFTALT Craft Alteration C4N Command, Control , Communications...Assault Craft Unit (ACU)-5 manages a fleet of 40 Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) hovercrafts from its base at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton

  9. U.S. and Chinese Air Superiority Capabilities: An Assessment of Relative Advantage, 1996-2017

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    work done for RAND Project AIR FORCE documented in The U.S.-China Military Scorecard : Forces, Geography, and the Evolving Balance of Power, 1996–2017...reading: Tallying the U.S.-China Military Scorecard : Relative Capabilities and the Balance of Power, 1996–2017, RB-9858/1-AF (available at www.rand.org/t...inventory, and its fleet remains both more advanced and larger than China’s. Balanced against the aggregate U.S. advantage, however, are geographic

  10. Assessment of carbon monoxide (CO) adjusted non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions of a motor fleet - A long tunnel study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Tzu; Chen, Sheng-Po; Chang, Chih-Chung; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Liao, Wei-Cheng; Su, Yuan-Chang; Wu, Yue-Chuen; Wang, Chieh-Heng; Wang, Jia-Lin

    2014-06-01

    Speciated hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and CO were simultaneously measured by evenly distributed samples along the entire length (12.9 km) of the tunnel in different traffic conditions. Four passes (two round-trips) were made at four different fleet speeds (i.e., 45, 65, 75 and 85 km h-1). Individual NMHC and CO mixing ratios were observed to be sensitive to the fleet speed, which is compounded by driving conditions and traffic volumes. We propose using ratios of NMHCs to CO to cancel out the factor of traffic volumes to determine CO-normalized NMHC emissions, such that a less biased comparison can be made between different fleet speeds in this study and even between different studies. Moreover, to obtain robust CO-normalized NMHC emissions which are sufficiently representative of the fleet speeds, only samples collected deep inside the long-tunnels between 8 and 12 km were used. Of the 61 target NMHCs, isomers of butane, pentane, ethylene, acetylene and toluene were the most abundant species regardless of the driving conditions. We observed that different driving conditions not only affected the emission strengths but also altered the compositions of the NMHCs. To simplify the data analysis, the target NMHCs were classified into four chemical groups, i.e., alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and alkynes. For the slower and more congested driving condition (fleet speed = 45 km h-1), the CO-normalized NMHC emissions were the highest, with alkanes contributing to approximately 60% of the total NMHC levels, suggesting poorer fuel utilization at slower driving conditions. In terms of the CO-normalized ozone forming potentials (OFPs), the contribution of the alkanes diminished dramatically to approximately 9-22% despite their high weight percentage, whereas the contribution of the alkenes was enhanced significantly to 50-60% from their weight percent of only approximately 26%. Our total NMHC to CO ratios of 0.06-0.20 for the four fleet speeds generally fall within the range constrained

  11. The usefulness of air quality monitoring and air quality impact studies before the introduction of reformulated gasolines in developing countries. Mexico City, a real case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, H. A.; Torres, R. J.

    Urban air pollution is a major environmental problem in several developing countries in the world. This phenomenon seems to be related to the growth of both the urban population in large cities and the number of old and poorly maintained car fleets. The expected rise of population in the next century in countries which suffer from lack of capital for air pollution control, means that there is a great potential for the worsening of the air quality. The worldwide promoted policy to phase out lead in gasolines has not proved to be an adequate option in improving the environmental quality. Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) represents a case in which the introduction of reformulated gasolines in an old car fleet has given as a result the reduction of the airborne lead levels but has worsened the ozone concentration of its urban atmosphere. This paper critically analyzes the chronological evolution of the ozone air pollution problem in MCMA after the successive occurrence of several changes in the formulation of low leaded and unleaded gasolines. It also presents evidences of the usefulness potential of air quality monitoring activities and air quality impact studies on the definition of realistic fuel reformulation policies of developing countries.

  12. Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet: Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-Flow Estimation -- VICE 2.0; Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, John

    2015-04-02

    Presentation by Senior Engineer John Gonzales on Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet using the Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-flow Estimation (VICE) 2.0 model.

  13. Impact of Market Behavior, Fleet Composition, and Ancillary Services on Revenue Sufficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Frew, Bethany; Gallo, Giulia; Brinkman, Gregory; Milligan, Michael; Clark, Kara; Bloom, Aaron

    2016-06-01

    Revenue insufficiency, or the missing money problem, occurs when the revenues that generators earn from the market are not sufficient to cover both fixed and variable costs to remain in the market and/or justify investments in new capacity, which may be needed for reliability. The near-zero marginal cost of variable renewable generators further exacerbates these revenue challenges. Estimating the extent of the missing money problem in current electricity markets is an important, nontrivial task that requires representing both how the power system operates and how market participants behave. This paper explores the missing money problem using a production cost model that represented a simplified version of the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) energy-only market for the years 2012-2014. We evaluate how various market structures -- including market behavior, ancillary services, and changing fleet compositions -- affect net revenues in this ERCOT-like system. In most production cost modeling exercises, resources are assumed to offer their marginal capabilities at marginal costs. Although this assumption is reasonable for feasibility studies and long-term planning, it does not adequately consider the market behaviors that impact revenue sufficiency. In this work, we simulate a limited set of market participant strategic bidding behaviors by means of different sets of markups; these markups are applied to the true production costs of all gas generators, which are the most prominent generators in ERCOT. Results show that markups can help generators increase their net revenues overall, although net revenues may increase or decrease depending on the technology and the year under study. Results also confirm that conventional, variable-cost-based production cost simulations do not capture prices accurately, and this particular feature calls for proxies for strategic behaviors (e.g., markups) and more accurate representations of how electricity markets work. The

  14. Technical, economic, and environmental impact study of converting Uzbekistan transportation fleets to natural gas operation. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-30

    This study, conducted by Radian International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility (technical, economic and environmental) of converting the Uzbek transportation fleets to natural gas operation. The study focuses on the conversion of high fuel use vehicles and locomotives to liquefied natural gas (LNG) and the conversion of moderate fuel use veicles to compressed natural gas (CNG). The report is divided into the following sections: Executive Summary; (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Country Background; (3.0) Characterization of Uzbek Transportation Fuels; (4.0) Uzbek Vehicle and Locomotive Fleet Characterization; (5.0) Uzbek Natural Gas Vehicle Conversion Shops; (6.0) Uzbek Natural Gas Infrastructure; (7.0) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) for Vehicular Fuel in Uzbekistan; (8.0) Economic Feasibility Study; (9.0) Environmental Impact Analysis; References; Appendices A - S.

