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Sample records for air france flight

  1. A new tool for coding and interpreting injuries in fatal airplane crashes: the crash injury pattern assessment tool application to the Air France Flight AF447 disaster (Rio de Janeiro-Paris), 1st of June 2009.

    PubMed

    Schuliar, Yves; Chapenoire, Stéphane; Miras, Alain; Contrand, Benjamin; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2014-09-01

    For investigation of air disasters, crash reconstruction is obtained using data from flight recorders, physical evidence from the site, and injuries patterns of the victims. This article describes a new software, Crash Injury Pattern Assessment Tool (CIPAT), to code and analyze injuries. The coding system was derived from the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). Scores were created corresponding to the amount of energy required causing the trauma (ER), and the software was developed to compute summary variables related to the position (assigned seat) of victims. A dataset was built from the postmortem examination of 154/228 victims of the Air France disaster (June 2009), recovered from the Atlantic Ocean after a complex and difficult task at a depth of 12790 ft. The use of CIPAT allowed to precise cause and circumstances of deaths and confirmed major dynamics parameters of the crash event established by the French Civil Aviation Safety Investigation Authority. PMID:25040723

  2. Flight testing air-to-air missiles for flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutschinski, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    The philosophy of the design of air-to-air missiles and hence of flight testing them for flutter differs from that of manned aircraft. Primary emphasis is put on analytical and laboratory evaluation of missile susceptibility to aeroelastic and aero-servo-elastic instabilities and uses flight testing for confirmation of the absence of such instabilities. Flight testing for flutter is accomplished by using specially instrumented programmed missiles, air or ground launched with a booster to reach the extreme flight conditions of tactical use, or by using guided missiles with telemetered performance data. The instrumentation and testing techniques are discussed along with the success of recent flight tests.

  3. FVCOM model estimate of the location of Air France 447

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changsheng; Limeburner, Richard; Gao, Guoping; Xu, Qichun; Qi, Jianhua; Xue, Pengfei; Lai, Zhigang; Lin, Huichan; Beardsley, Robert; Owens, Breck; Carlson, Barry

    2012-06-01

    On June 1, 2009, Air France AF447 disappeared in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean en route from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to Paris, France. On June 6-19, 2009, bodies and debris from the aircraft were recovered floating in the equatorial ocean. This paper describes efforts on using the global-local nested finite volume community ocean model (FVCOM) to model reversely the tracks of bodies and debris back to the time of the crash and to help searchers locate the cockpit voice and flight data recorders and learn why this tragic accident occurred. To validate the reliability and reality of FVCOM, eight surface drifters were deployed by the French Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la sécurité de l'aviation civile (BEA) near the last known position in early June 2010 for a period of 3 weeks. These drifter data were used to optimize the spatial and temporal correlation scales of the adaptive sampling data assimilation method of FVCOM. Applying an optimized FVCOM system to assimilate all available drifter- and float-tracking-derived currents in May-June 2009 under three different wind conditions, we reproduced the June 2009 current fields in the area near the LKP and used these fields to reversely track bodies and debris from locations where they were found to the time when the crash occurred. Possible locations for the crashed plane were suggested based on our model results and were made available to the French investigators and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution REMUS autonomous underwater vehicle Operations Group who successfully located the aircraft debris field in April 2011 on the seafloor at a depth of 3,900 m.

  4. Optical Air Flow Measurements for Flight Tests and Flight Testing Optical Air Flow Meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jentink, Henk W.; Bogue, Rodney K.

    2005-01-01

    Optical air flow measurements can support the testing of aircraft and can be instrumental to in-flight investigations of the atmosphere or atmospheric phenomena. Furthermore, optical air flow meters potentially contribute as avionics systems to flight safety and as air data systems. The qualification of these instruments for the flight environment is where we encounter the systems in flight testing. An overview is presented of different optical air flow measurement techniques applied in flight and what can be achieved with the techniques for flight test purposes is reviewed. All in-flight optical airflow velocity measurements use light scattering. Light is scattered on both air molecules and aerosols entrained in the air. Basic principles of making optical measurements in flight, some basic optical concepts, electronic concepts, optoelectronic interfaces, and some atmospheric processes associated with natural aerosols are reviewed. Safety aspects in applying the technique are shortly addressed. The different applications of the technique are listed and some typical examples are presented. Recently NASA acquired new data on mountain rotors, mountain induced turbulence, with the ACLAIM system. Rotor position was identified using the lidar system and the potentially hazardous air flow profile was monitored by the ACLAIM system.

  5. Air Traffic Control: Economics of Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Commercial flight is a partnership. Airlines. Pilots. Air traffic control. 2. Airline schedules and weather problems can cause delays at the airport. Delays are inevitable in de-regulated industry due to simple economics. 3.Delays can be mitigated. Build more runways/technology. Increase airspace supply. 4. Cost/benefit analysis determine justification.

  6. Bird flight and airplane flight. [instruments to measure air currents and flight characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnan, A.

    1980-01-01

    Research was based on a series of mechanical, electrical, and cinematographic instruments developed to measure various features of air current behavior as well as bird and airplane flight. Investigation of rising obstruction and thermal currents led to a theory of bird flight, especially of the gliding and soaring types. It was shown how a knowledge of bird flight can be applied to glider and ultimately motorized aircraft construction. The instruments and methods used in studying stress in airplanes and in comparing the lift to drag ratios of airplanes and birds are described.

  7. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  8. Analysis of flight equipment purchasing practices of representative air carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The process through which representative air carriers decide whether or not to purchase flight equipment was investigated as well as their practices and policies in retiring surplus aircraft. An analysis of the flight equipment investment decision process in ten airlines shows that for the airline industry as a whole, the flight equipment investment decision is in a state of transition from a wholly informal process in earliest years to a much more organized and structured process in the future. Individual air carriers are in different stages with respect to the formality and sophistication associated with the flight equipment investment decision.

  9. 10. "TEST STAND 15, AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER." ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. "TEST STAND 1-5, AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER." ca. 1958. Test Area 1-115. Original is a color print, showing Test Stand 1-5 from below, also showing the superstructure of TS1-4 at left. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. Air Data Report Improves Flight Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Aviation Safety Program in the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, which seeks to make aviation safer by developing tools for flight data analysis and interpretation and then by transferring these tools to the aviation industry, sponsored the development of Morning Report software. The software, created at Ames Research Center with the assistance of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, seeks to detect atypicalities without any predefined parameters-it spots deviations and highlights them. In 2004, Sagem Avionics Inc. entered a licensing agreement with NASA for the commercialization of the Morning Report software, and also licensed the NASA Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS) tool, which allows for the integration of data from disparate sources into the flight data analysis process. Sagem Avionics incorporated the Morning Report tool into its AGS product, a comprehensive flight operations monitoring system that helps users detect irregular or divergent practices, technical flaws, and problems that might develop when aircraft operate outside of normal procedures. Sagem developed AGS in collaboration with airlines, so that the system takes into account their technical evolutions and needs, and each airline is able to easily perform specific treatments and to build its own flight data analysis system. Further, the AGS is designed to support any aircraft and flight data recorders.

  11. Optical Air Flow Measurements in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Jentink, Henk W.

    2004-01-01

    This document has been written to assist the flight-test engineer and researcher in using optical flow measurements in flight applications. The emphasis is on describing tradeoffs in system design to provide desired measurement performance as currently understood. Optical system components are discussed with examples that illustrate the issues. The document concludes with descriptions of optical measurement systems designed for a variety of applications including aeronautics research, airspeed measurement, and turbulence hazard detection. Theoretical discussion is minimized, but numerous references are provided to supply ample opportunity for the reader to understand the theoretical underpinning of optical concepts.

  12. NASA Beechcraft KingAir #801 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA 801 Beechcraft Beech Super KingAir in flight. The Beechcraft Beech 200 Super KingAir aircraft N7NA, known as NASA 7, has been a support aircraft for many years, flying 'shuttle' missions to Ames Research Center. It once flew from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and back each day but now (2001) flies between the Dryden Flight Research Center and Ames. A second Beechcraft Beech 200 Super King Air, N701NA, redesignated N801NA, transferred to Dryden on 3 Oct. 1997 and is used for research missions but substitutes for NASA 7 on shuttle missions when NASA 7 is not available.

  13. France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every July, the world's best cyclists race more than 3500 km around France, and sometimes the surrounding countries, in the Tour de France. This image from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the varied terrain which challenges the riders. The race started in western France at Futuroscope, and headed toward Brittany. In these mostly flat 'stages' (as each day's race is called) sprinting specialists usually dash for the finish out of the main pack of riders. The race then moved to the Pyrenees mountains, in southern France along the border with Spain. Climbers and the overall favorites shine in the mountains, often gaining 10 minutes or more on their rivals. Only a few days after the Pyrenees climbs the race was again in the mountains. First Mont Ventoux, an extinct volcano in Provence, and then the massive Alps, with altitudes as high as 2,645 meters, challenged the racers. Finally the race headed toward Paris and a July 23rd finish in Paris. Go Lance! To learn more about MODIS, visit the MODIS web. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land group, NASA GSFC

  14. A Flight Control System Architecture for the NASA AirSTAR Flight Test Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    A flight control system architecture for the NASA AirSTAR infrastructure has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. The AirSTAR flight control system provides a flexible framework that enables NASA Aviation Safety Program research objectives, and includes the ability to rapidly integrate and test research control laws, emulate component or sensor failures, inject automated control surface perturbations, and provide a baseline control law for comparison to research control laws and to increase operational efficiency. The current baseline control law uses an angle of attack command augmentation system for the pitch axis and simple stability augmentation for the roll and yaw axes.

  15. France.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, France had a population of 55,493,000, with an annual growth rate of 0.4%. The infant mortality rate stood at 8.2/1000. Of the work force of 23.8 million, 8.3% were engaged in agriculture, 45.2% were in the industry and commerce sector, and 46.5% were engaged in services. The unemployment rate stood at 10.7%. The country's gross domestic product (GDP) was US$724 billion in 1986, with an average annual growth rate of 2.0%, and per capita income averaged $13,046. France has substantial agricultural resources, a diversified modern industrial system, and a highly skilled labor force. Following the return of a socialist majority in government in 1981, several large manufacturing firms were nationalized along with much of the commercial banking sector. Initial socialist policies were stimulative, relying partly on income redistribution and partly on increased government spending. However, the resultant increase in import demand was not offset by an increased demand French exports. In 1983, an economic stabilization plan of reductions in the budget deficit, involving spending cuts, increased taxes, and tighter monetary and credit policies, was successfully implemented. Although current economic policies should promote stronger growth over the medium to long term, trade competitiveness remains weak and high unemployment is a major social problem. PMID:12177959

  16. NASA Wallops Flight Facility Air-Sea Interaction Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Steven R.

    1992-01-01

    This publication serves as an introduction to the Air-Sea Interaction Research Facility at NASA/GSFC/Wallops Flight Facility. The purpose of this publication is to provide background information on the research facility itself, including capabilities, available instrumentation, the types of experiments already done, ongoing experiments, and future plans.

  17. Comparative measurements of in-flight humidity sensors of the meteo-France Merlin-IV during SCMS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nacass, P.L.

    1996-11-01

    One of the French Atmospheric Research Aircraft, the Merlin-IV operated by Meteo-France, is instrumented for the measurement of dynamic and thermodynamic parameters, air motion, radiance, microphysics, physico-chemistry and air pollution. In summer 1995, the Merlin flew from France to USA to participated at the Small Cumulus Microphysics Study (SCMS) near Cape Canaveral, Florida. For this experience, the Merlin was especially equipped with a lot of new sensors measuring liquid and vapor water. In this paper, preliminary results concerning the comparison between standard and experimental hygrometers are presented, detailed and discussed. 21 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Into rude air: hummingbird flight performance in variable aerial environments.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jimenez, V M; Badger, M; Wang, H; Dudley, R

    2016-09-26

    Hummingbirds are well known for their ability to sustain hovering flight, but many other remarkable features of manoeuvrability characterize the more than 330 species of trochilid. Most research on hummingbird flight has been focused on either forward flight or hovering in otherwise non-perturbed air. In nature, however, hummingbirds fly through and must compensate for substantial environmental perturbation, including heavy rain, unpredictable updraughts and turbulent eddies. Here, we review recent studies on hummingbirds flying within challenging aerial environments, and discuss both the direct and indirect effects of unsteady environmental flows such as rain and von Kármán vortex streets. Both perturbation intensity and the spatio-temporal scale of disturbance (expressed with respect to characteristic body size) will influence mechanical responses of volant taxa. Most features of hummingbird manoeuvrability remain undescribed, as do evolutionary patterns of flight-related adaptation within the lineage. Trochilid flight performance under natural conditions far exceeds that of microair vehicles at similar scales, and the group as a whole presents many research opportunities for understanding aerial manoeuvrability.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. PMID:27528777

  19. Lessons Learned from the AIRS Pre-Flight Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Weiler, Margie

    2013-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument flies on the NASA Aqua satellite and measures the upwelling hyperspectral earth radiance in the spectral range of 3.7-15.4 micron with a nominal ground resolution at nadir of 13.5 km. The AIRS spectra are achieved using a temperature controlled grating spectrometer and HgCdTe infrared linear arrays providing 2378 channels with a nominal spectral resolution of approximately 1200. The AIRS pre-flight tests that impact the radiometric calibration include a full system radiometric response (linearity), polarization response, and response vs scan angle (RVS). We re-derive the AIRS instrument radiometric calibration coefficients from the pre-flight polarization measurements, the response vs scan (RVS) angle tests as well as the linearity tests, and a recent lunar roll test that allowed the AIRS to view the moon. The data and method for deriving the coefficients is discussed in detail and the resulting values compared amongst the different tests. Finally, we examine the residual errors in the reconstruction of the external calibrator blackbody radiances and the efficacy of a new radiometric uncertainty model. Results show the radiometric calibration of AIRS to be excellent and the radiometric uncertainty model does a reasonable job of characterizing the errors.

  20. Free flight: air traffic control evolution or revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Karl

    1996-05-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and industry are moving towards a more flexible, user oriented air traffic control system. The question is: does this point to a natural evolution or revolution in the world of the air traffic controllers? The National Airspace System is by all accounts the safest in the world. How will we sustain this record of performance with increased flexibility and user involvement? How will controllers and pilots react to a new more dynamic paradigm? Is the current state of automation, modeling, and analysis what is needed to make Free Flight a reality? How will the FAA insure that all human factors questions are answered before implementation? How will we quantify the impact of unanswered questions and their influence on safety? These, and many more questions need to be answered to ensure that the benefits promised by Free Flight are realized by all parties. The National Air Traffic Controllers Association supports the new concept. Yet, we are seriously concerned about the actual implementation of Free Flight's various components.

  1. AIRS Infrared Polarization Sensitivity and In-Flight Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Elliott, Denis; Broberg, Steven E.

    2005-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a space-based instrument that measures the upwelling atmospheric spectrum in the infrared. AIRS is one of several instruments on the EOS-Aqua spacecraft launched on May 4, 2002: Typically, instrument polarization is not a concern in the infrared because the scene is usually not significantly polarized. A small amount of polarization is expected over ocean, which can be seen in the AIRS 3.7 (micro)m window channels. The polarization is seen as a signal difference between two channels with the same center frequency but different polarizations. The observations are compared to a model that relies on measurements of instrument polarization made pre-flight. A first look at a comparison of the observations of sea surface polarization to expectations is presented.

  2. Air concentrations of PBDEs on in-flight airplanes and assessment of flight crew inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; Sumner, Ann Louise; Nishioka, Marcia G; Vallarino, Jose; Turner, Douglas J; Saltman, Hannah K; Spengler, John D

    2013-07-01

    To address the knowledge gaps regarding inhalation exposure of flight crew to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on airplanes, we measured PBDE concentrations in air samples collected in the cabin air at cruising altitudes and used Bayesian Decision Analysis (BDA) to evaluate the likelihood of inhalation exposure to result in the average daily dose (ADD) of a member of the flight crew to exceed EPA Reference Doses (RfDs), accounting for all other aircraft and non-aircraft exposures. A total of 59 air samples were collected from different aircraft and analyzed for four PBDE congeners-BDE 47, 99, 100 and 209 (a subset were also analyzed for BDE 183). For congeners with a published RfD, high estimates of ADD were calculated for all non-aircraft exposure pathways and non-inhalation exposure onboard aircraft; inhalation exposure limits were then derived based on the difference between the RfD and ADDs for all other exposure pathways. The 95th percentile measured concentrations of PBDEs in aircraft air were <1% of the derived inhalation exposure limits. Likelihood probabilities of 95th percentile exposure concentrations >1% of the defined exposure limit were zero for all congeners with published RfDs. PMID:22739680

  3. A flight investigation of oscillating air forces: Equipment and technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H., III

    1975-01-01

    The equipment and techniques are described which are to be used in a project aimed at measuring oscillating air forces and dynamic aeroelastic response of a swept wing airplane at high subsonic speeds. Electro-hydraulic inertia type shakers installed in the wing tips will excite various elastic airplane modes while the related oscillating chordwise pressures at two spanwise wing stations and the wing mode shapes are recorded on magnetic tape. The data reduction technique, following the principle of a wattmeter harmonic analyzer employed by Bratt, Wight, and Tilly, utilizes magnetic tape and high speed electronic multipliers to record directly the real and imaginary components of oscillatory data signals relative to a simple harmonic reference signal. Through an extension of this technique an automatic flight-flutter-test data analyzer is suggested in which vector plots of mechanical admittance or impedance would be plotted during the flight test.

  4. Flight management concepts compatible with air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of airline deregulation and increased competition, the need for cost efficient airline operations is critical. This paper summarizes past research efforts and planned research thrusts toward the development of compatible flight management and air traffic control systems that promise increased operational effectiveness and efficiency. Potential capacity improvements resulting from a time-based ATC simulation (fast-time) are presented. Advanced display concepts with time guidance and velocity vector information to allow the flight crew to play an important role in the future ATC environment are discussed. Results of parametric sensitivity analyses are also presented that quantify the fuel/cost penalties for idle-thrust mismodeling and wind-modeling errors.

  5. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations. (a) Requirement of notice. Scheduled international air services proposed to be operated...

  6. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations. (a) Requirement of notice. Scheduled international air services proposed to be operated...

  7. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations. (a) Requirement of notice. Scheduled international air services proposed to be operated...

  8. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations. (a) Requirement of notice. Scheduled international air services proposed to be operated...

  9. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations. (a) Requirement of notice. Scheduled international air services proposed to be operated...

  10. Air resonance of an advanced bearingless rotor in forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jinseok; Chopra, Inderjit

    1988-01-01

    The air resonance of an advanced bearingless rotor in forward flight is investigated using a finite element formulation in space and time. The flexbeam, the torque tube, and the outboard blade are modeled as individual elastic beams, and the formulation includes five rigid body degrees of motion. It is shown that a large increase in stability is achieved by increased negative pitch-lag coupling arising from the vertical offset of the cuff restraint pin. It is also shown that body inertia has a significant effect on stability.

  11. Flight Simulator Platform Motion and Air Transport Pilot Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.; Bussolari, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of flight simulator platform motion on pilot training and performance was examined In two studies utilizing a B-727-200 aircraft simulator. The simulator, located at Ames Research Center, Is certified by the FAA for upgrade and transition training in air carrier operations. Subjective ratings and objective performance of experienced B-727 pilots did not reveal any reliable effects of wide variations In platform motion de- sign. Motion platform variations did, however, affect the acquisition of control skill by pilots with no prior heavy aircraft flying experience. The effect was limited to pitch attitude control inputs during the early phase of landing training. Implications for the definition of platform motion requirements in air transport pilot training are discussed.

  12. High performance target measurement flights from Vandenberg Air Force Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalfant, C. P.; Rosen, H.; Jerger, J. H.

    A description is presented of a new launch facility which is being prepared for the High Performance Target Measurement (HPTEM) booster at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). A deactivated Atlas launch complex is currently being modified to allow the rocket to be launched from a semisilo. The underground launch operations building will contain a new control center and instrumentation room. Attention is given to the Multi-Spectral Measurement Program (MSMP), details concerning the launch facility, and a target and flight safety trajectory analysis. Construction and modification of the facility is scheduled to be completed in mid-1983. The first HPTEM launch is planned to occur in April 1984. The HPTEM launch facility can also be utilized to launch Aries I (single stage) and Aries II (two-stage) probes with minor modification.

  13. Estimate of air carrier and air taxi crash frequencies from high altitude en route flight operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sanzo, D.; Kimura, C.Y.; Prassinos, P.G.

