Science.gov

Sample records for air flow velocities

  1. Thermistor based, low velocity isothermal, air flow sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrita, Admésio A. C. M.; Mendes, Ricardo; Quintela, Divo A.

    2016-03-01

    The semiconductor thermistor technology is applied as a flow sensor to measure low isothermal air velocities (<2 ms-1). The sensor is subjected to heating and cooling cycles controlled by a multifunctional timer. In the heating stage, the alternating current of a main AC power supply source guarantees a uniform thermistor temperature distribution. The conditioning circuit assures an adequate increase of the sensors temperature and avoids the thermal disturbance of the flow. The power supply interruption reduces the consumption from the source and extends the sensors life time. In the cooling stage, the resistance variation of the flow sensor is recorded by the measuring chain. The resistive sensor parameters proposed vary significantly and feature a high sensitivity to the flow velocity. With the aid of a computer, the data transfer, storage and analysis provides a great advantage over the traditional local anemometer readings. The data acquisition chain has a good repeatability and low standard uncertainties. The proposed method measures isothermal air mean velocities from 0.1 ms-1 to 2 ms-1 with a standard uncertainty error less than 4%.

  2. New sensor for measurement of low air flow velocity. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.; Hashemian, M.; Riggsbee, E.T.

    1995-08-01

    The project described here is the Phase I feasibility study of a two-phase program to integrate existing technologies to provide a system for determining air flow velocity and direction in radiation work areas. Basically, a low air flow sensor referred to as a thermocouple flow sensor has been developed. The sensor uses a thermocouple as its sensing element. The response time of the thermocouple is measured using an existing in-situ method called the Loop Current Step Response (LCSR) test. The response time results are then converted to a flow signal using a response time-versus-flow correlation. The Phase I effort has shown that a strong correlation exists between the response time of small diameter thermocouples and the ambient flow rate. As such, it has been demonstrated that thermocouple flow sensors can be used successfully to measure low air flow rates that can not be measured with conventional flow sensors. While the thermocouple flow sensor developed in this project was very successful in determining air flow velocity, determining air flow direction was beyond the scope of the Phase I project. Nevertheless, work was performed during Phase I to determine how the new flow sensor can be used to determine the direction, as well as the velocity, of ambient air movements. Basically, it is necessary to use either multiple flow sensors or move a single sensor in the monitoring area and make flow measurements at various locations sweeping the area from top to bottom and from left to right. The results can then be used with empirical or physical models, or in terms of directional vectors to estimate air flow patterns. The measurements can be made continuously or periodically to update the flow patterns as they change when people and objects are moved in the monitoring area. The potential for using multiple thermocouple flow sensors for determining air flow patterns will be examined in Phase II.

  3. Calibration of a system for measuring low air flow velocity in a wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krach, Andrzej; Kruczkowski, Janusz

    2016-08-01

    This article presents the calibration of a system for measuring air flow velocity in a wind tunnel with a multiple-hole orifice. The comparative method was applied for the calibration. The method consists in equalising the air flow velocity in a test section of the tunnel with that of the hot-wire anemometer probe which should then read zero value. The hot-wire anemometer probe moves reciprocally in the tunnel test section with a constant velocity, aligned and opposite to the air velocity. Air velocity in the tunnel test section is adjusted so that the minimum values of a periodic hot-wire anemometer signal displayed on an oscilloscope screen reach the lowest position (the minimum method). A sinusoidal component can be superimposed to the probe constant velocity. Then, the air flow velocity in the tunnel test section is adjusted so that, when the probe moves in the direction of air flow, only the second harmonic of the periodically variable velocity superimposed on the constant velocity (second harmonic method) remains at the output of the low-pass filter to which the hot-wire anemometer signal, displayed on the oscilloscope screen, is supplied. The velocity of the uniform motion of the hot-wire anemometer probe is measured with a magnetic linear encoder. The calibration of the system for the measurement of low air velocities in the wind tunnel was performed in the following steps: 1. Calibration of the linear encoder for the measurement of the uniform motion velocity of the hot-wire anemometer probe in the test section of the tunnel. 2. Calibration of the system for measurement of low air velocities with a multiple-hole orifice for the velocities of 0.1 and 0.25 m s‑1: - (a) measurement of the probe movement velocity setting; - (b) measurement of air velocity in the tunnel test section with comparison according to the second harmonic method; - (c) measurement of air velocity in the tunnel with comparison according to the minimum method. The calibration

  4. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and velocity fields in convective air flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeling, Daniel; Bosbach, Johannes; Wagner, Claus

    2014-03-01

    Thermal convective air flows are of great relevance in fundamental studies and technical applications such as heat exchangers or indoor ventilation. Since these kinds of flow are driven by temperature gradients, simultaneous measurements of instantaneous velocity and temperature fields are highly desirable. A possible solution is the combination of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle image thermography (PIT) using thermochromic liquid crystals (TLCs) as tracer particles. While combined PIV and PIT is already state of the art for measurements in liquids, this is not yet the case for gas flows. In this study we address the adaptation of the measuring technique to gaseous fluids with respect to the generation of the tracer particles, the particle illumination and the image filtering process. Results of the simultaneous PIV/PIT stemming from application to a fluid system with continuous air exchange are presented. The measurements were conducted in a cuboidal convection sample with air in- and outlet at a Rayleigh number Ra ≈ 9.0 × 107. They prove the feasibility of the method by providing absolute and relative temperature accuracies of σT = 0.19 K and σΔT = 0.06 K, respectively. Further open issues that have to be addressed in order to mature the technique are identified.

  5. Calculation and measurement of a neutral air flow velocity impacting a high voltage capacitor with asymmetrical electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Malík, M. Primas, J.; Kopecký, V.; Svoboda, M.

    2014-01-15

    This paper deals with the effects surrounding phenomenon of a mechanical force generated on a high voltage asymmetrical capacitor (the so called Biefeld-Brown effect). A method to measure this force is described and a formula to calculate its value is also given. Based on this the authors derive a formula characterising the neutral air flow velocity impacting an asymmetrical capacitor connected to high voltage. This air flow under normal circumstances lessens the generated force. In the following part this velocity is measured using Particle Image Velocimetry measuring technique and the results of the theoretically calculated velocity and the experimentally measured value are compared. The authors found a good agreement between the results of both approaches.

  6. Performance of a combined three-hole conductivity probe for void fraction and velocity measurement in air-water flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, João Eduardo; Pereira, Nuno H. C.; Matos, Jorge; Frizell, Kathleen H.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a three-hole pressure probe with back-flushing combined with a conductivity probe, used for measuring simultaneously the magnitude and direction of the velocity vector in complex air-water flows, is described in this paper. The air-water flows envisaged in the current work are typically those occurring around the rotors of impulse hydraulic turbines (like the Pelton and Cross-Flow turbines), where the flow direction is not known prior to the data acquisition. The calibration of both the conductivity and three-hole pressure components of the combined probe in a rig built for the purpose, where the probe was placed in a position similar to that adopted for the flow measurements, will be reported. After concluding the calibration procedure, the probe was utilized in the outside region of a Cross-Flow turbine rotor. The experimental results obtained in the present study illustrate the satisfactory performance of the combined probe, and are encouraging toward its use for characterizing the velocity field of other complex air-water flows.

  7. Performance of a Compression-ignition Engine with a Precombustion Chamber Having High-Velocity Air Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Moore, C S

    1931-01-01

    Presented here are the results of performance tests made with a single-cylinder, four stroke cycle, compression-ignition engine. These tests were made on a precombustion chamber type of cylinder head designed to have air velocity and tangential air flow in both the chamber and cylinder. The performance was investigated for variable load and engine speed, type of fuel spray, valve opening pressure, injection period and, for the spherical chamber, position of the injection spray relative to the air flow. The pressure variations between the pear-shaped precombustion chamber and the cylinder for motoring and full load conditions were determined with a Farnboro electric indicator. The combustion chamber designs tested gave good mixing of a single compact fuel spray with the air, but did not control the ensuing combustion sufficiently. Relative to each other, the velocity of air flow was too high, the spray dispersion by injection too great, and the metering effect of the cylinder head passage insufficient. The correct relation of these factors is of the utmost importance for engine performance.

  8. Effect of flow velocity and temperature on ignition characteristics in laser ignition of natural gas and air mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, J.; Riley, M. J. W.; Borman, A.; Dowding, C.; Kirk, A.; Bickerton, R.

    2015-03-01

    Laser induced spark ignition offers the potential for greater reliability and consistency in ignition of lean air/fuel mixtures. This increased reliability is essential for the application of gas turbines as primary or secondary reserve energy sources in smart grid systems, enabling the integration of renewable energy sources whose output is prone to fluctuation over time. This work details a study into the effect of flow velocity and temperature on minimum ignition energies in laser-induced spark ignition in an atmospheric combustion test rig, representative of a sub 15 MW industrial gas turbine (Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery Ltd., Lincoln, UK). Determination of minimum ignition energies required for a range of temperatures and flow velocities is essential for establishing an operating window in which laser-induced spark ignition can operate under realistic, engine-like start conditions. Ignition of a natural gas and air mixture at atmospheric pressure was conducted using a laser ignition system utilizing a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser source operating at 532 nm wavelength and 4 ns pulse length. Analysis of the influence of flow velocity and temperature on ignition characteristics is presented in terms of required photon flux density, a useful parameter to consider during the development laser ignition systems.

  9. Airborne nanoparticle exposures while using constant-flow, constant-velocity, and air-curtain-isolated fume hoods.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Jung Candace; Huang, Rong Fung; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Tsai et al. (Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods. J Nanopart Res 2009; 11: 147-61) found that the handling of dry nanoalumina and nanosilver inside laboratory fume hoods can cause a significant release of airborne nanoparticles from the hood. Hood design affects the magnitude of release. With traditionally designed fume hoods, the airflow moves horizontally toward the hood cupboard; the turbulent airflow formed in the worker wake region interacts with the vortex in the constant-flow fume hood and this can cause nanoparticles to be carried out with the circulating airflow. Airborne particle concentrations were measured for three hood designs (constant-flow, constant-velocity, and air-curtain hoods) using manual handling of nanoalumina particles. The hood operator's airborne nanoparticle breathing zone exposure was measured over the size range from 5 nm to 20 mum. Experiments showed that the exposure magnitude for a constant-flow hood had high variability. The results for the constant-velocity hood varied by operating conditions, but were usually very low. The performance of the air-curtain hood, a new design with significantly different airflow pattern from traditional hoods, was consistent under all operating conditions and release was barely detected. Fog tests showed more intense turbulent airflow in traditional hoods and that the downward airflow from the double-layered sash to the suction slot of the air-curtain hood did not cause turbulence seen in other hoods. PMID:19933309

  10. Measurements of the Air-flow Velocity in the Cylinder of an Airplane Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenger, Hermann

    1939-01-01

    The object of the present investigation is to determine the velocity in the BMW-VI cylinder of an externally driven single-cylinder test engine at high engine speeds using the hot-wire method of Ulsamer.

  11. Concerning the flow about ring-shaped cowlings Part IX : the influence of oblique oncoming flow on the incremental velocities and air forces at the front part of circular cowls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchemann, Dietrich; Weber, Johanna

    1952-01-01

    The dependence of the maximum incremental velocities and air forces on a circular cowling on the mass flow and the angle of attack of the oblique flow is determined with the aid of pressure-distribution measurements. The particular cowling tested had been partially investigated in NACA TM 1327.

  12. Investigations of the air flow velocity field structure above the wavy surface under severe wind conditions by particle image velosimetry technique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Sergeev, Daniil; Ermakova, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Preliminary experiments devoted to measuring characteristics of the air flow above the waved water surface for the wide range of wind speeds were performed with the application of modified Particle Image Velosimetry (PIV) technique. Experiments were carried out at the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS (length 10 °, cross section of air channel 0.4×0.4 m) for four different axial wind speeds: 8.7, 13.5, 19 and 24 m/s, corresponding to the equivalent 10-m wind speeds 15, 20, 30 40 m/s correspondingly. Intensive wave breaking with forming foam crest and droplets generations was occurred for two last wind conditions. The modified PIV-method based on the use of continuous-wave (CW) laser illumination of the airflow seeded by tiny particles and with highspeed video. Spherical 20 μm polyamide particles with density 1.02 g/sm3 and inertial time 7•10-3 s were used for seeding airflow with special injecting device. Green (532 nm) CW laser with 4 Wt output power was used as a source for light sheet. High speed digital camera Videosprint was used for taking visualized air flow images with the frame rate 2000 Hz s and exposure time 10 ms Combination including iteration Canny method [1] for obtaining curvilinear surface from the images in the laser sheet view and contact measurements of surface elevation by wire wave gauge installed near the border of working area for the surface wave profile was used. Then velocity air flow field was retrieved by PIV images processing with adaptive cross-correlation method on the curvilinear grid following surface wave profile. The mean wind velocity profiles were retrieved by averaging over obtained ensembles of wind velocity field realizations and over a wave period even for the cases of intensive wave breaking and droplets generation. To verify the PIV method additional measurements of mean velocity profiles over were carried out by the contact method using the Pitot tube. In the area of overlap, wind velocity profiles measured by

  13. Vortex shedding flow meter performance at high flow velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegwarth, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    In some of the ducts of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the maximum liquid oxygen flow velocities approach 10 times those at which liquid flow measurements are normally made. The hydrogen gas flow velocities in other ducts exceed the maximum for gas flow measurement by more than a factor of 3. The results presented here show from water flow tests that vortex shedding flow meters of the appropriate design can measure water flow to velocities in excess of 55 m/s, which is a Reynolds number of about 2 million. Air flow tests have shown that the same meter can measure flow to a Reynolds number of at least 22 million. Vortex shedding meters were installed in two of the SSME ducts and tested with water flow. Narrow spectrum lines were obtained and the meter output frequencies were proportional to flow to + or - 0.5% or better over the test range with no flow conditioning, even though the ducts had multiple bends preceeding the meter location. Meters with the shedding elements only partially spanning the pipe and some meters with ring shaped shedding elements were also tested.

  14. Measurement of Gas and Liquid Velocities in an Air-Water Two-Phase Flow using Cross-Correlation of Signals from a Double Senor Hot-Film Probe

    SciTech Connect

    B. Gurau; P. Vassalo; K. Keller

    2002-02-19

    Local gas and liquid velocities are measured by cross-correlating signals from a double sensor hot-film anemometer probe in pure water flow and air water two-phase flow. The gas phase velocity measured in two-phase flow agrees with velocity data obtained using high-speed video to within +/-5%. A turbulent structure, present in the liquid phase, allows a correlation to be taken, which is consistent with the expected velocity profiles in pure liquid flow. This turbulent structure is also present in the liquid phase of a two-phase flow system. Therefore, a similar technique can be applied to measure the local liquid velocity in a two-phase system, when conditions permit.

  15. Velocity visualization in gaseous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, R. K.; Hiller, B.; Hassa, C.; Booman, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques yielding simultaneous, multiple-point measurements of velocity in reacting or nonreacting flow fields have the potential to significantly impact basic and applied studies of fluid mechanics. This research program is aimed at investigating several candidate schemes which could provide such measurement capability. The concepts under study have in common the use of a laser source (to illuminate a column, a grid, a plane or a volume in the flow) and the collection of light at right angles (from Mie scattering, fluorescence, phosphorescence or chemiluminescence) using a multi-element solid-state camera (100 x 100 array of photodiodes). The work will include an overview and a status report of work in progress with particular emphasis on the method of Doppler-modulated absorption.

  16. Simulation of air velocity in a vertical perforated air distributor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngu, T. N. W.; Chu, C. M.; Janaun, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    Perforated pipes are utilized to divide a fluid flow into several smaller streams. Uniform flow distribution requirement is of great concern in engineering applications because it has significant influence on the performance of fluidic devices. For industrial applications, it is crucial to provide a uniform velocity distribution through orifices. In this research, flow distribution patterns of a closed-end multiple outlet pipe standing vertically for air delivery in the horizontal direction was simulated. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), a tool of research for enhancing and understanding design was used as the simulator and the drawing software SolidWorks was used for geometry setup. The main purpose of this work is to establish the influence of size of orifices, intervals between outlets, and the length of tube in order to attain uniformity of exit flows through a multi outlet perforated tube. However, due to the gravitational effect, the compactness of paddy increases gradually from top to bottom of dryer, uniform flow pattern was aimed for top orifices and larger flow for bottom orifices.

  17. Unimpeded air velocity profiles of air-assisted five-port sprayer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A capability that relies on tree structure information to control liquid and air flow rates is the preferential design in the development of variable-rate orchard and nursery sprayers. Unimpeded air jet velocities from an air assisted, five-port sprayer in an open field were measured at four height...

  18. Air velocity distributions from air-assisted five-port sprayer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capability to control both liquid and air flow rates based on tree structures would be one of the advantages of future variable-rate orchard and nursery sprayers. Air jet velocity distributions from an air assisted, five-port sprayer which was under the development to achieve variable-rate functions...

  19. Air velocity distributions from a variable-rate air-assisted sprayer for tree applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A capability that implements tree structure to control liquid and air flow rates is the preferential design in the development of variable-rate orchard and nursery sprayers. Air jet velocity distributions from an air assisted, five-port sprayer which was under the development to achieve variable-rat...

  20. Flow velocities of Alaskan glaciers.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Evan W; Forster, Richard R; Larsen, Christopher F

    2013-01-01

    Our poor understanding of tidewater glacier dynamics remains the primary source of uncertainty in sea level rise projections. On the ice sheets, mass lost from tidewater calving exceeds the amount lost from surface melting. In Alaska, the magnitude of calving mass loss remains unconstrained, yet immense calving losses have been observed. With 20% of the global new-water sea level rise coming from Alaska, partitioning of mass loss sources in Alaska is needed to improve sea level rise projections. Here we present the first regionally comprehensive map of glacier flow velocities in Central Alaska. These data reveal that the majority of the regional downstream flux is constrained to only a few coastal glaciers. We find regional calving losses are 17.1 Gt a(-1), which is equivalent to 36% of the total annual mass change throughout Central Alaska. PMID:23857302

  1. Axial velocity in decaying swirl flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algifri, A. H.; Bhardwaj, R. K.; Rao, Y. V. N.

    1988-09-01

    Experiments were carried out on turbulent swirling flow with variable initial swirl at different flow rates to study the effect of swirl on axial velocity. A correlation was made between the defect in the swirling flow axial velocity and the swirl number which locally defines the swirl intensity. An expression which can be used to predict the axial velocity distribution of turbulent swirling flow in a pipe is presented.

  2. Flow in Smooth Straight Pipes at Velocities Above and Below Sound Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frossel, W

    1938-01-01

    To investigate the laws of flow of compressible fluids in pipes, tests were carried out with air flowing at velocities below and above that of sound in straight smooth pipes. Air was chosen as the flow medium. In order that the effect of compressibility may be brought out most effectively, the velocity should lie between 100 and 500 m/s (200 and 1,000 mph); that is, be of the order of magnitude of the velocity of sound in air. The behavior of the compression shock in a smooth cylindrical pipe was also investigated. The compression shock can occur at any position in the pipe, depending on the throttling downstream, and travels upstream with increasing throttling up to the pipe entrance, so that only subsonic velocities occur in the pipe.

  3. LOW-VELOCITY COMPRESSIBLE FLOW THEORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The widespread application of incompressible flow theory dominates low-velocity fluid dynamics, virtually preventing research into compressible low-velocity flow dynamics. Yet, compressible solutions to simple and well-defined flow problems and a series of contradictions in incom...

  4. Modeling the exit velocity of a compressed air cannon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrbach, Z. J.; Buresh, T. R.; Madsen, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of compressed air cannons in an undergraduate laboratory provides a way to illustrate the connection between diverse physics concepts, such as conservation of momentum, the work-kinetic energy theorem, gas expansion, air drag, and elementary Newtonian mechanics. However, it is not clear whether the expansion of the gas in the cannon is an adiabatic or an isothermal process. We built an air cannon that utilizes a diaphragm valve to release the pressurized gas and found that neither process accurately predicts the exit velocity of our projectile. We discuss a model based on the flow of air through the valve, which is in much better agreement with our data.

  5. Terminal Air Flow Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas G.; Erzberger, Heinz; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) will be the basis for air traffic planning and control in the terminal area. The system accepts arriving traffic within an extended terminal area and optimizes the flow based on current traffic and airport conditions. The operational use of CTAS will be presented together with results from current operations.

  6. Effect of wind tunnel air velocity on VOC flux rates from CAFO manure and wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind tunnels and flux chambers are often used to estimate volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from animal feeding operations (AFOs) without regard to air velocity or sweep air flow rates. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of wind tunnel air velocity on VOC emission ...

  7. Achromatic Emission Velocity Measurements in Luminous Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, S. J.; Fulghum, S. F.; Rostler, P. S.

    1997-01-01

    A new velocity measurement instrument for luminous flows was developed by Science Research Laboratory for NASA. The SIEVE (Segmented Image Emission VElocimeter) instrument uses broadband light emitted by the flow for the velocity measurement. This differs from other velocimetry techniques in that it does not depend on laser illumination and/or light scattering from particles in the flow. The SIEVE is a passive, non-intrusive diagnostic. By moving and adjusting the imaging optics, the SIEVE can provide three-dimensional mapping of a flow field and determine turbulence scale size. A SIEVE instrument was demonstrated on an illuminated rotating disk to evaluate instrument response and noise and on an oxy-acetylene torch to measure flame velocities. The luminous flow in rocket combustors and plumes is an ideal subject for the SIEVE velocity measurement technique.

  8. New Sensors For Flow Velocity And Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.

    1991-01-01

    Paper describes two sensor-development programs at Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center. One program for digital image velocimetry (DIV) sensors, and other program, for advanced acoustic sensors for wind tunnels. DIV measures, in real time, instantaneous velocity fields of time-varying flow or of collection of objects moving with varying velocities. Advanced acoustic sensors for wind tunnels being developed to reduce effects of interference from wind noise, noise from interactions between flows and sensors, flow-induced vibrations of sensors, deflections of accoustic waves by boundary layers induced by sensors, and reflections from walls and sensor supports.

  9. Velocity filtering applied to optical flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1990-01-01

    Optical flow is a method by which a stream of two-dimensional images obtained from a forward-looking passive sensor is used to map the three-dimensional volume in front of a moving vehicle. Passive ranging via optical flow is applied here to the helicopter obstacle-avoidance problem. Velocity filtering is used as a field-based method to determine range to all pixels in the initial image. The theoretical understanding and performance analysis of velocity filtering as applied to optical flow is expanded and experimental results are presented.

  10. 30 CFR 75.326 - Mean entry air velocity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mean entry air velocity. 75.326 Section 75.326... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.326 Mean entry air velocity. In exhausting face ventilation systems, the mean entry air velocity shall be at least 60 feet per...

  11. 30 CFR 75.326 - Mean entry air velocity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mean entry air velocity. 75.326 Section 75.326... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.326 Mean entry air velocity. In exhausting face ventilation systems, the mean entry air velocity shall be at least 60 feet per...

  12. 30 CFR 75.326 - Mean entry air velocity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mean entry air velocity. 75.326 Section 75.326... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.326 Mean entry air velocity. In exhausting face ventilation systems, the mean entry air velocity shall be at least 60 feet per...

  13. 30 CFR 75.326 - Mean entry air velocity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mean entry air velocity. 75.326 Section 75.326... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.326 Mean entry air velocity. In exhausting face ventilation systems, the mean entry air velocity shall be at least 60 feet per...

  14. Drop size distribution and air velocity measurements in air assist swirl atomizer sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, C.-P.; Oechsle, V.; Chigier, N.

    1987-03-01

    Detailed measurements of mean drop size (SMD) and size distribution parameters have been made using a Fraunhofer diffraction particle sizing instrument in a series of sprays generated by an air assist swirl atomizer. Thirty-six different combinations of fuel and air mass flow rates were examined with liquid flow rates up to 14 lbm/hr and atomizing air flow rates up to 10 lbm/hr. Linear relationships were found between SMD and liquid to air mass flow rate ratios. SMD increased with distance downstream along the center line and also with radial distance from the axis. Increase in obscuration with distance downstream was due to an increase in number density of particles as the result of deceleration of drops and an increase in the exposed path length of the laser beam. Velocity components of the atomizing air flow field measured by a laser anemometer show swirling jet air flow fields with solid body rotation in the core and free vortex flow in the outer regions.

  15. Drop size distribution and air velocity measurements in air assist swirl atomizer sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, C.-P.; Oechsle, V.; Chigier, N.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed measurements of mean drop size (SMD) and size distribution parameters have been made using a Fraunhofer diffraction particle sizing instrument in a series of sprays generated by an air assist swirl atomizer. Thirty-six different combinations of fuel and air mass flow rates were examined with liquid flow rates up to 14 lbm/hr and atomizing air flow rates up to 10 lbm/hr. Linear relationships were found between SMD and liquid to air mass flow rate ratios. SMD increased with distance downstream along the center line and also with radial distance from the axis. Increase in obscuration with distance downstream was due to an increase in number density of particles as the result of deceleration of drops and an increase in the exposed path length of the laser beam. Velocity components of the atomizing air flow field measured by a laser anemometer show swirling jet air flow fields with solid body rotation in the core and free vortex flow in the outer regions.

  16. Visualization and velocity measurement of unsteady flow in a gas generator using cold-flow technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuppa, Subrahmanyam

    1990-08-01

    Modeling of internal flow fields with hot, compressible fluids and sometimes combustion using cold flow techniques is discussed. The flow in a gas generator was modeled using cold air. The experimental set up was designed and fabricated to simulate the unsteady flow with different configurations of inlet tubes. Tests were run for flow visualization and measurement of axial velocity at different frequencies ranging from 5 to 12 Hz. Flow visualization showed that the incoming flow was a complex jet flow confined to a cylindrical enclosure, while the outgoing flow resembled the venting of a pressurized vessel. The pictures show a complex flow pattern due to the angling of the jet towards the wall for the bent tube configurations and straightened flows with straight tube and other configurations with straighteners. Velocity measurements were made at an inlet Re of 8.1 x 10(exp 4) based on maximum velocity and inlet diameter. Phase averaged mean velocities were observed to be well defined during charging and diminished during venting inside the cylinder. For the straight tube inlet comparison with a steady flow measurement of sudden expansion flow showed a qualitative similarity of the mean axial velocity distribution and centerline velocity decay during the charging phases. For the bent tube inlet case the contour plots showed the flow tendency towards the wall. Two cells were seen in the contours for the 8 and 12 Hz cases. The deviation of the point of occurrence of maximum velocity in a radial profile was found to be about 6.5 degrees. Entrance velocity profiles showed symmetry for the straight tube inlet but were skewed for the bent tube inlet. Contour plots of the phase averaged axial turbulence intensity for bent tube cases showed higher values in the core and near the wall in the region of impingement. Axial turbulence intensity measured for the straight tube case showed features as observed in an axisymmetric sudden expansion flow.

  17. Critical Velocities in Open Capillary Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreyer, Michael; Langbein, Dieter; Rath, Hans J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the proposed research program on open capillary flow and the preliminary work performed theoretically and in drop tower experiments. The work focuses on the fundamental physical understanding of the flow through capillary bound geometries, where the circumference of the cross section of the flow path contains free surfaces. Examples for such a flow configuration are capillary vanes in surface tension tanks, flow along edges and corners and flow through liquid bridges. The geometries may be classified by their cross section areas, wetted circumferences and the radii of curvature of the free surfaces. In the streaming float zone the flow path is bound by a free surface only. The ribbon vane is a model for vane types used in surface tension tanks, where a structure in proximity to the tank wall forms a capillary gap. A groove is used in heat pipes for the transportation of the condensed working fluid to the heat source and a wedge may occur in a spaceborne experiment where fluid has to be transported by the means of surface tension. The research objectives are the determination of the maximum volume flux, the observation of the free surfaces and the liquid flow inside the flow path as well as the evaluation of the limiting capillary wave speed. The restriction of the maximum volume flux is due to convective forces (flow velocity exceeding the capillary wave speed) and/or viscous forces, i.e. the viscous head loss along the flow path must be compensated by the capillary pressure due to the curved free surface. Exceeding the maximum volume flux leads to the choking of the flow path, thus the free surface collapses and.gas ingestion occurs at the outlet. The means are ground-based experimental work with plateau tanks and in a drop tower, a sounding rocket flight, and theoretical analysis with integral balances as well as full three dimensional CFD solutions for flow with free surfaces.

  18. Exploring Granular Flows at Intermediate Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, E. E.; van der Elst, N.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical and geomorphological flows often encompass a wide range of strain rates. Landslides accelerate from nearly static conditions to velocities in the range of meters/seconds. The rheology of granular flows for the end-members is moderately well-understood, but the constitutive low at intermediate velocities is largely unexplored. Here we present evidence that granular flows transition through a regime in which internally generated acoustic waves play a critical role in controlling rheology. In laboratory experiments on natural sand under shear in a commercial rheometer, we observe that the steady-state flows at intermediate velocities are compacted relative to the end members. In a confined volume, this compaction results in a decrease in stress on the boundaries. We establish the key role of the acoustic waves by measuring the noise generated by the shear flows with an accelerometer and then exciting the flow with similar amplitude noise under lower shear rate conditions. The observed compaction for a given amplitude noise is the same in both cases, regardless of whether the noise is generated internally by the grains colliding or artificially applied externally. The boundaries of this acoustically controlled regime can be successfully predicted through non-dimensional analysis balancing the overburden, acoustic pressure and granular inertial terms. In our laboratory experiments, this regime corresponds to 0.1 to 10 cm/s. The controlling role of acoustic waves in intermediate velocities is significant because: (1) Geological systems must pass through this regime on their route to instability. (2) Acoustic waves are much more efficiently generated by angular particles, likely to be found in natural samples, than by perfectly spherical particles, which are more tractable for laboratory and theoretical studies. Therefore, this regime is likely to be missed in many analog and computational approaches. (3) Different mineralogies and shapes result in different

  19. Development of Hydroxyl Tagging Velocimetry for Low Velocity Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Matthieu A.; Bardet, Philippe M.; Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyl tagging velocimetry (HTV) is a molecular tagging technique that relies on the photo-dissociation of water vapor into OH radicals and their subsequent tracking using laser induced fluorescence. Velocities are then obtained from time-of-flight calculations. At ambient temperature in air, the OH species lifetime is relatively short (<50 µs), making it suited for high speed flows. Lifetime and radicals formation increases with temperature, which allows HTV to also probe low-velocity, high-temperature flows or reacting flows such as flames. The present work aims at extending the domain of applicability of HTV, particularly towards low-speed (<10 m/s) and moderate (<500 K) temperature flows. Results are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements recorded in identical conditions. Single shot and averaged velocity profiles are obtained in an air jet at room temperature. By modestly raising the temperature (100-200 degC) the OH production increases, resulting in an improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Use of nitrogen - a non-reactive gas with minimal collisional quenching - extends the OH species lifetime (to over 500 µs), which allows probing of slower flows or, alternately, increases the measurement precision at the expense of spatial resolution. Instantaneous velocity profiles are resolved in a 100degC nitrogen jet (maximum jet-center velocity of 6.5 m/s) with an uncertainty down to 0.10 m/s (1.5%) at 68% confidence level. MTV measurements are compared with particle image velocimetry and show agreement within 2%.

  20. Velocity fluctuations in dense granular flows.

    PubMed

    Drozd, John J; Denniston, Colin

    2008-10-01

    We use simulations to investigate velocity fluctuations in dry granular flow. Our system is comprised of mono- and polydisperse sets of spherical grains falling down a vertical chute under the influence of gravity. We find three different classes of velocity distributions depending on factors such as the local density. The class of the velocity distribution depends on whether the grains are in a free-fall, fluid, or glassy state. The analytic form of the distributions match those that have been found by other authors in fairly diverse systems. Here, we have all three present in a single system in steady state. Power-law tails that match recent experiments are also found but in a transition area suggesting they may be an artifact of crossover from one class of velocity distribution to another. We find evidence that the transition from one class to another may correspond to a second order dynamical phase transition in the limit that the vertical flow speed goes to zero. PMID:18999415

  1. Three-dimensional freezing of flowing water in a tube cooled by air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Beer, H.

    2015-05-01

    The 3-D freezing of flowing water in a copper tube cooled by air flow is investigated by means of a numerical analysis. The air flows normal to the tube axis. Several parameters as inlet water mean velocity w m , inlet water temperature T iℓ t , air flow temperature T a and air flow velocity u a are selected in the calculations to adapt it to a winter season actually encountered. The numerical results present the development of the ice layer mean thickness and its 3-D morphologies as well as the critical ice layer thickness in the tube choked by the ice layer.

  2. Critical Velocity in Open Capillary Channel Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosendahl, Uwe; Dreyer, Michael E.; Rath, Hans J.; Motil, Brian; Singh, Bhim S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We investigate forced liquid flows through open capillary channels with free surfaces experimentally. The experiments were performed under low gravity conditions in the Bremen Drop Tower and on board the sounding rocket TEXUS-37. Open capillary channels (vanes) are used in surface tension tanks to transport the propellant and to provide a flow path for the bubble-free liquid supply to the thrusters. Since the free surfaces can only withstand a certain pressure differential between the liquid and ambient, the flow rate in the channel is limited. The maximum flow rate is achieved when the surfaces collapse and gas is ingested into the outlet. Since experimental and theoretical data of this flow rate limitation is lacking, the safety factors for the application of vanes in surface tension tanks must be unnecessary high. The aim of the investigation is to determine the maximum liquid flow rate and the corresponding critical flow velocity. The characteristic nondimensional parameters, OHNESORGE number, and gap ratio, cover a wide range of usual vanes. For the theoretical approach a one-dimensional momentum balance was set up. The numerical solution yields the maximum volume flux and the position of the free surface in good agreement with the experiments.

  3. Nonintrusive, multipoint velocity measurements in high-pressure combustion flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M.; Davis, S.; Kessler, W.; Legner, H.; Mcmanus, K.; Mulhall, P.; Parker, T.; Sonnenfroh, D.

    1993-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical effort was conducted to demonstrate the applicability of OH Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity distributions in supersonic combustion gases. The experiments were conducted in the underexpanded exhaust flow from a 6.8 atm, 2400 K, H2-O2-N2 burner exhausting into the atmosphere. In order to quantify the effects of in-plane variations of the gas thermodynamic properties on the measurement accuracy, a set of detailed measurements of the OH (1,0) band collisional broadening and shifting in H2-air gases was produced. The effect of pulse-to-pulse variations in the dye laser bandshape was also examined in detail and a modification was developed which increased in the single pulse bandwidth, thereby increasing the intraimage velocity dynamic range as well as reducing the sensitivity of the velocity measurement to the gas property variations. Single point and imaging measurements of the velocity field in the exhaust flowfield were compared with 2D, finite-rate kinetics simulations of the flowfield. Relative velocity accuracies of +/- 50 m/s out of 1600 m/s were achieved in time-averaged imaging measurements of the flow over an order of magnitude variation in pressure and a factor of two variation in temperature.

  4. Derivation of vertical air velocity from conventional Radiosonde ascents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manguttathil Gopalakrishnan, Manoj; Mohanakumar, Kesavapillai; Samson, Titu; Kottayil, Ajil; Varadarajan, Rakesh; Rebello, Rejoy

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we devise a method to estimate air vertical velocity from ascending radiosondes similar to that described in published results, but with certain differences in deriving the balloon parameters and the drag coefficient, while not considering explicitly the heat exchange between the balloon and the environment. We basically decompose the observed balloon ascent rate into vertical velocity in still air due to buoyancy force and that due to vertical air motion. The first part is computed from basic hydrodynamical principles and the vertical velocity is derived as the difference between observed ascent rate and the estimated still air vertical velocity. The derived values agree reasonably well (r=0.66) with vertical velocities observed with a collocated wind profiler radar, and the sources of uncertainties are discussed. Since vertical velocity is a difficult quantity to measure directly without expensive methods, derivation of the same from the conventional radiosonde ascents could be of great importance to the meteorological communities.

  5. Velocity and mass flux distribution measurements of spherical glass beads in air flow in a 90-deg vertical-to-horizontal bend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliafas, Yannis

    The fluid mechanics of a mixture of gas and glass beads in a 90-deg bend was studied, and the resulting mean streamwise and radial velocities and the associated Reynolds stresses are reported. Higher negative slip velocities were observed for 100-micron beads than for 50-micron beads. At angular displacements of 0 deg the radial velocity was directed toward the inner wall for both sizes of beads. Most of the bead-wall collisions occurred between the 30- and 60-deg stations. Bead-wall interaction was the controlling factor influencing the behavior of the beads. The inner wall was generally erosion-free, and no erosion was observed on the side walls, which were made of glass. A 2.5-m-long deposition-free area was observed for both bead sizes used. The results are significant for coal gasification technology.

  6. Hydrokinetic canal measurements: inflow velocity, wake flow velocity, and turbulence

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gunawan, Budi

    2014-06-11

    The dataset consist of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) velocity measurements in the wake of a 3-meter diameter vertical-axis hydrokinetic turbine deployed in Roza Canal, Yakima, WA, USA. A normalized hub-centerline wake velocity profile and two cross-section velocity contours, 10 meters and 20 meters downstream of the turbine, are presented. Mean velocities and turbulence data, measured using acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) at 50 meters upstream of the turbine, are also presented. Canal dimensions and hydraulic properties, and turbine-related information are also included.

  7. A method of calibrating wind velocity sensors with a modified gas flow calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, H. P.

    1978-01-01

    A procedure was described for calibrating air velocity sensors in the exhaust flow of a gas flow calibrator. The average velocity in the test section located at the calibrator exhaust was verified from the mass flow rate accurately measured by the calibrator's precision sonic nozzles. Air at elevated pressures flowed through a series of screens, diameter changes, and flow straighteners, resulting in a smooth flow through the open test section. The modified system generated air velocities of 2 to 90 meters per second with an uncertainty of about two percent for speeds below 15 meters per second and four percent for the higher speeds. Wind tunnel data correlated well with that taken in the flow calibrator.

  8. Changes in air flow patterns using surfactants and thickeners during air sparging: Bench-scale experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Juyoung; Kim, Heonki; Annable, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Air injected into an aquifer during air sparging normally flows upward according to the pressure gradients and buoyancy, and the direction of air flow depends on the natural hydrogeologic setting. In this study, a new method for controlling air flow paths in the saturated zone during air sparging processes is presented. Two hydrodynamic parameters, viscosity and surface tension of the aqueous phase in the aquifer, were altered using appropriate water-soluble reagents distributed before initiating air sparging. Increased viscosity retarded the travel velocity of the air front during air sparging by modifying the viscosity ratio. Using a one-dimensional column packed with water-saturated sand, the velocity of air intrusion into the saturated region under a constant pressure gradient was inversely proportional to the viscosity of the aqueous solution. The air flow direction, and thus the air flux distribution was measured using gaseous flux meters placed at the sand surface during air sparging experiments using both two-, and three-dimensional physical models. Air flow was found to be influenced by the presence of an aqueous patch of high viscosity or suppressed surface tension in the aquifer. Air flow was selective through the low-surface tension (46.5 dyn/cm) region, whereas an aqueous patch of high viscosity (2.77 cP) was as an effective air flow barrier. Formation of a low-surface tension region in the target contaminated zone in the aquifer, before the air sparging process is inaugurated, may induce air flow through the target zone maximizing the contaminant removal efficiency of the injected air. In contrast, a region with high viscosity in the air sparging influence zone may minimize air flow through the region prohibiting the region from de-saturating.

  9. Natural Flow Air Cooled Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanagnostopoulos, Y.; Themelis, P.

    2010-01-01

    Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. We performed experiments using a prototype based on three silicon photovoltaic modules placed in series to simulate a typical sloping building roof with photovoltaic installation. In this system the air flows through a channel on the rear side of PV panels. The potential for increasing the heat exchange from the photovoltaic panel to the circulating air by the addition of a thin metal sheet (TMS) in the middle of air channel or metal fins (FIN) along the air duct was examined. The operation of the device was studied with the air duct closed tightly to avoid air circulation (CLOSED) and the air duct open (REF), with the thin metal sheet (TMS) and with metal fins (FIN). In each case the experiments were performed under sunlight and the operating parameters of the experimental device determining the electrical and thermal performance of the system were observed and recorded during a whole day and for several days. We collected the data and form PV panels from the comparative diagrams of the experimental results regarding the temperature of solar cells, the electrical efficiency of the installation, the temperature of the back wall of the air duct and the temperature difference in the entrance and exit of the air duct. The comparative results from the measurements determine the improvement in electrical performance of the photovoltaic cells because of the reduction of their temperature, which is achieved by the naturally circulating air.

  10. Stationary velocity distributions in traffic flows

    SciTech Connect

    Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies,; Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics,

    1997-12-01

    We introduce a traffic flow model that incorporates clustering and passing. We obtain analytically the steady state characteristics of the flow from a Boltzmann-like equation. A single dimensionless parameter, R=c{sub 0}v{sub 0}t{sub 0} with c{sub 0} the concentration, v{sub 0} the velocity range, and t{sub 0}{sup {minus}1} the passing rate, determines the nature of the steady state. When R{lt}1, uninterrupted flow with single cars occurs. When R{gt}1, large clusters with average mass {l_angle}m{r_angle}{approximately}R{sup {alpha}} form, and the flux is J{approximately}R{sup {minus}{gamma}}. The initial distribution of slow cars governs the statistics. When P{sub 0}(v){approximately}v{sup {mu}} as v{r_arrow}0, the scaling exponents are {gamma}=1/({mu}+2), {alpha}=1/2 when {mu}{gt}0, and {alpha}=({mu}+1)/({mu}+2) when {mu}{lt}0. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Flame Velocities over a Wide Composition Range for Pentane-air, Ethylene-air, and Propyne-air Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Dorothy M; Wong, Edgar, L

    1951-01-01

    Fundamental flame velocities are reported for pentane air, ethylene-air, and propylene-air mixtures for the concentration range 60 to 130 percent of stoichiometric. A form of the Tanford and Pease equation, which includes a small constant velocity term independent of diffusion, will predict the observed changes in flame velocity.

  12. Velocity Inversion In Cylindrical Couette Gas Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongari, Nishanth; Barber, Robert W.; Emerson, David R.; Zhang, Yonghao; Reese, Jason M.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate a power-law probability distribution function to describe the mean free path of rarefied gas molecules in non-planar geometries. A new curvature-dependent model is derived by taking into account the boundary-limiting effects on the molecular mean free path for surfaces with both convex and concave curvatures. In comparison to a planar wall, we find that the mean free path for a convex surface is higher at the wall and exhibits a sharper gradient within the Knudsen layer. In contrast, a concave wall exhibits a lower mean free path near the surface and the gradients in the Knudsen layer are shallower. The Navier-Stokes constitutive relations and velocity-slip boundary conditions are modified based on a power-law scaling to describe the mean free path, in accordance with the kinetic theory of gases, i.e. transport properties can be described in terms of the mean free path. Velocity profiles for isothermal cylindrical Couette flow are obtained using the power-law model. We demonstrate that our model is more accurate than the classical slip solution, especially in the transition regime, and we are able to capture important non-linear trends associated with the non-equilibrium physics of the Knudsen layer. In addition, we establish a new criterion for the critical accommodation coefficient that leads to the non-intuitive phenomena of velocity-inversion. Our results are compared with conventional hydrodynamic models and direct simulation Monte Carlo data. The power-law model predicts that the critical accommodation coefficient is significantly lower than that calculated using the classical slip solution and is in good agreement with available DSMC data. Our proposed constitutive scaling for non-planar surfaces is based on simple physical arguments and can be readily implemented in conventional fluid dynamics codes for arbitrary geometric configurations.

  13. Design of passively aerated compost piles: Vertical air velocities between the pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, N.J.; Cherry, R.S.

    1996-09-01

    Passively aerated compost piles are built on a base of porous materials, such as straw or wood chips, in which perforated air supply pipes are distributed. The piles are not turned during composting, nor is forced-aeration equipment used, which significantly reduces the operating and capital expenses associated with these piles. Currently, pile configurations and materials are worked out by trial and error. Fundamentally based design procedures are difficult to develop because the natural convection air flow rate is not explicitly known, but rather is closely coupled with the pile temperature. This paper develops a mathematical model to analytically determine the maximum upward air flow velocity over an air supply pipe and the drop in vertical velocity away from the pipe. This model has one dimensionless number, dependent on the pile and base properties, which fully characterizes the velocity profile between the pipes. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Unseeded Scalar Velocity Measurements for Propulsion Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitz, Robert W.; Wehrmeyer, Joseph A.; Seasholtz, Richard G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Unseeded molecular tagging methods based on single-photon processes that produce long tag lines (>50 mm) have been recently developed and demonstrated by the Combustion Laser Diagnostics Group (Mechanical Engineering Department) at Vanderbilt University [1,2]. In Ozone Tagging Velocimetry (OTV) a line of ozone (O3) is produced by a single photon from a pulsed narrowband argon fluoride (ArF) excimer laser operating at - 193 nm. After a known time delay, t, the position of the displaced (convected in the flow field) O3 tag line is revealed by photodissociation of O3 and subsequent fluorescence of O2, caused by a pulsed laser sheet from a krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer laser operating at - 248 nm. Intensified CCD camera images of the fluorescence are taken from the initial and final tag line locations thus providing unobtrusive means of establishing a velocity profile in the interrogated flow field. The O3 lines are "written" and subsequently "read" by the following reactions:

  15. Instantaneous velocity field imaging instrument for supersonic reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. G.; Davis, S. J.; Kessler, W. J.; Legner, H. H.; Mcmanus, K. R.; Mulhall, P. A.; Parker, T. E.; Sonnenfroh, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    The technical tasks conducted to develop and demonstrate a new gas velocity measurement technique for high enthalpy reacting flows is described. The technique is based on Doppler-shifted Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of the OH radical. The imaging approach permits, in principle, single-shot measurements of the 2-D distribution of a single velocity component in the measurement plane, and is thus a technique of choice for applications in high enthalpy transient flow facilities. In contrast to previous work in this area, the present program demonstrated an approach which modified the diagnostic technique to function under the constraints of practical flow conditions of engineering interest, rather than vice-versa. In order to accomplish the experimental demonstrations, the state-of-the-art in PLIF diagnostic techniques was advanced in several ways. Each of these tasks is described in detail and is intended to serve as a reference in supporting the transition of this new capability to the fielded PLIF instruments now installed at several national test facilities. Among the new results of general interest in LlF-based flow diagnostics, a detailed set of the first measurements of the collisional broadening and shifting behavior of OH (1,0) band transitions in H7-air combustion environments is included. Such measurements are critical in the design of a successful strategy for PLIF velocity imaging; they also relate to accurate concentration and temperature measurements, particularly in compressible flow regimes. Furthermore, the results shed new light on the fundamental relationship between broadening and energy transfer collisions in OH A(sup 2)Sigma(+)v(sup ') = 1. The first single-pulse, spectrally-resolved measurements of the output of common pulsed dye lasers were also produced during the course of this effort. As with the OH broadening measurements, these data are a significant aspect of a successful velocity imaging strategy, and also have

  16. Velocity measurements on highly turbulent free surface flow using ADV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cea, L.; Puertas, J.; Pena, L.

    2007-03-01

    The 3D instantaneous velocity recorded with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) in a highly turbulent free surface flow is analysed using several filters in order to eliminate the corrupted data from the sample. The filters used include the minimum/maximum threshold, the acceleration threshold, and the phase-space threshold. Following some ideas of the phase-space filter, a new method based on the 3D velocity cross-correlation is proposed and tested. A way of computing the constants of the acceleration threshold method is proposed, so no parameters need to be fixed by the user, which makes the filtering process simpler, more objective and more efficient. All the samples analysed are highly turbulent. Nevertheless, the turbulence intensity and the air entrainment vary widely in the flow under study, which produces data records of different quality depending on the measurement point. The performance of the filtering methods when applied to samples of different quality, and the effects of the filtering process in the mean velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and frequency spectra are discussed.

  17. Optical Air Flow Measurements for Flight Tests and Flight Testing Optical Air Flow Meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jentink, Henk W.; Bogue, Rodney K.

    2005-01-01

    Optical air flow measurements can support the testing of aircraft and can be instrumental to in-flight investigations of the atmosphere or atmospheric phenomena. Furthermore, optical air flow meters potentially contribute as avionics systems to flight safety and as air data systems. The qualification of these instruments for the flight environment is where we encounter the systems in flight testing. An overview is presented of different optical air flow measurement techniques applied in flight and what can be achieved with the techniques for flight test purposes is reviewed. All in-flight optical airflow velocity measurements use light scattering. Light is scattered on both air molecules and aerosols entrained in the air. Basic principles of making optical measurements in flight, some basic optical concepts, electronic concepts, optoelectronic interfaces, and some atmospheric processes associated with natural aerosols are reviewed. Safety aspects in applying the technique are shortly addressed. The different applications of the technique are listed and some typical examples are presented. Recently NASA acquired new data on mountain rotors, mountain induced turbulence, with the ACLAIM system. Rotor position was identified using the lidar system and the potentially hazardous air flow profile was monitored by the ACLAIM system.

  18. Velocity distribution in horizontal slug flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kvernvold, O.; Saasen, A.; Selmor-Olsen, S.; Sontvedt, T.; Vindoy, V.

    1984-08-01

    An experimental device for measurement of the velocity distribution in a two-phase slug is developed. Velocity profiles both in the film and the liquid slug besides velocity variation along the pipe bottom (at a distance of 1 mm) through the slug front are presented.

  19. Computational and experimental study of spin coater air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoguang; Liang, Faqiu; Haji-Sheikh, A.; Ghariban, N.

    1998-06-01

    An extensive 2- and 3-D analysis of air flow in a POLARISTM 2200 Microlithography Cluster spin coater was conducted using FLUENTTM Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. To supplement this analysis, direct measurement of air flow velocity was also performed using a DantecTM Hot Wire Anemometer. Velocity measurements were made along two major planes across the entire flow field in the spin coater at various operating conditions. It was found that the flow velocity at the spin coater inlet is much lower than previously assumed and quite nonuniform. Based on this observation, a pressure boundary condition rather than a velocity boundary condition was used for subsequent CFD analysis. A comparison between calculated results and experimental data shows that the 3D model accurately predicts the air flow field in the spin coater. An added advantage of this approach is that the CFD model can be easily generated from the mechanical design database and used to analyze the effect of design changes. The modeled and measured results show that the flow pattern in the spin bowl is affected by interactions between the spinning wafer, exhaust flow, and the gap between the spin head and surrounding baffle. Different operating conditions such as spin speed, inlet pressure, and exhaust pressure were found to generate substantially different flow patterns. It was also found that backflow of air could be generated under certain conditions.

  20. Reconstruction of velocity fields in electromagnetic flow tomography.

    PubMed

    Lehtikangas, Ossi; Karhunen, Kimmo; Vauhkonen, Marko

    2016-06-28

    Electromagnetic flow meters (EMFMs) are the gold standard in measuring flow velocity in process industry. The flow meters can measure the mean flow velocity of conductive liquids and slurries. A drawback of this approach is that the velocity field cannot be determined. Asymmetric axial flows, often encountered in multiphase flows, pipe elbows and T-junctions, are problematic and can lead to serious systematic errors. Recently, electromagnetic flow tomography (EMFT) has been proposed for measuring velocity fields using several coils and a set of electrodes attached to the surface of the pipe. In this work, a velocity field reconstruction method for EMFT is proposed. The method uses a previously developed finite-element-based computational forward model for computing boundary voltages and a Bayesian framework for inverse problems. In the approach, the vz-component of the velocity field along the longitudinal axis of the pipe is estimated on the pipe cross section. Different asymmetric velocity fields encountered near pipe elbows, solids-in-water flows in inclined pipes and in stratified or multiphase flows are tested. The results suggest that the proposed reconstruction method could be used to estimate velocity fields in complicated pipe flows in which the conventional EMFMs have limited accuracy. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. PMID:27185961

  1. Particle displacement tracking applied to air flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic Particle Image Velocimeter (PIV) techniques offer many advantages over conventional photographic PIV methods such as fast turn around times and simplified data reduction. A new all electronic PIV technique was developed which can measure high speed gas velocities. The Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) technique employs a single cw laser, small seed particles (1 micron), and a single intensified, gated CCD array frame camera to provide a simple and fast method of obtaining two-dimensional velocity vector maps with unambiguous direction determination. Use of a single CCD camera eliminates registration difficulties encountered when multiple cameras are used to obtain velocity magnitude and direction information. An 80386 PC equipped with a large memory buffer frame-grabber board provides all of the data acquisition and data reduction operations. No array processors of other numerical processing hardware are required. Full video resolution (640x480 pixel) is maintained in the acquired images, providing high resolution video frames of the recorded particle images. The time between data acquisition to display of the velocity vector map is less than 40 sec. The new electronic PDT technique is demonstrated on an air nozzle flow with velocities less than 150 m/s.

  2. Significance of air humidity and air velocity for fungal spore release into the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Pasanen, P.; Jantunen, M. J.; Kalliokoski, P.

    Our previous field studies have shown that the presence of molds in buildings does not necessarily mean elevated airborne spore counts. Therefore, we investigated the release of fungal spores from cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. at different air velocities and air humidities. Spores of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were released from conidiophores already at air velocity of 0.5 ms -1, whereas Cladosporium spores required at least a velocity of 1.0 ms -1. Airborne spore counts of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were usually higher in dry than moist air, being minimal at relative humidities (r.h.) above 70%, while the effect of r.h. on the release of Cladosporium sp. was ambivalent. The geometric mean diameter of released spores increased when the r.h. exceeded a certain level which depends on fungal genus. Thus, spores of all three fungi were hygroscopic but the hygroscopicity of various spores appeared at different r.h.-ranges. This study indicates that spore release is controlled by external factors and depends on fungal genus which can be one reason for considerable variation of airborne spore counts in buildings with mold problems.

  3. Velocity statistics along the stagnation line of an axi- symmetric stagnating turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, T.; Imaizumi, H.; Mizomoto, M.; Shepherd, I. G.

    1997-04-01

    Velocity statistics along the stagnation line of an axi-symmetric wall stagnating turbulent flow are studied experimentally. A low turbulence, uniform air flow from a nozzle type air supply with an exit diameter of 50 mm stagnates at a wall located 50 mm downstream. A flow velocity is set to 3 m/s, 10 mm downstream from the exit of the air supply. Instantaneous values of streamwise and radial velocities are measured by laser-Doppler velocimetry. The turbulence level in the air flow is changed by use of turbulence generator. When the turbulence generator is not installed in the air supply, the mean velocity profile in the streamwise direction fits well with that of a laminar viscous flow with the rms value of velocity fluctuations low near the wall. With the turbulence generator installed, a significant turbulence structure appears near the wall. When the wall is approached, the rms value of velocity fluctuations in the streamwise direction decreases monotonically while the profile of the rms value in the radial direction reaches a maximum near the wall. The increase in the rms value of velocity fluctuations in the radial direction near the wall is attributed to the bi-modal histogram of the fluctuating velocity in the radial direction. Near the wall, the instantaneous stagnation streamline fluctuates and the probability of the mean location of the stagnation point reaches a maximum not at the stagnation line but on a circle around the stagnation line, resulting in the bi-modal histogram. Turbulence statistics, the rms value of velocity fluctuation and the turbulent kinetic energy, can be normalized successfully by similarity parameters based on the strain rate and the reference turbulent kinetic energy introduced by Champion and Libby.

  4. Rise velocity of an air bubble in porous media: Theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz; Cihan, Abdullah; Drazenovic, Mirna

    2004-04-01

    The rise velocity of injected air phase from the injection point toward the vadose zone is a critical factor in in-situ air sparging operations. It has been reported in the literature that air injected into saturated gravel rises as discrete air bubbles in bubbly flow of air phase. The objective of this study is to develop a quantitative technique to estimate the rise velocity of an air bubble in coarse porous media. The model is based on the macroscopic balance equation for forces acting on a bubble rising in a porous medium. The governing equation incorporates inertial force, added mass force, buoyant force, surface tension and drag force that results from the momentum transfer between the phases. The momentum transfer terms take into account the viscous as well as the kinetic energy losses at high velocities. Analytical solutions are obtained for steady, quasi-steady, and accelerated bubble rise velocities. Results show that air bubbles moving up through a porous medium equilibrate after a short travel time and very short distances of rise. It is determined that the terminal rise velocity of a single air bubble in an otherwise water saturated porous medium cannot exceed 18.5 cm/s. The theoretical model results compared favorably with the experimental data reported in the literature. A dimensional analysis conducted to study the effect of individual forces indicates that the buoyant force is largely balanced by the drag force for bubbles with an equivalent radius of 0.2-0.5 cm. With increasing bubble radius, the dimensionless number representing the effect of the surface tension force decreases rapidly. Since the total inertial force is quite small, the accelerated bubble rise velocity can be approximated by the terminal velocity.