  15. Contractor Logistics Support in the U.S. Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    the Sacramento ALC at McClellan AFB . After the BRAC Commission voted in FY 1995 to close McClellan , the Air Force chose CLS for the F-117. The... Sacramento ALC at McClellan AFB would also have been the depot for the F-22. The original sustainment plan for organic sup- port was premised on a fleet of...major depots until the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission in 1995 recommended closure of two ALCs.1 Kelly and McClellan AFBs closed in

  16. 40 CFR 86.1860-04 - How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards. 86.1860-04 Section 86.1860-04 Protection of Environment... § 86.1860-04 How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards. (a)...

  17. Framework for Developing an Expert System-Based Decision Support System for Managing U.S. Army Directorates of Engineering and Housing Equipment Fleets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Developing an Expert System- Based Decision Support System for Managing U.S. Army Directorates of Engineering and Housing Equipment Fleets by Michael...Fuerst Donald Hicks Robert Neathammer Many U.S. Army installation Directorates of Engineering and Housing, having introduced equipment management systems...expert system to support fleet management decisions. Included are: (1) an outline of some of the decisions that equipment management systems can help

  18. 40 CFR 86.1860-17 - How to comply with the Tier 3 fleet-average standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1860-17 How to comply with the Tier 3... described in this section. Note that separate fleet-average calculations are required for the FTP and SFTP... to the nearest 0.001 g/mile for NMOG+NOX emissions and the nearest 0.001 g/test for...

  19. Dewey at Manila Bay: Lessons in Operational Art and Operational Leadership from America’s First Fleet Admiral

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-27

    63 Julian Thompson, The Lifeblood of War: Logistics in Armed Conflicts (London: Brassey ‟ s ... Brassey ‟ s , 1991. Traxel, David. 1898: The Birth of the American Century. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999. U.S. Joint Forces Command, The...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Leadership from America’s First Fleet Admiral 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S

  20. Distributed energy storage systems on the basis of electric-vehicle fleets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, A. Z.; Buzoverov, E. A.; Sheindlin, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Several power technologies directed to solving the problem of covering nonuniform loads in power systems are developed at the Joint Institute of High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences (JIHT RAS). One direction of investigations is the use of storage batteries of electric vehicles to compensate load peaks in the power system (V2G—vehicle-to-grid technology). The efficiency of energy storage systems based on electric vehicles with traditional energy-saving technologies is compared in the article by means of performing computations. The comparison is performed by the minimum-cost criterion for the peak energy supply to the system. Computations show that the distributed storage systems based on fleets of electric cars are efficient economically with their usage regime to 1 h/day. In contrast to traditional methods, the prime cost of regulation of the loads in the power system based on V2G technology is independent of the duration of the load compensation period (the duration of the consumption peak).

  1. A fleet leader experience with dry low emissions aeroderivative gas turbines (LM6000PB and PD)

    SciTech Connect

    Vandesteene, J.L.; De Witte, M.

    1998-07-01

    In January 1995, the world's first LM6000 dry low emissions (DLE) aeroderivative gas turbine supplied by GE M and I was successfully started up at Gent power plant. In November 1997, the world's first uprated LM6000, also equipped with the DLE combustion system, began commercial operation at Geel cogeneration facility. TEE handled the engineering, procurement, construction and commissioning of these projects as well as for several other repowering and cogeneration facilities based on high efficiency DLE aeroderivative gas turbines. By mid 1998, seven LM6000 DLE and one LM2500 DLE will be in commercial operation at several cogeneration and power plants in Belgium. The results of three years of experience with the LM engines are presented: the reasons why the LM engines were selected, the history of the different units, the maintenance organization, the fleet fired hours and availability, and the main technical issues like DLE combustor, LPT5 failures. The conclusion is that after having experienced several serious problems, the LM6000 and the DLE combustion system have matured and now seem sufficiently reliable. The actual performance data of the uprated engine are significantly better than initially expected.

  2. Protein S-sulfenylation is a fleeting molecular switch that regulates non-enzymatic oxidative folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beedle, Amy E. M.; Lynham, Steven; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi

    2016-08-01

    The post-translational modification S-sulfenylation functions as a key sensor of oxidative stress. Yet the dynamics of sulfenic acid in proteins remains largely elusive due to its fleeting nature. Here we use single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to directly capture the reactivity of an individual sulfenic acid embedded within the core of a single Ig domain of the titin protein. Our results demonstrate that sulfenic acid is a crucial short-lived intermediate that dictates the protein's fate in a conformation-dependent manner. When exposed to the solution, sulfenic acid rapidly undergoes further chemical modification, leading to irreversible protein misfolding; when cryptic in the protein's microenvironment, it readily condenses with a neighbouring thiol to create a protective disulfide bond, which assists the functional folding of the protein. This mechanism for non-enzymatic oxidative folding provides a plausible explanation for redox-modulated stiffness of proteins that are physiologically exposed to mechanical forces, such as cardiac titin.

  3. A heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing model for solving the LPG distribution problem: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onut, S.; Kamber, M. R.; Altay, G.

    2014-03-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an important management problem in the field of distribution and logistics. In VRPs, routes from a distribution point to geographically distributed points are designed with minimum cost and considering customer demands. All points should be visited only once and by one vehicle in one route. Total demand in one route should not exceed the capacity of the vehicle that assigned to that route. VRPs are varied due to real life constraints related to vehicle types, number of depots, transportation conditions and time periods, etc. Heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem is a kind of VRP that vehicles have different capacity and costs. There are two types of vehicles in our problem. In this study, it is used the real world data and obtained from a company that operates in LPG sector in Turkey. An optimization model is established for planning daily routes and assigned vehicles. The model is solved by GAMS and optimal solution is found in a reasonable time.