    1996-06-03

    In estimating the frequency of an aircraft crashing into a facility, it has been found convenient to break the problem down into two broad categories. One category estimates the aircraft crash frequency due to air traffic from nearby airports, the so-called near-airport environment. The other category estimates the aircraft crash frequency onto facilities due to air traffic from airways, jet routes, and other traffic flying outside the near-airport environment The total aircraft crash frequency is the summation of the crash frequencies from each airport near the facility under evaluation and from all airways, jet routes, and other traffic near the facility of interest. This paper will examine the problems associated with the determining the aircraft crash frequencies onto facilities outside the near-airport environment. This paper will further concentrate on the estimating the risk of aircraft crashes to ground facilities due to high altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic. High altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic will be defined as all air carrier and air taxi flights above 18,000 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL).

  14. Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, V. A.; Ott, C. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during spaceflight missions is composed of several factors including both the concentration and characteristics of the microorganisms to which the crew are exposed. Thus, having a good understanding of the microbial ecology aboard spacecraft provides the necessary information to mitigate health risks to the crew. While preventive measures are taken to minimize the presence of pathogens on spacecraft, medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a specific culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. To address this bias in our understanding of the ISS environment, the Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment was designed to investigate and develop monitoring technology to provide better microbial characterization. For the SWAB flight experiment, we hypothesized that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. Key findings during this experiment included: a) Generally, advanced molecular techniques were able to reveal a few organisms not recovered using culture-based methods; however, there is no indication that current monitoring is "missing" any medically significant bacteria or fungi. b) Molecular techniques have tremendous potential for microbial monitoring, however, sample preparation and data analysis present challenges for spaceflight hardware. c) Analytical results indicate that some molecular techniques, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), can

  15. Spatial variability of hailfalls in France: an analysis of air mass retro-trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Lucía; Merino, Andrés; Sánchez, José Luis; Berthet, Claude; Dessens, Jean; López, Laura; Fernández-González, Sergio; Gascón, Estíbaliz; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Hail is the main meteorological risk in south-west France, with the strongest hailfalls being concentrated in just a few days. Specifically, this phenomenon occurs most often and with the greatest severity in the Midi-Pyrénées area. Previous studies have revealed the high spatial variability of hailfall in this part of France, even leading to different characteristics being recorded on hailpads that were relatively close together. For this reason, an analysis of the air mass trajectories was carried out at ground level and at altitude, which subsequently led to the formation of the hail recorded by these hailpads. It is already known that in the study zone, the trajectories of the storms usually stretch for long distances and are oriented towards the east, leading to hailstones with diameters in excess of 3 cm, and without any change in direction above 3 km. We analysed different days with hail precipitation where there was at least one stone with a diameter of 3 cm or larger. Using the simulations from these days, an analysis of the backward trajectories of the air masses was carried out. We used the HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) to determine the origin of the air masses, and tracked them toward each of the hailpads that were hit during the day studied. The height of the final points was the height of the impacted hailpads. Similarly, the backward trajectories for different heights were also established. Finally, the results show how storms that affect neighbouring hailpads come from very different air masses; and provide a deeper understanding of the high variability that affects the characteristics of hailfalls. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Regional Government of Castile-León for its financial support through the project LE220A11-2. This study was supported by the following grants: GRANIMETRO (CGL2010-15930); MICROMETEO (IPT-310000-2010-22).

  16. SR-71B - in Flight - View from Air Force Tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This look-down view shows NASA 831, an SR-71B flown by Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, as it cruises over the Mojave Desert. The photo was from an Air Force refueling tanker taken on a 1997 mission. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in

  17. New Air-Launched Small Missile (ALSM) Flight Testbed for Hypersonic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.; Lux, David P.; Stenger, Mike; Munson, Mike; Teate, George

    2006-01-01

    A new testbed for hypersonic flight research is proposed. Known as the Phoenix air-launched small missile (ALSM) flight testbed, it was conceived to help address the lack of quick-turnaround and cost-effective hypersonic flight research capabilities. The Phoenix ALSM testbed results from utilization of two unique and very capable flight assets: the United States Navy Phoenix AIM-54 long-range, guided air-to-air missile and the NASA Dryden F-15B testbed airplane. The U.S. Navy retirement of the Phoenix AIM-54 missiles from fleet operation has presented an excellent opportunity for converting this valuable flight asset into a new flight testbed. This cost-effective new platform will fill an existing gap in the test and evaluation of current and future hypersonic systems for flight Mach numbers ranging from 3 to 5. Preliminary studies indicate that the Phoenix missile is a highly capable platform. When launched from a high-performance airplane, the guided Phoenix missile can boost research payloads to low hypersonic Mach numbers, enabling flight research in the supersonic-to-hypersonic transitional flight envelope. Experience gained from developing and operating the Phoenix ALSM testbed will be valuable for the development and operation of future higher-performance ALSM flight testbeds as well as responsive microsatellite small-payload air-launched space boosters.

  18. Pegasus Air-Launched Space Booster Flight Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elias, Antonio L.; Knutson, Martin A.

    1995-01-01

    Pegasus is a satellite-launching space rocket dropped from a B52 carrier aircraft instead of launching vertically from a ground pad. Its three-year, privately-funded accelerated development was carried out under a demanding design-to-nonrecurring cost methodology, which imposed unique requirements on its flight test program, such as the decision not to drop an inert model from the carrier aircraft; the number and type of captive and free-flight tests; the extent of envelope exploration; and the decision to combine test and operational orbital flights. The authors believe that Pegasus may be the first vehicle where constraints in the number and type of flight tests to be carried out actually influenced the design of the vehicle. During the period November 1989 to February of 1990 a total of three captive flight tests were conducted, starting with a flutter clearing flight and culminating in a complete drop rehearsal. Starting on April 5, 1990, two combination test/operational flights were conducted. A unique aspect of the program was the degree of involvement of flight test personnel in the early design of the vehicle and, conversely, of the design team in flight testing and early flight operations. Various lessons learned as a result of this process are discussed throughout this paper.

  19. New Air-Launched Small Missile (ALSM) Flight Testbed for Hypersonic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.; Lux, David P.; Stenger, Michael T.; Munson, Michael J.; Teate, George F.

    2007-01-01

    The Phoenix Air-Launched Small Missile (ALSM) flight testbed was conceived and is proposed to help address the lack of quick-turnaround and cost-effective hypersonic flight research capabilities. The Phoenix ALSM testbed results from utilization of the United States Navy Phoenix AIM-54 (Hughes Aircraft Company, now Raytheon Company, Waltham, Massachusetts) long-range, guided air-to-air missile and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) F-15B (McDonnell Douglas, now the Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) testbed airplane. The retirement of the Phoenix AIM-54 missiles from fleet operation has presented an opportunity for converting this flight asset into a new flight testbed. This cost-effective new platform will fill the gap in the test and evaluation of hypersonic systems for flight Mach numbers ranging from 3 to 5. Preliminary studies indicate that the Phoenix missile is a highly capable platform; when launched from a high-performance airplane, the guided Phoenix missile can boost research payloads to low hypersonic Mach numbers, enabling flight research in the supersonic-to-hypersonic transitional flight envelope. Experience gained from developing and operating the Phoenix ALSM testbed will assist the development and operation of future higher-performance ALSM flight testbeds as well as responsive microsatellite-small-payload air-launched space boosters.

  20. Transformed X-48C Takes to the Air on First Flight - Duration: 109 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The remotely operated X-48C Blended Wing Body aircraft lifts off Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., on its first test flight Aug. 7, 2012. The sub-scale technology demonstrator, mod...

  1. Private and Commercial Pilot: Ligher-Than-Air Airship. Flight Test Guide. (Part 61 Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The flight test guide assists the applicant and his instructor in preparing for the flight test for the Private or Commercial Pilot Certificate with a Lighter-Than-Air Category and Airship Class Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. It contains information and guidance concerning pilot operations, procedures, and…

  2. Long-term air pollution indicator assessment: example of black smoke in Bordeaux, France.

    PubMed

    Filleul, Laurent; Baldi, Isabelle; Quenel, Philippe; Brochard, Patrick; Tessier, Jean François

    2002-05-01

    The aim of the second phase of the Pollution Atmosphérique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques (PAARC) study, started in 1974, was to compare the long-term mortality between populations living in areas with different air pollution levels. In Bordeaux (France), four different areas were concerned by the study. The black smoke measures were realized between 1974 and 1981. After 1981, the stations set specifically for the study were not used any more. The purpose of this study was to estimate the evolution of air pollution in those areas between 1982 and 1997 using the measures of 12 Association de Prévention de la Pollution Atmosphérique (APPA) stations located in Bordeaux city but not in the PAARC areas. The method used was divided in three phases: a correlation study between the stations of the different networks, a selection of the pertinent stations and the setting up of indicators using the arithmetic means method. Monthly means concentrations were estimated from January 1982 to December 1997. Models showed a decrease in black smoke levels whatever the area. The difference in level from one area to another, existing between the areas in 1974, was still with predicted values in 1997, but less important. Black smoke mean concentration for 1982-1997 was, respectively, 16.4 and 16.2 microg/m3, in areas 1 and 2. It was a little bit higher in area 3 with 18.9 microg/m3. Area 4 still has the highest level with 26.3 microg/m3. To conclude, this method enabled to assess different air pollution levels at different times in the four areas of the PAARC study in Bordeaux. Those levels could be used to study the impact of the air pollution on long-term mortality on populations living in the areas considered. PMID:12032819

  3. Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) - Optimization of preflight algorithms based on flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, H.; Henry, M. W.; Siemers, Paul M., III

    1988-01-01

    The SEADS pressure model algorithm results were tested against other sources of air data, in particular, the Shuttle Best Estimated Trajectory (BET). The algorithm basis was also tested through a comparison of flight-measured pressure distribution vs the wind tunnel database. It is concluded that the successful flight of SEADS and the subsequent analysis of the data shows good agreement between BET and SEADS air data.

  4. Biomagnetic monitoring of traffic air pollution in Toulouse (France) using magnetic properties of tree bark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macouin, M.; Rousse, S.; Brulfert, F.; Durand, M.; Feida, N.; Durand, X.; Becaud, L.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic properties of various atmospheric samples represent rapid and economic proxies in the pollution studies based on their strong linkage to heavy metals and/or volatile organic carbons. We report a biomonitoring study of air pollution in Toulouse (France) based on the magnetic properties of tree (Platanus acerifolia) bark. More than 250 bark samples were taken at different areas of the city. Both mass specific magnetic susceptibility and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) at 1 Tesla display relationships with the traffic intensity and the distance to the road. Urban roadside tree bark exhibit significant enhancement in their values of susceptibility and IRM reflecting surface accumulation of particulate pollutants, compared with tree growing at lower traffic sites. To estimate the deposition time and accumulation on bark, we have deposited 20 "clean" bark samples from low traffic area with susceptibility inferior to 10 SI, near the city ring road. Samples were then collected during three months. Samples were imparted a 1 Tesla IRM both prior the deposition and after the resampling. Results are useful to apprehend the process of magnetic particulates accumulation and to evaluate the potential of tree bark for the air quality monitoring.

  5. Continuous ECG monitoring on civil air crews during flight operations.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, C; Yamaguchi, O; Kitajima, T; Ueda, Y

    1977-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the disorders resulting in sudden incapacitation and is the most common malady leading to medical retirement. It is very important for us to control this disease among pilots. Generally, pilots undergo medical checkups at health control service on the ground, but they do not undergo these checkups during flight operations. We obtained a continuous ECG recording on four pilots to assess cardiac reserve capacity for mental load during flight operation. Results show that no significant ischemic changes of ST-segment and T-wave during flight were noticed except in one case of atrial fibrillation in which significant depression of ST-segment occurred while walking up a stairway after flight. An increased number of ectopic beats was found in another normal case. In general, it was suspected that mental load is greater at landing than takeoff. PMID:907598

  6. NASA Langley's AirSTAR Testbed: A Subscale Flight Test Capability for Flight Dynamics and Control System Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Bailey, Roger M.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) project, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a subscaled flying testbed in order to conduct research experiments in support of the goals of NASA s Aviation Safety Program. This research capability consists of three distinct components. The first of these is the research aircraft, of which there are several in the AirSTAR stable. These aircraft range from a dynamically-scaled, twin turbine vehicle to a propeller driven, off-the-shelf airframe. Each of these airframes carves out its own niche in the research test program. All of the airplanes have sophisticated on-board data acquisition and actuation systems, recording, telemetering, processing, and/or receiving data from research control systems. The second piece of the testbed is the ground facilities, which encompass the hardware and software infrastructure necessary to provide comprehensive support services for conducting flight research using the subscale aircraft, including: subsystem development, integrated testing, remote piloting of the subscale aircraft, telemetry processing, experimental flight control law implementation and evaluation, flight simulation, data recording/archiving, and communications. The ground facilities are comprised of two major components: (1) The Base Research Station (BRS), a LaRC laboratory facility for system development, testing and data analysis, and (2) The Mobile Operations Station (MOS), a self-contained, motorized vehicle serving as a mobile research command/operations center, functionally equivalent to the BRS, capable of deployment to remote sites for supporting flight tests. The third piece of the testbed is the test facility itself. Research flights carried out by the AirSTAR team are conducted at NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The UAV Island runway is a 50 x 1500 paved runway that lies within restricted airspace at Wallops Flight Facility. The

  7. Micro air vehicle-motivated computational biomechanics in bio-flights: aerodynamics, flight dynamics and maneuvering stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Gao, Na; Maeda, Masateru; Aono, Hikaru; Shyy, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Aiming at developing an effective tool to unveil key mechanisms in bio-flight as well as to provide guidelines for bio-inspired micro air vehicles (MAVs) design, we propose a comprehensive computational framework, which integrates aerodynamics, flight dynamics, vehicle stability and maneuverability. This framework consists of (1) a Navier-Stokes unsteady aerodynamic model; (2) a linear finite element model for structural dynamics; (3) a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model for coupled flexible wing aerodynamics aeroelasticity; (4) a free-flying rigid body dynamic (RBD) model utilizing the Newtonian-Euler equations of 6DoF motion; and (5) flight simulator accounting for realistic wing-body morphology, flapping-wing and body kinematics, and a coupling model accounting for the nonlinear 6DoF flight dynamics and stability of insect flapping flight. Results are presented based on hovering aerodynamics with rigid and flexible wings of hawkmoth and fruitfly. The present approach can support systematic analyses of bio- and bio-inspired flight.

  8. Hurricane Frances as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and SeaWinds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows Hurricane Frances as captured by instruments onboard two different satellites: the AIRS infrared instrument onboard Aqua, and the SeaWinds scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT. Both are JPL-managed instruments. AIRS data are used to create global three-dimensional maps of temperature, humidity and clouds, while scatterometers measure surface wind speed and direction over the ocean.

    The red vectors in the image show Frances' surface winds as measured by SeaWinds on QuikSCAT. The background colors show the temperature of clouds and surface as viewed in the infrared by AIRS, with cooler areas pushing to purple and warmer areas are pushing to red. The color scale on the right gives the temperatures in degrees Kelvin. (The top of the scale, 320 degrees Kelvin, corresponds to 117 degrees Fahrenheit, and the bottom, 180 degrees K is -135 degrees F.) The powerful circulation of this storm is evident from the combined data as well as the development of a clearly-defined central 'eye'. The infrared signal does not penetrate through clouds, so the light blue areas reveal the cold clouds tops associated with strong thunderstorms embedded within the storm. In cloud-free areas the infrared signal comes from Earth's surface, revealing warmer temperatures.

    The power of the SeaWinds scatterometer data set lies in its ability to generate global maps of wind speed and direction, giving us a snapshot of how the atmosphere is circulating. Weather prediction centers, including the Tropical Prediction Center - a branch of NOAA that monitors the creation of ocean-born storms, use scatterometer data to help it 'see' where these storms are brewing so that warnings can be issued and the storms, with often erratic motions, can be tracked.

    While the SeaWinds instrument isn't designed to gather hurricane data, having difficulty seeing the surface in heavy rain, it's data can be used in combination with other data sets to give us an insight into these storms. In

  9. Hurricane Frances as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) - Total Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Born in the Atlantic, Hurricane Frances became a category 4 hurricane on August 31, 2004. Expectations are the hurricane will hit the Space Coast of Florida in Brevard County early Sunday morning.

    This movie is a time-series of maps that show AIRS observations of the total amount of water vapor present in the atmospheric column above each point of the Earth's surface. If all the water vapor in the column were forced to fall as rain, the depth of the resulting puddle on the surface at that point is equal to the value shown on the map. Fifty millimeters (mm) is about 2 inches. The large band of maximum water vapor in the neighborhood of the equator is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a region of strong convection and powerful thunderstorms.

    This movie shows the total precipitable water vapor from August 23 through September 2, 2004. You can see Hurricane Frances as it moves through the Caribbean toward Florida, and the changes in intensity are visible. The eye has been marked with a red spot. The water vapor encompassed by the hurricane is also the result of the very strong convection which is an integral part of the formation and intensification of tropical storms. If you look at the last frame of the movie in the lower right corner, you can see the emergence of a new tropical storm. Ivan makes its debut in the Atlantic.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft

  10. A Multiple Agent Model of Human Performance in Automated Air Traffic Control and Flight Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A predictive model of human operator performance (flight crew and air traffic control (ATC)) has been developed and applied in order to evaluate the impact of automation developments in flight management and air traffic control. The model is used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew and the ATC operators generating and responding to clearances aided by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The purpose of the modeling is to support evaluation and design of automated aids for flight management and airspace management and to predict required changes in procedure both air and ground in response to advancing automation in both domains. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Development of Micro Air Vehicle Technology With In-Flight Adaptive-Wing Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R. (Technical Monitor); Shkarayev, Sergey; Null, William; Wagner, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This is a final report on the research studies, "Development of Micro Air Vehicle Technology with In-Flight Adaptrive-Wing Structure". This project involved the development of variable-camber technology to achieve efficient design of micro air vehicles. Specifically, it focused on the following topics: 1) Low Reynolds number wind tunnel testing of cambered-plate wings. 2) Theoretical performance analysis of micro air vehicles. 3) Design of a variable-camber MAV actuated by micro servos. 4) Test flights of a variable-camber MAV.

  12. Occurrence of currently used pesticides in ambient air of Centre Region (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coscollà, Clara; Colin, Patrice; Yahyaoui, Abderrazak; Petrique, Olivier; Yusà, Vicent; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Pastor, Agustin

    2010-10-01

    Ambient air samples were collected, from 2006 to 2008 at three rural and two urban sites in Centre Region (France) and analyzed for 56 currently used pesticides (CUPs), of which 41 were detected. The four CUPs most frequently detected were the herbicides trifluralin, acetochlor and pendimethalin and the fungicide chlorothalonil, which were found with frequencies ranging between 52 and 78%, and with average concentrations of 1.93, 1.32, 1.84 and 12.15 ng m -3, respectively. Among the detected pesticides, concentrations of eight fungicides (spiroxamine, fenpropimorph, cyprodinil, tolyfluanid, epoxiconazole, vinchlozolin, fluazinam, fludioxinil), two insecticides (propargite, ethoprophos), and one herbicide (oxyfluorfen) are, to our knowledge, reported for the first time in the literature. The majority of the CUPs showed a seasonal trend, with most of the detections and the highest concentrations occurring during the spring and early summer. The most important pesticides detected were related to arable crops and fruit orchards, the main cultures in this region, highlighting the fact that the main sources come from local applications. Minor differences were found in the profiles of pesticides within rural areas and between rural and urban areas.