  5. Evolution of velocity dispersion along cold collisionless flows

    SciTech Connect

    Banik, Nilanjan; Sikivie, Pierre

    2015-11-17

    We found that the infall of cold dark matter onto a galaxy produces cold collisionless flows and caustics in its halo. If a signal is found in the cavity detector of dark matter axions, the flows will be readily apparent as peaks in the energy spectrum of photons from axion conversion, allowing the densities, velocity vectors and velocity dispersions of the flows to be determined. We also discuss the evolution of velocity dispersion along cold collisionless flows in one and two dimensions. A technique is presented for obtaining the leading behaviour of the velocity dispersion near caustics. The results are used to derive an upper limit on the energy dispersion of the Big Flow from the sharpness of its nearby caustic, and a prediction for the dispersions in its velocity components.

  6. Evolution of velocity dispersion along cold collisionless flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banik, Nilanjan; Sikivie, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    The infall of cold dark matter onto a galaxy produces cold collisionless flows and caustics in its halo. If a signal is found in the cavity detector of dark matter axions, the flows will be readily apparent as peaks in the energy spectrum of photons from axion conversion, allowing the densities, velocity vectors and velocity dispersions of the flows to be determined. We discuss the evolution of velocity dispersion along cold collisionless flows in one and two dimensions. A technique is presented for obtaining the leading behavior of the velocity dispersion near caustics. The results are used to derive an upper limit on the energy dispersion of the big flow from the sharpness of its nearby caustic and a prediction for the dispersions in its velocity components.

  7. Evolution of velocity dispersion along cold collisionless flows

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Banik, Nilanjan; Sikivie, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    We found that the infall of cold dark matter onto a galaxy produces cold collisionless flows and caustics in its halo. If a signal is found in the cavity detector of dark matter axions, the flows will be readily apparent as peaks in the energy spectrum of photons from axion conversion, allowing the densities, velocity vectors and velocity dispersions of the flows to be determined. We also discuss the evolution of velocity dispersion along cold collisionless flows in one and two dimensions. A technique is presented for obtaining the leading behaviour of the velocity dispersion near caustics. The results aremore » used to derive an upper limit on the energy dispersion of the Big Flow from the sharpness of its nearby caustic, and a prediction for the dispersions in its velocity components.« less

  8. Velocity and pressure distribution behind bodies in an air current

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A

    1924-01-01

    The following experiments on the air flow behind bodies were made for the purpose of assisting in the explanation of the phenomena connected with air resistance. The first two series of experiments dealt with the phenomena behind a cylinder. The third series of experiments was carried out behind a streamlined strut.

  9. Observations of velocities, sand concentrations, and fluxes under velocity-asymmetric oscillatory flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruessink, B. G.; Michallet, H.; Abreu, T.; Sancho, F.; van der A, D. A.; van der Werf, J. J.; Silva, P. A.

    2011-03-01

    U-tube measurements of instantaneous velocities, concentrations, and fluxes for a well-sorted, medium-sized sand in oscillatory sheet flow are analyzed. The experiments involved two velocity-asymmetric flows, the same two flows with an opposing current of 0.4 m/s, and a mixed skewed-asymmetric flow, all with a velocity amplitude of 1.2 m/s and flow period of 7 s. We find that the net positive transport rate beneath velocity-asymmetric oscillatory flow results from large, but opposing sand fluxes during the positive and negative flow phase. With an increase in velocity asymmetry and, in particular, velocity skewness, the difference in the magnitude of the fluxes in the two half cycles increases, leading to larger net transport rates. This trend is consistent with the observed increase in skewness of the oscillatory bed shear stress. Phase-lag effects, whereby sand stirred during the negative flow phase has not settled by the time of the negative-to-positive flow reversal and is subsequently transported during the positive flow phase, are notable but of minor importance to the net transport rate compared to earlier experiments with finer sands. In the vertical, the oscillatory flux is positive above the no-flow bed. Within the sheet flow pick-up layer, the oscillatory flux is negative and similar in magnitude to the positive flux induced by the residual flow. The 0.4 m/s opposing current causes more sand to be picked up during the negative than during the positive flow phase. Above the no-flow bed the resulting negative oscillatory flux is comparable in magnitude to the current-related flux.

  10. Numerical and Physical Simulation of the Low-Velocity Air Flow in a Diffuser with a Circular Cavity in the Case of Suction of the Air from the Central Cylindrical Body Positioned in the Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, S. A.; Guvernyuk, S. V.; Zubin, M. A.; Baranov, P. A.; Ermakov, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the results of solution of the steady-state Reynolds equations closed with the use of the shear-stress transfer model for the air fl ow in a divergent channel with suction of the air from the surface of the cylindrical central body positioned in the circular vortex cavity built in the lower wall of the channel with the corresponding experimental data has been performed.

  11. Method and apparatus for measuring flow velocity using matched filters

    DOEpatents

    Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the flow velocities of individual phase flow components of a multiphase flow utilizes matched filters. Signals arising from flow noise disturbance are extracted from the flow, at upstream and downstream locations. The signals are processed through pairs of matched filters which are matched to the flow disturbance frequency characteristics of the phase flow component to be measured. The processed signals are then cross-correlated to determine the transit delay time of the phase flow component between sensing positions.

  12. Method and apparatus for measuring flow velocity using matched filters

    DOEpatents

    Raptis, A.C.

    1983-09-06

    An apparatus and method for measuring the flow velocities of individual phase flow components of a multiphase flow utilizes matched filters. Signals arising from flow noise disturbance are extracted from the flow, at upstream and downstream locations. The signals are processed through pairs of matched filters which are matched to the flow disturbance frequency characteristics of the phase flow component to be measured. The processed signals are then cross-correlated to determine the transit delay time of the phase flow component between sensing positions. 8 figs.

  13. A study of methods to estimate debris flow velocity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prochaska, A.B.; Santi, P.M.; Higgins, J.D.; Cannon, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    Debris flow velocities are commonly back-calculated from superelevation events which require subjective estimates of radii of curvature of bends in the debris flow channel or predicted using flow equations that require the selection of appropriate rheological models and material property inputs. This research investigated difficulties associated with the use of these conventional velocity estimation methods. Radii of curvature estimates were found to vary with the extent of the channel investigated and with the scale of the media used, and back-calculated velocities varied among different investigated locations along a channel. Distinct populations of Bingham properties were found to exist between those measured by laboratory tests and those back-calculated from field data; thus, laboratory-obtained values would not be representative of field-scale debris flow behavior. To avoid these difficulties with conventional methods, a new preliminary velocity estimation method is presented that statistically relates flow velocity to the channel slope and the flow depth. This method presents ranges of reasonable velocity predictions based on 30 previously measured velocities. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Quantitative velocity distributions via nuclear magnetic resonance flow metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Keelan T.; Fridjonsson, Einar O.; Stanwix, Paul L.; Johns, Michael L.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of Tikhonov regularisation as a data inversion technique to determine the velocity distributions of flowing liquid streams. Regularisation is applied to the signal produced by a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) flow measurement system consisting of a pre-polarising permanent magnet located upstream of an Earth's magnetic field NMR detection coil. A simple free induction decay (FID) NMR signal is measured for the flowing stream in what is effectively a 'time-of-flight' measurement. The FID signal is then modelled as a function of fluid velocity and acquisition time, enabling determination of the velocity probability distributions via regularisation. The mean values of these velocity distributions were successfully validated against in-line rotameters. The ability to quantify multi-modal velocity distributions was also demonstrated using a two-pipe system.

  15. Quantitative velocity distributions via nuclear magnetic resonance flow metering.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Keelan T; Fridjonsson, Einar O; Stanwix, Paul L; Johns, Michael L

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of Tikhonov regularisation as a data inversion technique to determine the velocity distributions of flowing liquid streams. Regularisation is applied to the signal produced by a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) flow measurement system consisting of a pre-polarising permanent magnet located upstream of an Earth's magnetic field NMR detection coil. A simple free induction decay (FID) NMR signal is measured for the flowing stream in what is effectively a 'time-of-flight' measurement. The FID signal is then modelled as a function of fluid velocity and acquisition time, enabling determination of the velocity probability distributions via regularisation. The mean values of these velocity distributions were successfully validated against in-line rotameters. The ability to quantify multi-modal velocity distributions was also demonstrated using a two-pipe system. PMID:27343484

  16. Supersonic Air Flow due to Solid-Liquid Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekle, Stephan; Peters, Ivo R.; Gordillo, José Manuel; van der Meer, Devaraj; Lohse, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    A solid object impacting on liquid creates a liquid jet due to the collapse of the impact cavity. Using visualization experiments with smoke particles and multiscale simulations, we show that in addition, a high-speed air jet is pushed out of the cavity. Despite an impact velocity of only 1m/s, this air jet attains supersonic speeds already when the cavity is slightly larger than 1 mm in diameter. The structure of the air flow closely resembles that of compressible flow through a nozzle—with the key difference that here the “nozzle” is a liquid cavity shrinking rapidly in time.

  17. Heat Transfer and Hydraulic Flow Resistance for Streams of High Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelchuk, V. L.

    1943-01-01

    Problems of hydraulic flow resistance and heat transfer for streams with velocities comparable with acoustic have present great importance for various fields of technical science. Especially, they have great importance for the field of heat transfer in designing and constructing boilers.of the "Velox" type. In this article a description of experiments and their results as regards definition of the laws of heat transfer in differential form for high velocity air streams inside smooth tubes are given.

  18. Computation of flow pressure fields from magnetic resonance velocity mapping.

    PubMed

    Yang, G Z; Kilner, P J; Wood, N B; Underwood, S R; Firmin, D N

    1996-10-01

    Magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping has unrivalled capacities for acquiring in vivo multi-directional blood flow information. In this study, the authors set out to derive both spatial and temporal components of acceleration, and hence differences of pressure in a flow field using cine magnetic resonance velocity data. An efficient numerical algorithm based on the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible Newtonian fluid was used. The computational approach was validated with in vitro flow phantoms. This work aims to contribute to a better understanding of cardiovascular dynamics and to serve as a basis for investigating pulsatile pressure/flow relationships associated with normal and impaired cardiovascular function. PMID:8892202

  19. Measurement of vertical velocity using clear-air Doppler radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.; Green, J. L.; Nastrom, G. D.; Gage, K. S.; Clark, W. L.; Warnock, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    A new clear air Doppler radar was constructed, called the Flatland radar, in very flat terrain near Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. The radar wavelength is 6.02 m. The radar has been measuring vertical velocity every 153 s with a range resolution of 750 m almost continuously since March 2, 1987. The variance of vertical velocity at Flatland is usually quite small, comparable to the variance at radars located near rough terrain during periods of small background wind. The absence of orographic effects over very flat terrain suggests that clear air Doppler radars can be used to study vertical velocities due to other processes, including synoptic scale motions and propagating gravity waves. For example, near rough terrain the shape of frequency spectra changes drastically as the background wind increases. But at Flatland the shape at periods shorter than a few hours changes only slowly, consistent with the changes predicted by Doppler shifting of gravity wave spectra. Thus it appears that the short period fluctuations of vertical velocity at Flatland are alsmost entirely due to the propagating gravity waves.

  20. Fume hood performance: Face velocity variability inconsistent air volume systems

    SciTech Connect

    Volin, C.E.; Joao, R.V.; Gershey, E.L.; Reiman, J.S.; Party, E.

    1998-09-01

    A 3-year survey of 366 bench-type fume hoods in working laboratories in conventional, constant air volume settings showed that face velocities varied greatly from unit to unit and over time. Fume hoods with bypasses performed better than those without; however, even newly fabricated bypass hoods exhibited large variations. These variations were due to several factors; however, face velocities at 100 {+-} 10 ft/min at working sash heights in the range of 20 to 40 cm (8 to 16 inches) were attainable. The use of smoke showed poor containment, especially at face velocities below 85 ft/min (0.425 m/s) or above 130 ft/min (0.65 m/s) and when the hoods were obstructed by large items placed on the work surface. Auxiliary/supplemental air created unstable face velocities and poor smoke patterns. The analysis of 3 years of fume hood monitoring showed clearly the need for and importance of a maintenance program where the fume hood lower slots are cleaned and fans, ducts, dampers, and hoods are checked periodically.

  1. Correlation and spectral measurements of fluctuating pressures and velocities in annular turbulent flow. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.J.; Jones, B.G.; Roy, R.P.

    1980-02-01

    An experimental study of the fluctuating velocity field, the fluctuating static wall pressure and the in-stream fluctuating static pressure in an annular turbulent air flow system with a radius ratio of 4.314 has been conducted. The study included direct measurements of the mean velocity profile, turbulent velocity field; fluctuating static wall pressure and in-stream fluctuating static pressure from which the statistical values of the turbulent intensity levels, power spectral densities of the turbulent quantities, the cross-correlation between the fluctuating static wall pressure and the fluctuating static pressure in the core region of the flow and the cross-correlation between the fluctuating static wall pressure and the fluctuating velocity field in the core region of the flow were obtained.

  2. Exponential velocity profile of granular flows down a confined heap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, E.; González-Lezcano, A.; Batista-Leyva, A. J.; Altshuler, E.

    2016-06-01

    Thick granular flows are essential to many natural and industrial phenomena. Experimentally, it has been well established that the grain velocity profile is linear from the free surface to a certain depth, after which it decreases exponentially in the so-called "creep region". In this paper we obtain an exponential velocity profile based on the force balance of a grain near a wall, where the Janssen effect and the non-locality of interactions between grains are considered. When experimental parameters such as flow angles and friction coefficients are introduced in our model, it is able to reproduce experimental creep velocity profiles previously reported in the literature.

  3. Relationship among shock-wave velocity, particle velocity, and adiabatic exponent for dry air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, In H.; Hong, Sang H.; Jhung, Kyu S.; Oh, Ki-Hwan; Yoon, Yo K.

    1991-07-01

    Using the results of the detailed numerical calculations, it is shown that the relationship between the shock-wave velocity U sub s and the particle velocity U sub p for shock-compressed dry air can be represented accurately by the linear relation U sub s = a(P0) + b(P0)U sub p in a wide range of U sub p (U sub p = 2 to 9 ) km/s and initial pressure P0 = 10 to the -6th to 1 atm, where a and b are given by the cubic polynomials of log10P0. Based on the linear U sub s - U sub p relation, an analytic expression has been obtained for the adiabatic exponent gamma as a function of particle velocity.

  4. On the Behavior of Velocity Fluctuations in Rapidly Rotating Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girimaji, S. S.; Ristorcelli, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    The behavior of velocity fluctuations subjected to rapid rotation is examined. The rapid rotation considered is any arbitrary combination of two basic forms of rotation, reference frame rotation and mean flow rotation. It is recognized that the two types of rotating flows differ in the manner in which the fluctuating fields are advected. The first category is comprised of flows in rotating systems of which synoptic scale geophysical flows are a good example. In this class of flows the fluctuating velocity field advects and rotates with the mean flow. In the rapid rotation limit, the Taylor-Proudman theorem describes the behavior of this class of fluctuations. Velocity fluctuations that are advected without rotation by the mean flow constitute the second category which includes vortical flows of aerodynamic interest. The Taylor-Proudman theorem is not pertinent to I his class flows and a new result appropriate to this second category of fluctuations is derived. The present development demonstrates that the fluctuating velocity fields are rendered two-dimensional and horizontally non-divergent in the limit of any large combination of reference frame rotation and mean-flow rotation. The concommitant 'geostrophic' balance of the momentum equation is, however, dependent upon the form of rapid rotation. It is also demonstrated that the evolution equations of a two-dimensional fluctuating velocity fields are frame-indifferent with any imposed mean-flow rotation. The analyses and results of this paper highlight many fundamental aspects of rotating flows and have important consequences for their turbulence closures in inertial and non-inertial frames.

  5. Effect of Wind Tunnel Air Velocity on VOC Flux from Standard Solutions and CAFO Manure/Wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers and practitioners have used wind tunnels and flux chambers to quantify the flux of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide and estimate emission factors from animal feeding operations (AFOs) without accounting for effects of air velocity or sweep air flow rate. L...

  6. Fluorescent beeswax for surface flow velocity observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaldi, S.; Tauro, F.; Petroselli, A.; Mocio, G.; Capocci, I.; Rapiti, E.; Rapiti, R.; Cipollari, G.; Porfiri, M.

    2012-12-01

    Watershed surface processes control downstream runoff phenomena, waste and pollutant diffusion, erosion mechanics, and sediment transport. A quantitative understanding of the flow physics is currently limited by the lack of effective tracing techniques suitable for basin-scale observations. More specifically, field experiments require environmentally resilient, non-invasive, and low cost measurement systems that can potentially operate in remotely-controlled or unmanned conditions. Traditional tracing methodologies are largely not capable to cope with extreme in-situ conditions, including practical logistic challenges as well as inherent flow complexity. Specifically, most of available technologies need physical sampling to estimate the tracer concentration and do not allow for continuous-time measurements. In addition, commonly used tracers, such as isotopes, dyes, and chemicals, are not directly applicable to monitor surface hillslope processes and large-scale microchannel networks due to elaborate detection processes and dispersion issues. In this context, the feasibility of using buoyant fluorescent microspheres as particle tracers in natural water flows is investigated. Specifically, a novel fabrication methodology is designed to manufacture particles from natural beeswax and a highly diluted solution of a nontoxic fluorescent red dye. The fabrication procedure allows for adjusting the size of the particles from tens of microns up to a few millimeters and their density from positively to negatively-buoyant with respect to water. An array of experimental techniques is employed to conduct a thorough characterization of the fluorescence and morphology of the tracers. In addition, ad-hoc experiments are designed to assess the fluorescence response due to Ultra Violet (UV) exposure and thermal processes. Proof-of-concept laboratory analysis are conducted to illustrate the integration of the novel particle tracers in existing tracing methods for surface flow

  7. Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity fields in supersonic reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. G.; Davis, S. J.; Kessler, W. J.; Sonnenfroh, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    The application of Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity fields in supersonic reacting flows is analyzed. Focussing on fluorescence of the OH molecule in typical H2-air Scramjet flows, the effects of uncharacterized variations in temperature, pressure, and collisional partner composition across the measurement plane are examined. Detailed measurements of the (1,0) band OH lineshape variations in H2-air combustions are used, along with single-pulse and time-averaged measurements of an excimer-pumped dye laser, to predict the performance of a model velocimeter with typical Scramjet flow properties. The analysis demonstrates the need for modification and control of the laser bandshape in order to permit accurate velocity measurements in the presence of multivariant flow properties.

  8. Continuous flow measurements using ultrasonic velocity meters - an update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oltmann, Rick

    1995-01-01

    An article in the summer 1993 Newsletter described USGS work to continously monitor tidal flows in the delta using ultrasonic velocity meters.  This article updates progress since 1993, including new installations, results of data analysis, damage during this year's high flows, and the status of each site.

  9. Optical flow based velocity estimation for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuzhi; Zhao, Guanrong; Jia, Songmin; Qin, Baoling; Yang, Ailin

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an optical flow based novel technique to perceive the instant motion velocity of mobile robots. The primary focus of this study is to determine the robot's ego-motion using displacement field in temporally consecutive image pairs. In contrast to most previous approaches for estimating velocity, we employ a polynomial expansion based dense optical flow approach and propose a quadratic model based RANSAC refinement of flow fields to render our method more robust with respect to noise and outliers. Accordingly, techniques for geometrical transformation and interpretation of the inter-frame motion are presented. Advantages of our proposal are validated by real experimental results conducted on Pioneer robot.

  10. Turbulence in Flowing Soap Films: Velocity, Vorticity, and Thickness Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, M.; Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E.

    1998-08-01

    We report experimental measurements of the velocity, vorticity, and thickness fields of turbulent flowing soap films using a modified particle-image velocimetry technique. These data yield the turbulent energy and enstrophy of the two-dimensional flows with microscale Reynolds numbers of about 100 and demonstrate the effects of compressibility arising from variations in film thickness. Despite the compressibility of the flow, real-space correlations of velocity, vorticity, and enstrophy flux are consistent with theoretical predictions for two-dimensional turbulence. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society }

  11. Shearing flows of frictionless spheres over bumpy planes: slip velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzi, Diego; Vescovi, Dalila

    2016-05-01

    Boundary conditions for the slip velocity of inelastic, frictionless spheres interacting with bumpy walls are derived via discrete element method simulations of Couette granular flows. The bumpiness is created by gluing spheres identical to those flowing in a regular hexagonal array to a flat plane. Depending on the particle inelasticity and bumpiness, the characteristics of the flow range from simple shearing to plug flow. At low bumpiness—small distance between the wall-particles—the ratio of particle shear stress to pressure is a non-linear function of the slip velocity and presents a maximum. At high bumpiness, the bumpy plane behaves as a flat, frictional surface and the stress ratio saturates to a constant value for large slip velocity.

  12. The Effects of Wall Roughness on Particle Velocities in a Turbulent Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Michael; Eaton, John

    2003-11-01

    Previous experiments on particle-laden turbulent channel flows have shown lower than expected particle mean velocities. This research examined wall roughness effects on particle velocity distributions. Experiments were conducted in an existing vertical, fully developed channel air flow apparatus. Particle-board walls in the flow development section were replaced with smooth acrylic walls. The final 1.7 m of the development section was either a smooth section made of acrylic or a second section roughened by attaching mesh screen made of 0.25 mm diameter wire. The channel operated at a Reynolds number of 13,800 and was seeded with 150 im diameter spherical glass particles at 15loading. The wall roughness had little effect on the mean fluid velocity profile, but the particle velocity profiles and PDF's showed substantial dependence on the wall roughness. Particle mean velocities were higher than the gas velocity for the smooth wall flow, but substantially lagged the gas phase in the rough wall case, except near the wall. The particle streamwise rms velocity was nearly uniform across the channel width for the rough wall case.

  13. Comparison of umbo velocity in air- and bone-conduction.

    PubMed

    Röösli, Christof; Chhan, David; Halpin, Christopher; Rosowski, John J

    2012-08-01

    This study investigates the ossicular motion produced by bone-conducted (BC) sound in live human ears. Laser Doppler vibrometry was used to measure air conduction (AC)- and BC-induced umbo velocity (V(U)) in both ears of 10 subjects, 20 ears total. Sound pressure in the ear canal (P(EC)) was measured simultaneously. For air conduction, V(U) at standard hearing threshold level was calculated. For BC, ΔV was defined as the difference between V(U) and the tympanic ring velocity (an estimate of the skull velocity measured in the ear canal). ΔV and P(EC) at BC standard hearing threshold were calculated. ΔV at standard BC threshold was significantly smaller than V(U) at standard AC threshold between 500 Hz and 2000 Hz. Ear canal pressure at BC threshold tended to be smaller than for AC below 3000 Hz (with significant differences at 1000 Hz and 2000 Hz). Our results are most consistent with inertia of the ossicles and cochlear fluid driving BC hearing below 500 Hz, but with other mechanisms playing a significant role at higher frequencies. Sound radiated into the external ear canal might contribute to BC hearing at 3000 Hz and above. PMID:22609771

  14. Validation of a CFD Model by Using 3D Sonic Anemometers to Analyse the Air Velocity Generated by an Air-Assisted Sprayer Equipped with Two Axial Fans

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramos, F. Javier; Malón, Hugo; Aguirre, A. Javier; Boné, Antonio; Puyuelo, Javier; Vidal, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the air flow generated by an air-assisted sprayer equipped with two axial fans was developed and validated by practical experiments in the laboratory. The CFD model was developed by considering the total air flow supplied by the sprayer fan to be the main parameter, rather than the outlet air velocity. The model was developed for three air flows corresponding to three fan blade settings and assuming that the sprayer is stationary. Actual measurements of the air velocity near the sprayer were taken using 3D sonic anemometers. The workspace sprayer was divided into three sections, and the air velocity was measured in each section on both sides of the machine at a horizontal distance of 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 m from the machine, and at heights of 1, 2, 3, and 4 m above the ground The coefficient of determination (R2) between the simulated and measured values was 0.859, which demonstrates a good correlation between the simulated and measured data. Considering the overall data, the air velocity values produced by the CFD model were not significantly different from the measured values. PMID:25621611

  15. Velocity Measurements of Turbulent Wake Flow Over a Circular Cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Chang-Lung; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Keh-Chin; Wang, Muh-Rong

    2016-06-01

    There are two general concerns in the velocity measurements of turbulence. One is the temporal characteristics which governs the turbulent mixing process. Turbulence is rotational and is characterized by high levels of fluctuating vorticity. In order to obtain the information of vorticity dynamics, the spatial characteristics is the other concern. These varying needs can be satisfied by using a variety of diagnostic techniques such as invasive physical probes and non-invasive optical instruments. Probe techniques for the turbulent measurements are inherently simple and less expensive than optical methods. However, the presence of a physical probe may alter the flow field, and velocity measurements usually become questionable when probing recirculation zones. The non-invasive optical methods are mostly made of the foreign particles (or seeding) instead of the fluid flow and are, thus, of indirect method. The difference between the velocities of fluid and foreign particles is always an issue to be discussed particularly in the measurements of complicated turbulent flows. Velocity measurements of the turbulent wake flow over a circular cylinder will be made by using two invasive instruments, namely, a cross-type hot-wire anemometry (HWA) and a split-fiber hot-film anemometry (HFA), and a non-invasive optical instrument, namely, particle image velocimetry (PIV) in this study. Comparison results show that all three employed diagnostic techniques yield similar measurements in the mean velocity while somewhat deviated results in the root-mean-squared velocity, particularly for the PIV measurements. It is demonstrated that HFA possesses more capability than HWA in the flow measurements of wake flow. Wake width is determined in terms of either the flatness factor or shear-induced vorticity. It is demonstrated that flow data obtained with the three employed diagnostic techniques are capable of yielding accurate determination of wake width.

  16. Experimental study on bi-phase flow Air-Oil in Water Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnone, Davide; Poesio, Pietro

    2015-11-01

    Bi-phase slug flow oil-in-water emulsion [5%-20%] and air through a horizontal pipe (inner diameter 22mm) is experimentally studied. A test with water and air has been performed as comparison. First we create and analyze the flow pattern map to identify slug flow liquid and air inlet conditions. Flow maps are similar for all the used liquid. A video analysis procedure using an high speed camera has been created to obtain all the characteristics of unit slugs: slug velocity, slug length, bubble velocity, bubbles length and slug frequency. We compare translational velocity and frequency with models finding a good agreement. We calculate the pdfs of the lengths to find the correlations between mean values and STD on different air and liquid superficial velocities. We also perform pressure measurements along the pipe. We conclude that the percentage of oil-in- water has no influence on results in terms of velocity, lengths, frequency and pressure drop.

  17. Critical velocity of superfluid helium flow in narrow pore filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A.

    1990-05-01

    The flow rates of superfluid helium passing through a spongelike plug made from a stack of high-porosity cellulose-nitrate membrane filters were measured, comparing three grades of filters: 10, 50, and 200 nm. The critical flow rate was analyzed from the onset of nonzero difference in the chemical potential across the plug. The flow, driven by activating a heater, was measured with an acoustic flowmeter. It is shown that the critical flow rate increases with decreasing filtration grade and that the upper limit of the superfluid flow velocity can be predicted from the quoted filtration grade of the filter and from a shape factor derived from elementary geometric conditions of densely packed spheres. This model yields correct temperature dependence of the critical velocity.

  18. Methane flux across the air-water interface - Air velocity effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Harriss, R. C.; Bartlett, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    Methane loss to the atmosphere from flooded wetlands is influenced by the degree of supersaturation and wind stress at the water surface. Measurements in freshwater ponds in the St. Marks Wildlife Refuge, Florida, demonstrated that for the combined variability of CH4 concentrations in surface water and air velocity over the water surface, CH4 flux varied from 0.01 to 1.22 g/sq m/day. The liquid exchange coefficient for a two-layer model of the gas-liquid interface was calculated as 1.7 cm/h for CH4 at air velocity of zero and as 1.1 + 1.2 v to the 1.96th power cm/h for air velocities from 1.4 to 3.5 m/s and water temperatures of 20 C.

  19. 2D velocity and temperature measurements in high speed flows based on spectrally resolved Rayleigh scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.

    1992-01-01

    The use of molecular Rayleigh scattering for measurements of gas velocity and temperature is evaluated. Molecular scattering avoids problems associated with the seeding required by conventional laser anemometry and particle image velocimetry. The technique considered herein is based on the measurement of the spectrum of the scattered light. Planar imaging of Rayleigh scattering using a laser light sheet is evaluated for conditions at 30 km altitude (typical hypersonic flow conditions). The Cramer-Rao lower bounds for velocity and temperature measurement uncertainties are calculated for an ideal optical spectrum analyzer and for a planar mirror Fabry-Perot interferometer used in a static, imaging mode. With this technique, a single image of the Rayleigh scattered light from clean flows can be analyzed to obtain temperature and one component of velocity. Experimental results are presented for planar velocity measurements in a Mach 1.3 air jet.

  20. A technique for measuring hypersonic flow velocity profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartrell, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    A technique for measuring hypersonic flow velocity profiles is described. This technique utilizes an arc-discharge-electron-beam system to produce a luminous disturbance in the flow. The time of flight of this disturbance was measured. Experimental tests were conducted in the Langley pilot model expansion tube. The measured velocities were of the order of 6000 m/sec over a free-stream density range from 0.000196 to 0.00186 kg/cu m. The fractional error in the velocity measurements was less than 5 percent. Long arc discharge columns (0.356 m) were generated under hypersonic flow conditions in the expansion-tube modified to operate as an expansion tunnel.

  1. Quantitative blood flow velocity imaging using laser speckle flowmetry.

    PubMed

    Nadort, Annemarie; Kalkman, Koen; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Faber, Dirk J

    2016-01-01

    Laser speckle flowmetry suffers from a debated quantification of the inverse relation between decorrelation time (τc) and blood flow velocity (V), i.e. 1/τc = αV. Using a modified microcirculation imager (integrated sidestream dark field - laser speckle contrast imaging [SDF-LSCI]), we experimentally investigate on the influence of the optical properties of scatterers on α in vitro and in vivo. We found a good agreement to theoretical predictions within certain limits for scatterer size and multiple scattering. We present a practical model-based scaling factor to correct for multiple scattering in microcirculatory vessels. Our results show that SDF-LSCI offers a quantitative measure of flow velocity in addition to vessel morphology, enabling the quantification of the clinically relevant blood flow, velocity and tissue perfusion. PMID:27126250

  2. Quantitative blood flow velocity imaging using laser speckle flowmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadort, Annemarie; Kalkman, Koen; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Faber, Dirk J.

    2016-04-01

    Laser speckle flowmetry suffers from a debated quantification of the inverse relation between decorrelation time (τc) and blood flow velocity (V), i.e. 1/τc = αV. Using a modified microcirculation imager (integrated sidestream dark field - laser speckle contrast imaging [SDF-LSCI]), we experimentally investigate on the influence of the optical properties of scatterers on α in vitro and in vivo. We found a good agreement to theoretical predictions within certain limits for scatterer size and multiple scattering. We present a practical model-based scaling factor to correct for multiple scattering in microcirculatory vessels. Our results show that SDF-LSCI offers a quantitative measure of flow velocity in addition to vessel morphology, enabling the quantification of the clinically relevant blood flow, velocity and tissue perfusion.

  3. Quantitative blood flow velocity imaging using laser speckle flowmetry

    PubMed Central

    Nadort, Annemarie; Kalkman, Koen; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Faber, Dirk J.

    2016-01-01

    Laser speckle flowmetry suffers from a debated quantification of the inverse relation between decorrelation time (τc) and blood flow velocity (V), i.e. 1/τc = αV. Using a modified microcirculation imager (integrated sidestream dark field - laser speckle contrast imaging [SDF-LSCI]), we experimentally investigate on the influence of the optical properties of scatterers on α in vitro and in vivo. We found a good agreement to theoretical predictions within certain limits for scatterer size and multiple scattering. We present a practical model-based scaling factor to correct for multiple scattering in microcirculatory vessels. Our results show that SDF-LSCI offers a quantitative measure of flow velocity in addition to vessel morphology, enabling the quantification of the clinically relevant blood flow, velocity and tissue perfusion. PMID:27126250

  4. Sensors for Using Times of Flight to Measure Flow Velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gutave; Wrbanek, John D.; Hwang, Danny; Turso, James

    2006-01-01

    Thin-film sensors for measuring flow velocities in terms of times of flight are undergoing development. These sensors are very small and can be mounted flush with surfaces of airfoils, ducts, and other objects along which one might need to measure flows. Alternatively or in addition, these sensors can be mounted on small struts protruding from such surfaces for acquiring velocity measurements at various distances from the surfaces for the purpose of obtaining boundary-layer flow-velocity profiles. These sensors are related to, but not the same as, hot-wire anemometers. Each sensor includes a thin-film, electrically conductive loop, along which an electric current is made to flow to heat the loop to a temperature above that of the surrounding fluid. Instantaneous voltage fluctuations in segments of the loop are measured by means of electrical taps placed at intervals along the loop. These voltage fluctuations are caused by local fluctuations in electrical resistance that are, in turn, caused by local temperature fluctuations that are, in turn, caused by fluctuations in flow-induced cooling and, hence, in flow velocity. The differential voltage as a function of time, measured at each pair of taps, is subjected to cross-correlation processing with the corresponding quantities measured at other pairs of taps at different locations on the loop. The cross-correlations yield the times taken by elements of fluid to travel between the pairs of taps. Then the component of velocity along the line between any two pairs of taps is calculated simply as the distance between the pairs of taps divided by the travel time. Unlike in the case of hot-wire anemometers, there is no need to obtain calibration data on voltage fluctuations versus velocity fluctuations because, at least in principle, the correlation times are independent of the calibration data.

  5. Turbulent combined-convection boundary layer with aiding flows along a heated vertical flat plate at higher freestream velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedina, Mohammad Zoynal; Islam, Mohammed Moinul; Hanif, Md. Abu; Alam, Md. Jahangir

    2016-07-01

    A numerical investigation is performed in the turbulent combined-convection boundary layer with aiding flows in air along a heated vertical flat plate at a higher freestream velocity (Reδ0 = 600) by time-developing direct numerical simulation (DNS). At higher freestream velocity, the transition from laminar to turbulent delays for aiding flows and relatively a lower and higher heat transfer rates are observed, respectively, in the laminar and turbulent region compared to that of lower freestream velocity. The wall shear stresses are higher in the laminar region compared to that in the turbulent region, and at higher freestream velocity, the wall shear stress in the transition region shows a higher peak value. The intensity of velocity and temperature fluctuations for aiding flows with higher freestream velocity become appreciably lower than that for lower freestream velocity due to the laminarization of the boundary layer.

  6. Impact of flow velocity on biochemical processes - a laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisson, A.; Roubinet, D.; Aquilina, L.; Bour, O.; Davy, P.

    2014-08-01

    Understanding and predicting hydraulic and chemical properties of natural environments are current crucial challenges. It requires considering hydraulic, chemical and biological processes and evaluating how hydrodynamic properties impact on biochemical reactions. In this context, an original laboratory experiment to study the impact of flow velocity on biochemical reactions along a one-dimensional flow streamline has been developed. Based on the example of nitrate reduction, nitrate-rich water passes through plastic tubes at several flow velocities (from 6.2 to 35 mm min-1), while nitrate concentration at the tube outlet is monitored for more than 500 h. This experimental setup allows assessing the biologically controlled reaction between a mobile electron acceptor (nitrate) and an electron donor (carbon) coming from an immobile phase (tube) that produces carbon during its degradation by microorganisms. It results in observing a dynamic of the nitrate transformation associated with biofilm development which is flow-velocity dependent. It is proposed that the main behaviors of the reaction rates are related to phases of biofilm development through a simple analytical model including assimilation. Experiment results and their interpretation demonstrate a significant impact of flow velocity on reaction performance and stability and highlight the relevance of dynamic experiments over static experiments for understanding biogeochemical processes.

  7. Vortex shedding flowmeters for liquids at high flow velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegwarth, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    A number of vortex shedding flowmeter designs for flow measurements in liquid oxygen ducts on the space shuttle main engines have been tested in a high head water flow test facility. The results have shown that a vortex shedding element or vane spanning the duct can give a linear response to an average flow velocity of 46 m/s (150 ft/s) in a 1 1/2 inch nominal (41 mm actual) diameter duct while a vane partially spanning the duct can give a linear response to velocities exceeding 55 m/s (180 ft/s). The maximum pressure drops across the flow sensing elements extrapolate to less than 0.7 MPa (100 psi) at 56 m/s (184 ft/s) for liquid oxygen. The test results indicate that the vanes probably cannot be scaled up with pipe size, at least not linearly.

  8. Velocity Fields of Axisymmetric Hydrogen-Air Counterflow Diffusion Flames from LDV, PIV, and Numerical Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Wilson, Lloyd G.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Bartram, Scott M.; Gartrell, Luther R.; Isaac, K. M.

    1995-01-01

    Laminar fuel-air counterflow diffusion flames (CFDFs) were studied using axisymmetric convergent-nozzle and straight-tube opposed jet burners (OJBs). The subject diagnostics were used to probe a systematic set of H2/N2-air CFDFs over wide ranges of fuel input (22 to 100% Ha), and input axial strain rate (130 to 1700 Us) just upstream of the airside edge, for both plug-flow and parabolic input velocity profiles. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was applied along the centerline of seeded air flows from a convergent nozzle OJB (7.2 mm i.d.), and Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) was applied on the entire airside of both nozzle and tube OJBs (7 and 5 mm i.d.) to characterize global velocity structure. Data are compared to numerical results from a one-dimensional (1-D) CFDF code based on a stream function solution for a potential flow input boundary condition. Axial strain rate inputs at the airside edge of nozzle-OJB flows, using LDV and PIV, were consistent with 1-D impingement theory, and supported earlier diagnostic studies. The LDV results also characterized a heat-release hump. Radial strain rates in the flame substantially exceeded 1-D numerical predictions. Whereas the 1-D model closely predicted the max I min axial velocity ratio in the hot layer, it overpredicted its thickness. The results also support previously measured effects of plug-flow and parabolic input strain rates on CFDF extinction limits. Finally, the submillimeter-scale LDV and PIV diagnostics were tested under severe conditions, which reinforced their use with subcentimeter OJB tools to assess effects of aerodynamic strain, and fueVair composition, on laminar CFDF properties, including extinction.

  9. Analytic expression for poloidal flow velocity in the banana regime

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, M.

    2013-01-15

    The poloidal flow velocity in the banana regime is calculated by improving the l = 1 approximation for the Fokker-Planck collision operator [M. Taguchi, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30, 1897 (1988)]. The obtained analytic expression for this flow, which can be used for general axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, agrees quite well with the recently calculated numerical results by Parker and Catto [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085011 (2012)] in the full range of aspect ratio.

  10. Intermittency and velocity fluctuations in hopper flows prone to clogging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C. C.; Durian, D. J.

    2016-08-01

    We study experimentally the dynamics of granular media in a discharging hopper. In such flows, there often appears to be a critical outlet size Dc such that the flow never clogs for D >Dc . We report on the time-averaged velocity distributions, as well as temporal intermittency in the ensemble-averaged velocity of grains in a viewing window, for both D Dc , near and far from the outlet. We characterize the velocity distributions by the standard deviation and the skewness of the distribution of vertical velocities. We propose a measure for intermittency based on the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov DKS statistic for the velocity distributions as a function of time. We find that there is no discontinuity or kink in these various measures as a function of hole size. This result supports the proposition that there is no well-defined Dc and that clogging is always possible. Furthermore, the intermittency time scale of the flow is set by the speed of the grains at the hopper exit. This latter finding is consistent with a model of clogging as the independent sampling for stable configurations at the exit with a rate set by the exiting grain speed [C. C. Thomas and D. J. Durian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 178001 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.178001].

  11. Heat Transfer Effects on Laminar Velocity Profiles in Pipe Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Robert; Jenkins, Thomas

    1998-11-01

    Heat Transfer Effects on Laminar Velocity Profiles in Pipe Flow. Robert L. Powell, Thomas P. Jenkins Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science University of California, Davis, CA 95616 Using laser Doppler velocimetry, we have measured the axial velocity profiles for steady, pressure driven, laminar flow of water in a circular tube. The flow was established in a one inch diameter seamless glass tube. The entry length prior to the measuring section was over one hundred diameters. Reynolds numbers in the range 500-2000 were used. Under conditions where the temperature difference between the fluid and the surroundings differed by as little as 0.2C, we found significant asymmetries in the velocity profiles. This asymmetry was most pronounced in the vertical plane. Varying the temperature difference moved the velocity maximum either above or below the centerline depending upon whether the fluid was warmer or cooler than the room. These results compare well to existing calculations. Using the available theory and our experiments it is possible to identify parameter ranges where non-ideal conditions(not parabolic velocity profiles) will be found. Supported by the EMSP Program of DOE.

  12. What is the velocity profile of debris flows?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Fabian; McArdell, Brian

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of flow velocity within a debris flow is difficult to determine at full scale in the field due to the large forces and inherently destructive nature of the flow. However, knowledge of the distribution of velocity within a flow would be helpful to constrain rheological models and to better understand the internal dynamics of such flows. Here we describe recent efforts to determine the velocity of debris flows as a function of distance from the channel bed. Measurements were made at the Illgraben, Switzerland, which exhibits a wide variety of flows, ranging from turbulent debris floods to flows which resemble laminar mud flows to more classical debris flows with a clear granular front. The Illgraben observation station is therefore an ideal location to investigate debris flow dynamics. Our measurements were made using sensors embedded on a 14 m long, 2.5 m tall steel-reinforced concrete wall constructed flush with the torrent channel walls. The main instrumentation consists of 18 geophones (10 Hz natural frequency) installed on square steel plates with a side length of 0.3 m. Each steel plate is acoustically isolated from the wall and the other plates through the use of elastomer elements. The geophone plates are arranged in six rows of three sensors with a dimension of 1.8 m in the vertical direction and 1.5 m in the horizontal direction (i.e. parallel to the flow direction). A sensorless plate separates each plate in the horizontal direction. The data are collected at 2 kHz using a high-speed (synchronous) capture card in a pc. The elevation of the flow surface is determined at a cross-stream distance 1 m away from the wall, using a laser sensor installed on a bridge above the wall. We present a processing approach for the geophone data with the goal to track particle sliding across the sensor plates. For signals near or above the sensors' natural frequency (10 Hz), the measured time series are poorly correlated between sensors. Therefore, we use a

  13. Numerical simulation of air flow in a model of lungs with mouth cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elcner, Jakub; Lizal, Frantisek; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    The air flow in a realistic geometry of human lung is simulated with computational flow dynamics approach as stationary inspiration. Geometry used for the simulation includes oral cavity, larynx, trachea and bronchial tree up to the seventh generation of branching. Unsteady RANS approach was used for the air flow simulation. Velocities corresponding to 15, 30 and 60 litres/min of flow rate were set as boundary conditions at the inlet to the model. These flow rates are frequently used as a representation of typical human activities. Character of air flow in the model for these different flow rates is discussed with respect to future investigation of particle deposition.

  14. Prediction of inverted velocity profile for gas flow in nanochannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T. T.; Ren, Y. R.

    2014-11-01

    Velocity inversion is an interesting phenomenon of nanoscale which means that the velocity near the wall is greater than that of center. To solve this problem, fluid flow in nanochannel attracts more attention in recent years. The physical model of gas flow in two-dimensional nanochannel was established here. To describe the process with conventional control equations, Navier-Stokes equations combined with high-order accurate slip boundary conditions was used as mathematical model. With the introduction of new dimensionless variables, the problem was reduced to an ordinary differential equation. Then it was analytically solved and investigated using homotopy analysis method (HAM). The results were verified by comparing with other available experiment data. Result shows that the proposed method could predict velocity phenomenon.

  15. A stochastic filtering technique for fluid flow velocity fields tracking.

    PubMed

    Cuzol, Anne; Mémin, Etienne

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we present a method for the temporal tracking of fluid flow velocity fields. The technique we propose is formalized within a sequential Bayesian filtering framework. The filtering model combines an Itô diffusion process coming from a stochastic formulation of the vorticity-velocity form of the Navier-Stokes equation and discrete measurements extracted from the image sequence. In order to handle a state space of reasonable dimension, the motion field is represented as a combination of adapted basis functions, derived from a discretization of the vorticity map of the fluid flow velocity field. The resulting nonlinear filtering problem is solved with the particle filter algorithm in continuous time. An adaptive dimensional reduction method is applied to the filtering technique, relying on dynamical systems theory. The efficiency of the tracking method is demonstrated on synthetic and real-world sequences. PMID:19443925

  16. Measuring OutdoorAir Intake Rates Using Electronic Velocity Sensors at Louvers and Downstream of Airflow Straighteners

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

    2008-10-01

    Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100percent, and were often greater than 25percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

  17. Kinematics of velocity and vorticity correlations in turbulent flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, P. S.

    1983-01-01

    The kinematic problem of calculating second-order velocity moments from given values of the vorticity covariance is examined. Integral representation formulas for second-order velocity moments in terms of the two-point vorticity correlation tensor are derived. The special relationships existing between velocity moments in isotropic turbulence are expressed in terms of the integral formulas yielding several kinematic constraints on the two-point vorticity correlation tensor in isotropic turbulence. Numerical evaluation of these constraints suggests that a Gaussian curve may be the only form of the longitudinal velocity correlation coefficient which is consistent with the requirement of isotropy. It is shown that if this is the case, then a family of exact solutions to the decay of isotropic turbulence may be obtained which contains Batchelor's final period solution as a special case. In addition, the computed results suggest a method of approximating the integral representation formulas in general turbulent shear flows.

  18. Considerations of Air Flow in Combustion Chambers of High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Moore, C S

    1932-01-01

    The air flow in combustion chambers is divided into three fundamental classes - induced, forced, and residual. A generalized resume is given of the present status of air flow investigations and of the work done at this and other laboratories to determine the direction and velocity of air movement in auxiliary and integral combustion chambers. The effects of air flow on engine performance are mentioned to show that although air flow improves the combustion efficiency, considerable induction, friction, and thermal losses must be guarded against.

  19. Influence of flow velocity on the removal of faecal coliforms in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Lohay, W S; Lyimo, T J; Njau, K N

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the influence of flow velocity on the removal of faecal coliforms (FC) in constructed wetlands (CWs), removal rate constants of FC (k(FC)) were studied at various flow velocities (u). Membrane filtration technique was used during analysis. Values of k(FC) were determined using Reed's equation of pathogen removal; the results were compared with the plug flow equation. According to Reed's equation, k(FC) values ranged from 1.6 day⁻¹ at a velocity of 4 m/day to 34.5 day⁻¹ at a velocity of 42.9 m/day. The removal rates correlated positively with flow velocity (r = 0.84, p < 0.05). On assuming a plug flow equation, removal rates constants ranged from 0.77 to 11.69 day⁻¹; a more positive correlation (r = 0.93, p < 0.05) was observed. Optimum removal rate constants were observed for the velocity ranging 36 to 43 m/day. Generally, the increase of flow velocity improved FC removal rate constants: implying that pathogen removals are influenced by diffusion of the microorganisms into the biofilms on CW media. The velocity dependent approach together with the plug flow equation is therefore proposed for incorporation in the design of CW in a tropical climate where temperature variations are minor. PMID:23109602

  20. Air-Induced Drag Reduction at High Reynolds Numbers: Velocity and Void Fraction Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbing, Brian; Mäkiharju, Simo; Wiggins, Andrew; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven

    2010-11-01

    The injection of air into a turbulent boundary layer forming over a flat plate can reduce the skin friction. With sufficient volumetric fluxes an air layer can separate the solid surface from the flowing liquid, which can produce drag reduction in excess of 80%. Several large scale experiments have been conducted at the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat plate model investigating bubble drag reduction (BDR), air layer drag reduction (ALDR) and the transition between BDR and ALDR. The most recent experiment acquired phase velocities and void fraction profiles at three downstream locations (3.6, 5.9 and 10.6 m downstream from the model leading edge) for a single flow speed (˜6.4 m/s). The profiles were acquired with a combination of electrode point probes, time-of-flight sensors, Pitot tubes and an LDV system. Additional diagnostics included skin-friction sensors and flow-field image visualization. During this experiment the inlet flow was perturbed with vortex generators immediately upstream of the injection location to assess the robustness of the air layer. From these, and prior measurements, computational models can be refined to help assess the viability of ALDR for full-scale ship applications.

  1. Thermal stability effects on the structure of the velocity field above an air-water interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadimitrakis, Y. A.; Hsu, Y.-H. L.; Wu, J.

    1987-01-01

    Mean velocity and turbulence measurements are described for turbulent flows above laboratory water waves, under various wind and thermal stratification conditions. Experimental results, when presented in the framework of Monin-Obukhov (1954) similarity theory, support local scaling based on evaluation of stratification effects at the same nondimensional distance from the mean water surface. Such scaling allows an extension of application of the above theory to the outer region of the boundary layer. Throughout the fully turbulent region, ratios of mean velocity gradients, eddy viscosities, and turbulence intensities under nonneutral and neutral conditions correlate well with the parameter z/Lambda (Lambda being a local Obukhov length and z the vertical coordinate of the mean air flow) and show good agreement with established field correlations. The influence of stratification on the wind-stress coefficient can be estimated from an empirical relationship in terms of its value under neutral conditions and a bulk Richardson number.

  2. Evolution of flow velocities and basal stresses in finite-mass granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugnion, Louis; Schaefer, Marius

    2010-05-01

    Evolution of flow velocities and basal stresses in finite-mass granular flows We present detailed velocity measurements in granular avalanches flowing down a flat chute together with shear and normal force measurements on the running surface. The chute is five meters long and half a meter wide. Granular material (glass beads or ballotini) with grain sizes between 0.1mm to 1.4 mm were used. The flow was recorded through a transparent side-wall by two high-speed cameras, which are able to capture 1825 pictures in a second. Due to the high frame rate of the cameras, several flow features can be observed with accuracy. By analysing the images with a pattern matching algorithm two dimensional velocity fields with high temporal and spatial resolution were obtained. The evolution of flow-normal velocity profiles, velocity fluctuation profiles and other flow characteristic such as the depth averaged velocity, the slip velocity, the surface velocity, shear rates or flow depth through the flow are tracked. By using two high-speed cameras at different downstream positions the evolution of the gradient of the velocities in downstream direction could also be studied. The shear and normal force plates were located at a camera's downstream position. The evolution of the basal forces and friction coefficients could therefore be analysed with respect to the flow characteristics mentioned above. The flow heights were recorded from the films as well as from two laser sensors located at the cameras downstream positions. We varied the roughness of the running surface by gluing sand paper of different grain-size and drawing paper on the wooden chute. The inclination angle was varied, from 20° to 40° degrees depending on the combination of material and running surface roughness. Together with the different sizes of the ballotini various flow conditions scenarios were carried out. As a result different flow structures could be observed and characterized including velocity profile with

  3. Flow velocity measurement with the nonlinear acoustic wave scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Didenkulov, Igor; Pronchatov-Rubtsov, Nikolay

    2015-10-28

    A problem of noninvasive measurement of liquid flow velocity arises in many practical applications. To this end the most often approach is the use of the linear Doppler technique. The Doppler frequency shift of signal scattered from the inhomogeneities distributed in a liquid relatively to the emitted frequency is proportional to the sound frequency and velocities of inhomogeneities. In the case of very slow flow one needs to use very high frequency sound. This approach fails in media with strong sound attenuation because acoustic wave attenuation increases with frequency and there is limit in increasing sound intensity, i.e. the cavitation threshold. Another approach which is considered in this paper is based on the method using the difference frequency Doppler Effect for flows with bubbles. This method is based on simultaneous action of two high-frequency primary acoustic waves with closed frequencies on bubbles and registration of the scattered by bubbles acoustic field at the difference frequency. The use of this method is interesting since the scattered difference frequency wave has much lower attenuation in a liquid. The theoretical consideration of the method is given in the paper. The experimental examples confirming the theoretical equations, as well as the ability of the method to be applied in medical diagnostics and in technical applications on measurement of flow velocities in liquids with strong sound attenuation is described. It is shown that the Doppler spectrum form depends on bubble concentration velocity distribution in the primary acoustic beams crossing zone that allows one to measure the flow velocity distribution.

  4. Flow velocity measurement with the nonlinear acoustic wave scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenkulov, Igor; Pronchatov-Rubtsov, Nikolay

    2015-10-01

    A problem of noninvasive measurement of liquid flow velocity arises in many practical applications. To this end the most often approach is the use of the linear Doppler technique. The Doppler frequency shift of signal scattered from the inhomogeneities distributed in a liquid relatively to the emitted frequency is proportional to the sound frequency and velocities of inhomogeneities. In the case of very slow flow one needs to use very high frequency sound. This approach fails in media with strong sound attenuation because acoustic wave attenuation increases with frequency and there is limit in increasing sound intensity, i.e. the cavitation threshold. Another approach which is considered in this paper is based on the method using the difference frequency Doppler Effect for flows with bubbles. This method is based on simultaneous action of two high-frequency primary acoustic waves with closed frequencies on bubbles and registration of the scattered by bubbles acoustic field at the difference frequency. The use of this method is interesting since the scattered difference frequency wave has much lower attenuation in a liquid. The theoretical consideration of the method is given in the paper. The experimental examples confirming the theoretical equations, as well as the ability of the method to be applied in medical diagnostics and in technical applications on measurement of flow velocities in liquids with strong sound attenuation is described. It is shown that the Doppler spectrum form depends on bubble concentration velocity distribution in the primary acoustic beams crossing zone that allows one to measure the flow velocity distribution.

  5. Effects of Flow Velocity and Particle Size on Transport of Ultrafine Bubbles in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, S.; Nihei, N.; Ueda, Y.; Nishimura, T.

    2015-12-01

    Potential applications of ultrafine bubbles (UFBs) have drawn more attention, especially in environmental engineering fields such as soil/groundwater remediation. Understanding a transport mechanism of UFBs in soils is essential to optimize remediation techniques using UFBs. In this study, column transport experiments using glass beads with different size fraction were conducted, where UFBs created by either air or oxygen were injected to the column with different flow conditions. Effects of particle size and flow velocities on transport characteristics of UFBs were investigated based on the column experiments. The results showed that attachments of UFBs were enhanced under lower water velocity condition, exhibiting more than 50% of UFBs injected were attached inside the column. The mobility of O2-UFBs which have lower zeta potential was higher than that of Air-UFBs. A convection-dispersion model including bubble attachment and detachment terms was applied to the obtained breakthrough curves for each experiment, showing good fitness against the measured data.

  6. Choice of velocity variables for complex flow computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyy, W.; Chang, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    The issue of adopting the velocity components as dependent velocity variables for the Navier-Stokes flow computations is investigated. The viewpoint advocated is that a numerical algorithm should preferably honor both the physical conservation law in differential form and the geometric conservation law in discrete form. With the use of Cartesian velocity vector, the momentum equations in curvilinear coordinates can retain the full conservation-law form and satisfy the physical conservation laws. With the curvilinear velocity components, source terms appear in differential equations and hence the full conservation law form can not be retained. In discrete expressions, algorithms based on the Cartesian components can satisfy the geometric conservation-law form for convection terms but not for viscous terms; those based on the curvilinear components, on the other hand, cannot satisfy the geometric conservation-law form for either convection or viscous terms. Several flow solutions for domain with 90 and 360 degree turnings are presented to illustrate the issues of using the Cartesian velocity components and the staggered grid arrangement.

  7. Two-phase air-water stratified flow measurement using ultrasonic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Shiwei; Yan, Tinghu; Yeung, Hoi

    2014-04-11

    In this paper, a time resolved ultrasound system was developed for investigating two-phase air-water stratified flow. The hardware of the system includes a pulsed wave transducer, a pulser/receiver, and a digital oscilloscope. The time domain cross correlation method is used to calculate the velocity profile along ultrasonic beam. The system is able to provide velocities with spatial resolution of around 1mm and the temporal resolution of 200μs. Experiments were carried out on single phase water flow and two-phase air-water stratified flow. For single phase water flow, the flow rates from ultrasound system were compared with those from electromagnetic flow (EM) meter, which showed good agreement. Then, the experiments were conducted on two-phase air-water stratified flow and the results were given. Compared with liquid height measurement from conductance probe, it indicated that the measured velocities were explainable.

  8. Volume flow in arteriovenous fistulas using vector velocity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Peter Møller; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Lange, Theis; Heerwagen, Søren; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Rix, Marianne; Lönn, Lars; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2014-11-01

    Volume flow in arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis was measured using the angle-independent ultrasound technique Vector Flow Imaging and compared with flow measurements using the ultrasound dilution technique during dialysis. Using an UltraView 800 ultrasound scanner (BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark) with a linear transducer, 20 arteriovenous fistulas were scanned directly on the most superficial part of the fistula just before dialysis. Vector Flow Imaging volume flow was estimated with two different approaches, using the maximum and the average flow velocities detected in the fistula. Flow was estimated to be 242 mL/min and 404 mL/min lower than the ultrasound dilution technique estimate, depending on the approach. The standard deviations of the two Vector Flow Imaging approaches were 175.9 mL/min and 164.8 mL/min compared with a standard deviation of 136.9 mL/min using the ultrasound dilution technique. The study supports that Vector Flow Imaging is applicable for volume flow measurements. PMID:25282482

  9. Deployable Emergency Shutoff Device Blocks High-Velocity Fluid Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a device and method for blocking the flow of fluid from an open pipe. Motivated by the sea-bed oil-drilling catastrophe in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, NASA innovators designed the device to plug, control, and meter the flow of gases and liquids. Anchored with friction fittings, spikes, or explosively activated fasteners, the device is well-suited for harsh environments and high fluid velocities and pressures. With the addition of instrumentation, it can also be used as a variable area flow metering valve that can be set based upon flow conditions. With robotic additions, this patent-pending innovation can be configured to crawl into a pipe then anchor and activate itself to block or control fluid flow.