  4. Protein S-sulfenylation is a fleeting molecular switch that regulates non-enzymatic oxidative folding

    PubMed Central

    Beedle, Amy E. M.; Lynham, Steven; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    The post-translational modification S-sulfenylation functions as a key sensor of oxidative stress. Yet the dynamics of sulfenic acid in proteins remains largely elusive due to its fleeting nature. Here we use single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to directly capture the reactivity of an individual sulfenic acid embedded within the core of a single Ig domain of the titin protein. Our results demonstrate that sulfenic acid is a crucial short-lived intermediate that dictates the protein's fate in a conformation-dependent manner. When exposed to the solution, sulfenic acid rapidly undergoes further chemical modification, leading to irreversible protein misfolding; when cryptic in the protein's microenvironment, it readily condenses with a neighbouring thiol to create a protective disulfide bond, which assists the functional folding of the protein. This mechanism for non-enzymatic oxidative folding provides a plausible explanation for redox-modulated stiffness of proteins that are physiologically exposed to mechanical forces, such as cardiac titin. PMID:27546612

  5. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Fall 2006 Progress Update

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Thomas, H.; Sprik, S.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.

    2006-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project through a competitive solicitation process in 2003. The purpose of this project is to conduct an integrated field validation that simultaneously examines the performance of fuel cell vehicles and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure. Four industry teams have signed cooperative agreements with DOE and are supporting plans for more than 130 fuel cell vehicles and 20 hydrogen refueling stations over the 5-year project duration. This paper provides a status update covering the progress accomplished by the demonstration and validation project over the last six months; the first composite data products from the project were published in March 2006. The composite data products aggregate individual performance into a range that protects the intellectual property of the companies involved, while publicizing the progress the hydrogen and fuel cell industry is making as a whole relative to the program objectives and timeline. Updates to previously published composite data products, such as on-road fuel economy and vehicle/infrastructure safety, will be presented along with new composite data products, such as fuel cell stack efficiency and refueling behavior.

  6. Inspection/maintenance program evaluation: replicating the Denver Step Method for an Atlanta fleet.

    PubMed

    Corley, Elizabeth A; Dehart-Davis, Leisha; Lindner, Jim; Rodgers, Michael O

    2003-06-15

    The research presented in this paper employs the Step Method of Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) program evaluation to estimate the emissions reduction for an Atlanta I/M program. Stedman et al. (Stedman, D. H.; Bishop, G. A.; Aldrete, P.; Slott, R. S. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1997, 31, 927-931) introduced the Step Method of evaluation when they presented the results of a 1995 Denver I/M program evaluation. The research presented here replicates the original Denver Step Method analysis for a 1997 Atlanta I/M program. This evaluation was conducted separately for the nine outlying Atlanta counties and the four counties that are closest to the center of the city. The results of the analysis are similar to those found by Stedman et al. in Denver. While the Denver carbon monoxide (CO) weighted program benefit was 6.9%, the Atlanta area CO weighted program benefit is found to be 11.5% and 4.9% for the nine-county and four-county Atlanta areas, respectively. We conclude that the 1997 I/M program change in Atlanta yielded a noteworthy and observable change in fleet emissions.

  7. An AIS-based approach to calculate atmospheric emissions from the UK fishing fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coello, Jonathan; Williams, Ian; Hudson, Dominic A.; Kemp, Simon

    2015-08-01

    The fishing industry is heavily reliant on the use of fossil fuel and emits large quantities of greenhouse gases and other atmospheric pollutants. Methods used to calculate fishing vessel emissions inventories have traditionally utilised estimates of fuel efficiency per unit of catch. These methods have weaknesses because they do not easily allow temporal and geographical allocation of emissions. A large proportion of fishing and other small commercial vessels are also omitted from global shipping emissions inventories such as the International Maritime Organisation's Greenhouse Gas Studies. This paper demonstrates an activity-based methodology for the production of temporally- and spatially-resolved emissions inventories using data produced by Automatic Identification Systems (AIS). The methodology addresses the issue of how to use AIS data for fleets where not all vessels use AIS technology and how to assign engine load when vessels are towing trawling or dredging gear. The results of this are compared to a fuel-based methodology using publicly available European Commission fisheries data on fuel efficiency and annual catch. The results show relatively good agreement between the two methodologies, with an estimate of 295.7 kilotons of fuel used and 914.4 kilotons of carbon dioxide emitted between May 2012 and May 2013 using the activity-based methodology. Different methods of calculating speed using AIS data are also compared. The results indicate that using the speed data contained directly in the AIS data is preferable to calculating speed from the distance and time interval between consecutive AIS data points.

  8. Assessment of institutional barriers to the use of natural gas fuel in automotive vehicle fleets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jablonski, J.; Lent, L.; Lawrence, M.; White, L.

    1983-01-01

    Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe design and certification of natural gas vehicles and refueling stations; (2) excessively conservative or misapplied state and local regulations, including bridge and tunnel restrictions, restrictions on types of vehicles that may be fueled by natural gas, zoning regulations that prohibit operation of refueling stations, parking restrictions, application of LPG standards to LNG vehicles, and unintentionally unsafe vehicle or refueling station requirements; (3) need for clarification of EPA's tampering enforcement policy; (4) the U.S. hydrocarbon standard; (5) uncertainty concerning state utility commission jurisdiction; (6) sale for resale prohibitions imposed by natural gas utility companies or state utility commissions; (7) uncertainty of the effects of conversions to natural gas on vehicle manufactures warranties; and (8) need for a natural gas to gasoline equivalent units conversion factor for use in calculation of state road use taxes.

  9. Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management Suite: Asset Fault Signature Database

    SciTech Connect

    Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck; Randall Bickford; Richard Rusaw

    2015-06-01

    Proactive online monitoring in the nuclear industry is being explored using the Electric Power Research Institute’s Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software. The FW-PHM Suite is a set of web-based diagnostic and prognostic tools and databases that serves as an integrated health monitoring architecture. The FW-PHM Suite has four main modules: (1) Diagnostic Advisor, (2) Asset Fault Signature (AFS) Database, (3) Remaining Useful Life Advisor, and (4) Remaining Useful Life Database. The paper focuses on the AFS Database of the FW-PHM Suite, which is used to catalog asset fault signatures. A fault signature is a structured representation of the information that an expert would use to first detect and then verify the occurrence of a specific type of fault. The fault signatures developed to assess the health status of generator step-up transformers are described in the paper. The developed fault signatures capture this knowledge and implement it in a standardized approach, thereby streamlining the diagnostic and prognostic process. This will support the automation of proactive online monitoring techniques in nuclear power plants to diagnose incipient faults, perform proactive maintenance, and estimate the remaining useful life of assets.