  13. Cosmic radiation in aviation: radiological protection of Air France aircraft crew.

    PubMed

    Desmaris, G

    2016-06-01

    Cosmic radiation in aviation has been a concern since the 1960s, and measurements have been taken for several decades by Air France. Results show that aircraft crew generally receive 3-4 mSv y(-1) for 750 boarding hours. Compliance with the trigger level of 6 mSv y(-1) is achieved by route selection. Work schedules can be developed for pregnant pilots to enable the dose to the fetus to be kept below 1 mSv. Crew members are informed of their exposition and the potential health impact. The upcoming International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report on cosmic radiation in aviation will provide an updated guidance. A graded approach proportionate with the time of exposure is recommended to implement the optimisation principle. The objective is to keep exposures of the most exposed aircraft members to reasonable levels. ICRP also recommends that information about cosmic radiation be disseminated, and that awareness about cosmic radiation be raised in order to favour informed decision-making by all concerned stakeholders. PMID:27044363

  14. Improving target orientation discrimination performance in air-to-air flight simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serfoss, Gary Lee

    Despite significant advances, state-of-the-art image projectors still lack the ability to display object detail equivalent to a 20/20 visual acuity capability. Unfortunately, for proper close-in air combat training in a flight simulator, this level of detail is necessary if a pilot is to accurately determine the orientation of another aircraft at realistic ranges. This investigation evaluates a possible interim solution to this problem that could be implemented until projectors are developed that can provide adequate resolution. The research methodology involves enlarging the "enemy" aircraft by various amounts as a function of distance-resulting in an aircraft that still always gets smaller as it moves farther away, but just not as quickly as a "non-enlarged" target. The results from 20 male F-16 pilots provided the distances where the orientation of aircraft in the simulator could be determined as well as similar aircraft under "real-world" conditions. By using these distances, it was possible to determine the amount of magnification needed to identify necessary details of the simulated aircraft at the same distances as they are under "real-world" conditions. The final product is a magnification curve that can be used to modify how the simulated target changes in size as a function of distance. Results seem to indicate that performance in the simulator might be enhanced to match real flying conditions without unacceptably (or perhaps even noticeably) altering the size of the target. These results should be applicable (with minor modification) to many other aircraft and perhaps ground targets as well. Furthermore, it is anticipated that application can be made beyond flight simulation to other types of simulation where performance is also currently inhibited due to lack of display resolution.

  15. Reactions of Air Transport Flight Crews to Displays of Weather During Simulated Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, James P.; Fallon, Corey; Bustamante, Ernesto; Bailey, William R., III; Anderson, Brittany

    2005-01-01

    Display of information in the cockpit has long been a challenge for aircraft designers. Given the limited space in which to present information, designers have had to be extremely selective about the types and amount of flight related information to present to pilots. The general goal of cockpit display design and implementation is to ensure that displays present information that is timely, useful, and helpful. This suggests that displays should facilitate the management of perceived workload, and should allow maximal situation awareness. The formatting of current and projected weather displays represents a unique challenge. As technologies have been developed to increase the variety and capabilities of weather information available to flight crews, factors such as conflicting weather representations and increased decision importance have increased the likelihood for errors. However, if formatted optimally, it is possible that next generation weather displays could allow for clearer indications of weather trends such as developing or decaying weather patterns. Important issues to address include the integration of weather information sources, flight crew trust of displayed weather information, and the teamed reactivity of flight crews to displays of weather. Past studies of weather display reactivity and formatting have not adequately addressed these issues; in part because experimental stimuli have not approximated the complexity of modern weather displays, and in part because they have not used realistic experimental tasks or participants. The goal of the research reported here was to investigate the influence of onboard and NEXRAD agreement, range to the simulated potential weather event, and the pilot flying on flight crew deviation decisions, perceived workload, and perceived situation awareness. Fifteen pilot-copilot teams were required to fly a simulated route while reacting to weather events presented in two graphical formats on a separate visual display

  16. Air/ground wind shear information integration: Flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1992-01-01

    An element of the NASA/FAA wind shear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne wind shear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a wind shear flight test program in the summer of 1991 during which airborne processing of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) data was used to derive microburst alerts. High level microburst products were extracted from TDWR, transmitted to a NASA Boeing 737 in flight via data link, and processed to estimate the wind shear hazard level (F-factor) that would be experienced by the aircraft in the core of each microburst. The microburst location and F-factor were used to derive a situation display and alerts. The situation display was successfully used to maneuver the aircraft for microburst penetrations, during which in situ 'truth' measurements were made. A total of 19 penetrations were made of TDWR-reported microburst locations, resulting in 18 airborne microburst alerts from the TDWR data and two microburst alerts from the airborne in situ measurements. The primary factors affecting alerting performance were spatial offset of the flight path from the region of strongest shear, differences in TDWR measurement altitude and airplane penetration altitude, and variations in microburst outflow profiles. Predicted and measured F-factors agreed well in penetrations near microburst cores. Although improvements in airborne and ground processing of the TDWR measurement would be required to support an airborne executive-level alerting protocol, the feasibility of airborne utilization of TDWR data link data has been demonstrated.

  17. Ambient air concentration of sulfur dioxide affects flight activity in bees

    SciTech Connect

    Ginevan, M.E.; Lane, D.D.; Greenberg, L.

    1980-10-01

    Three long-term (16 to 29 days) low-level (0.14 to 0.28 ppM) sulfur dioxide fumigations showed that exposure tothis gas has deleterious effects on male sweat bees (Lasioglossum zephrum). Although effects on mortality were equivocal, flight activity was definitely reduced. Because flight is necessary for successful mating behavior, the results suggest that sulfur dioxide air pollution could adversely affect this and doubtless other terrestrial insects.

  18. Manpower Requirements for Air Traffic Control and Flight Service Specialists in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Office of Manpower Studies.

    As of January 1, 1968 the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States Department of Transportation employed 6,963 controllers in airport towers, 7,617 controllers in Air Route Traffic Control Centers, and 4,459 flight service specialists at airport locations. Projected needs are as follows: (1) Controllers in airport towers:…

  19. Flight tests with a data link used for air traffic control information exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Charles E.; Scanlon, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies showed that air traffic control (ATC) message exchange with a data link offers the potential benefits of increased airspace system safety and efficiency. To accomplish these benefits, data link can be used to reduce communication errors and relieve overloaded ATC voice radio frequencies, which hamper efficient message exchange during peak traffic periods. Flight tests with commercial airline pilots as test subjects were conducted in the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle Boeing 737 airplane to contrast flight operations that used current voice communications with flight operations that used data link to transmit both strategic and tactical ATC clearances during a typical commercial airflight from takeoff to landing. The results of these tests that used data link as the primary communication source with ATC showed flight crew acceptance, a perceived reduction in crew work load, and a reduction in crew communication errors.

  20. Lateral spread of sonic boom measurements from US Air Force boomfile flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, J. Micah

    1992-01-01

    A series of sonic boom flight tests were conducted by the US Air Force at Edwards AFB in 1987 with current supersonic DOD aircraft. These tests involved 43 flights by various aircraft at different Mach number and altitude combinations. The measured peak overpressures to predicted values as a function of lateral distance are compared. Some of the flights are combined into five groups because of the varying profiles and the limited number of sonic booms obtained during this study. The peak overpressures and the lateral distances are normalized with respect to the Carlson method predicted centerline overpressures and lateral cutoff distances, respectively, to facilitate comparisons between sonic boom data from similar flight profiles. It is demonstrated that the data agrees with sonic boom theory and previous studies and adds to the existing sonic boom database by including sonic boom signatures, tracking, and weather data in a digital format.

  1. Korean Air Lines Flight 007: Lessons from the Past and Insights for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Shafto, M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The majority of the problems pilot encounter when using automated systems center around two factors: (1) the pilot has an incomplete and inadequate model of how the autopilot works; and (2) the displays and flight manuals, provided to the pilot, are inadequate for the task. The tragic accident of Korean Air Lines Flight 007, a Boeing 747 that deviated from its intended flight path, provides a compelling case-study of problems related to pilots' use of automated systems. This paper describes what had happened and exposes two types of human-automation interaction problems: (1) The pilots of KAL were not provided with adequate information about the actual behavior of the autopilot and its mode transition logic; and (2) The autopilot onboard KAL 007 did not provide adequate information to the flight crew about its active and armed modes. Both factors, according to the International Civil Aviation Organization (1993) report on the accident, contributed to the aircraft's lethal navigation error.

  2. Air Data Boom System Development for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Cox, Jeff; Bondurant, Robert; Dupont, Ron; ODonnell, Louise; Vellines, Wesley, IV; Johnston, William M.; Cagle, Christopher M.; Schuster, David M.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Newman, John A.; Tyler, Erik D.; Sterling, William J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) chartered the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) to demonstrate an alternate launch abort concept as risk mitigation for the Orion project's baseline "tower" design. On July 8, 2009, a full scale and passively, aerodynamically stabilized MLAS launch abort demonstrator was successfully launched from Wallops Flight Facility following nearly two years of development work on the launch abort concept: from a napkin sketch to a flight demonstration of the full-scale flight test vehicle. The MLAS flight test vehicle was instrumented with a suite of aerodynamic sensors. The purpose was to obtain sufficient data to demonstrate that the vehicle demonstrated the behavior predicted by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis and wind tunnel testing. This paper describes development of the Air Data Boom (ADB) component of the aerodynamic sensor suite.

  3. Use Of The Operational Air Quality Monitor (AQM) For In-Flight Water Testing Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    A primary requirement for manned spaceflight is Environmental Health which ensures air and water contaminants, acoustic profiles, microbial flora, and radiation exposures within the cabin are maintained to levels needed for crew health and for vehicle system functionality. The reliance on ground analyses of returned samples is a limitation in the current environmental monitoring strategy that will prevent future Exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. This proposal attempts to address this shortcoming by advancing in-flight analyses of water and air. Ground analysis of in-flight, air and water samples typically employ vapor-phase analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify and quantify organic compounds present in the samples. We envision the use of newly-developed direct ionization approaches as the most viable avenue leading towards an integrated analytical platform for the monitoring of water, air, and, potentially bio-samples in the cabin environment. Development of an in-flight instrument capable of analyzing air and water samples would be the logical next step to meeting the environmental monitoring needs of Exploration missions. Currently, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) on-board ISS provides this specific information for a number of target compounds in the air. However, there is a significant subset of common target compounds between air and water. Naturally, the following question arises, "Can the AQM be used for both air and water quality monitoring?" Previous directorate-level IR&D funding led to the development of a water sample introduction method for mass spectrometry using electrothermal vaporization (ETV). This project will focus on the integration of the ETV with a ground-based AQM. The capabilities of this integrated platform will be evaluated using a subset of toxicologically important compounds.

  4. The calibration and flight test performance of the space shuttle orbiter air data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, A. S.; Mena, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle air data system (ADS) is used by the guidance, navigation and control system (GN&C) to guide the vehicle to a safe landing. In addition, postflight aerodynamic analysis requires a precise knowledge of flight conditions. Since the orbiter is essentially an unpowered vehicle, the conventional methods of obtaining the ADS calibration were not available; therefore, the calibration was derived using a unique and extensive wind tunnel test program. This test program included subsonic tests with a 0.36-scale orbiter model, transonic and supersonic tests with a smaller 0.2-scale model, and numerous ADS probe-alone tests. The wind tunnel calibration was further refined with subsonic results from the approach and landing test (ALT) program, thus producing the ADS calibration for the orbital flight test (OFT) program. The calibration of the Space Shuttle ADS and its performance during flight are discussed in this paper. A brief description of the system is followed by a discussion of the calibration methodology, and then by a review of the wind tunnel and flight test programs. Finally, the flight results are presented, including an evaluation of the system performance for on-board systems use and a description of the calibration refinements developed to provide the best possible air data for postflight analysis work.

  5. Flight crew fatigue III: North Sea helicopter air transport operations.

    PubMed

    Gander, P H; Barnes, R M; Gregory, K B; Graeber, R C; Connell, L J; Rosekind, M R

    1998-09-01

    We studied 32 helicopter pilots before, during, and after 4-5 d trips from Aberdeen, Scotland, to service North Sea oil rigs. On duty days, subjects awoke 1.5 h earlier than pretrip or posttrip, after having slept nearly an hour less. Subjective fatigue was greater posttrip than pretrip. By the end of trip days, fatigue was greater and mood more negative than by the end of pretrip days. During trips, daily caffeine consumption increased 42%, reports of headache doubled, reports of back pain increased 12-fold, and reports of burning eyes quadrupled. In the cockpits studied, thermal discomfort and high vibration levels were common. Subjective workload during preflight, taxi, climb, and cruise was related to the crewmembers' ratings of the quality of the aircraft systems. During descent and approach, workload was affected by weather at the landing site. During landing, it was influenced by the quality of the landing site and air traffic control. Beginning duty later, and greater attention to aircraft comfort and maintenance, should reduce fatigue in these operations. PMID:9749937

  6. The QED engine spectrum - Fusion-electric propulsion for air-breathing to interstellar flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussard, Robert W.; Jameson, Lorin W.

    1993-01-01

    A new inertial-electrostatic-fusion direct electric power source can be used to drive a relativistic e-beam to heat propellant. The resulting system is shown to yield specific impulse and thrust/mass ratio 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than from other advanced propulsion concepts. This QED system can be applied to aerospace vehicles from air-breathing to near-interstellar flight. Examples are given for Earth/Mars flight missions, that show transit times of 40 d with 20 percent payload in single-stage vehicles.

  7. Flight Tests of the DELICAT Airborne LIDAR System for Remote Clear Air Turbulence Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrancken, Patrick; Wirth, Martin; Ehret, Gerhard; Witschas, Benjamin; Veerman, Henk; Tump, Robert; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Dolfi-Bouteyre, Agnès; Lombard, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    An important aeronautics application of lidar is the airborne remote detection of Clear Air Turbulence which cannot be performed with onboard radar. We report on a DLR-developed lidar system for the remote detection of such turbulent areas in the flight path of an aircraft. The lidar, consisting of a high-power UV laser transmitter and a direct detection system, was installed on a Dutch research aircraft. Flight tests executed in 2013 demonstrated the performance of the lidar system to detect local subtle variations in the molecular backscatter coefficient indicating the turbulence some 10 to 15 km ahead.

  8. Flight tests using data link for air traffic control and weather information exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Charles E.; Scanlon, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    Message exchange for air traffic control (ATC) purposes via data link offers the potential benefits of increasing the airspace system safety and efficiency. This is accomplished by reducing communication errors and relieving the overloaded ATC radio frequencies, which hamper efficient message exchanges during peak traffic periods in many busy terminal areas. However, the many uses and advantages of data link create additional questions concerning the interface among the human-users and the cockpit and ground systems. A flight test was conducted in the NASA Langley B-737 airplane to contrast flight operations using current voice communications with the use of data link for transmitting both strategic and tactical ATC clearances during a typical commercial airline flight from takeoff to landing. Commercial airplane pilots were used as test subjects.

  9. [Medical aspects of current flight safety concept of air forces of the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Blaginin, A A; Lizogub, I N

    2012-12-01

    Issues of medical supply of aviation operations, that is part of general system of flight safety are analyzed in this article. One of the main issues is development of the system of vocational preparation of medical personnel, taking part in organization and carrying flights. This issue consists of several themes: formation of united system of education from primary to post graduate; formation of modern training facility; assurance of high potential in academic and teaching staff and providing of good basic training and high learning motivation of applicants, who wants to become a air medical officer. Fundamental principles of developed concept of medical supply of flight safety are presented. It is shown that the essential condition of good implementation of the given concept is informaltion support of all its structures. PMID:23479904

  10. Air-breathing aerospace plane development essential: Hypersonic propulsion flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.

    1994-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion utilizing scramjets can fundamentally change transatmospheric accelerators for low earth-to-orbit and return transportation. The value and limitations of ground tests, of flight tests, and of computations are presented, and scramjet development requirements are discussed. It is proposed that near full-scale hypersonic propulsion flight tests are essential for developing a prototype hypersonic propulsion system and for developing computational-design technology so that it can be used for designing this system. In order to determine how these objectives should be achieved, some lessons learned from past programs are presented. A conceptual two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) prototype/experimental aerospace plane is recommended as a means of providing access-to-space and for conducting flight tests. A road map for achieving these objectives is also presented.

  11. Hypersonic propulsion flight tests as essential to air-breathing aerospace plane development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion utilizing scramjets can fundamentally change transatmospheric acclerators for transportation from low Earth orbits (LEOs). The value and limitations of ground tests, of flight tests, and of computations are presented, and scramjet development requirements are discussed. Near-full-scale hypersonic propulsion flight tests are essential for developing a prototype hypersonic propulsion system and for developing computation-design technology that can be used in designing that system. In order to determine how these objectives should be achieved, some lessons learned from past programs are presented. A conceptual two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) prototype/experimental aerospace plane is recommended as a means of providing access-to-space and for conducting flight tests. A road map for achieving these objectives is also presented.

  12. Relationship between meteorological phenomena and air pollution in an urbanized and industrialized coastal area in northern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gengembre, Cyril; Zhang, Shouwen; Dieudonné, Elsa; Sokolov, Anton; Augustin, Patrick; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    Impacts of global climate evolution are quite uncertain at regional and local scales, especially on air pollution. Air quality is associated with local atmospheric dynamics at a time scale shorter than a few weeks, while the climate change time scale is on the order of fifty years. To infer consequences of climate evolution on air pollution, it is necessary to fill the gap between these different scales. Another challenge is to understand the effect of global warming on the frequency of meteorological phenomena that influence air pollution. In this work, we classified meteorological events related to air pollution during a one-year long field campaign in Dunkirk (northern France). Owing to its coastal location under urban and industrial exposures, the Dunkirk agglomeration is an interesting area for studying gaseous and aerosols pollutants and their relationship with weather events such as sea breezes, fogs, storms and fronts. The air quality in the northern region of France is also greatly influenced by highly populated and industrialized cities along the coast of the North Sea, and by London and Paris agglomerations. During a field campaign, we used simultaneously a three-dimensional sonic anemometer and a weather station network, along with a scanning Doppler Lidar system to analyse the vertical structure of the atmosphere. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor enabled investigating the PM1 behaviour during the studied events. Air contaminants such as NOx (NO and NO2) were also measured by the regional pollution monitoring network ATMO Nord Pas-de-Calais. The events were identified by finding specific criteria from meteorological and turbulent parameters. Over a hundred cases of sea breezes, fog periods, stormy days and atmospheric front passages were investigated. Variations of turbulent parameters (vertical sensible heat flux and momentum flux) give estimations on the transport and the dispersal of pollutants. As the fluxes are weak during fogs, an increase

  13. Development of an air ground data exchange concept: Flight deck perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flathers, G. W., II

    1987-01-01

    The planned modernization of the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) includes the development and use of a digital data link as a means to exchange information between aircraft and ground-based facilities. This report presents an operationally-oriented concept on how data link could be used for applications related directly to air traffic control. The specific goal is to establish the role that data link could play in the air-ground communications. Due regard is given to the unique characteristics of data link and voice communications, current principles of air traffic control, operational procedures, human factors/man-machine interfaces, and the integration of data link with other air and ground systems. The resulting concept is illustrated in the form of a paper-and-pencil simulation in which data link and voice communications during the course of a hypothetical flight are described.

  14. Photocopy of aerial photograph, Pacific Air Industries, Flight 123V, June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of aerial photograph, Pacific Air Industries, Flight 123V, June 29, 1960 (University of California, Santa Barbara, Map and Imagery Collection) PORTION OF IRVINE RANCH SHOWING SITE CA-2275-A IN LOWER LEFT QUADRANT AND SITE CA-2275-B IN UPPER RIGHT QUADRANT (see separate photograph index for 2275-B) - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  15. In-flight deaths during commercial air travel. How big is the problem?

    PubMed

    Cummins, R O; Chapman, P J; Chamberlain, D A; Schubach, J A; Litwin, P E

    1988-04-01

    Do passenger deaths occur during commercial air travel? If so, how often and from what causes? We reviewed information reported to the International Air Transport Association on in-flight deaths that occurred during commercial air travel for the eight years between 1977 and 1984. Of the 120 airlines in the International Air Transport Association, 42 carriers reported deaths during these eight years. A total of 577 in-flight deaths were recorded, for a reported average of 72 deaths per year. Deaths occurred at average rates of 0.31 per million passengers, 125 per billion passenger-kilometers, and 25.1 per million departures. The majority of those who died were men (66%, 382/577) and middle-aged (mean age, 53.8 years). Most of the individuals (77%, 399/515) reported no health problems prior to travel. Physicians aboard the aircraft offered medical assistance for 43% (247/577) of the deaths. More than half of the deaths (56%, 326/577) seemed to be related to cardiac problems. Sudden unexpected cardiac death was the cause of death in 63% (253/399) of the apparently healthy people and seems to be the major cause of death during air travel. These observations support the initiation of programs to train cabin personnel in the skills of basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation and in the use of automatic external defibrillators. PMID:3346980

  16. High-Altitude Flight Cooling Investigation of a Radial Air-Cooled Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manganiello, Eugene J; Valerino, Michael F; Bell, E Barton

    1947-01-01

    An investigation of the cooling of an 18-cylinder, twin-row, radial, air-cooled engine in a high-performance pursuit airplane has been conducted for variable engine and flight conditions at altitudes ranging from 5000 to 35,000 feet in order to provide a basis for predicting high-altitude cooling performance from sea-level or low altitude experimental results. The engine cooling data obtained were analyzed by the usual NACA cooling-correlation method wherein cylinder-head and cylinder-barrel temperatures are related to the pertinent engine and cooling-air variables. A theoretical analysis was made of the effect on engine cooling of the change of density of the cooling air across the engine (the compressibility effect), which becomes of increasing importance as altitude is increased. Good agreement was obtained between the results of the theoretical analysis and the experimental data.