  10. Evaluation of the tablets' surface flow velocities in pan coaters.

    PubMed

    Dreu, Rok; Toschkoff, Gregor; Funke, Adrian; Altmeyer, Andreas; Knop, Klaus; Khinast, Johannes; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The tablet pan coating process involves various types of transverse tablet bed motions, ranging from rolling to cascading. To preserve satisfactory results in terms of coating quality after scale-up, understanding the dynamics of pan coating process should be achieved. The aim of this study was to establish a methodology of estimating translational surface velocities of the tablets in a pan coater and to assess their dependence on the drum's filling degree, the pan speed, the presence of baffles and the selected tablet properties in a dry bed system and during coating while varying the drum's filling degree and the pan speed. Experiments were conducted on the laboratory scale and on the pilot scale in side-vented pan coaters. Surface movement of biconvex two-layer tablets was assessed before, during and after the process of active coating. In order to determine the tablets' surface flow velocities, a high-speed video of the tablet surface flow was recorded via a borescope inserted into the coating drum and analysed via a cross-correlation algorithm. The obtained tablet velocity data were arranged in a linear fashion as a function of the coating drum's radius and frequency. Velocity data obtained during coating were close to those of dry tablets after coating. The filling degree had little influence on the tablet velocity profile in a coating drum with baffles but clearly affected it in a coating drum without baffles. In most but not all cases, tablets with a lower static angle of repose had tablet velocity profiles with lower slopes than tablets with higher inter-tablet friction. This particular tablet velocity response can be explained by case specific values of tablet bed's dynamic angle of repose. PMID:27264716

  11. Simulator Of Rain In Flowing Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Richard M.; Cho, Young I.; Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Back, Lloyd H.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes relatively inexpensive apparatus that creates simulated precipitation from drizzle to heavy rain in flowing air. Small, positive-displacement pump and water-injecting device positioned at low-airspeed end of converging section of wind tunnel 10 in. in diameter. Drops injected by array entrained in flow of air as it accelerates toward narrower outlet, 15 in. downstream. Outlet 5 in. in diameter.

  12. Hyperconcentrated flow and men velocity estimation: a study case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termini, Donatella

    2015-04-01

    Due to the complexity of the debris-flow process, numerical models to simulate propagation phenomenon are still limited. Different approaches (either monophase or two-phase) have been proposed in literature to solve the set of governing equations. But, the difficulty is due to the fact that these equations require suitable closure relations that should be valid in a very wide range of slope and materials characteristics. The point is that, in order to perform a hazard assessment and/or to design protective measures against debris flows, it is necessary to estimate important parameters such as mean flow velocity, peak discharge and runout distance. Experimental program has been recently conducted at the Hydraulic laboratory of the Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospatial and of Materials (DICAM) - University of Palermo (Italy) in order to evaluate the influence of different geometrical parameters (such as the slope and the geometrical characteristics of the confluences to the main channel) on the propagation phenomenon of the debris flow and its deposition. The experimental apparatus includes a high-precision camera allowing the estimation of hyperconcentrated flow velocity by applying the VIA technique. In a previous work (Termini and Di Leonardo, 2014) the influence of geometrical parameters on the propagation phenomenon were analyzed. In the present work the attention is devoted to the mean velocity and its estimation for different concentrations of solid materials. References Termini D., Di Leonardo A. 2014. "Propagation of hyperconcentrated flows in protection channels around urban areas:experimental investigation" -Urban and urbanization. ST. KLIMENT OHRIDSKI. University Press. Sofia.

  13. Velocity shear induced phenomena in solar and astrophysical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tevzadze, A. G.

    2006-04-01

    Velocity shear induced phenomena in solar and astrophysical flows This thesis has concentrated on a non-modal analysis of flows with velocity inhomogeneities. Various astrophysical applications have been considered. In Chapter 2 we have studied a simple shear flow in order to demonstrate the non-modal method as well as basic properties of flows with inhomogeneous velocity fields. We illustrated the mathematical formalism on a parallel flow with a constant linear velocity shear. The effect of the shearing background on the different types of modes was demonstrated separately. In Chapter 3 we studied linear mode conversion and sound production in uniform shear flows. The flows under consideration were two dimensional, planar, inviscid, unbounded, and had uniform density/pressure and constant shear of velocity. We studied the aerodynamic production of acoustic waves in inhomogeneous hydrodynamic flows. A qualitative analysis of the wave excitation amplitudes in wave-number space are followed by direct numerical simulations on the vortex package dynamics in shear flows. We have derived the formalism for the separation of linear modes in flows with constant velocity shear. Hence, we carried out numerical analysis to study the wave generation and confirm the theoretical results obtained with the non-modal method. In Chapter 4 we have extended the theory of Chapter 3 to the MHD waves. We have studied 2D linear perturbations in 3D unbounded ideal MHD shear flows. In this case the linear spectrum consists of the magnetosonic wave mode and two aperiodic modes with zero frequency. These modes are a vortex mode with intrinsic vortical perturbations and a magneto-mechanical mode which has transient vortical characteristics in the sheared medium. Both aperiodic modes are able to excite magnetosonic waves with similar wave-numbers when the wave-number in the direction of the velocity shear becomes zero. It turns out that the vortex modes are the main source of the waves in flows

  14. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  15. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  16. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  17. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  18. Volumetric velocity measurements on flows through heart valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troolin, Daniel; Amatya, Devesh; Longmire, Ellen

    2009-11-01

    Volumetric velocity fields inside two types of artificial heart valves were obtained experimentally through the use of volumetric 3-component velocimetry (V3V). Index matching was used to mitigate the effects of optical distortions due to interfaces between the fluid and curved walls. The steady flow downstream of a mechanical valve was measured and the results matched well with previously obtained 2D PIV results, such as those of Shipkowitz et al. (2002). Measurements upstream and downstream of a deformable silicone valve in a pulsatile flow were obtained and reveal significant three-dimensional features of the flow. Plots and movies will be shown, and a detailed discussion of the flow and various experimental considerations will be included. Reference: Shipkowitz, T, Ambrus J, Kurk J, Wickramasinghe K (2002) Evaluation technique for bileaflet mechanical valves. J. Heart Valve Disease. 11(2) pp. 275-282.

  19. Flowing layer kinematics for constant dimension flowing layers with variable erosion velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitulnik, Adam; Pohlman, Nicholas

    2015-11-01

    Simulations of granular flow assume a consistent flowing layer profile observed in circular tumblers that were half full. While the constant shear rate model predicts mixing kinematics adequately, the model has not been empirically tested in systems where the erosion from the solid body has velocity components along the dynamic angle of repose. This research reports on experiments where the relationship between tumbler fill fraction and the kinematics of the erosion boundary transition into the flowing layer is analyzed. Tumblers greater than 50% full have inertial velocity along the angle of repose; fill conditions less than 50% enter with velocity opposite the free surface angle. Results show that varying the fill level while maintaining constant flowing layer length does not change the advection pattern within the flowing layer. The conclusion is that the 50% model is independent of fill level due to the kinetic energy of the flowing layer exceeding the potential energy at the erosion boundary.

  20. On the measurement of lateral velocity derivatives in turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonia, R. A.; Zhu, Y.; Kim, J.

    1993-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation data for the lateral velocity derivative delta(u)/delta(y) at the centerline of a fully developed turbulent channel flow provide reasonable support for Wyngaard's analysis of the error involved in measuring this quantity using parallel hot wires. Numerical data in the wall region of the channel flow also provide a useful indication of how to select the separation between the wires. Justification for this choice is obtained by comparing several measured statistics of delta(u)/delta(y) with the corresponding numerical data.

  1. Laser Doppler velocity measurements of swirling flows with upstream influence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rloff, K. L.; Bossel, H. H.

    1973-01-01

    Swirling flow in a rotating tube is studied by flow visualization at a moderate Reynolds number, and its velocity field is measured by laser-Doppler anemometry. The tube has constant diameter, and approximately uniform initial rigid rotation of the flow is assured by passing the flow through a rotating plug of porous metal before it enters the test section. At moderate swirl values, an object mounted on the tube centerline causes a closed bubble to form upstream of the obstacle, with a clearly defined stagnation point on the axis, and recirculating flow inside the bubble. The bubble length grows upstream as the swirl is increased, until it breaks up into a Taylor column reaching all the way upstream and downstream at swirl values above a certain critical value. A vortex jump (in the sense of Benjamin) occurs downstream of the obstacle except when the Taylor column is present. Using a laser-Doppler anemometer, axial and swirl velocity profiles are obtained at several stations upstream and downstream of the bubble, and in and around the bubble.

  2. Phase Resolved Angular Velocity Control of Cross Flow Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, Benjamin; Brunton, Steven; Polagye, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Cross flow turbines have a number of operational advantages for the conversion of kinetic energy in marine or fluvial currents, but they are often less efficient than axial flow devices. Here a control scheme is presented in which the angular velocity of a cross flow turbine with two straight blades is prescribed as a function of azimuthal blade position, altering the time-varying effective angle of attack. Flume experiments conducted with a scale model turbine show approximately an 80% increase in turbine efficiency versus optimal constant angular velocity and constant resistive torque control schemes. Torque, drag, and lateral forces on one- and two-bladed turbines are analyzed and interpreted with bubble flow visualization to develop a simple model that describes the hydrodynamics responsible for the observed increase in mean efficiency. Challenges associated with implementing this control scheme on commercial-scale devices are discussed. If solutions are found, the performance increase presented here may impact the future development of cross flow turbines.

  3. Study of the velocity gradient tensor in turbulent flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Wei-Ping; Cantwell, Brian

    1996-01-01

    The behavior of the velocity gradient tensor, A(ij)=delta u(i)/delta x(j), was studied using three turbulent flows obtained from direct numerical simulation The flows studies were: an inviscid calculation of the interaction between two vortex tubes, a homogeneous isotropic flow, and a temporally evolving planar wake. Self-similar behavior for each flow was obtained when A(ij) was normalized with the mean strain rate. The case of the interaction between two vortex tubes revealed a finite sized coherent structure with topological characteristics predictable by a restricted Euler model. This structure was found to evolve with the peak vorticity as the flow approached singularity. Invariants of A(ij) within this structure followed a straight line relationship of the form: gamma(sup 3)+gammaQ+R=0, where Q and R are the second and third invariants of A(ij), and the eigenvalue gamma is nearly constant over the volume of this structure. Data within this structure have local strain topology of unstable-node/saddle/saddle. The characteristics of the velocity gradient tensor and the anisotropic part of a related acceleration gradient tensor H(ij) were also studied for a homogeneous isotropic flow and a temporally evolving planar wake. It was found that the intermediate principal eigenvalue of the rate-of-strain tensor of H(ij) tended to be negative, with local strain topology of the type stable-node/saddle/saddle. There was also a preferential eigenvalue direction. The magnitude of H(ij) in the wake flow was found to be very small when data were conditioned at high local dissipation regions. This result was not observed in the relatively low Reynolds number simulation of homogeneous isotropic flow. A restricted Euler model of the evolution of A(ij) was found to reproduce many of the topological features identified in the simulations.

  4. Burning Velocity Measurements in Aluminum-Air Suspensions using Bunsen Type Dust Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, John; Goroshin, Samuel; Kolbe, Massimiliano

    2001-01-01

    Laminar burning velocity (sometimes also referred in literature as fundamental or normal flame propagation speed) is probably the most important combustion characteristic of the premixed combustible mixture. The majority of experimental data on burning velocities in gaseous mixtures was obtained with the help of the Bunsen conical flame. The Bunsen cone method was found to be sufficiently accurate for gaseous mixtures with burning velocities higher than 10-15 cm/s at normal pressure. Hans Cassel was the first to demonstrate that suspensions of micron-size solid fuel particles in a gaseous oxidizer can also form self-sustained Bunsen flames. He was able to stabilize Bunsen flames in a number of suspensions of different nonvolatile solid fuels (aluminum, carbon, and boron). Using the Bunsen cone method he estimated burning velocities in the premixed aluminum-air mixtures (particle size less than 10 microns) to be in the range of 30-40 cm/s. Cassel also found, that the burning velocity in dust clouds is a function of the burner diameter. In our recent work, we have used the Bunsen cone method to investigate dependence of burning velocity on dust concentration in fuel-rich aluminum dust clouds. Burning velocities in stoichiometric and fuel-rich aluminum dust suspensions with average particle sizes of about 5 microns were found to be in the range of 20-25 cm/s and largely independent on dust concentration. These results raise the question to what degree burning velocities derived from Bunsen flame specifically and other dust flame configurations in general, are indeed fundamental characteristics of the mixture and to what degree are they apparatus dependent. Dust flames in comparison to gas combustion, are thicker, may be influenced by radiation heat transfer in the flame front, respond differently to heat losses, and are fundamentally influenced by the particular flow configuration due to the particles inertia. Since characteristic spatial scales of dust flames are

  5. Air flow cued spatial learning in mice.

    PubMed

    Bouchekioua, Youcef; Mimura, Masaru; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Spatial learning experiments in rodents typically employ visual cues that are associated with a goal place, even though it is now well established that they have poor visual acuity. We assessed here the possibility of spatial learning in mice based on an air flow cue in a dry version of the Morris water maze task. A miniature fan was placed at each of the four cardinal points of the circular maze, but only one blew air towards the centre of the maze. The three other fans were blowing towards their own box. The mice were able to learn the task only if the spatial relationship between the air flow cue and the position of the goal place was kept constant across trials. A change of this spatial relationship resulted in an increase in the time to find the goal place. We report here the first evidence of spatial learning relying on an air flow cue. PMID:25257773

  6. A stagnation pressure probe for droplet-laden air flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, S. N. B.; Leonardo, M.; Ehresman, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    It is often of interest in a droplet-laden gas flow to obtain the stagnation pressure of both the gas phase and the mixture. A flow-decelerating probe (TPF), with separate, purged ports for the gas phase and the mixture and with a bleed for accumulating liquid at the closed end, has been developed. Measurements obtained utilizing the TPF in a nearly isothermal air-water droplet mixture flow in a smooth circular pipe under various conditions of flow velocity, pressure, liquid concentration and droplet size are presented and compared with data obtained under identical conditions with a conventional, gas phase stagnation pressure probe (CSP). The data obtained with the CSP and TPF probes are analyzed to determine the applicability of the two probes in relation to the multi-phase characteristics of the flow and the geometry of the probe.

  7. Measurement of velocities in gas-liquid two-phase flow using Laser Doppler Velocimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Vassallo, P.F.; Trabold, T.A.; Moore, W.E.; Kirouac, G.J.

    1992-09-01

    Measurements of bubble and liquid velocities in two-phase flow have been made using a new forward/backward scattering Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) technique. This work was performed in a 6.4 by 11.1 mm vertical duct using known air/water mixtures. A standard LDV fiber optic probe was used to measure the bubble velocity, using direct backscattered light. A novel retro-reflector and lens assembly permitted the same probe to measure the liquid velocity with direct forward-scattered light. The bubble velocity was confirmed by independent measurements with a high-speed video system. The liquid velocity was confirmed by demonstrating the dominance of the liquid seed data rate in the forward-scatter measurement. Experimental data are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the technique for a wide range of flow conditions, from bubbles as small as 0.75-mm-diam to slugs as large as 10-mm wide by 30-mm long. In the slug regime, the LDV technique performed velocity measurements for both phases, for void fractions up to 50%, which was the upper limit of our experimental investigation.

  8. Ultraviolet Molecular Rayleigh Scattering Used to Measure Velocity in High-Speed Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.

    1997-01-01

    Molecular Rayleigh scattering offers a means to measure gas flow parameters including density, temperature, and velocity. No seeding of the flow is necessary. The Rayleigh scattered power is proportional to the gas density, the spectral width is related to the gas temperature, and the shift in the frequency of the spectral peak is proportional to one component of the fluid velocity. Velocity measurements based on Rayleigh scattering are more suitable for high-speed flow, where the bulk fluid velocity is on the order of, or larger than, the molecular thermal velocities. Use of ultraviolet wavelengths for Rayleigh scattering diagnostics is attractive for two reasons. First, the Rayleigh scattering cross section is proportional to the inverse 4th power of the wavelength. And second, the reflectivity of metallic surfaces is generally less than it is at longer wavelengths. This is of particular interest in confined flow situations, such as in small wind tunnels and aircraft engine components, where the stray laser light scattered from the windows and internal surfaces in the test facility limits the application of Rayleigh scattering diagnostics. In this work at the NASA Lewis Research Center, molecular Rayleigh scattering of the 266-nm fourth harmonic of a pulsed, injection seeded Nd:YAG (neodymium:yttriumaluminum- garnet) laser was used to measure velocity in a supersonic free air jet with a 9.3- mm exit diameter. The frequency of the Rayleigh scattered light was analyzed with a planar mirror Fabry-Perot interferometer used in a static imaging mode, with the images recorded on a cooled, high-quantum-efficiency charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera. In addition, some unshifted light from the same laser pulse was imaged through the interferometer to generate a reference. Data were obtained with single laser pulses at velocities up to Mach 1.3. The measured velocities were in good agreement with velocities calculated from isentropic flow relations. Our conclusion from

  9. Effects of closed immersion filtered water flow velocity on the ablation threshold of bisphenol A polycarbonate during excimer laser machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowding, Colin; Lawrence, Jonathan

    2010-04-01

    A closed flowing thick film filtered water immersion technique ensures a controlled geometry for both the optical interfaces of the flowing liquid film and allows repeatable control of flow-rate during machining. This has the action of preventing splashing, ensures repeatable machining conditions and allows control of liquid flow velocity. To investigate the impact of this technique on ablation threshold, bisphenol A polycarbonate samples have been machined using KrF excimer laser radiation passing through a medium of filtered water flowing at a number of flow velocities, that are controllable by modifying the liquid flow-rates. An average decrease in ablation threshold of 7.5% when using turbulent flow velocity regime closed thick film filtered water immersed ablation, compared to ablation using a similar beam in ambient air; however, the use of laminar flow velocities resulted in negligible differences between closed flowing thick film filtered water immersion and ambient air. Plotting the recorded threshold fluence achieved with varying flow velocity showed that an optimum flow velocity of 3.00 m/s existed which yielded a minimum ablation threshold of 112 mJ/cm 2. This is attributed to the distortion of the ablation plume effected by the flowing immersion fluid changing the ablation mechanism: at laminar flow velocities Bremsstrahlung attenuation decreases etch rate, at excessive flow velocities the plume is completely destroyed, removing the effect of plume etching. Laminar flow velocity regime ablation is limited by slow removal of debris causing a non-linear etch rate over ' n' pulses which is a result of debris produced by one pulse remaining suspended over the feature for the next pulse. The impact of closed thick film filtered water immersed ablation is dependant upon beam fluence: high fluence beams achieved greater etch efficiency at high flow velocities as the effect of Bremsstrahlung attenuation is removed by the action of the fluid on the plume; low

  10. Flow characteristics in an expansion tunnel as inferred from velocity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Friesen, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    A photoionization technique was used to study flow characteristics in an expansion tunnel. Vertical surveys of the axial component of flow velocity just downstream from the nozzle exit were obtained, and estimates of freestream density were inferred from the velocity measurement technique. The pitot pressure was measured and compared to the average axial component of velocity as a function of time for the two cases when air and CO2 were used as test gases. Vertical velocity and static density profiles at the nozzle exit are presented for the case when CO2 was used as test gas. Experimental results were used to determine the diameter and uniformity of the test core at the nozzle exit and the duration of the quasi-steady flow period. These data are relevant to evaluation of the suitability of operating an expansion tube as an expansion tunnel. The expansion tunnel is an expansion tube with a conical nozzle positioned at the exit of the acceleration section, so that nozzle entrance flow conditions are hypersonic and characterized by hypervelocity.

  11. Air flow through poppet valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, G W; Nutting, E M

    1920-01-01

    Report discusses the comparative continuous flow characteristics of single and double poppet valves. The experimental data presented affords a direct comparison of valves, single and in pairs of different sizes, tested in a cylinder designed in accordance with current practice in aviation engines.

  12. The Effect of Compressibility on the Pressure Reading of a Prandtl Pitot Tube at Subsonic Flow Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walchner, O

    1939-01-01

    Errors arising from yawed flow were also determined up to 20 degrees angle of attack. In axial flow, the Prandtl pitot tube begins at w/a approx. = 0.8 to give an incorrect static pressure reading, while it records the tank pressure correctly, as anticipated, up to sonic velocity. Owing to the compressibility of the air, the Prandtl pitot tube manifests compression shocks when the air speed approaches velocity of sound. This affects the pressure reading of the instrument. Because of the increasing importance of high speed in aviation, this compressibility effect is investigated in detail.

  13. Velocity and void distribution in a counter-current two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, S.; Schulenberg, T.; Laurien, E.

    2012-07-01

    Different flow regimes were investigated in a horizontal channel. Simulating a hot leg injection in case of a loss of coolant accident or flow conditions in reflux condenser mode, the hydraulic jump and partially reversed flow were identified as major constraints for a high amount of entrained water. Trying to simulate the reflux condenser mode, the test section now includes an inclined section connected to a horizontal channel. The channel is 90 mm high and 110 mm wide. Tests were carried out for water and air at ambient pressure and temperature. High speed video-metry was applied to obtain velocities from flow pattern maps of the rising and falling fluid. In the horizontal part of the channel with partially reversed flow the fluid velocities were measured by planar particle image velocimetry. To obtain reliable results for the gaseous phase, this analysis was extended by endoscope measurements. Additionally, a new method based on the optical refraction at the interface between air and water in a back-light was used to obtain time-averaged void fraction. (authors)

  14. On retrodictions of global mantle flow with assimilated surface velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colli, Lorenzo; Bunge, Hans-Peter; Schuberth, Bernhard S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Modeling past states of Earth's mantle and relating them to geologic observations such as continental-scale uplift and subsidence is an effective method for testing mantle convection models. However, mantle convection is chaotic and two identical mantle models initialized with slightly different temperature fields diverge exponentially in time until they become uncorrelated, thus limiting retrodictions (i.e., reconstructions of past states of Earth's mantle obtained using present information) to the recent past. We show with 3-D spherical mantle convection models that retrodictions of mantle flow can be extended significantly if knowledge of the surface velocity field is available. Assimilating surface velocities produces in some cases negative Lyapunov times (i.e., e-folding times), implying that even a severely perturbed initial condition may evolve toward the reference state. A history of the surface velocity field for Earth can be obtained from past plate motion reconstructions for time periods of a mantle overturn, suggesting that mantle flow can be reconstructed over comparable times.

  15. Estimate of pyroclastic flow velocities resulting from explosive decompression of lava domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Jonathan H.; Kieffer, Susan W.

    1993-06-01

    APPARENTLY benign silicic domes or lava flows can travel for several kilometres and then suddenly collapse to generate pyroclastic phenomena capable of causing widespread destruction, as happened recently at Mount Unzen in Japan1. Two sources have been proposed for the energy that propels such 'Peléan' or 'Merapi'-type2 pyroclastic flows: gravitational col-lapse (supplemented by heating and expansion of air) and sudden expansion of pressurized gases from inside the lava flow. If gravity controls the energy transfer, then areas likely to be affected can be predicted on the basis of topography3, and the resulting deposits will bear a simple relationship to the part of the lava flow from which they issued. But if gas pressure adds a significant contribution, hazard assessment becomes more difficult because gas decompression adds velocities beyond those acquired by gravitational forces, putting much larger areas at risk and forming pyroclastic deposits that are much more difficult to relate to their source. Here we estimate the initial velocities of pyroclastic flows generated by dome disintegration for a range of lava compositions and volatile contents, and offer a conceptual framework for correlating the dynamics of dome-front collapse with the resulting sediment record. Our results indicate that explosive decompression at distal portions of domes can cause velocities comparable to gravitational collapse, especially in cases where volatiles become locally concentrated above equilibrium values.

  16. 40 CFR 91.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Procedures § 91.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure the air flow over the...

  17. Reconstruction of velocity profiles in axisymmetric and asymmetric flows using an electromagnetic flow meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, László E.; Lucas, Gary P.; Meng, Yiqing

    2015-05-01

    An analytical method that was developed formerly for the reconstruction of velocity profiles in asymmetric flows is improved to be applicable for both axisymmetric and asymmetric flows. The method is implemented in Matlab, and predicts the velocity profile from measured electrical potential distributions obtained around the boundary of a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM). Potential distributions are measured in uniform and non-uniform magnetic fields, and the velocity is assumed as a sum of axisymmetric and polynomial components. The procedure requires three steps. First, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is applied to the potential distribution obtained in a uniform magnetic field. Since the direction of polynomial components of order greater than two in the plane of the pipe cross section is not unique multiple solutions exist, therefore all possible polynomial velocity profiles are determined. Then, the DFT is applied to the potential distribution obtained in a specific non-uniform magnetic field, and used to calculate the exponent in a power-law representation of the axisymmetric component. Finally, the potential distribution in the non-uniform magnetic field is calculated for all of the possible velocity profile solutions using weight values, and the velocity profile with the calculated potential distribution which is closest to the measured one provides the optimum solution. The method is validated by reconstructing two quartic velocity profiles, one of which includes an axisymmetric component. The potential distributions are obtained from simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics where a model of the EMFM is constructed. The reconstructed velocity profiles show satisfactory agreement with the input velocity profiles. The main benefits of the method described in this paper are that it provides a velocity distribution in the circular cross section of a pipe as an analytical function of the spatial coordinates which is suitable for both

  18. Surface-slip equations for multicomponent, nonequilibrium air flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Roop N.; Scott, Carl D.; Moss, James N.; Goglia, Gene

    1985-01-01

    Equations are presented for the surface slip (or jump) values of species concentration, pressure, velocity, and temperature in the low-Reynolds-number, high-altitude flight regime of a space vehicle. These are obtained from closed-form solutions of the mass, momentum, and energy flux equations using the Chapman-Enskog velocity distribution function. This function represents a solution of the Boltzmann equation in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The analysis, obtained for nonequilibrium multicomponent air flow, includes the finite-rate surface catalytic recombination and changes in the internal energy during reflection from the surface. Expressions for the various slip quantities have been obtained in a form which can readily be employed in flow-field computations. A consistent set of equations is provided for multicomponent, binary, and single species mixtures. Expression is also provided for the finite-rate species-concentration boundary condition for a multicomponent mixture in absence of slip.

  19. Compact High-Velocity Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Plasma Jet in Ambient Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annette, Meiners; Michael, Leck; Bernd, Abel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet at high streaming velocity operating with ambient air is highlighted. In the present technological approach, the employment of air poses a significant challenge. The high oxygen concentration in air results in a reduced concentration of reactive species in combination with a short species lifetime. The plasma jet assembly presented here contains a special dielectric barrier with a high secondary emission coefficient. In this way, the electron density and in turn the density of reactive species is increased. In addition, the plasma jet assembly is equipped with a short electrode. This leads to a higher voltage across the discharge gap and in turn to an increased density of reactive plasma species. The plasma jet is formed within and emitted by a small conical nozzle. A high-speed gas flow with gas velocity of 340 m/s was achieved at the end of the nozzle. In the jet the concentration of toxic and unwanted neutral plasma species like O3 or NOx is significantly reduced because of the shorter residence time within the plasma. The range of short-lived active plasma species is in turn considerably enhanced. The jet efficiency and action range measured through the oxidation of a test surface were determined by measuring the increase of surface tension of a polypropylene substrate via contact angle measurements after plasma treatment. Numerical modeling of the plasma plume indicates that oxygen atoms are in fact the main active species in the plasma plume.

  20. Aerodynamic study on supersonic flows in high-velocity oxy-fuel thermal spray process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katanoda, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Kuroda, Seiji; Kawakita, Jin; Fukanuma, Hirotaka; Matsuo, Kazuyasu

    2005-06-01

    To clarify the characteristics of gas flow in high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray gun, aerodynamic research is performed using a special gun. The gun has rectangular cross-sectional area and sidewalls of optical glass to visualize the internal flow. The gun consists of a supersonic nozzle with the design Mach number of 2.0 followed by a straight passage called barrel. Compressed dry air up to 0.78 MPa is used as a process gas instead of combustion gas which is used in a commercial HVOF gun. The high-speed gas flows with shock waves in the gun and jets are visualized by schlieren technique. Complicated internal and external flow-fields containing various types of shock wave as well as expansion wave are visualized.

  1. Flow and containment characteristics of an air-curtain fume hood operated at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hsin, Pei-Yi; Hsu, Ching Min; Chen, Chun-Wann

    2012-01-01

    The flow and leakage characteristics of the air-curtain fume hood under high temperature operation (between 100°C and 250°C) were studied. Laser-assisted flow visualization technique was used to reveal the hot plume movements in the cabinet and the critical conditions for the hood-top leakage. The sulfur hexafluoride tracer-gas concentration test method was employed to examine the containment spillages from the sash opening and the hood top. It was found that the primary parameters dominating the behavior of the flow field and hood performance are the sash height and the suction velocity as an air-curtain hood is operated at high temperatures. At large sash height and low suction velocity, the air curtain broke down and accompanied with three-dimensional flow in the cabinet. Since the suction velocity was low and the sash opening was large, the makeup air drawn down from the hood top became insufficient to counter act the rising hot plume. Under this situation, containment leakage from the sash opening and the hood top was observed. At small sash opening and high suction velocity, the air curtain presented robust characteristics and the makeup air flow from the hood top was sufficiently large. Therefore the containment leakages from the sash opening and the hood top were not observed. According to the results of experiments, quantitative operation sash height and suction velocity corresponding to the operation temperatures were suggested. PMID:22293724

  2. Nonintrusive Temperature and Velocity Measurements in a Hypersonic Nozzle Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OByrne, S.; Danehy, P. M.; Houwing, A. F. P.

    2002-01-01

    Distributions of nitric oxide vibrational temperature, rotational temperature and velocity have been measured in the hypersonic freestream at the exit of a conical nozzle, using planar laser-induced fluorescence. Particular attention has been devoted to reducing the major sources of systematic error that can affect fluorescence tempera- ture measurements, including beam attenuation, transition saturation effects, laser mode fluctuations and transition choice. Visualization experiments have been performed to improve the uniformity of the nozzle flow. Comparisons of measured quantities with a simple one-dimensional computation are made, showing good agreement between measurements and theory given the uncertainty of the nozzle reservoir conditions and the vibrational relaxation rate.

  3. Application of velocity filtering to optical-flow passive ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1992-01-01

    The performance of the velocity filtering method as applied to optical-flow passive ranging under real-world conditions is evaluated. The theory of the 3-D Fourier transform as applied to constant-speed moving points is reviewed, and the space-domain shift-and-add algorithm is derived from the general 3-D matched filtering formulation. The constant-speed algorithm is then modified to fit the actual speed encountered in the optical flow application, and the passband of that filter is found in terms of depth (sensor/object distance) so as to cover any given range of depths. Two algorithmic solutions for the problems associated with pixel interpolation and object expansion are developed, and experimental results are presented.

  4. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  5. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  6. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  7. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  8. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  9. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  10. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  11. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  12. Low velocity nucleate flow boiling at various orientations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, Kevin M.; Merte, Herman, Jr.; Keller, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    Subcooled forced convection nucleate boiling experiments with R-113 were conducted at low velocities using both thin film semi-transparent gold on quartz and gold coated cooper substrate flat heaters at varying orientations. The results are intended to assist in understanding effects of buoyancy in forced convection boiling and in better defining requirements for studying flow boiling in the microgravity environment of space. Measurements of the heat flux and the surface superheat were made at three levels of subcooling from 2.2 C to 11.1 C, four bulk velocities from 4.1 cm/s to 32.4 cm/s and various orientations spanning 360 deg. The experiments demonstrate that if buoyancy is significant reative to bulk liquid momentum, then a decrease in the buoyant force normal and away from the heater surface enhances the heat transfer, with the effect being most prominent at low values of heat flux. Furthermore, the effect of velocity is shown to be dependent on the surface orientation.

  13. Correlation velocities in heterogeneous bidirectional cellular automata traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakouari, N.; Bentaleb, K.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2015-12-01

    Traffic flow behavior and velocity correlation in a bidirectional two lanes road are studied using Cellular Automata (CA) model within a mixture of fast and slow vehicles. The behaviors of the Inter-lane and Intra-lane Velocity Correlation Coefficients (V.C.C.) due to the interactions between vehicles in the same lane and the opposite lane as a function of the density are investigated. It is shown that high densities in one lane lead to large cluster in the second one, which decreases the Intra-lane velocity correlations and thereby form clusters in the opposite lane. Moreover, we have found that there is a critical density over which the Inter-lane V.C.C. occurs, but below which no Inter-lane V.C.C. happens. The spatiotemporal diagrams correspond to those regions are derived numerically. Furthermore, the effect of the overtaking probability in one lane on the Intra-lane V.C.C. in the other lane is also investigated. It is shown that the decrease of the overtaking probability in one lane decreases slightly the Intra-lane V.C.C. at intermediate density regimes in the other lane, which improves the current, as well as the Inter-lane V.C.C. decreases.

  14. Estimating vertical velocity and radial flow from Doppler radar observations of tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. L.; Lee, W. C.; MacDonald, A. E.

    2006-01-01

    The mesoscale vorticity method (MVM) is used in conjunction with the ground-based velocity track display (GBVTD) to derive the inner-core vertical velocity from Doppler radar observations of tropical cyclone (TC) Danny (1997). MVM derives the vertical velocity from vorticity variations in space and in time based on the mesoscale vorticity equation. The use of MVM and GBVTD allows us to derive good correlations among the eye-wall maximum wind, bow-shaped updraught and echo east of the eye-wall in Danny. Furthermore, we demonstrate the dynamically consistent radial flow can be derived from the vertical velocity obtained from MVM using the wind decomposition technique that solves the Poisson equations over a limited-area domain. With the wind decomposition, we combine the rotational wind which is obtained from Doppler radar wind observations and the divergent wind which is inferred dynamically from the rotational wind to form the balanced horizontal wind in TC inner cores, where rotational wind dominates the divergent wind. In this study, we show a realistic horizontal and vertical structure of the vertical velocity and the induced radial flow in Danny's inner core. In the horizontal, the main eye-wall updraught draws in significant surrounding air, converging at the strongest echo where the maximum updraught is located. In the vertical, the main updraught tilts vertically outwards, corresponding very well with the outward-tilting eye-wall. The maximum updraught is located at the inner edge of the eye-wall clouds, while downward motions are found at the outer edge. This study demonstrates that the mesoscale vorticity method can use high-temporal-resolution data observed by Doppler radars to derive realistic vertical velocity and the radial flow of TCs. The vorticity temporal variations crucial to the accuracy of the vorticity method have to be derived from a high-temporal-frequency observing system such as state-of-the-art Doppler radars.

  15. Velocity limit in DPD simulations of wall-bounded flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Pivkin, Igor V.; Karniadakis, George Em

    2008-02-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is a relatively new mesoscopic simulation approach, which has been successfully applied in modeling complex fluids in periodic domains. A recent modification [X.J. Fan, N. Phan-Thien, S. Chen, X.H. Wu, T.Y. Ng, Simulating flow of DNA suspension using dissipative particle dynamics, Physics of Fluids 18 (6) (2006) 063102] has allowed DPD simulations of polymers for realistic values of the Schmidt number. However, DPD and its extensions encounter difficulties in simulating even simple fluids in wall-bounded domains. The two main problems are wall boundary conditions and compressibility effects - the topic of the present work - which limit the application of DPD to low Reynolds number ( Re) flows (e.g., Re<100). Here, we establish an empirical criterion that provides an upper limit in velocity and correspondingly in Re for a fixed computational domain, assuming a deviation from Navier-Stokes solutions of at most 5%. This limit could be increased by increasing the size of the computational domain at approximately linear computational cost. Results are presented for the lid-driven cavity flow reaching, for first time, Re=1000, and similar extensions can be established for other complex-geometry flows. A systematic investigation is presented with respect to both different types of boundary conditions and compressibility effects for the standard DPD method as well as the modified version that simulates highly viscous fluids.

  16. Velocity autocorrelation function of a dispersion of heavy particles in a turbulent flow: on the effect of interparticle collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, R.; Rodriguez-Meza, M. A.

    2004-04-01

    The effect of particle-to-particle interactions on the dispersion and on the velocity auto-correlation function of heavy particles in a turbulent flow, is presented. The inter-particle collision process is based on a direct numerical simulation approach, which requires that all the particles be simultaneously tracked through the flow field. In the first part of the paper, the turbulent characteristics of the velocity of non-colliding heavy particles which disperse in a vertical, nearly isotropic, grid generated decaying turbulence air flow, are presented. In the second part of this investigation, the solid particles are allowed to collide. The numerical predictions confirm the fact that the inter-particle collisions promote a decrease of the lateral particle dispersion, the particle velocity autocorrelation function and the mean lateral velocity of the particles.

  17. Nitric oxide flow tagging in unseeded air.

    PubMed

    Dam, N; Klein-Douwel, R J; Sijtsema, N M; Meulen, J J

    2001-01-01

    A scheme for molecular tagging velocimetry is presented that can be used in air flows without any kind of seeding. The method is based on the local and instantaneous creation of nitric oxide (NO) molecules from N(2) and O(2) in the waist region of a focused ArF excimer laser beam. This NO distribution is advected by the flow and can be visualized any time later by laser-induced fluorescence in the gamma bands. The creation of NO is confirmed by use of an excitation spectrum. Two examples of the application of the new scheme for air-flow velocimetry are given in which single laser pulses are used for creation and visualization of NO. PMID:18033499

  18. On the scaling of the slip velocity in turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jongmin; Mani, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces can significantly reduce hydrodynamic skin drag by accommodating large slip velocity near the surface due to entrapment of air bubbles within their micro-scale roughness elements. While there are many Stokes flow solutions for flows near superhydrophobic surfaces that describe the relation between effective slip length and surface geometry, such relations are not fully known in the turbulent flow limit. In this work, we present a phenomenological model for the kinematics of flow near a superhydrophobic surface with periodic post-patterns at high Reynolds numbers. The model predicts an inverse square root scaling with solid fraction, and a cube root scaling of the slip length with pattern size, which is different from the reported scaling in the Stokes flow limit. A mixed model is then proposed that recovers both Stokes flow solution and the presented scaling, respectively, in the small and large texture size limits. This model is validated using direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over superhydrophobic posts over a wide range of texture sizes from L+ ≈ 6 to 310 and solid fractions from ϕs = 1/9 to 1/64. Our report also embarks on the extension of friction laws of turbulent wall-bounded flows to superhydrophobic surfaces. To this end, we present a review of a simplified model for the mean velocity profile, which we call the shifted-turbulent boundary layer model, and address two previous shortcomings regarding the closure and accuracy of this model. Furthermore, we address the process of homogenization of the texture effect to an effective slip length by investigating correlations between slip velocity and shear over pattern-averaged data for streamwise and spanwise directions. For L+ of up to O(10), shear stress and slip velocity are perfectly correlated and well described by a homogenized slip length consistent with Stokes flow solutions. In contrast, in the limit of large L+, the pattern-averaged shear stress and slip

  19. 40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications. 89.414 Section 89.414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement...

  20. 40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications. 89.414 Section 89.414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement...

  1. Multiple Velocity Profile Measurements in Hypersonic Flows Using Sequentially-Imaged Fluorescence Tagging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Jones, Stephen B.; Ivey,Christopher b.; Goyne, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Nitric-oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) was used to perform velocity measurements in hypersonic flows by generating multiple tagged lines which fluoresce as they convect downstream. For each laser pulse, a single interline, progressive scan intensified CCD (charge-coupled device) camera was used to obtain two sequential images of the NO molecules that had been tagged by the laser. The CCD configuration allowed for sub-microsecond acquisition of both images, resulting in sub-microsecond temporal resolution as well as sub-mm spatial resolution (0.5-mm horizontal, 0.7-mm vertical). Determination of axial velocity was made by application of a cross-correlation analysis of the horizontal shift of individual tagged lines. A numerical study of measured velocity error due to a uniform and linearly-varying collisional rate distribution was performed. Quantification of systematic errors, the contribution of gating/exposure duration errors, and the influence of collision rate on temporal uncertainty were made. Quantification of the spatial uncertainty depended upon the signal-to-noise ratio of the acquired profiles. This velocity measurement technique has been demonstrated for two hypersonic flow experiments: (1) a reaction control system (RCS) jet on an Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) wind tunnel model and (2) a 10-degree half-angle wedge containing a 2-mm tall, 4-mm wide cylindrical boundary layer trip. The experiments were performed at the NASA Langley Research Center's 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel.

  2. Velocity measurements within a shock and reshock induced air/SF6 turbulent mixing zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Jean-Francois; Bouzgarrou, Ghazi; Bury, Yannick; Jamme, Stephane; Joly, Laurent; Shock-induced mixing Team

    2012-11-01

    A turbulent mixing zone (TMZ) is created in a shock tube (based in ISAE, DAEP) when a Mach 1.2 shock wave in air accelerates impulsively to 70 m/s an air/SF6 interface. The gases are initially separated by a 1 μm thick plastic microfilm maintained flat and parallel to the shock by two wire grids. The upper grid of square spacing 1.8 mm imposes the nonlinear initial perturbation for the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI). After interaction with a reshock and a rarefaction, the TMZ remains approximately stagnant but much more turbulent. High speed Schlieren visualizations enable the choice of abscissae for Laser Doppler Velocity (LDV) measurements. For a length of the SF6 section equal to 250 mm, the LDV abscissae are 43, 135 and 150 mm from the initial position of the interface. Because of numerous microfilm fragments in the flow and a limited number of olive oil droplets as seeding particles for the LDV, statistical convergence requires the superposition of a least 50 identical runs at each abscissa. The dependence of TMZ structure and velocity field on length of the SF6 section between 100 and 300 mm will be presented. This experimental investigation is carried out in support of modeling and multidimensional simulation efforts at CEA, DAM, DIF. Financial support from CEA is thanksfully appreciated by ISAE.

  3. Flow properties in expansion tube with helium, argon, air, and CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    Test flow velocities from 5 to 7 km/sec were generated in a 6-in. expansion tube using helium, argon, air, and CO2 test gases. Pitot pressure profiles across the flow at the test section are presented for the four test gases, and measured flow quantities are compared to computer predicted values. Comparison of predicted and measured flow quantities suggests the expansion to be near thermochemical equilibrium for all test gases and implies the existence of a totally reflected shock at the secondary diaphragm. Argon, air, and CO2 flows were observed to attenuate while traversing the acceleration section, whereas no attenuation was observed for helium.

  4. Temperature and air velocity effects on ethanol emission from corn silage with the characteristics of an exposed silo face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Felipe; Hafner, Sasha D.; Rotz, C. Alan; Mitloehner, Frank M.

    2010-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from agricultural sources are believed to be an important contributor to tropospheric ozone in some locations. Recent research suggests that silage is a major source of VOCs emitted from agriculture, but only limited data exist on silage emissions. Ethanol is the most abundant VOC emitted from corn silage; therefore, ethanol was used as a representative compound to characterize the pattern of emission over time and to quantify the effect of air velocity and temperature on emission rate. Ethanol emission was measured from corn silage samples removed intact from a bunker silo. Emission rate was monitored over 12 h for a range in air velocity (0.05, 0.5, and 5 m s -1) and temperature (5, 20, and 35 °C) using a wind tunnel system. Ethanol flux ranged from 0.47 to 210 g m -2 h -1 and 12 h cumulative emission ranged from 8.5 to 260 g m -2. Ethanol flux was highly dependent on exposure time, declining rapidly over the first hour and then continuing to decline more slowly over the duration of the 12 h trials. The 12 h cumulative emission increased by a factor of three with a 30 °C increase in temperature and by a factor of nine with a 100-fold increase in air velocity. Effects of air velocity, temperature, and air-filled porosity were generally consistent with a conceptual model of VOC emission from silage. Exposure duration, temperature, and air velocity should be taken into consideration when measuring emission rates of VOCs from silage, so emission rate data obtained from studies that utilize low air flow methods are not likely representative of field conditions.

  5. Effect of relative velocity distribution on efficiency and exit flow of centrifugal impellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishina, H.; Nishida, H.

    1983-03-01

    A quasi-three-dimensional flow analysis proposed by Senoo and Nakase (1972) is applied in order to estimate the relative velocity distribution within a centrifugal impeller, assuming that the flow is both isentropic and inviscid. The relationship between relative velocity distribution, impeller efficiency, and meridional exit flow is experimentally investigated for the case of shrouded impellers having various relative velocity distributions. Analytical results are used to establish design criteria for the relative velocity distribution of centrifugal impellers.

  6. Critical Velocity of a Superfluid Bose Gas Flowing in a Random Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haga, Taiki

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the critical velocity of a weakly interacting Bose gas flowing in a random potential. By applying the Bogoliubov theory to a disordered Bose system with a steady flow, we determine the critical velocity for weak and moderate disorder. We also calculate the superfluid density and the condensate density as a function of the disorder strength and the flow velocity, and their behaviors near the critical velocity are discussed.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW PRESSURE, AIR ATOMIZED OIL BURNER WITH HIGH ATOMIZER AIR FLOW

    SciTech Connect

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5--8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or FAB has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a torroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the tiring rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% 0{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

  8. Blood flow velocity in monocular retinoblastoma assessed by color doppler

    PubMed Central

    Bonanomi, Maria Teresa B C; Saito, Osmar C; de Lima, Patricia Picciarelli; Bonanomi, Roberta Chizzotti; Chammas, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the flow of retrobulbar vessels in retinoblastoma by color Doppler imaging. METHODS: A prospective study of monocular retinoblastoma treated by enucleation between 2010 and 2014. The examination comprised fundoscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography and color Doppler imaging. The peak blood velocities in the central retinal artery and central retinal vein of tumor-containing eyes (tuCRAv and tuCRVv, respectively) were assessed. The velocities were compared with those for normal eyes (nlCRAv and nlCRVv) and correlated with clinical and pathological findings. Tumor dimensions in the pathological sections were compared with those in magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography and were correlated with tuCRAv and tuCRVv. In tumor-containing eyes, the resistivity index in the central retinal artery and the pulse index in the central retinal vein were studied in relation to all variables. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were included. Comparisons between tuCRAv and nlCRAv and between tuCRVv and nlCRVv revealed higher velocities in tumor-containing eyes (p<0.001 for both), with a greater effect in the central retinal artery than in the central retinal vein (p=0.024). Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography measurements were as reliable as pathology assessments (p=0.675 and p=0.375, respectively). A positive relationship was found between tuCRAv and the tumor volume (p=0.027). The pulse index in the central retinal vein was lower in male patients (p=0.017) and in eyes with optic nerve invasion (p=0.0088). CONCLUSIONS: TuCRAv and tuCRVv are higher in tumor-containing eyes than in normal eyes. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography measurements are reliable. The tumor volume is correlated with a higher tuCRAv and a reduced pulse in the central retinal vein is correlated with male sex and optic nerve invasion. PMID:26735219

  9. Surface-slip equations for multicomponent nonequilibrium air flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, R. N.; Scott, C. D.; Moss, J. N.

    1985-01-01

    Equations are presented for the surface-slip (or jump) values of species concentration, pressure, velocity, and temperature in the low-Reynolds number, high-altitude flight regime of a space vehicle. The equations are obtained from closed form solutions of the mass, momentum, and energy flux equations using the Chapman-Enskog velocity distribution function. This function represents a solution of the Boltzmann equation in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The analysis, obtained for nonequilibrium multicomponent air flow, includes the finite-rate surface catalytic recombination and changes in the internal energy during reflection from the surface. Expressions for the various slip quantities were obtained in a form which can be employed in flowfield computations. A consistent set of equations is provided for multicomponent, binary, and single species mixtures. Expression is also provided for the finite-rate, species-concentration boundary condition for a multicomponent mixture in absence of slip.

  10. Parametric Studies of Flow Separation using Air Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    Boundary Layer separation causes the airfoil to stall and therefore imposes dramatic performance degradation on the airfoil. In recent years, flow separation control has been one of the active research areas in the field of aerodynamics due to its promising performance improvements on the lifting device. These active flow separation control techniques include steady and unsteady air injection as well as suction on the airfoil surface etc. This paper will be focusing on the steady and unsteady air injection on the airfoil. Although wind tunnel experiments revealed that the performance improvements on the airfoil using injection techniques, the details of how the key variables such as air injection slot geometry and air injection angle etc impact the effectiveness of flow separation control via air injection has not been studied. A parametric study of both steady and unsteady air injection active flow control will be the main objective for this summer. For steady injection, the key variables include the slot geometry, orientation, spacing, air injection velocity as well as the injection angle. For unsteady injection, the injection frequency will also be investigated. Key metrics such as lift coefficient, drag coefficient, total pressure loss and total injection mass will be used to measure the effectiveness of the control technique. A design of experiments using the Box-Behnken Design is set up in order to determine how each of the variables affects each of the key metrics. Design of experiment is used so that the number of experimental runs will be at minimum and still be able to predict which variables are the key contributors to the responses. The experiments will then be conducted in the 1ft by 1ft wind tunnel according to the design of experiment settings. The data obtained from the experiments will be imported into JMP, statistical software, to generate sets of response surface equations which represent the statistical empirical model for each of the metrics as

  11. Relationship between surface velocity divergence and gas transfer in open-channel flows with submerged simulated vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjou, M.; Okamoto, T.; Nezu, I.

    2016-05-01

    Velocity and gas concentration measurements were carried out to reveal gas transfer phenomena in open-channel turbulent flows with flat bottom and submerged vegetation bottom conditions. A large-scale coherent vortex appears near the vegetation top due to shear instability, and the submerged vegetation was found to promote gas transfer beneath the air- water interface. Furthermore, we revealed a great dependency of gas transfer on vegetation density. The present measurement results propose a new surface divergence model with wide generality, connecting reasonably the gas transfer velocity and the surface divergence intensity in open-channel flows, irrespective of bottom roughness conditions.

  12. Review of air flow measurement techniques

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Airflow measurement techniques are necessary to determine the most basic of indoor air quality questions: ''Is there enough fresh air to provide a healthy environment for the occupants of the building?'' This paper outlines airflow measurement techniques, but it does not make recommendations for techniques that should be used. The airflows that will be discussed are those within a room or zone, those between rooms or zones, such as through doorways (open or closed) or passive vents, those between the building and outdoors, and those through mechanical air distribution systems. Techniques that are highlighted include particle streak velocimetry, hot wire anemometry, fan pressurization (measuring flow at a given pressure), tracer gas, acoustic methods for leak size determination, the Delta Q test to determine duct leakage flows, and flow hood measurements. Because tracer gas techniques are widely used to measure airflow, this topic is broken down into sections as follows: decay, pulse injection, constant injection, constant concentration, passive sampling, and single and multiple gas measurements for multiple zones.

  13. The Compressible Flow Past Various Plane Profiles Near Sonic Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goethert, B.; Kawalki, K. H.

    1949-01-01

    In an earlier report UM No.1117 by Gothert,the single-source method was applied to the compressible flow around circles, ellipses, lunes, and around an elongated body of revolution at different Mach numbers and the results compared as far as possible with the calculations by Lamla ad Busemann. Essentially, it was found that with favorable source arrangement the single-source method is in good agreement with the calculations of the same degree of approximation by.Lamla and Busemann. Near sonic velocity the number of steps must be increased considerably in order to sufficiently approximate the adiabatic curve. After exceeding a certain Mach number where local supersonic fields occur already, it was no longer possible, in spite of the substantially increased number of steps, to obtain a systematic solution because the calculation diverged. This result,was interpreted to mean that above this point of divergence the symmetrical type of flow ceases to exist and changes into the unsymmetrical type characterized by compressibility shocks.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Air Flow, Heat Transfer and Thermal Comfort in Buildings with Different Heating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabanskis, A.; Virbulis, J.

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of temperature, humidity and air flow velocity is performed in 5 experimental buildings with the inner size of 3×3×3 m3 located in Riga, Latvia. The buildings are equipped with different heating systems, such as an air-air heat pump, air-water heat pump, capillary heating mat on the ceiling and electric heater. Numerical simulation of air flow and heat transfer by convection, conduction and radiation is carried out using OpenFOAM software and compared with experimental data. Results are analysed regarding the temperature and air flow distribution as well as thermal comfort.

  15. Pulsed Doppler: determination of diameter, blood flow velocity, and volumic flow of brachial artery in man.

    PubMed

    Levenson, J A; Peronneau, P A; Simon, A; Safar, M E

    1981-03-01

    A pulsed Doppler velocimeter suitable for the determination of blood flow velocity and volumic flow in peripheral arteries is described. The apparatus has two main characteristics: an adjustable range-gated time system and a double transducer probe. The error in the determination of the angle between the ultrasound beam and flow of blood with this apparatus was less than 2%, and overestimation of the arterial diameter due to the sample volume size did not exceed 0.035 +/- 0.015 cm. The apparatus was used to determine diameter, blood flow velocity and volumic flow of the brachial artery of 22 healthy men. The values were respectively 0.440 +/- 0.010 cm, 9.15 +/- 1.01 cm.s-1 and 85 +/- 10 cm3.min-1. Administration of intravenous nitroglycerin significantly increased the arterial diameter (p less than 0.001) without any significant change in volumic flow. The described pulsed Doppler velocimeter provides an accurate noninvasive method for determining volumic flow in peripheral arteries in clinical investigation and cardiovascular pharmacology. PMID:6455197

  16. Gas and liquid measurements in air-water bubbly flows

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.; Doup, B.; Sun, X.

    2012-07-01

    Local measurements of gas- and liquid-phase flow parameters are conducted in an air-water two-phase flow loop. The test section is a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of 50 mm and a height of 3.2 m. The measurements are performed at z/D = 10. The gas-phase measurements are performed using a four-sensor conductivity probe. The data taken from this probe are processed using a signal processing program to yield radial profiles of the void fraction, bubble velocity, and interfacial area concentration. The velocity measurements of the liquid-phase are performed using a state-of-the-art Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. The raw PIV images are acquired using fluorescent particles and an optical filtration device. Image processing is used to remove noise in the raw PIV images. The statistical cross correlation is introduced to determine the axial velocity field and turbulence intensity of the liquid-phase. Measurements are currently being performed at z/D = 32 to provide a more complete data set. These data can be used for computational fluid dynamic model development and validation. (authors)

  17. Relationship between volume flow and velocity in the cerebral circulation1

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, J. O.; Harper, A. M.; Miller, J. D.; Tedeschi, G. M.; Jennett, W. B.

    1970-01-01

    The relationship between the velocity of the cerebral circulation and the cerebral blood flow was explored at varying levels of PaCO2, systemic arterial pressure, intracranial pressure, and perfusion pressure, using radioisotope techniques in baboons. Only at low flow rates did velocity increase with flow, and then non-linearly; at high rates velocity increased progressively less. Changes in flow are reflected by changes in velocity in such restricted circumstances that mean circulation time is a very unreliable indication of cerebral blood flow. PMID:5497874

  18. 40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Air flow measurement specifications. 89... Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement method used... during the test. Overall measurement accuracy must be ± 2 percent of the maximum engine value for...

  19. 40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications... Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement method... during the test. Overall measurement accuracy must be ± 2 percent of the maximum engine value for...

  20. 40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications... Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement method... during the test. Overall measurement accuracy must be ± 2 percent of the maximum engine value for...

  1. 40 CFR 90.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure...

  2. The application of flow competence evaluations to the assessment of flood-flow velocities and stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komar, Paul D.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of flow competence is generally employed to evaluate the velocities, discharges, and bottom stresses of river floods inferred from the size of the largest sediment particles transported. Flow competence has become an important tool for evaluating the hydraulics of exceptional floods on Earth, including those which eroded the Channeled Scabland of eastern Washington, and has potential for similar evaluations of the floods which carved the outflow channels on Mars. For the most part, flow-competence evaluations were empirical, based on data compiled from a variety of sources including major terrestrial floods caused by natural processes or dam failures. Such flow-competence relationships would appear to provide a straight-forward assessment of flood-flow stresses and velocities based on the maximum size of gravel and boulders transported. However, a re-examination of the data base and comparisons with measurements of selective entrainment and transport of gravel in rivers open to question such evaluations. Analyses of the forces acting on the grain during entrainment by pivoting, rolling, or sliding, an approach which focuses more on the physical processes than the purely empirical relationships can be demonstrated. These derived equations require further testing by flume and field measurements before being applied to flow-competence evaluations. Such tests are now underway.

  3. Applying velocity profiling technology to flow measurement at the Orinda water treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, M.A.; Kachur, S.; Lackenbauer, S.