  10. The Telesupervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF) Architecture: Coordination of Multiple Oceanic Robot Boats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfes, Alberto; Podnar, Gregg W.; Dolan, John M.; Stancliff, Stephen; Lin, Ellie; Hosler, Jeffrey C.; Ames, Troy J.; Higinbotham, John; Moisan, John R.; Moisan, Tiffany A.; Kulczycki, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    Earth science research must bridge the gap between the atmosphere and the ocean to foster understanding of Earth s climate and ecology. Ocean sensing is typically done with satellites, buoys, and crewed research ships. The limitations of these systems include the fact that satellites are often blocked by cloud cover, and buoys and ships have spatial coverage limitations. This paper describes a multi-robot science exploration software architecture and system called the Telesupervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF). TAOSF supervises and coordinates a group of robotic boats, the OASIS platforms, to enable in-situ study of phenomena in the ocean/atmosphere interface, as well as on the ocean surface and sub-surface. The OASIS platforms are extended deployment autonomous ocean surface vehicles, whose development is funded separately by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). TAOSF allows a human operator to effectively supervise and coordinate multiple robotic assets using a sliding autonomy control architecture, where the operating mode of the vessels ranges from autonomous control to teleoperated human control. TAOSF increases data-gathering effectiveness and science return while reducing demands on scientists for robotic asset tasking, control, and monitoring. The first field application chosen for TAOSF is the characterization of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). We discuss the overall TAOSF architecture, describe field tests conducted under controlled conditions using rhodamine dye as a HAB simulant, present initial results from these tests, and outline the next steps in the development of TAOSF.

  11. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  12. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Climate Change on Children's Health: Session Two: Air Quality Impacts MODERATOR: Susan Anenberg, EPA Meredith McCormack, Johns ... University • Effects of Climate Change on Children’s Health: Air Quality Impacts Frederica Perera, Columbia University • Air quality Impacts ...

  13. Office of Inspector General audit report on aircraft and air service management programs

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque) owns seven aircraft that support defense programs, research and development efforts, emergency response programs, and official travel of Government and contractor employees. An Office of Inspector General (OIG) report, issued in 1994, identified concerns with Albuquerque`s cost for air service. Since that report, there have been reductions in cost and personnel indicating changes in air service requirements. This audit was conducted to determine (1) whether costs to operate Albuquerque`s aircraft were excessive and (2) if individual aircraft in the fleet were justified.

  14. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 9, No. 2. Volume 9, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Scarpellini, Nanette (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The following articles from the "Journal of Air Transportation" were processed: Future Requirements and Concepts for Cabins of Blended Wing Body Configurations:A Scenario Approach; Future Scenarios for the European Airline Industry: A Marketing-Based Perspective; An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of the Air Transport System; Modeling the Effect of Enlarged Seating Room on Passenger Preferences of Domestic Airlines in Taiwan; Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Pricing; and Future Airport Capacity Utilization in Germany: Peaked Congestion and/or Idle Capacity).

  15. Quantification of vehicle fleet PM10 particulate matter emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources using tunnel measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-03-01

    Road tunnels act like large laboratories; they provide an excellent environment to quantify atmospheric particles emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources due to their known boundary conditions. Current work compares the High Volume, Dichotomous Stacked Filter Unit and Partisol Air Sampler for coarse, PM10 and PM2.5 particle concentration measurement and found that they do not differ significantly (p = 95%). PM2.5 fraction contributes 66% of PM10 proportions and significantly influenced by traffic (turbulence) and meteorological conditions. Mass emission factors for PM10 varies from 21.3 ± 1.9 to 28.8 ± 3.4 mg/vkm and composed of Motorcycle (0.0003-0.001 mg/vkm), Cars (26.1-33.4 mg/vkm), LDVs (2.4-3.0 mg/vkm), HDVs (2.2-2.8 mg/vkm) and Buses (0.1 mg/vkm). Based on Lawrence et al. (2013), source apportionment modelling, the PM10 emission of brake wear (3.8-4.4 mg/vkm), petrol exhaust (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), diesel exhaust (7.2-8.3 mg/vkm), re-suspension (9-10.4 mg/vkm), road surface wear (3.9-4.5 mg/vkm), and unexplained (7.2 mg/vkm) were also calculated. The current study determined that the combined non-exhaust fleet PM10 emission factor (16.7-19.3 mg/vkm) are higher than the combined exhaust emission factor (11.1-12.8 mg/vkm). Thus, highlight the significance of non-exhaust emissions and the need for legislation and abatement strategies to reduce their contributions to ambient PM concentrations.

  16. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program final report. Volume 1: Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional fuel were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and fuel type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled fuel systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. Fuel cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but fuel cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but fuel costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and fuel efficiency is reduced, but the fuel is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but fuel costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and fuel cells.

  17. Conceptual design of a fleet of autonomous regolith throwing devices for radiation shielding of lunar habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Karem; Mcadams, Daniel A.; Norrell, Jeffery L.

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in conjunction with Universities Space Research Association (USRA) has requested that the feasibility of a fleet of regolith tossing devices designed to cover a lunar habitat for radiation protection be demonstrated. The regolith, or lunar soil, protects the lunar habitat and its inhabitants from radiation. Ideally, the device will operate autonomously in the lunar environment. To prove the feasibility of throwing regolith on the Moon, throwing solutions were compared to traditional, Earth-based methods for moving soil. Various throwing configurations were investigated. A linear throwing motion combined with a spring and motor energizing system proved a superior solution. Three different overall configurations for the lunar device are presented. A single configuration is chosen and critical parameters such as operating procedure, system volume, mass, and power are developed. The report is divided into seven main sections. First, the Introduction section gives background information, defines the project requirements and the design criteria, and presents the methodology used for the completion of this design. Next, the Preliminary Analysis section presents background information on characteristics of lunar habitats and the lunar environment. Then, the Alternate Designs section presents alternate solutions to each of the critical functions of the device. Fourth, a detailed analysis of throwing the regolith is done to demonstrate its feasibility. Then, the three overall design configurations are presented. Next, a configuration is selected and the conceptual design is expanded to include system performance characteristics, size, and mass. Finally, the Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work section evaluates the design, outlines the next step to be taken in the design process, and suggests possible goals for future design work.