  17. Piloted simulation of one-on-one helicopter air combat at NOE flight levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. S.; Aiken, E. W.

    1985-01-01

    A piloted simulation designed to examine the effects of terrain proximity and control system design on helicopter performance during one-on-one air combat maneuvering (ACM) is discussed. The NASA Ames vertical motion simulator (VMS) and the computer generated imagery (CGI) systems were modified to allow two aircraft to be independently piloted on a single CGI data base. Engagements were begun with the blue aircraft already in a tail-chase position behind the red, and also with the two aircraft originating from positions unknown to each other. Maneuvering was very aggressive and safety requirements for minimum altitude, separation, and maximum bank angles typical of flight test were not used. Results indicate that the presence of terrain features adds an order of complexiaty to the task performed over clear air ACM and that mix of attitude and rate command-type stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) design may be desirable. The simulation system design, the flight paths flown, and the tactics used were compared favorably by the evaluation pilots to actual flight test experiments.

  18. Affordable Flight Demonstration of the GTX Air-Breathing SSTO Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivanek, Thomas M.; Roche, Joseph M.; Riehl, John P.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2003-01-01

    The rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle has the potential to significantly reduce the total cost per pound for orbital payload missions. To validate overall system performance, a flight demonstration must be performed. This paper presents an overview of the first phase of a flight demonstration program for the GTX SSTO vehicle concept. Phase 1 will validate the propulsion performance of the vehicle configuration over the supersonic and hypersonic air- breathing portions of the trajectory. The focus and goal of Phase 1 is to demonstrate the integration and performance of the propulsion system flowpath with the vehicle aerodynamics over the air-breathing trajectory. This demonstrator vehicle will have dual mode ramjetkcramjets, which include the inlet, combustor, and nozzle with geometrically scaled aerodynamic surface outer mold lines (OML) defining the forebody, boundary layer diverter, wings, and tail. The primary objective of this study is to demon- strate propulsion system performance and operability including the ram to scram transition, as well as to validate vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion airframe integration. To minimize overall risk and develop ment cost the effort will incorporate proven materials, use existing turbomachinery in the propellant delivery systems, launch from an existing unmanned remote launch facility, and use basic vehicle recovery techniques to minimize control and landing requirements. A second phase would demonstrate propulsion performance across all critical portions of a space launch trajectory (lift off through transition to all-rocket) integrated with flight-like vehicle systems.

  19. A flight test design for studying airborne applications of air to ground duplex data link communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1988-01-01

    The Automatic En Route Air Traffic Control (AERA) and the Advanced Automated System (AAS) of the NAS plan, call for utilization of data links for such items as computer generated flight clearances, enroute minimum safe altitude warnings, sector probes, out of conformance check, automated flight services, and flow management of advisories. A major technical challenge remaining is the integration, flight testing, and validation of data link equipment and procedures in the aircraft cockpit. The flight test organizational chart, was designed to have the airplane side of data link experiments implemented in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) experimental Boeing 737 airplane. This design would enable investigations into implementation of data link equipment and pilot interface, operations, and procedures. The illustrated ground system consists of a work station with links to a national weather database and a data link transceiver system. The data link transceiver system could be a Mode-S transponder, ACARS, AVSAT, or another type of radio system such as the military type HF data link. The airborne system was designed so that a data link transceiver, workstation, and touch panel could be interfaced with an input output processor to the aircraft system bus and thus have communications access to other digital airplane systems.

  20. A flight test design for studying airborne applications of air to ground duplex data link communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1988-09-01

    The Automatic En Route Air Traffic Control (AERA) and the Advanced Automated System (AAS) of the NAS plan, call for utilization of data links for such items as computer generated flight clearances, enroute minimum safe altitude warnings, sector probes, out of conformance check, automated flight services, and flow management of advisories. A major technical challenge remaining is the integration, flight testing, and validation of data link equipment and procedures in the aircraft cockpit. The flight test organizational chart, was designed to have the airplane side of data link experiments implemented in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) experimental Boeing 737 airplane. This design would enable investigations into implementation of data link equipment and pilot interface, operations, and procedures. The illustrated ground system consists of a work station with links to a national weather database and a data link transceiver system. The data link transceiver system could be a Mode-S transponder, ACARS, AVSAT, or another type of radio system such as the military type HF data link. The airborne system was designed so that a data link transceiver, workstation, and touch panel could be interfaced with an input output processor to the aircraft system bus and thus have communications access to other digital airplane systems.

  1. Free Flight Simulation: An Initial Examination of Air-Ground Integration Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozito, Sandra; McGann, Alison; Cashion, Patricia; Dunbar, Melisa; Mackintosh, Margaret; Dulchinos, Victoria; Jordan, Kevin; Remington, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The concept of "free flight" is intended to emphasize more flexibility for operators in the National Airspace System (RTCA, 1995). This may include the potential for aircraft self-separation. The purpose of this simulation was to begin examining some of the communication and procedural issues associated with self-separation in an integrated air-ground environment. Participants were 10 commercial U.S. flight crews who flew the B747-400 simulator and 10 Denver ARTCC controllers who monitored traffic in an ATC simulation. A prototypic airborne alerting logic and flight deck display features were designed to allow for increased traffic and maneuvering information. Eight different scenarios representing different conflict types were developed. The effects of traffic density (high and low) and different traffic convergence angles (obtuse, acute, and right) were assessed. Conflict detection times were found to be lower for the flight crews in low density compared to high density scenarios. For the controllers, an interaction between density and convergence angle was revealed. Analyses on the controller detection times found longer detection times in the obtuse high density compared to obtuse low density, as well as the shortest detection times in the high density acute angle condition. Maneuvering and communication events are summarized, and a discussion of future research issues is provided.

  2. [The ATMO index: an air quality indicator for developed areas in France].

    PubMed

    2003-05-01

    The LAURE (5) of 30 december, 1996, sets the preventive, monitoring, reduction or suppression of atmospheric pollution objectives and the goals for preserving air quality. Heading 1--Article 4 of the law states in particular that the right to information on air quality and its impact on the environment is recognised as the right of every person on French territory. The decree of 10 january, 2000, about the air-quality index is derived from this determination to information for all, stated as an important element in the policy for air-quality management. This decree provides definitions of the ATMO index with "standards 2000" and the recommendations required for its calculation. Previously (1992 and before), certain local agencies had developed their own index. Naturally these indices showed sizeable differences. The effort provided by the Ministry of the Environment, ADEME and the monitoring agencies, enabled the definition of a single index for the whole of the large urban areas (> 100,000 inhabitants). The index gives a common language to the non-specialist public, which can now understand the overall air quality in different urban areas. As all aggregate indicators of the same kind, the ATMO index is designed as a tool that makes it possible to translate in a quantitative and simple way the synthesis of numerous measurement data recorded daily by official air-quality monitoring agencies (AASQA). PMID:12838780

  3. Impact of aeroelasticity on propulsion and longitudinal flight dynamics of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Mcminn, John D.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Wooley, Christine L.

    1993-01-01

    Many air-breathing hypersonic aerospacecraft design concepts incorporate an elongated fuselage forebody acting as the aerodynamic compression surface for a hypersonic combustion module, or scram jet. This highly integrated design approach creates the potential for an unprecedented form of aero-propulsive-elastic interaction in which deflections of the vehicle fuselage give rise to propulsion transients, producing force and moment variations that may adversely impact the rigid body flight dynamics and/or further excite the fuselage bending modes. To investigate the potential for such interactions, a math model was developed which included the longitudinal flight dynamics, propulsion system, and first seven elastic modes of a hypersonic air-breathing vehicle. Perturbation time histories from a simulation incorporating this math model are presented that quantify the propulsive force and moment variations resulting from aeroelastic vehicle deflections. Root locus plots are presented to illustrate the effect of feeding the propulsive perturbations back into the aeroelastic model. A concluding section summarizes the implications of the observed effects for highly integrated hypersonic air-breathing vehicle concepts.

  4. COPD and air travel: does hypoxia-altitude simulation testing predict in-flight respiratory symptoms?

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Anne; Ryg, Morten; Akerø, Aina; Christensen, Carl Christian; Skjønsberg, Ole H

    2013-11-01

    The reduced pressure in an aircraft cabin may cause significant hypoxaemia and respiratory symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current study evaluated whether there is a relationship between hypoxaemia obtained during hypoxia-altitude simulation testing (HAST), simulating an altitude of 2438 m, and the reporting of respiratory symptoms during air travel. 82 patients with moderate to very severe COPD answered an air travel questionnaire. Arterial oxygen tensions during HAST (PaO2HAST) in subjects with and without in-flight respiratory symptoms were compared. The same questionnaire was answered within 1 year after the HAST. Mean ± sd PaO2HAST was 6.3 ± 0.6 kPa and 62 (76%) of the patients had PaO2HAST <6.6 kPa. 38 (46%) patients had experienced respiratory symptoms during air travel. There was no difference in PaO2HAST in those with and those without in-flight respiratory symptoms (6.3 ± 0.7 kPa versus 6.3 ± 0.6 kPa, respectively; p=0.926). 54 (66%) patients travelled by air after the HAST, and patients equipped with supplemental oxygen (n = 23, 43%) reported less respiratory symptoms when flying with than those without such treatment (four (17%) versus 11 (48%) patients; p=0.039). In conclusion, no difference in PaO2HAST was found between COPD patients with and without respiratory symptoms during air travel. PMID:23258777

  5. Aerothermal test results from the first flight of the Pegasus air-launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noffz, Gregory K.; Curry, Robert E.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1991-01-01

    A survey of temperature measurements at speeds through Mach 8.0 on the first flight of the Pegasus air-launched booster system is discussed. In addition, heating rates were derived from the temperature data obtained on the fuselage in the vicinity of the wing shock interaction. Sensors were distributed on the wing surfaces, leading edge, and on the wing-body fairing or fillet. Side-by-side evaluations were obtained for a variety of sensor installations. Details of the trajectory reconstruction through first-stage separation are provided. Given here are indepth descriptions of the sensor installations, temperature measurements, and derived heating rates along with interpretations of the results.

  6. Time of flight measurement of speed of sound in air with a computer sound card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljalal, Abdulaziz

    2014-11-01

    A computer sound card and freely available audio editing software are used to measure accurately the speed of sound in air using the time-of-flight method. In addition to speed of sound measurement, inversion behaviour upon reflection from an open and closed end of a pipe is demonstrated. Also, it is demonstrated that the reflection at an open end of a pipe occurs slightly outside the pipe. The equipment needed is readily available to any student with access to a microphone, loudspeaker and computer.

  7. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Syrian Air Carriers to the United States Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 104 Special Federal...

  8. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Syrian Air Carriers to the United States Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 104 Special Federal...

  9. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Syrian Air Carriers to the United States Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 104 Special Federal...

  10. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Syrian Air Carriers to the United States Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 104 Special Federal...

  11. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Syrian Air Carriers to the United States Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 104 Special Federal...

  12. Assessment of ventilation and indoor air pollutants in nursery and elementary schools in France.

    PubMed

    Canha, N; Mandin, C; Ramalho, O; Wyart, G; Ribéron, J; Dassonville, C; Hänninen, O; Almeida, S M; Derbez, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and ventilation in French classrooms. Various parameters were measured over one school week, including volatile organic compounds, aldehydes, particulate matter (PM2.5 mass concentration and number concentration), carbon dioxide (CO2 ), air temperature, and relative humidity in 51 classrooms at 17 schools. The ventilation was characterized by several indicators, such as the air exchange rate, ventilation rate (VR), and air stuffiness index (ICONE), that are linked to indoor CO2 concentration. The influences of the season (heating or non-heating), type of school (nursery or elementary), and ventilation on the IAQ were studied. Based on the minimum value of 4.2 l/s per person required by the French legislation for mechanically ventilated classrooms, 91% of the classrooms had insufficient ventilation. The VR was significantly higher in mechanically ventilated classrooms compared with naturally ventilated rooms. The correlations between IAQ and ventilation vary according to the location of the primary source of each pollutant (outdoor vs. indoor), and for an indoor source, whether it is associated with occupant activity or continuous emission. PMID:25955661

  13. Flight Test of an L(sub 1) Adaptive Controller on the NASA AirSTAR Flight Test Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Xargay, Enric; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of a flight test of the L-1 adaptive control architecture designed to directly compensate for significant uncertain cross-coupling in nonlinear systems. The flight test was conducted on the subscale turbine powered Generic Transport Model that is an integral part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at the NASA Langley Research Center. The results presented are for piloted tasks performed during the flight test.

  14. Multi-year levels and trends of non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations observed in ambient air in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waked, Antoine; Sauvage, Stéphane; Borbon, Agnès; Gauduin, Julie; Pallares, Cyril; Vagnot, Marie-Pierre; Léonardis, Thierry; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of 31 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were carried out at three urban (Paris, 2003-2014, Strasbourg, 2002-2014 and Lyon, 2007-2014) sites in France over the period of a decade. A trend analysis was applied by means of the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test to annual and seasonal mean concentrations in order to point out changes in specific emission sources and to assess the impact of emission controls and reduction strategies. The trends were compared to those from three rural sites (Peyrusse-Vieille, 2002-2013, Tardière, 2003-2013 and Donon, 1997-2007). The results obtained showed a significant yearly decrease in pollutant concentrations over the study period and for the majority of species in the range of -1 to -7% in accordance with the decrease of NMHC emissions in France (-5 to -9%). Concentrations of long-lived species such as ethane and propane which are recognized as tracers of distant sources and natural gas remained constant. Compounds associated with combustion processes such as acetylene, propene, ethylene and benzene showed a significant decline in the range of -2% to -5% yr-1. These trends are consistent with those recently described at urban and background sites in the northern mid-latitudes and with emission inventories. C7-C9 aromatics such as toluene and xylenes as well as C4-C5 alkanes such as isopentane and isobutane also showed a significant decrease in the range of -3% to -7% yr-1. The decreasing trends in terms of % yr-1 observed at these French urban sites were typically higher for acetylene, ethylene and benzene than those reported for French rural sites of the national observatory of Measurement and Evaluation in Rural areas of trans-boundary Air pollution (MERA). The study also highlighted the difficult choice of a long term sampling site representative of the general trends of pollutant concentrations.

  15. Flight test of multi-pulses vertical laser propulsion in air breathing mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ming; Wu, Jie; Wang, Guangyu

    2013-05-01

    The air breathing vertical laser propulsion experiment refers to that in the air breathing mode the light craft under the irradiation of incident laser of vertical direction will turn pulse laser energy into the vertical propulsion thrust of the light craft and continue along the fixed rail upward propulsion flight. It is an important experiment to test the minimum single pulse energy, the optimization degree of light craft structure, and the characteristics of turning the laser energy into the thrust. The experiment is to be conducted dozens of meters in height away the ground generally. The article gives a detailed explanation of the whole process of the air breathing vertical propulsion test, including vertical propulsion light craft design, the connections design, the connections performance test, the frictional resistance detection and the whole process of movement performance test. A vertical propulsion tower was used to conduct the single pulse experiment and multi-pulse performance was predicted with a multiple-pulse thrust measuring system. The impulse coupling coefficient was estimated from fight height. Finally, through the experiments of air breathing vertical laser propulsion, the relation of the movement time and flight height was obtained. In the curve, the mean acceleration of the light craft can arrive to 6m/s2 in the first 20 pulses and the propulsion height can reach 3.5m in 1.12s. After 0.65s, the acceleration of the light craft decreased significantly. The results of the article lay the good foundation for the laser propulsion launch system verification.

  16. Affordable Flight Demonstration of the GTX Air-Breathing SSTO Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivanek, Thomas M.; Roche, Joseph M.; Riehl, John P.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2002-01-01

    The rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle has the potential to significantly reduce the total cost per pound for orbital payload missions. To validate overall system performance, a flight demonstration must be performed. This paper presents an overview of the first phase of a flight demonstration program for the GTX SSTO vehicle concept. Phase 1 will validate the propulsion performance of the vehicle configuration over the supersonic and hypersonic airbreathing portions of the trajectory. The focus and goal of Phase 1 is to demonstrate the integration and performance of the propulsion system flowpath with the vehicle aerodynamics over the air-breathing trajectory. This demonstrator vehicle will have dual mode ramjet/scramjets, which include the inlet, combustor, and nozzle with geometrically scaled aerodynamic surface outer mold lines (OML) defining the forebody, boundary layer diverter, wings, and tail. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate propulsion system performance and operability including the ram to scram transition, as well as to validate vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion airframe integration. To minimize overall risk and development cost the effort will incorporate proven materials, use existing turbomachinery in the propellant delivery systems, launch from an existing unmanned remote launch facility, and use basic vehicle recovery techniques to minimize control and landing requirements. A second phase would demonstrate propulsion performance across all critical portions of a space launch trajectory (lift off through transition to all-rocket) integrated with flight-like vehicle systems.

  17. Comparison of Tests on Air Propellers in Flight with Wind Tunnel Model Tests on Similar Forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, W F; Lesley, E P

    1926-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the performance, characteristics, and coefficients of full-sized air propellers in flight and to compare these results with those derived from wind-tunnel tests on reduced scale models of similar geometrical form. The full-scale equipment comprised five propellers in combination with a VE-7 airplane and Wright E-4 engine. This part of the work was carried out at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, between May 1 and August 24, 1924, and was under the immediate charge of Mr. Lesley. The model or wind-tunnel part of the investigation was carried out at the Aerodynamic Laboratory of Stanford University and was under the immediate charge of Doctor Durand. A comparison of the curves for full-scale results with those derived from the model tests shows that while the efficiencies realized in flight are close to those derived from model tests, both thrust developed and power absorbed in flight are from 6 to 10 per cent greater than would be expected from the results of model tests.

  18. A Preliminary Investigation of Supercharging an Air-Cooled Engine in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ware, Marsden; Schey, Oscar W

    1929-01-01

    This report presents the results of preliminary tests made on the effects of supercharging an air-cooled engine under airplane flight conditions. Service training airplanes were used in the investigation equipped with production types of Wright J engines. A N.A.C.A. Roots type supercharger was driven from the rear of the engine. In addition to measuring those quantities that would enable the determination of the climb performance, measurements were made of the cylinder-head temperatures and the carburetor pressures and temperatures. The supercharging equipment was not removed from the airplane when making flights without supercharging, but a by-pass valve, which controlled the amount of supercharging by returning to the atmosphere the surplus air delivered by the supercharger, was left full open. With the supercharger so geared that ground-level pressure could be maintained to 18,500 feet, it was found that the absolute ceiling was increased from 19,400 to 32,600 feet, that the time to climb to 16,00 feet was decreased from 32 to 16 minutes, and that this amount of supercharging apparently did not injure the engine. (author)

  19. Interactions between Flight Dynamics and Propulsion Systems of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalle, Derek J.

    The development and application of a first-principles-derived reduced-order model called MASIV (Michigan/AFRL Scramjet In Vehicle) for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle is discussed. Several significant and previously unreported aspects of hypersonic flight are investigated. A fortunate coupling between increasing Mach number and decreasing angle of attack is shown to extend the range of operating conditions for a class of supersonic inlets. Detailed maps of isolator unstart and ram-to-scram transition are shown on the flight corridor map for the first time. In scram mode the airflow remains supersonic throughout the engine, while in ram mode there is a region of subsonic flow. Accurately predicting the transition between these two modes requires models for complex shock interactions, finite-rate chemistry, fuel-air mixing, pre-combustion shock trains, and thermal choking, which are incorporated into a unified framework here. Isolator unstart occurs when the pre-combustion shock train is longer than the isolator, which blocks airflow from entering the engine. Finally, cooptimization of the vehicle design and trajectory is discussed. An optimal control technique is introduced that greatly reduces the number of computations required to optimize the simulated trajectory.