    1998-07-01

    A new type of flow measurement technology, velocity profiling, was tested in the South Channel of the Orinda Water Treatment Plant. This new technology allowed installation in the difficult hydraulic conditions of the South Channel, without interrupting plant operation. The advanced technology of velocity profiling enables flow measurements to be obtained in sites normally unusable by more traditional methods of flow rate measurement.

  4. Assessment of air velocity sensors for use in animal produciton facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ventilation is an integral part of thermal environment control in animal production facilities. Accurately measuring the air velocity distribution within these facilities is cumbersome using the traverse method and a distributed velocity measurement system would reduce the time necessary to perform ...

  5. Flow mechanism of Forchheimer's cubic equation in high-velocity radial gas flow through porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Ezeudembah, A.S.; Dranchuk, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Formal derivation of Forchheimer's cubic equation is made by considering the kinetic energy equation of mean flow and dimensional relations for one-dimensional, linear, incompressible fluid flow. By the addition of the cubic term, this equation is regarded as a modified Forchheimer's quadratic equation which accounts for the flow rates obtained beyond the laminar flow condition. The cubic equation spans a wide range of flow rates and regimes. For suitable use in gas flow studies, this equation has been adapted, modified, and corrected for the gas slippage effect. The physical basis of the cubic term has been established by using boundary layer theory to explain the high-velocity, high-pressure flow behavior through a porous path. Gamma, the main parameter in the cubic term, is related directly to a characteristic, dimensionless shape factor which is significant at higher flow rates. It is inversely related to viscosity, but has no dependence on the gas slippage coefficient in the higher flow regime. 25 references.

  6. A Reconstruction Method of Blood Flow Velocity in Left Ventricle Using Color Flow Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jaeseong; Ahn, Chi Young; Jeon, Kiwan; Heo, Jung; Lee, DongHak; Choi, Jung-il

    2015-01-01

    Vortex flow imaging is a relatively new medical imaging method for the dynamic visualization of intracardiac blood flow, a potentially useful index of cardiac dysfunction. A reconstruction method is proposed here to quantify the distribution of blood flow velocity fields inside the left ventricle from color flow images compiled from ultrasound measurements. In this paper, a 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equation with a mass source term is proposed to utilize the measurable color flow ultrasound data in a plane along with the moving boundary condition. The proposed model reflects out-of-plane blood flows on the imaging plane through the mass source term. The boundary conditions to solve the system of equations are derived from the dimensions of the ventricle extracted from 2D echocardiography data. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated numerically using synthetic flow data acquired from simulating left ventricle flows. The numerical simulations show the feasibility and potential usefulness of the proposed method of reconstructing the intracardiac flow fields. Of particular note is the finding that the mass source term in the proposed model improves the reconstruction performance. PMID:26078773

  7. A MEMS-based Air Flow Sensor with a Free-standing Micro-cantilever Structure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chia-Yen; Chiang, Che-Ming

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a micro-scale air flow sensor based on a free-standing cantilever structure. In the fabrication process, MEMS techniques are used to deposit a silicon nitride layer on a silicon wafer. A platinum layer is deposited on the silicon nitride layer to form a piezoresistor, and the resulting structure is then etched to create a freestanding micro-cantilever. When an air flow passes over the surface of the cantilever beam, the beam deflects in the downward direction, resulting in a small variation in the resistance of the piezoelectric layer. The air flow velocity is determined by measuring the change in resistance using an external LCR meter. The experimental results indicate that the flow sensor has a high sensitivity (0.0284 Ω/ms-1), a high velocity measurement limit (45 ms-1) and a rapid response time (0.53 s).

  8. Effects of air velocity on laying hen production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal conditions play a major role in production efficiency in commercial poultry production. Mitigation of thermal stress can improve productivity, but must be achieved economically. Weather and system design can limit effectiveness of evaporative cooling and increased air movement has been sho...

  9. Theoretical analysis of the ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter for measurements of high flow velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabin, Jozef

    1987-07-01

    A geometric approach is used to analyze the ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter for measurements of flow velocities that are high but yet much smaller than the ultrasound velocity. The approach is based on the calculation of the transit time difference between the ultrasonic waves that are reflected from a moving particle at its various positions. Beam divergence is taken into account, and each path of the ultrasonic wave propagation is approximated by two rectilinear components. It is shown that the Doppler frequency shift is influenced not only by the suspended particle velocity, but also by the mean flow velocity of the fluid. This influence is of second order in the flow velocity.

  10. Spatially and Temporally Resolved Measurements of Velocity in a H2-air Combustion-Heated Supersonic Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivolaru, Daniel; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.; Gaffney, Richard L.; Baurle, Robert a.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents simultaneous measurements at multiple points of two orthogonal components of flow velocity using a single-shot interferometric Rayleigh scattering (IRS) technique. The measurements are performed on a large-scale Mach 1.6 (Mach 5.5 enthalpy) H2-air combustion jet during the 2007 test campaign in the Direct Connect Supersonic Combustion Test facility at NASA Langley Research Center. The measurements are performed simultaneously with CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) using a combined CARS-IRS instrument with a common path 9-nanosecond pulsed, injection-seeded, 532-nm Nd:YAG laser probe pulse. The paper summarizes the measurements of velocities along the core of the vitiated air flow as well as two radial profiles. The average velocity measurement near the centerline at the closest point from the nozzle exit compares favorably with the CFD calculations using the VULCAN code. Further downstream, the measured axial velocity shows overall higher values than predicted with a trend of convergence at further distances. Larger discrepancies are shown in the radial profiles.

  11. Percolation velocity dependence on local concentration in bidisperse granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Ryan P.; Xiao, Hongyi; Deng, Zhekai; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    The percolation velocity, up, of granular material in size or density bidisperse mixtures depends on the local concentration, particle size ratio, particle density ratio, and shear rate, γ ˙. Discrete element method computational results were obtained for bounded heap flows with size ratios between 1 and 3 and for density ratios between 1 and 4. The results indicate that small particles percolate downward faster when surrounded by large particles than large particles percolate upward when surrounded by small particles, as was recently observed in shear-box experiments. Likewise, heavy particles percolate downward faster when surrounded by light particles than light particles percolate upward when surrounded by heavy particles. The dependence of up / γ ˙ on local concentration results in larger percolation flux magnitudes at high concentrations of large (or light) particles compared to high concentrations of small (or heavy) particles, while local volumetric flux is conserved. The dependence of up / γ ˙ on local concentration can be incorporated into a continuum model, but the impact on global segregation patterns is usually minimal. Partially funded by Dow Chemical Company and NSF Grant No. CBET-1511450.

  12. Meridional flow velocities on solar-like stars with known activity cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanova, Dilyara; Plachinda, Sergei

    2015-02-01

    The direct measurements of the meridional flow velocities on stars are impossible today. To evaluate the meridional flow velocities on solar-like stars with stable activity periods, we supposed that during the stellar Hale cycle the matter on surfaces of stars passes the meridional way equivalent to 2 πR★ . We present here the dependence of the mean meridional flow velocity on Rossby number, which is an effective parameter of the stellar magnetic dynamo.

  13. Detailed computational procedure for design of cascade blades with prescribed velocity distributions in compressible potential flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, George R; Cummings, Robert L; Sinnette, John T , Jr

    1952-01-01

    A detailed step-by-step computational outline is presented for the design of two-dimensional cascade blades having a prescribed velocity distribution on the blade in a potential flow of the usual compressible fluid. The outline is based on the assumption that the magnitude of the velocity in the flow of the usual compressible nonviscous fluid is proportional to the magnitude of the velocity in the flow of a compressible nonviscous fluid with linear pressure-volume relation.

  14. Semi-empirical analysis of liquid fuel distribution downstream of a plain orifice injector under cross-stream air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, J. S.; Jiang, H. K.; Cao, M. H.

    1981-07-01

    A simple, flat-fan spray model is proposed, which can with two empirical parameters predict both the value and the position of liquid fuel distribution curve maximums downstream of a plain orifice injector under high-velocity cross flow. It was found that the model is useful in the preliminary design of the fan air flow portion of a turbofan afterburner, due to its ability to predict the influence on liquid fuel distribution of (1) such flow parameters as air velocity and viscosity, pressure and temperature; (2) injector parameters such as diameter and injection velocity; and (3) liquid properties including viscosity, density, and surface tension.

  15. Experimental verification of the four-sensor probe model for flow diagnosis in air water flow in vertical pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S.; Mishra, R.

    2012-05-01

    Measuring the volumetric flow rate of each of the flowing components is required to be monitored in production logging applications. Hence it is necessary to measure the flow rates of gas, oil and water in vertical and inclined oil wells. An increasing level of interest has been shown by the researchers in developing system for the flow rate measurement in multiphase flows. This paper describes the experimental methodology using a miniature, local four-sensor probe for the measurement of dispersed flow parameters in bubbly two-phase flow for spherical bubbles. To establish interdependent among different parameters corresponding to dispersed flow, the available model has been used to experimentally obtain different parameters such as volume fraction, velocity and bubble shape of the dispersed phase in the bubbly air-water flow.

  16. An experimental investigation of gas jets in confined swirling air flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mongia, H.; Ahmed, S. A.; Mongia, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The fluid dynamics of jets in confined swirling flows which is of importance to designers of turbine combustors and solid fuel ramjets used to power missiles fired from cannons were examined. The fluid dynamics of gas jets of different densities in confined swirling flows were investigated. Mean velocity and turbulence measurements are made with a one color, one component laser velocimeter operating in the forward scatter mode. It is shown that jets in confined flow with large area ratio are highly dissipative which results in both air and helium/air jet centerline velocity decays. For air jets, the jet like behavior in the tube center disappears at about 20 diameters downstream of the jet exit. This phenomenon is independent of the initial jet velocity. The turbulence field at this point also decays to that of the background swirling flow. A jet like behavior in the tube center is noticed even at 40 diameters for the helium/air jets. The subsequent flow and turbulence field depend highly on the initial jet velocity. The jets are fully turbulent, and the cause of this difference in behavior is attributed to the combined action swirl and density difference. This observation can have significant impact on the design of turbine combustors and solid fuel ramjets subject to spin.

  17. Decentralized and Tactical Air Traffic Flow Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsimas, Dimitris; Odoni, Amedeo R.

    1997-01-01

    This project dealt with the following topics: 1. Review and description of the existing air traffic flow management system (ATFM) and identification of aspects with potential for improvement. 2. Identification and review of existing models and simulations dealing with all system segments (enroute, terminal area, ground) 3. Formulation of concepts for overall decentralization of the ATFM system, ranging from moderate decentralization to full decentralization 4. Specification of the modifications to the ATFM system required to accommodate each of the alternative concepts. 5. Identification of issues that need to be addressed with regard to: determination of the way the ATFM system would be operating; types of flow management strategies that would be used; and estimation of the effectiveness of ATFM with regard to reducing delay and re-routing costs. 6. Concept evaluation through identification of criteria and methodologies for accommodating the interests of stakeholders and of approaches to optimization of operational procedures for all segments of the ATFM system.

  18. Cerebral blood flow velocity in two patients with neonatal cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Nishimaki, S; Seki, K; Yokota, S

    2001-04-01

    Cerebral blood flow velocity was measured in the middle cerebral artery of two patients who exhibited unilateral neonatal cerebral infarction during the neonatal period. Doppler studies demonstrated increases in cerebral blood flow velocity but decreases in the resistance index on the affected side of the middle cerebral artery in the neonate who developed hemiplegia with cystic encephalomalacia, although the neonate with normal neurologic outcome exhibited symmetric cerebral blood flow velocity and resistance index. The asymmetry in cerebral blood flow velocity measurements of both middle cerebral arteries may be useful to evaluate the severity of brain damage and predict the neurodevelopmental prognosis of unilateral neonatal cerebral infarction. PMID:11377112

  19. Pulsed-injection method for blood flow velocity measurement in intraarterial digital subtraction angiography.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C G; Plewes, D B

    1986-08-01

    The pulsed-injection method for measuring the velocity of blood flow in intraarterial digital subtraction angiography is described. With this technique, contrast material is injected at a pulsing frequency as high as 15 Hz, so that two or more boluses can be imaged simultaneously. The velocity of flow is determined by measuring the spacing between the boluses and multiplying it by the pulsing frequency. Results of tests with phantoms correlate well with flow measurements obtained with a graduated cylinder for velocities ranging from 8 to 60 cm/sec. The potential of the method for time-dependent velocity measurement has been demonstrated with simulated pulsatile flows. PMID:3523598

  20. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air...

  1. Laser Light Scattering Diagnostic for Measurement of Flow Velocity in Vicinity of Propagating Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.; Buggele, Alvin E.

    2002-01-01

    A laser light scattering diagnostic for measurement of dynamic flow velocity at a point is described. The instrument is being developed for use in the study of propagating shock waves and detonation waves in pulse detonation engines under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The approach uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer to measure the Doppler shift of laser light scattered from small (submicron) particles in the flow. The high-speed detection system required to resolve the transient response as a shock wave crosses the probe volume uses fast response photodetectors, and a PC based data acquisition system. Preliminary results of measurements made in the GRC Mach 4, 10 by 25 cm supersonic wind tunnel are presented. Spontaneous condensation of water vapor in the flow is used as seed. The tunnel is supplied with continuous air flow at up to 45 psia and the flow is exhausted into the GRC laboratory-wide altitude exhaust system at pressures down to 0.3 psia.

  2. Combustor air flow control method for fuel cell apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Mowery, Kenneth D.; Ripley, Eugene V.

    2001-01-01

    A method for controlling the heat output of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual air inlet streams including atmospheric air and fuel cell cathode effluent containing oxygen depleted air. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is provided by regulating the quantity of the air flow stream to the combustor to support fuel cell processor heat requirements. A control provides a quick fast forward change in an air valve orifice cross section in response to a calculated predetermined air flow, the molar constituents of the air stream to the combustor, the pressure drop across the air valve, and a look up table of the orifice cross sectional area and valve steps. A feedback loop fine tunes any error between the measured air flow to the combustor and the predetermined air flow.

  3. Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve during Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    de Abreu, José Sebastião; Lima, José Wellington Oliveira; Diógenes, Tereza Cristina Pinheiro; Siqueira, Jordana Magalhães; Pimentel, Nayara Lima; Gomes, Pedro Sabino; de Abreu, Marília Esther Benevides; Paes, José Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    Background A coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) ≥ 2 is adequate to infer a favorable prognosis or the absence of significant coronary artery disease. Objective To identify parameters which are relevant to obtain CFVR (adequate or inadequate) in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Methods 100 patients referred for detection of myocardial ischemia by DSE were evaluated; they were instructed to discontinue the use of β-blockers 72 hours prior to the test. CFVR was calculated as a ratio of the diastolic peak velocity (cm/s) (DPV) on DSE (DPV-DSE) to baseline DPV at rest (DPV-Rest). In group I, CFVR was < 2 and, in group II, CFVR was ≥ 2. The Fisher's exact test and Student's t test were used for the statistical analyses. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results At rest, the time (in seconds) to obtain Doppler in LAD in groups I and II was not different (53±31 vs. 45±32; p=0.23). During DSE, LAD was recorded in 92 patients. Group I patients were older (65.9±9.3 vs. 61.2±10.8 years; p=0.04), had lower ejection fraction (61±10 vs. 66±6%; p=0.005), higher DPV-Rest (36.81±08 vs. 25.63 ± 06cm/s; p<0.0001) and lower CFVR (1.67 ± 0.24 vs. 2.53 ± 0.57; p<0.0001), but no difference was observed regarding DPVDSE (61.40±16 vs. 64.23±16cm/s; p=0.42). β-blocker discontinuation was associated with a 4-fold higher chance of a CFVR < 2 (OR= 4; 95% CI [1.171-13.63], p=0.027). Conclusion DPV-Rest was the main parameter to determine an adequate CFVR. β-blocker discontinuation was significantly associated with inadequate CFVR. The high feasibility and the time to record the LAD corroborate the use of this methodology. PMID:24676368

  4. High enthalpy, hypervelocity flows of air and argon in an expansion tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neely, A. J; Stalker, R. J.; Paull, A.

    1991-01-01

    An expansion tube with a free piston driver has been used to generate quasi-steady hypersonic flows in argon and air at flow velocities in excess of 9 km/s. Irregular test flow unsteadiness has limited the performance of previous expansion tubes, and it has been found that this can be avoided by attention to the interaction between the test gas accelerating expansion and the contact surface in the primary shock tube. Test section measurements of pitot pressure, static pressure and flat plate heat transfer are reported. An approximate analytical theory has been developed for predicting the velocities achieved in the unsteady expansion of the ionizing or dissociating test gas.

  5. Spatial and velocity statistics of inertial particles in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bec, J.; Biferale, L.; Cencini, M.; Lanotte, A. S.; Toschi, F.

    2011-12-01

    Spatial and velocity statistics of heavy point-like particles in incompressible, homogeneous, and isotropic three-dimensional turbulence is studied by means of direct numerical simulations at two values of the Taylor-scale Reynolds number Reλ ~ 200 and Reλ ~ 400, corresponding to resolutions of 5123 and 20483 grid points, respectively. Particles Stokes number values range from St ≈ 0.2 to 70. Stationary small-scale particle distribution is shown to display a singular -multifractal- measure, characterized by a set of generalized fractal dimensions with a strong sensitivity on the Stokes number and a possible, small Reynolds number dependency. Velocity increments between two inertial particles depend on the relative weight between smooth events - where particle velocity is approximately the same of the fluid velocity-, and caustic contributions - when two close particles have very different velocities. The latter events lead to a non-differentiable small-scale behaviour for the relative velocity. The relative weight of these two contributions changes at varying the importance of inertia. We show that moments of the velocity difference display a quasi bi-fractal-behavior and that the scaling properties of velocity increments for not too small Stokes number are in good agreement with a recent theoretical prediction made by K. Gustavsson and B. Mehlig arXiv: 1012.1789v1 [physics.flu-dyn], connecting the saturation of velocity scaling exponents with the fractal dimension of particle clustering.

  6. Dynamic Flow Management Problems in Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Sarah Stock

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, over six hundred thousand licensed pilots flew nearly thirty-five million flights into over eighteen thousand U.S. airports, logging more than 519 billion passenger miles. Since demand for air travel has increased by more than 50% in the last decade while capacity has stagnated, congestion is a problem of undeniable practical significance. In this thesis, we will develop optimization techniques that reduce the impact of congestion on the national airspace. We start by determining the optimal release times for flights into the airspace and the optimal speed adjustment while airborne taking into account the capacitated airspace. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Problem (TFMP). We address the complexity, showing that it is NP-hard. We build an integer programming formulation that is quite strong as some of the proposed inequalities are facet defining for the convex hull of solutions. For practical problems, the solutions of the LP relaxation of the TFMP are very often integral. In essence, we reduce the problem to efficiently solving large scale linear programming problems. Thus, the computation times are reasonably small for large scale, practical problems involving thousands of flights. Next, we address the problem of determining how to reroute aircraft in the airspace system when faced with dynamically changing weather conditions. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Rerouting Problem (TFMRP) We present an integrated mathematical programming approach for the TFMRP, which utilizes several methodologies, in order to minimize delay costs. In order to address the high dimensionality, we present an aggregate model, in which we formulate the TFMRP as a multicommodity, integer, dynamic network flow problem with certain side constraints. Using Lagrangian relaxation, we generate aggregate flows that are decomposed into a collection of flight paths using a randomized rounding heuristic. This collection of paths is used in a packing integer

  7. Relation between plasma plume density and gas flow velocity in atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Taka, Shogo; Ogura, Kazuo

    2014-04-15

    We have studied atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and copper foil electrode by applying RF high voltage. The atmospheric pressure plasma in the form of a bullet is released as a plume into the atmosphere. To study the properties of the plasma plume, the plasma plume current is estimated from the difference in currents on the circuit, and the drift velocity is measured using a photodetector. The relation of the plasma plume density n{sub plu}, which is estimated from the current and the drift velocity, and the gas flow velocity v{sub gas} is examined. It is found that the dependence of the density on the gas flow velocity has relations of n{sub plu} ∝ log(v{sub gas}). However, the plasma plume density in the laminar flow is higher than that in the turbulent flow. Consequently, in the laminar flow, the density increases with increasing the gas flow velocity.

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Investigation of Human Aspiration in Low-Velocity Air: Orientation Effects on Mouth-Breathing Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, T. Renée

    2013-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics was used to investigate particle aspiration efficiency in low-moving air typical of occupational settings (0.1–0.4 m s−1). Fluid flow surrounding an inhaling humanoid form and particle trajectories traveling into the mouth were simulated for seven discrete orientations relative to the oncoming wind (0°, 15°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 135° and 180°). Three continuous inhalation velocities (1.81, 4.33, and 12.11 m s−1), representing the mean inhalation velocity associated with sinusoidal at-rest, moderate, and heavy breathing (7.5, 20.8, and 50.3 l min−1, respectively) were simulated. These simulations identified a decrease in aspiration efficiency below the inhalable particulate mass (IPM) criterion of 0.5 for large particles, with no aspiration of particles 100 µm and larger for at-rest breathing and no aspiration of particles 116 µm for moderate breathing, over all freestream velocities and orientations relative to the wind. For particles smaller than 100 µm, orientation-averaged aspiration efficiency exceeded the IPM criterion, with increased aspiration efficiency as freestream velocity decreased. Variability in aspiration efficiencies between velocities was low for small (<22 µm) particles, but increased with increasing particle size over the range of conditions studied. Orientation-averaged simulation estimates of aspiration efficiency agree with the linear form of the proposed linear low-velocity inhalable convention through 100 µm, based on laboratory studies using human mannequins. PMID:23316076

  9. Drainage of the air film during drop impact on flowing liquid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Zhizhao; Matar, Omar

    2015-11-01

    Immediately upon the impact of a droplet on a liquid or a solid, a thin air cushion is formed by trapping air beneath the droplet. The drainage of the air film is critical in determining the eventual outcome of the impact. Here we propose a model to study the drainage of the gas film between a droplet and a flowing liquid film. The effects of a wide range of parameters influencing the drainage process are studied, such as the fluid viscosities, the surface tension, the velocity of the droplet, the velocity of the liquid film. The results show that the tangential movement of the liquid film can delay the drainage of the air film and promote the bouncing of droplets. This confirms our previous experimental results, which show that during the impact of droplets on flow liquid films, the probability of bouncing increases with the Reynolds number of the liquid film. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  10. Flow characteristics of an inclined air-curtain range hood in a draft

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Jia-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The inclined air-curtain technology was applied to build an inclined air-curtain range hood. A draft generator was applied to affect the inclined air-curtain range hood in three directions: lateral (θ=0°), oblique (θ=45°), and front (θ=90°). The three suction flow rates provided by the inclined air-curtain range hood were 10.1, 10.9, and 12.6 m3/min. The laser-assisted flow visualization technique and the tracer-gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the range hood under the influence of a draft. The results show that the inclined air-curtain range hood has a strong ability to resist the negative effect of a front draft until the draft velocity is greater than 0.5 m/s. The oblique draft affected the containment ability of the inclined air-curtain range hood when the draft velocity was larger than 0.3 m/s. When the lateral draft effect was applied, the capture efficiency of the inclined air-curtain range hood decreased quickly in the draft velocity from 0.2 m/s to 0.3 m/s. However, the capture efficiencies of the inclined air-curtain range hood under the influence of the front draft were higher than those under the influence of the oblique draft from 0.3 m/s to 0.5 m/s. PMID:25810445

  11. Errors in acoustic doppler profiler velocity measurements caused by flow disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, D.S.; Abad, J.D.; Garcia, C.M.; Gartner, J.W.; Garcia, M.H.; Oberg, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are commonly used to measure streamflow and water velocities in rivers and streams. This paper presents laboratory, field, and numerical model evidence of errors in ADCP measurements caused by flow disturbance. A state-of-the-art three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model is validated with and used to complement field and laboratory observations of flow disturbance and its effect on measured velocities. Results show that near the instrument, flow velocities measured by the ADCP are neither the undisturbed stream velocity nor the velocity of the flow field around the ADCP. The velocities measured by the ADCP are biased low due to the downward flow near the upstream face of the ADCP and upward recovering flow in the path of downstream transducer, which violate the flow homogeneity assumption used to transform beam velocities into Cartesian velocity components. The magnitude of the bias is dependent on the deployment configuration, the diameter of the instrument, and the approach velocity, and was observed to range from more than 25% at 5cm from the transducers to less than 1% at about 50cm from the transducers for the scenarios simulated. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Two-phase Flow in a Microchannel with Air Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Meinhart, Carl D.

    2001-11-01

    Fluid transport in nano- and micro-scale devices becomes more and more important. The potential advantages of micro-channel with air gap are studied. A simple one-dimensional model of air-water two-phase flow is investigated theoretically. The flow of water is driven by pressure drop. The air in the gap is driven by surface tension and friction forces that exist at the interface between the water and air. With the limitation that air flow rate is zero, the theoretical results are obtained based on continuity and Navier-Stokes equations. Because the viscosity of air is much less than that of water, under same pressure drop, the flow rate of water can be increased to as 4.76 times as that of normal channel without air gap. The theoretical results are tested by numerical simulation with three different software package (CFD2000, FEMLab and CFDRC) using a two-dimensional model. The interface shape, interface velocity, water flow rate and optimum height ratio are studied. Thenumerical results for different package match each other very well. The numerical results show that increasing water flow rate by adding air gap in the micro channel is practicable.

  13. Study of flow fields induced by surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator in low-pressure air

    SciTech Connect

    Che, Xueke E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Nie, Wansheng; Tian, Xihui; Hou, Zhiyong; He, Haobo; Zhou, Penghui; Zhou, Siyin; Yang, Chao; Shao, Tao E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn

    2014-04-15

    Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) is a promising method for a flow control. Flow fields induced by a SDBD actuator driven by the ac voltage in static air at low pressures varying from 1.0 to 27.7 kPa are measured by the particle image velocimetry method. The influence of the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude on the induced flow fields is studied. The results show that three different classes of flow fields (wall jet flow field, complex flow field, and vortex-shape flow field) can be induced by the SDBD actuator in the low-pressure air. Among them, the wall jet flow field is the same as the tangential jet at atmospheric pressure, which is, together with the vertical jet, the complex flow field. The vortex-shape flow field is composed of one vertical jet which points towards the wall and two opposite tangential jets. The complex and the vortex-shape flow fields can be transformed to the wall jet flow field when the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude are changed. It is found that the discharge power consumption increases initially, decreases, and then increases again at the same applied ac voltage magnitude when the air pressure decreases. The tangential velocity of the wall jet flow field increases when the air pressure decreases. It is however opposite for the complex flow field. The variation of the applied ac voltage frequency influences differently three different flow fields. When the applied ac voltage magnitude increases at the same applied ac voltage frequency, the maximal jet velocity increases, while the power efficiency increases only initially and then decreases again. The discharge power shows either linear or exponential dependences on the applied ac voltage magnitude.

  14. Interfacial area, velocity and void fraction in two-phase slug flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kojasoy, G.; Riznic, J.R.

    1997-12-31

    The internal flow structure of air-water plug/slug flow in a 50.3 mm dia transparent pipeline has been experimentally investigated by using a four-sensor resistivity probe. Liquid and gas volumetric superficial velocities ranged from 0.55 to 2.20 m/s and 0.27 to 2.20 m/s, respectively, and area-averaged void fractions ranged from about 10 to 70%. The local distributions of void fractions, interfacial area concentration and interface velocity were measured. Contributions from small spherical bubbles and large elongated slug bubbles toward the total void fraction and interfacial area concentration were differentiated. It was observed that the small bubble void contribution to the overall void fraction was small indicating that the large slug bubble void fraction was a dominant factor in determining the total void fraction. However, the small bubble interfacial area contribution was significant in the lower and upper portions of the pipe cross sections.

  15. Two different approaches for creating a prescribed opposed-flow velocity field for flame spread experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmignani, Luca; Celniker, Greg; Bussett, Kyle; Paolini, Christopher; Bhattacharjee, Subrata

    2015-05-01

    Opposed-flow flame spread over solid fuels is a fundamental area of research in fire science. Typically combustion wind tunnels are used to generate the opposing flow of oxidizer against which a laminar flame spread occurs along the fuel samples. The spreading flame is generally embedded in a laminar boundary layer, which interacts with the strong buoyancy-induced flow to affect the mechanism of flame spread. In this work, two different approaches for creating the opposed-flow are compared. In the first approach, a vertical combustion tunnel is used where a thin fuel sample, thin acrylic or ashless filter paper, is held vertically along the axis of the test-section with the airflow controlled by controlling the duty cycles of four fans. As the sample is ignited, a flame spreads downward in a steady manner along a developing boundary layer. In the second approach, the sample is held in a movable cart placed in an eight-meter tall vertical chamber filled with air. As the sample is ignited, the cart is moved downward (through a remote-controlled mechanism) at a prescribed velocity. The results from the two approaches are compared to establish the boundary layer effect on flame spread over thin fuels.

  16. Study on measurement of the coal powder concentration in pneumatic pipes of a boiler with relationship between air velocity and pressure drop

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W.; Shen, F.; Lin, W.; Chen, L.; Zhang, D.; Wang, Q.; Ke, J.; Quan, W.

    1999-07-01

    According to the theoretical relationship between air velocity and pressure drop in different solid-air mass flow in vertical pipes with the condition of upward air-solid flowing, the experimental research on measuring the coal powder concentration is directed against the pneumatic pipes of a boiler's combustion system in the energy industry. Through analyzing the experimental results, a mathematical model for measuring the coal powder concentration in pneumatic pipes is obtained. Then, the error analysis is done, and the method of on-line measurement and its function are provided.

  17. Comparison of Simultaneous PIV and Hydroxyl Tagging Velocimetry in Low Velocity Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Matthieu A.; Bardet, Philippe M.; Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyl tagging velocimetry (HTV) is a molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) technique that relies on the photo- dissociation of water vapor into OH radicals and their subsequent tracking using laser-induced fluorescence. At ambient temperature in air, the OH species lifetime is about 50 micro-s. The feasibility of using HTV for probing low- speed flows (a few m/s) is investigated by using an inert, heated gas as a means to increase the OH species lifetime. Unlike particle-based techniques, MTV does not suffer from tracer settling, which is particularly problematic at low speeds. Furthermore, the flow needs to be seeded with only a small mole fraction of water vapor, making it safer for both the user and facilities than other MTV techniques based on corrosive or toxic chemical tracers. HTV is demonstrated on a steam-seeded nitrogen jet at approximately 75 C in the laminar (Umean=3.31 m/s, Re=1,540), transitional (Umean=4.48 m/s, Re=2,039), and turbulent (Umean=6.91 m/s, Re=3,016) regimes at atmospheric pressure. The measured velocity profiles are compared with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements performed simultaneously with a second imager. Seeding for the PIV is achieved by introducing micron-sized water droplets into the flow with the steam; the same laser sheet is used for PIV and HTV to guarantee spatial and temporal overlap of the data. Optimizing each of these methods, however, requires conflicting operating conditions: higher temperatures benefit the HTV signals but reduce the available seed density for the PIV through evaporation. Nevertheless, data are found to agree within 10% for the instantaneous velocity profiles and within 5% for the mean profiles and demonstrate the feasibility of HTV for low-speed flows at moderate to high temperatures.

  18. Laser transit anemometer measurements of a JANNAF nozzle base velocity flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, William W., Jr.; Russ, C. E., Jr.; Clemmons, J. I., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Velocity flow fields of a nozzle jet exhausting into a supersonic flow were surveyed. The measurements were obtained with a laser transit anemometer (LTA) system in the time domain with a correlation instrument. The LTA data is transformed into the velocity domain to remove the error that occurs when the data is analyzed in the time domain. The final data is shown in velocity vector plots for positions upstream, downstream, and in the exhaust plane of the jet nozzle.

  19. A dual-phantom system for validation of velocity measurements in stenosis models under steady flow.

    PubMed

    Blake, James R; Easson, William J; Hoskins, Peter R

    2009-09-01

    A dual-phantom system is developed for validation of velocity measurements in stenosis models. Pairs of phantoms with identical geometry and flow conditions are manufactured, one for ultrasound and one for particle image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV model is made from silicone rubber, and a new PIV fluid is made that matches the refractive index of 1.41 of silicone. Dynamic scaling was performed to correct for the increased viscosity of the PIV fluid compared with that of the ultrasound blood mimic. The degree of stenosis in the models pairs agreed to less than 1%. The velocities in the laminar flow region up to the peak velocity location agreed to within 15%, and the difference could be explained by errors in ultrasound velocity estimation. At low flow rates and in mild stenoses, good agreement was observed in the distal flow fields, excepting the maximum velocities. At high flow rates, there was considerable difference in velocities in the poststenosis flow field (maximum centreline differences of 30%), which would seem to represent real differences in hydrodynamic behavior between the two models. Sources of error included: variation of viscosity because of temperature (random error, which could account for differences of up to 7%); ultrasound velocity estimation errors (systematic errors); and geometry effects in each model, particularly because of imperfect connectors and corners (systematic errors, potentially affecting the inlet length and flow stability). The current system is best placed to investigate measurement errors in the laminar flow region rather than the poststenosis turbulent flow region. PMID:19540655

  20. A mathematical model of turbulence in flows with uniform stationary velocity gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Certain cases of turbulence as a postinstability state of a fluid in motion modeled by the introduction of multivalued velocity fields are examined. The turbulence is regarded as occurring in the form of random pulsations which grow until the external energy input in the average flow is balanced by the dissipated energy of pulsations by means of turbulent friction. Closed form analytic solutions are shown to be possible when the considered velocity fields, the pulsation velocity and the fluid velocity, are decoupled.

  1. Radiocarbon determinations for estimating groundwater flow velocities in central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanshaw, B.B.; Back, W.; Rubin, M.

    1965-01-01

    Carbon-14 activity was determined from HCO3- in samples of groundwater obtained from the principal artesian aquifer in Florida. From these data the "age" of water obtained from a series of wells, each progressively farther down gradient on the piezometric surface, was established. Relative carbon-14 ages indicated a velocity of groundwater movement of 23 feet (7 meters) per year for about 85 miles (137 kilometers) of travel. A velocity of 23 feet per year was calculated independently from Darcy's law.

  2. Effect of compressibility on the rise velocity of an air bubble in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cihan, Abdullah; Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a theoretical model to analyze the effect of air compressibility on air bubble migration in porous media. The model is obtained by combining the Newton's second law of motion and the ideal gas law assuming that the air phase in the bubble behaves as an ideal gas. Numerical and analytical solutions are presented for various cases of interest. The model results compare favorably with both experimental data and analytical solutions reported in the literature obtained for an incompressible air bubble migration. The results show that travel velocity of a compressible air bubble in porous media strongly depends on the depth of air phase injection. A bubble released from greater depths travels with a slower velocity than a bubble with an equal volume injected at shallower depths. As an air bubble rises up, it expands with decreasing bubble pressure with depth. The volume of a bubble injected at a 1-m depth increases 10% as the bubble reaches the water table. However, bubble volume increases almost twofold when it reaches to the surface from a depth of 10 m. The vertical rise velocity of a compressible bubble approaches that of an incompressible one regardless of the injection depth and volume as it reaches the water table. The compressible bubble velocity does not exceed 18.8 cm/s regardless of the injection depth and bubble volume. The results demonstrate that the effect of air compressibility on the motion of a bubble cannot be neglected except when the air is injected at very shallow depths.

  3. Effects of ischemia on capillary density and flow velocity in nailfolds of human toes.

    PubMed

    Richardson, D; Schwartz, R; Hyde, G

    1985-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate reactive hyperemia in the capillary network of human skin in terms of the flow per capillary and the density of flow-active capillaries. Seventeen male subjects 20 to 40 years of age were seated with their right foot placed on the stage of a Leitz epi-ilumination microscope such that the nailfold capillary field in their large toes could be viewed. These vessels were video taped while flow velocity in the right posterior tibial artery was recorded via Doppler ultrasound at rest, then following a 45-sec period of arterial occlusion to the foot. Subsequent to experimentation flow velocity in single nailfold capillaries was measured via video densitometry and the number of flow-active capillaries in the field of view were counted. Following the release of arterial occlusion arterial flow velocity increased 142% above rest, the velocity in single capillaries increased by 54%, and the density of flow-active capillaries, as identified by the presence of red cells, decreased by 37%. The fact that capillary flow velocity increased to a lesser degree than arterial velocity during reactive hyperemia vis-a-vis a decrease in the number of flow-active capillaries indicates that ischemia to the foot elicits a smaller dilatory effect in vascular elements controlling blood flow to the superficial cutaneous region of the toe as compared to other regional vascular networks. PMID:4021840

  4. Definition of water droplets "strain cycles" in air times dependences on their sizes and movement velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Roman; Zhdanova, Alena; Zabelin, Maxim; Kuznetsov, Geniy; Strizhak, Pavel

    2014-08-01

    Experimental investigation of water droplets deformation regularities during their motion in the air by the action of gravitational forces was executed. Characteristic sizes of droplets were varied in the range from 3 mm to 6 mm. Velocities of droplets movement attained to 5 m/s. The cross-correlation system of video registration was used. More than ten characteristic "strain cycles" of droplets during the 1 m distance motion by them thought the air were established. Characteristic of droplets forms, periods, dimensions and ranges were determined for all "strain cycles". "Strain cycle" times dependences on velocity and sizes of droplets were established.

  5. Simulation of air-droplet mixed phase flow in icing wind-tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengyao, Leng; Shinan, Chang; Menglong, Wu; Yunhang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Icing wind-tunnel is the main ground facility for the research of aircraft icing, which is different from normal wind-tunnel for its refrigeration system and spraying system. In stable section of icing wind-tunnel, the original parameters of droplets and air are different, for example, to keep the nozzles from freezing, the droplets are heated while the temperature of air is low. It means that complex mass and heat transfer as well as dynamic interactive force would happen between droplets and air, and the parameters of droplet will acutely change along the passageway. Therefore, the prediction of droplet-air mixed phase flow is necessary in the evaluation of icing researching wind-tunnel. In this paper, a simplified droplet-air mixed phase flow model based on Lagrangian method was built. The variation of temperature, diameter and velocity of droplet, as well as the air flow field, during the flow process were obtained under different condition. With calculating three-dimensional air flow field by FLUENT, the droplet could be traced and the droplet distribution could also be achieved. Furthermore, the patterns about how initial parameters affect the parameters in test section were achieved. The numerical simulation solving the flow and heat and mass transfer characteristics in the mixing process is valuable for the optimization of experimental parameters design and equipment adjustment.

  6. Laser ignition of hypersonic air-hydrogen flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brieschenk, S.; Kleine, H.; O'Byrne, S.

    2013-09-01

    An experimental investigation of the behaviour of laser-induced ignition in a hypersonic air-hydrogen flow is presented. A compression-ramp model with port-hole injection, fuelled with hydrogen gas, is used in the study. The experiments were conducted in the T-ADFA shock tunnel using a flow condition with a specific total enthalpy of 2.5 MJ/kg and a freestream velocity of 2 km/s. This study is the first comprehensive laser spark study in a hypersonic flow and demonstrates that laser-induced ignition at the fuel-injection site can be effective in terms of hydroxyl production. A semi-empirical method to estimate the conditions in the laser-heated gas kernel is presented in the paper. This method uses blast-wave theory together with an expansion-wave model to estimate the laser-heated gas conditions. The spatially averaged conditions found with this approach are matched to enthalpy curves generated using a standard chemical equilibrium code (NASA CEA). This allows us to account for differences that are introduced due to the idealised description of the blast wave, the isentropic expansion wave as well as thermochemical effects.

  7. Flow and performance of an air-curtain biological safety cabinet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chou, Chun I

    2009-06-01

    Using laser-assisted smoke flow visualization and tracer gas concentration detection techniques, this study examines aerodynamic flow properties and the characteristics of escape from containment, inward dispersion, and cross-cabinet contamination of a biological safety cabinet installed with an air curtain across the front aperture. The experimental method partially simulates the NSF/ANSI 49 standards with the difference that the biological tracer recommended by these standards is replaced by a mixture of 10% SF(6) in N(2). The air curtain is set up across the cabinet aperture plane by means of a narrow planar jet issued from the lower edge of the sash and a suction flow going through a suction slot installed at the front edge of the work surface. Varying the combination of jet velocity, suction flow velocity, and descending flow velocity reveals three types of characteristic flow modes: 'straight curtain', 'slightly concave curtain', and 'severely concave curtain'. Operating the cabinet in the straight curtain mode causes the air curtain to impinge on the doorsill and therefore induces serious escape from containment. In the severely concave curtain mode, drastically large inward dispersion and cross-cabinet contamination were observed because environmental air entered into the cabinet and a three-dimensional vortical flow structure formed in the cabinet. The slightly concave curtain mode presents a smooth and two-dimensional flow pattern with an air curtain separating the outside atmosphere from the inside space of the cabinet, and therefore exhibited negligibly small escape from containment, inward dispersion, and cross-cabinet contamination. PMID:19398506

  8. Preliminary analysis of problem of determining experimental performance of air-cooled turbine II : methods for determining cooling-air-flow characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1950-01-01

    In the determination of the performance of an air-cooled turbine, the cooling-air-flow characteristics between the root and the tip of the blades must be evaluated. The methods, which must be verified and the unknown functions evaluated, that are expected to permit the determination of pressure, temperature, and velocity through the blade cooling-air passages from specific investigation are presented.

  9. Oscillatory flow through submerged canopies: 1. Velocity structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Ryan J.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2005-10-01

    Many benthic organisms form very rough surfaces on the seafloor that can be described as submerged canopies. Recent evidence has shown that, compared with a unidirectional current, an oscillatory flow driven by surface waves can significantly enhance biological processes such as nutrient uptake. However, to date, the physical mechanisms responsible for this enhancement have not been established. This paper presents a theoretical model to estimate flow inside a submerged canopy driven by oscillatory flow. To reduce the complexity of natural canopies, an idealized canopy consisting of an array of vertical cylinders is used. The attenuation of the in-canopy oscillatory flow is shown to be governed by three dimensionless parameters defined on the basis of canopy geometry and flow parameters. The model predicts that an oscillatory flow will always generate a higher in-canopy flow when compared to a unidirectional current of the same magnitude, and specifically that the attenuation will monotonically increase as the wave orbital excursion length is increased. A series of laboratory experiments are conducted for a range of different unidirectional and oscillatory flow conditions, and the results confirm that oscillatory flow increases water motion inside a canopy. It is hypothesized that this higher in-canopy flow will enhance rates of mass transfer from the canopy elements, a problem formally investigated in a companion paper (Lowe et al., 2005b).

  10. Femtosecond laser flow tagging in non-air flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yibin; Calvert, Nathan

    2015-11-01

    The Femtosecond Laser Electronic Excitation Tagging (FLEET) [Michael, J. B. et al., Applied optics, 50(26), 2011] method is studied in nitrogen-containing gaseous flows. The underlying mechanism behind the FLEET process is the dissociation of molecular nitrogen into atomic nitrogen, which produces long-lived florescence as the nitrogen atoms recombine. Spectra and images of the resulting tagged line provide insight into the effects of different atmospheric gases on the FLEET process. The ionization cross-section, conductivity and energy states of the gaseous particles are each brought into consideration. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility for long-lived flow tagging on the order of hundreds of microseconds in non-air environments. Of particular interest are the enhancement of the FLEET signal with the addition of argon gas, and the non-monotonic quenching effect of oxygen on the length, duration and intensity of the resulting signal and spectra. FLEET is characterized in number of different atmospheric gases, including that simulating Mar's atmospheric composition.

  11. Distribution and velocity of inertial particles in a turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletti, Filippo; Fong, Kee Onn; Nemes, Andras; Sloan, Nicholas

    2015-11-01

    The segregation of inertial particles in specific regions of turbulent fluid flows is a well known phenomenon, but experimental observations of its three-dimensional nature are lacking. Here we are concerned with the transport of small inertial particles in wall-bounded turbulence. In particular we consider a fully developed vertical channel flow. The working fluid is air laden with size-selected glass particles. The volume and mass loading are kept low and the particle diameter is smaller than the viscous length scale, so that the turbulence is unaffected by the dispersed phase. Tomographic particle image velocimetry is used to reconstruct the position and velocity of the inertial particles. In particular, the tendency of the particles to concentrate intermittently (turbulence clustering) and to drift towards the wall (turbophoresis) are quantitatively characterized by the instantaneous and mean concentration fields, respectively. The findings are discussed in relation to the results of previous studies which have used one-way coupled direct numerical simulations, and on which the current understanding of this class of flows is based.

  12. Particle velocity interpolation in block-centered finite difference groundwater flow models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews linear and bilinear interpolation of velocity and introduces a new interpolation scheme. Linear interpolation of velocity is consistent with the numerical solution of the flow equation and preserves discontinuities in velocity caused by abrupt (blocky) changes in transmissivity or hydraulic conductivity. However, linear interpolation yields discontinuous and somewhat unrealistic velocities in homogeneous aquifers. Bilinear interpolation of velocity yields continuous and realistic velocities in homogeneous and smoothly heterogeneous aquifers but does not preserve discontinuities in velocity at abrupt transmissivity boundaries. The new scheme uses potentiometric head gradients and offers improved accuracy for nonuniform flow in heterogeneous aquifers with abrupt changes in transmissivity. It is equivalent to bilinear interpolation in homogeneous media and is equivalent to linear interpolation where gradients are uniform. -from Author

  13. Analysis of the Air Flow Generated by an Air-Assisted Sprayer Equipped with Two Axial Fans Using a 3D Sonic Anemometer

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramos, F. Javier; Vidal, Mariano; Boné, Antonio; Malón, Hugo; Aguirre, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The flow of air generated by a new design of air assisted sprayer equipped with two axial fans of reversed rotation was analyzed. For this goal, a 3D sonic anemometer has been used (accuracy: 1.5%; measurement range: 0 to 45 m/s). The study was divided into a static test and a dynamic test. During the static test, the air velocity in the working vicinity of the sprayer was measured considering the following machine configurations: (1) one activated fan regulated at three air flows (machine working as a traditional sprayer); (2) two activated fans regulated at three air flows for each fan. In the static test 72 measurement points were considered. The location of the measurement points was as follow: left and right sides of the sprayer; three sections of measurement (A, B and C); three measurement distances from the shaft of the machine (1.5 m, 2.5 m and 3.5 m); and four measurement heights (1 m, 2 m, 3 m and 4 m). The static test results have shown significant differences in the module and the vertical angle of the air velocity vector in function of the regulations of the sprayer. In the dynamic test, the air velocity was measured at 2.5 m from the axis of the sprayer considering four measurement heights (1 m, 2 m, 3 m and 4 m). In this test, the sprayer regulations were: one or two activated fans; one air flow for each fan; forward speed of 2.8 km/h. The use of one fan (back) or two fans (back and front) produced significant differences on the duration of the presence of wind in the measurement point and on the direction of the air velocity vector. The module of the air velocity vector was not affected by the number of activated fans. PMID:22969363

  14. Estimation of Critical Flow Velocity for Collapse of Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Guillen; Mark J. Russell

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents calculations performed to determine the critical flow velocity for plate collapse due to static instability for the Gas Test Loop booster fuel assembly. Long, slender plates arranged in a parallel configuration can experience static divergence and collapse at sufficiently high coolant flow rates. Such collapse was exhibited by the Oak Ridge High Flux Reactor in the 1940s and the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory in the 1950s. Theoretical formulas outlined by Miller, based upon wide-beam theory and Bernoulli’s equation, were used for the analysis. Calculations based upon Miller’s theory show that the actual coolant flow velocity is only 6% of the predicted critical flow velocity. Since there is a considerable margin between the theoretically predicted plate collapse velocity and the design velocity, the phenomena of plate collapse due to static instability is unlikely.

  15. Intermittent Lagrangian velocities and accelerations in three-dimensional porous medium flow.

    PubMed

    Holzner, M; Morales, V L; Willmann, M; Dentz, M

    2015-07-01

    Intermittency of Lagrangian velocity and acceleration is a key to understanding transport in complex systems ranging from fluid turbulence to flow in porous media. High-resolution optical particle tracking in a three-dimensional (3D) porous medium provides detailed 3D information on Lagrangian velocities and accelerations. We find sharp transitions close to pore throats, and low flow variability in the pore bodies, which gives rise to stretched exponential Lagrangian velocity and acceleration distributions characterized by a sharp peak at low velocity, superlinear evolution of particle dispersion, and double-peak behavior in the propagators. The velocity distribution is quantified in terms of pore geometry and flow connectivity, which forms the basis for a continuous-time random-walk model that sheds light on the observed Lagrangian flow and transport behaviors. PMID:26274277

  16. Intermittent Lagrangian velocities and accelerations in three-dimensional porous medium flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzner, M.; Morales, V. L.; Willmann, M.; Dentz, M.

    2015-07-01

    Intermittency of Lagrangian velocity and acceleration is a key to understanding transport in complex systems ranging from fluid turbulence to flow in porous media. High-resolution optical particle tracking in a three-dimensional (3D) porous medium provides detailed 3D information on Lagrangian velocities and accelerations. We find sharp transitions close to pore throats, and low flow variability in the pore bodies, which gives rise to stretched exponential Lagrangian velocity and acceleration distributions characterized by a sharp peak at low velocity, superlinear evolution of particle dispersion, and double-peak behavior in the propagators. The velocity distribution is quantified in terms of pore geometry and flow connectivity, which forms the basis for a continuous-time random-walk model that sheds light on the observed Lagrangian flow and transport behaviors.

  17. Velocity profile variations in granular flows with changing boundary conditions: insights from experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Marius; Bugnion, Louis

    2013-06-01

    We present results of detailed velocity profile measurements in a large series of granular flow experiments in a dam-break setup. The inclination angle, bead size, and roughness of the running surface were varied. In all experiments, the downstream velocity profiles changed continuously from the head to the tail of the avalanches. On rough running surfaces, an inflection point developed in the velocity profiles. These velocity profiles cannot be modeled by the large class of constitutive laws which relate the shear stress to a power law of the strain rate. The velocity profile shape factor increased from the head to the tail of the avalanches. Its maximum value grew with increasing roughness of the running surface. We conclude that flow features such as velocity profiles are strongly influenced by the boundary condition at the running surface, which depends on the ratio of bead size to the typical roughness length of the surface. Furthermore, we show that varying velocity profile shape factors inside gravitationally driven finite-mass flows give rise to an additional term in the depth-averaged momentum equation, which is normally solved in the simulation software of hazardous geophysical flows. We therefore encourage time dependent velocity profile measurements inside hazardous geophysical flows, to learn about the importance of this "new" term in the mathematical modeling of these flows.

  18. Size and Velocity Characteristics of Droplets Generated by Thin Steel Slab Continuous Casting Secondary Cooling Air-Mist Nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchaca M, J. I.; Castillejos E, A. H.; Acosta G, F. A.

    2011-06-01

    Direct spray impingement of high temperature surfaces, 1473 K to 973 K (1200 °C to 700 °C), plays a critical role in the secondary cooling of continuously cast thin steel slabs. It is known that the spray parameters affecting the local heat flux are the water impact flux w as well as the droplet velocity and size. However, few works have been done to characterize the last two parameters in the case of dense mists ( i.e., mists with w in the range of 2 to 90 L/m2s). This makes it difficult to rationalize how the nozzle type and its operating conditions must be selected to control the cooling process. In the present study, particle/droplet image analysis was used to determine the droplet size and velocity distributions simultaneously at various locations along the major axis of the mist cross section at a distance where the steel strand would stand. The measurements were carried out at room temperature for two standard commercial air-assisted nozzles of fan-discharge type operating over a broad range of conditions of practical interest. To achieve statistically meaningful samples, at least 6000 drops were analyzed at each location. Measuring the droplet size revealed that the number and volume frequency distributions were fitted satisfactorily by the respective log-normal and Nukiyama-Tanasawa distributions. The correlation of the parameters of the distribution functions with the water- and air-nozzle pressures allowed for reasonable estimation of the mean values of the size of the droplets generated. The ensemble of measurements across the mist axis showed that the relationship between the droplet velocity and the diameter exhibited a weak positive correlation. Additionally, increasing the water flow rate at constant air pressure caused a decrease in the proportion of the water volume made of finer droplets, whereas the volume proportion of faster droplets augmented until the water flow reached a certain value, after which it decreased. Diminishing the air

  19. A Study on the Air flow outside Ambient Vaporizer Fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, G.; Lee, T.; Jeong, H.; Chung, H.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we interpreted Fog's Fluid that appear in the Ambient Vaporizer and predict the point of change Air to Fog. We interpreted using Analysis working fluid was applied to LNG and Air. We predict air flow when there is chill of LNG in the air Temperature and that makes fog. Also, we interpreted based on Summer and Winter criteria in the air temperature respectively. Finally, we can check the speed of the fog when fog excreted.

  20. Velocity-Field Measurements of an Axisymmetric Separated Flow Subjected to Amplitude-Modulated Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trosin, Barry James

    2007-01-01

    Active flow control was applied at the point of separation of an axisymmetric, backward-facing-step flow. The control was implemented by employing a Helmholtz resonator that was externally driven by an amplitude-modulated, acoustic disturbance from a speaker located upstream of the wind tunnel. The velocity field of the separating/reattaching flow region downstream of the step was characterized using hotwire velocity measurements with and without flow control. Conventional statistics of the data reveal that the separating/reattaching flow is affected by the imposed forcing. Triple decomposition along with conditional averaging was used to distinguish periodic disturbances from random turbulence in the fluctuating velocity component. A significant outcome of the present study is that it demonstrates that amplitude-modulated forcing of the separated flow alters the flow in the same manner as the more conventional method of periodic excitation.

  1. A one-dimensional numerical model for predicting pressure and velocity oscillations of a compressed air-pocket in a vertical shaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Leon, A.; Apte, S.

    2015-12-01

    The presence of pressurized air pockets in combined sewer systems is argued to produce geyser flows, which is an oscillating jetting of a mixture of gas-liquid flows through vertical shafts. A 1D numerical model is developed for predicting pressure and velocity oscillations of a compressed air-pocket in a vertical shaft which in turn attempts to simulate geyser like flows. The vertical shaft is closed at the bottom and open to ambient pressure at the top. Initially, the lower section of the vertical shaft is filled with compressed air and the upper section with water. The interaction between the pressurized air pocket and the water column in the vertical shaft exhibits an oscillatory motion of the water column that decays over time. The model accounts for steady and unsteady friction to estimate the energy dissipation. The model also includes the falling flow of water around the external perimeter of the pressurized air pocket by assuming that any expansion in the pressurized air pocket would result in the falling volume of water. The acceleration of air-water interface is predicted through a force balance between the pressurized air pocket and the water column combined with the Method of Characteristics that resolves pressure and velocity within the water column. The expansion and compression of the pressurized air pocket is assumed to follow either isothermal process or adiabatic process. Results for both assumptions; isothermal and adiabatic processes, are presented. The performance of the developed 1D numerical model is compared with that of a commercial 3D CFD model. Overall, a good agreement between both models is obtained for pressure and velocity oscillations. The paper will also present a sensitivity analysis of the 3D CFD model.

  2. Velocity measurement and flow field simulation of a sit-type water closet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei-Seng; Jhang, Chao-Yu

    2012-06-01

    Evacuation of a sit-type water closet is driven by siphon effect established inside its water passage when flushed. However, the flow condition in the passage of a water closet is still unclear. It is clear that we have a fundamental understanding of the flow phenomenon before we know how to enhance siphon effect. This research studies the flow phenomenon in the passage imbedded in a sit-type water closet by using both experimental measurement and numerical simulation. Particle-tracing technique by using a high speed camera is used to measure velocity of particles flowing with the water flow in a full scale model. These velocity values of particles are transformed to estimate the mean velocity of the water flow in the passage of the model throughout the time span of a flush. This velocity profile in time compares reasonably well in trend with literature data and is used to validate the results of subsequent numerical simulations. Numerical simulations of the transient flushed-flow based on in-compressible, viscous, turbulent and two-phase assumptions are performed. Simulation result agrees reasonably well with measurement data and can provide detail information of the transient flow field. Numerical simulation reveals that a clear circulation center exists in the flow and when siphon effect takes place water flow will reach its highest velocity value.

  3. A dual sensor device to estimate fluid flow velocity at diffuse hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrazin, J.; Rodier, P.; Tivey, M. K.; Singh, H.; Schultz, A.; Sarradin, P. M.

    2009-11-01

    Numerous attempts have been made over the last thirty years to estimate fluid flow rates at hydrothermal vents, either at the exit of black smoker chimneys or within diffuse flow areas. In this study, we combine two methods to accurately estimate fluid flow velocities at diffuse flow areas. While the first method uses a hot film anemometer that performs high-frequency measurements, the second allows a relatively rapid assessment of fluid flow velocity through video imagery and provides in situ data to calibrate the sensor. Measurements of flow velocities on hydrothermal diffuse flow areas were obtained on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). They range from 1.1 to 4.9 mm/s at the substratum level, in low-temperature (4.5-16.4 °C) diffuse flow areas from the Tour Eiffel sulfide edifice. A strong correlation was observed between fluid flow velocities and temperature, supporting the possible use of temperature as a proxy to estimate the flow rates in diffuse flow areas where such a simple linear flow/temperature relation is shown to dominate.