  18. The Digital Twin Paradigm for Future NASA and U.S. Air Force Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Stargel, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    Future generations of NASA and U.S. Air Force vehicles will require lighter mass while being subjected to higher loads and more extreme service conditions over longer time periods than the present generation. Current approaches for certification, fleet management and sustainment are largely based on statistical distributions of material properties, heuristic design philosophies, physical testing and assumed similitude between testing and operational conditions and will likely be unable to address these extreme requirements. To address the shortcomings of conventional approaches, a fundamental paradigm shift is needed. This paradigm shift, the Digital Twin, integrates ultra-high fidelity simulation with the vehicle s on-board integrated vehicle health management system, maintenance history and all available historical and fleet data to mirror the life of its flying twin and enable unprecedented levels of safety and reliability.

  19. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, E. F.; Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel saving potential and cost effectiveness of numerous operational and technical options proposed for reducing the fuel consumption of the U.S. commercial airline fleet was examined and compared. The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs and airline profits when implemented in the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets was determined. A forecast estimate was made of the potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system. Specifically, the means for reducing the jet fuel consumption of the U.S. scheduled airlines in domestic and international passenger operations were investigated. A design analysis was made of two turboprop aircraft as possible fuel conserving derivatives of the DC-9-30.

  20. Air Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Iraq. To provide a background for understanding why Britain commenced the policy of air policing, this paper begins with a review of contemporary...7 Omissi, Air Power, XV. 8 policing actions or the pushing home of advantages gained by the air.” Within the context of this paper , the...control operations, and therefore within the context of this paper , the term coercive airpower refers to the threat of harming a population or the threat

  1. Guidance: Requirements for Installing Renewable Fuel Pumps at Federal Fleet Fueling Centers under EISA Section 246: Federal Fleet Program, Federal Energy Management Program, U.S. Department of Energy, March 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-03-01

    On December 19, 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was signed into law as Public Law 110-140. Section 246(a) of EISA directs Federal agencies to install at least one renewable fuel pump at each Federal fleet fueling center under their jurisdiction by January 1, 2010. Section 246(b) requires the President to submit an annual report to Congress on Federal agency progress in meeting this renewable fuel pump installation mandate. This guidance document provides guidelines to help agencies understand these requirements and how to comply with EISA Section 246.

  2. U.S. Atlantic Fleet, Task Force 86 Operations and Action of the Support Force Eighth’ Fleet During Invasion of Southern France

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-10-21

    straddled vith five salvos but still firing. 1806 - Fired 85 rounds at. D-06 (Marseilles area) using plane spot , One direct hit on gun, 3 hits on casemates...target area well covered, 1643 - Fired" 27 rds H.C. on active 4 gun battery at 447-060, using air spot ; one gun destroyed, one gun damaged, am­...Fired 162 rds. at small boats in San Remo Harbor using SOC spot . One hit reported with explosion some damage by near misses; 2 fuel storage firo

  3. Lidar Monitoring of Mexico City's Atmosphere During High Air Pollution Episodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quick, C. R., Jr.; Archuleta, F. L.; Hof, D. E.; Karl, R. R., Jr.; Tiee, J. J., Jr.; Eichinger, W. E.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Tellier, L.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Mexico City, like many large industrial and populous urban areas, has developed a serious air pollution problem, especially during the winter months when there are frequent temperature inversions and weak winds. The deteriorating air quality is the result of several factors. The basin within which Mexico City lies in Mexico's center of political, administrative and economic activity, generating 34 percent of the gross domestic product and 42 percent of the industrial revenue, and supporting a population which is rapidly approaching the 20 million mark. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides which end up preventing rapid dispersal of pollutants. Emissions from the transportation fleet (more than 3 million vehicles) are one of the primary pollution sources, and most are uncontrolled. Catalytic converters are just now working their way into the fleet. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative in an international collaboration project between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are dedicated to the investigation of the air quality problem in Mexico City. The main objective of the project is to identify and assess the cost and benefits of major options being proposed to improve the air quality. The project is organized into three main activity areas: (1) modeling and simulation; (2) characterization and measurements; and (3) strategic evaluation.

  4. Technologies and policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the U. S. automobile and light truck fleet.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S.

    1999-01-01

    The message conveyed by the above discussion is that there are no shortages of technologies available to improve the fuel efficiency of the U.S. fleet of autos and light trucks. It clearly is technically feasible to improve greatly the fuel economy of the average new light-duty vehicle. Many of these technologies require tradeoffs, however, that manufacturers are unwilling or (as yet) unable to make in today's market and regulatory environment. These tradeoffs involve higher costs (that might be reduced substantially over time with learning and economies of scale), technical risk and added complexity, emissions concerns (especially for direct injection engines, and especially with respect to diesel engine technology), and customer acceptance issues. Even with current low U.S. oil prices, however, many of these technologies may find their way into the U.S. market, or increase their market share, as a consequence of their penetration of European and Japanese markets with their high gasoline prices. Automotive technology is ''fungible'' that is, it can be easily transported from one market to another. Nevertheless, it probably is unrealistic to expect substantial increases in the average fuel economy of the U.S. light-duty fleet without significant changes in the market. Without such changes, the technologies that do penetrate the U.S. market are more likely to be used to increase acceleration performance or vehicle structures or enable four wheel drive to be included in vehicles without a net mpg penalty. In other words, technology by itself is not likely to be enough to raise fleet fuel economy levels - this was the conclusion of the 1995 Ailomar Conference on Energy and Sustainable Transportation, organized by the Transportation Research Board's Committees on Energy and Alternative Fuels, and it is one I share.

  5. Large decrease of VOC emissions of Switzerland's car fleet during the past decade: results from a highway tunnel study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmler, Konrad; Bugmann, Stefan; Buchmann, Brigitte; Reimann, Stefan; Staehelin, Johannes

    The emissions of 14 C 4-C 8 VOC species from road traffic have been measured in a highway tunnel (Gubristtunnel) near Zurich, Switzerland in 2002. The investigated traffic situation corresponds to highway driving with an average speed of 90 km h -1 and hot engine conditions. The comparison with measurements in the same tunnel performed in 1993 indicates that the emission factors of the individual hydrocarbons decreased on average by 80% in the 9 years between both investigations. This improvement can mainly be explained by the nearly complete elimination of non-catalyst gasoline-fuelled cars from the Swiss car fleet in the past decade. The relative emission strengths of the quantified individual VOCs were similar in 1993 and 2002. The emission factors reported in this study are the lowest reported from on-road vehicle emission measurements so far, indicating the efficient technology of modern car fleets with respect to VOC emissions. The emission factors derived from the tunnel study are compared to modelled emission factors based on dynamometric test measurements on Swiss passenger cars. The employed model is the Handbuch für Emissionsfaktoren des Strassenverkehrs; version 1.2 (Umweltbundesamt Berlin and INFRAS AG Bern, 1999). A good agreement between the modelled and measured emissions was found for the investigated traffic situation, indicating that the development of the VOC emissions during the last decade is well understood on the basis of the fleet composition and the dynamometric test measurements. The observed VOC emission reduction corresponds to a traffic situation, where an optimal exhaust gas catalyst performance can be expected. Factors leading to a somewhat less beneficial influence of the catalytic converter technique in other relevant driving situations are therefore additionally discussed.