  20. CFD based aerodynamic modeling to study flight dynamics of a flapping wing micro air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rege, Alok Ashok

    The demand for small unmanned air vehicles, commonly termed micro air vehicles or MAV's, is rapidly increasing. Driven by applications ranging from civil search-and-rescue missions to military surveillance missions, there is a rising level of interest and investment in better vehicle designs, and miniaturized components are enabling many rapid advances. The need to better understand fundamental aspects of flight for small vehicles has spawned a surge in high quality research in the area of micro air vehicles. These aircraft have a set of constraints which are, in many ways, considerably different from that of traditional aircraft and are often best addressed by a multidisciplinary approach. Fast-response non-linear controls, nano-structures, integrated propulsion and lift mechanisms, highly flexible structures, and low Reynolds aerodynamics are just a few of the important considerations which may be combined in the execution of MAV research. The main objective of this thesis is to derive a consistent nonlinear dynamic model to study the flight dynamics of micro air vehicles with a reasonably accurate representation of aerodynamic forces and moments. The research is divided into two sections. In the first section, derivation of the nonlinear dynamics of flapping wing micro air vehicles is presented. The flapping wing micro air vehicle (MAV) used in this research is modeled as a system of three rigid bodies: a body and two wings. The design is based on an insect called Drosophila Melanogaster, commonly known as fruit-fly. The mass and inertial effects of the wing on the body are neglected for the present work. The nonlinear dynamics is simulated with the aerodynamic data published in the open literature. The flapping frequency is used as the control input. Simulations are run for different cases of wing positions and the chosen parameters are studied for boundedness. Results show a qualitative inconsistency in boundedness for some cases, and demand a better

  1. An Analytical Explanation for the X-43A Flush Air Data Sensing System Pressure Mismatch Between Flight and Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellsworth, Joel C.

    2010-01-01

    Following the successful Mach 7 flight test of the X-43A, unexpectedly low pressures were measured by the aft set of the onboard Flush Air Data Sensing System s pressure ports. These in-flight aft port readings were significantly lower below Mach 3.5 than was predicted by theory. The same lower readings were also seen in the Mach 10 flight of the X-43A and in wind-tunnel data. The pre-flight predictions were developed based on 2-dimensional wedge flow, which fails to predict some of the significant 3-dimensional flow features in this geometry at lower Mach numbers. Using Volterra s solution to the wave equation as a starting point, a three-dimensional finite wedge approximation to flow over the X-43A forebody is presented. The surface pressures from this approximation compare favorably with the measured wind tunnel and flight data at speeds of Mach 2.5 and 3.

  2. Early Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) experience with Peripheral Vision Horizon Displays (PVHD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schofield, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    Three separate Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) tests were conducted in 1980 and 1981 on two models of the peripheral vision horizon displays (PVHD) (Malcolm Horizon). A fixed base simulator test was conducted with twenty test pilot subjects using the Flight Simulator Demonstration Model which incorporated a Helium Neon laser as the light bar medium. Two separate flight tests were conducted by the Test Pilot School classes 80A and 80B in a Twin Otter commuter aircraft using the Stage A Model PVHD. The Xenon lighted A Model was tested in its original configuration by class 80A. Class 80B used a modified configuration which incorporated an AFFTC designed and manufactured hood. With the hood, the PVHD projected a thinner, distinct light bar. Only a few general remarks concerning the tests and unrestricted, overall conclusions reached by the author are presented. The conclusions of all three AFFTC evaluations of the PVHD concept were that it has not yet been adequately evaluated. There seems to be a significant learning curve associated with the PVHD and the project pilots for Test Pilot School Class 80B only got a good start on the learning curve. A lengthy learning curve for the PVHD should be anticipated in view of the training period required for the attitude display indicator (ADI). This does seem to point out that the PVHD, in its present form, is simply not as compelling as the natural horizon. It can also be concluded that any attempt at a valid evaluation of the PVHD concept can be done only under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) or validly simulated IMC conditions. The knee in the learning curve, however, may be reached without full IMC, although it may take much longer to reach.

  3. Shuttle Entry Air Data System concepts applied to Space Shuttle Orbiter flight pressure data to determine air data - STS 1-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III; Wolf, H.; Flanagan, P. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) is the implementation of a new concept in air data systems, with application to entry vehicles. This concept incorporates an array of flush orifices in the nose and forward fuselage of the vehicle and a new flowfield modeling concept for the analysis of flight data and the determination of the required air data parameters. Although the SEADS has not been fully demonstrated, a developmental analysis capability has been assembled and demonstrated. This analytical capability has been used to analyze selected Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) pressure data from STS-1 through STS-4 and determine angle of attack and freestream dynamic pressure. The results of this study verify the potential of the SEADS as a highly fault tolerant operational air data system. In addition, the transition of SEADS from its present status as an experimental system to an operational system is shown to be readily achievable.

  4. Expanding AirSTAR Capability for Flight Research in an Existing Avionics Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughter, Sean A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) project is an Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) test bed for experimental flight control laws and vehicle dynamics research. During its development, the test bed has gone through a number of system permutations, each meant to add functionality to the concept of operations of the system. This enabled the build-up of not only the system itself, but also the support infrastructure and processes necessary to support flight operations. These permutations were grouped into project phases and the move from Phase-III to Phase-IV was marked by a significant increase in research capability and necessary safety systems due to the integration of an Internal Pilot into the control system chain already established for the External Pilot. The major system changes in Phase-IV operations necessitated a new safety and failsafe system to properly integrate both the Internal and External Pilots and to meet acceptable project safety margins. This work involved retrofitting an existing data system into the evolved concept of operations. Moving from the first Phase-IV aircraft to the dynamically scaled aircraft further involved restructuring the system to better guard against electromagnetic interference (EMI), and the entire avionics wiring harness was redesigned in order to facilitate better maintenance and access to onboard electronics. This retrofit and harness re-design will be explored and how it integrates with the evolved Phase-IV operations.

  5. Air speeds of migrating birds observed by ornithodolite and compared with predictions from flight theory.

    PubMed

    Pennycuick, C J; Åkesson, Susanne; Hedenström, Anders

    2013-09-01

    We measured the air speeds of 31 bird species, for which we had body mass and wing measurements, migrating along the east coast of Sweden in autumn, using a Vectronix Vector 21 ornithodolite and a Gill WindSonic anemometer. We expected each species' average air speed to exceed its calculated minimum-power speed (Vmp), and to fall below its maximum-range speed (Vmr), but found some exceptions to both limits. To resolve these discrepancies, we first reduced the assumed induced power factor for all species from 1.2 to 0.9, attributing this to splayed and up-turned primary feathers, and then assigned body drag coefficients for different species down to 0.060 for small waders, and up to 0.12 for the mute swan, in the Reynolds number range 25 000-250 000. These results will be used to amend the default values in existing software that estimates fuel consumption in migration, energy heights on arrival and other aspects of flight performance, using classical aeronautical theory. The body drag coefficients are central to range calculations. Although they cannot be measured on dead bird bodies, they could be checked against wind tunnel measurements on living birds, using existing methods. PMID:23804440

  6. Air speeds of migrating birds observed by ornithodolite and compared with predictions from flight theory

    PubMed Central

    Pennycuick, C. J.; Åkesson, Susanne; Hedenström, Anders

    2013-01-01

    We measured the air speeds of 31 bird species, for which we had body mass and wing measurements, migrating along the east coast of Sweden in autumn, using a Vectronix Vector 21 ornithodolite and a Gill WindSonic anemometer. We expected each species’ average air speed to exceed its calculated minimum-power speed (Vmp), and to fall below its maximum-range speed (Vmr), but found some exceptions to both limits. To resolve these discrepancies, we first reduced the assumed induced power factor for all species from 1.2 to 0.9, attributing this to splayed and up-turned primary feathers, and then assigned body drag coefficients for different species down to 0.060 for small waders, and up to 0.12 for the mute swan, in the Reynolds number range 25 000–250 000. These results will be used to amend the default values in existing software that estimates fuel consumption in migration, energy heights on arrival and other aspects of flight performance, using classical aeronautical theory. The body drag coefficients are central to range calculations. Although they cannot be measured on dead bird bodies, they could be checked against wind tunnel measurements on living birds, using existing methods. PMID:23804440

  7. Short term effects of air pollution on mortality in the city of Lyon, France, 1985-90.

    PubMed Central

    Zmirou, D; Barumandzadeh, T; Balducci, F; Ritter, P; Laham, G; Ghilardi, J P

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The short term association between daily mortality and ambient air pollution in the city of Lyon, France (population, 410,000) between 1985 and 1990 was assessed using time series analysis. DESIGN: This study followed the standardised design and statistical analysis (Poisson regression) that characterise the APHEA project. METHODS: Four categories of cause of death were studied: total (minus external causes), respiratory, cardiovascular, and digestive causes (as a control condition). RESULTS: No association was found with any cause of death for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), nor, for any pollutant, for digestive conditions. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and, to a much lesser degree, suspended particles (PM13), were significantly related to mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular conditions. The relative risk (RR) of respiratory deaths associated with a 50 micrograms/m3 increment of mean daily SO2 over the whole period was 1.22 (95% CI 1.05, 1.40); the RR for cardiovascular deaths was 1.54 (1.22, 1.96). The corresponding RRs for PM13 were 1.04 (1.00, 1.09) for respiratory mortality and 1.04 (0.99, 1.10) for cardiovascular deaths. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of particulates were slightly increased during the cold season. When particulates concentrations were greater than 60 micrograms/m3, the joint SO2 effect was increased, suggesting some interaction between the two pollution indicators. These results agree with other studies showing an association between particulate pollution and daily mortality; however, they also suggest the noxious effect of SO2. PMID:8758221

  8. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Towards Flight Autonomy: Vision-Based Horizon Detection for Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nechyba, Michael C.; Ettinger, Scott M.; Ifju, Peter G.; Wazak, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Recently substantial progress has been made towards design building and testifying remotely piloted Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs). This progress in overcoming the aerodynamic obstacles to flight at very small scales has, unfortunately, not been matched by similar progress in autonomous MAV flight. Thus, we propose a robust, vision-based horizon detection algorithm as the first step towards autonomous MAVs. In this paper, we first motivate the use of computer vision for the horizon detection task by examining the flight of birds (biological MAVs) and considering other practical factors. We then describe our vision-based horizon detection algorithm, which has been demonstrated at 30 Hz with over 99.9% correct horizon identification, over terrain that includes roads, buildings large and small, meadows, wooded areas, and a lake. We conclude with some sample horizon detection results and preview a companion paper, where the work discussed here forms the core of a complete autonomous flight stability system.

  9. Interprofessional Flight Camp.

    PubMed

    Alfes, Celeste M; Rowe, Amanda S

    2016-01-01

    The Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing in Cleveland, OH, holds an annual flight camp designed for master's degree nursing students in the acute care nurse practitioner program, subspecializing in flight nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. The weeklong interprofessional training is also open to any health care provider working in an acute care setting and focuses on critical care updates, trauma, and emergency care within the critical care transport environment. This year, 29 graduate nursing students enrolled in a master's degree program from Puerto Rico attended. Although the emergency department in Puerto Rico sees and cares for trauma patients, there is no formal trauma training program. Furthermore, the country only has 1 rotor wing air medical transport service located at the Puerto Rico Medical Center in San Juan. Flight faculty and graduate teaching assistants spent approximately 9 months planning for their participation in our 13th annual flight camp. Students from Puerto Rico were extremely pleased with the learning experiences at camp and expressed particular interest in having more training time within the helicopter flight simulator. PMID:27021671

  10. SR-71B - in Flight with F-18 Chase Aircraft - View from Air Force Tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA 831, an SR-71B operated by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, cruises over the Mojave Desert with an F/A-18 Hornet flying safety chase. They were photographed on a 1996 mission from an Air Force refueling tanker The F/A-18 Hornet is used primarily as a safety chase and support aircraft at Dryden. As support aircraft, the F-18s are used for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used

  11. Ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution From Space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pougatchev, N. S.; Sen, B.; Steele, L. P.; Toon, G. C.; Yurganov, L. N.; Zander, R.; Zhao, Y.

    1998-08-01

    Results of the comparison of carbon monoxide ground-based infrared solar spectroscopic measurements with data obtained during 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution From Space (MAPS) flights are presented. Spectroscopic measurements were performed correlatively with April and October MAPS flights by nine research groups from Belgium, Canada, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, Russia, and the United States. Characterization of the techniques and error analysis were performed. The role of the CO a priori profile used in the retrieval was estimated. In most cases an agreement between spectroscopic and MAPS data is within estimated MAPS accuracy of +/-10%.

  12. Conservation equations and physical models for hypersonic air flows over the aeroassist flight experiment vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    The code development and application program for the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA), with emphasis directed toward support of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) in the near term and Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV) design in the long term is reviewed. LAURA is an upwind-biased, point-implicit relaxation algorithm for obtaining the numerical solution to the governing equations for 3-D, viscous, hypersonic flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium. The algorithm is derived using a finite volume formulation in which the inviscid components of flux across cell walls are described with Roe's averaging and Harten's entropy fix with second-order corrections based on Yee's Symmetric Total Variation Diminishing scheme. Because of the point-implicit relaxation strategy, the algorithm remains stable at large Courant numbers without the necessity of solving large, block tri-diagonal systems. A single relaxation step depends only on information from nearest neighbors. Predictions for pressure distributions, surface heating, and aerodynamic coefficients compare well with experimental data for Mach 10 flow over an AFE wind tunnel model. Predictions for the hypersonic flow of air in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium over the full scale AFE configuration obtained on a multi-domain grid are discussed.

  13. An evaluation of Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) flight pressures - Comparisons with wind tunnel and theoretical predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, M. W.; Wolf, H.; Siemers, Paul M., III

    1988-01-01

    The SEADS pressure data obtained from the Shuttle flight 61-C are analyzed in conjunction with the preflight database. Based on wind tunnel data, the sensitivity of the Shuttle Orbiter stagnation region pressure distribution to angle of attack and Mach number is demonstrated. Comparisons are made between flight and wind tunnel SEADS orifice pressure distributions at several points throughout the re-entry. It is concluded that modified Newtonian theory provides a good tool for the design of a flush air data system, furnishing data for determining orifice locations and transducer sizing. Ground-based wind tunnel facilities are capable of providing the correction factors necessary for the derivation of accurate air data parameters from pressure data.

  14. Cancer incidence in professional flight crew and air traffic control officers: disentangling the effect of occupational versus lifestyle exposures.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Silva, Isabel; De Stavola, Bianca; Pizzi, Costanza; Evans, Anthony D; Evans, Sally A

    2013-01-15

    Flight crew are occupationally exposed to several potentially carcinogenic hazards; however, previous investigations have been hampered by lack of information on lifestyle exposures. The authors identified, through the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority medical records, a cohort of 16,329 flight crew and 3,165 air traffic control officers (ATCOs) and assembled data on their occupational and lifestyle exposures. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated to compare cancer incidence in each occupation to that of the general population; internal analyses were conducted by fitting Cox regression models. All-cancer incidence was 20-29% lower in each occupation than in the general population, mainly due to a lower incidence of smoking-related cancers [SIR (95% CI) = 0.33 (0.27-0.38) and 0.42 (0.28-0.60) for flight crew and ATCOs, respectively], consistent with their much lower prevalence of smoking. Skin melanoma rates were increased in both flight crew (SIR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.45-2.38) and ATCOs (2.66; 1.55-4.25), with rates among the former increasing with increasing number of flight hours (p-trend = 0.02). However, internal analyses revealed no differences in skin melanoma rates between flight crew and ATCOs (hazard ratio: 0.78, 95% CI = 0.37-1.66) and identified skin that burns easily when exposed to sunlight (p = 0.001) and sunbathing to get a tan (p = 0.07) as the strongest risk predictors of skin melanoma in both occupations. The similar site-specific cancer risks between the two occupational groups argue against risks among flight crew being driven by occupation-specific exposures. The skin melanoma excess reflects sun-related behaviour rather than cosmic radiation exposure. PMID:22532267

  15. Airborne Four-Dimensional Flight Management in a Time-based Air Traffic Control Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Green, Steven M.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems are being developed which contain time-based (4D) trajectory predictions of aircraft. Airborne flight management systems (FMS) exist or are being developed with similar 4D trajectory generation capabilities. Differences between the ATC generated profiles and those generated by the airborne 4D FMS may introduce system problems. A simulation experiment was conducted to explore integration of a 4D equipped aircraft into a 4D ATC system. The NASA Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle cockpit simulator was linked in real time to the NASA Ames Descent Advisor ATC simulation for this effort. Candidate procedures for handling 4D equipped aircraft were devised and traffic scenarios established which required time delays absorbed through speed control alone or in combination with path stretching. Dissimilarities in 4D speed strategies between airborne and ATC generated trajectories were tested in these scenarios. The 4D procedures and FMS operation were well received by airline pilot test subjects, who achieved an arrival accuracy at the metering fix of 2.9 seconds standard deviation time error. The amount and nature of the information transmitted during a time clearance were found to be somewhat of a problem using the voice radio communication channel. Dissimilarities between airborne and ATC-generated speed strategies were found to be a problem when the traffic remained on established routes. It was more efficient for 4D equipped aircraft to fly trajectories with similar, though less fuel efficient, speeds which conform to the ATC strategy. Heavy traffic conditions, where time delays forced off-route path stretching, were found to produce a potential operational benefit of the airborne 4D FMS.

  16. Flight Test of Composite Model Reference Adaptive Control (CMRAC) Augmentation Using NASA AirSTAR Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Gadient, ROss; Lavretsky, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents flight test results of a robust linear baseline controller with and without composite adaptive control augmentation. The flight testing was conducted using the NASA Generic Transport Model as part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at NASA Langley Research Center.

  17. Performance of a hydrogen burner to simulate air entering scramjet combustors. [simulation of total temperature, total pressure, and volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russin, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the performance of a hydrogen burner used to produce a test gas that simulates air entering a scramjet combustor at various flight conditions. The test gas simulates air in that it duplicates the total temperature, total pressure, and the volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions. The main objective of the tests was to determine the performance of the burner as a function of the effective exhaust port area. The conclusions were: (1) pressure oscillations of the chugging type were reduced in amplitude to plus or minus 2 percent of the mean pressure level by proper sizing of hydrogen, oxygen, and air injector flow areas; (2) combustion efficiency remained essentially constant as the exhaust port area was increased by a factor of 3.4; (3) the mean total temperature determined from integrating the exit radial gas property profiles was within plus or minus 5 percent of the theoretical bulk total temperature; (4) the measured exit total temperature profile had a local peak temperature more than 30 percent greater than the theoretical bulk total temperature; and (5) measured heat transfer to the burner liner was 75 percent of that predicted by theory based on a flat radial temperature profile.

  18. Falling Victim to Wasps in the Air: A Fate Driven by Prey Flight Morphology?

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Yolanda; Polidori, Carlo; Tormos, José; Baños-Picón, Laura; Asís, Josep D.