  4. Estimation of the velocities and discharge rates of groundwater flows by helium and tritium distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.V.; Antonenko, E.F.; Obukhova, S.N.

    1995-11-01

    Modeling is used to show that bends in the curves of groundwater flows and confluence of different-age flows demonstrate themselves in spatial variability in concentration fields of {sup 4}He, {sup 3}H, and {sup 14}C isotopes. The results are used to reveal typical flows in a section of Switzerland and to estimate their velocities and discharge rates.

  5. Transient Velocity And Steady State Entropy Generation In A Microfluidic Couette Flow Containing Charged Nano Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorla, R. S. R.; Gireesha, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    An analysis has been provided to determine the transient velocity and steady state entropy generation in a microfluidic Couette flow influenced by electro-kinetic effect of charged nanoparticles. The equation for calculating the Couette flow velocity profile is derived for transient flow. The solutions for momentum and energy equations are used to get the exact solution for the dimensionless velocity ratio and dimensionless entropy generation number. The effects of the dimensionless entropy generation number, Bejan number, irreversibility ratio, entropy generation due to fluid friction and due to heat transfer on dimensionless time, relative channel height, Brinkman number, dimensionless temperature ratio, nanoparticle volume fraction are analyzed.

  6. Spatial resolution and downwash velocity corrections for multiple-hole pressure probes in complex flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ligrani, P. M.; Baun, L. R.; Singer, B. A.

    1989-01-01

    Correction schemes for finite spatial resolution and induced downwash velocity are presented which have application to the measurement of complex three-dimensional flow fields using five-hole angle-type pressure probes. In the study, induced downwash velocity is assumed to be proportional to the transverse gradients of streamwise velocity. The present correction schemes are validated by application to flows including vortices embedded within turbulent boundary layers and flows in a curved channel with 1.27-cm width, a 40-to-1 aspect ratio, and 59.7 cm of convex surface curvature.

  7. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and...

  8. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical...

  9. Preservation of Cognitive Performance with Age during Exertional Heat Stress under Low and High Air Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Wright Beatty, Heather E.; Keillor, Jocelyn M.; Hardcastle, Stephen G.; Boulay, Pierre; Kenny, Glen P.

    2015-01-01

    Older adults may be at greater risk for occupational injuries given their reduced capacity to dissipate heat, leading to greater thermal strain and potentially cognitive decrements. Purpose. To examine the effects of age and increased air velocity, during exercise in humid heat, on information processing and attention. Methods. Nine young (24 ± 1 years) and 9 older (59 ± 1 years) males cycled 4 × 15 min (separated by 15 min rest) at a fixed rate of heat production (400 W) in humid heat (35°C, 60% relative humidity) under 0.5 (low) and 3.0 (high) m·s−1 air velocity wearing coveralls. At rest, immediately following exercise (end exercise), and after the final recovery, participants performed an abbreviated paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT, 2 sec pace). Results. PASAT numbers of correct responses at end exercise were similar for young (low = 49 ± 3; high = 51 ± 3) and older (low = 46 ± 5; high = 47 ± 4) males and across air velocity conditions, and when scored relative to age norms. Psychological sweating, or an increased sweat rate with the administration of the PASAT, was observed in both age groups in the high condition. Conclusion. No significant decrements in attention and speeded information processing were observed, with age or altered air velocity, following intermittent exercise in humid heat. PMID:25874223

  10. the nature of air flow near the inlets of blunt dust sampling probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, J. H.; Hutson, D.; Mark, D.

    This paper sets out to describe the nature of air flow near blunt dust samplers in a way which allows a relatively simple assessment of their performances for collecting dust particles. Of particular importance is the shape of the limiting stream surface which divides the sampled air from that which passes outside the sampler, and how this is affected by the free-stream air velocity, the sampling flow rate, and the shape of the sampler body. This was investigated for two-dimensional and axially-symmetric sampler systems by means of complementary experiments using electrolytic tank potential flow analogues and a wind tunnel respectively. For extreme conditions the flow of air entering the sampling orifice may be wholly divergent or wholly convergent. For a wide range of intermediate conditions, however, the flow first diverges then converges, exhibiting a so-called "spring onion effect". Whichever of these applies for a particular situation, the flow may be considered to consist of two parts, the outer one dominated by the flow about the sampler body and the inner one dominated by the flow into the sampling orifice. Particle transport in this two-part flow may be assessed using ideas borrowed from thin-walled probe theory.

  11. Research on inert gas narcosis and air velocity effects on metabolic performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The effects of air velocity on metabolic performance are studied by using high forced airflow in a closed environment as a mechanism to control the concentration of volatile animal wastes. Air velocities between 100 and 200 ft/min are without significant effects on the metabolism of rats. At velocities of 200 ft/min and above, oxygen consumption and CO2 production as well as food consumption increase. In most instances, the changes are on the order of 5-10%. At the same time, the RQ for the animals increases slightly and generally correlates well with oxygen consumption and CO2 production. Experiments on the nature of inert gas narcosis show that halothane and methoxyflurane are rather potent inhibitors of the NADH:O2 oxidoreductase system in rats. These experiments suggest that the mechanism of inert gas narcosis is not mandatorily related to a membrane surface phenomenon.

  12. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section 1065.225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section 1065.225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section 1065.225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section 1065.225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225 Section 1065.225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225...

  17. Experimental study on the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flow in horizontal pipes.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadhrami, Luai M; Shaahid, S M; Tunde, Lukman O; Al-Sarkhi, A

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20 °C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3 m/s to 3 m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29 m/s to 52.5 m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645

  18. Experimental Study on the Flow Regimes and Pressure Gradients of Air-Oil-Water Three-Phase Flow in Horizontal Pipes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Shaahid, S. M.; Tunde, Lukman O.; Al-Sarkhi, A.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20°C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3 m/s to 3 m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29 m/s to 52.5 m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645

  19. Relationship of 133Xe cerebral blood flow to middle cerebral arterial flow velocity in men at rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J. M.; Skolnick, B. E.; Gelfand, R.; Farber, R. E.; Stierheim, M.; Stevens, W. C.; Beck, G. Jr; Lambertsen, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by 133Xe clearance simultaneously with the velocity of blood flow through the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) over a wide range of arterial PCO2 in eight normal men. Average arterial PCO2, which was varied by giving 4% and 6% CO2 in O2 and by controlled hyperventilation on O2, ranged from 25.3 to 49.9 mm Hg. Corresponding average values of global CBF15 were 27.2 and 65.0 ml 100 g min-1, respectively, whereas MCA blood-flow velocity ranged from 42.8 to 94.2 cm/s. The relationship of CBF to MCA blood-flow velocity over the imposed range of arterial PCO2 was described analytically by a parabola with the equation: CBF = 22.8 - 0.17 x velocity + 0.006 x velocity2 The observed data indicate that MCA blood-flow velocity is a useful index of CBF response to change in arterial PCO2 during O2 breathing at rest. With respect to baseline values measured while breathing 100% O2 spontaneously, percent changes in velocity were significantly smaller than corresponding percent changes in CBF at increased levels of arterial PCO2 and larger than CBF changes at the lower arterial PCO2. These observed relative changes are consistent with MCA vasodilation at the site of measurement during exposure to progressive hypercapnia and also during extreme hyperventilation hypocapnia.

  20. The terminal velocity of a bubble in an oscillating flow.

    SciTech Connect

    Torczynski, John Robert; Kraynik, Andrew Michael; Romero, Louis Anthony

    2010-11-01

    A bubble in an acoustic field experiences a net 'Bjerknes' force from the nonlinear coupling of its radial oscillations with the oscillating buoyancy force. It is typically assumed that the bubble's net terminal velocity can be found by considering a spherical bubble with the imposed 'Bjerknes stresses'. We have analyzed the motion of such a bubble using a rigorous perturbation approach and found that one must include a term involving an effective mass flux through the bubble that arises from the time average of the second-order nonlinear terms in the kinematic boundary condition. The importance of this term is governed by the dimensionless parameter {alpha} = R{sup 2} {phi}/R{sup 2} {phi} {nu}.-{nu}, where R is the bubble radius, {phi} is the driving frequency, and {nu} is the liquid kinematic viscosity. If {alpha} is large, this term is unimportant, but if {alpha} is small, this term is the dominant factor in determining the terminal velocity.

  1. GALAXY CLUSTER BULK FLOWS AND COLLISION VELOCITIES IN QUMOND

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Harley; McGaugh, Stacy; Teuben, Peter; Angus, G. W. E-mail: stacy.mcgaugh@case.edu E-mail: angus.gz@gmail.com

    2013-07-20

    We examine the formation of clusters of galaxies in numerical simulations of a QUMOND cosmogony with massive sterile neutrinos. Clusters formed in these exploratory simulations develop higher velocities than those found in {Lambda}CDM simulations. The bulk motions of clusters attain {approx}1000 km s{sup -1} by low redshift, comparable to observations whereas {Lambda}CDM simulated clusters tend to fall short. Similarly, high pairwise velocities are common in cluster-cluster collisions like the Bullet Cluster. There is also a propensity for the most massive clusters to be larger in QUMOND and to appear earlier than in {Lambda}CDM, potentially providing an explanation for ''pink elephants'' like El Gordo. However, it is not obvious that the cluster mass function can be recovered.

  2. Integrated turbine-compressor provides air flow for cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, A.

    1970-01-01

    Modified supersonic turbine cycle provides cooling air to surrounding structures. Simplified mechanical design assures correct balance of air flow, allows direct issue of cool air to the structure, and assists in matching turbine work output to work input required by the compressor.

  3. Technique for measuring air flow and carbon dioxide flux in large, open-top chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.M.; Owensby, C.E.; Coyne, P.I.

    1993-10-01

    Open-Top Chambers (OTCs) are commonly used to evaluate the effect of CO{sub 2},O{sub 3}, and other trace gases on vegetation. This study developed and tested a new technique for measuring forced air flow and net CO{sub 2} flux from OTCs. Experiments were performed with a 4.5-m diam. OTC with a sealed floor and a specialized air delivery system. Air flow through the chamber was computed with the Bernoulli equation using measurements of the pressure differential between the air delivery ducts and the chamber interior. An independent measurement of air flow was made simultaneously to calibrate and verify the accuracy of the Bernoulli relationship. The CO{sub 2} flux density was calculated as the product of chamber air flow and the difference in CO{sub 2} concentration between the air entering and exhausting from the OTC (C{sub in}-C{sub out}). Accuracy was evaluated by releasing CO{sub 2} within the OTC at known rates. Data were collected with OTCs at ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} ({approx}700 {mu}mol{sup -1}). Results showed the Bernoulli equation, with a flow coefficient of 0.7, accurately measured air flow in the OTC within {+-}5% regardless of flow rate and air duct geometry. Experiments in ambient OTCs showed CO{sub 2} flux density ({mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}), computed from 2-min averages of air flow and C{sub in} - C{sub out,} was typically within {+-} 10% of actual flux, provided that the exit air velocity at the top of the OTC was greater than 0.6 m s{sup -1}. Obtaining the same accuracy in CO{sub 2}-enriched OTCs required a critical exit velocity near 1.2 m s{sup -1} to minimize the incursion of ambient air and prevent contamination of exit gas sample. When flux data were integrated over time to estimate daily CO{sub 2} flux ({mu}mol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}), actual and measured values agreed to within {+-}2% for both ambient and CO{sub 2}-enriched chambers, suggesting that accurate measurements of daily net C exchange are possible with this technique.

  4. Increased Air Velocity Reduces Thermal and Cardiovascular Strain in Young and Older Males during Humid Exertional Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Wright Beatty, Heather E; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Boulay, Pierre; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have been reported to have a lower evaporative heat loss capacity than younger adults during exercise when full sweat evaporation is permitted. However, it is unclear how conditions of restricted evaporative and convective heat loss (i.e., high humidity, clothing insulation) alter heat stress. to the purpose of this study was to examine the heat stress responses of young and older males during and following exercise in a warm/humid environment under two different levels of air velocity. Ten young (YOUNG: 24±2 yr) and 10 older (OLDER: 59±3 yr) males, matched for body surface area performed 4×15-min cycling bouts (15-min rest) at a fixed rate of heat production (400 W) in warm/humid conditions (35°C, 60% relative humidity) under 0.5 (Low) and 3.0 (High) m·s(-1) air velocity while wearing work coveralls. Rectal (Tre) and mean skin (MTsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), local sweat rate, % max skin blood flow (SkBF) (recovery only), and blood pressure (recovery only) were measured. High air velocity reduced core and skin temperatures (p < 0.05) equally in YOUNG and OLDER males (p > 0.05) but was more effective in reducing cardiovascular strain (absolute and % max HR; p < 0.05) in YOUNG males (p < 0.05). Greater increases in local dry heat loss responses (% max SkBF and cutaneous vascular conductance) were detected across time in OLDER than YOUNG males in both conditions (p < 0.05). Local dry heat loss responses and cardiovascular strain were attenuated during the High condition in YOUNG compared to OLDER (p < 0.05). High air velocity reduced the number of males surpassing the 38.0°C Tre threshold from 90% (Low) to 50% (High). Despite age-related local heat loss differences, YOUNG and OLDER males had similar levels of heat stress during intermittent exercise in warm and humid conditions while wearing work coveralls. Increased air velocity was effective in reducing heat stress equally, and cardiovascular strain to a greater extent, in YOUNG and OLDER

  5. Research on Air Flow Measurement and Optimization of Control Algorithm in Air Disinfection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bing-jie, Li; Jia-hong, Zhao; Xu, Wang; Amuer, Mohamode; Zhi-liang, Wang

    2013-01-01

    As the air flow control system has the characteristics of delay and uncertainty, this research designed and achieved a practical air flow control system by using the hydrodynamic theory and the modern control theory. Firstly, the mathematical model of the air flow distribution of the system is analyzed from the hydrodynamics perspective. Then the model of the system is transformed into a lumped parameter state space expression by using the Galerkin method. Finally, the air flow is distributed more evenly through the estimation of the system state and optimal control. The simulation results show that this algorithm has good robustness and anti-interference ability

  6. Computational fluid dynamics investigation of human aspiration in low velocity air: orientation effects on nose-breathing simulations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kimberly R; Anthony, T Renée

    2014-06-01

    An understanding of how particles are inhaled into the human nose is important for developing samplers that measure biologically relevant estimates of exposure in the workplace. While previous computational mouth-breathing investigations of particle aspiration have been conducted in slow moving air, nose breathing still required exploration. Computational fluid dynamics was used to estimate nasal aspiration efficiency for an inhaling humanoid form in low velocity wind speeds (0.1-0.4 m s(-1)). Breathing was simplified as continuous inhalation through the nose. Fluid flow and particle trajectories were simulated over seven discrete orientations relative to the oncoming wind (0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 135, 180°). Sensitivities of the model simplification and methods were assessed, particularly the placement of the recessed nostril surface and the size of the nose. Simulations identified higher aspiration (13% on average) when compared to published experimental wind tunnel data. Significant differences in aspiration were identified between nose geometry, with the smaller nose aspirating an average of 8.6% more than the larger nose. Differences in fluid flow solution methods accounted for 2% average differences, on the order of methodological uncertainty. Similar trends to mouth-breathing simulations were observed including increasing aspiration efficiency with decreasing freestream velocity and decreasing aspiration with increasing rotation away from the oncoming wind. These models indicate nasal aspiration in slow moving air occurs only for particles <100 µm. PMID:24665111

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamics Investigation of Human Aspiration in Low Velocity Air: Orientation Effects on Nose-Breathing Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kimberly R.; Anthony, T. Renée

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how particles are inhaled into the human nose is important for developing samplers that measure biologically relevant estimates of exposure in the workplace. While previous computational mouth-breathing investigations of particle aspiration have been conducted in slow moving air, nose breathing still required exploration. Computational fluid dynamics was used to estimate nasal aspiration efficiency for an inhaling humanoid form in low velocity wind speeds (0.1–0.4 m s−1). Breathing was simplified as continuous inhalation through the nose. Fluid flow and particle trajectories were simulated over seven discrete orientations relative to the oncoming wind (0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 135, 180°). Sensitivities of the model simplification and methods were assessed, particularly the placement of the recessed nostril surface and the size of the nose. Simulations identified higher aspiration (13% on average) when compared to published experimental wind tunnel data. Significant differences in aspiration were identified between nose geometry, with the smaller nose aspirating an average of 8.6% more than the larger nose. Differences in fluid flow solution methods accounted for 2% average differences, on the order of methodological uncertainty. Similar trends to mouth-breathing simulations were observed including increasing aspiration efficiency with decreasing freestream velocity and decreasing aspiration with increasing rotation away from the oncoming wind. These models indicate nasal aspiration in slow moving air occurs only for particles <100 µm. PMID:24665111

  8. System for measuring three fluctuating velocity components in a turbulently flowing fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A system is described for measuring fluid velocity in a turbulently flowing fluid including a sensing apparatus for dynamically sensing the mainstream and two orthogonal cross velocity components of the fluid. A transducer operative is included to provide three electrical output signals representative of the velocity components in the mainstream, and in the cross directions. Signal processors can be utilized to derive the Reynolds stress wave and the Reynolds stress.

  9. Comparison of rill flow velocity over frozen and thawed slopes with electrolyte tracer method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yunyun; Lei, Tingwu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Freeze-thaw erosion is the primary soil water erosion form in high altitude and/or high latitude regions. The water flow velocity along an eroding rill over frozen and thawed slopes is vital to understanding of rill erosion hydrodynamics. This study experimentally measured rill flow velocity over frozen and thawed slopes using electrolyte trace method under Pulse Boundary Model. The experiments used three flow rates of 1, 2, and 4 L min-1, three slope gradients of 5°, 10°, and 15°. The temperature of the rill flow water was supplied at 0 °C as controlled with ice-water mixture. Seven sensors were used to measure flow velocity by tracing the solute transport process at 10, 110, 210, 310, 410, 510, and 610 cm distances from the electrolyte injection position. The measured velocity became steady at a distance of about 3 m from the electrolyte injection location, where the effect of the pulse boundary condition on the analytic solution to the partial differential equation becomes negligible. Results showed that flow velocity increased with slope gradient and flow rate on frozen slopes. A significant effect was observed on the steepest slope or at the highest flow rate over the thawed slope, which changed slightly on the gentle slopes and low flow rates. Flow velocity was about 25%, 30%, and 40% higher on the frozen soil than on the thawed slope at 5°, 10°, and 15° slopes and about 30% higher over the frozen slope at all flow rates. This study demonstrates that water over a frozen slope flows much faster than over a thawed slope. This study helps in the study and further understanding of the hydrodynamics of soil erosion and sediment transport behaviors of frozen and thawed slopes.

  10. Direct Measurement of Internal Flow Velocities in a Star-Slot Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Winfred A., Jr.; Jenkins, Rhonald M.; Hengel, John E.; Smith, Andrew W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a cold flow experiment to make direct measurements of the velocity distribution in a model of a solid rocket motor star grain propellant slot. The experimental procedure utilizes a multi-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) and an apparatus for seeding the flow with aluminum particles to determine the velocity components at various discrete locations within the star slot. The test article used in this investigation was a one-tenth scale, cold flow model based on the geometry of the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor head-end section. The results obtained for the direct measurements of velocity are compared to velocities calculated from measured pressure distributions to data obtained from oil smear experiments and flow visualization videos, and to heat transfer calorimeter data.

  11. Optimization and testing of the tomographic method of velocity measurement in the flow volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilsky, A. V.; Lozhkin, V. A.; Markovich, D. M.; Tokarev, M. P.; Shestakov, M. V.

    2011-12-01

    The optic noncontact method of velocity field measurement in the flow volume is considered in this paper for the purposes of hydroaerodynamic experiment. The essence of this method is measurement of particles motion in the flow during short periods between laser pulses. This study offers and implements several algorithmic optimizations, allowing data processing time reduction. It is shown that application of threshold background filtering on the recorded projections (particle images) and fast estimation of initial intensity distribution in the volume allows increasing the speed of tomographic reconstruction algorithm two or three times. Reconstruction accuracy and errors in determination of particle shift were studied in this work using artificial images. The described tomographic method for the velocity field estimation in the flow volume was used for diagnostics of a turbulent submerged jet flowing into a narrow channel. The application of developed approaches in experiment allowed us to obtain spatial distribution of the average velocity field and instantaneous velocity fields in the measurement area.

  12. The Effect of Hemorheologic Factors on Middle Cerebral Artery Blood Flow Velocity in Young Individuals.

    PubMed

    Ameriso, S F; Meiselman, H J; Saraj, A; Fisher, M

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the effect of hemorheologic factors on middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity in 55 healthy individuals aged 18 to 30 years demonstrated an inverse association between mean MCA blood flow velocity and hematocrit (r = -0.27, p < 0.05). This association was largely explained by the effect of whole-blood viscosity. Neither fibrinogen concentration nor plasma viscosity were significantly associated with MCA blood flow velocity in this group; this lack of a fibrinogen association is in contrast to results previously obtained in elderly individuals where an inverse association was observed. These findings thus demonstrate age-dependent differences in the relationship between fibrinogen and MCA blood flow velocity. PMID:27308856

  13. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  14. Transverse vorticity measurements. [to evaluate mean velocity distribution of shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    A technique, involving programmed digital calculations, is proposed for evaluating transverse vorticity in typical laboratory shear flows from an array of four hot-wire probes. The computing scheme successfully recovers the velocity vector information from a wide range of velocity magnitudes and a wide range of pitch angles. It is readily implemented in a batch process mode on a digital computer.

  15. Critical velocity of superfluid helium flow in fine pore filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A.

    1990-03-01

    Membrane filters with porosities of more than 70 pct have been proven to be useful for the fabrication of thermomechanical pumps (fountain effect pumps) with mass fluxes up to 1.7 g/sq cm at about 0.25 bar head of pressure. Different pumps made of 14 mm thick stacks of commercially available Sartorius cellulose nitrate membranes with filtration grades of 200, 50 and 10 nm have been investigated at various temperatures between 1.6 K at the inlet and 2.1 K at the outlet. By analysis of pressure and temperature measurements, it is shown that the chemical potential difference between inlet and outlet is zero up to critical flow rates very close to the peak flow and that it increases steeply when the critical flow is exceeded.

  16. Flow Scales of Influence on the Settling Velocities of Particles with Varying Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Corrine N.; Merchant, Wilmot; Jendrassak, Marek; Limpasuvan, Varavut; Gurka, Roi; Hackett, Erin E.

    2016-01-01

    The settling velocities of natural, synthetic, and industrial particles were measured in a grid turbulence facility using optical measurement techniques. Particle image velocimetry and 2D particle tracking were used to measure the instantaneous velocities of the flow and the particles’ trajectories simultaneously. We find that for particles examined in this study (Rep = 0.4–123), settling velocity is either enhanced or unchanged relative to stagnant flow for the range of investigated turbulence conditions. The smallest particles’ normalized settling velocities exhibited the most consistent trends when plotted versus the Kolmogorov-based Stokes numbers suggesting that the dissipative scales influence their dynamics. In contrast, the mid-sized particles were better characterized with a Stokes number based on the integral time scale. The largest particles were largely unaffected by the flow conditions. Using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), the flow pattern scales are compared to particle trajectory curvature to complement results obtained through dimensional analysis using Stokes numbers. The smallest particles are found to have trajectories with curvatures of similar scale as the small flow scales (higher POD modes) whilst mid-sized particle trajectories had curvatures that were similar to the larger flow patterns (lower POD modes). The curvature trajectories of the largest particles did not correspond to any particular flow pattern scale suggesting that their trajectories were more random. These results provide experimental evidence of the “fast tracking” theory of settling velocity enhancement in turbulence and demonstrate that particles align themselves with flow scales in proportion to their size. PMID:27513958

  17. Flow Scales of Influence on the Settling Velocities of Particles with Varying Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Corrine N; Merchant, Wilmot; Jendrassak, Marek; Limpasuvan, Varavut; Gurka, Roi; Hackett, Erin E

    2016-01-01

    The settling velocities of natural, synthetic, and industrial particles were measured in a grid turbulence facility using optical measurement techniques. Particle image velocimetry and 2D particle tracking were used to measure the instantaneous velocities of the flow and the particles' trajectories simultaneously. We find that for particles examined in this study (Rep = 0.4-123), settling velocity is either enhanced or unchanged relative to stagnant flow for the range of investigated turbulence conditions. The smallest particles' normalized settling velocities exhibited the most consistent trends when plotted versus the Kolmogorov-based Stokes numbers suggesting that the dissipative scales influence their dynamics. In contrast, the mid-sized particles were better characterized with a Stokes number based on the integral time scale. The largest particles were largely unaffected by the flow conditions. Using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), the flow pattern scales are compared to particle trajectory curvature to complement results obtained through dimensional analysis using Stokes numbers. The smallest particles are found to have trajectories with curvatures of similar scale as the small flow scales (higher POD modes) whilst mid-sized particle trajectories had curvatures that were similar to the larger flow patterns (lower POD modes). The curvature trajectories of the largest particles did not correspond to any particular flow pattern scale suggesting that their trajectories were more random. These results provide experimental evidence of the "fast tracking" theory of settling velocity enhancement in turbulence and demonstrate that particles align themselves with flow scales in proportion to their size. PMID:27513958

  18. The velocity field near the orifice of a Helmholtz resonator in grazing flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charwat, A. F.; Walker, B. E.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement of the time-dependent velocities induced inside and outside the opening of acoustically excited, two-dimensional Helmholtz resonator imbedded in a grazing flow are presented. The remarkably clear structure of the perturbation field which evokes a pulsating source and a coherently pulsating vortex-image pair is described. The simple phenomenological "lid-model" which correlates the variation in the components of the acoustic impedance with the velocity of the grazing flow is discussed and extended.

  19. Velocity field measurement in gas-liquid metal two-phase flow with use of PIV and neutron radiography techniques.

    PubMed

    Saito, Y; Mishima, K; Tobita, Y; Suzuki, T; Matsubayashi, M

    2004-10-01

    To establish reasonable safety concepts for the realization of commercial liquid-metal fast breeder reactors, it is indispensable to demonstrate that the release of excessive energy due to re-criticality of molten core could be prevented even if a severe core damage accident took place. Two-phase flow due to the boiling of fuel-steel mixture in the molten core pool has a larger liquid-to-gas density ratio and higher surface tension in comparison with those of ordinary two-phase flows such as air-water flow. In this study, to investigate the effect of the recirculation flow on the bubble behavior, visualization and measurement of nitrogen gas-molten lead bismuth in a rectangular tank was performed by using neutron radiography and particle image velocimetry techniques. Measured flow parameters include flow regime, two-dimensional void distribution, and liquid velocity field in the tank. The present technique is applicable to the measurement of velocity fields and void fraction, and the basic characteristics of gas-liquid metal two-phase mixture were clarified. PMID:15246418

  20. A simple measuring technique of surface flow velocity to analyze the behavior of velocity fields in hydraulic engineering applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellez, Jackson; Gomez, Manuel; Russo, Beniamino; Redondo, Jose M.

    2015-04-01

    An important achievement in hydraulic engineering is the proposal and development of new techniques for the measurement of field velocities in hydraulic problems. The technological advances in digital cameras with high resolution and high speed found in the market, and the advances in digital image processing techniques now provides a tremendous potential to measure and study the behavior of the water surface flows. This technique was applied at the Laboratory of Hydraulics at the Technical University of Catalonia - Barcelona Tech to study the 2D velocity fields in the vicinity of a grate inlet. We used a platform to test grate inlets capacity with dimensions of 5.5 m long and 4 m wide allowing a zone of useful study of 5.5m x 3m, where the width is similar of the urban road lane. The platform allows you to modify the longitudinal slopes from 0% to 10% and transversal slope from 0% to 4%. Flow rates can arrive to 200 l/s. In addition a high resolution camera with 1280 x 1024 pixels resolution with maximum speed of 488 frames per second was used. A novel technique using particle image velocimetry to measure surface flow velocities has been developed and validated with the experimental data from the grate inlets capacity. In this case, the proposed methodology can become a useful tools to understand the velocity fields of the flow approaching the inlet where the traditional measuring equipment have serious problems and limitations. References DigiFlow User Guide. (2012), (June). Russo, B., Gómez, M., & Tellez, J. (2013). Methodology to Estimate the Hydraulic Efficiency of Nontested Continuous Transverse Grates. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 139(10), 864-871. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000625 Teresa Vila (1), Jackson Tellez (1), Jesus Maria Sanchez (2), Laura Sotillos (1), Margarita Diez (3, 1), and J., & (1), M. R. (2014). Diffusion in fractal wakes and convective thermoelectric flows. Geophysical Research Abstracts - EGU General Assembly 2014

  1. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hussain, Abadalsalam T.

    2014-12-01

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  2. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, M. N. K. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Zuradzman, M. Razlan E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Hazry, D. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Khairunizam, Wan E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Shahriman, A. B. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Yaacob, S. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Ahmed, S. Faiz E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; and others

    2014-12-04

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  3. Laser sheet light flow visualization for evaluating room air flowsfrom Registers

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Claret, Valerie; Smith, Brian

    2006-04-01

    Forced air heating and cooling systems and whole house ventilation systems deliver air to individual rooms in a house via supply registers located on walls ceilings or floors; and occasionally less straightforward locations like toe-kicks below cabinets. Ideally, the air velocity out of the registers combined with the turbulence of the flow, vectoring of air by register vanes and geometry of register placement combine to mix the supply air within the room. A particular issue that has been raised recently is the performance of multiple capacity and air flow HVAC systems. These systems vary the air flow rate through the distribution system depending on the system load, or if operating in a ventilation rather than a space conditioning mode. These systems have been developed to maximize equipment efficiency, however, the high efficiency ratings do not include any room mixing effects. At lower air flow rates, there is the possibility that room air will be poorly mixed, leading to thermal stratification and reduced comfort for occupants. This can lead to increased energy use as the occupants adjust the thermostat settings to compensate and parts of the conditioned space have higher envelope temperature differences than for the well mixed case. In addition, lack of comfort can be a barrier to market acceptance of these higher efficiency systems To investigate the effect on room mixing of reduced air flow rates requires the measurement of mixing of supply air with room air throughout the space to be conditioned. This is a particularly difficult exercise if we want to determine the transient performance of the space conditioning system. Full scale experiments can be done in special test chambers, but the spatial resolution required to fully examine the mixing problem is usually limited by the sheer number of thermal sensors required. Current full-scale laboratory testing is therefore severely limited in its resolution. As an alternative, we used a water-filled scale model

  4. Investigation on Plasma Jet Flow Phenomena During DC Air Arc Motion in Bridge-Type Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Guofu; Bo, Kai; Chen, Mo; Zhou, Xue; Qiao, Xinlei

    2016-05-01

    Arc plasma jet flow in the air was investigated under a bridge-type contacts in a DC 270 V resistive circuit. We characterized the arc plasma jet flow appearance at different currents by using high-speed photography, and two polished contacts were used to search for the relationship between roughness and plasma jet flow. Then, to make the nature of arc plasma jet flow phenomena clear, a simplified model based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory was established and calculated. The simulated DC arc plasma was presented with the temperature distribution and the current density distribution. Furthermore, the calculated arc flow velocity field showed that the circular vortex was an embodiment of the arc plasma jet flow progress. The combined action of volume force and contact surface was the main reason of the arc jet flow. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51307030, 51277038)

  5. Laminar burning velocities and flame instabilities of butanol isomers-air mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Xiaolei; Huang, Zuohua; Wu, Si; Li, Qianqian

    2010-12-15

    Laminar burning velocities and flame instabilities of the butanol-air premixed flames and its isomers are investigated using the spherically expanding flame with central ignition at initial temperature of 428 K and initial pressures of 0.10 MPa, 0.25 MPa, 0.50 MPa and 0.75 MPa. Laminar burning velocities and sensitivity factor of n-butanol-air mixtures are computed using a newly developed kinetic mechanism. Unstretched laminar burning velocity, adiabatic temperature, Lewis number, Markstein length, critical flame radius and Peclet number are obtained over a wide range of equivalence ratios. Effect of molecular structure on laminar burning velocity of the isomers of butanol is analyzed from the aspect of C-H bond dissociation energy. Study indicates that although adiabatic flame temperatures of the isomers of butanol are the same, laminar burning velocities give an obvious difference among the isomers of butanol. This indicates that molecular structure has a large influence on laminar burning velocities of the isomers of butanol. Branching (-CH3) will decrease laminar burning velocity. Hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the terminal carbon atoms gives higher laminar burning velocity compared to that attaching to the inner carbon atoms. Calculated dissociation bond energies show that terminal C-H bonds have larger bond energies than that of inner C-H bonds. n-Butanol, no branching and with hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the terminal carbon atom, gives the largest laminar burning velocity. tert-Butanol, with highly branching and hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the inner carbon atom, gives the lowest laminar burning velocity. Laminar burning velocities of iso-butanol and sec-butanol are between those of n-butanol and tert-butanol. The instant of transition to cellularity is experimentally determined for the isomers of butanol and subsequently interpreted on the basis of hydrodynamic and diffusion-thermal instabilities. Little effect

  6. The residual zonal flow in tokamak plasmas toroidally rotating at arbitrary velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Deng

    2014-08-15

    Zonal flows, initially driven by ion-temperature-gradient turbulence, may evolve due to the neoclassic polarization in a collisionless tokamak plasma. In our previous work [D. Zhou, Nucl. Fusion 54, 042002 (2014)], the residual zonal flow in a tokamak plasma rotating toroidally at sonic speed is found to have the same form as that of a static plasma. In the present work, the form of the residual zonal flow is presented for tokamak plasmas rotating toroidally at arbitrary velocity. The gyro-kinetic equation is analytically solved for low speed rotation to give the expression of residual zonal flows, and the expression is then generalized for cases with arbitrary rotating velocity through interpolation. The zonal flow level decreases as the rotating velocity increases. The numerical evaluation is in good agreement with the former simulation result for high aspect ratio tokamaks.

  7. Noninvasive transthoracic and transesophageal Doppler echocardiographic measurements of human coronary blood flow velocity: In vitro flow phantom validation.

    PubMed

    Greene, E R

    2010-01-01

    Coronary angiography is limited in assessing the hemodynamic significance of a coronary lesion or the state of the coronary microcirculation. Noninvasive transthoracic (TTE) and transesophageal (TEE) Doppler echocardiography have been used to measure coronary blood flow velocity and coronary flow reserve and thus the physiology of the coronary vasculature (normal, stable or unstable lesions). A fundamental, in vitro validation of these methods with a tissue and blood mimicking flow phantom has not been reported. Accordingly, Bland-Altman 95% confidence levels for precision (repeated measures) and accuracy (comparison with time collection) were determined for both TTE and TEE measurements of simulated coronary diastolic blood velocities in 2 mm and 4 mm vessels at the normal in vivo depths of 40 mm and 60 mm. The Doppler angle was set at 45 degrees and flow velocities were varied within a normal in vivo range of 0- 150 cm/s. Confidence levels for precisions and accuracies were similar between TTE and TEE and ranged from ± 6 cm/s to ± 13 cm/s or approximately 10-15% over the range of the measured velocities. These in vitro results in a controlled flow phantom suggest that technically adequate TTE and TEE can be used to reliably measure epicardial coronary conduit artery blood flow velocities. PMID:21096876

  8. Characteristics of velocity pulsations in a turbulent recirculated melt flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirpo, M.; Jakovics, A.; Baake, E.

    2005-06-01

    For the modern industrial applications it is necessary to develop and investigate metallic and oxide materials of high purity or predicted composition. Such materials can be produced by the induction melting method, especially in inductor and cold crucible furnaces. Measurements taken in experimental furnaces show that the velocity pulsations dominate for the heat and mass exchange in the melt, especially in a zone between typical upper and lower eddies. Understanding of the pulsation mechanism and development of models to estimate the exchange characteristics are very important for the development and optimisation of industrial furnaces. The authors present experimental results and propose a simple 3D large eddy simulation (LES) model of the induction furnace that can be adapted to qualitative analysis of experimental data. Tables 2, Figs 13, Refs 7.

  9. Measurement of the flow velocity in unmagnetized plasmas by counter propagating ion-acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.X.; Li Yangfang; Xiao Delong; Li Jingju; Li Yiren

    2005-06-15

    The diffusion velocity of an inhomogeneous unmagnetized plasma is measured by means of the phase velocities of ion-acoustic waves propagating along and against the direction of the plasma flow. Combined with the measurement of the plasma density distributions by usual Langmuir probes, the method is applied to measure the ambipolar diffusion coefficient and effective ion collision frequency in inhomogeneous plasmas formed in an asymmetrically discharged double-plasma device. Experimental results show that the measured flow velocities, diffusion coefficients, and effective collision frequencies are in agreement with ion-neutral collision dominated diffusion theory.

  10. Velocity and temperature profiles in near-critical nitrogen flowing past a horizontal flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Boundary layer velocity and temperature profiles were measured for nitrogen near its thermodynamic critical point flowing past a horizontal flat plate. The results were compared measurements made for vertically upward flow. The boundary layer temperatures ranged from below to above the thermodynamic critical temperature. For wall temperatures below the thermodynamic critical temperature there was little variation between the velocity and temperature profiles in three orientations. In all three orientations the point of crossing into the critical temperature region is marked by a significant flattening of the velocity and temperature profiles and also a decrease in heat transfer coefficient.

  11. Three-dimensional reconstruction of cardiac flows based on multi-planar velocity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falahatpisheh, Ahmad; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Kheradvar, Arash

    2014-11-01

    Measurement of the three-dimensional flow field inside the cardiac chambers has proven to be a challenging task. This is mainly due to the fact that generalized full-volume velocimetry techniques cannot be easily implemented to the heart chambers. In addition, the rapid pace of the events in the heart does not allow for accurate real-time flow measurements in 3D using imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging, which neglects the transient variations of the flow due to averaging of the flow over multiple heartbeats. In order to overcome these current limitations, we introduce a multi-planar velocity reconstruction approach that can characterize 3D incompressible flows based on the reconstruction of 2D velocity fields. Here, two-dimensional, two-component velocity fields acquired on multiple perpendicular planes are reconstructed into a 3D velocity field through Kriging interpolation and by imposing the incompressibility constraint. Subsequently, the scattered experimental data are projected into a divergence-free vector field space using a fractional step approach. We validate the method in exemplary 3D flows, including the Hill's spherical vortex and a numerically simulated flow downstream of a 3D orifice. During the process of validation, different signal-to-noise ratios are introduced to the flow field, and the method's performance is assessed accordingly. The results show that as the signal-to-noise ratio decreases, the corrected velocity field significantly improves. The method is also applied to the experimental flow inside a mock model of the heart's right ventricle. Taking advantage of the periodicity of the flow, multiple 2D velocity fields in multiple perpendicular planes at different locations of the mock model are measured while being phase-locked for the 3D reconstruction. The results suggest the metamorphosis of the original transvalvular vortex, which forms downstream of the inlet valve during the early filling phase of the right

  12. Synchrotron microimaging technique for measuring the velocity fields of real blood flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-Joon; Kim, Guk Bae

    2005-03-15

    Angiography and Doppler methods used for diagnosing vascular diseases give information on the shape of blood vessels and pointwise blood speed but do not provide detailed information on the flow fields inside the blood vessels. In this study, we developed a method for visualizing blood flow by using coherent synchrotron x rays. This method, which does not require the addition of any contrast agent or tracer particles, visualizes the flow pattern of blood by enhancing the diffraction and interference characteristics of the blood cells. This was achieved by optimizing the sample- (blood) to-detector (charge-coupled device camera) distance and the sample thickness. The proposed method was used to extract quantitative velocity field information from blood flowing inside an opaque microchannel by applying a two-frame particle image velocimetry algorithm to enhanced x-ray images of the blood flow. The measured velocity field data showed a flow structure typical of flow in a macrochannel.

  13. Fish responses to flow velocity and turbulence in relation to size, sex and parasite load

    PubMed Central

    Hockley, F. A.; Wilson, C. A. M. E.; Brew, A.; Cable, J.

    2014-01-01

    Riverine fish are subjected to heterogeneous flow velocities and turbulence and may use this to their advantage by selecting regions that balance energy expenditure for station holding while maximizing energy gain through feeding opportunities. This study investigated microhabitat selection by guppies Poecilia reticulata in terms of flow characteristics generated by hemisphere boulders in an open channel flume. Velocity and turbulence influenced the variation in swimming behaviour with respect to size, sex and parasite intensity. With increasing body length, fish swam further and more frequently between boulder regions. Larger guppies spent more time in the areas of high-velocity and low-turbulence regions beside the boulders, whereas smaller guppies frequented the low-velocity and high-turbulence regions directly behind the boulders. Male guppies selected the regions of low velocity, indicating possible reduced swimming ability owing to hydrodynamic drag imposed by their fins. With increasing Gyrodactylus turnbulli burden, fish spent more time in regions with moderate velocity and lowest turbulent kinetic energy which were the most spatially and temporally homogeneous in terms of velocity and turbulence. These findings highlight the importance of heterogeneous flow conditions in river channel design owing to the behavioural variability within a species in response to velocity and turbulence. PMID:24284893

  14. Velocity measurements of low Reynolds number tube flow using fiber-optic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, J.C.

    1993-03-01

    In 1988 Nielsen started work to measure the spatial variability of the mass flux vector being transported in a porous medium. To measure the spatial variability of the mass flux vector, the spatial variability of its components(velocity, concentration) must be measured. Nielsen was successful in measuring the pore level concentration at many different pores and in verifying the assumption that a nonuniform concentration field exists within the mixing zone between two miscible fluids. However, Nielsen was unable to conduct the necessary pore level velocity measurements needed. Nielsen's work is being continued and a probe is being developed that will measure both velocity and concentration components at pore level. The probe is essentially the same probe used to make the pore level concentration measurements with added capabilities needed to make the velocity measurements. This probe has several design variables, dealing primarily with the velocity component, that need further investigation. The research presented in this thesis investigates these parameters by performing experiments in a capillary tube. The tube is a controlled system where the velocity of the fluid can be determined from the volumetric flow rate using Poiseuille's solution for viscous flow. Also, a statistically based relationship between the velocity measured with the probe and the velocity determined from the volumetric flow rate has been developed.

  15. Velocity measurements of low Reynolds number tube flow using fiber-optic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, J.C.

    1993-03-01

    In 1988 Nielsen started work to measure the spatial variability of the mass flux vector being transported in a porous medium. To measure the spatial variability of the mass flux vector, the spatial variability of its components(velocity, concentration) must be measured. Nielsen was successful in measuring the pore level concentration at many different pores and in verifying the assumption that a nonuniform concentration field exists within the mixing zone between two miscible fluids. However, Nielsen was unable to conduct the necessary pore level velocity measurements needed. Nielsen`s work is being continued and a probe is being developed that will measure both velocity and concentration components at pore level. The probe is essentially the same probe used to make the pore level concentration measurements with added capabilities needed to make the velocity measurements. This probe has several design variables, dealing primarily with the velocity component, that need further investigation. The research presented in this thesis investigates these parameters by performing experiments in a capillary tube. The tube is a controlled system where the velocity of the fluid can be determined from the volumetric flow rate using Poiseuille`s solution for viscous flow. Also, a statistically based relationship between the velocity measured with the probe and the velocity determined from the volumetric flow rate has been developed.

  16. Fish responses to flow velocity and turbulence in relation to size, sex and parasite load.

    PubMed

    Hockley, F A; Wilson, C A M E; Brew, A; Cable, J

    2014-02-01

    Riverine fish are subjected to heterogeneous flow velocities and turbulence and may use this to their advantage by selecting regions that balance energy expenditure for station holding while maximizing energy gain through feeding opportunities. This study investigated microhabitat selection by guppies Poecilia reticulata in terms of flow characteristics generated by hemisphere boulders in an open channel flume. Velocity and turbulence influenced the variation in swimming behaviour with respect to size, sex and parasite intensity. With increasing body length, fish swam further and more frequently between boulder regions. Larger guppies spent more time in the areas of high-velocity and low-turbulence regions beside the boulders, whereas smaller guppies frequented the low-velocity and high-turbulence regions directly behind the boulders. Male guppies selected the regions of low velocity, indicating possible reduced swimming ability owing to hydrodynamic drag imposed by their fins. With increasing Gyrodactylus turnbulli burden, fish spent more time in regions with moderate velocity and lowest turbulent kinetic energy which were the most spatially and temporally homogeneous in terms of velocity and turbulence. These findings highlight the importance of heterogeneous flow conditions in river channel design owing to the behavioural variability within a species in response to velocity and turbulence. PMID:24284893

  17. Transient flow of highly concentrated suspensions investigated using the ultrasound velocity profiler pressure difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouriev (Ur'ev), Boris; Windhab, Erich

    2003-11-01

    In the present work, the transient pressure driven shear flow of highly concentrated suspensions was investigated. The authors applied a novel Doppler-based ultrasound velocity profiler (Met-Flow SA)-pressure difference (UVP-PD) methodology (Ouriev B 2000 PhD Thesis Zurich ISBN: 3-905609-11-8, Ouriev B and Windhab E 2002 J. Exp. Fluids 32 204-11), for the investigation of concentrated suspensions in steady and transient flows. Model suspensions with two different solid phase concentrations and fluid matrixes were analysed in shear steady flow at different volumetric flow rates. Transient flow was initiated by abrupt flow interruption. Simultaneous recording of the pressure gradient (Windhab E 1986 Thesis VDI) and real time flow velocity profiles enables analyses of transient rheological flow properties. Both velocity and rheological information were simultaneously measured on-line and evaluated off-line. The rheological characteristics of the suspensions in transient flow are compared with those in steady flow and conclusions are drawn.

  18. Optimization and investigation of the effect of velocity distribution of air curtains on the performance of food refrigerated display cabinets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, XueHong; Chang, ZhiJuan; Ma, QiuYang; Lu, YanLi; Yin, XueMei

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on improving the performance of the vertical open refrigerated display cabinets (VORDC) by optimizing the structure of deflector, which is affected by inlet velocity and velocity distribution of air curtains. The results show that the temperature of products located at the front and at the rear reduces as the increases of inlet velocity of air curtains. The increase of the inlet velocity of air curtains can strengthen the disturbance inside the VORDC, and also decrease the temperature of products inside the VORDC; the increase of the outer velocity of air curtain will exacerbate the disturbance outside the VORDC and decrease air curtain's performance. The present study can provide a theoretical foundation for the design of VORDC.

  19. Effects of tangential velocity distribution on flow stability in a draft tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Huashu; Niu, Lin; Cao, Shuliang

    2014-10-01

    Numerical simulations of the flow in the draft tube of a Francis turbine are carried out in order to elucidate the effects of tangential velocity on flow stability. Influence of the location of the maximum tangential velocity is explored considering the equality of the total energy at the inlet of the draft tube. It is found that the amplitude of the pressure fluctuation decreases when the location of the maximum of the tangential velocity moves from the centre to the wall on the cross section. Thus, the stability of the flow in the draft tube increases with the moving of the location of the maximum tangential velocity. However, the relative hydraulic loss increases and the recovery coefficient of the draft tube decreases slightly.

  20. Water velocity and the nature of critical flow in large rapids on the Colorado River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magirl, C.S.; Gartner, J.W.; Smart, G.M.; Webb, R.H.

    2009-01-01

     Rapids are an integral part of bedrock-controlled rivers, influencing aquatic ecology, geomorphology, and recreational value. Flow measurements in rapids and high-gradient rivers are uncommon because of technical difficulties associated with positioning and operating sufficiently robust instruments. In the current study, detailed velocity, water surface, and bathymetric data were collected within rapids on the Colorado River in eastern Utah. With the water surface survey, it was found that shoreline-based water surface surveys may misrepresent the water surface slope along the centerline of a rapid. Flow velocities were measured with an ADCP and an electronic pitot-static tube. Integrating multiple measurements, the ADCP returned velocity data from the entire water column, even in sections of high water velocity. The maximum mean velocity measured with the ADCP was 3.7 m/s. The pitot-static tube, while capable of only point measurements, quantified velocity 0.39 m below the surface. The maximum mean velocity measured with the pitot tube was 5.2 m/s, with instantaneous velocities up to 6.5 m/s. Analysis of the data showed that flow was subcritical throughout all measured rapids with a maximum measured Froude number of 0.7 in the largest measured rapids. Froude numbers were highest at the entrance of a given rapid, then decreased below the first breaking waves. In the absence of detailed bathymetric and velocity data, the Froude number in the fastest-flowing section of a rapid was estimated from near-surface velocity and depth soundings alone.

  1. Proposed method for reconstructing velocity profiles using a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, László E.; Lucas, Gary P.; Zhang, Zhichao

    2014-07-01

    An analytical method is developed for the reconstruction of velocity profiles using measured potential distributions obtained around the boundary of a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM). The method is based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and is implemented in Matlab. The method assumes the velocity profile in a section of a pipe as a superposition of polynomials up to sixth order. Each polynomial component is defined along a specific direction in the plane of the pipe section. For a potential distribution obtained in a uniform magnetic field, this direction is not unique for quadratic and higher-order components; thus, multiple possible solutions exist for the reconstructed velocity profile. A procedure for choosing the optimum velocity profile is proposed. It is applicable for single-phase or two-phase flows, and requires measurement of the potential distribution in a non-uniform magnetic field. The potential distribution in this non-uniform magnetic field is also calculated for the possible solutions using weight values. Then, the velocity profile with the calculated potential distribution which is closest to the measured one provides the optimum solution. The reliability of the method is first demonstrated by reconstructing an artificial velocity profile defined by polynomial functions. Next, velocity profiles in different two-phase flows, based on results from the literature, are used to define the input velocity fields. In all cases, COMSOL Multiphysics is used to model the physical specifications of the EMFM and to simulate the measurements; thus, COMSOL simulations produce the potential distributions on the internal circumference of the flow pipe. These potential distributions serve as inputs for the analytical method. The reconstructed velocity profiles show satisfactory agreement with the input velocity profiles. The method described in this paper is most suitable for stratified flows and is not applicable to axisymmetric flows in

  2. Particle velocity and stress gage measurements in spherical diverging flow

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.B.; Stout, R.B.

    1987-03-01

    Chemical explosions were used to generate spherically diverging stress waves in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Piezoresistance gages of several different designs were placed in the PMMA radially from the spherical energy source. Two basic types of piezoresistance gages were used. One type was placed on backing material and then glued directly to the PMMA while the other type was placed on backing material and then enclosed in a fluid cavity which was attached to the PMMA. Gages were oriented normal to the direction of the shock front. In order to interpret the piezoresistance gage measurements and to obtain a complete set of data for numerical calculations, particle velocity was also measured at several radial positions from the explosion. In addition to different ytterbium gage designs, a triple material gage that contained ytterbium, manganin, and constant an foils was tested. This gage provided three independent resistivity history signals as output, one from each material. Results from an analysis of piezoresistance gage response in a multicomponent stress-strain field compared well with the experimental measurements for the triple material gage. 23 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Spatially-Resolved Velocity Measurements in Steady, High-Speed Reacting Flows Using Laser-Induced OH Fluorescence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavuhn, Kurt G.

    The theoretical development and calibration of a nonintrusive, high-resolution, optical flowfield-diagnostic technique utilizing OH laser-induced fluorescence (OH LIF) for the measurement of velocity in steady, high-speed, reacting flows is reported. The particular high-speed, reacting flows of interest are those occurring in supersonic combustors for proposed hypersonic flight vehicles. The theory of the OH LIF strategy employed in this work is described, with emphasis on the optimization of the strategy for quantitative velocity measurements. A simplified model is derived for the calculation of expected signal levels from pulsed, narrow-linewidth, (1,0) band excitation of OH in flames when collecting filtered (1,1) and (0,0) band fluorescence with a gated detector. Several illumination techniques are presented for measuring the Doppler shift of the OH LIF while eliminating systematic errors. A unique reacting underexpanded jet was constructed for the calibration of the OH LIF velocity measurement technique over a wide range of flow conditions. A complete analysis of the distribution of flow properties in the jet flowfield is presented, including results from a full Navier-Stokes calculation with finite -rate chemistry. Comparisons of results from pointwise OH LIF velocity measurements along the centerline and planar OH LIF velocity measurements along the central plane of the reacting underexpanded jet with the numerical solution demonstrate the resolution, range, and accuracy of the technique. Measured and calculated velocities in the supersonic jet core agree on average to within +/-1.3% for the pointwise measurements and +/-2.2% for the planar measurements. The uncertainty (2 sigma) in the pointwise velocity measurements in the jet core was on average +/-6.0% for a single measurement and +/-3.5% for the average value of three scans. For the planar velocity measurements in the jet core, the uncertainty (2 sigma) was on average +/-4.9% for a single measurement

  4. A Hypothetical Burning-Velocity Formula for Very Lean Hydrogen-Air Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Forman; Williams, Forman A; Grcar, Joseph F

    2008-06-30

    Very lean hydrogen-air mixtures experience strong diffusive-thermal types of cellular instabilities that tend to increase the laminar burning velocity above the value that applies to steady, planar laminar flames that are homogeneous in transverse directions. Flame balls constitute an extreme limit of evolution of cellular flames. To account qualitatively for the ultimate effect of diffusive-thermal instability, a model is proposed in which the flame is a steadily propagating, planar, hexagonal, close-packed array of flame balls, each burning as if it were an isolated, stationary, ideal flame ball in an infinite, quiescent atmosphere. An expression for the laminar burning velocity is derived from this model, which theoretically may provide an upper limit for the experimental burning velocity.

  5. Measurements of Flat-Flame Velocities of Diethyl Ether in Air

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Fiona; Metcalfe, Wayne K.; Dirrenberger, Patricia; Herbinet, Olivier; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Curran, Henry J.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents new adiabatic laminar burning velocities of diethyl ether in air, measured on a flat-flame burner using the heat flux method. The experimental pressure was 1 atm and temperatures of the fresh gas mixture ranged from 298 to 398 K. Flame velocities were recorded at equivalence ratios from 0.55 to 1.60, for which stabilization of the flame was possible. The maximum laminar burning velocity was found at an equivalence ratio of 1.10 or 1.15 at different temperatures. These results are compared with experimental and computational data reported in the literature. The data reported in this study deviate significantly from previous experimental results and are well-predicted by a previously reported chemical kinetic mechanism. PMID:23710107

  6. Phase 2: HGM air flow tests in support of HEX vane investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, G. B., Jr.; Steele, L. L.; Eisenhart, D. W.

    1993-01-01

    Following the start of SSME certification testing for the Pratt and Whitney Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD) High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP), cracking of the leading edge of the inner HEX vane was experienced. The HEX vane, at the inlet of the oxidizer bowl in the Hot Gas Manifold (HGM), accepts the HPOTP turbine discharge flow and turns it toward the Gaseous Oxidizer Heat Exchanger (GOX HEX) coil. The cracking consistently initiated over a specific circumferential region of the hex vane, with other circumferential locations appearing with increased run time. Since cracking had not to date been seen with the baseline HPOTP, a fluid-structural interaction involving the ATD HPOTP turbine exit flowfield and the HEX inner vane was suspected. As part of NASA contract NAS8-36801, Pratt and Whitney conducted air flow tests of the ATD HPOTP turbine turnaround duct flowpath in the MSFC Phase 2 HGM air flow model. These tests included HEX vane strain gages and additional fluctuating pressure gages in the turnaround duct and HEX vane flowpath area. Three-dimensional flow probe measurements at two stations downstream of the turbine simulator exit plane were also made. Modifications to the HPOTP turbine simulator investigated the effects on turbine exit flow profile and velocity components, with the objective of reproducing flow conditions calculated for the actual ATD HPOTP hardware. Testing was done at the MSFC SSME Dynamic Fluid Air Flow (Dual-Leg) Facility, at air supply pressures between 50 and 250 psia. Combinations of turbine exit Mach number and pressure level were run to investigate the effect of flow regime. Information presented includes: (1) Descriptions of turbine simulator modifications to produce the desired flow environment; (2) Types and locations for instrumentation added to the flow model for improved diagnostic capability; (3) Evaluation of the effect of changes to the turbine simulator flowpath on the turbine exit flow environment; and (4

  7. Phase 2: HGM air flow tests in support of HEX vane investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, G. B., Jr.; Steele, L. L.; Eisenhart, D. W.