  6. Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet. Final technical report, August 11, 1994--January 6, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Provenzano, J.J.

    1997-04-01

    This final report describes activities carried out in support of a demonstration of a hydrogen powered vehicle fleet and construction of a solar powered hydrogen generation system. The hydrogen generation system was permitted for construction, constructed, and permitted for operation. It is not connected to the utility grid, either for electrolytic generation of hydrogen or for compression of the gas. Operation results from ideal and cloudy days are presented. The report also describes the achievement of licensing permits for their hydrogen powered trucks in California, safety assessments of the trucks, performance data, and information on emissions measurements which demonstrate performance better than the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle levels.

  7. Introduction to the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.; Hooker, D.

    2006-05-01

    Early in 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the ''Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project'' solicitation. The purpose of this project is to examine the impact and performance of fuel cell vehicles and the requisite hydrogen infrastructure in real-world applications. The integrated nature of the project enables DOE to work with industry to test, demonstrate, and validate optimal system solutions. Information learned from the vehicles and infrastructure will be fed back into DOE's R&D program to guide and refocus future research as needed, making this project truly a ''learning demonstration''.

  8. Air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, F Handley

    1924-01-01

    I purpose (sic) in this paper to deal with the development in air transport which has taken place since civil aviation between England and the Continent first started at the end of August 1919. A great deal of attention has been paid in the press to air services of the future, to the detriment of the consideration of results obtained up to the present.

  9. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  10. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  11. Concurrent airline fleet allocation and aircraft design with profit modeling for multiple airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, Parithi

    A "System of Systems" (SoS) approach is particularly beneficial in analyzing complex large scale systems comprised of numerous independent systems -- each capable of independent operations in their own right -- that when brought in conjunction offer capabilities and performance beyond the constituents of the individual systems. The variable resource allocation problem is a type of SoS problem, which includes the allocation of "yet-to-be-designed" systems in addition to existing resources and systems. The methodology presented here expands upon earlier work that demonstrated a decomposition approach that sought to simultaneously design a new aircraft and allocate this new aircraft along with existing aircraft in an effort to meet passenger demand at minimum fleet level operating cost for a single airline. The result of this describes important characteristics of the new aircraft. The ticket price model developed and implemented here enables analysis of the system using profit maximization studies instead of cost minimization. A multiobjective problem formulation has been implemented to determine characteristics of a new aircraft that maximizes the profit of multiple airlines to recognize the fact that aircraft manufacturers sell their aircraft to multiple customers and seldom design aircraft customized to a single airline's operations. The route network characteristics of two simple airlines serve as the example problem for the initial studies. The resulting problem formulation is a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, which is typically difficult to solve. A sequential decomposition strategy is applied as a solution methodology by segregating the allocation (integer programming) and aircraft design (non-linear programming) subspaces. After solving a simple problem considering two airlines, the decomposition approach is then applied to two larger airline route networks representing actual airline operations in the year 2005. The decomposition strategy serves

  12. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Youngblood

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  13. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Youngblood

    2011-02-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  14. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Big Data and Standard Services for the Fleet Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.; Stocks, K. I.

    2014-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; http://rvdata.us/) program curates underway environmental sensor data from the U.S. academic oceanographic research fleet, ensuring data sets are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. Currently 25 in-service vessels contribute 7 terabytes of data to R2R each year, acquired from a full suite of geophysical, oceanographic, meteorological, and navigational sensors on over 400 cruises worldwide. To accommodate this large volume and variety of data, R2R has developed highly efficient stewardship procedures. These include scripted "break out" of cruise data packages from each vessel based on standard filename and directory patterns; automated harvest of cruise metadata from the UNOLS Office via Web Services and from OpenXML-based forms submitted by vessel operators; scripted quality assessment routines that calculate statistical summaries and standard ratings for selected data types; adoption of community-standard controlled vocabularies for vessel codes, instrument types, etc, provided by the NERC Vocabulary Server, in lieu of maintaining custom local term lists; and a standard package structure based on the IETF BagIt format for delivering data to long-term archives. Documentation and standard post-field products, including quality-controlled shiptrack navigation data for every cruise, are published in multiple services and formats to satisfy a diverse range of clients. These include Catalog Service for Web (CSW), GeoRSS, and OAI-PMH discovery services via a GeoNetwork portal; OGC Web Map and Feature Services for GIS clients; a citable Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for each dataset; ISO 19115-2 standard geospatial metadata records suitable for submission to long-term archives as well as the POGO global catalog; and Linked Open Data resources with a SPARQL query endpoint for Semantic Web clients. R2R participates in initiatives such as the Ocean Data

  15. Technical Issues Associated With the Use of Intermediate Ethanol Blends (>E10) in the U.S. Legacy Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, Bechtold; Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; Szybist, James P; West, Brian H; Theiss, Timothy J; Timbario, Tom; Goodman, Marc

    2007-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in assessing the impact of using intermediate ethanol blends (E10 to E30) in the legacy fleet of vehicles in the U.S. fleet. The purpose of this report is to: (1) identify the issues associated with intermediate ethanol blends with an emphasis on the end-use or vehicle impacts of increased ethanol levels; (2) assess the likely severity of the issues and whether they will become more severe with higher ethanol blend levels, or identify where the issue is most severe; (3) identify where gaps in knowledge exist and what might be required to fill those knowledge gaps; and (4) compile a current and complete bibliography of key references on intermediate ethanol blends. This effort is chiefly a critical review and assessment of available studies. Subject matter experts (authors and selected expert contacts) were consulted to help with interpretation and assessment. The scope of this report is limited to technical issues. Additional issues associated with consumer, vehicle manufacturer, and regulatory acceptance of ethanol blends greater than E10 are not considered. The key findings from this study are given.