    2016-01-01

    In prey-predator systems where the interacting individuals are both fliers, the flight performance of both participants heavily influences the probability of success of the predator (the prey is captured) and of the prey (the predator is avoided). While the flight morphology (an estimate of flight performance) of predatory wasps has rarely been addressed as a factor that may contribute to explain prey use, how the flight morphology of potential prey influences the output of predator-prey encounters has not been studied. Here, we hypothesized that flight morphology associated with flight ability (flight muscle mass to body mass ratio (FMR) and body mass to wing area ratio (wing loading, WL)) of Diptera affect their probability of being captured by specialized Diptera-hunting wasps (Bembix merceti and B. zonata), predicting a better manoeuvrability and acceleration capacity achieved by higher FMR and lower WL, and flight speed achieved by higher WL. In addition, wasp species with better flight morphology should be less limited by an advantageous Diptera flight morphology. Overall, the abundance of dipterans in the environment explained an important part of the observed variance in prey capture rate. However, it was not the only factor shaping prey capture. First, higher prey abundance was associated with greater capture rate for one species (B. merceti), although not for the other one. Second, the interaction observed between the environmental dipteran availability and dipteran WL for B. zonata suggests that greater dipteran WL (this probably meaning high cruising speed) decreased the probability of being captured, as long as fly abundance was high in the environment. Third, greater dipteran FMR (which likely means high manoeuvrability and acceleration capacity) helped to reduce predation by B. merceti if, again, dipterans were abundant in the environment. Wasp WL only varied with body mass but not between species, thereby hardly accounting for inter

  19. Falling Victim to Wasps in the Air: A Fate Driven by Prey Flight Morphology?

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Yolanda; Polidori, Carlo; Tormos, José; Baños-Picón, Laura; Asís, Josep D

    2016-01-01

    In prey-predator systems where the interacting individuals are both fliers, the flight performance of both participants heavily influences the probability of success of the predator (the prey is captured) and of the prey (the predator is avoided). While the flight morphology (an estimate of flight performance) of predatory wasps has rarely been addressed as a factor that may contribute to explain prey use, how the flight morphology of potential prey influences the output of predator-prey encounters has not been studied. Here, we hypothesized that flight morphology associated with flight ability (flight muscle mass to body mass ratio (FMR) and body mass to wing area ratio (wing loading, WL)) of Diptera affect their probability of being captured by specialized Diptera-hunting wasps (Bembix merceti and B. zonata), predicting a better manoeuvrability and acceleration capacity achieved by higher FMR and lower WL, and flight speed achieved by higher WL. In addition, wasp species with better flight morphology should be less limited by an advantageous Diptera flight morphology. Overall, the abundance of dipterans in the environment explained an important part of the observed variance in prey capture rate. However, it was not the only factor shaping prey capture. First, higher prey abundance was associated with greater capture rate for one species (B. merceti), although not for the other one. Second, the interaction observed between the environmental dipteran availability and dipteran WL for B. zonata suggests that greater dipteran WL (this probably meaning high cruising speed) decreased the probability of being captured, as long as fly abundance was high in the environment. Third, greater dipteran FMR (which likely means high manoeuvrability and acceleration capacity) helped to reduce predation by B. merceti if, again, dipterans were abundant in the environment. Wasp WL only varied with body mass but not between species, thereby hardly accounting for inter

  20. Mesoscale Numerical Investigations of Air Traffic Emissions over the North Atlantic during SONEX Flight 8: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieberbach, George, Jr.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Schmitt, Alf; Hannan, John R.; Gregory, G. L.; Kondo, Yutaka; Knabb, Richard D.; Sachse, G. W.; Talbot, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical data from flight 8 of NASA's Subsonic Assessment (SASS) Ozone and Nitrogen Oxide Experiment (SONEX) exhibited signatures consistent with aircraft emissions, stratospheric air, and surface-based pollution. These signatures are examined in detail, focussing on the broad aircraft emission signatures that are several hundred kilometers in length. A mesoscale meteorological model provides high resolution wind data that are used to calculate backward trajectories arriving at locations along the flight track. These trajectories are compared to aircraft locations in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor over a 27-33 hour period. Time series of flight level NO and the number of trajectory/aircraft encounters within the NAFC show excellent agreement. Trajectories arriving within the stratospheric and surface-based pollution regions are found to experience very few aircraft encounters. Conversely, there are many trajectory/aircraft encounters within the two chemical signatures corresponding to aircraft emissions. Even many detailed fluctuations of NO within the two aircraft signature regions correspond to similar fluctuations in aircraft encountered during the previous 27-33 hours. Results indicate that high resolution meteorological modeling, when coupled with detailed aircraft location data, is useful for understanding chemical signatures from aircraft emissions at scales of several hundred kilometers.

  1. Pointed Wings, Low Wingloading and Calm Air Reduce Migratory Flight Costs in Songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Bowlin, Melissa S.; Wikelski, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Migratory bird, bat and insect species tend to have more pointed wings than non-migrants. Pointed wings and low wingloading, or body mass divided by wing area, are thought to reduce energy consumption during long-distance flight, but these hypotheses have never been directly tested. Furthermore, it is not clear how the atmospheric conditions migrants encounter while aloft affect their energy use; without such information, we cannot accurately predict migratory species' response(s) to climate change. Here, we measured the heart rates of 15 free-flying Swainson's Thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) during migratory flight. Heart rate, and therefore rate of energy expenditure, was positively associated with individual variation in wingtip roundedness and wingloading throughout the flights. During the cruise phase of the flights, heart rate was also positively associated with wind speed but not wind direction, and negatively but not significantly associated with large-scale atmospheric stability. High winds and low atmospheric stability are both indicative of the presence of turbulent eddies, suggesting that birds may be using more energy when atmospheric turbulence is high. We therefore suggest that pointed wingtips, low wingloading and avoidance of high winds and turbulence reduce flight costs for small birds during migration, and that climate change may have the strongest effects on migrants' in-flight energy use if it affects the frequency and/or severity of high winds and atmospheric instability. PMID:18478072

  2. X-37 Flight Demonstrator: X-40A Flight Test Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Dan

    2004-01-01

    The flight test objectives are: Evaluate calculated air data system (CADS) experiment. Evaluate Honeywell SIGI (GPS/INS) under flight conditions. Flight operation control center (FOCC) site integration and flight test operations. Flight test and tune GN&C algorithms. Conduct PID maneuvers to improve the X-37 aero database. Develop computer air date system (CADS) flight data to support X-37 system design.

  3. Evaluation of an Ejector Ramjet Based Propulsion System for Air-Breathing Hypersonic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Scott R.; Perkins, H. Douglas; Trefny, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    A Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine system is designed to combine the high thrust to weight ratio of a rocket along with the high specific impulse of a ramjet in a single, integrated propulsion system. This integrated, combined cycle propulsion system is designed to provide higher vehicle performance than that achievable with a separate rocket and ramjet. The RBCC engine system studied in the current program is the Aerojet strutjet engine concept, which is being developed jointly by a government-industry team as part of the Air Force HyTech program pre-PRDA activity. The strutjet is an ejector-ramjet engine in which small rocket chambers are embedded into the trailing edges of the inlet compression struts. The engine operates as an ejector-ramjet from take-off to slightly above Mach 3. Above Mach 3 the engine operates as a ramjet and transitions to a scramjet at high Mach numbers. For space launch applications the rockets would be re-ignited at a Mach number or altitude beyond which air-breathing propulsion alone becomes impractical. The focus of the present study is to develop and demonstrate a strutjet flowpath using hydrocarbon fuel at up to Mach 7 conditions. Freejet tests of a candidate flowpath for this RBCC engine were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Hypersonic Tunnel Facility between July and September 1996. This paper describes the engine flowpath and installation, outlines the primary objectives of the program, and describes the overall results of this activity. Through this program 15 full duration tests, including 13 fueled tests were made. The first major achievement was the further demonstration of the HTF capability. The facility operated at conditions up to 1950 K and 7.34 MPa, simulating approximately Mach 6.6 flight. The initial tests were unfueled and focused on verifying both facility and engine starting. During these runs additional aerodynamic appliances were incorporated onto the facility diffuser to enhance starting

  4. In-house experiments in large space structures at the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories Flight Dynamics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Robert W.; Ozguner, Umit; Yurkovich, Steven

    1989-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Laboratory is committed to an in-house, experimental investigation of several technical areas critical to the dynamic performance of future Air Force large space structures. The advanced beam experiment was successfully completed and provided much experience in the implementation of active control approaches on real hardware. A series of experiments is under way in evaluating ground test methods on the 12 meter trusses with significant passive damping. Ground simulated zero-g response data from the undamped truss will be compared directly with true zero-g flight test data. The performance of several leading active control approaches will be measured and compared on one of the trusses in the presence of significant passive damping. In the future, the PACOSS dynamic test article will be set up as a test bed for the evaluation of system identification and control techniques on a complex, representative structure with high modal density and significant passive damping.

  5. Thermal Gradient Behavior of TBCs Subjected to a Laser Gradient Test Rig: Simulating an Air-to-Air Combat Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Rogerio S.; Marple, Basil R.; Marcoux, P.

    2016-01-01

    A computer-controlled laser test rig (using a CO2 laser) offers an interesting alternative to traditional flame-based thermal gradient rigs in evaluating thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). The temperature gradient between the top and back surfaces of a TBC system can be controlled based on the laser power and a forced air back-face cooling system, enabling the temperature history of complete aircraft missions to be simulated. An air plasma spray-deposited TBC was tested and, based on experimental data available in the literature, the temperature gradients across the TBC system (ZrO2-Y2O3 YSZ top coat/CoNiCrAlY bond coat/Inconel 625 substrate) and their respective frequencies during air-to-air combat missions of fighter jets were replicated. The missions included (i) idle/taxi on the runway, (ii) take-off and climbing, (iii) cruise trajectory to rendezvous zone, (iv) air-to-air combat maneuvering, (v) cruise trajectory back to runway, and (vi) idle/taxi after landing. The results show that the TBC thermal gradient experimental data in turbine engines can be replicated in the laser gradient rig, leading to an important tool to better engineer TBCs.

  6. Air-breathing aerospace plane development essential: Hypersonic propulsion flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersonic airbreathing propulsion utilizing scramjets can change transatmospheric accelerators for low earth-to-orbit and return transportation. The value and limitation of ground tests, of flight tests, and of computations are presented, and scramjet development requirements are discussed. It is proposed that near full-scale hypersonic propulsion flight tests are essential for developing computational design technology so that it can be used for designing this system. In order to determine how these objectives should be achieved, some lessons learned from past programs are presented. A conceptual two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) prototype/experimental aerospace plane is recommended as a means of providing access-to-space and for conducting flight tests.

  7. Flight evaluation of the DEEC secondary control air-start capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. B.; Nelson, J.

    1983-01-01

    The air-start capability of a secondary engine control (SEC) was tested for a DEEC-equipped F100 engine and installed in an F-15 airplane. Two air-start schedules were tested. The first was referred to as the group I schedule; the second or revised schedule was the group II start schedule. Using the group I start schedule, an airspeed of 300 knots was required to ensure successful 40- and 25-percent SEC-mode air starts. If N2 were less than 40 percent, a stall would occur when the start bleeds closed 40 sec after initiation of the air start. All JFS-assisted air starts were successful with the group start schedule. For the group II schedule, the time between pressurization and start-bleed closure ranged between 50 and 72 sec depending on altitude. All air starts were successful above 225 knots givin a 75-knot reduction in required airspeed for a successful air start. Spooldown air starts of 40 percent were successful at 200 knots at altitudes up to 10,650 m and at 175 knots at altitudes up to 6100 m. Idle rpm was lower than the desired 65 percent for air starts at higher altitudes and lower airspeeds. All JSF-assisted air starts were successful.

  8. France`s nuclear dilemmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Ignoring worldwide protests, France conducted the first of several scheduled nuclear tests in September. The controversy has overshadowed France`s more important nuclear challenges: maintaining a strong deterrent under a test ban, moving ahead with its proposals for {open_quotes}Europeanization{close_quotes} of that deterrent, and developing a consensus on how nuclear threats should be used in response to those who would brandish other weapons of mass destruction. 1 fig.

  9. Two lighter than air systems in opposing flight regimes: An unmanned short haul, heavy load transport balloon and a manned, light payload airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohl, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Lighter Than Air vehicles are generally defined or categorized by the shape of the balloon, payload capacity and operational flight regime. Two balloon systems that are classed as being in opposite categories are described. One is a cable guided, helium filled, short haul, heavy load transport Lighter Than Air system with a natural shaped envelope. The other is a manned, aerodynamic shaped airship which utilizes hot air as the buoyancy medium and is in the light payload class. While the airship is in the design/fabrication phase with flight tests scheduled for the latter part of 1974, the transport balloon system has been operational for some eight years.

  10. Correlation of the Characteristics of Single-Cylinder and Flight Engines in Tests of High-Performance Fuels in an Air-Cooled Engine I : Cooling Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert W.; Richard, Paul H.; Brown, Kenneth D.

    1945-01-01

    Variable charge-air flow, cooling-air pressure drop, and fuel-air ration investigations were conducted to determine the cooling characteristics of a full-scale air-cooled single cylinder on a CUE setup. The data are compared with similar data that were available for the same model multicylinder engine tested in flight in a four-engine airplane. The cylinder-head cooling correlations were the same for both the single-cylinder and the flight engine. The cooling correlations for the barrels differed slightly in that the barrel of the single-cylinder engine runs cooler than the barrel of te flight engine for the same head temperatures and engine conditions.

  11. A multimodal micro air vehicle for autonomous flight in near-earth environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, William Edward

    Reconnaissance, surveillance, and search-and-rescue missions in near-Earth environments such as caves, forests, and urban areas pose many new challenges to command and control (C2) teams. Of great significance is how to acquire situational awareness when access to the scene is blocked by enemy fire, rubble, or other occlusions. Small bird-sized aerial robots are expendable and can fly over obstacles and through small openings to assist in the acquisition and distribution of intelligence. However, limited flying space and densely populated obstacle fields requires a vehicle that is capable of hovering, but also maneuverable. A secondary flight mode was incorporated into a fixed-wing aircraft to preserve its maneuverability while adding the capability of hovering. An inertial measurement sensor and onboard flight control system were interfaced and used to transition the hybrid prototype from cruise to hover flight and sustain a hover autonomously. Furthermore, the hovering flight mode can be used to maneuver the aircraft through small openings such as doorways. An ultrasonic and infrared sensor suite was designed to follow exterior building walls until an ingress route was detected. Reactive control was then used to traverse the doorway and gather reconnaissance. Entering a dangerous environment to gather intelligence autonomously will provide an invaluable resource to any C2 team. The holistic approach of platform development, sensor suite design, and control serves as the philosophy of this work.

  12. Crew factors in flight operations 2: Psychophysiological responses to short-haul air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Foushee, H. Clayton; Lauber, John K.; Connell, Linda J.

    1994-01-01

    Seventy-four pilots were monitored before, during, and after 3- or 4-day commercial short-haul trip patterns. The trips studied averaged 10.6 hr of duty per day with 4.5 hr of flight time and 5.5 flight segments. The mean rest period lasted 12.5 hr and occurred progressively earlier across successive days. On trip nights, subjects took longer to fall asleep, slept less, woke earlier, and reported lighter, poorer sleep with more awakenings than on pretrip nights. During layovers, subjective fatigue and negative affect were higher, and positive affect and activation lower, than during pretrip, in-flight, or posttrip. Pilots consumed more caffeine, alcohol, and snacks on trip days than either pretrip or posttrip. Increases in heart rate over mid-cruise were observed during descent and landing, and were greater for the pilot flying. Heart-rate increases were greater during takeoff and descent under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) than under visual meteorological conditions (VMC). The following would be expected to reduce fatigue in short-haul operations: regulating duty hours, as well as flight hours; scheduling rest periods to begin at the same time of day, or progressively later, across the days of a trip; and educating pilots about alternatives to alcohol as a means of relaxing before sleep.

  13. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Vision-Guided Flight Stability and Autonomy for Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ettinger, Scott M.; Nechyba, Michael C.; Ifju, Peter G.; Wazak, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made recently towards design building and test-flying remotely piloted Micro Air Vehicle's (MAVs). We seek to complement this progress in overcoming the aerodynamic obstacles to.flight at very small scales with a vision stability and autonomy system. The developed system based on a robust horizon detection algorithm which we discuss in greater detail in a companion paper. In this paper, we first motivate the use of computer vision for MAV autonomy arguing that given current sensor technology, vision may he the only practical approach to the problem. We then briefly review our statistical vision-based horizon detection algorithm, which has been demonstrated at 30Hz with over 99.9% correct horizon identification. Next we develop robust schemes for the detection of extreme MAV attitudes, where no horizon is visible, and for the detection of horizon estimation errors, due to external factors such as video transmission noise. Finally, we discuss our feed-back controller for self-stabilized flight, and report results on vision autonomous flights of duration exceeding ten minutes.

  14. Predicting Human Error in Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools and Free Flight Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2001-01-01

    The document is a set of briefing slides summarizing the work the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project is doing on predicting air traffic controller and airline pilot human error when using new decision support software tools and when involved in testing new air traffic control concepts. Previous work in this area is reviewed as well as research being done jointly with the FAA. Plans for error prediction work in the AATT Project are discussed. The audience is human factors researchers and aviation psychologists from government and industry.

  15. The dynamics of the fungal aerospores Alternaria sp. and Cladosporium sp. in Parisian atmospheric air, in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezoczki, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    The bioallergens occurring naturally in the atmospheric air are microorganisms, pollen grains, plant seeds, leaf and stem scrap, or their protein molecules. The presence of various airborne fungal spores determines a high allergenic potential for public health. This effect is due to the high number of produced spores, which under favourable meteorological conditions (dry weather and wind) reach the surrounding air. This paper traces the dynamics of two types of fungi, Alternaria sp and Cladosporium sp, fungi which can be found outdoors, in the surrounding air, as well as indoors, inside houses (especially the conidia of Cladosporium sp). The effects of these fungal spores on human health are varies, ranging from seasonal allergies (hay fever, rhinitis, sinusitis etc.) to sever afflictions of the respiratory system, onset of asthma, disfunctionalities of the nervous systems, of the immune system, zymoses etc. The monitoring of the dynamics of the aerospores Alternaria sp and Cladosporium sp was carried out between 2010 and 2013, over a period of 42 weeks during one calendar year, from February to the end of September, in the surrounding air in the French capital, Paris. The regional and global climate and meteorological conditions are directly involved in the occurrence and development of fungi colonies, the transportation and dispersion of fungal spores in the atmospheric air, as well as in the creation of the environment required for the interaction of chemical and biological components in the air. Knowledge of the dynamics of the studied fungal aerospores, coupled with climate and meteorological changes, offers a series of information on the magnitude of the allergenic potential these airborne spores can determine. Legal regulations in this domain set the allergen risk threshold for the Alternaria sp aerospores at 3500 ÷ 7000 spores/m3 air/week, and for the Cladosporium sp aerospores at 56,000 spores/m3 air/week. Besides these regulations there exist a series of

  16. Emissions and concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in the air of the tropical forest of the Ivory Coast and of temperate regions in France

    SciTech Connect

    Delmas, R.; Baudet, J.; Servant, J.; Baziard, Y.

    1980-08-20

    Atmospheric H/sub 2/S was measured by a fluorometric method (sensitivity 10 ng). In France, for aerated soils the emissions were between 0.8 and 27 ..mu..g m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/ H/sub 2/S (average 5 ..mu..g m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/). The soil temperature is an important factor governing this emission. The H/sub 2/S concentrations in the air ranged from 0.017 to 0.17 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ (average 0.080 ..mu..g m/sup -3/). In the Ivory Coast the H/sub 2/S emissions were estimated between 30 and 300 ..mu..g m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/. The measured concentrations of H/sub 2/S in the air at ground level ranged from 0.10 to 8.7 ..mu..g m/sup -3/. The relative importance of the measured emissions for anoxic soils of the humid equatorial forests in the global S cycle is discussed.

  17. Summer air temperature, reconstructions from the last glacial stage based on rodents from the site Taillis-des-Coteaux (Vienne), Western France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Aurélien; Lécuyer, Christophe; Montuire, Sophie; Primault, Jérôme; Fourel, François; Jeannet, Marcel

    2014-09-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate from tooth enamel of rodents (δ18Op) constitutes a valuable proxy to reconstruct past air temperatures in continental environments. This method has been applied to rodent dental remains from three genera, Arvicola sp., Microtus sp. and Dicrostonyx sp., coming from Taillis-des-Coteaux, Vienne, France. This archaeological site contains an exceptionally preserved sedimentary sequence spanning almost the whole Upper Palaeolithic, including seven stratigraphic layers dated from 35 to 17 cal ka BP. The abundant presence of rodent remains offers the opportunity to quantify the climatic fluctuations coeval of the various stages of human occupation of the site. Differences between δ18Op values of Arvicola sp. and Microtus sp. teeth are interpreted as the result of heterochrony in tooth formation as well as differences in ecology. Mean δ18Op values of Microtus sp. are preferentially used to reconstruct summer air temperatures, which range from 16.0 ± 3.7 to 19.1 ± 3.1°C throughout the sedimentary sequence; however, the highest variability is observed during the last glacial maximum.

  18. Speed and path control for conflict-free flight in high air traffic demand in terminal airspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Ali

    To accommodate the growing air traffic demand, flights will need to be planned and navigated with a much higher level of precision than today's aircraft flight path. The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) stands to benefit significantly in safety and efficiency from such movement of aircraft along precisely defined paths. Air Traffic Operations (ATO) relying on such precision--the Precision Air Traffic Operations or PATO--are the foundation of high throughput capacity envisioned for the future airports. In PATO, the preferred method is to manage the air traffic by assigning a speed profile to each aircraft in a given fleet in a given airspace (in practice known as (speed control). In this research, an algorithm has been developed, set in the context of a Hybrid Control System (HCS) model, that determines whether a speed control solution exists for a given fleet of aircraft in a given airspace and if so, computes this solution as a collective speed profile that assures separation if executed without deviation. Uncertainties such as weather are not considered but the algorithm can be modified to include uncertainties. The algorithm first computes all feasible sequences (i.e., all sequences that allow the given fleet of aircraft to reach destinations without violating the FAA's separation requirement) by looking at all pairs of aircraft. Then, the most likely sequence is determined and the speed control solution is constructed by a backward trajectory generation, starting with the aircraft last out and proceeds to the first out. This computation can be done for different sequences in parallel which helps to reduce the computation time. If such a solution does not exist, then the algorithm calculates a minimal path modification (known as path control) that will allow separation-compliance speed control. We will also prove that the algorithm will modify the path without creating a new separation violation. The new path will be generated by adding new

  19. Air Navigation Systems: Chapter 6. Navigation and the Pioneering Flights Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Philip

    Part I of this chapter was included in the January 1997 issue of the Journal, Vol. 50, p. 65.The Smith Brothers, 1919. Captain Ross M. Smith, of the Australian Flying Corps based in Palestine, flew a Handley Page 0/400 late in 1918 on a special flight to Baghdad and beyond, carrying as passenger Major General W. G. H. Salmond, the RAF's Middle East Commander. Flying as co-pilot was Brigadier-General Borton, Commander of the Palestine Brigade. Smith had been flying, in support of Lawrence's forces, another 0/00 which Borton had brought from England.