    1993-07-01

    Following the start of SSME certification testing for the Pratt and Whitney Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD) High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP), cracking of the leading edge of the inner HEX vane was experienced. The HEX vane, at the inlet of the oxidizer bowl in the Hot Gas Manifold (HGM), accepts the HPOTP turbine discharge flow and turns it toward the Gaseous Oxidizer Heat Exchanger (GOX HEX) coil. The cracking consistently initiated over a specific circumferential region of the hex vane, with other circumferential locations appearing with increased run time. Since cracking had not to date been seen with the baseline HPOTP, a fluid-structural interaction involving the ATD HPOTP turbine exit flowfield and the HEX inner vane was suspected. As part of NASA contract NAS8-36801, Pratt and Whitney conducted air flow tests of the ATD HPOTP turbine turnaround duct flowpath in the MSFC Phase 2 HGM air flow model. These tests included HEX vane strain gages and additional fluctuating pressure gages in the turnaround duct and HEX vane flowpath area. Three-dimensional flow probe measurements at two stations downstream of the turbine simulator exit plane were also made. Modifications to the HPOTP turbine simulator investigated the effects on turbine exit flow profile and velocity components, with the objective of reproducing flow conditions calculated for the actual ATD HPOTP hardware. Testing was done at the MSFC SSME Dynamic Fluid Air Flow (Dual-Leg) Facility, at air supply pressures between 50 and 250 psia. Combinations of turbine exit Mach number and pressure level were run to investigate the effect of flow regime. Information presented includes: (1) Descriptions of turbine simulator modifications to produce the desired flow environment; (2) Types and locations for instrumentation added to the flow model for improved diagnostic capability; (3) Evaluation of the effect of changes to the turbine simulator flowpath on the turbine exit flow environment; and (4

  8. Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates

    SciTech Connect

    Goolsby, G.K.

    1995-01-04

    The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems.

  9. Effects of shape, size, and air velocity on entry loss factors of suction hoods.

    PubMed

    McLoone, H E; Guffey, S E; Curran, J P

    1993-03-01

    This study further elucidated the effects of air velocity, aspect ratio (face length to face width), and area ratio (face area to duct area) on entry loss factors of suction hoods. A full scale ventilation system was utilized to determine the entry loss factor attributable to each of 20 square and rectangular hoods with a 90 degrees included angle. Static and velocity pressures were measured using Pitot tubes connected by tubing to piezo-resistive pressure transducers and inclined tube manometers. The entry loss factor, Fh, is the ratio of hood total pressure loss to mean velocity pressure. Values of Fh determined in this study ranged from 0.17-1.85. The values of Fh were a hyperbolic function of area ratio with a region rapidly increasing change for area ratios less than 5. For area ratios greater than 5, the values of Fh approached an asymptote of 0.17. Among hoods with a given area ratio (e.g., 2.5, 5.1, or 10.2), values of Fh were independent of aspect ratio. To a limited extent, Fh values decreased as mean air velocities increased from 319-1770 m/min (1046-5807 feet/min). PMID:8447256

  10. An Empirical Model of Human Aspiration in Low-Velocity Air Using CFD Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, T. Renée; Anderson, Kimberly R.

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to investigate the aspiration efficiency of the human head in low velocities to examine whether the current inhaled particulate mass (IPM) sampling criterion matches the aspiration efficiency of an inhaling human in airflows common to worker exposures. Data from both mouth and nose inhalation, averaged to assess omnidirectional aspiration efficiencies, were compiled and used to generate a unifying model to relate particle size to aspiration efficiency of the human head. Multiple linear regression was used to generate an empirical model to estimate human aspiration efficiency and included particle size as well as breathing and freestream velocities as dependent variables. A new set of simulated mouth and nose breathing aspiration efficiencies was generated and used to test the fit of empirical models. Further, empirical relationships between test conditions and CFD estimates of aspiration were compared to experimental data from mannequin studies, including both calm-air and ultra-low velocity experiments. While a linear relationship between particle size and aspiration is reported in calm air studies, the CFD simulations identified a more reasonable fit using the square of particle aerodynamic diameter, which better addressed the shape of the efficiency curve’s decline toward zero for large particles. The ultimate goal of this work was to develop an empirical model that incorporates real-world variations in critical factors associated with particle aspiration to inform low-velocity modifications to the inhalable particle sampling criterion. PMID:25438035

  11. Impact of air velocity on the development and detection of small coal fires

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, M.R.

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted experiments in the intermediate-scale fire tunnel to assess the influence of air velocity on the gas production and smoke characteristics during smoldering and flaming combustion of Pittsburgh seam coal and its impact on the detection of the combustion products. On-line determinations of mass and number smoke particles, light transmission, and various gas concentrations were made. From these experimental values, generation rates, heat-release rates, production constants, particle sizes, obscuration rates, and optical densities were calculated. Ventilation has a direct effect on fire detection and development. The results indicate, that in general, increased air velocity lengthened the onset of smoke and flaming ignition, increased the fire intensity, but decreased the gas and smoke concentrations. Increased air velocity also lengthened the response times of all the fire sensors tested. Rapid and reliable detector response at this most crucial stage of fire development can increase the possibility that appropriate miner response (fire suppression tactics or evacuation) can be completed before toxic smoke spreads throughout the mine. 9 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Novel Optical Technique Developed and Tested for Measuring Two-Point Velocity Correlations in Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Goldburg, Walter I.

    2002-01-01

    A novel technique for characterizing turbulent flows was developed and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The work is being done in collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh, through a grant from the NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program. The technique we are using, Homodyne Correlation Spectroscopy (HCS), is a laser-light-scattering technique that measures the Doppler frequency shift of light scattered from microscopic particles in the fluid flow. Whereas Laser Doppler Velocimetry gives a local (single-point) measurement of the fluid velocity, the HCS technique measures correlations between fluid velocities at two separate points in the flow at the same instant of time. Velocity correlations in the flow field are of fundamental interest to turbulence researchers and are of practical importance in many engineering applications, such as aeronautics.

  13. Molecular Rayleigh Scattering Techniques Developed for Measuring Gas Flow Velocity, Density, Temperature, and Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke, Amy F.; Seasholtz, Richard G.; Elam, Kristie A.; Panda, Jayanta

    2005-01-01

    Nonintrusive optical point-wise measurement techniques utilizing the principles of molecular Rayleigh scattering have been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to obtain time-averaged information about gas velocity, density, temperature, and turbulence, or dynamic information about gas velocity and density in unseeded flows. These techniques enable measurements that are necessary for validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational aeroacoustic (CAA) codes. Dynamic measurements allow the calculation of power spectra for the various flow properties. This type of information is currently being used in jet noise studies, correlating sound pressure fluctuations with velocity and density fluctuations to determine noise sources in jets. These nonintrusive techniques are particularly useful in supersonic flows, where seeding the flow with particles is not an option, and where the environment is too harsh for hot-wire measurements.

  14. A real-time device for converting Doppler ultrasound audio signals into fluid flow velocity.

    PubMed

    Herr, Michael D; Hogeman, Cynthia S; Koch, Dennis W; Krishnan, Anandi; Momen, Afsana; Leuenberger, Urs A

    2010-05-01

    A Doppler signal converter has been developed to facilitate cardiovascular and exercise physiology research. This device directly converts audio signals from a clinical Doppler ultrasound imaging system into a real-time analog signal that accurately represents blood flow velocity and is easily recorded by any standard data acquisition system. This real-time flow velocity signal, when simultaneously recorded with other physiological signals of interest, permits the observation of transient flow response to experimental interventions in a manner not possible when using standard Doppler imaging devices. This converted flow velocity signal also permits a more robust and less subjective analysis of data in a fraction of the time required by previous analytic methods. This signal converter provides this capability inexpensively and requires no modification of either the imaging or data acquisition system. PMID:20173048

  15. A real-time device for converting Doppler ultrasound audio signals into fluid flow velocity

    PubMed Central

    Hogeman, Cynthia S.; Koch, Dennis W.; Krishnan, Anandi; Momen, Afsana; Leuenberger, Urs A.

    2010-01-01

    A Doppler signal converter has been developed to facilitate cardiovascular and exercise physiology research. This device directly converts audio signals from a clinical Doppler ultrasound imaging system into a real-time analog signal that accurately represents blood flow velocity and is easily recorded by any standard data acquisition system. This real-time flow velocity signal, when simultaneously recorded with other physiological signals of interest, permits the observation of transient flow response to experimental interventions in a manner not possible when using standard Doppler imaging devices. This converted flow velocity signal also permits a more robust and less subjective analysis of data in a fraction of the time required by previous analytic methods. This signal converter provides this capability inexpensively and requires no modification of either the imaging or data acquisition system. PMID:20173048

  16. Velocity profiles and plug zones in a free surface viscoplastic flow : experimental study and comparison to shallow flow models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freydier, Perrine; Chambon, Guillaume; Naaim, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Rheological studies concerning natural muddy debris flows have shown that these materials can be modelled as non-Newtonian viscoplastic fluids. These complex flows are generally represented using models based on a depth-integrated approach (Shallow Water) that take into account closure terms depending on the shape of the velocity profile. But to date, there is poor knowledge about the shape of velocity profiles and the position of the interface between sheared and unsheared regions (plug) in these flows, especially in the vicinity of the front. In this research, the internal dynamics of a free-surface viscoplastic flow down an inclined channel is investigated and compared to the predictions of a Shallow Water model based on the lubrication approximation. Experiments are conducted in an inclined channel whose bottom is constituted by an upward-moving conveyor belt with controlled velocity, which allows generating and observing gravity-driven stationary surges in the laboratory frame. Carbopol microgel has been used as a homogeneous and transparent viscoplastic fluid. High-resolution measurements of velocity field is performed through optical velocimetry techniques both in the uniform zone and within the front zone where flow thickness is variable and where recirculation takes place. Specific analyses have been developed to determine the position of the plug within the surge. Flow height is accessible through image processing and ultrasonic sensors. Sufficiently far from the front, experimental results are shown to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions regarding the velocity profiles and the flow height evolution. In the vicinity of the front, however, analysis of measured velocity profiles shows an evolution of the plug different from that predicted by lubrication approximation. Accordingly, the free surface shape also deviates from the predictions of the classical Shallow Water model. These results highlight the necessity to take into account higher

  17. Development of a Low Pressure, Air Atomized Oil Burner with High Atomizer Air Flow: Progress Report FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5-8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or ''FAB'' has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a toroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the firing rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% O{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

  18. A fractal approach to low velocity non-Darcy flow in a low permeability porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jian-Chao

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the mechanism for fluid flow at low velocity in a porous medium is analyzed based on plastic flow of oil in a reservoir and the fractal approach. The analytical expressions for flow rate and velocity of non-Newtonian fluid flow in the low permeability porous medium are derived, and the threshold pressure gradient (TPG) is also obtained. It is notable that the TPG (J) and permeability (K) of the porous medium analytically exhibit the scaling behavior J ~ K-DT/(1=DT), where DT is the fractal dimension for tortuous capillaries. The fractal characteristics of tortuosity for capillaries should be considered in analysis of non-Darcy flow in a low permeability porous medium. The model predictions of TPG show good agreement with those obtained by the available expression and experimental data. The proposed model may be conducible to a better understanding of the mechanism for nonlinear flow in the low permeability porous medium.

  19. Laser filamentation induced air-flow motion in a diffusion cloud chamber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiyi; Liu, Jiansheng; Wang, Cheng; Ju, Jingjing; Wang, Zhanxin; Wang, Wentao; Ge, Xiaochun; Li, Chuang; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2013-04-22

    We numerically simulated the air-flow motion in a diffusion cloud chamber induced by femtosecond laser filaments for different chopping rates. A two dimensional model was employed, where the laser filaments were treated as a heat flux source. The simulated patterns of flow fields and maximum velocity of updraft compare well with the experimental results for the chopping rates of 1, 5, 15 and 150 Hz. A quantitative inconsistency appears between simulated and experimental maximum velocity of updraft for 1 kHz repetition rate although a similar pattern of flow field is obtained, and the possible reasons were analyzed. Based on the present simulated results, the experimental observation of more water condensation/snow at higher chopping rate can be explained. These results indicate that the specific way of laser filament heating plays a significant role in the laser-induced motion of air flow, and at the same time, our previous conclusion of air flow having an important effect on water condensation/snow is confirmed. PMID:23609636

  20. Measurements of laminar burning velocities for natural gas-hydrogen-air mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zuohua; Zhang, Yong; Zeng, Ke; Liu, Bing; Wang, Qian; Jiang, Deming

    2006-07-15

    Laminar flame characteristics of natural gas-hydrogen-air flames were studied in a constant-volume bomb at normal temperature and pressure. Laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths were obtained at various ratios of hydrogen to natural gas (volume fraction from 0 to 100%) and equivalence ratios (f from 0.6 to 1.4). The influence of stretch rate on flame was also analyzed. The results show that, for lean mixture combustion, the flame radius increases with time but the increasing rate decreases with flame expansion for natural gas and for mixtures with low hydrogen fractions, while at high hydrogen fractions, there exists a linear correlation between flame radius and time. For rich mixture combustion, the flame radius shows a slowly increasing rate at early stages of flame propagation and a quickly increasing rate at late stages of flame propagation for natural gas and for mixtures with low hydrogen fractions, and there also exists a linear correlation between flame radius and time for mixtures with high hydrogen fractions. Combustion at stoichiometric mixture demonstrates the linear relationship between flame radius and time for natural gas-air, hydrogen-air, and natural gas-hydrogen-air flames. Laminar burning velocities increase exponentially with the increase of hydrogen fraction in mixtures, while the Markstein length decreases and flame instability increases with the increase of hydrogen fractions in mixture. For a fixed hydrogen fraction, the Markstein number shows an increase and flame stability increases with the increase of equivalence ratios. Based on the experimental data, a formula for calculating the laminar burning velocities of natural gas-hydrogen-air flames is proposed. (author)

  1. Cerebral blood flow velocity underestimates cerebral blood flow during modest hypercapnia and hypocapnia.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, Nicole S; Gati, Joseph S; Opalevych, Oksana; Perrotta, Amanda; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2014-11-15

    To establish the accuracy of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) measures of middle cerebral artery (MCA) cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) as a surrogate of cerebral blood flow (CBF) during hypercapnia (HC) and hypocapnia (HO), we examined whether the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the MCA changed during HC or HO and whether TCD-based estimates of CBFV were equivalent to estimates from phase contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging. MCA CSA was measured from 3T magnetic resonance images during baseline, HO (hyperventilation at 30 breaths/min), and HC (6% carbon dioxide). PC and TCD measures of CBFV were measured during these protocols on separate days. CSA and TCD CBFV were used to calculate CBF. During HC, CSA increased from 5.6 ± 0.8 to 6.5 ± 1.0 mm(2) (P < 0.001, n = 13), while end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PETCO2) increased from 37 ± 3 to 46 ± 5 Torr (P < 0.001). During HO, CSA decreased from 5.8 ± 0.9 to 5.3 ± 0.9 mm(2) (P < 0.001, n = 15), while PetCO2 decreased from 36 ± 4 to 23 ± 3 Torr (P < 0.001). CBFVs during baseline, HO, and HC were compared between PC and TCD, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.83 (P < 0.001). The relative increase from baseline was 18 ± 8% greater (P < 0.001) for CBF than TCD CBFV during HC, and the relative decrease of CBF during HO was 7 ± 4% greater than the change in TCD CBFV (P < 0.001). These findings challenge the assumption that the CSA of the MCA does not change over modest changes in PETCO2. PMID:25012027

  2. Local velocity measurements in heterogeneous and time-dependent flows of a micellar solution.

    PubMed

    Decruppe, J P; Greffier, O; Manneville, S; Lerouge, S

    2006-06-01

    We present and discuss the results of pointwise velocity measurements performed on a viscoelastic micellar solution made of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium salicylate in water, respectively, at the concentrations of 50 and 100 mmol. The sample is contained in a Couette device and subjected to flow in the strain controlled mode. This particular solution shows shear banding and, in a narrow range of shear rates at the right end of the stress plateau, apparent shear thickening occurs. Time-dependent recordings of the shear stress in this range reveal that the flow has become unstable and that large sustained oscillations of the shear stress and of the first normal stresses difference emerge and grow in the flow. Local pointwise velocity measurements clearly reveal a velocity profile typical of shear banding when the imposed shear rate belongs to the plateau, but also important wall slip in the entire range of velocity gradients investigated. In the oscillations regime, the velocity is recorded as a function of time at a fixed point close to the rotor of the Couette device. The time-dependent velocity profile reveals random fluctuations but, from time to time, sharp decreases much larger than the standard deviation are observed. An attempt is made to correlate these strong variations with the stress oscillations and a correlation coefficient r is computed. However, the small value found for the coefficient r does not allow us to draw a final conclusion as concerns the correlation between stress oscillations and velocity fast decreases. PMID:16906838

  3. Ignition of hydrocarbon-air supersonic flow by volumetric ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfeld, Marat A.; Pozdnyakov, George A.

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes the results of the electron-beam initiation of the combustion in the mixtures of hydrogen, natural gas or kerosene vapors with air. Electron beam characteristics were studied in closed volume with immobile gas. The researches included definition of an integrated current of an electronic beam, distribution of a current density and an estimation of average energy of electrons. Possibility of fuel mixtures ignition by means of this approach in the combustor at high velocity at the entrance was demonstrated. Experiments were carried out at Mach numbers of 4 and 5. Process of ignition and combustion under electron beam action was researched. It was revealed that ignition of mixture occurs after completion of electron gun operation. Data obtained have confirmed effectiveness of electron beam application for ignition of hydrogen and natural gas. The numerical simulation of the combustion of mixture in channel was carried out by means of ANSYS CFD 12.0 instrumentation on the basis of Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equation using SST/k-ω turbulence model. For combustion modeling, a detailed kinetic scheme with 38 reactions of 8 species was implemented taking into account finite rate chemistry. Computations have shown that the developed model allow to predict ignition of a mixture and flame propagation even at low flow temperatures.

  4. An examination of a group-velocity criterion for the breakdown of an idealized vortex flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. Y.; Widnall, S. E.

    1979-01-01

    The phenomenon of vortex breakdown is believed to be associated with a finite amplitude wave that has become trapped at the critical or breakdown location. The conditions at which the propagating waves become trapped at a certain axial location were examined by use of a group-velocity criterion implied by Landahl's general theory of wave trapping. An ideal vortex having constant vorticity and uniform axial velocity at the inlet of a slowly diverging duct was studied. The linear wave propagation analysis is applied to the base flow at several axial stations for several values of the ratio of swirl velocity to axial velocity at the inlet of the divergent duct, assuming a locally parallel flow. The dipsersion relations and hence the group velocities of both the symmetric (n = 0) and asymmetric modes (n = + or - 1) were investigated. The existence of a critical state in the flow (at which the group velocity vanishes), and its relationship to the stagnation point on the axis of the duct and to the occurrence of an irregular singularity in the equations governing wave propagation in the flow field are discussed.

  5. Implementation and characterization of phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography method for flow velocity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongchalee, Pornthep; Palawong, Kunakorn; Meemon, Panomsak

    2014-06-01

    In this work, the system implementation and characterization of a Phase-Resolved Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography (PR-DOCT) is presented. The phase-resolved Doppler technique was implemented on a custom built Frequency Domain OCT (FD-OCT) that was recently developed at Suranaree University of Technology. Utilizing Doppler phase changed relation in a complex interference signal caused by moving samples, PR-DOCT can produce visualization and characterization of flow activity such as blood flow in biological samples. Here we report the performance of the implemented PR-DOCT system in term of the Velocity Dynamic Range (VDR), which is defined by the range from the minimum to the maximum detectable axial velocity. The minimum detectable velocity was quantified from a histogram distribution of phase difference between consecutive depth-scan signals when performing Doppler imaging of a stationary mirror. By applying a Gaussian curve fitting to the histogram, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of the fitted curve was measured to represent the detectable minimum flow velocity of the system. The maximum detectable velocity was limited by the phase wrapping of the Doppler signal, which is governed by the acquisition speed of the system. We demonstrate the 3D Doppler imaging and velocity measurement of feed flow phantom using 100% milk pumped through a microfluidic chip by using a syringe pump system.

  6. A Subgrid Model for Predicting Air Entrainment Rates in Bubbly Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jingsen; Oberai, Assad A.; Drew, Donald E.; Lahey, Richard T., Jr.; Moraga, Francisco J.

    2008-11-01

    In this talk we present a fairly simple subgrid air entrainment model that accurately predicts the rate of air entrainment, which is critical in simulating multiphase (air/water) flows. The derivation of this model begins by assuming that a thin sheet of air is carried into the water by the inertia of the liquid at the free surface. A momentum balance on the entrained gas layer results in an expression for the entrained volumetric gas flow rate, in terms of the local liquid velocity, gas viscosity etc., which are readily available from a multiphase RANS-type simulation. This model has been validated against extensive experimental data on both plunging jets and hydraulic jumps over a wide range of liquid velocities. It was implemented in a two-fluid computational fluid dynamics code (CFDShipM) to be used to predict the void fraction distribution underneath a plunging liquid jet at different depths and jet velocities. The results were found to match the experimental observations very well. The application of this model to more challenging problems, including hydraulic jumps and full-scale ship simulations, is currently underway.

  7. Mass transfer from a sphere in an oscillating flow with zero mean velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Colin K.; Lyman, Frederic A.

    1990-01-01

    A pseudospectral numerical method is used for the solution of the Navier-Stokes and mass transport equations for a sphere in a sinusoidally oscillating flow with zero mean velocity. The flow is assumed laminar and axisymmetric about the sphere's polar axis. Oscillating flow results were obtained for Reynolds numbers (based on the free-stream oscillatory flow amplitude) between 1 and 150, and Strouhal numbers between 1 and 1000. Sherwood numbers were computed and their dependency on the flow frequency and amplitude discussed. An assessment of the validity of the quasi-steady assumption for mass transfer is based on these results.

  8. Effect of air flow on tubular solar still efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An experimental work was reported to estimate the increase in distillate yield for a compound parabolic concentrator-concentric tubular solar still (CPC-CTSS). The CPC dramatically increases the heating of the saline water. A novel idea was proposed to study the characteristic features of CPC for desalination to produce a large quantity of distillate yield. A rectangular basin of dimension 2 m × 0.025 m × 0.02 m was fabricated of copper and was placed at the focus of the CPC. This basin is covered by two cylindrical glass tubes of length 2 m with two different diameters of 0.02 m and 0.03 m. The experimental study was operated with two modes: without and with air flow between inner and outer tubes. The rate of air flow was fixed throughout the experiment at 4.5 m/s. On the basis of performance results, the water collection rate was 1445 ml/day without air flow and 2020 ml/day with air flow and the efficiencies were 16.2% and 18.9%, respectively. Findings The experimental study was operated with two modes: without and with air flow between inner and outer tubes. The rate of air flow was fixed throughout the experiment at 4.5 m/s. Conclusions On the basis of performance results, the water collection rate was 1445 ml/day without air flow and 2020 ml/day with air flow and the efficiencies were 16.2% and 18.9%, respectively. PMID:23587020

  9. Assessment of left ventricular function by indices derived from aortic flow velocity.

    PubMed Central

    Kolettis, M; Jenkins, B S; Webb-Peploe, M M

    1976-01-01

    The velocity and acceleration of aortic blood flow were measured by means of a catheter velocity probe in 40 patients during routine diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Ten different variables were derived from the aortic velocity measurements, and their ability to discriminate between good and bad left ventricular (LV) function was tested. By means of eight conventional indices of LV function derived from pressure, mean flow, and quantitative cineangiography, the patients were divided into 3 groups: group 1, good LV function; group 2, moderate LV function; group 3, poor LV function. Aortic peak velocity and maximal acceleration correlated well with stroke volume and were thus indices of LV pump function. Aortic peak velocity also showed a significant correlation with LV stroke work. Both aortic peak velocity and maximal acceleration failed to discriminate between the three groups of patients, and correlated poorly with conventional indices of LV function. The mean values of stroke volume differed significantly between groups 1 and 2, and between groups 1 and 3, and also correlated better with the conventional functional indices. The best discrimination between normal and abnormal LV function was provided by dividing stroke volume by maximal acceleration, but stroke volume divided by peak velocity discriminated better than stroke volume alone. Stroke volume divided by maximal acceleration also gave more significant individual correlations with the conventional functional indices than did any other variable derived from aortic velocity. PMID:1252292

  10. Quantifying energy and mass transfer in crop canopies: sensors for measurement of temperature and air velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B.; Monje, O.; Tanner, B.

    1996-01-01

    Here we report on the in situ performance of inexpensive, miniature sensors that have increased our ability to measure mass and energy fluxes from plant canopies in controlled environments: 1. Surface temperature. Canopy temperature measurements indicate changes in stomatal aperture and thus latent and sensible heat fluxes. Infrared transducers from two manufacturers (Exergen Corporation, Newton, MA; and Everest Interscience, Tucson, AZ, USA) have recently become available. Transducer accuracy matched that of a more expensive hand-held infrared thermometer. 2. Air velocity varies above and within plant canopies and is an important component in mass and energy transfer models. We tested commercially-available needle, heat-transfer anemometers (1 x 50 mm cylinder) that consist of a fine-wire thermocouple and a heater inside a hypodermic needle. The needle is heated and wind speed determined from the temperature rise above ambient. These sensors are particularly useful in measuring the low wind speeds found within plant canopies. 3. Accurate measurements of air temperature adjacent to plant leaves facilitates transport phenomena modeling. We quantified the effect of radiation and air velocity on temperature rise in thermocouples from 10 to 500 micrometers. At high radiation loads and low wind speeds, temperature errors were as large as 7 degrees C above air temperature.

  11. Tuning a physically-based model of the air-sea gas transfer velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, C. D.; Robinson, I. S.; Woolf, D. K.

    Air-sea gas transfer velocities are estimated for one year using a 1-D upper-ocean model (GOTM) and a modified version of the NOAA-COARE transfer velocity parameterization. Tuning parameters are evaluated with the aim of bringing the physically based NOAA-COARE parameterization in line with current estimates, based on simple wind-speed dependent models derived from bomb-radiocarbon inventories and deliberate tracer release experiments. We suggest that A = 1.3 and B = 1.0, for the sub-layer scaling parameter and the bubble mediated exchange, respectively, are consistent with the global average CO 2 transfer velocity k. Using these parameters and a simple 2nd order polynomial approximation, with respect to wind speed, we estimate a global annual average k for CO 2 of 16.4 ± 5.6 cm h -1 when using global mean winds of 6.89 m s -1 from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 1954-2000. The tuned model can be used to predict the transfer velocity of any gas, with appropriate treatment of the dependence on molecular properties including the strong solubility dependence of bubble-mediated transfer. For example, an initial estimate of the global average transfer velocity of DMS (a relatively soluble gas) is only 11.9 cm h -1 whilst for less soluble methane the estimate is 18.0 cm h -1.

  12. Ultrasonic velocity profiling rheometry based on a widened circular Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiratori, Takahisa; Tasaka, Yuji; Oishi, Yoshihiko; Murai, Yuichi

    2015-08-01

    We propose a new rheometry for characterizing the rheological properties of fluids. The technique produces flow curves, which represent the relationship between the fluid shear rate and shear stress. Flow curves are obtained by measuring the circumferential velocity distribution of tested fluids in a circular Couette system, using an ultrasonic velocity profiling technique. By adopting a widened gap of concentric cylinders, a designed range of the shear rate is obtained so that velocity profile measurement along a single line directly acquires flow curves. To reduce the effect of ultrasonic noise on resultant flow curves, several fitting functions and variable transforms are examined to best approximate the velocity profile without introducing a priori rheological models. Silicone oil, polyacrylamide solution, and yogurt were used to evaluate the applicability of this technique. These substances are purposely targeted as examples of Newtonian fluids, shear thinning fluids, and opaque fluids with unknown rheological properties, respectively. We find that fourth-order Chebyshev polynomials provide the most accurate representation of flow curves in the context of model-free rheometry enabled by ultrasonic velocity profiling.

  13. Microgravity flame spread over thick solids in low velocity opposed flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuangfeng; Zhu, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Motivated primarily by fire safety of spacecraft, a renewed interest in microgravity flame spread over solid materials has arisen. With few exceptions, however, research on microgravity flame spread has been focused on thermally thin fuels due to the constraint on available test time. In this study, two sets of experiments are conducted to examine the flame spread and extinction behavior over thick PMMA in simulated and actual microgravity environments. The low-gravity flame spread environment is produced by a narrow channel apparatus in normal gravity. Extinction limits using flow velocity and oxygen concentration as coordinates are presented, and flame spread rates are determined as a function of the velocity and oxygen concentration of the gas flow. The microgravity experiments are also performed with varying low-velocity flow and varying ambient oxygen concentration. The important observations include flame behavior and appearance as a function of oxygen concentration and flow velocity, temperature variation in gas and solid phases, and flame spread rate. A comparison between simulated and actual microgravity data is made, and general agreement is found. Based on the experimental observations, mechanisms for flame spread and extinction in low velocity opposed flows are discussed.

  14. Velocity surveys in a turbine stator annular-cascade facility using laser Doppler techniques. [flow measurement and flow characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, L. J.; Seasholtz, R. G.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1976-01-01

    A laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was used to determine the flow conditions downstream of an annular cascade of stator blades operating at an exit critical velocity ratio of 0.87. Two modes of LDV operation (continuous scan and discrete point) were investigated. Conventional pressure probe measurements were also made for comparison with the LDV results. Biasing errors that occur in the LDV measurement of velocity components were also studied. In addition, the effect of pressure probe blockage on the flow conditions was determined with the LDV. Photographs and descriptions of the test equipment used are given.

  15. Full field flow visualization and computer-aided velocity measurements in a bank of cylinders in a wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, M. J.; Canacci, V. A.; Russell, L. M.

    1992-01-01

    The full field flow tracking (FFFT) method that is presented in this paper uses a laser-generated, mechanically strobed planar sheet of light, a low luminosity TV camera coupled with a long distance microscope, and a computer-controlled video recorder to study nonintrusively and qualitatively the flow structures in a bank of cylinders that are placed in a wind tunnel. This setup simulates an upscale version of the geometry of internal cooling passageways characteristic of small air-cooled radial turbines. The qualitative images supplied by the FFFT system are processed by means of a computer-integrated image quantification (CIIQ) method into quantitative information, trajectories and velocities, that describe the flow upstream of and within the bank of cylinders. The tracking method is Lagrangian in concept, and permits identification and tracking of the same particle, thus facilitating construction of time dependent trajectories and the calculation of true velocities and accelerations. The error analysis evaluates the accuracy with which the seed particles follow the flow and the errors incurred during the quantitative processing of the raw data derived from the FFFT/CIIQ method.

  16. Full field flow visualization and computer-aided velocity measurements in a bank of cylinders in a wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, M. J.; Canacci, V. A.; Russell, L. M.

    1992-06-01

    The full field flow tracking (FFFT) method that is presented in this paper uses a laser-generated, mechanically strobed planar sheet of light, a low luminosity TV camera coupled with a long distance microscope, and a computer-controlled video recorder to study nonintrusively and qualitatively the flow structures in a bank of cylinders that are placed in a wind tunnel. This setup simulates an upscale version of the geometry of internal cooling passageways characteristic of small air-cooled radial turbines. The qualitative images supplied by the FFFT system are processed by means of a computer-integrated image quantification (CIIQ) method into quantitative information, trajectories and velocities, that describe the flow upstream of and within the bank of cylinders. The tracking method is Lagrangian in concept, and permits identification and tracking of the same particle, thus facilitating construction of time dependent trajectories and the calculation of true velocities and accelerations. The error analysis evaluates the accuracy with which the seed particles follow the flow and the errors incurred during the quantitative processing of the raw data derived from the FFFT/CIIQ method.

  17. Piloted Ignition of Polypropylene/Glass Composites in a Forced Air Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Rich, D.; Lautenberger, C.; Stefanovich, A.; Metha, S.; Torero, J.; Yuan, Z.; Ross, H.

    2003-01-01

    The Forced Ignition and Spread Test (FIST) is being used to study the flammability characteristics of combustible materials in forced convective flows. The FIST methodology is based on the ASTM E-1321, Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Test (LIFT) which is used to determine the ignition and flame spread characteristics of materials, and to produce 'Flammability Diagrams' of materials. The LIFT apparatus, however, relies on natural convection to bring air to the combustion zone and the fuel vapor to the pilot flame, and thus cannot describe conditions where the oxidizer flow velocity may change. The FIST on the other hand, by relying on a forced flow as the dominant transport mechanism, can be used to examine variable oxidizer flow characteristics, such as velocity, oxygen concentration, and turbulence intensity, and consequently has a wider applicability. Particularly important is its ability to determine the flammability characteristics of materials used in spacecraft since in the absence of gravity the only flow present is that forced by the HVAC of the space facility. In this paper, we report work on the use of the FIST approach on the piloted ignition of a blended polypropylene fiberglass (PP/GL) composite material exposed to an external radiant flux in a forced convective flow of air. The effect of glass concentration under varying external radiant fluxes is examined and compared qualitatively with theoretical predictions of the ignition process. The results are used to infer the effect of glass content on the fire safety characteristics of composites.

  18. Investigation of the pressure and velocity fields in a turbulent separated flow using the LES technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.; Friedrich, R.

    1991-01-01

    The large eddy simulation (LES) technique is utilized to investigate the turbulent separating and reattaching flow over a rearward-facing step. Simulations on a series of successively refined grids were performed (maximum resolution: 320 x 64 x 48). Statistical results are compared with experimental data and show good agreement. An examination of the simulated flow fields reveals the instantaneous structure of the separating shear layer, the reattachment zone and the recirculation region. Large departures from the mean in both the velocity and pressure fields are found to occur in all three regions. The shape and size of structures in the velocity and pressure fields varies with the proximity of solid walls and the region of the flow domain. Awareness of the instantaneous flow field structure is shown to be instrumental to having a complete understanding of the unsteady turbulent flow.

  19. Effects of light intensity light quality and air velocity on temperature in plant reproductive organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.

    Excess temperature increase in plant reproductive organs such as anthers and stigmata could cause fertility impediments and thus produce sterile seeds under artificial lighting conditions in closed plant growth facilities There is a possibility that the aberration was caused by an excess increase in temperatures of reproductive organs in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems under microgravity conditions in space The fundamental study was conducted to know the thermal situation of the plant reproductive organs as affected by light intensity light quality and air velocity on the earth and to estimate the excess temperature increase in the reproductive organs in closed plant growth facilities in space Thermal images of reproductive organs of rice and strawberry were captured using infrared thermography at an air temperature of 10 r C The temperatures in flowers at 300 mu mol m -2 s -1 PPFD under the lights from red LEDs white LEDs blue LEDs fluorescent lamps and incandescent lamps increased by 1 4 1 7 1 9 6 0 and 25 3 r C respectively for rice and by 2 8 3 4 4 1 7 8 and 43 4 r C respectively for strawberry The flower temperatures increased with increasing PPFD levels The temperatures in petals anthers and stigmas of strawberry at 300 mu mol m -2 s -1 PPFD under incandescent lamps increased by 32 7 29 0 and 26 6 r C respectively at 0 1 m s -1 air velocity and by 20 6 18 5 and 15 9 r C respectively at 0 8 m s -1 air velocity The temperatures of reproductive organs decreased with increasing

  20. Vertical Velocity Distribution in Open-Channel Flow with Rigid Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Changjun; Hao, Wenlong; Chang, Xiangping

    2014-01-01

    In order to experimentally investigate the effects of rigid vegetation on the characteristics of flow, the vegetations were modeled by rigid cylindrical rod. Flow field is measured under the conditions of submerged rigid rod in flume with single layer and double layer vegetations. Experiments were performed for various spacings of the rigid rods. The vegetation models were aligned with the approaching flow in a rectangular channel. Vertical distributions of time-averaged velocity at various streamwise distances were evaluated using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). The results indicate that, in submerged conditions, it is difficult to described velocity distribution along the entire depth using unified function. The characteristic of vertical distribution of longitudinal velocity is the presence of inflection. Under the inflection, the line is convex and groove above inflection. The interaction of high and low momentum fluids causes the flow to fold and creates strong vortices within each mixing layer. Understanding the flow phenomena in the area surrounding the tall vegetation, especially in the downstream region, is very important when modeling or studying the riparian environment. ADV measures of rigid vegetation distribution of the flow velocity field can give people a new understanding. PMID:24883352

  1. Inflow velocities of cold flows streaming into massive galaxies at high redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerdt, Tobias; Ceverino, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    We study the velocities of the accretion along streams from the cosmic web into massive galaxies at high redshift with the help of three different suites of AMR hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. The results are compared to free-fall velocities and to the sound speeds of the hot ambient medium. The sound speed of the hot ambient medium is calculated using two different methods to determine the medium's temperature. We find that the simulated cold stream velocities are in violent disagreement with the corresponding free-fall profiles. The sound speed is a better albeit not always correct description of the cold flows' velocity. Using these calculations as a first order approximation for the gas inflow velocities vinflow = 0.9 vvir is given. We conclude from the hydrodynamical simulations as our main result that the velocity profiles for the cold streams are constant with radius. These constant inflow velocities seem to have a `parabola-like' dependency on the host halo mass in units of the virial velocity that peaks at Mvir = 1012 M⊙ and we also propose that the best-fitting functional form for the dependency of the inflow velocity on the redshift is a square root power-law relation: v_inflow ∝ √{z + 1} v_vir.

  2. Vortex Formation in a High Speed Dust Flow with Large Velocity Shear in RF Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Iizuka, Satoru; Gohda, Takuma

    2008-09-07

    We have investigated a rotation of a dust cloud disc with strong velocity shear in a radio frequency (RF) plasma. The flow pattern of the dusts was evaluated by the Navier Stokes Equation with shear viscosity due to the Coulomb interactions. We have clarified dynamic behaviors of the dusts and observed generation of micro-vortices around rotational center, when the velocity shear is enhanced.

  3. Effects of building-roof cooling on flow and air temperature in urban street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Jin; Pardyjak, Eric; Kim, Do-Yong; Han, Kyoung-Soo; Kwon, Byung-Hyuk

    2014-05-01

    The effects of building-roof cooling on flow and air temperature in 3D urban street canyons are numerically investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The aspect ratios of the building and street canyon considered are unity. For investigating the building-roof cooling effects, the building-roof temperatures are systematically changed. The traditional flow pattern including a portal vortex appears in the spanwise canyon. Compared with the case of the control run, there are minimal differences in flow pattern in the cases in which maximum building-roof cooling is considered. However, as the building roof becomes cooler, the mean kinetic energy increases and the air temperature decreases in the spanwise canyon. Building-roof cooling suppresses the upward and inward motions above the building roof, resultantly increasing the horizontal velocity near the roof level. The increase in wind velocity above the roof level intensifies the secondarily driven vortex circulation as well as the inward (outward) motion into (out of) the spanwise canyon. Finally, building-roof cooling reduces the air temperature in the spanwise canyon, supplying much relatively cool air from the streamwise canyon into the spanwise canyon.

  4. Low-noise flow valve for air ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, E. A.

    1970-01-01

    Valve assembly controls air flow from feeder into main duct, with minimum of turbulence, friction, pressure differential, and noise. Valve consists of damper, deflector, and spring. Streamlining of damper and deflector merges flow smoothly, while spring keeps damper and deflector in contact and eliminates valve chatter and damping vibrations.

  5. Laser-induced fluorescence technique for velocity field measurements in subsonic gas flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiller, B.; Mcdaniel, J. C.; Rea, E. C., Jr.; Hanson, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical technique is reported for multiple-point velocity measurements in subsonic flows. The technique is based on the detection of fluorescence from a Doppler-shifted absorption line of seeded iodine molecules excited at a laser frequency fixed in the wing of the line. Counterpropagating laser sheets are used to illuminate the flow, in the present case a nitrogen round jet, thereby eliminating the need for an unshifted reference signal. The fluorescence is detected simultaneously at 10,000 points in a plane of the flow using a 100 x 100 element photodiode-array camera. The velocity at each point is computed from four successive camera frames, each recorded with a different beam direction. The measured mean velocities between 5 and 50 m/sec agree well with data from the literature.

  6. Estimation of global aortic pulse wave velocity by flow-sensitive 4D MRI.

    PubMed

    Markl, Michael; Wallis, Wolf; Brendecke, Stefanie; Simon, Jan; Frydrychowicz, Alex; Harloff, Andreas

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the value of flow-sensitive four-dimensional MRI for the assessment of pulse wave velocity as a measure of vessel compliance in the thoracic aorta. Findings in 12 young healthy volunteers were compared with those in 25 stroke patients with aortic atherosclerosis and an age-matched normal control group (n = 9). Results from pulse wave velocity calculations incorporated velocity data from the entire aorta and were compared to those of standard methods based on flow waveforms at only two specific anatomic landmarks. Global aortic pulse wave velocity was higher in patients with atherosclerosis (7.03 +/- 0.24 m/sec) compared to age-matched controls (6.40 +/- 0.32 m/sec). Both were significantly (P < 0.001) increased compared to younger volunteers (4.39 +/- 0.32 m/sec). Global aortic pulse wave velocity in young volunteers was in good agreement with previously reported MRI studies and catheter measurements. Estimation of measurement inaccuracies and error propagation analysis demonstrated only minor uncertainties in measured flow waveforms and moderate relative errors below 16% for aortic compliance in all 46 subjects. These results demonstrate the feasibility of pulse wave velocity calculation based on four-dimensional MRI data by exploiting its full volumetric coverage, which may also be an advantage over standard two-dimensional techniques in the often-distorted route of the aorta in patients with atherosclerosis. PMID:20512861

  7. Propagation velocity and space-time correlation of perturbations in turbulent channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, John; Hussain, Fazle

    1992-01-01

    A database obtained from direct numerical simulation of a turbulent channel flow is analyzed to extract the propagation velocity V of velocity, vorticity, and pressure fluctuations from their space-time correlations. A surprising result is that V is approximately the same as the local mean velocity for most of the channel, except for the near-wall region. For y(+) is less than or equal to 15, V is virtually constant, implying that perturbations of all flow variables propagate like waves near the wall. In this region V is 55 percent of the centerline velocity U(sub c) for velocity and vorticity perturbations and 75 percent of U(sub c) for pressure perturbations. Scale-dependence of V is also examined by analyzing the bandpass filtered flow fields. Comprehensive documentation of the propagation velocities and space-time correlation data, which should prove useful in the evaluation of Taylor's hypothesis is presented. An attempt was made to explain some of the data in terms of our current understanding of organized structures, although not all of the data can be explained this way.

  8. In vivo label-free measurement of lymph flow velocity and volumetric flow rates using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatter, Cedric; Meijer, Eelco F. J.; Nam, Ahhyun S.; Jones, Dennis; Bouma, Brett E.; Padera, Timothy P.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2016-07-01

    Direct in vivo imaging of lymph flow is key to understanding lymphatic system function in normal and disease states. Optical microscopy techniques provide the resolution required for these measurements, but existing optical techniques for measuring lymph flow require complex protocols and provide limited temporal resolution. Here, we describe a Doppler optical coherence tomography platform that allows direct, label-free quantification of lymph velocity and volumetric flow rates. We overcome the challenge of very low scattering by employing a Doppler algorithm that operates on low signal-to-noise measurements. We show that this technique can measure lymph velocity at sufficiently high temporal resolution to resolve the dynamic pulsatile flow in collecting lymphatic vessels.

  9. In vivo label-free measurement of lymph flow velocity and volumetric flow rates using Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Blatter, Cedric; Meijer, Eelco F J; Nam, Ahhyun S; Jones, Dennis; Bouma, Brett E; Padera, Timothy P; Vakoc, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Direct in vivo imaging of lymph flow is key to understanding lymphatic system function in normal and disease states. Optical microscopy techniques provide the resolution required for these measurements, but existing optical techniques for measuring lymph flow require complex protocols and provide limited temporal resolution. Here, we describe a Doppler optical coherence tomography platform that allows direct, label-free quantification of lymph velocity and volumetric flow rates. We overcome the challenge of very low scattering by employing a Doppler algorithm that operates on low signal-to-noise measurements. We show that this technique can measure lymph velocity at sufficiently high temporal resolution to resolve the dynamic pulsatile flow in collecting lymphatic vessels. PMID:27377852

  10. In vivo label-free measurement of lymph flow velocity and volumetric flow rates using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Blatter, Cedric; Meijer, Eelco F. J.; Nam, Ahhyun S.; Jones, Dennis; Bouma, Brett E.; Padera, Timothy P.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Direct in vivo imaging of lymph flow is key to understanding lymphatic system function in normal and disease states. Optical microscopy techniques provide the resolution required for these measurements, but existing optical techniques for measuring lymph flow require complex protocols and provide limited temporal resolution. Here, we describe a Doppler optical coherence tomography platform that allows direct, label-free quantification of lymph velocity and volumetric flow rates. We overcome the challenge of very low scattering by employing a Doppler algorithm that operates on low signal-to-noise measurements. We show that this technique can measure lymph velocity at sufficiently high temporal resolution to resolve the dynamic pulsatile flow in collecting lymphatic vessels. PMID:27377852

  11. Apparatus for establishing flow of a fluid mass having a known velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, P.; Veikins, O.; Bate, E. R., Jr.; Jones, R. H. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus for establishing a flow of fluid mass, such as gas, having a known velocity is introduced. The apparatus is characterized by an hermetically sealed chamber conforming to a closed-loop configuration and including a throat and a plurality of axially displaceable pistons for sweeping through the throat a stream of gas including a core and an unsheared boundary layer. Within the throat there is a cylindrical coring body concentrically related to the throat for receiving the core, and a chamber surrounding the cylindrical body for drawing off the boundary layer, whereby the velocity of the core is liberated from the effects of the velocity of the boundary layer.

  12. Effects of saline-water flow rate and air speed on leakage current in RTV coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Hackam, R.

    1995-10-01

    Room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone rubber is increasingly being used to coat porcelain and glass insulators in order to improve their electrical performance in the presence of pollution and moisture. A study of the dependence of leakage current, pulse current count and total charge flowing across the surface of RTV on the flow rate of the saline water and on the compressed air pressure used to create the salt-fog is reported. The fog was directed at the insulating rods either from one or two sides. The RTV was fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane polymer, a filler of alumina trihydrate (ATH), a polymerization catalyst and fumed silica reinforcer, all dispersed in 1,1,1-trichloroethane solvent. The saline water flow rate was varied in the range 0.4 to 2.0 l/min. The compressed air pressure at the input of the fog nozzles was varied from 0.20 to 0.63 MPa. The air speed at the surface of the insulating rods was found to depend linearly on the air pressure measured at the inlet to the nozzles and varied in the range 3 to 14 km/hr. The leakage current increased with increasing flow rate and increasing air speed. This is attributed to the increased loss of hydrophobicity with a larger quantity of saline fog and a larger impact velocities of fog droplets interacting with the surface of the RTV coating.

  13. Effect of electric charging on the velocity of water flow in CNT.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Hossein Reza; Karimian, S M Hossein

    2016-09-01

    The role of electrical charge in controlling the velocity of water molecules in a finite single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) was studied in detail using molecular dynamics simulation. Different test cases were examined to determine the parameters affecting the control of water-flow velocity in CNT upon electrically charging the surface of a CNT. The results showed that charge magnitude and volume, as well as the charging scenario, are the parameters having greatest effect. The implementation of electric charge on the surface of a CNT was demonstrated to decrease the resistance of CNT to incoming water flow at the entrance, but to increase friction-type resistance to flow along the CNT. Therefore, through controlling the magnitude of electric charge, water flow through the CNT may be accelerated, or decelerated. The results show that the velocity of molecular flow in the CNT increases to a maximum value, and then decreases with electric charge regardless of its sign. In the case studied here, this maximum velocity occurs at electric charging of ±0.25e/atom. It was also shown that, to reach similar flow velocities in a CNT, it is not sufficient to merely implement equal volumes of electric charge, where the volume of electric charging is defined as charge magnitude × charging time. In fact , both magnitude of charging and volume of electric charging must be equal to each other. These findings, together with options to implement scenarios with alternative charging, provide the means to effectively adjust desired velocities in a CNT. PMID:27488104

  14. Vertical distribution of fluid velocity and suspended sediment in open channel turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Debasish; Ghoshal, Koeli

    2016-06-01

    To predict the vertical distribution of streamwise fluid velocity and suspended sediment concentration profiles in an open channel turbulent flow, we derive a theoretical model here based on the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equation and the mass conservation equations of solid and fluid phases. The model includes the effects of secondary current in terms of the vertical velocity of fluid, additional vertical velocity of fluid due to the suspended particles, mixing length of sediment-laden flow and settlement of the suspended particles due to gravitational force. We numerically solve our model as coupled differential equations and the obtained solution agrees well with a wide spectrum of experimental data. A detailed error analysis asserts the superior determination accuracy of our model in comparison to the traditional log-law and Rouse equation and other existing theoretical models. The significance of the turbulent features included in the model and the importance of their co-existence to compute velocity and concentration profiles are explained. In sharp contrast to the previous researchers, the present model has significant contribution in unveiling several latent phenomena of particle-turbulence interaction throughout the flow region. The model can also address various crucial phenomena of velocity and concentration profiles that occur during flow in real situation.

  15. Whole-body vibration alters blood flow velocity and neuromuscular activity in Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Azael J; Martín, Juan; Martín, Teresa; García-López, David; Garatachea, Nuria; Jiménez, Beatriz; Marín, Pedro J

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on blood flow velocity and muscular activity after different vibration protocols in Friedreich's ataxia (FA) patients. After two familiarization sessions ten patients received six 3 min WBV treatments depending on a combination of frequency (10, 20 or 30 Hz) and protocol (constant or fragmented). Femoral artery blood flow velocity, vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) electromyography (EMG), and rate of perceived exertion were registered. Peak blood velocity was increased with respect to basal values after 1, 2 and 3 min of WBV (14·8%, 18·8% and 19·7%, respectively, P<0·001). Likewise, mean blood velocity was increased with respect to basal values after 1, 2 and 3 min of WBV (17·3%, 19·4% and 16·6%, respectively, P<0·001). EMG amplitude of VL and VM was increased (39% and 23%, respectively, P<0·05) and EMG frequencies decreased during the application of WBV. The results of this study suggest that higher frequencies (30 Hz) produce a greater increase in blood flow velocity and rate of perceived exertion. WBV is an effective method to increase blood flow and to activate muscle mass in patients with Friedreich's ataxia, and could therefore be considered to be incorporated in rehabilitation programs of this collective. PMID:21078065

  16. Cerebral blood flow velocity declines before arterial pressure in patients with orthostatic vasovagal presyncope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dan, Dan; Hoag, Jeffrey B.; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A.; Wood, Mark A.; Eckberg, Dwain L.; Gilligan, David M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We studied hemodynamic changes leading to orthostatic vasovagal presyncope to determine whether changes of cerebral artery blood flow velocity precede or follow reductions of arterial pressure. BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests that disordered cerebral autoregulation contributes to the occurrence of orthostatic vasovagal syncope. We studied cerebral hemodynamics with transcranial Doppler recordings, and we closely examined the temporal sequence of changes of cerebral artery blood flow velocity and systemic arterial pressure in 15 patients who did or did not faint during passive 70 degrees head-up tilt. METHODS: We recorded photoplethysmographic arterial pressure, RR intervals (electrocardiogram) and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocities (mean, total, mean/RR interval; Gosling's pulsatility index; and cerebrovascular resistance [mean cerebral velocity/mean arterial pressure, MAP]). RESULTS: Eight men developed presyncope, and six men and one woman did not. Presyncopal patients reported light-headedness, diaphoresis, or a sensation of fatigue 155 s (range: 25 to 414 s) before any cerebral or systemic hemodynamic change. Average cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) changes (defined by an iterative linear regression algorithm) began 67 s (range: 9 to 198 s) before reductions of MAP. Cerebral and systemic hemodynamic measurements remained constant in nonsyncopal patients. CONCLUSIONS: Presyncopal symptoms and CBFV changes precede arterial pressure reductions in patients with orthostatic vasovagal syncope. Therefore, changes of cerebrovascular regulation may contribute to the occurrence of vasovagal reactions.

  17. One-dimensional velocity profiles in open-channel flow with intense transport of coarse sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrostlík, Štěpán; Bareš, Vojtěch; Krupička, Jan; Picek, Tomáš; Matoušek, Václav

    2015-05-01

    The paper deals with laboratory experiments in open-channel flows with intense transport of model sediment (coarse plastic particles) in our new tilting flume. The major objectives of the paper are: 1. to discuss applied measuring methods, 2. to analyze measured velocity profiles. Ad 1. A profile of the longitudinal component of local velocity was measured across the vertical axis of symmetry of a flume cross section using three independent measuring methods (Prandtl tube, Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler, Acoustic Doppler Velocity Profiler). Due to strong stratification of the flow in the flume, parts of the profile are measured in regions of very different local concentrations of sediment (from virtually zero concentration to the maximum concentration of bed packing). This makes measurements complicated, particularly for ultrasonic measuring techniques. Profiles measured using the different techniques are evaluated and mutually compared. Ad 2. The layered character of the flow causes that shapes of velocity profiles tend to be different in the transport layer (rich on transported particles) above the bed and in the solids-free region between the top of the transport layer and the water surface. Shapes of the profiles are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the logarithmic profile in the solids-free region of the flow cross section. The profile can be handled using the law of the hydraulically-rough wall. In the law, the eroded top of the bed with the transport layer is supposed to be the rough boundary and appropriate values are sought for its variables.

  18. Field-derived relationships for flow velocity and resistance in high-gradient streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Comiti, F.; Mao, L.; Wilcox, A.; Wohl, E.E.; Lenzi, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We measured velocity and channel geometry in 10 reaches (bed gradient = 0.08-0.21) of a predominantly step-pool channel, the Rio Cordon, Italy, over a range of discharges (3-80% of the bankfull discharge). The resulting data were used to compute flow resistance. At-a-station hydraulic geometry relations indicate that in most reaches, the exponent describing the rate of velocity increases with discharge was between 0.48 and 0.6, which is within the range of published values for pool-riffle channels. The Rio Cordon data are also combined with published hydraulics data from step-pool streams to explore non-dimensional relationships between velocity and flow resistance and factors including unit discharge, channel gradient, and step geometry. Multiple regression analysis of this combined field dataset indicated that dimensionless unit discharge (q*) is the most important independent variable overall in explaining variations in velocity and flow resistance, followed by channel slope and the ratio of step height to step length. Empirical equations are provided both for dimensionless velocity and flow resistance, but prediction of the former variable appears more reliable. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fuel Spray and Flame Formation in a Compression-Ignition Engine Employing Air Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1937-01-01

    The effects of air flow on fuel spray and flame formation in a high-speed compression-ignition engine have been investigated by means of the NACA combustion apparatus. The process was studied by examining high-speed motion pictures taken at the rate of 2,200 frames a second. The combustion chamber was of the flat-disk type used in previous experiments with this apparatus. The air flow was produced by a rectangular displacer mounted on top of the engine piston. Three fuel-injection nozzles were tested: a 0.020-inch single-orifice nozzle, a 6-orifice nozzle, and a slit nozzle. The air velocity within the combustion chamber was estimated to reach a value of 425 feet a second. The results show that in no case was the form of the fuel spray completely destroyed by the air jet although in some cases the direction of the spray was changed and the spray envelope was carried away by the moving air. The distribution of the fuel in the combustion chamber of a compression-ignition engine can be regulated to some extent by the design of the combustion chamber, by the design of the fuel-injection nozzle, and by the use of air flow.

  20. Determination of small-scale flow directions and velocities in the hyporheic interstitial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angermann, L.; Fleckenstein, J.; Nützmann, G.; Lewandowski, J.

    2009-04-01

    The hyporheic interstitial is a hydraulically dynamic and biogeochemical active interface between surface water and groundwater. Depending on the hydraulic boundary conditions and the connectivity with the adjacent aquifer, infiltrating and exfiltrating water pass through it. In addition to those larger scale flow patterns flow at the centimetre scale is influenced by streambed morphology, such as pool-ripple sequences, boulders and woody debris, and the hydrodynamics in the flowing water resulting in a very heterogeneous pattern of flow in the shallow sediment. Patterns of exchange at this scale control the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the sediments and are in turn crucial for biogeochemical turnover. To investigate flow velocity and flow direction in the hyporheic interstitial in situ, a method employing heat as a tracer was developed. The method was tested in a low gradient stream (mean slope of 1.8 0/00), with sandy streambed in Brandenburg, Germany (river Schlaube). The movement of a heat pulse emitted by a small point source is detected by temperature sensors attached to four rods (four sensors on each rod) that are vertically driven into the sediment in a concentric circle with a radius of 3 to 4.5 cm around the heat source. The resulting breakthrough-curves give evidence of flow velocities and flow directions in three dimensions, accounting for the local heterogeneities of the sediment. Patterns of flow direction were found to be quite heterogeneous even on small scales of a few decimetres. Interestingly at several locations flow in the sediment was directed opposite to surface flow. Measured flow velocities of up to 1.75 cm min-1 are several orders of magnitude larger than values previously reported in the literature. As this method is non-destructive it allows repetition of measurements and long-term investigations to assess the variability in time. Furthermore it is well suited for a combined application with sampling devices such as pore water

  1. Low power, constant-flow air pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Polito, M.D.; Albert, B.

    1994-01-01

    A rugged, yet small and lightweight constant-flow air pump system has been designed. Flow control is achieved using a novel approach which is three times more power efficient than previous designs. The resultant savings in battery size and weight makes these pumps ideal for sampling air on balloon platforms. The pump package includes meteorological sensors and an onboard computer that stores time and sensor data and turns the constant-flow pump circuit on/off. Some applications of these systems are also presented in this report.