  16. Energy Impacts of Wide Band Gap Semiconductors in U.S. Light-Duty Electric Vehicle Fleet.

    PubMed

    Warren, Joshua A; Riddle, Matthew E; Graziano, Diane J; Das, Sujit; Upadhyayula, Venkata K K; Masanet, Eric; Cresko, Joe

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide and gallium nitride, two leading wide band gap semiconductors with significant potential in electric vehicle power electronics, are examined from a life cycle energy perspective and compared with incumbent silicon in U.S. light-duty electric vehicle fleet. Cradle-to-gate, silicon carbide is estimated to require more than twice the energy as silicon. However, the magnitude of vehicle use phase fuel savings potential is comparatively several orders of magnitude higher than the marginal increase in cradle-to-gate energy. Gallium nitride cradle-to-gate energy requirements are estimated to be similar to silicon, with use phase savings potential similar to or exceeding that of silicon carbide. Potential energy reductions in the United States vehicle fleet are examined through several scenarios that consider the market adoption potential of electric vehicles themselves, as well as the market adoption potential of wide band gap semiconductors in electric vehicles. For the 2015-2050 time frame, cumulative energy savings associated with the deployment of wide band gap semiconductors are estimated to range from 2-20 billion GJ depending on market adoption dynamics.

  17. Closure report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations steam-cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This Closure Report (CR) provides documentation of the completed corrective action at the Area 12 Fleet Operations site located in the southeast portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Field work was performed in July 1997 as outlined in the Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The CAP was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in June 1997. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) Number 12-19-01 and is the only CAS in Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. The former Area 12 Fleet Operations Building 12-16 functioned as a maintenance facility for light- and heavy-duty vehicles from approximately 1965 to January 1993. Services performed at the site included steam-cleaning, tire service, and preventative maintenance on vehicles and equipment. Past activities impacted the former steam-cleaning discharge area with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as oil.

  18. Integration of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and probabilistic dynamic programming in formulating an optimal fleet management model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoh, Lay Eng; Khoo, Hooi Ling

    2013-09-01

    This study deals with two major aspects of airlines, i.e. supply and demand management. The aspect of supply focuses on the mathematical formulation of an optimal fleet management model to maximize operational profit of the airlines while the aspect of demand focuses on the incorporation of mode choice modeling as parts of the developed model. The proposed methodology is outlined in two-stage, i.e. Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process is first adopted to capture mode choice modeling in order to quantify the probability of probable phenomena (for aircraft acquisition/leasing decision). Then, an optimization model is developed as a probabilistic dynamic programming model to determine the optimal number and types of aircraft to be acquired and/or leased in order to meet stochastic demand during the planning horizon. The findings of an illustrative case study show that the proposed methodology is viable. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of mode choice modeling could affect the operational profit and fleet management decision of the airlines at varying degrees.

  19. Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-04

    pmlkploba=obmloq=pbofbp= = = Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D ...oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ã= ëéçåëçêÉÇ=oÉéçêí=pÉêáÉë= Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and

  20. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Veterans Affairs. James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Veterans Affairs, James J. Peters VA Medical Center (VA - Bronx) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  1. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  2. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Sunday, April 9, 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... general dentist, who has been trained in restorative dentistry techniques, will perform any procedures that use air- ...

  3. U. S. Atlantic Fleet, Task Force 87, Operation Plan No. 1-44

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-08-01

    hydrbgraphic Survey and channel-marking duty. t LCT 1017, arta , ,682 it carrying DD tanks,, leave station in time to arrive and ren­ dezvous on...PAGES APPENDIX 3 to .ANNEX LOW - 5 - HOTI -AIRCRAFT DOCTRINE Conform to Med. Area Rules governing air­ craft ?,n th" vicinio/ of ships r 4; sea

  4. 40 CFR 86.1865-12 - How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty... passenger cars and light trucks, the manufacturer continues to be responsible for offsetting any debits...) Manufacturers producing any passenger cars or light trucks subject to the provisions in this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1865-12 - How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty... production of passenger cars and light trucks, the manufacturer continues to be responsible for offsetting.... (ii) Manufacturers producing any passenger cars or light trucks subject to the provisions in...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1865-12 - How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty... passenger cars and light trucks, the manufacturer continues to be responsible for offsetting any debits...) Manufacturers producing any passenger cars or light trucks subject to the provisions in this subpart...

  7. Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    underlying architecture of ground-air and air-air communications as a whole, rather than as simple "link to function" paired solutions. For the business case analysis, a number of "reference architectures" were developed for both the future technologies and the current systems, based on three typical configurations of current aircraft. Current and future costs were assigned, and various comparisons made between the current and future architectures. In general, it was assumed that if a future architecture offers lower cost than the current typical architecture, while delivering equivalent or better performance, it is likely that the future solution will gain industry acceptance. Conversely, future architectures presenting higher costs than their current counterparts must present a compelling benefit case in other areas or risk a lack of industry acceptance. The business case analysis consistently indicated lower costs for the proposed future architectures, and in most cases, significantly so. The proposed future solutions were found to offer significantly greater functionality, flexibility, and growth potential over time, at lower cost, than current systems. This was true for overall, fleet-wide equipage for domestic and oceanic air carriers, as well as for single, General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The overall research results indicate that all identified requirements can be met by the proposed solutions with significant capacity for future growth. Results also illustrate that the majority of the future communication needs can be met using currently allocated aviation RF spectrum, if used in more effective ways than it is today. A combination of such optimized aviation-specific links and commercial communication systems meets all identified needs for the 50-year future and beyond, with the caveat that a new, overall function will be needed to manage all information exchange, individual links, security, cost, and other factors. This function was labeled "Delivery Manager" (DM

  8. Thermal modeling of comet Kopff: Implications for the CRAF mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul; Clause, Celia

    1991-01-01

    A thermal model of periodic comet Kopff was developed to aid in planning for the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby mission. The model is based on the comet nucleus model, which estimates the surface temperature distribution and sublimation rates on a rotating icy sphere in heliocentric orbit. The model results are compared with the observed gas production rates from Kopff in 1983. It is found that approximately 15 percent of the sunlit nucleus surface is active, a relatively high fraction for a typical short-period comet. This suggests that the actual nucleus radius may be larger than the model value. The slope of the observed gas production curve with heliocentric distance is steeper than that predicted by the thermal model. This may indicate the existence of a more complex process than direct sublimation of surface ices, such as gas diffusion through a nonvolatile insulating crust.