  20. AirSTAR: A UAV Platform for Flight Dynamics and Control System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Foster, John V.; Bailey, Roger M.; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program at Langley Research Center, a dynamically scaled unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and associated ground based control system are being developed to investigate dynamics modeling and control of large transport vehicles in upset conditions. The UAV is a 5.5% (seven foot wingspan), twin turbine, generic transport aircraft with a sophisticated instrumentation and telemetry package. A ground based, real-time control system is located inside an operations vehicle for the research pilot and associated support personnel. The telemetry system supports over 70 channels of data plus video for the downlink and 30 channels for the control uplink. Data rates are in excess of 200 Hz. Dynamic scaling of the UAV, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuation, and control system scaling, is required so that the sub-scale vehicle will realistically simulate the flight characteristics of the full-scale aircraft. This testbed will be utilized to validate modeling methods, flight dynamics characteristics, and control system designs for large transport aircraft, with the end goal being the development of technologies to reduce the fatal accident rate due to loss-of-control.

  1. Hypersonic lateral and directional stability characteristics of aeroassist flight experiment configuration in air and CF4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micol, John R.; Wells, William L.

    1993-01-01

    Hypersonic lateral and directional stability characteristics measured on a 60 deg half-angle elliptical cone, which was raked at an angle of 73 deg from the cone centerline and with an ellipsoid nose (ellipticity equal to 2.0 in the symmetry plane), are presented for angles of attack from -10 to 10 deg. The high normal-shock density ratio of a real gas was simulated by tests at a Mach number of 6 in air and CF4 (density ratio equal to 5.25 and 12.0, respectively). Tests were conducted in air at Mach 6 and 10 and in CF4 at Mach 6 to examine the effects of Mach number, Reynolds number, and normal-shock density ratio. Changes in Mach number from 6 to 10 in air or in Reynolds number by a factor of 4 at Mach 6 had a negligible effect on lateral and directional stability characteristics. Variations in normal-shock density ratio had a measurable effect on lateral and directional aerodynamic coefficients, but no significant effect on lateral and directional stability characteristics. Tests in air and CF4 indicated that the configuration was laterally and directionally stable through the test range of angle of attack.

  2. Catastrophic Equatorial Icing Caused the Air France 447 and Malaysian 370 Crashes: Risks of More Such Disasters Are Increased By Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Dangerous icing conditions near the equator have been observed, and may account for the tragic crashes of Air France 447 in 2009 and Malaysian Airlines 370 in 2014, not pilot error in either case. Six cases of engine failures from icing were reported in 2013 at high altitudes for 747-8 and 787 Dreamliner planes at tropical latitudes (journalofcosmology.com volume 23). Lack of horizontal Coriolis forces accounts for the extreme intermittency of equatorial turbulence and turbulent mixing, Baker and Gibson (1987). Intermittency factors inferred from the available microstructure data sets were much larger than those at higher latitudes, reflecting the wide range of scales of the turbulence cascade from small scales to large in the horizontal direction. Lognormal statistical analysis implies mean values of dissipation rates are likely to be 30,000 times larger than mode values at the equator, compared to only 2000 times larger at midlatitudes. Modern stratified turbulence theory (journalofcosmology.com volume 21) shows turbulent mixing of heat, mass, momentum, and chemical species in natural fluids such as the ocean, atmosphere, and cosmological fluids is dominated by mixing chimneys directed perpendicular to vertical and radial layers of gravitational stratification by the inertial vortex forces that define turbulence. Rarely, thick columns of supercooled steam reach cruising altitudes of jet aircraft. After entering such a column, the plane is doomed.

  3. Summary of Turbulence Data Obtained During United Air Lines Flight Evaluation of an Experimental C Band (5.5 cm) Airborne Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, E. C.; Fetner, M. W.

    1954-01-01

    Data on atmospheric turbulence in the vicinity of thunderstorms obtained during a flight evaluation of an experimental C band (5.5 cm) airborne radar are summarized. The turbulence data were obtained with an NACA VGH recorder installed in a United Air Lines DC-3 airplane.

  4. REAL TIME, ON-LINE CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL GENERATOR AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS BY RESONANCE ENHANCED MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The laser based resonance, enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) technique has been applied to the exhaust gas stream of a diesel generator to measure, in real time, concentration levels of aromatic air toxics. Volatile organic compounds ...

  5. Test results of flight guidance for fuel conservative descents in a time-based metered air traffic environment. [terminal configured vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.; Person, L. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA developed, implemented, and flight tested a flight management algorithm designed to improve the accuracy of delivering an airplane in a fuel-conservative manner to a metering fix at a time designated by air traffic control. This algorithm provides a 3D path with time control (4D) for the TCV B-737 airplane to make an idle-thrust, clean configured (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted) descent to arrive at the metering fix at a predetermined time, altitude, and airspeed. The descent path is calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard pressure and temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithms are described and flight test results are presented.

  6. Evaluation of an Ejector Ramjet Based Propulsion System for Air-Breathing Hypersonic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Scott R.; Perkins, H. Douglas; Trefny, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    A Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine system is designed to combine the high thrust to weight ratio of a rocket along with the high specific impulse of a ramjet in a single, integrated propulsion system. This integrated, combined cycle propulsion system is designed to provide higher vehicle performance than that achievable with a separate rocket and ramjet. The RBCC engine system studied in the current program is the Aerojet strutjet engine concept, which is being developed jointly by a government-industry team as part of the Air Force HyTech program pre-PRDA activity. The strutjet is an ejector-ramjet engine in which small rocket chambers are embedded into the trailing edges of the inlet compression struts. The engine operates as an ejector-ramjet from takeoff to slightly above Mach 3. Above Mach 3 the engine operates as a ramjet and transitions to a scramjet at high Mach numbers. For space launch applications the rockets would be re-ignited at a Mach number or altitude beyond which air-breathing propulsion alone becomes impractical. The focus of the present study is to develop and demonstrate a strutjet flowpath using hydrocarbon fuel at up to Mach 7 conditions.

  7. Crash Rates of Scheduled Commuter and Air Carrier Flights Before and After a Regulatory Change

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Susan P.; Groff, Loren; Haaland, Wren; Qiang, Yandong; Rebok, George W.; Li, Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In 1997, in an effort to reduce the crash rate of scheduled commuter flights, the FAA required aircraft with 10–30 passenger seats to operate under stricter rules. Training and other requirements of 14 CFR Part 121 rules were applied to these midsize commuters, which previously had operated under the less strict Part 135 rules. Published crash rates obscured changes related to aircraft size. This research was undertaken to determine whether the rule change affected crash rates of aircraft with 10–30 passenger seats. Method We determined the number of passenger seats on each Part 135 or Part 121 aircraft that crashed between 1983 and 2007. For aircraft with < 10, 10–30, and > 30 seats, we estimated the numbers of departures and crash rates, adjusting for changes in total departures and numbers of in-service aircraft. Results The Part 135 crash rate tripled in 1997 when commuters with 10–30 seats were excluded, reflecting the administrative change. However, the crash rate of aircraft with 10–30 passenger seats began to decline 4 yr before the rule change; thereafter, their rate was lower than for larger aircraft. The fleet size of aircraft with 10–30 passenger seats increased from 1983 to 1997, then declined as they were replaced with larger aircraft in response to the rule change. Discussion No effect of the rule change on crash rates of 10–30-seat aircraft was apparent. The decline in their crash rates began before the rule change and may have been related to the 1992 requirement for ground proximity warning devices. PMID:19378909

  8. Flow field studies on a micro-air-vehicle-scale cycloidal rotor in forward flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Andrew H.; Jarugumilli, Tejaswi; Benedict, Moble; Lakshminarayan, Vinod K.; Jones, Anya R.; Chopra, Inderjit

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines the flow physics and principles of force production on a cycloidal rotor (cyclorotor) in forward flight. The cyclorotor considered here consists of two blades rotating about a horizontal axis, with cyclic pitch angle variation about the blade quarter-chord. The flow field at the rotor mid-span is analyzed using smoke flow visualization and particle image velocimeV are compared with flow fields predicted using 2D CFD and time-averaged force measurements acquired in an open-jet wind tunnel at three advance ratios. It is shown that the experimental flow field is nearly two dimensional at μ = 0.73 allowing for qualitative comparisons to be made with CFD. The incoming flow velocity decreases in magnitude as the flow passes through the retreating (upper) half of the rotor and is attributed to power extraction by the blades. A significant increase in flow velocity is observed across the advancing (lower) half of the rotor. The aerodynamic analysis demonstrates that the blades accelerate the flow through the lower aft region of the rotor, where they operate in a high dynamic pressure environment. This is consistent with CFD-predicted values of instantaneous aerodynamic forces which reveal that the aft section of the rotor is the primary region of force production. Phase-averaged flow field measurements showed two blade wakes in the flow, formed by each of the two blades. Analysis of the blades at several azimuthal positions revealed two significant blade-wake interactions. The locations of these blade-wake interactions are correlated with force peaks in the CFD-predicted instantaneous blade forces and highlight their importance to the generation of lift and propulsive force of the cyclorotor.

  9. Solving the aerodynamics of fungal flight: how air viscosity slows spore motion.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Mark W F; Stolze-Rybczynski, Jessica L; Davis, Diana J; Cui, Yunluan; Money, Nicholas P

    2010-01-01

    Viscous drag causes the rapid deceleration of fungal spores after high-speed launches and limits discharge distance. Stokes' law posits a linear relationship between drag force and velocity. It provides an excellent fit to experimental measurements of the terminal velocity of free-falling spores and other instances of low Reynolds number motion (Re<1). More complex, non-linear drag models have been devised for movements characterized by higher Re, but their effectiveness for modeling the launch of fast-moving fungal spores has not been tested. In this paper, we use data on spore discharge processes obtained from ultra-high-speed video recordings to evaluate the effects of air viscosity predicted by Stokes' law and a commonly used non-linear drag model. We find that discharge distances predicted from launch speeds by Stokes' model provide a much better match to measured distances than estimates from the more complex drag model. Stokes' model works better over a wide range projectile sizes, launch speeds, and discharge distances, from microscopic mushroom ballistospores discharged at <1 m s(-1) over a distance of <0.1mm (Re<1.0), to macroscopic sporangia of Pilobolus that are launched at >10 m s(-1) and travel as far as 2.5m (Re>100). PMID:21036338

  10. Solving the aerodynamics of fungal flight: How air viscosity slows spore motion

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Mark W. F.; Stolze-Rybczynski, Jessica L.; Davis, Diana J.; Cui, Yunluan; Money, Nicholas P.

    2010-01-01

    Viscous drag causes the rapid deceleration of fungal spores after high-speed launches and limits discharge distance. Stokes' law posits a linear relationship between drag force and velocity. It provides an excellent fit to experimental measurements of the terminal velocity of free-falling spores and other instances of low Reynolds number motion (Re<1). More complex, non-linear drag models have been devised for movements characterized by higher Re, but their effectiveness for modeling the launch of fast-moving fungal spores has not been tested. In this paper, we use data on spore discharge processes obtained from ultra-high-speed video recordings to evaluate the effects of air viscosity predicted by Stokes' law and a commonly used non-linear drag model. We find that discharge distances predicted from launch speeds by Stokes' model provide a much better match to measured distances than estimates from the more complex drag model. Stokes' model works better over a wide range projectile sizes, launch speeds, and discharge distances, from microscopic mushroom ballistospores discharged at <1 m/s over a distance of <0.1 mm (Re<1.0), to macroscopic sporangia of Pilobolus that are launched at >10 m/s and travel as far as 2.5 m (Re>100). PMID:21036338

  11. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  12. A fully-coupled implicit method for thermo-chemical nonequilibrium air at sub-orbital flight speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Chul; Yoon, Seokkwan

    1989-01-01

    A CFD technique is described in which the finite-rate chemistry in thermal and chemical nonequilibrium air is fully and implicitly coupled with the fluid motion. Developed for use in the suborbital hypersonic flight speed range, the method accounts for nonequilibrium vibrational and electronic excitation and dissociation, but not ionization. The steady-state solution to the resulting system of equations is obtained by using a lower-upper factorization and symmetric Gauss-Seidel sweeping technique through Newton iteration. Inversion of the left-hand-side matrices is replaced by scalar multiplications through the use of the diagonal dominance algorithm. The code, named CENS2H (Compressible-Euler-Navier-Stokes Two-Dimensional Hypersonic), is fully vectorized and requires about 8.8 x 10 to the -5th sec per node point per iteration using a Cray X-MP computer. Converged solutions are obtained after about 2400 iterations. Sample calculations are made for a circular cylinder and a 10 percent airfoil at 5 deg angle of attack. The calculated cylinder flow field agrees with that obtained experimentally. The code predicts a 10 percent change in lift, drag, and pitching moment for the airfoil due to the thermochemical phenomena.

  13. Violations of Temporary Flight Restrictions and Air Defense Identification Zones: An Analysis of Airspace Violations and Pilot Report Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuschlag, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This document provides the results from a study into the apparent factors and causes of violations of restricted airspace, particularly temporary flight restrictions (TFRs) and air defense identification zones (ADIZs). By illuminating the reasons for these violations, this study aims to take the first step towards reducing them. The study assesses the basic characteristics of restricted airspace violations as well as the probable causes and factors contributing to violations. Results from the study imply most violations occur where the restriction has been in place for a significant amount of time prior to the violation. Additionally, the study results imply most violations are not due to the pilot simply being unaware of the airspace at the time of violation. In most violations, pilots are aware of the presence of the restricted airspace but have incorrect information about it, namely, its exact boundaries or procedures for authorized penetration. These results imply that the best means to reduce violations of restricted airspace is to improve the effectiveness of providing pilots the details required to avoid the airspace.

  14. A flight management algorithm and guidance for fuel-conservative descents in a time-based metered air traffic environment: Development and flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    A simple airborne flight management descent algorithm designed to define a flight profile subject to the constraints of using idle thrust, a clean airplane configuration (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted), and fixed-time end conditions was developed and flight tested in the NASA TSRV B-737 research airplane. The research test flights, conducted in the Denver ARTCC automated time-based metering LFM/PD ATC environment, demonstrated that time guidance and control in the cockpit was acceptable to the pilots and ATC controllers and resulted in arrival of the airplane over the metering fix with standard deviations in airspeed error of 6.5 knots, in altitude error of 23.7 m (77.8 ft), and in arrival time accuracy of 12 sec. These accuracies indicated a good representation of airplane performance and wind modeling. Fuel savings will be obtained on a fleet-wide basis through a reduction of the time error dispersions at the metering fix and on a single-airplane basis by presenting the pilot with guidance for a fuel-efficient descent.

  15. Understanding Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David

    2001-01-31

    Through the years the explanation of flight has become mired in misconceptions that have become dogma. Wolfgang Langewiesche, the author of 'Stick and Rudder' (1944) got it right when he wrote: 'Forget Bernoulli's Theorem'. A wing develops lift by diverting (from above) a lot of air. This is the same way that a propeller produces thrust and a helicopter produces lift. Newton's three laws and a phenomenon called the Coanda effect explain most of it. With an understanding of the real physics of flight, many things become clear. Inverted flight, symmetric wings, and the flight of insects are obvious. It is easy to understand the power curve, high-speed stalls, and the effect of load and altitude on the power requirements for lift. The contribution of wing aspect ratio on the efficiency of a wing, and the true explanation of ground effect will also be discussed.

  16. Volatile Organic Compounds Identified in Post-Flight Air Analysis of the Multipurpose Logistics Module from International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, B.; Wheeler, R.

    Bioregenerative systems involve storing and processing waste along with atmospheric management. The MPLM, Multipurpose Logistics Module, is a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system used to resupply the International Space Station (ISS) and return Station cargo that requires a pressurized environment. The cylindrical module is approximately 6.4 meters long, 4.6 meters in diameter, and weighs almost 4,082kg. The module provides storage and additional workspace for up to two astronauts when docked to the ISS. It can carry up to 9,072 kg of supplies, science experiments, spare parts and other logistical components for ISS. There is concern for a potentially hazardous condition caused by contamination of the atmosphere in the MPLM upon return from orbit. This would be largely due to unforeseen spills or container leakage. This has led to the need for special care in handling the returned module prior to processing the module for its next flight. Prior to opening the MPLM, atmospheric samples are analyzed for trace volatile organic compounds, VOC's. It is noted that our analyses also reflect the atmosphere in the ISS on that day of closure. With the re turn of STS-108, 12th ISS Flight (UF1), the analysis showed 24 PPM of methane. This corresponds to the high levels on space station during a time period when the air filtration system was shut off. Chemical characterization of atmospheres on the ISS and MPLM provide useful information for concerns with plant growth experiments on ISS. Work with closed plant growth chambers show potential for VOC's to accumulate to toxic levels for plants. The ethylene levels for 4 MPLM analyses over the course on one year were measured at, 0.070, 0.017, 0.012 and 0.007 PPM. Phytochemical such as ethylene are detected with natural plant physiological events such as flowering and as a result of plant damage or from decaying food. A build up of VOC's may contribute to phytotoxic effects for the plant growth experiments or

  17. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General...

  18. Requirements for regional short-haul air service and the definition of a flight program to determine neighborhood reactions to small transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feher, K.; Bollinger, L.; Bowles, J. V.; Waters, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the current status and future requirements of an intraregional short haul air service is given. A brief definition of the different types of short haul air service is given. This is followed by a historical review of previous attempts to develop short haul air service in high density urban areas and an assessment of the current status. The requirements for intraregional air service, the need for economic and environmental viability and the need for a flight research program are defined. A detailed outline of a research program that would determine urban community reaction to frequent operations of small transport aircraft is also given. Both the operation of such an experiment in a specific region (San Francisco Bay area) and the necessary design modifications of an existing fixed wing aircraft which could be used in the experiment are established. An estimate is made of overall program costs.

  19. An automated gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry instrument for the quantitative analysis of halocarbons in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obersteiner, F.; Bönisch, H.; Engel, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the characterization and application of a new gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry instrument (GC-TOFMS) for the quantitative analysis of halocarbons in air samples. The setup comprises three fundamental enhancements compared to our earlier work (Hoker et al., 2015): (1) full automation, (2) a mass resolving power R = m/Δm of the TOFMS (Tofwerk AG, Switzerland) increased up to 4000 and (3) a fully accessible data format of the mass spectrometric data. Automation in combination with the accessible data allowed an in-depth characterization of the instrument. Mass accuracy was found to be approximately 5 ppm in mean after automatic recalibration of the mass axis in each measurement. A TOFMS configuration giving R = 3500 was chosen to provide an R-to-sensitivity ratio suitable for our purpose. Calculated detection limits are as low as a few femtograms by means of the accurate mass information. The precision for substance quantification was 0.15 % at the best for an individual measurement and in general mainly determined by the signal-to-noise ratio of the chromatographic peak. Detector non-linearity was found to be insignificant up to a mixing ratio of roughly 150 ppt at 0.5 L sampled volume. At higher concentrations, non-linearities of a few percent were observed (precision level: 0.2 %) but could be attributed to a potential source within the detection system. A straightforward correction for those non-linearities was applied in data processing, again by exploiting the accurate mass information. Based on the overall characterization results, the GC-TOFMS instrument was found to be very well suited for the task of quantitative halocarbon trace gas observation and a big step forward compared to scanning, quadrupole MS with low mass resolving power and a TOFMS technique reported to be non-linear and restricted by a small dynamical range.

  20. A Full-Envelope Air Data Calibration and Three-Dimensional Wind Estimation Method Using Global Output-Error Optimization and Flight-Test Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    A novel, efficient air data calibration method is proposed for aircraft with limited envelopes. This method uses output-error optimization on three-dimensional inertial velocities to estimate calibration and wind parameters. Calibration parameters are based on assumed calibration models for static pressure, angle of attack, and flank angle. Estimated wind parameters are the north, east, and down components. The only assumptions needed for this method are that the inertial velocities and Euler angles are accurate, the calibration models are correct, and that the steady-state component of wind is constant throughout the maneuver. A two-minute maneuver was designed to excite the aircraft over the range of air data calibration parameters and de-correlate the angle-of-attack bias from the vertical component of wind. Simulation of the X-48B (The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) aircraft was used to validate the method, ultimately using data derived from wind-tunnel testing to simulate the un-calibrated air data measurements. Results from the simulation were accurate and robust to turbulence levels comparable to those observed in flight. Future experiments are planned to evaluate the proposed air data calibration in a flight environment.