  2. Visualization of the air flow behind the automotive benchmark vent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pech, Ondrej; Jedelsky, Jan; Caletka, Petr; Jicha, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    Passenger comfort in cars depends on appropriate function of the cabin HVAC system. A great attention is therefore paid to the effective function of automotive vents and proper formation of the flow behind the ventilation outlet. The article deals with the visualization of air flow from the automotive benchmark vent. The visualization was made for two different shapes of the inlet channel connected to the benchmark vent. The smoke visualization with the laser knife was used. The influence of the shape of the inlet channel to the airflow direction, its enlargement and position of air flow axis were investigated.

  3. Evaporation of stationary alcohol layer in minichannel under air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Ilya; Orlova, Evgenija; Feoktistov, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents experimental investigation of effect of the gas flow rate moving parallel to the stationary liquid layer on the evaporation rate under the conditions of formation of a stable plane "liquid-gas" interface. The average evaporation flow rate of liquid layer (ethanol) by the gas flow (air) has been calculated using two independent methods. Obtained results have been compared with previously published data.

  4. Simulation of pulmonary air flow with a subject-specific boundary condition

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Youbing; Choi, Jiwoong; Hoffman, Eric A.; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel image-based technique to estimate a subject-specific boundary condition (BC) for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of pulmonary air flow. The information of regional ventilation for an individual is derived by registering two computed tomography (CT) lung datasets and then passed to the CT-resolved airways as the flow BC. The CFD simulations show that the proposed method predicts lobar volume changes consistent with direct image-measured metrics, whereas the other two traditional BCs (uniform velocity or uniform pressure) yield lobar volume changes and regional pressure differences inconsistent with observed physiology. PMID:20483412

  5. Incompressible flow computations based on the vorticity-stream function and velocity-pressure formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tezduyar, T. E.; Liou, J.; Ganjoo, D. K.

    1990-01-01

    Finite element procedures and computations based on the velocity-pressure and vorticity-stream function formulations of incompressible flows are presented. Two new multistep velocity-pressure formulations are proposed and compared with the vorticity-stream function and one-step formulations. The example problems chosen are the standing vortex problem and flow past a circular cylinder. Benchmark quality computations are performed for the cylinder problem. The numerical results indicate that the vorticity-stream function formulation and one of the two new multistep formulations involve much less numerical dissipation than the one-step formulation.

  6. Velocity vector analysis of a juncture flow using a three component laser velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, J. F.; Hepner, T. E.

    1984-01-01

    A specialized single-axis, five-beam three-component laser velocimeter was constructed and used to study the flow field in a juncture. The juncture was defined by a blunt leading edged vertical splitter plate and a sharp leading edged horizontal plate. The investigations were conducted in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel at a Mach number of 0.1 and a Reynolds number of 2.2 x 10 to the 6th per meter over the model. The three-component velocity flow field in the juncture was measured, Reynolds stresses calculated, and the velocity vector analysis performed.

  7. Velocity Vector Analysis of a Juncture Flow Using a Three-Component Laser Velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.; Hepner, Timothy E.

    1984-01-01

    A specialized single-axis, five-beam three-component laser velocimeter was constructed and used to study the flow field in a juncture. The juncture was defined by a blunt leading, edged vertical splitter plate and a sharp leading edged horizontal plate. The investigations were conducted in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel at a Mach number of 0.1 and a Reynolds number of 2.2 x 10(exp 6) per meter over the model. The three-component velocity flow field in the juncture was measured, Reynolds stresses calculated and the velocity vector analysis performed.

  8. The influence of bubble plumes on air-seawater gas transfer velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, W. E.; Karle, L. M.; Higgins, B. J.; Farley, P. J.; Monahan, E. C.; Leifer, I. S.

    1996-05-01

    Laboratory results have demonstrated that bubble plumes are a very efficient air-water gas transfer mechanism. Because breaking waves generate bubble plumes, it could be possible to correlate the air-sea gas transport velocity kL with whitecap coverage. This correlation would then allow kL to be predicted from measurements of apparent microwave brightness temperature through the increase in sea surface microwave emissivity associated with breaking waves. In order to develop this remote-sensing-based method for predicting air-sea gas fluxes, a whitecap simulation tank was used to measure evasive and invasive kL values for air-seawater transfer of carbon dioxide, oxygen, helium, sulfur hexafluoride, and dimethyl sulfide at cleaned and surfactant-influenced water surfaces. An empirical model has been developed that can predict kL from bubble plume coverage, diffusivity, and solubility. The observed dependence of kL on molecular diffusivity and aqueous-phase solubility agrees with the predictions of modeling studies of bubble-driven air-water gas transfer. It has also been shown that soluble surfactants can decrease kL even in the presence of breaking waves.

  9. Velocity and temperature field characteristics of water and air during natural convection heating in cans.

    PubMed

    Erdogdu, Ferruh; Tutar, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Presence of headspace during canning is required since an adequate amount allows forming vacuum during the process. Sealing technology may not totally eliminate all entrapped gases, and headspace might affect heat transfer. Not much attention has been given to solve this problem in computational studies, and cans, for example, were mostly assumed to be fully filled with product. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine velocity and temperature evolution of water and air in cans during heating to evaluate the relevance of headspace in the transport mechanism. For this purpose, canned water samples with a certain headspace were used, and required governing continuity, energy, and momentum equations were solved using a finite volume approach coupled with a volume of fluid element model. Simulation results correlated well with experimental results validating faster heating effects of headspace rather than insulation effects as reported in the literature. The organized velocity motions along the air-water interface were also shown. Practical Application: Canning is a universal and economic method for processing of food products, and presence of adequate headspace is required to form vacuum during sealing of the cans. Since sealing technology may not totally eliminate the entrapped gases, mainly air, headspace might affect heating rates in cans. This study demonstrated the increased heating rates in the presence of headspace in contrast with some studies in the literature. By applying the effect of headspace, required processing time for thermally processed foods can be reduced leading to more rapid processes and lower energy consumptions. PMID:21535663

  10. A reconciliation of empirical and mechanistic models of the air-sea gas transfer velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddijn-Murphy, Lonneke; Woolf, David K.; Callaghan, Adrian H.; Nightingale, Philip D.; Shutler, Jamie D.

    2016-01-01

    Models of the air-sea transfer velocity of gases may be either empirical or mechanistic. Extrapolations of empirical models to an unmeasured gas or to another water temperature can be erroneous if the basis of that extrapolation is flawed. This issue is readily demonstrated for the most well-known empirical gas transfer velocity models where the influence of bubble-mediated transfer, which can vary between gases, is not explicitly accounted for. Mechanistic models are hindered by an incomplete knowledge of the mechanisms of air-sea gas transfer. We describe a hybrid model that incorporates a simple mechanistic view—strictly enforcing a distinction between direct and bubble-mediated transfer—but also uses parameterizations based on data from eddy flux measurements of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) to calibrate the model together with dual tracer results to evaluate the model. This model underpins simple algorithms that can be easily applied within schemes to calculate local, regional, or global air-sea fluxes of gases.

  11. Measurement of velocity in rotational flows using ultrasonic anemometry: the flowmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchini, S.; Sanz-Andrés, A.; Cuerva, A.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper a previously developed theoretical model of the measurement process performed by a transit-time ultrasonic anemometer is applied to a fluid flowing through a circular section pipe. This model considers the influence of the shift of the acoustic pulse trajectory from straight propagation due to the flow on the measured speed. The aim of this work is to estimate the errors induced in the measured velocity by the shift of the acoustic pulse trajectory. Using different duct’s flow models, laminar and turbulent regimes have been analyzed. The results show that neglecting the effect of shift of the acoustic pulse trajectory leads to flow rate measurement underestimation.

  12. Self-adjustment of stream bed roughness and flow velocity in a steep mountain channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Johannes M.; Rickenmann, Dieter; Turowski, Jens M.; Kirchner, James W.

    2015-10-01

    Understanding how channel bed morphology affects flow conditions (and vice versa) is important for a wide range of fluvial processes and practical applications. We investigated interactions between bed roughness and flow velocity in a steep, glacier-fed mountain stream (Riedbach, Ct. Valais, Switzerland) with almost flume-like boundary conditions. Bed gradient increases along the 1 km study reach by roughly 1 order of magnitude (S = 3-41%), with a corresponding increase in streambed roughness, while flow discharge and width remain approximately constant due to the glacial runoff regime. Streambed roughness was characterized by semivariograms and standard deviations of point clouds derived from terrestrial laser scanning. Reach-averaged flow velocity was derived from dye tracer breakthrough curves measured by 10 fluorometers installed along the channel. Commonly used flow resistance approaches (Darcy-Weisbach equation and dimensionless hydraulic geometry) were used to relate the measured bulk velocity to bed characteristics. As a roughness measure, D84 yielded comparable results to more laborious measures derived from point clouds. Flow resistance behavior across this large range of steep slopes agreed with patterns established in previous studies for both lower-gradient and steep reaches, regardless of which roughness measures were used. We linked empirical critical shear stress approaches to the variable power equation for flow resistance to investigate the change of bed roughness with channel slope. The predicted increase in D84 with increasing channel slope was in good agreement with field observations.

  13. Direct velocity measurement of a turbulent shear flow in a planar Couette cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebling, Michael J.; Tallakstad, Ken Tore; Toussaint, Renaud; Mâløy, Knut Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    In a plane Couette cell a thin fluid layer consisting of water is sheared between the sides of a transparent band at Reynolds numbers ranging from 300 to 1400. The length of the cell's flow channel is large compared to the film separation. To extract the flow velocity in the experiments, a correlation image velocimetry method is used on pictures recorded with a high-speed camera. The flow is recorded at a resolution that allows us to analyze flow patterns similar in size to the film separation. The fluid flow is then studied by calculating flow velocity autocorrelation functions. The turbulent patterns that arise on this scale above a critical Reynolds number of Re =360 display characteristic patterns that are proven by use of the calculated velocity autocorrelation functions. The patterns are metastable and reappear at different positions and times throughout the experiments. Typically these patterns are turbulent rolls which are elongated in the stream direction, which is the direction in which the band is moving. Although the flow states are metastable they possess similarities to the steady Taylor vortices known to appear in circular Taylor Couette cells.

  14. 3D Simulation of Velocity Profile of Turbulent Flow in Open Channel with Complex Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamel, Benoumessad; Ilhem, Kriba; Ali, Fourar; Abdelbaki, Djebaili

    Simulation of open channel flow or river flow presents unique challenge to numerical simulators, which is widely used in the applications of computational fluid dynamics. The prediction is extremely difficult because the flow in open channel is usually transient and turbulent, the geometry is irregular and curved, and the free-surface elevation is varying with time. The results from a 3D non-linear k- ɛ turbulence model are presented to investigate the flow structure, the velocity distribution and mass transport process in a meandering compound open channel and a straight open channel. The 3D numerical model for calculating flow is set up in cylinder coordinates in order to calculate the complex boundary channel. The finite volume method is used to disperse the governing equations and the SIMPLE algorithm is applied to acquire the coupling of velocity and pressure. The non-linear k- ɛ turbulent model has good useful value because of taking into account the anisotropy and not increasing the computational time. The main contributions of this study are developing a numerical method that can be applied to predict the flow in river bends with various bend curvatures and different width-depth ratios. This study demonstrates that the 3D non-linear k- ɛ turbulence model can be used for analyzing flow structures, the velocity distribution and pollutant transport in the complex boundary open channel, this model is applicable for real river and wetland problem.

  15. A Continuous-Flow Polymerase Chain Reaction Microchip With Regional Velocity Control

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shifeng; Fozdar, David Y.; Ali, Mehnaaz F.; Li, Hao; Shao, Dongbing; Vykoukal, Daynene M.; Vykoukal, Jody; Floriano, Pierre N.; Olsen, Michael; McDevitt, John T.; Gascoyne, Peter R.C.; Chen, Shaochen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microchip with a serpentine microchannel of varying width for “regional velocity control.” Varying the channel width by incorporating expanding and contracting conduits made it possible to control DNA sample velocities for the optimization of the exposure times of the sample to each temperature phase while minimizing the transitional periods during temperature transitions. A finite element analysis (FEA) and semi-analytical heat transfer model was used to determine the distances between the three heating assemblies that are responsible for creating the denaturation (96 °C), hybridization (60 °C), and extension (72 °C) temperature zones within the microchip. Predictions from the thermal FEA and semi-analytical model were compared with temperature measurements obtained from an infrared (IR) camera. Flow-field FEAs were also performed to predict the velocity distributions in the regions of the expanding and contracting conduits to study the effects of the microchannel geometry on flow recirculation and bubble nucleation. The flow fields were empirically studied using micro particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) to validate the flow-field FEA’s and to determine experimental velocities in each of the regions of different width. Successful amplification of a 90 base pair (bp) bacillus anthracis DNA fragment was achieved. PMID:19829760

  16. Annular fuel and air co-flow premixer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Christian Xavier; Melton, Patrick Benedict; York, William David

    2013-10-15

    Disclosed is a premixer for a combustor including an annular outer shell and an annular inner shell. The inner shell defines an inner flow channel inside of the inner shell and is located to define an outer flow channel between the outer shell and the inner shell. A fuel discharge annulus is located between the outer flow channel and the inner flow channel and is configured to inject a fuel flow into a mixing area in a direction substantially parallel to an outer airflow through the outer flow channel and an inner flow through the inner flow channel. Further disclosed are a combustor including a plurality of premixers and a method of premixing air and fuel in a combustor.

  17. Velocity measurement of two-phase liquid-gas flow in a horizontal pipeline using gamma densitometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanus, R.; Zych, M.; Petryka, L.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents application of gamma-ray absorption method to liquid-gas flow investigation in a pipeline. In the described measurement two sealed 241Am radioactive sources and probes with NaI(Tl) scintillation crystals have been used. For the analysis of digital signals provided by detectors, a traditional cross-correlation function (CCF), and modified correlation methods based on the quotient of CCF and average magnitude difference function (AMDF), as well as the quotient of CCF, and average square difference function (ASDF) have been proposed. Exemplary results of the mean velocity determination of the gaseous phase transported by a liquid in the water-air mixture flow were demonstrated and the evaluation of its uncertainty have been presented.

  18. CONVERGENT FLOWS AND LOW-VELOCITY SHOCKS IN DR21(OH)

    SciTech Connect

    Csengeri, T.; Bontemps, S.; Hora, J. L.

    2011-10-10

    DR21(OH) is a pc-scale massive, {approx}7000 M{sub sun} clump hosting three massive dense cores (MDCs) at an early stage of their evolution. We present a high angular resolution mosaic, covering {approx}70'' x 100'', with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 3 mm to trace the dust continuum emission and the N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1-0) and CH{sub 3}CN (J = 5-4) molecular emission. The cold, dense gas traced by the compact emission in N{sub 2}H{sup +} is associated with the three MDCs and shows several velocity components toward each MDC. These velocity components reveal local shears in the velocity fields which are best interpreted as convergent flows. Moreover, we report the detection of weak extended emission from CH{sub 3}CN at the position of the N{sub 2}H{sup +} velocity shears. We propose that this extended CH{sub 3}CN emission is tracing warm gas associated with the low-velocity shocks expected at the location of convergence of the flows where velocity shears are observed. This is the first detection of low-velocity shocks associated with small (subparsec) scale convergent flows which are proposed to be at the origin of the densest structures and of the formation of (high-mass) stars. In addition, we propose that MDCs may be active sites of star formation for more than a crossing time as they continuously receive material from larger scale flows as suggested by the global picture of dynamical, gravity-driven evolution of massive clumps which is favored by the present observations.

  19. The influence of macrophyte growth, typical of eutrophic conditions, on river flow velocities and turbulence production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naden, Pamela; Rameshwaran, Ponnambalam; Mountford, Owen; Robertson, Coralie

    2006-11-01

    The influence of emergent and submerged macrophytes on flow velocity and turbulence production is demonstrated in a 140 m reach of the River Blackwater in Farnborough, Hampshire, UK. Macrophyte growth occurs in patches and is dominated by Sparganium erectum and Sparganium emersum. In May 2001, patches of S. erectum were already established and occupied 18% of the channel area. The flow adjusted to these (predominantly lateral) patches by being channelled through a narrower cross-section. The measured velocity profiles showed a logarithmic form, with deviations attributable to topographic control. The channel bed was the main source of turbulence. In September 2001, in-stream macrophytes occupied 27% of the channel, and overhanging bank vegetation affected 32% of the area. Overall flow resistance, described by Manning's n, showed a threefold increase that could be attributed to the growth of S. emersum in the middle of the channel. Velocity profiles showed different characteristic forms depending on their position relative to plant stems and leaves. The overall velocity field had a three-dimensional structure. Turbulence intensities were generally higher and turbulence profiles tended to mirror the velocity profiles. Evidence for the generation of coherent eddies was provided by ratios of the root mean square velocities. Spectral analysis identified deviations from the Kolmogorov -5/3 power law and provided statistical evidence for a spectral short-cut, indicative of additional turbulence production. This was most marked for the submerged vegetation and, in some instances, the overhanging bank vegetation. The long strap-like leaves of S. emersum being aligned approximately parallel to the flow and the highly variable velocity field created by the patch arrangement of macrophytes suggest that the dominant mechanism for turbulence production is vortex shedding along shear zones. Wake production around individual stems of S. emersum close to the bed may also be

  20. Correlation analysis of spatio-temporal images for estimating two-dimensional flow velocity field in a rotating flow condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kwonkyu; Kim, Seojun; Kim, Dongsu

    2015-10-01

    Flow velocity estimation in actual rivers using image processing technique has been highlighted for hydrometric communities in the last decades, and this technique is called Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV). Although LSPIV has been successfully tested in many flow conditions, it has addressed several limitations estimating mean flow field because of difficult flow conditions such as rotating, lack of light and seeds, and noisy flow conditions. Recently, an alternative technique named STIV to use spatio-temporal images based on successively recorded images has been introduced to overcome the limitations of LSPIV. The STIV was successfully applied to obtain one-dimensional flow component in the river for estimating streamflow discharge, where the main flow direction is known. Using the 5th order of central difference scheme, the STIV directly calculated the mean angle of slopes which appeared as strips in the spatio-temporal images and has been proved to be more reliable and efficient for the discharge estimation as compared with the conventional LSPIV. However, yet it has not been sufficiently qualified to derive two-dimensional flow field in the complex flow, such as rotating or locally unsteady flow conditions. We deemed that it was because the strips in the given spatio-temporal images from not properly oriented for main flow direction are not narrow enough or clearly visible, thus the direct estimating strip slope could give erroneous results. Thereby, the STIV has been mainly applied for obtaining one-dimensional flow component. In this regard, we proposed an alternative algorithm to estimate the mean slope angle for enhancing the capability of the STIV, which used correlation coefficient between odd and even image splits from the given spatio-temporal image. This method was named CASTI (Correlation Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Image). This paper described the step-by-step procedure of the CASTI and validated its capability for estimating two

  1. Cerebral blood flow velocity in humans exposed to 24 h of head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, Y.; Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Deroshia, C. W.; Hargens, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in humans before, during, and after 24 h of 6 deg head-down tilt (HDT), which is a currently accepted experimental model to simulate microgravity. CBF velocity was measured by use of the transcranial Doppler technique in the right middle cerebral artery of eight healthy male subjects. Mean CBF velocity increased from the pre-HDT upright seated baseline value of 55.5 +/- 3.7 (SE) cm/s to 61.5 +/- 3.3 cm/s at 0.5 h of HDT, reached a peak value of 63.2 +/- 4.1 cm/s at 3 h of HDT, and remained significantly above the pre-HDT baseline for over 6 h of HDT. During upright seated recovery, mean CBF velocity decreased to 87 percent of the pre-HDT baseline value. Mean CBF velocity correlated well with calculated intracranial arterial pressure (IAP). As analyzed by linear regression, mean CBF velocity = 29.6 + 0.32IAP. These results suggest that HDT increases CBF velocity by increasing IAP during several hours after the onset of microgravity. Importantly, the decrease in CBF velocity after HDT may be responsible, in part, for the increased risk of syncope observed in subjects after prolonged bed rest and also in astronauts returning to Earth.

  2. Computation of flow and heat transfer in rotating cavities with peripheral flow of cooling air.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, M

    2001-05-01

    Numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations have been used to model the flow and the heat transfer that occurs in the internal cooling-air systems of gas turbines. Computations are performed to study the effect of gap ratio, Reynolds number and the mass flow rate on the flow and the heat transfer structure inside isothermal and heated rotating cavities with peripheral flow of cooling air. Computations are compared with some of the recent experimental work on flow and heat transfer in rotating-cavities. The agreement between the computed and the available experimental data is reasonably good. PMID:11460668

  3. Numerical analysis of air-flow and temperature field in a passenger car compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamar, Haslinda Mohamed; Kamsah, Nazri; Mohammad Nor, Ahmad Miski

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical study on the temperature field inside a passenger's compartment of a Proton Wira saloon car using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. The main goal is to investigate the effects of different glazing types applied onto the front and rear windscreens of the car on the distribution of air-temperature inside the passenger compartment in the steady-state conditions. The air-flow condition in the passenger's compartment is also investigated. Fluent CFD software was used to develop a three-dimensional symmetrical model of the passenger's compartment. Simplified representations of the driver and one rear passenger were incorporated into the CFD model of the passenger's compartment. Two types of glazing were considered namely clear insulated laminated tint (CIL) with a shading coefficient of 0.78 and green insulated laminate tint (GIL) with a shading coefficient of 0.5. Results of the CFD analysis were compared with those obtained when the windscreens are made up of clear glass having a shading coefficient of 0.86. Results of the CFD analysis show that for a given glazing material, the temperature of the air around the driver is slightly lower than the air around the rear passenger. Also, the use of GIL glazing material on both the front and rear windscreens significantly reduces the air temperature inside the passenger's compartment of the car. This contributes to a better thermal comfort condition to the occupants. Swirling air flow condition occurs in the passenger compartment. The air-flow intensity and velocity are higher along the side wall of the passenger's compartment compared to that along the middle section of the compartment. It was also found that the use of glazing materials on both the front and rear windscreen has no significant effects on the air-flow condition inside the passenger's compartment of the car.

  4. Development of a Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic for Time-Resolved Gas Flow Velocity, Temperature, and Density Measurements in Aerodynamic Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.; Sung, Chih-Jen

    2007-01-01

    A molecular Rayleigh scattering technique is developed to measure time-resolved gas velocity, temperature, and density in unseeded turbulent flows at sampling rates up to 32 kHz. A high power continuous-wave laser beam is focused at a point in an air flow field and Rayleigh scattered light is collected and fiber-optically transmitted to the spectral analysis and detection equipment. The spectrum of the light, which contains information about the temperature and velocity of the flow, is analyzed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Photomultiplier tubes operated in the photon counting mode allow high frequency sampling of the circular interference pattern to provide time-resolved flow property measurements. An acoustically driven nozzle flow is studied to validate velocity fluctuation measurements, and an asymmetric oscillating counterflow with unequal enthalpies is studied to validate the measurement of temperature fluctuations. Velocity fluctuations are compared with constant temperature anemometry measurements and temperature fluctuations are compared with constant current anemometry measurements at the same locations. Time-series and power spectra of the temperature and velocity measurements are presented. A numerical simulation of the light scattering and detection process was developed and compared with experimental data for future use as an experiment design tool.

  5. Experimental Studies of Low-Pressure Turbine Flows and Flow Control. Streamwise Pressure Profiles and Velocity Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volino, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes research performed in support of the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Low-Pressure Turbine (LPT) Flow Physics Program. The work was performed experimentally at the U.S. Naval Academy faculties. The geometry corresponded to "Pak B" LPT airfoil. The test section simulated LPT flow in a passage. Three experimental studies were performed: (a) Boundary layer measurements for ten baseline cases under high and low freestream turbulence conditions at five Reynolds numbers of 25,000, 50,000, 100,000, 200,000, and 300,000, based on passage exit velocity and suction surface wetted length; (b) Passive flow control studies with three thicknesses of two-dimensional bars, and two heights of three-dimensional circular cylinders with different spanwise separations, at same flow conditions as the 10 baseline cases; (c) Active flow control with oscillating synthetic (zero net mass flow) vortex generator jets, for one case with low freestream turbulence and a low Reynolds number of 25,000. The Passive flow control was successful at controlling the separation problem at low Reynolds numbers, with varying degrees of success from case to case and varying levels of impact at higher Reynolds numbers. The active flow control successfully eliminated the large separation problem for the low Reynolds number case. Very detailed data was acquired using hot-wire anemometry, including single and two velocity components, integral boundary layer quantities, turbulence statistics and spectra, turbulent shear stresses and their spectra, and intermittency, documenting transition, separation and reattachment. Models were constructed to correlate the results. The report includes a summary of the work performed and reprints of the publications describing the various studies.This report summarizes research performed in support of the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Low-Pressure Turbine (LPT) Flow Physics Program. The work was performed experimentally at the U.S. Naval Academy

  6. Spool Valve for Switching Air Flows Between Two Beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. Clark

    2005-01-01

    U.S. Patent 6,142,151 describes a dual-bed ventilation system for a space suit, with emphasis on a multiport spool valve that switches air flows between two chemical beds that adsorb carbon dioxide and water vapor. The valve is used to alternately make the air flow through one bed while exposing the other bed to the outer-space environment to regenerate that bed through vacuum desorption of CO2 and H2O. Oxygen flowing from a supply tank is routed through a pair of periodically switched solenoid valves to drive the spool valve in a reciprocating motion. The spool valve equalizes the pressures of air in the beds and the volumes of air flowing into and out of the beds during the alternations between the adsorption and desorption phases, in such a manner that the volume of air that must be vented to outer space is half of what it would be in the absence of pressure equalization. Oxygen that has been used to actuate the spool valve in its reciprocating motion is released into the ventilation loop to replenish air lost to vacuum during the previous desorption phase of the operating cycle.

  7. Profiling river surface velocities and volume flow estimation with bistatic UHF RiverSonde radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrick, D.; Teague, C.; Lilleboe, P.; Cheng, R.; Gartner, J.

    2003-01-01

    From the velocity profiles across the river, estimates of total volume flow for the four methods were calculated based on a knowledge of the bottom depth vs position across the river. It was found that the flow comparisons for the American River were much closer, within 2% of each other among all of the methods. Sources of positional biases and anomalies in the RiverSonde measurement patterns along the river were identified and discussed.

  8. Equipment for Measuring Air Flow, Air Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bruce W.

    Information on equipment and techniques that school facility personnel may use to evaluate IAQ conditions are discussed. Focus is placed on the IAQ parameters of air flow, air temperature, relative humidity, as well as carbon dioxide and the equipment used to measure these factors. Reasons for measurement and for when the measurement of these…

  9. Test Data of Flow Field of Shuttle SRM Nozzle Joint with Bond Defects, Using Unheated Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hair, Leroy M.; McAnally, James V.; Hengel, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The nozzle-to-case joint on the Shuttle SRM (as redesigned after the Challenger accident) features an adhesive sealant filling and bonding the joint, with a wiper O-ring to prevent the adhesive from reaching and disabling the closure O-ring. Flawless implementation of that joint design would ensure that hot, corrosive propellant combustion gases never reach the closure O-ring. However, understanding the flow field related to bonding defects is prudent. A comprehensive test program was conducted to quantify such flow fields and associated heating environments. A two-dimensional, full-scale model represented 65 inches of the nozzle joint, using unheated air as the test medium, in a blowdown mode. Geometry variations modeled RSRM assembly tolerances, and two types of bonding defects: pullaways and blowholes. A range of the magnitude of each type defect was tested. Also a range of operational parameters was tested, representative of the RSRM flow environment, including duplication of RSRM Mach and Reynolds numbers. Extensive instrumentation was provided to quantify pressures, heat rates, and velocities. The resulting data established that larger geometric defects cause larger pressure and larger heating, at the closure O-ring region. Velocity trends were not so straight-forward. Variations in assembly tolerances did not generally affect flow fields or heating. Operational parameters affected flow fields and heating as might be expected, increasing density or velocity increased heating. Complete details of this test effort are presented.

  10. Two-phase air/oil flow in aero engine bearing chambers: Characterization of oil film flows

    SciTech Connect

    Glahn, A.; Wittig, S.

    1996-07-01

    For the design of secondary air and lubrication oil systems, a sufficient knowledge of two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena under bearing chamber flow conditions is required. The characterization of oil film flows at the bearing chamber walls is one of the major tasks for a better understanding of these processes and, therefore, a necessity for improvements of the efficiency of aero engines. The present paper gives a contribution to this subject. Utilizing a fiber-optic LDV setup, measurements of oil film velocity profiles have been performed in the high-speed bearing chamber rig simulating real engine conditions. All data have been compared with different theoretical approaches, which have been derived from a force balance at a liquid film element, including geometric conditions and temperature dependent fluid properties, and by approaches for the eddy viscosity available in the literature.

  11. Cross-flow versus counterflow air-stripping towers

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J.C.; Marinas, B.J.

    1997-07-01

    Mass-transfer and pressure-drop packing performance correlations are used together with tower design equations and detailed cost models to compare the effectiveness of cross-flow and counterflow air stripping towers over a wide range of contaminant volatility. Cross-flow towers are shown to offer a significant economic advantage over counterflow towers when stripping low volatility organic contaminants primarily due to savings in energy costs. These savings increase as contaminant volatility decreases and as water flow rate increases. A further advantage of the cross-flow configuration is that it extends the feasible operating range for air stripping as cross-flow towers can accommodate higher air-to-water flow ratios than conventional counterflow towers. Finally it is shown that the optimized least-cost design for both counterflow and cross-flow towers varies with Henry`s law constant, water flow rate, and percent removal, but that the optimum is virtually insensitive to other cost and operating variables. This greatly simplifies the tower design procedure.

  12. Natural laminar flow hits smoother air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    Natural laminar flow (NLF) may be attained in aircraft with lower cost, weight, and maintenance penalties than active flow laminarization by means of a slot suction system. A high performance general aviation jet aircraft possessing a moderate degree of NLF over wing, fuselage, empennage and engine nacelles will accrue a 24 percent reduction in total aircraft drag in the cruise regime. NASA-Langley has conducted NLF research centered on the use of novel airfoil profiles as well as composite and milled aluminum alloy construction methods which minimize three-dimensional aerodynamic surface roughness and waviness. It is noted that higher flight altitudes intrinsically reduce unit Reynolds numbers, thereby minimizing turbulence for a given cruise speed.

  13. Colloid release and clogging in porous media: Effects of solution ionic strength and flow velocity.

    PubMed

    Torkzaban, Saeed; Bradford, Scott A; Vanderzalm, Joanne L; Patterson, Bradley M; Harris, Brett; Prommer, Henning

    2015-10-01

    The release and retention of in-situ colloids in aquifers play an important role in the sustainable operation of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes. The processes of colloid release, retention, and associated permeability changes in consolidated aquifer sediments were studied by displacing native groundwater with reverse osmosis-treated (RO) water at various flow velocities. Significant amounts of colloid release occurred when: (i) the native groundwater was displaced by RO-water with a low ionic strength (IS), and (ii) the flow velocity was increased in a stepwise manner. The amount of colloid release and associated permeability reduction upon RO-water injection depended on the initial clay content of the core. The concentration of released colloids was relatively low and the permeability reduction was negligible for the core sample with a low clay content of about 1.3%. In contrast, core samples with about 6 and 7.5% clay content exhibited: (i) close to two orders of magnitude increase in effluent colloid concentration and (ii) more than 65% permeability reduction. Incremental improvement in the core permeability was achieved when the flow velocity increased, whereas a short flow interruption provided a considerable increase in the core permeability. This dependence of colloid release and permeability changes on flow velocity and colloid concentration was consistent with colloid retention and release at pore constrictions due to the mechanism of hydrodynamic bridging. A mathematical model was formulated to describe the processes of colloid release, transport, retention at pore constrictions, and subsequent permeability changes. Our experimental and modeling results indicated that only a small fraction of the in-situ colloids was released for any given change in the IS or flow velocity. Comparison of the fitted and experimentally measured effluent colloid concentrations and associated changes in the core permeability showed good agreement, indicating that the

  14. Dynamics of air temperature, velocity and ammonia emissions in enclosed and conventional pig housing systems.

    PubMed

    Song, J I; Park, K-H; Jeon, J H; Choi, H L; Barroga, A J

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the dynamics of air temperature and velocity under two different ventilation and housing systems during summer and winter in Korea. The NH3 concentration of both housing systems was also investigated in relation to the pig's growth. The ventilation systems used were; negative pressure type for the enclosed pig house (EPH) and natural airflow for the conventional pig house (CPH). Against a highly fluctuating outdoor temperature, the EPH was able to maintain a stable temperature at 24.8 to 29.1°C during summer and 17.9 to 23.1°C during winter whilst the CPH had a wider temperature variance during summer at 24.7 to 32.3°C. However, the temperature fluctuation of the CPH during winter was almost the same with that of EPH at 14.5 to 18.2°C. The NH3 levels in the CPH ranged from 9.31 to 16.9 mg/L during summer and 5.1 to 19.7 mg/L during winter whilst that of the EPH pig house was 7.9 to 16.1 mg/L and 3.7 to 9.6 mg/L during summer and winter, respectively. These values were less than the critical ammonia level for pigs with the EPH maintaining a lower level than the CPH in both winter and summer. The air velocity at pig nose level in the EPH during summer was 0.23 m/s, enough to provide comfort because of the unique design of the inlet feature. However, no air movement was observed in almost all the lower portions of the CPH during winter because of the absence of an inlet feature. There was a significant improvement in weight gain and feed intake of pigs reared in the EPH compared to the CPH (p<0.05). These findings proved that despite the difference in the housing systems, a stable indoor temperature was necessary to minimize the impact of an avoidable and highly fluctuating outdoor temperature. The EPH consistently maintained an effective indoor airspeed irrespective of season; however the CPH had defective and stagnant air at pig nose level during winter. Characteristics of airflow direction and pattern were consistent relative to

  15. Effect of low air velocities on thermal homeostasis and comfort during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beumer, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness of different low air velocities in maintaining thermal comfort and homeostasis during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity was investigated. Five male subjects exercised on a treadmill for successive ten minute periods at 60, 71, and 83 percent of maximum oxygen consumption at each of four air velocities, 30, 50, 80, and 120 ft/min, at 22 C and 62 percent relative humidity. No consistent trends or statistically significant differences between air velocities were found in body weight loss, sweat accumulation, or changes in rectal, skin, and body temperatures. Occurrence of the smallest body weight loss at 120 ft/min, the largest sweat accumulation at 30 ft/min, and the smallest rise in rectal temperature and the greatest drop in skin temperature at 120 ft/min all suggested more efficient evaporative cooling at the highest velocity. Heat storage at all velocities was evidenced by increased rectal and body temperatures; skin temperatures declined or increased only slightly. Body and rectal temperature increases corresponded with increased perception of warmth and slight thermal discomfort as exercise progressed. At all air velocities, mean thermal perception never exceeded warm and mean discomfort, greatest at 30 ft/min, was categorized at worst as uncomfortable; sensation of thermal neutrality and comfort returned rapidly after cessation of exercise. Suggestions for further elucidation of the effects of low air velocities on thermal comfort and homeostasis include larger numbers of subjects, more extensive skin temperature measurements and more rigorous analysis of the data from this study.

  16. Atmospheric corrosion effects of HNO 3—Influence of concentration and air velocity on laboratory-exposed copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samie, Farid; Tidblad, Johan; Kucera, Vladimir; Leygraf, Christofer

    A recently developed experimental set-up has been used to explore the atmospheric corrosion effects of nitric acid (HNO 3) on copper, in particular the influence of concentration and air velocity. Characterization and quantification of the corrosion products on exposed samples were performed with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrocscopy, ion chromatography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-balance and microscopy. At low air velocity (0.03 cm s -1) HNO 3 deposition and weight gain of copper increased linearly with concentration up to 400 μg m -3 or 156 ppb. The influence of air velocity on corrosion of copper was tested within the range of 0.03-35.4 cm s -1. Although the air velocity in this study was significantly lower than typical outdoor wind values, a high HNO 3 concentration of the air velocity of 35.4 cm s -1 resulted in a relatively high deposition velocity ( Vd) of 0.9 cm s -1 on the metal surface and 1.2 cm s -1 on an ideal absorbent, which would imply a limiting deposition velocity on the copper surface ( Vd,surf) of 3.6 cm s -1. Results obtained in this study emphasize the importance for future research on the corrosion effects of HNO 3 on materials as very little has so far been done in this field.

  17. Low Dimensional Tools for Flow-Structure Interaction Problems: Application to Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmit, Ryan F.; Glauser, Mark N.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    A low dimensional tool for flow-structure interaction problems based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and modified Linear Stochastic Estimation (mLSE) has been proposed and was applied to a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) wing. The method utilizes the dynamic strain measurements from the wing to estimate the POD expansion coefficients from which an estimation of the velocity in the wake can be obtained. For this experiment the MAV wing was set at five different angles of attack, from 0 deg to 20 deg. The tunnel velocities varied from 44 to 58 ft/sec with corresponding Reynolds numbers of 46,000 to 70,000. A stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to measure the wake of the MAV wing simultaneously with the signals from the twelve dynamic strain gauges mounted on the wing. With 20 out of 2400 POD modes, a reasonable estimation of the flow flow was observed. By increasing the number of POD modes, a better estimation of the flow field will occur. Utilizing the simultaneously sampled strain gauges and flow field measurements in conjunction with mLSE, an estimation of the flow field with lower energy modes is reasonable. With these results, the methodology for estimating the wake flow field from just dynamic strain gauges is validated.

  18. Some issues in the simulation of two-phase flows: The relative velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräbel, J.; Hensel, S.; Ueberholz, P.; Zeidan, D.; Farber, P.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we compare numerical approximations for solving the Riemann problem for a hyperbolic two-phase flow model in two-dimensional space. The model is based on mixture parameters of state where the relative velocity between the two-phase systems is taken into account. This relative velocity appears as a main discontinuous flow variable through the complete wave structure and cannot be recovered correctly by some numerical techniques when simulating the associated Riemann problem. Simulations are validated by comparing the results of the numerical calculation qualitatively with OpenFOAM software. Simulations also indicate that OpenFOAM is unable to resolve the relative velocity associated with the Riemann problem.

  19. Stabilization of traffic flow in optimal velocity model via delayed-feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yanfei; Hu, Haiyan

    2013-04-01

    Traffic jams may occur due to various reasons, such as traffic accidents, lane reductions and on-ramps. In order to suppress the traffic congestion in an optimal velocity traffic model without any driver's delay taken into account, a delayed-feedback control of both displacement and velocity differences is proposed in this study. By using the delay-independent stability criteria and the H∞-norm, the delayed-feedback control can be determined to stabilize the unstable traffic flow and suppress the traffic jam. The numerical case studies are given to demonstrate and verify the new control method. Furthermore, a comparison is made between the new control method and the method proposed by Konishi et al. [K. Konishi, M. Hirai, H. Kokame, Decentralized delayed-feedback control of an optimal velocity traffic model, Eur. Phys. J. B 15 (2000) 715-722]. The results show that the new control method makes the traffic flow more stable and improves the control performance.

  20. Transonic flow solutions using a composite velocity procedure for potential, Euler and RNS equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordnier, R. E.; Rubin, S. G.

    1986-01-01

    Solutions for transonic viscous and inviscid flows using a composite velocity procedure are presented. The velocity components of the compressible flow equations are written in terms of a multiplicative composite consisting of a viscous or rotational velocity and an inviscid, irrotational, potential-like function. This provides for an efficient solution procedure that is locally representative of both asymptotic inviscid and boundary layer theories. A modified conservative form of the axial momentum equation that is required to obtain rotational solutions in the inviscid region is presented and a combined conservation/nonconservation form is applied for evaluation of the reduced Navier-Stokes (RNS), Euler and potential equations. A variety of results is presented and the effects of the approximations on entropy production, shock capturing, and viscous interaction are discussed.

  1. Transonic flow solutions using a composite velocity procedure for potential, Euler and RNS equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordnier, R. E.; Rubin, S. G.

    1989-01-01

    Solutions for transonic viscous and inviscid flows using a composite velocity procedure are presented. The velocity components of the compressible flow equations are written in terms of a multiplicative composite consisting of a viscous or rotational velocity and an inviscid, irrotational, potential-like function. This provides for an efficient solution procedure that is locally representative of both asymptotic inviscid and boundary layer theories. A modified conservative form of the axial momentum equation that is required to obtain rotational solutions in the inviscid region is presented and a combined conservation/nonconservation form is applied for evaluation of the reduced Navier-Stokes (RNS), Euler and potential equations. A variety of results is presented and the effects of the approximations on entropy production, shock capturing, and viscous interaction are discussed.

  2. Effects of subfilter velocity modelling on dispersed phase in LES of heated channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozorski, Jacek; Knorps, Maria; Łuniewski, Mirosław

    2011-12-01

    A non-isothermal turbulent flow with the dispersed phase is modelled using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach for fluid, one-way coupled with the equations of point-particle evolution. The channel is heated at both walls and isoflux boundary conditions are applied for fluid. Particle velocity and thermal statistics are computed. Of particular interest are the r.m.s. profiles and the probability density function of particle temperature in the near-wall region. We compare our findings with available reference data for particle-laden, heated channel flow. Moreover, an open issue in LES is the influence of non-resolved (residual) scales of fluid velocity and temperature fields on particles. In the present contribution, we apply a stochastic model for subfilter fluid velocity at the particle positions that aims at reconstructing the effects of the smallest scales of turbulence on particle dynamics. We analyse the impact of this model on particle thermal statistics.

  3. Bulk Flow Velocity and First-Order Anisotropy of Solar Energetic Particles Observed on Wind Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, L. C.; Reames, D. V.; Ng, C. K.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed a technique to calculate the bulk flow velocity and first-order anisotropy of solar energetic particles (SEPs) with MeV per nucleon energies. Using the technique we have selected and analyzed three "gradual" SEP events recorded by the Low-Energy Matrix Telescope (LEMT) of the Energetic Particles: Acceleration, Composition, and Transport experiment (EPACT) on the Wind spacecraft. Since in our selected events, the interplanetary magnetic field upstream of interplanetary (IP) shock is nearly perpendicular to the solar-wind velocity, the effect of SEP scattering centers can be clearly discerned. From the observations of H, He, O, and Fe ions at different energies, we find that upstream of IP shock the bulk flow direction of heavy ions is opposite to that of protons. In addition, the ion velocity/rigidity dependence of the first-order anisotropy of SEPs is different between the onset and the upstream region. The implication of our observations will be discussed.

  4. Method and apparatus for optical Doppler tomographic imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, John Stuart; Milner, Thomas Edward; Chen, Zhongping

    1999-01-01

    Optical Doppler tomography permits imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media. The tomography system combines Doppler velocimetry with high spatial resolution of partially coherent optical interferometry to measure fluid flow velocity at discrete spatial locations. Noninvasive in vivo imaging of blood flow dynamics and tissue structures with high spatial resolutions of the order of 2 to 10 microns is achieved in biological systems. The backscattered interference signals derived from the interferometer may be analyzed either through power spectrum determination to obtain the position and velocity of each particle in the fluid flow sample at each pixel, or the interference spectral density may be analyzed at each frequency in the spectrum to obtain the positions and velocities of the particles in a cross-section to which the interference spectral density corresponds. The realized resolutions of optical Doppler tomography allows noninvasive in vivo imaging of both blood microcirculation and tissue structure surrounding the vessel which has significance for biomedical research and clinical applications.

  5. Measurement of Plasma Ion Temperature and Flow Velocity from Chord-Averaged Emission Line Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xu

    2011-06-01

    The distinction between Doppler broadening and Doppler shift has been analysed, the differences between Gaussian fitting and the distribution of chord-integral line shape have also been discussed. Local ion temperature and flow velocity have been derived from the chord-averaged emission line profile by a chosen-point Gaussian fitting technique.

  6. Steady-State Axial Temperature and Flow Velocity in Triga Channel.

    2007-02-28

    Version 00 TRISTAN-IJS is a computer program for calculating steady-state axial temperature distribution and flow velocity through a vertical coolant channel in low power TRIGA reactor core, cooled by natural circulation. It is designed for steady-state thermohydraulic analysis of TRIGA research reactors operating at a low power level of 1-2 MW.

  7. Mean Flow Velocities and Mass Transport for Equatorially-Trapped Water Waves with an Underlying Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, David; Sastre-Gomez, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the mean flow velocities, and related mass transport, which are induced by certain equatorially-trapped water waves. In particular, we examine a recently-derived exact and explicit solution to the geophysical governing equations in the {β} -plane approximation at the equator which incorporates a constant underlying current.

  8. Rizatriptan does not change cerebral blood flow velocity during migraine attacks.

    PubMed

    Gori, S; Morelli, N; Bellini, G; Bonanni, E; Manca, L; Orlandi, G; Iudice, A; Murri, L

    2005-04-30

    Rizatriptan represents a major advance in the treatment of migraine attack: inhibition of peripheral trigeminal nerve and constriction of intracranial extracerebral blood vessels have been proposed as its main antimigraine mechanisms of action. Although many studies may suggest that rizatriptan causes highly selective vasoconstriction within intracranial extracerebral vessels (i.e., meningeal arteries), no literature data are available to date on possible cerebral hemodynamic changes in humans after treatment with rizatriptan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of rizatriptan on cerebral blood flow velocity performing transcranial Doppler during spontaneous attacks of migraine without aura. Fourteen patients suffering from migraine without aura were monitored to evaluate mean flow velocity changes on both middle cerebral arteries during migraine attack 30 min before and 120 min after oral administration of rizatriptan 10mg. Monitoring was repeated for 30 min during the pain-free period. All patients turned out to be drug responders and no significant mean flow velocity changes were observed between the pain-free period and pre-treatment phase; besides no significant difference in mean flow velocity value have been detected between the periods after the drug administration during the attack versus both pre-treatment period and pain-free phase. These findings indicate that the antimigraine action of rizatriptan is not associated with clear intracranial cerebral hemodynamic changes and may support its cerebrovascular safety. PMID:15811594

  9. Laser Doppler field sensor for high resolution flow velocity imaging without camera

    SciTech Connect

    Voigt, Andreas; Bayer, Christian; Shirai, Katsuaki; Buettner, Lars; Czarske, Juergen

    2008-09-20

    In this paper we present a laser sensor for highly spatially resolved flow imaging without using a camera. The sensor is an extension of the principle of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Instead of a parallel fringe system, diverging and converging fringes are employed. This method facilitates the determination of the tracer particle position within the measurement volume and leads to an increased spatial and velocity resolution compared to conventional LDA. Using a total number of four fringe systems the flow is resolved in two spatial dimensions and the orthogonal velocity component. Since no camera is used, the resolution of the sensor is not influenced by pixel size effects. A spatial resolution of 4 {mu}m in the x direction and 16 {mu}m in the y direction and a relative velocity resolution of 1x10{sup -3} have been demonstrated up to now. As a first application we present the velocity measurement of an injection nozzle flow. The sensor is also highly suitable for applications in nano- and microfluidics, e.g., for the measurement of flow rates.

  10. Correction factor to dye-measured flow velocity under varying water and sediment discharges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dye-tracing technique was a widely used method to measure velocity of overland flow in soil erosion studies under both laboratory and field conditions. Few studies were performed to quantify the effects of sediment load on correction factor on steep slopes. The objective was to investigate the poten...

  11. Influence of Doppler-tipped guidewire position in coronary artery on blood flow velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, Ivan S.; Dupouy, Patrick J.; Kvasnicka, Jan; Geschwind, Herbert J.

    1995-05-01

    A pulsatile blood flow model was used to estimate the influence of position of Doppler guide wires with 12 MHz forward looking ultrasound transducers on the average spectral peak velocity. Three 0.014-inch and three 0.018-inch Doppler guide wires were positioned in plastic tubes ranging from 1.7 mm to 8.0 mm internal diameter. Blood flow of 50, 100 and 200 ml/min was adjusted using a roller-pump. The flow velocity was lower by 54% near the wall than in the center of large tubes (diameter 8.0 mm). In tubes of 2.9 mm and 4.2 mm in diameter the maximum variations were 11% and 22.5% for the 0.014-inch guide wire and 7.5% and 20% for the 0.018-inch guide wire, respectively. No variance in velocity related to wire position was observed in small (1.7 mm) tubes. The system was not sensitive to angular displacement of the guide wire in the range of +/- 30 degree(s). These results demonstrate that intravascular Doppler ultrasound flowmeter may be accurately utilized for measurements of blood flow velocity in small coronary arteries without any need to reposition the guidewire.

  12. An experimental investigation on the effects of surface gravity waves on the water evaporation rate in different air flow regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jodat, Amin; Moghiman, Mohammad; Shirkhani, Golshad

    2013-12-01

    Estimating rate of evaporation from undisturbed water surfaces to moving and quiet air has been the topic a vast number of research activities. The obvious presence of various shapes of gravity waves on the water body surfaces was the motivation of this experimental investigation. In this investigation experimental measurements have been done to quantify evaporation rate from wavy water surfaces in free, mixed and forced convection regimes. The effects of a wide range of surface gravity waves from low steepness, round shaped crest with slow celerity, to steep and very slight spilling crest waves, on the water evaporation rate have been investigated. A wide range of was achieved by applying different air flow velocities on a large heated wave flume equipped with a wind tunnel. Results reveal that wave motion on the water surface increase the rate of evaporation for all air flow regimes. For free convection, due to the effect of wave motion for pumping rotational airflows at the wave troughs and the dominant effect of natural convection for the air flow advection, the maximum evaporation increment percentage from wavy water surface is about 70 %. For mixed and forced convection, water evaporation rate increment is more sensitive to the air flow velocity for the appearance of very slight spilling on the steep wave crests and the leeward air flow structures.

  13. Groundwater flow velocity measurements in a sinkhole at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve Facility, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, S.; Gibson, J.

    1995-02-01

    In 1992, a sinkhole was discovered above a Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility at Weeks Island, Louisiana. The oil is stored in an old salt mine located within a salt dome. In order to assess the hydrologic significance of the sink hole, an In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor was deployed within a sand-filled conduit in the salt dome directly beneath the sinkhole. The flow sensor is a recently developed instrument which uses a thermal perturbation technique to measure the magnitude and direction of the full 3-dimensional groundwater flow velocity vector in saturated, permeable materials. The flow sensor measured substantial groundwater flow directed vertically downward into the salt dome. The data obtained with the flow sensor provided critical evidence which was instrumental in assessing the significance of the sinkhole in terms of the integrity of the oil storage facility.

  14. Optical Feedback Interferometry for Velocity Measurement of Parallel Liquid-Liquid Flows in a Microchannel.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Miquet, Evelio E; Perchoux, Julien; Loubière, Karine; Tronche, Clément; Prat, Laurent; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Optical feedback interferometry (OFI) is a compact sensing technique with recent implementation for flow measurements in microchannels. We propose implementing OFI for the analysis at the microscale of multiphase flows starting with the case of parallel flows of two immiscible fluids. The velocity profiles in each phase were measured and the interface location estimated for several operating conditions. To the authors knowledge, this sensing technique is applied here for the first time to multiphase flows. Theoretical profiles issued from a model based on the Couette viscous flow approximation reproduce fairly well the experimental results. The sensing system and the analysis presented here provide a new tool for studying more complex interactions between immiscible fluids (such as liquid droplets flowing in a microchannel). PMID:27527178

  15. Electromagnetic velocity gauge: use of multiple gauges, time response, and flow perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, L.M.; Johnson, C.B.; Parker, N.L.; Vantine, H.C.; Weingart, R.C.; Lee, R.S.

    1981-04-08

    We have developed an in-situ electromagnetic velocity (EMV) gauge system for use in multiple-gauge studies of initiating and detonating explosives. We have also investigated the risetime of the gauge and the manner in which it perturbs a reactive flow. We report on the special precautions that are necessary in multiple gauge experiments to reduce lead spreading, simplify target fabrication problems and minimize cross talk through the conducting explosive. Agreement between measured stress records and calculations from multiple velocity gauge data give us confidence that our velocity gauges are recording properly. We have used laser velocity interferometry to measure the gauge risetime in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). To resolve the difference in the two methods, we have examined hydrodynamic and material rate effects. In addition, we considered the effects of shock tilt, electronic response and magntic diffusion on the gauge's response time.

  16. Applicability of acoustic Doppler devices for flow velocity measurements and discharge estimation in flows with sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nord, Guillaume; Gallart, Francesc; Gratiot, Nicolas; Soler, Montserrat; Reid, Ian; Vachtman, Dina; Latron, Jérôme; Martín-Vide, Juan Pedro; Laronne, Jonathan B.

    2014-02-01

    Acoustic Doppler devices (Unidata Starflow) have been deployed for velocity measurements and discharge estimates in five contrasted open-channel flow environments, with particular attention given to the influence of sediment transport on instrument performance. The analysis is based on both field observations and flume experiments. These confirm the ability of the Starflow to provide reliable discharge time-series, but point out its limitations when sediment is being transported. (i) After calibration of the instrument by the Index Velocity Method, the deviation from reference discharge measurements was < 20% at the 95% confidence level. (ii) In ungauged conditions at high flows, the Starflow was particularly useful in providing velocity data for approximating measurements of discharge. (iii) However, channel and flume experiments revealed the effects of mobilised sediment on velocity estimates: coarse particles (⩾ 150 μm) transported by way of saltation or as bedload caused a significant underestimation of velocity by as much as 50%; a slight underestimation (10-15%) was also observed when significant quantities of fine particles (⩽150 μm) were transported in suspension; this underestimation was shown to reach 20-30% when suspended sediment concentrations were very high (c. 50-100 g L-1).

  17. Blood flow velocity in the popliteal vein using transverse oscillation ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechsgaard, Thor; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Holbek, Simon; Lönn, Lars; Strandberg, Charlotte; Bækgaard, Niels; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    Chronic venous disease is a common condition leading to varicose veins, leg edema, post-thrombotic syndrome and venous ulcerations. Ultrasound (US) is the main modality for examination of venous disease. Color Doppler and occasionally spectral Doppler US (SDUS) are used for evaluation of the venous flow. Peak velocities measured by SDUS are rarely used in a clinical setting for evaluating chronic venous disease due to inadequate reproducibility mainly caused by the angle dependency of the estimate. However, estimations of blood velocities are of importance in characterizing venous disease. Transverse Oscillation US (TOUS), a non-invasive angle independent method, has been implemented on a commercial scanner. TOUS's advantage compared to SDUS is a more elaborate visualization of complex flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate, whether TOUS perform equal to SDUS for recording velocities in the veins of the lower limbs. Four volunteers were recruited for the study. A standardized flow was provoked with a cuff compression-decompression system placed around the lower leg. The average peak velocity in the popliteal vein of the four volunteers was 151.5 cm/s for SDUS and 105.9 cm/s for TOUS (p <0.001). The average of the peak velocity standard deviations (SD) were 17.0 cm/s for SDUS and 13.1 cm/s for TOUS (p <0.005). The study indicates that TOUS estimates lower peak velocity with improved SD when compared to SDUS. TOUS may be a tool for evaluation of venous disease providing quantitative measures for the evaluation of venous blood flow.

  18. Optical Air Flow Measurements in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Jentink, Henk W.

    2004-01-01

    This document has been written to assist the flight-test engineer and researcher in using optical flow measurements in flight applications. The emphasis is on describing tradeoffs in system design to provide desired measurement performance as currently understood. Optical system components are discussed with examples that illustrate the issues. The document concludes with descriptions of optical measurement systems designed for a variety of applications including aeronautics research, airspeed measurement, and turbulence hazard detection. Theoretical discussion is minimized, but numerous references are provided to supply ample opportunity for the reader to understand the theoretical underpinning of optical concepts.

  19. A velocity-correction projection method based immersed boundary method for incompressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shanggui

    2014-11-01

    In the present work we propose a novel direct forcing immersed boundary method based on the velocity-correction projection method of [J.L. Guermond, J. Shen, Velocity-correction projection methods for incompressible flows, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 41 (1)(2003) 112]. The principal idea of immersed boundary method is to correct the velocity in the vicinity of the immersed object by using an artificial force to mimic the presence of the physical boundaries. Therefore, velocity-correction projection method is preferred to its pressure-correction counterpart in the present work. Since the velocity-correct projection method is considered as a dual class of pressure-correction method, the proposed method here can also be interpreted in the way that first the pressure is predicted by treating the viscous term explicitly without the consideration of the immersed boundary, and the solenoidal velocity is used to determine the volume force on the Lagrangian points, then the non-slip boundary condition is enforced by correcting the velocity with the implicit viscous term. To demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method, several numerical simulations are performed and compared with the results in the literature. China Scholarship Council.