  9. Comparative alternative/clean fuels provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the Energy Policy Act of 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This is a summary side-by-side comparison of the fleet provisions and incentives under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101--549) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102--486). For more information on how to comply, contact your regional Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency support offices in addition to your state energy office.

  10. Examination of the U.S. Air Forces Aircraft Sustainment Needs in the Future and its Strategy to Meet Other Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-23

    enormously complex Air Force weapon system sustainment enterprise is currently constrained on many sides by laws, policies, regulations and procedures...over time, not only because of the fleet’s increased growth and diversity, but due to global politics and regulations as well. Incorporating...largely facilitated by interpersonal relationships rather than clear, concise lines of authority and modern enterprise reporting and planning tools

  11. Study of cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coykendall, R. E.; Curry, J. K.; Domke, A. E.; Madsen, S. E.

    1976-01-01

    Economic studies were conducted for three general fuel conserving options: (1) improving fuel consumption characteristics of existing aircraft via retrofit modifications; (2) introducing fuel efficient derivations of existing production aircraft and/or introducing fuel efficient, current state-of-the-art new aircraft; and (3) introducing an advanced state-of-the-art turboprop airplane. These studies were designed to produce an optimum airline fleet mix for the years 1980, 1985 and 1990. The fleet selected accommodated a normal growth market by introducing somewhat larger aircraft while solving for maximum departure frequencies and a minimum load factor corresponding to a 15% investment hurdle rate. Fuel burnt per available-seat-mile flown would drop 22% from 1980 to 1990 due to the use of more fuel efficient aircraft designs, larger average aircraft size, and increased seating density. An inflight survey was taken to determine air traveler attitudes towards a new generation of advanced turboprops.

  12. The dynamics of small-scale patchiness of plaice and sole as reflected in the catch rates of the Dutch beam trawl fleet and its implications for the fleet dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poos, Jan-Jaap; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.

    2007-07-01

    Catch rates of sole Solea solea and plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the Dutch beam trawl fleet operating in the North Sea show spatio-temporal variation. The variation in catch rates reflects differences in abundance of the species. Up to 45% of the variation in catch rates can be explained by the time of day of the catch, the engine power of the vessel and the migration cycles of the species. Also, spatial covariance was found in the residual variation for both species using variograms and covariance functions. The ranges of the spatial structure were found to be between approximately 20 to 45 nautical miles, indicating patchy distribution of the species. No differences in the ranges of the spatial structures were found between different seasons. Cross-covariance analysis shows the patches lasted up to two weeks. The implication of the spatial pattern in flatfish for the dynamics of effort allocation is discussed.

  13. A Benefit Analysis of Infusing Wireless into Aircraft and Fleet Operations - Report to Seedling Project Efficient Reconfigurable Cockpit Design and Fleet Operations Using Software Intensive, Network Enabled, Wireless Architecture (ECON)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Holmes, Bruce J.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    We report on an examination of potential benefits of infusing wireless technologies into various areas of aircraft and airspace operations. The analysis is done in support of a NASA seedling project Efficient Reconfigurable Cockpit Design and Fleet Operations Using Software Intensive, Network Enabled Wireless Architecture (ECON). The study has two objectives. First, we investigate one of the main benefit hypotheses of the ECON proposal: that the replacement of wired technologies with wireless would lead to significant weight reductions on an aircraft, among other benefits. Second, we advance a list of wireless technology applications and discuss their system benefits. With regard to the primary hypothesis, we conclude that the promise of weight reduction is premature. Specificity of the system domain and aircraft, criticality of components, reliability of wireless technologies, the weight of replacement or augmentation equipment, and the cost of infusion must all be taken into account among other considerations, to produce a reliable estimate of weight savings or increase.

  14. Army Tactical Wheeled Vehicles: Current Fleet Profiles and Potential Strategy Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    General LTV Light Tactical Vehicle LWB Long Wheel Bed LWV Long Wheel Vehicle MG Major General MRAP Mine Resistant Ambush Protected MTV Medium...W M1093 Air Drop Cargo M1093 Air Drop Cargo W/W M1085 LWB Cargo M1085 LWB Cargo W/W M1084 Cargo W/MHE M1086 LWB Cargo W/MHE M1090 Dump M1090 Dump W...Van XM1148 LHS M1092 Chassis M1096 LWB Chassis M1084/RSV HIMARS RSV M1082 LMTV XM1147 LHST M1095 MTV M1095/RST M35-2046 M35-2047 M35-2048 M35-2049 M35

  15. 41 CFR 102-34.335 - How do I submit information to the General Services Administration (GSA) for the Federal Fleet...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agency, included in the FFR are— (1) Inventory; (2) Acquisitions; (3) Operating costs; (4) Miles traveled... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report... to submit motor vehicle data to GSA through FAST, consult the instructions from your agency...

  16. 41 CFR 102-34.335 - How do I submit information to the General Services Administration (GSA) for the Federal Fleet...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agency, included in the FFR are— (1) Inventory; (2) Acquisitions; (3) Operating costs; (4) Miles traveled... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report... to submit motor vehicle data to GSA through FAST, consult the instructions from your agency...

  17. 41 CFR 102-34.335 - How do I submit information to the General Services Administration (GSA) for the Federal Fleet...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agency, included in the FFR are— (1) Inventory; (2) Acquisitions; (3) Operating costs; (4) Miles traveled... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report... to submit motor vehicle data to GSA through FAST, consult the instructions from your agency...

  18. 41 CFR 102-34.335 - How do I submit information to the General Services Administration (GSA) for the Federal Fleet...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agency, included in the FFR are— (1) Inventory; (2) Acquisitions; (3) Operating costs; (4) Miles traveled... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report... to submit motor vehicle data to GSA through FAST, consult the instructions from your agency...

  19. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the United States Forest Service: Caribou-Targhee National Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort; Ian Nienhueser

    2014-06-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Caribou-Targhee National Forest (CTNF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. ITSNA acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory and CTNF for participation in the study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from the Forest Service and CTNF personnel.

  20. Parametric Analyses of Potential Effects on Upper Tropospheric/Lower Stratospheric Ozone Chemistry by a Future Fleet of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Type Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Mayurakshi; Patten, Kenneth O.; Wuebbles,Donald J.

    2005-01-01

    This report analyzed the potential impact of projected fleets of HSCT aircraft (currently not under development) through a series of parametric analyses that examine the envelope of potential effects on ozone over a range of total fuel burns, emission indices of nitrogen oxides, and cruise altitudes.