  20. The respective roles of bulk friction and slip velocity during a granular mass flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staron, Lydie

    2016-04-01

    Catastrophic granular mass flows form an important natural hazard. Mitigation has motivated numerous studies on the properties of natural granular flows, and in particular, their ability to travel long distances away from the release point. The mobility of granular flows is commonly characterised through the definition of rheological properties and effective friction. Yet, it is widely accepted that the description in term of effective friction may include various lubrication effects, softening at the base of the flow and large slip velocities being a most likely one. In this case, flow bulk properties may obliterate the flow boundary conditions. In this contribution, we investigate how disentangling bulk properties from boundary conditions may improve our understanding of the flow. Using discrete simulations, we induce increasing slip velocities in different flow configurations. We show that increased mobility may be achieved without changing bulk properties. The results are interpreted in terms of a Robin-Navier slip condition and implemented in a continuum Navier-Stokes solver. We quantify the respective role of rheological bulk properties and boundary conditions in the general behaviour of a transient mass flow. We show that omitting the description of boundary conditions leads to misinterpretation of the flow properties. The outcome is discussed in terms of models reliability. References P.-Y. Lagrée et al, The granular column collapse as a continuum: validity of a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes model with the mu(I) rheology, J. Fluid Mech. 686, 378-408 (2011) L. Staron and E. Lajeunesse, Understanding how the volume affects the mobility of dry debris flows, Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L12402 (2009) L. Staron, Mobility of long-runout rock flows: a discrete numerical investigation, Geophys. J. Int. 172, 455-463 (2008)

  1. Flow velocity analysis for avoidance of solids deposition during transport of Hanford tank waste slurries

    SciTech Connect

    ESTEY, S.D.

    1999-02-25

    This engineering analysis calculates minimum slurry transport velocities intended to maintain suspensions of solid particulate in slurries. This transport velocity is also known as the slurry flow critical velocity. It is not universally recognized that a transfer line flow velocity in excess of the slurry critical velocity is a requirement to prevent solids deposition and possible line plugging. However, slurry critical velocity seems to be the most prevalent objective measure to prevent solids deposition in transfer lines. The following critical velocity correlations from the literature are investigated: Durand (1953), Spells (1955), Sinclair (1962), Zandi and Gavatos (1967), Babcock (1968), Shook (1969), and Oroskar and Turian (1980). The advantage of these critical velocity correlations is that their use is not reliant upon any measure of bulk slurry viscosity. The input parameters are limited to slurry phase densities and mass fractions, pipe diameter, particle diameter, and viscosity of the pure liquid phase of the slurry. Consequently, the critical velocity calculation does not require determination of system pressure drops. Generalized slurry properties can, therefore, be recommended if the slurry can be adequately described by these variables and if the liquid phase viscosity is known. Analysis of these correlations are presented, indicating that the Oroskar and Turian (1980) models appear to be more conservative for smaller particulate sizes, typically those less than 100 microns diameter. This analysis suggests that the current Tank Farms waste compatibility program criteria may be insufficient to prevent particulate solids settling within slurry composition ranges currently allowed by the waste compatibility program. However, in order to relate a critical velocity associated with a certain slurry composition to a system limit, a means of relating the system capabilities to the slurry composition must be found. Generally, this means expressing the bulk

  2. Equations of motion for the variable mass flow-variable exhaust velocity rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tempelman, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    An equation of motion for a one dimensional rocket is derived as a function of the mass flow rate into the acceleration chamber and the velocity distribution along the chamber, thereby including the transient flow changes in the chamber. The derivation of the mass density requires the introduction of the special time coordinate. The equation of motion is derived from both classical force and momentum approaches and is shown to be consistent with the standard equation expressed in terms of flow parameters at the exit to the acceleration chamber.

  3. Flow-driven transition and associated velocity profiles in a nematic liquid-crystal cell.

    PubMed

    Jewell, S A; Cornford, S L; Yang, F; Cann, P S; Sambles, J R

    2009-10-01

    The alignment properties and distribution of flow speed during Poiseuille flow through a microchannel of a nematic liquid crystal in a cell with homeotropic surface alignment has been measured using a combination of conoscopy, fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy, and time-lapse imaging. Two topologically distinct director profiles, with associated fluid velocity fields, are found to exist with the preferred state dictated by the volumetric flow rate of the liquid crystal. The results show excellent agreement with model data produced using the Ericksen-Leslie nematodynamics theory. PMID:19905324

  4. The measurement error analysis when a pitot probe is used in supersonic air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, XiWen; Hao, PengFei; Yao, ZhaoHui

    2011-04-01

    Pitot probes enable a simple and convenient way of measuring mean velocity in air flow. The contrastive numerical simulation between free supersonic airflow and pitot tube at different positions in supersonic air flow was performed using Navier-Stokes equations, the ENN scheme with time-dependent boundary conditions (TDBC) and the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The physical experimental results including pitot pressure and shadowgraph are also presented. Numerical results coincide with the experimental data. The flow characteristics of the pitot probe on the supersonic flow structure show that the measurement gives actually the total pressure behind the detached shock wave by using the pitot probe to measure the total pressure. The measurement result of the distribution of the total pressure can still represent the real free jet flow. The similar features of the intersection and reflection of shock waves can be identified. The difference between the measurement results and the actual ones is smaller than 10%. When the pitot probe is used to measure the region of L=0-4 D, the measurement is smaller than the real one due to the increase of the shock wave strength. The difference becomes larger where the waves intersect. If the pitot probe is put at L=8 D-10 D, where the flow changes from supersonic to subsonic, the addition of the pitot probe turns the original supersonic flow region subsonic and causes bigger measurement errors.

  5. Simulation of 3-D Nonequilibrium Seeded Air Flow in the NASA-Ames MHD Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Sumeet; Tannehill, John C.; Mehta, Unmeel B.

    2004-01-01

    The 3-D nonequilibrium seeded air flow in the NASA-Ames experimental MHD channel has been numerically simulated. The channel contains a nozzle section, a center section, and an accelerator section where magnetic and electric fields can be imposed on the flow. In recent tests, velocity increases of up to 40% have been achieved in the accelerator section. The flow in the channel is numerically computed us ing a 3-D parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) algorithm that has been developed to efficiently compute MHD flows in the low magnetic Reynolds number regime: The MHD effects are modeled by introducing source terms into the PNS equations which can then be solved in a very efficient manner. The algorithm has been extended in the present study to account for nonequilibrium seeded air flows. The electrical conductivity of the flow is determined using the program of Park. The new algorithm has been used to compute two test cases that match the experimental conditions. In both cases, magnetic and electric fields are applied to the seeded flow. The computed results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Transcranial doppler assessment of cerebral flow velocity during perception and recognition of melodies.

    PubMed

    Matteis, M; Silvestrini, M; Troisi, E; Cupini, L M; Caltagirone, C

    1997-07-01

    The role of each cerebral hemisphere in the perception and recognition of musical information is not yet well understood. We studied cerebral blood flow changes during a melody perception task and a melody recognition task. Blood flow velocity in the two middle cerebral arteries of twenty right-handed musically naif volunteers were simultaneously measured by means of bilateral transcranial Doppler ultrasonography during two minutes of passive melody listening and two minutes of a melody recognition task. With respect to baseline values, a bilateral increase of flow velocity occurred in the middle cerebral arteries with a non-significant trend for the right artery during the melody perception task. During the melody recognition task, a significant increase in flow velocity was recorded on the right side with respect to the left side, where a slight simultaneous decrease was found. Our data suggest that melody perception requires bilateral activation of hemispheres and melody recognition mainly an activation of the right hemisphere. This study confirms the ability of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography to correlate artery flow dynamics with selective cerebral activation. PMID:9168166

  7. Effect of airstream velocity on mean drop diameters of water sprays produced by pressure and air atomizing nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning radiometer was used to determine the effect of airstream velocity on the mean drop diameter of water sprays produced by pressure atomizing and air atomizing fuel nozzles used in previous combustion studies. Increasing airstream velocity from 23 to 53.4 meters per second reduced the Sauter mean diameter by approximately 50 percent with both types of fuel nozzles. The use of a sonic cup attached to the tip of an air assist nozzle reduced the Sauter mean diameter by approximately 40 percent. Test conditions included airstream velocities of 23 to 53.4 meters per second at 293 K and atmospheric pressure.

  8. Velocity and scalar fields of turbulent premixed flame in stagnation flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, P.; Law, C. K.; Cheng, R. K.; Shepherd, I. G.

    1988-08-01

    Detailed experimental measurements of the scalar and velocity statistics of premixed methane/air flames stabilized by a stagnation plant are reported. Conditioned and unconditioned velocity of two components and the reaction progress variables are measured by using a two-component laser Doppler velocimetry techniques and Mie scattering techniques, respectively. Experimental conditions cover equivalence ratios of 0.9 and 1.0, incident turbulence intensities of 0.3 to 0.45 m/s, and global stretch rates of 100 to 150 sec sup minus 1. The experimental results are analyzed in the context of the Bray-Moss-Libby flamelet model of these flames. The results indicate that there is no turbulence production within the turbulent flame brush and the second and third order turbulent transport terms are reduced to functions of the difference between the conditioned mean velocity. The result of normalization of these relative velocities by the respective velocity increase across laminar flames suggest that the mean unconditioned velocity profiles are self-similar.

  9. Air flow management in an internal combustion engine through the use of electronically controlled air jets

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, M.R.

    1988-12-27

    This patent describes a means for producing an air/fuel mixture in the valve pocket and means for directing the air/fuel mixture past the intake valve into the combustion chamber, the improvement comprising a device for generating a swirling flow of the air/fuel mixture in the combustion chamber to thereby obtain greater combustion stability. The device has a nozzle positioned within the valve pocket and directed at an acute angle toward the intake valve comprising at least one opening for receiving air, connected to a first pathway, and at least one opening for expelling air, connected, to a second pathway joined to the first pathway and extending to the expulsion opening. The device also includes a means for controlling the flow of air through the pathway and out the expulsion opening comprising: (i) a stopper having sides complementary in shape to the pair of opposed arcuate walls movable from an open position allowing air through the pathway to a closed position, wherein the sides of the stopper are in a sealed relationship with the opposed arcaute sides of the junction thereby preventing the flow of air through the second pathway and out of the expulsion opening; and (ii) an electronic computer which determines the size and duration of the pathway opening.

  10. Velocity, correlation time and diffusivity measurements in highly turbulent gas flow by an MRI method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhi; Newling, Ben

    2007-03-01

    We present non-invasive, quantitative MRI wind-tunnel measurements in flowing gas (velocity > 10 m/s) at high Reynolds numbers (Re > 10^5). Our measurement method is three-dimensional and has the potential for saving time over traditional pointwise techniques. The method is suitable for liquids and for gases. We demonstrate the use of the technique on different test sections (bluff obstruction, clark Y-wing and cylinder). The mean velocity of gas flowing past those sections has been measured. We also investigate methods to measure flow correlation times by changing the acquisition interval between excitation of the sample and detection of the signal. This may be accomplished by making separate measurements or by using a multiple-point acquisition method. A measurement of correlation time allows us to map turbulent diffusivity. The MRI data are compared with computational fluid dynamics.

  11. Measurements of the wall-normal velocity component in very high Reynolds number pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallikivi, Margit; Hultmark, Marcus; Smits, Alexander J.

    2012-11-01

    Nano-Scale Thermal Anemometry Probes (NSTAPs) have recently been developed and used to study the scaling of the streamwise component of turbulence in pipe flow over a very large range of Reynolds numbers. This probe has an order of magnitude higher spatial and temporal resolution than regular hot wires, allowing it to resolve small scale motions at very high Reynolds numbers. Here use a single inclined NSTAP probe to study the scaling of the wall normal component of velocity fluctuations in the same flow. These new probes are calibrated using a method that is based on the use of the linear stress region of a fully developed pipe flow. Results on the behavior of the wall-normal component of velocity for Reynolds numbers up to 2 million are reported. Supported under NR Grant N00014-09-1-0263 (program manager Ron Joslin) and NSF Grant CBET-1064257 (program manager Henning Winter).

  12. A GIS-based Computational Tool for Multidimensional Flow Velocity by Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Winkler, M.; Muste, M.

    2015-06-01

    Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) provide efficient and reliable flow measurements compared to other tools for characteristics of the riverine environments. In addition to originally targeted discharge measurements, ADCPs are increasingly utilized to assess river flow characteristics. The newly developed VMS (Velocity Mapping Software) aims at providing an efficient process for quality assurance, mapping velocity vectors for visualization and facilitating comparison with physical and numerical model results. VMS was designed to provide efficient and smooth work flows for processing groups of transects. The software allows the user to select group of files and subsequently to conduct statistical and graphical quality assurance on the files as a group or individually as appropriate. VMS also enables spatial averaging in horizontal and vertical plane for ADCP data in a single or multiple transects over the same or consecutive cross sections. The analysis results are displayed in numerical and graphical formats.

  13. The influence of the tangential velocity of inner rotating wall on axial velocity profile of flow through vertical annular pipe with rotating inner surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharf, Abdusalam M.; Jawan, Hosen A.; Almabsout, Fthi A.

    2014-03-01

    In the oil and gas industries, understanding the behaviour of a flow through an annulus gap in a vertical position, whose outer wall is stationary whilst the inner wall rotates, is a significantly important issue in drilling wells. The main emphasis is placed on experimental (using an available rig) and computational (employing CFD software) investigations into the effects of the rotation speed of the inner pipe on the axial velocity profiles. The measured axial velocity profiles, in the cases of low axial flow, show that the axial velocity is influenced by the rotation speed of the inner pipe in the region of almost 33% of the annulus near the inner pipe, and influenced inversely in the rest of the annulus. The position of the maximum axial velocity is shifted from the centre to be nearer the inner pipe, by increasing the rotation speed. However, in the case of higher flow, as the rotation speed increases, the axial velocity is reduced and the position of the maximum axial velocity is skewed towards the centre of the annulus. There is a reduction of the swirl velocity corresponding to the rise of the volumetric flow rate.

  14. In vitro and in vivo validation of time domain velocity and flow measurement technique.

    PubMed

    Maulik, D; Kadado, T; Downing, G; Phillips, C

    1995-12-01

    This study was undertaken to validate the time domain processing method for measuring (1) the peak velocity in comparison to pulsed-wave spectral Doppler findings in an in vitro system; (2) the volumetric flow in comparison to the actual flow measured by a graduated cylinder in an in vitro circulation; and (3) the volumetric flow in comparison to a transit time flowmeter in a permanently instrumented neonatal lamb model. A prototype implementation of time domain processing in a commercial ultrasound device was used. For velocimetry, both time domain processing and Doppler methods showed low variance, low intrarater variability (0.03 and 0.09%, respectively), high reliability coefficients (97% and 96%, respectively), and a significant correlation (r = 0.96; P < 0.001). For in vitro flow quantification, time domain processing and graduated cylinder methods showed low variance, low intrarater variability (0.09 and 0.01%, respectively), high reliability coefficients (99.60% and 99.96%, respectively), and a significant correlation (r = 0.98, P < 0.001). For in vivo flow quantification, time domain processing and transit time flowmeter showed a significant correlation (r = 0.96; P < 0.001). Within the limits of the in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions, this study proves the validity of the time domain processing sonographic technique for measuring peak flow velocity and volumetric flow. PMID:8583530

  15. Velocity field of a round jet in a cross flow for various jet injection angles and velocity ratios. [Langley V/STOL tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fearn, R. L.; Weston, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    A subsonic round jet injected from a flat plate into a subsonic crosswind of the same temperature was investigated. Velocity and pressure measurements in planes perpendicular to the path of the jet were made for nominal jet injection angles of 45 deg, 60 deg, 75 deg, 90 deg, and 105 deg and for jet/cross flow velocity ratios of four and eight. The velocity measurements were obtained to infer the properties of the vortex pair associated with a jet in a cross flow. Jet centerline and vortex trajectories were determined and fit with an empirical equation that includes the effects of jet injection angle, jet core length, and jet/cross flow velocity ratios.

  16. Influence of flow velocity on motor behavior of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Libin; Lin, Chenggang; Sun, Jiamin; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-05-15

    The influence of flow velocity on the motor behavior of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in the laboratory. Cameras were used to record sea cucumber movements and behavior analysis software was used to measure the distance traveled, time spent, upstream or downstream of the start position and the speed of movements. In general, the mean velocity of A. japonicus was below 0.7mms(-1). The maximum velocity recorded for all the sea cucumbers tested was for a large individual (89.25±17.11g), at a flow rate of 4.6±0.5cms(-1). Medium sized (19.68±5.53g) and large individuals moved significantly faster than small individuals (2.65±1.24g) at the same flow rate. A. japonicus moved significantly faster when there was a moderate current (4.6±0.5cms(-1) and 14.7±0.3cms(-1)), compared with the fast flow rate (29.3±3.7cms(-1)) and when there was no flow (0cms(-1)). Sea cucumbers did not show positive rheotaxis in general, but did move in a downstream direction at faster current speeds. Large, medium and small sized individuals moved downstream at the fastest current speed tested, 29.3±3.7cms(-1). When there was no water flow, sea cucumbers tended to move in an irregular pattern. The movement patterns show that the sea cucumber, A. japonicus can move across the direction of flow, and can move both upstream and downstream along the direction of flow. PMID:25727024

  17. Investigation of statistical parameters of turbulent air flow over waved water surface by direct numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Druzhinin, Oleg

    2013-04-01

    averaging over wavelength. The preliminary DNS results show that the wind flow is significantly affected by the stratification. If the Richardson number is sufficiently small, the instantaneous vector velocity fields manifest considerable airflow separation at the crests of the surface waves similar to that observed in physical experiments by PIV-technique. Alternatively the ensemble averaged velocity fields are non-separating and have typical structures similar to those observed in shear flows near critical levels, where the phase velocity of the disturbance coincides with the flow velocity. On the other hand, for large Richardson numbers the wind flow turbulence is superseded by internal lee waves radiated from the wave crests and dissipating at a critical level, at some distance above the crests. The DNS results are compared with the prediction of a theoretical model of a turbulent boundary layer, based on the system of Reynolds-averaged equations with the first-order closure hypothesis. The wind-wave interaction is considered within the quasi-linear approximation, i.e., wave-induced disturbances in the air flow are considered in the linear approximation, but the resistive effect of the wave momentum flux on the mean flow velocity profile is taken into account. This paper was supported by RFBR (project codes 10-05-00339-A, 10-05-91177-GFEN_A, 09-05-00779-A;, 11-05-00455-A).

  18. Air flow phenomena in the model of the blind drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaszczur, Marek; Karch, Michał; Zych, Marcin; Hanus, Robert; Petryka, Leszek; Świsulski, Dariusz

    2016-03-01

    In the presented paper, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has been used to investigate flow pattern and turbulent structure in the model of blind drift. The presented model exist in mining, and has been analyzed to resolve ventilation issues. Blind region is particularly susceptible to unsafe methane accumulation. The measurement system allows us to evaluate all components of the velocity vector in channel cross-section simultaneously. First order and second order statistic of the velocity fields from different channel cross-section are computed and analyzed.

  19. Airway blood flow response to dry air hyperventilation in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, G.H.; Baile, E.M.; Pare, P.D.

    1986-03-01

    Airway blood flow (Qaw) may be important in conditioning inspired air. To determine the effect of eucapneic dry air hyperventilation (hv) on Qaw in sheep the authors studied 7 anesthetized open-chest sheep after 25 min. of warm dry air hv. During each period of hv the authors have recorded vascular pressures, cardiac output (CO), and tracheal mucosal and inspired air temperature. Using a modification of the reference flow technique radiolabelled microspheres were injected into the left atrium to make separate measurements after humid air and dry air hv. In 4 animals a snare around the left main pulmonary artery was used following microsphere injection to prevent recirculation (entry into L lung of microspheres from the pulmonary artery). Qaw to the trachea and L lung as measured and Qaw for the R lung was estimated. After the final injection the sheep were killed and bronchi (Br) and lungs removed. Qaw (trachea plus L lung plus R lung) in 4 sheep increased from a mean of 30.8 to 67.0 ml/min. Airway mucosal temp. decreased from 39/sup 0/ to 33/sup 0/C. The authors conclude that dry air hv cools airway mucosa and increases Qaw in sheep.

  20. Quantification of film flow infiltration velocity in a crushed Yucca Mountain Tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansik, D. P.; Wildenschild, D.

    2008-12-01

    Current understanding of interfacial areas and flow in unsaturated soil does generally not account for liquid water films that form on porous media at low saturations. Because the behavior of these films is complex and difficult to measure, they are often ignored. Experiments conducted in two capillary barrier systems with two different underlying coarse materials illustrated the potential impact of surface roughness and grain morphology on the film infiltration velocity and suggest that understanding their behavior is vital for addressing flow and transport problems that take place in the low saturation range. Using the equation for film infiltration velocity derived by Hay et al. (2008) and surface analysis of the crushed Yucca Mountain Tuff, theoretical infiltration velocities were derived. We observed high agreement between the infiltration velocity based on the theory, and measurements in the experimental capillary barrier systems. The experimental systems were modeled using HYDRUS 2D and a pseudo diffusion coefficient across the fine/course sediment interface. Using this approach we have successfully mimicked film flow based solely on physical measurements of the sediment surface.

  1. A quantitative theory for the mean velocity distribution of compressible ramp flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Wei-Tao; Wu, Bin; Zou, Hong-Yue; Li, Xin-Liang; Hussain, Fazle; She, Zhen-Su

    2013-11-01

    The flow induced by a compression ramp is of practical importance as a typical flow in the intake of a scramjet engine, yet no quantitative theory is available. This study proposes a quantitative theory for the mean velocity profile (MVP) of the compression ramp flow, based on a multi-layer description of turbulent boundary layers. Application of the theory on the direct numerical simulation (DNS) data shows that the mixing length function in the boundary layer after the reattachment point has a five-layer structure. A formula is given for the streamwise MVP, in very good agreement with the DNS data. Variation of the parameters in the formula with the spatial position is measured and discussed. These results further support the validity of the Structural Ensemble Dynamics approach to a wide class of wall-bounded flows, and a new modeling strategy for engineering computation of complex supersonic flows.

  2. Velocity Vector Field Visualization of Flow in Liquid Acquisition Device Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John B.; Chao, David F.; Hall, Nancy R.; Zhang, Nengli

    2012-01-01

    A capillary flow liquid acquisition device (LAD) for cryogenic propellants has been developed and tested in NASA Glenn Research Center to meet the requirements of transferring cryogenic liquid propellants from storage tanks to an engine in reduced gravity environments. The prototypical mesh screen channel LAD was fabricated with a mesh screen, covering a rectangular flow channel with a cylindrical outlet tube, and was tested with liquid oxygen (LOX). In order to better understand the performance in various gravity environments and orientations at different liquid submersion depths of the screen channel LAD, a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of LOX flow through the LAD screen channel was undertaken. The resulting velocity vector field visualization for the flow in the channel has been used to reveal the gravity effects on the flow in the screen channel.

  3. Effect of air velocity on kinetics of thin layer carrot pomace drying.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N; Sarkar, B C; Sharma, H K

    2011-10-01

    Carrot pomace is a by-product obtained during carrot juice processing. Thin layer carrot pomace drying was performed in a laboratory scale hot air forced convective dryer. The drying experiments were carried out at the air velocity of 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 m/s at air temperatures from 60 to 75 °C. It was observed that whole drying process of carrot pomace took place in a falling rate period except a very short accelerating period at the beginning. Mathematical models were tested to fit drying data of carrot pomace. The best fit model was observed on the basis of R², Chi-square and RMSE values. R² values for all the selected models were above 0.9783. The average values of effective diffusivity ranged from 2.61 × 10(-9) to 3.64 × 10(-9) m²/s. PMID:21954311

  4. A comparison of measured and modeled velocity fields for a laminar flow in a porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, B. D.; Apte, S. V.; Liburdy, J. A.; Ziazi, R. M.; He, X.; Finn, J. R.; Patil, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    Obtaining highly-resolved velocity data from experimental measurements in porous media is a significant challenge. The goal of this work is to compare the velocity fields measured in a randomly-packed porous medium obtained from particle image velocimetry (PIV) with corresponding fields predicted from direct numerical simulation (DNS). Experimentally, the porous medium was comprised of 15 mm diameter spherical beads made of optical glass placed in a glass flow cell to create the packed bed. A solution of ammonium thiocyanate was refractive-index matched to the glass creating a medium that could be illuminated with a laser sheet without distortion. The bead center locations were quantified using the imaging system so that the geometry of the porous medium was known very accurately. Two-dimensional PIV data were collected and processed to provide high-resolution velocity fields at a single plane within the porous medium. A Cartesian-grid-based fictitious domain approach was adopted for the direct numerical simulation of flow through the same geometry as the experimental measurements and without any adjustable parameters. The uncertainties associated with characterization of the pore geometry, PIV measurements, and DNS predictions were all systematically quantified. Although uncertainties in bead position measurements led to minor discrepancies in the comparison of the velocity fields, the axial and normal velocity deviations exhibited normalized root mean squared deviations (NRMSD) of only 11.32% and 4.74%, respectively. The high fidelity of both the experimental and numerical methods have significant implications for understanding and even for engineering the micro-macro relationship in porous materials. The ability to measure and model sub-pore-scale flow features also has relevance to the development of upscaled models for flow in porous media, where physically reasonable closure models must be developed at the sub-pore scale. These results provide valuable data

  5. Optical and acoustical measuring techniques. [for Doppler measurement of flow velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews the techniques of laser and acoustic Doppler measurement of fluid velocities in confined and free flows. The main mathematical relations are presented, and some systems are studied. Resolution properties of coaxial, bistatic, and pulsed CO2 laser Doppler velocimeter systems are compared. Schematics for pulsed and continuous wave acoustic Doppler systems are discussed. Both of these types of systems benefit from using a bistatic configuration instead of a coaxial system. The pulsed systems avoid contamination of source noise by not sampling until after the source noise has passed the receiver. Comparison of wind velocity measured with a pulsed acoustic Doppler and with a boundary layer profile is made.

  6. Blood flow velocity measurements in rat mesentery arterioles in health and under hypertensive conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakova, Marina S.; Sokolova, Irina A.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Proskurin, Sergei G.; Savchenko, Natalia B.; Shakhnazarov, Alexander A.

    1994-07-01

    Laser Doppler measurements of blood flow velocities in the vessels of rat mesentery have been performed to study the effect of the drag-reducing agent polyethylene oxide Polyox WSR-301 on microcirculation. These agents are capable of increasing the cardiac output and decreasing the arterial pressure. Measurements performed on spontaneously hypertensive rats anesthetized by Nembutal showed that the mean blood velocities in all groups of studied vessels are higher (by nearly two to three times) as compared to those in controls. Most likely these results reflect the effects of hypertensive raising pressure drop and the `rarefaction' phenomenon.

  7. Effect of particle velocity fluctuations on the inertia coupling in two-phase flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    Consistent forms for the interfacial force, the interfacial pressure, the Reynolds stresses and the particle stress have been derived for the inviscid, irrotational incompressible flow of fluid in a dilute suspension of spheres. The particles are assumed to have a velocity distribution, giving rise to an effective pressure and stress in the particle phase. The velocity fluctuations also contribute in the fluid Reynolds stress and in the (elastic) stress field inside the spheres. The relation of these constitutive equations to the force on an individual sphere is discussed.

  8. Pilot model expansion tunnel test flow properties obtained from velocity, pressure, and probe measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friesen, W. J.; Moore, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Velocity-profile, pitot-pressure, and supplemental probe measurements were made at the nozzle exist of an expansion tunnel (a modification to the Langley pilot model expansion tube) for a nozzle net condition of a nitrogen test sample with a velocity of 4.5 km/sec and a density 0.005 times the density of nitrogen at standard conditions, both with the nozzle initially immersed in a helium atmosphere and with the nozzle initially evacuated. The purpose of the report is to present the results of these measurements and some of the physical properties of the nitrogen test sample which can be inferred from the measured results. The main conclusions reached are that: the velocity profiles differ for two nozzle conditions; regions of the flow field can be found where the velocity is uniform to within 5 percent and constant for several hundred microseconds; the velocity of the nitrogen test sample is reduced due to passage through the nozzle; and the velocity profiles do not significantly reflect the large variations which occur in the inferred density profiles.

  9. Air flow measurement techniques applied to noise reduction of a centrifugal blower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laage, John W.; Armstrong, Ashli J.; Eilers, Daniel J.; Olsen, Michael G.; Mann, J. Adin

    2005-09-01

    The air flow in a centrifugal blower was studied using a variety of flow and sound measurement techniques. The flow measurement techniques employed included Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), pitot tubes, and a five hole spherical probe. PIV was used to measure instantaneous and ensemble-averaged velocity fields over large area of the outlet duct as a function of fan position, allowing for the visualization of the flow as it leave the fan blades and progressed downstream. The results from the flow measurements were reviewed along side the results of the sound measurements with the goal of identifying sources of noise and inefficiencies in flow performance. The radiated sound power was divided into broadband and tone noise and measures of the flow. The changes in the tone and broadband sound were compared to changes in flow quantities such as the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress. Results for each method will be presented to demonstrate the strengths of each flow measurement technique as well as their limitations. Finally, the role that each played in identifying noise sources is described.

  10. Flow field velocity measurements for non-isothermal systems. [of chemically reactive flow inside fused silica CVD reactor vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. J.; Hyer, P. V.; Culotta, P. W.; Clark, I. O.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental techniques which can be potentially utilized to measure the gas velocity fields in nonisothermal CVD systems both in ground-based and space-based investigations are considered. The advantages and disadvantages of a three-component laser velocimetry (LV) system that was adapted specifically for quantitative determination of the mixed convective flows in a chamber for crystal growth and film formation by CVD are discussed. Data from a horizontal research CVD reactor indicate that current models for the effects of thermophoretic force are not adequate to predict the thermophoretic bias in arbitrary flow configurations. It is concluded that LV techniques are capable of characterizing the fluid dynamics of a CVD reactor at typical growth temperatures. Thermal effects are shown to dominate and stabilize the fluid dynamics of the reactor. Heating of the susceptor increases the gas velocities parallel to the face of a slanted susceptor by up to a factor of five.

  11. Experimental investigation on the interfacial characteristics of stratified air-water two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudaya, Akhmad Zidni; Kuntoro, Hadiyan Yusuf; Dinaryanto, Okto; Deendarlianto, Indarto

    2016-06-01

    The interfacial wave characteristics of stratified air-water two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe were experimentally investigated by using the flush-mounted constant electric current method (CECM) sensors. The experiments were conducted in a horizontal two-phase flow loop 9.5 m long (L) consisting of transparent acrylic pipe of 26 mm i.d. (D). To obtain the stratified flow pattern, the superficial gas and liquid velocities were set to 1.02 - 3.77 m/s and 0.016 - 0.92 m/s, respectively. Several interfacial wave patterns as described by several investigators were identified. The common parameters such as liquid hold-up, probability distribution function, wave velocity and wave frequency were investigated as the function of the liquid and gas flow rates. The interfacial curvature was calculated on the basis of the liquid hold-up data from the CECM sensors and the liquid film thickness data from the image processing technique in the previous work. As a result, it was found that the mean liquid hold-up decreases with the increase of the superficial gas velocity. In the same sub flow pattern, the wave velocity increases as the superficial gas velocity increases. On the other hand, in the two-dimensional wave region, the dominant frequency decreases with the increase of the superficial liquid velocity.

  12. Computational simulation of temperature and velocity distribution in human upper respiratory airway during inhalation of hot air.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi-Ardakani, V; Taeibi-Rahni, M; Salimi, M R; Ahmadi, G

    2016-03-01

    The present study provides an accurate simulation of velocity and temperature distributions of inhalation thermal injury in a human upper airway, including vestibule, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, and upper part of main bronchus. To this end, a series of CT scan images, taken from an adult woman, was used to construct a three dimensional model. The airway walls temperature was adjusted according to existing in vivo temperature measurements. Also, in order to cover all breathing activities, five different breathing flow rates (10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 l/min) and different ambient air temperatures (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 °C) were studied. Different flow regimes, including laminar, transitional, and turbulence were considered and the simulations were validated using reliable experimental data. The results show that nostrils, vestibule, and nasal cavity are damaged more than other part of airway. Finally, In order to obtain the heat flux through the walls, correlations for Nusselt number for each individual parts of airway (vestibule, main upper airway, nasopharynx etc.,) are proposed. PMID:26777422

  13. Topographic steering, flow recirculation, velocity redistribution, and bed topography in sharp meander bends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanckaert, K.

    2010-09-01

    The bed topography and associated flow field are investigated in a laboratory configuration with parameters that are representative for sharp natural meander bends. Zones of inward mass transport are characterized by a quasi-linear transverse bed profile, whereas zones of outward mass transport, induced by pronounced curvature variations, are characterized by a quasi-horizontal shallow point bar at the inside of the bend, a deep pool at the outside, and an increase in overall cross-sectional area. These quasi-bilinear bed profiles can be attributed to the curvature-induced secondary flow that is confined to the pool. Topographic steering, mainly due to mass conservation, concentrates the major part of the discharge over the deepest zones of the bend. But the pattern of depth-averaged velocities, which is relevant with respect to the development of the bed topography, does not show maximum values over the deepest zones. A term-by-term analysis of the depth-averaged streamwise momentum equation reveals that the water surface gradient is the principal mechanism with respect to flow velocity redistribution, although inertia and secondary flow are also processes of dominant order of magnitude. A required condition for the occurrence of adverse pressure gradients and flow recirculation due to planform curvature variations is established. A different type of flow recirculation, due to a subtle feedback between the flow and the bed topography, occurs over the point bar. The neglect of the influence of vertical velocities impinging on the bed in models for sediment transport is identified as a major shortcoming in the modeling of the morphodynamics of meandering river channels.

  14. Real-time GPU implementation of transverse oscillation vector velocity flow imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradway, David Pierson; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Krebs, Andreas; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Kjær, Carsten Straso; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-03-01

    Rapid estimation of blood velocity and visualization of complex flow patterns are important for clinical use of diagnostic ultrasound. This paper presents real-time processing for two-dimensional (2-D) vector flow imaging which utilizes an off-the-shelf graphics processing unit (GPU). In this work, Open Computing Language (OpenCL) is used to estimate 2-D vector velocity flow in vivo in the carotid artery. Data are streamed live from a BK Medical 2202 Pro Focus UltraView Scanner to a workstation running a research interface software platform. Processing data from a 50 millisecond frame of a duplex vector flow acquisition takes 2.3 milliseconds seconds on an Advanced Micro Devices Radeon HD 7850 GPU card. The detected velocities are accurate to within the precision limit of the output format of the display routine. Because this tool was developed as a module external to the scanner's built-in processing, it enables new opportunities for prototyping novel algorithms, optimizing processing parameters, and accelerating the path from development lab to clinic.

  15. The Response Behaviour of Seeding Particles to a Flow Region with a Large Spatial Velocity Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Peter J.

    1996-11-01

    The motion of small particles, such as those typically used as seeding particles for tracer particle flow velocity measuring techniques, is studied experimentally and numerically for a flow region with a large spatial velocity gradient. A typical flow situation as encountered in similar form in many measuring applications in compressible flow is considered. Experimental LDV data obtained with various types of seeding particles for the flow across an oblique shock are discussed and compared to corresponding numerical simulations. It is found that the degree of agreement between experimental results and numerical simulation depends on the type of particles and on the flow parameters. The biasing of experimental data as a consequence of multi-disperse size distributions of the seeding particles is discussed. The influence of the Basset history integral, which appears in the equation describing the particle motion, is investigated. Its influence on the results of the numerical simulations for single particles as well as its overall effect on the statistics of results based on multi-disperse particle size distributions is studied. It is found that this effect is that the biasing caused by multi-disperse distributions tends to decrease with the density of the particle material.

  16. Measurement of flow velocity profiles in tank structures using the prototype device OCM Pro LR.

    PubMed

    Klepiszewski, K; Teufel, M; Seiffert, S; Henry, E

    2011-01-01

    Generally, studies investigating the treatment efficiency of tank structures for storm water or waste water treatment observe pollutant flows in connection with conditions of hydraulic loading. Further investigations evaluate internal processes in tank structures using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modelling or lab scale tests. As flow paths inside of tank structures have a considerable influence on the treatment efficiency, flow velocity profile (FVP) measurements can provide a possibility to calibrate CFD models and contribute to a better understanding of pollutant transport processes in these structures. This study focuses on tests carried out with the prototype FVP measurement device OCM Pro LR by NIVUS in a sedimentation tank with combined sewer overflow (CSO) situated in Petange, Luxembourg. The OCM Pro LR measurement system analyses the echo of ultrasonic signals of different flow depths to get a detailed FVP. A comparison of flow velocity measured by OCM Pro LR with a vane measurement showed good conformity. The FVPs measured by OCM Pro LR point out shortcut flows within the tank structure during CSO events, which could cause a reduction of the cleaning efficiency of the structure. The results prove the applicability of FVP measurements in large-scale structures. PMID:22053484

  17. Eigenmodes of Ducted Flows With Radially-Dependent Axial and Swirl Velocity Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kousen, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    This report characterizes the sets of small disturbances possible in cylindrical and annular ducts with mean flow whose axial and tangential components vary arbitrarily with radius. The linearized equations of motion are presented and discussed, and then exponential forms for the axial, circumferential, and time dependencies of any unsteady disturbances are assumed. The resultant equations form a generalized eigenvalue problem, the solution of which yields the axial wavenumbers and radial mode shapes of the unsteady disturbances. Two numerical discretizations are applied to the system of equations: (1) a spectral collocation technique based on Chebyshev polynomial expansions on the Gauss-Lobatto points, and (2) second and fourth order finite differences on uniform grids. The discretized equations are solved using a standard eigensystem package employing the QR algorithm. The eigenvalues fall into two primary categories: a discrete set (analogous to the acoustic modes found in uniform mean flows) and a continuous band (analogous to convected disturbances in uniform mean flows) where the phase velocities of the disturbances correspond to the local mean flow velocities. Sample mode shapes and eigensystem distributions are presented for both sheared axial and swirling flows. The physics of swirling flows is examined with reference to hydrodynamic stability and completeness of the eigensystem expansions. The effect of assuming exponential dependence in the axial direction is discussed.

  18. Laminar flow past a spinning bullet-shaped body at moderate angular velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-González, J. I.; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E.; Sevilla, A.; Martínez-Bazán, C.

    2013-11-01

    We present a numerical study of the flow past a spinning bullet-shaped body of length-to-diameter ratio L/D=2, focusing on the evolution of the forces and flow regimes that appear depending on the values of the two governing parameters, namely the Reynolds number, Re=ρw∞D/μ, and the dimensionless angular velocity, Ω=ωD/(2w∞), where ρ, μ and w∞ are the free-stream density, viscosity and velocity, respectively, and ω is the angular velocity of the body. The parametric study covers the range 0≤Ω≤0.4 for Re<450, corresponding to laminar flow and moderate rotation velocities. It is shown that the (Re,Ω) parameter plane can be divided into four regions, corresponding to the destabilization of several instability modes. In the range 0≤Ω≲0.2, three different flow regimes take place as Re increases keeping constant Ω: axisymmetric, frozen and spiral flow regimes respectively; the latter leading to a swirling configuration of vortices curling up around the axis, caused by a combination of the frozen mode and the vortex shedding. However, at Ω≃0.2, a new frozen spiral mode takes place for large enough values of Re, where two counter-rotating vortices spiral around the axis, as a result of a lock-in process of the vortex shedding associated to the unsteady spiral regime, being this mode the single unstable one existent for Ω≥0.225. An exhaustive study of the dependence of the drag and lift forces on Ω and Re is also presented.

  19. Evolutionary Concepts for Decentralized Air Traffic Flow Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Milton; Kolitz, Stephan; Milner, Joseph; Odoni, Amedeo

    1997-01-01

    Alternative concepts for modifying the policies and procedures under which the air traffic flow management system operates are described, and an approach to the evaluation of those concepts is discussed. Here, air traffic flow management includes all activities related to the management of the flow of aircraft and related system resources from 'block to block.' The alternative concepts represent stages in the evolution from the current system, in which air traffic management decision making is largely centralized within the FAA, to a more decentralized approach wherein the airlines and other airspace users collaborate in air traffic management decision making with the FAA. The emphasis in the discussion is on a viable medium-term partially decentralized scenario representing a phase of this evolution that is consistent with the decision-making approaches embodied in proposed Free Flight concepts for air traffic management. System-level metrics for analyzing and evaluating the various alternatives are defined, and a simulation testbed developed to generate values for those metrics is described. The fundamental issue of modeling airline behavior in decentralized environments is also raised, and an example of such a model, which deals with the preservation of flight bank integrity in hub airports, is presented.

  20. DSMC-Based Shear-Stress/Velocity-Slip Boundary Condition for Navier-Stokes Couette-Flow Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torczynski, J. R.; Gallis, M. A.

    2011-05-01

    Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations are used to develop a shear-stress/velocity-slip boundary condition for Navier-Stokes (NS) simulations of low-speed isothermal Couette flow. In this boundary condition, the wall shear stress equals the product of the difference between the gas and wall velocities and a momentum transfer coefficient. This momentum transfer coefficient depends on two dimensionless parameters that determine its behavior in the near-continuum and transitional regimes, respectively. For a given gas, these parameters are determined by comparing the NS Couette-flow shear-stress expression to DSMC shear-stress values for free-molecular to near-continuum pressures with three values of the accommodation coefficient. The parameter values for argon, helium, nitrogen, air, and inverse-power-law (IPL) interactions from hard-sphere to Maxwell lie within narrow ranges. For the hard-sphere interaction, the DSMC-based results are in excellent agreement with previously published analytical approximations.

  1. Glow Discharge Characteristics in Transverse Supersonic Air Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timerkaev, B. A.; Zalyaliev, B. R.; Saifutdinov, A. I.

    2014-11-01

    A low pressure glow discharge in a transverse supersonic gas flow of air at pressures of the order 1 torr has been experimentally studied for the case where the flow only partially fills the inter electrode gap. It is shown that the space region with supersonic gas flow has a higher concentration of gas particles and, therefore, works as a charged particle generator. The near electrode regions of glow discharge are concentrated specifically in this region. This structure of glow discharge is promising for plasma deposition of coatings under ultralow pressures

  2. Split-flow regeneration in absorptive air separation

    DOEpatents

    Weimer, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    A chemical absorptive separation of air in multiple stage of absorption and desorption is performed with partial recycle of absorbent between stages of desorption necessary to match equilibrium conditions in the various stages of absorption. This allows reduced absorbent flow, reduced energy demand and reduced capital costs.

  3. The Wells turbine in an oscillating air flow

    SciTech Connect

    Raghunathan, S.; Ombaka,

    1984-08-01

    An experimental study of the performance of a 0.2 m diameter Wells self rectifying air turbine with NACA 0021 blades is presented. Experiments were conducted in an oscillating flowrig. The effects of Reynolds number and Strouhal number on the performance of the turbine were investigated. Finally comparison between the results with the predictions from uni-directional flow tests are made.

  4. Split-flow regeneration in absorptive air separation

    DOEpatents

    Weimer, R.F.

    1987-11-24

    A chemical absorptive separation of air in multiple stage of absorption and desorption is performed with partial recycle of absorbent between stages of desorption necessary to match equilibrium conditions in the various stages of absorption. This allows reduced absorbent flow, reduced energy demand and reduced capital costs. 4 figs.

  5. 30 CFR 57.22213 - Air flow (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air flow (III mines). 57.22213 Section 57.22213 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22213 - Air flow (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air flow (III mines). 57.22213 Section 57.22213 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22213 - Air flow (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air flow (III mines). 57.22213 Section 57.22213 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22213 - Air flow (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air flow (III mines). 57.22213 Section 57.22213 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22213 - Air flow (III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air flow (III mines). 57.22213 Section 57.22213 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards...

  10. Experimental Analysis of Air Flows in Bronchial Airway Models in the Cases of Natural Breathing and HFOV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won-Je; Kawahashi, Masaaki; Hirahara, Hiroyuki

    The mechanism of gas transfer, flow pattern and diffusion in respiratory air flow at the end zone of human lung, especially in bronchial and alveoli, has not been clarified in detail. Recently, it is known that high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is an effective treatment for respiratory distress syndrome. However, the frequency effect on ventilation in relation to the gas transfer efficiency at the end zone of lungs has not been investigated. The velocity profile of oscillatory air flow in bronchial tube is one of the fundamental factors to consider the frequency effect. In this paper, velocity profiles of oscillatory flows in micro scale models of bronchial airway with single- and multi-bifurcation have been investigated for different frequencies corresponding to resting breathing and HFOV by using micro Particle Image Velocimetry (micro PIV). The temporal changes of velocity profiles were reconstructed by phase-averaged velocity maps obtained by micro PIV measurements, and the effect of frequency on the velocity profile in bronchial models has been discussed.

  11. Flow Regimes of Air-Water Counterflow Through Cross Corrugated Parallel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    de Almeida, V.F.

    2000-06-07

    Heretofore unknown flow regimes of air-water counterflow through a pair of transparent vertical parallel cross corrugated plates were observed via high-speed video. Air flows upward driven by pressure gradient and water, downward driven by gravity. The crimp geometry of the corrugations was drawn from typical corrugated sheets used as filling material in modern structured packed towers. Four regimes were featured, namely, rivulet, bicontinuous, flooding fronts, and flooding waves. It is conceivable that the regimes observed might constitute the basis for understanding how gas and liquid phases contend for available space in the interstices of structured packings in packed towers. Flow regime transitions were expressed in terms of liquid load (liquid superficial velocity) and gas flow factor parameters commonly used in pressure drop and capacity curves. We have carefully examined the range of parameters equivalent to the ill-understood high-liquid-flow operation in packed towers. More importantly, our findings should prove valuable in validating improved first-principles modeling of gas-liquid flows in these industrially important devices.

  12. Simulation Analysis of Air Flow and Turbulence Statistics in a Rib Grit Roughened Duct

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzis, I. I.; Denizopoulou, A. C.; Ntinas, G. K.; Fragos, V. P.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of variable artificial roughness patterns on a surface is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer to fluid flow in the ducts of solar air heaters. Different geometries of roughness elements investigated have demonstrated the pivotal role that vortices and associated turbulence have on the heat transfer characteristics of solar air heater ducts by increasing the convective heat transfer coefficient. In this paper we investigate the two-dimensional, turbulent, unsteady flow around rectangular ribs of variable aspect ratios by directly solving the transient Navier-Stokes and continuity equations using the finite elements method. Flow characteristics and several aspects of turbulent flow are presented and discussed including velocity components and statistics of turbulence. The results reveal the impact that different rib lengths have on the computed mean quantities and turbulence statistics of the flow. The computed turbulence parameters show a clear tendency to diminish downstream with increasing rib length. Furthermore, the applied numerical method is capable of capturing small-scale flow structures resulting from the direct solution of Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. PMID:25057511

  13. An experimental investigation on the spray flow exhausted from a co-swirling air-blast nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Daniel Dean

    The velocity field for a spray produced by an air-blast atomizer is measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). These measurements are conducted at a variety of input liquid and air mass flow rates producing many different air to liquid mass flow ratios (ALR). The experiment is repeated with two different liquids, water and a hydrocarbon based fuel substitute. It is found that the velocity field depends heavily on the type of fluid used as opposed to the ALR. The experiments are repeated using a Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) measurement technique. These results are compared to the 2D PIV results, and the differences are discussed. Finally, the 2D PIV and SPIV results are compared to existing Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) results. It is seen that the results from the two different techniques are not well correlated.

  14. Flow and containment characteristics of a sash-less, variable-height inclined air-curtain fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hung, Wei-Lun

    2013-08-01

    To increase containment efficiency and reduce energy consumption, a sash-less, variable-height inclined air-curtain fume hood (sIAC hood) was developed and tested by a laser-assisted flow visualization technique and tracer-gas detection method. This novel design requires neither sash nor baffle. The sIAC hood employed the inclined push-pull air-curtain technique and two deflection plates installed on the side walls of the hood to induce a tetra-vortex flow structure. The results of flow visualization showed that the slot for suction flow, offset from the slot for the up-blowing jet, caused the air curtain to incline towards the rear wall, thus enhancing the robustness of the tetra-vortex flow structure. Such a flow structure could reduce the influence of draught and human walk-by across the hood face. The containment around the central area of the hood was isolated by the inclined push-pull air curtain. The pollutants carried by the reverse flow induced by the flow separation were guided by the deflection plates from the side walls towards the rear, thus contributing to the formation of the tetra-vortex flow structure. The up/down movable ceiling positioned the suction slot close to the device's pollutant emission opening, but left room (less than 50 cm) for unrestricted hand movement. Testing was carried out based on the methodology described in EN14175. The results of a static test showed that small face velocities of 0.25 and 0.16 m s(-1) were enough to obtain nearly null leakage levels for low and tall pollutant sources. The results of a traversing plate test showed that the face velocity, 0.32 m s(-1), would cause negligibly small leakage levels. The sIAC hood could obtain significantly higher containment efficiency than a conventional hood by operating at a face velocity significantly lower than that of conventional hoods. PMID:23519947

  15. TEMPERATURE, VELOCITY AND SPECIES PROFILE MEASUREMENTS FOR REBURNING IN A PULVERIZED, ENTRAINED FLOW, COAL COMBUSTOR

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    An experimental program has been completed to make detailed measurements of a pulverized coal flame with reburning and advanced reburning. Maps of species (CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} , NO, HCN, and NH{sub 3}), temperature and velocity have been obtained which consist of approximately 60 measurements across a cross sectional plane of the reactor. A total of six of these maps have been obtained. Three operating conditions for the baseline flame have been mapped, two operating conditions with reburning, and one operating condition of advanced reburning. In addition to the mapping data, effluent measurements of gaseous products were obtained for various operating conditions. This report focuses on the advanced reburning data. Advanced reburning was achieved in the reactor by injecting natural gas downstream of the primary combustion zone to form a reburning zone followed by a second injection of ammonia downstream of reburning to form an advanced reburning zone. Finally, downstream of the ammonia injection, air was injected to form a burnout or tertiary air zone. The amount of natural gas injected was characterized by the reburning zone stoichiometric ratio. The amount of ammonia injected was characterized by the ammonia to nitrogen stoichiometric ratio or NSR and by the amount of carrier gas used to transport and mix the ammonia. A matrix of operating conditions where injector position, reburning zone stoichiometric ratio, NSR, and carrier gas flow rate were varied and NO reduction was measured was completed in addition to a map of data at one operating condition. The data showed advanced reburning was more effective than either reburning or NH{sub 3} injection alone. At one advanced reburning condition over 95% NO reduction was obtained. Ammonia injection was most beneficial when following a reburning zone which was slightly lean, S.R. = 1.05, but was not very effective when following a slightly rich reburning zone, S.R. of 0.95. In the cases where advanced reburning

  16. Computing Isentropic Flow Properties of Air/R-134a Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Ray

    2006-01-01

    MACHRK is a computer program that calculates isentropic flow properties of mixtures of air and refrigerant R-134a (tetrafluoroethane), which are used in transonic aerodynamic testing in a wind tunnel at Langley Research Center. Given the total temperature, total pressure, static pressure, and mole fraction of R-134a in a mixture, MACHRK calculates the Mach number and the following associated flow properties: dynamic pressure, velocity, density, static temperature, speed of sound, viscosity, ratio of specific heats, Reynolds number, and Prandtl number. Real-gas effects are taken into account by treating the gases comprising the mixture as both thermally and calorically imperfect. The Redlich-Kwong equation of state for mixtures and the constant-pressure ideal heat-capacity equation for the mixture are used in combination with the departure- function approach of thermodynamics to obtain the equations for computing the flow properties. In addition to the aforementioned calculations for air/R-134a mixtures, a research version of MACHRK can perform the corresponding calculations for mixtures of air and R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) and for air/SF6 mixtures. [R-12 was replaced by R-134a because of environmental concerns. SF6 has been considered for use in increasing the Reynolds-number range.

  17. Onsite survey on the mechanism of passive aeration and air flow path in a semi-aerobic landfill.

    PubMed

    Matsuto, Toshihiko; Zhang, Xin; Matsuo, Takayuki; Yamada, Shuhei

    2015-02-01

    The semi-aerobic landfill is a widely accepted landfill concept in Japan because it promotes stabilization of leachates and waste via passive aeration without using any type of mechanical equipment. Ambient air is thought to be supplied to the landfill through a perforated pipe network made of leachate collection pipe laid along the bottom and a vertically erected gas vent. However, its underlying air flow path and driving forces are unclear because empirical data from real-world landfills is inadequate. The objective of this study is to establish scientific evidence about the aeration mechanisms and air flow path by an on-site survey of a full-scale, semi-aerobic landfill. First, all passive vents located in the landfill were monitored with respect to temperature level and gas velocity in different seasons. We found a linear correlation between the outflow rate and gas temperature, suggesting that air flow is driven by a buoyancy force caused by the temperature difference between waste in the landfill and the ambient temperature. Some vents located near the landfill bottom acted as air inflow vents. Second, we conducted a tracer test to determine the air flow path between two vents, by injecting tracer gas from an air sucking vent. The resulting slowly increasing gas concentration at the neighboring vent suggested that fresh air flow passes through the waste layer toward the gas vents from leachate collection pipes, as well as directly flowing through the pipe network. Third, we monitored the temperature of gas flowing out of a vent at night. Since the temperature drop of the gas was much smaller than that of the environment, the air collected at the gas vents was estimated to flow mostly through the waste layer, i.e., the semi-aerobic landfill has considerable aeration ability under the appropriate conditions. PMID:25443098

  18. Entrapped air bubbles in piezo-driven inkjet printing: Their effect on the droplet velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Jos; Jeurissen, Roger; Borel, Huub; van den Berg, Marc; Wijshoff, Herman; Reinten, Hans; Versluis, Michel; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-12-01

    Air bubbles entrapped in the ink channel are a major problem in piezo-driven inkjet printing. They grow by rectified diffusion and eventually counteract the pressure buildup at the nozzle, leading to a breakdown of the jetting process. Experimental results on the droplet velocity udrop as a function of the equilibrium radius R0 of the entrained bubble are presented. Surprisingly, udrop(R0) shows a pronounced maximum around R0=17μm before it sharply drops to zero around R0=19μm. A simple one-dimensional model is introduced to describe this counterintuitive behavior which turns out to be a resonance effect of the entrained bubble.

  19. Increased Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity in Children with Mild Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Catherine M.; Hogan, Alexandra M.; Onugha, Nwanneka; Harrison, Dawn; Cooper, Sara; McGrigor, Victoria J.; Datta, Avijit; Kirkham, Fenella J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Sleep-disordered breathing describes a spectrum of upper airway obstruction in sleep from simple primary snoring, estimated to affect 10% of preschool children, to the syndrome of obstructive sleep apnea. Emerging evidence has challenged previous assumptions that primary snoring is benign. A recent report identified reduced attention and higher levels of social problems and anxiety/depressive symptoms in snoring children compared with controls. Uncertainty persists regarding clinical thresholds for medical or surgical intervention in sleep-disordered breathing, underlining the need to better understand the pathophysiology of this condition. Adults with sleep-disordered breathing have an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease independent of atherosclerotic risk factors. There has been little focus on cerebrovascular function in children with sleep-disordered breathing, although this would seem an important line of investigation, because studies have identified abnormalities of the systemic vasculature. Raised cerebral blood flow velocities on transcranial Doppler, compatible with raised blood flow and/or vascular narrowing, are associated with neuropsychological deficits in children with sickle cell disease, a condition in which sleep-disordered breathing is common. We hypothesized that there would be cerebral blood flow velocity differences in sleep-disordered breathing children without sickle cell disease that might contribute to the association with neuropsychological deficits. Design Thirty-one snoring children aged 3 to 7 years were recruited from adenotonsillectomy waiting lists, and 17 control children were identified through a local Sunday school or as siblings of cases. Children with craniofacial abnormalities, neuromuscular disorders, moderate or severe learning disabilities, chronic respiratory/cardiac conditions, or allergic rhinitis were excluded. Severity of sleep-disordered breathing in snoring children was categorized by attended

  20. Velocity Field Measurements in Rarefied, Hypersonic Flows of Nitrogen Using Laser-Induced Fluorescence of Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, Eric

    Velocity fields are measured in the shock layer and boundary layer on a plate with a cylindrical fin immersed in a hypersonic, free jet of nitrogen, using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of iodine. A sheet beam from a single-mode argon laser at 514 nm is used to excite hyperfine components of the P(13), R(15) and P(48), P(103) blended rotational-vibrational lines in the B-X electronic transition for iodine seeded in the flow. The Doppler broadening and shift of these lines, and the relative rotational line strengths are determined for excitation spectra recorded in a planar grid. Using this measurement technique, estimates for iodine of the mass velocity component and kinetic temperature of translation in the direction of laser propagation, rotational temperature, and relative number density are determined at each point. Sectional planes of the flow over the body are investigated at a spatial resolution on the scale of the molecular mean-free-path in the free jet near the plate leading edge. Two directions within each plane are examined, to determine the velocity vector and to investigate translational non-equilibrium. Predictions from two direct simulation Monte Carlo computations of the flow are compared with the measurements. Large values of slip velocity and temperature jump at the plate surface are observed for iodine. Measurements and DSMC predictions indicate strong translational non-equilibrium effects for the iodine in the shock wave and the thick boundary layer on the plate, and are qualitatively consistent with a bimodal velocity distribution function. As a consequence of the ratio of molecular masses, the translational non-equilibrium of iodine is much greater than for nitrogen.