  1. Flight-Proven Nano-Satellite Architecture for Hands-On Academic Training at the US Air Force Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Craig I.; Sellers, Lt. Jerry, , Col.; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the use of "commercial-off-the-shelf" open-architecture satellite sub-systems, based on the flight- proven "SNAP" nanosatellite platform, to provide "hands-on" education and training at the United States Air Force Academy. The UK's first nanosatellite: SNAP-1, designed and built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL) and Surrey Space Centre staff - in less than a year - was launched in June 2000. The 6.5 kg spacecraft carries advanced, UK-developed, GPS navigation, computing, propulsion and attitude control technologies, which have been used to demonstrate orbital manoeuvring and full three-axis controlled body stabilisation. SNAP-1's primary payload is a machine vision system which has been used to image the in-orbit deployment of another SSTL-built spacecraft: Tsinghua-1. The highly successful, SNAP-1 mission has also demonstrated how the concept of using a standardised, modular nanosatellite bus can provide the core support units (power system, on-board data-handling and communications systems and standardised payload interface) for a practical nanosatellite to be constructed and flown in a remarkably short time-frame. Surrey's undergraduate and post-graduate students have made a major input to the SNAP concept over the last six years in the context of project work within the Space Centre. Currently, students at the USAF Academy are benefiting from this technology in the context of designing their own nanosatellite - FalconSAT-2. For the FalconSAT-2 project, the approach has been to focus on building up infrastructure, including design and development tools that can serve as a firm foundation to allow the satellite design to evolve steadily over the course of several missions. Specific to this new approach has been a major effort to bound the problem faced by the students. To do this, the program has leveraged the research carried out at the Surrey Space Centre, by "buying into" the SNAP architecture. Through this, the Academy program

  2. Error analysis and assessment of unsteady forces acting on a flapping wing micro air vehicle: free flight versus wind-tunnel experimental methods.

    PubMed

    Caetano, J V; Percin, M; van Oudheusden, B W; Remes, B; de Wagter, C; de Croon, G C H E; de Visser, C C

    2015-10-01

    An accurate knowledge of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on a bio-inspired, flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) is crucial in the design development and optimization cycle. Two different types of experimental approaches are often used: determination of forces from position data obtained from external optical tracking during free flight, or direct measurements of forces by attaching the FWMAV to a force transducer in a wind-tunnel. This study compares the quality of the forces obtained from both methods as applied to a 17.4 gram FWMAV capable of controlled flight. A comprehensive analysis of various error sources is performed. The effects of different factors, e.g., measurement errors, error propagation, numerical differentiation, filtering frequency selection, and structural eigenmode interference, are assessed. For the forces obtained from free flight experiments it is shown that a data acquisition frequency below 200 Hz and an accuracy in the position measurements lower than ± 0.2 mm may considerably hinder determination of the unsteady forces. In general, the force component parallel to the fuselage determined by the two methods compares well for identical flight conditions; however, a significant difference was observed for the forces along the stroke plane of the wings. This was found to originate from the restrictions applied by the clamp to the dynamic oscillations observed in free flight and from the structural resonance of the clamped FWMAV structure, which generates loads that cannot be distinguished from the external forces. Furthermore, the clamping position was found to have a pronounced influence on the eigenmodes of the structure, and this effect should be taken into account for accurate force measurements. PMID:26292289

  3. Surface flow and heating distributions on a cylinder in near wake of Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) configuration at incidence in Mach 10 Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, William L.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental heat transfer distributions and surface streamline directions are presented for a cylinder in the near wake of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment forebody configuration. Tests were conducted in air at a nominal free stream Mach number of 10, with post shock Reynolds numbers based on model base height of 6,450 to 50,770, and angles of attack of 5, 0, -5, and -10 degrees. Heat transfer data were obtained with thin film resistance gage and surface streamline directions by the oil flow technique. Comparisons between measured values and predicted values were made by using a Navier-Stokes computer code.

  4. Prediction of aerodynamic heating and pressures on Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) nose cap and comparison with STS-61C flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, Paul C.; Rochelle, William C.; Curry, Donald M.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from predictions of aerothermodynamic heating rates, temperatures, and pressures on the surface of the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) nosecap during Orbiter reentry. These results are compared with data obtained by the first actual flight of the SEADS system aboard STS-61C. The data also used to predict heating rates and surface temperatures for a hypothetical Transatlantic Abort Landing entry trajectory, whose analysis involved ascertaining the increases in heating rate as the airstream flowed across regions of the lower surface catalycity carbon/carbon composite to the higher surface catalycity columbium pressure ports.

  5. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight-free zones and flight corridors. 93... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.305 Flight-free zones and flight corridors. Except in...

  6. Miracle Flights

    MedlinePlus

    ... the perfect solution for your needs. Book A Flight Request a flight now Click on the link ... Now Make your donation today Saving Lives One Flight At A Time Miracle Flights provides free flights ...

  7. Flight performance of the TCV B-737 airplane at Jorge Newberry Airport, Buenos Aires, Argentina using TRSB/MLS guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.; Clark, L.

    1980-01-01

    The flight performance of the Terminal Configured Vehicle airplane is summarized. Demonstration automatic approaches and landings utilizing time reference scanning beam microwave landing system (TRSB/MLS) guidance are presented. The TRSB/MLS was shown to provide the terminal area guidance necessary for flying curved automatic approaches with final legs as short as 2 km.

  8. Air pollution modeling and its application III

    SciTech Connect

    De Wispelaere, C.

    1984-01-01

    This book focuses on the Lagrangian modeling of air pollution. Modeling cooling tower and power plant plumes, modeling the dispersion of heavy gases, remote sensing as a tool for air pollution modeling, dispersion modeling including photochemistry, and the evaluation of model performances in practical applications are discussed. Specific topics considered include dispersion in the convective boundary layer, the application of personal computers to Lagrangian modeling, the dynamic interaction of cooling tower and stack plumes, the diffusion of heavy gases, correlation spectrometry as a tool for mesoscale air pollution modeling, Doppler acoustic sounding, tetroon flights, photochemical air quality simulation modeling, acid deposition of photochemical oxidation products, atmospheric diffusion modeling, applications of an integral plume rise model, and the estimation of diffuse hydrocarbon leakages from petrochemical factories. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Thirteenth International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application held in France in 1982.

  9. DBD Plasma Actuators for Flow Control in Air Vehicles and Jet Engines - Simulation of Flight Conditions in Test Chambers by Density Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma actuators for active flow control in aircraft and jet engines need to be tested in the laboratory to characterize their performance at flight operating conditions. DBD plasma actuators generate a wall-jet electronically by creating weakly ionized plasma, therefore their performance is affected by gas discharge properties, which, in turn, depend on the pressure and temperature at the actuator placement location. Characterization of actuators is initially performed in a laboratory chamber without external flow. The pressure and temperature at the actuator flight operation conditions need to be simultaneously set in the chamber. A simplified approach is desired. It is assumed that the plasma discharge depends only on the gas density, while other temperature effects are assumed to be negligible. Therefore, tests can be performed at room temperature with chamber pressure set to yield the same density as in operating flight conditions. The needed chamber pressures are shown for altitude flight of an air vehicle and for jet engines at sea-level takeoff and altitude cruise conditions. Atmospheric flight conditions are calculated from standard atmosphere with and without shock waves. The engine data was obtained from four generic engine models; 300-, 150-, and 50-passenger (PAX) aircraft engines, and a military jet-fighter engine. The static and total pressure, temperature, and density distributions along the engine were calculated for sea-level takeoff and for altitude cruise conditions. The corresponding chamber pressures needed to test the actuators were calculated. The results show that, to simulate engine component flows at in-flight conditions, plasma actuator should be tested over a wide range of pressures. For the four model engines the range is from 12.4 to 0.03 atm, depending on the placement of the actuator in the engine. For example, if a DBD plasma actuator is to be placed at the compressor exit of a 300 PAX engine, it

  10. Reduction of aircraft noise in civil air transport by optimization of flight tracks and takeoff and approach procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottmann, Uwe

    1988-08-01

    Noise optimized design of operational flight procedures for effective noise pollution reduction is analyzed. Power cutback during certain stages of approach and takeoff, extension of distance between sound source and sound receiver, as well as diminution of sound impact time are optimized for specific flight procedures and routings. Five takeoff and three landing procedures are analyzed in acoustic effects. Sound immission is computed by NOISIMSIS (NOISe IMpact SImulation System), a simulation system especially created for this task, under consideration of aircraft type specified sound emission characteristics and performance data as well as different meteorological conditions. The investigations for the example of Frankfurt airport result in formulating a planning guideline with notes and impulses for activities in operational noise abatement.

  11. Flight-test results from two total temperature probes for air-data measurements up to 2014 K (3625 R)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, J.; Sakamoto, G. M.; Webb, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental temperature probe package containing a fluidic oscillator temperature probe and a shielded thermocouple temperature probe was tested during several X-15 flights. The X-15 flights provided greatly varying test conditions, including a wide range of rapidly changing total temperatures and Mach numbers which extended from subsonic to hypersonic speeds. Within restricted ranges of free-stream Mach number, free-stream unit weight flow, and local stagnation pressure, both probes yielded ramp outputs of temperature parallel to ramp inputs of free-stream total temperature. Within these ranges both probes were used to determine total temperature in the Mach 6 temperature environment. Because ambient temperature was known, both probes were used to estimate velocity and Mach number.

  12. Technology review of flight crucial flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.; Buckley, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a technology survey in flight crucial flight controls conducted as a data base for planning future research and technology programs are provided. Free world countries were surveyed with primary emphasis on the United States and Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The survey was not intended to be an in-depth treatment of the technology elements, but rather a study of major trends in systems level technology. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications and a tour of several companies, government organizations and research laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany.

  13. Experimental Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Pegasus Air-Launched Booster and Comparisons with Predicted and Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, M. N.; Engelund, Walter C.; Mendenhall, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics were obtained for the Pegasus and Pegasus XL configurations over a Mach number range from 1.6 to 6 and angles of attack from -4 to +24 degrees. Angle of sideslip was varied from -6 to +6 degrees, and control surfaces were deflected to obtain elevon, aileron, and rudder effectiveness. Experimental data for the Pegasus configuration are compared with engineering code predictions performed by Nielsen Engineering & Research, Inc. (NEAR) in the aerodynamic design of the Pegasus vehicle, and with results from the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS) code. Comparisons of experimental results are also made with longitudinal flight data from Flight #2 of the Pegasus vehicle. Results show that the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the Pegasus and Pegasus XL configurations are similar, having the same lift-curve slope and drag levels across the Mach number range. Both configurations are longitudinally stable, with stability decreasing towards neutral levels as Mach number increases. Directional stability is negative at moderate to high angles of attack due to separated flow over the vertical tail. Dihedral effect is positive for both configurations, but is reduced 30-50 percent for the Pegasus XL configuration because of the horizontal tail anhedral. Predicted longitudinal characteristics and both longitudinal and lateral-directional control effectiveness are generally in good agreement with experiment. Due to the complex leeside flowfield, lateral-directional characteristics are not as well predicted by the engineering codes. Experiment and flight data are in good agreement across the Mach number range.

  14. Flight and Test-stand Investigation of High-performance Fuels in Modified Double-row Radial Air-cooled Engines III: Knock-limited Performance of 33-R as Compared with a Triptane Blend and 28-R in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackman, Calvin C.; White, H. Jack

    1945-01-01

    A comparison has been made in flight of the antiknock characteristics of 33-R fuel with that of 28-R and a triptane blent. The knock-limited performance of the three fuels - 33-R, a blend of 80 percent 28-R plus 20 percent triptane (leaded to 4.5 ml TEL/gal), and 28-R - was investigated in two modified 14-cylinder double-row radial air-cooled engines. Tests were conducted on the engines as installed in the left inboard nacelle of an airplane. A carburetor-air temperature of approximately 85 deg F was maintained. The conditions covered at an engine speed of 2250 rpm were high and low blower ratios and spark advances of 25 deg and 32 deg B.T.C. For an engine speed of 1800 rpm only the high-blower condition was investigated for both 25 deg and 32 deg spark advances. For the conditions investigated the difference between 33-R and the triptane blend was found to be slight; the performance of 33-R fuel, however, was slightly higher than that of the triptane blend in the lean region. The knock-limited power obtained with the 33-R fuel was from 14 to 28 percent higher than that of the 28-R fuel for the entire range of test conditions; the greatest improvement was shown in the lean region.

  15. SR-71 Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two SR-71A aircraft were loaned from the U.S. Air Force for use for high-speed, high-altitude research at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. One of them was later returned...

  16. An Analysis of Flight-Test Measurements of the Wing Structural Deformations in Rough Air of a Large Flexible Swept-Wing Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrow, Harold N.

    1959-01-01

    An analysis is made of wing deflection and streamwise twist measurements in rough-air flight of a large flexible swept-wing bomber. Random-process techniques are employed in analyzing the data in order to describe the magnitude and characteristics of the wing deflection and twist responses to rough air. Power spectra and frequency-response functions for the wing deflection and twist responses at several spanwise stations are presented. The frequency-response functions describe direct and absolute response characteristics to turbulence and provide a convenient basis for assessing analytic calculation techniques. The wing deformations in rough air are compared with the expected deformations for quasi-static loadings of the same magnitude, and the amplifications are determined. The results obtained indicate that generally the deflections are amplified by a small amount, while the streamwise twists are amplified by factors of the order of 2.0. The magnitudes of both the deflection velocities and the twist angles are shown to have significant effects on the local angles of attack at the various stations and provide the main source of aerodynamic loading, particularly at frequencies in the vicinity of the first wing-vibration mode.

  17. Soaring flight in Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idrac, P

    1920-01-01

    The term soaring is applied here to the flight of certain large birds which maneuver in the air without moving their wings. The author explains the methods of his research and here gives approximate figures for the soaring flight of the Egyptian Vulture and the African White backed Vulture. Figures are given in tabular form for relative air speed per foot per second, air velocity per foot per second, lift/drag ratio, and selected coefficients. The author argues that although the figures given were taken from a very limited series of observations, they have nevertheless thrown some light on the use by birds of the internal energy of the air.

  18. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jaegyu; Ahn, Woo-Guen; Seo, Seungwoo; Lee, Jang Yong; Park, Jun-Pyo

    2015-01-01

    The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS) is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo). In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services) SC (special committee)-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias) during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP) or fluctuations in the received signal quality. PMID:26569251

  19. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jaegyu; Ahn, Woo-Guen; Seo, Seungwoo; Lee, Jang Yong; Park, Jun-Pyo

    2015-01-01

    The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS) is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo). In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services) SC (special committee)-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias) during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP) or fluctuations in the received signal quality. PMID:26569251

  20. Determination of Hazardous Air Pollutant Surrogates Using Resonance Enhanced Multi Photon Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA?s preferred approach for regulatory emissions compliance is based upon real-time monitoring of individual hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Real-time, continuous monitoring not only provides the most comprehensive assurance of emissions compliance, but also can serve as a pro...

  1. Monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutant Surrogates Using Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization/Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s preferred approach for regulatory emissions compliance is based upon real-time monitoring of individual hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Real-time, continuous monitoring not only provides the most comprehensive assurance of emissions compliance, but also can serve as...

  2. AFHRL/FT [Air Force Human Resources Laboratory/Flight Training] Capabilities in Undergraduate Pilot Training Simulation Research: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheny, W. G.; And Others

    The document presents a summary description of the Air Force Human Resource Laboratory's Flying Training Division (AFHRL/FT) research capabilities for undergraduate pilot training. One of the research devices investigated is the Advanced Simulator for Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT). The equipment includes the ASUPT, the instrumented T-37…

  3. Flight experience with flight control redundancy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.; Larson, R. R.; Glover, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Flight experience with both current and advanced redundancy management schemes was gained in recent flight research programs using the F-8 digital fly by wire aircraft. The flight performance of fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) methods for sensors, computers, and actuators is reviewed. Results of induced failures as well as of actual random failures are discussed. Deficiencies in modeling and implementation techniques are also discussed. The paper also presents comparison off multisensor tracking in smooth air, in turbulence, during large maneuvers, and during maneuvers typical of those of large commercial transport aircraft. The results of flight tests of an advanced analytic redundancy management algorithm are compared with the performance of a contemporary algorithm in terms of time to detection, false alarms, and missed alarms. The performance of computer redundancy management in both iron bird and flight tests is also presented.

  4. Noise generated by a flight weight, air flow control valve in a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft thrust vectoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility to experimentally evaluate the noise generated by a flight weight, 12 in. butterfly valve installed in a proposed vertical takeoff and landing thrust vectoring system. Fluctuating pressure measurements were made in the circular duct upstream and downstream of the valve. This data report presents the results of these tests. The maximum overall sound pressure level is generated in the duct downstream of the valve and reached a value of 180 dB at a valve pressure ratio of 2.8. At the higher valve pressure ratios the spectra downstream of the valve is broad banded with its maximum at 1000 Hz.

  5. Crew factors in flight operations. Part 3: The operational significance of exposure to short-haul air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. C.; Lauber, J. K.; Baetge, M. M.; Acomb, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Excessive flightcrew fatigue has potentially serious safety consequences. Laboratory studies have implicated fatigue as a causal factor associated with varying levels of performance deterioration depending on the amount of fatigue and the type of measure utilized in assessing performance. These studies have been of limited utility because of the difficulty of relating laboratory task performance to the demands associated with the operation of a complex aircraft. The performance of 20 volunteer twin-jet transport crews is examined in a full-mission simulator scenario that included most aspects of an actual line operation. The scenario included both routine flight operations and an unexpected mechanical abnormality which resulted in a high level of crew workload. Half of the crews flew the simulation within two to three hours after completing a three-day, high-density, short-haul duty cycle (Post-Duty condition). The other half flew the scenario after a minimum of three days off duty (Pre-Duty) condition). The results revealed that, not surprisingly, Post-Duty crews were significantly more fatigued than Pre-Duty crews. However, a somewhat counter-intuitive pattern of results emerged on the crew performancemeasures. In general, the performance of Post-Duty crews was significantly better than that of Pre-Duty crews, as rated by an expert observer on a number of dimensions relevant to flight safety. Analyses of the flightcrew communication patterns revealed that Post-Duty crews communicated significantly more overall, suggesting, as has previous research, that communication is a good predictor of overall crew performance.

  6. Performance Expectations for Future Moderate Resolution Visible and Infrared Space Instruments Based on AIRS and MODIS In-Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Broberg, Steven E.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Baron, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Lessons learned from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) projects highlight areas where further technology development is needed to address future land, ocean and atmospheric measurement needs. Although not established as requirements at this time, it is anticipated that scientists will expect improvements in the areas of spatial, spectral, radiometric, polarimetric, temporal and calibration performance for future sensors. This paper addresses each of these performance areas and provides lessons learned from MODIS and AIRS. We also present expectations in performance of the system based on information from NASA Instrument Incubator Program and industry reports. Tradeoffs are presented vs orbit altitude (LEO, ME0 and GEO) and provide a 'systems' perspective to future measurement concepts.

  7. Performance expectations for future moderate resolution visible and infrared space instruments based on AIRS and MODIS in-flight experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Broberg, Steven E.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Baron, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    Lessons learned from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) projects highlight areas where further technology development is needed to address future land, ocean and atmospheric measurement needs. Although not established as requirements at this time, it is anticipated that scientists will expect improvements in the areas of spatial, spectral, radiometric, polarimetric, temporal and calibration performance for future instruments. This paper addresses each of these performance areas and provides lessons learned from MODIS and AIRS. We also present expectations in performance of a Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) Infrared Imaging Spectrometer based on information from the NASA Instrument Incubator Program and industry reports. Tradeoffs are presented vs orbit altitude (LEO, MEO and GEO) and provide a "systems" perspective to future measurement concepts.

  8. CO2 isotope analyses using large air samples collected on intercontinental flights by the CARIBIC Boeing 767.

    PubMed

    Assonov, S S; Brenninkmeijer, C A M; Koeppel, C; Röckmann, T

    2009-03-01

    Analytical details for 13C and 18O isotope analyses of atmospheric CO2 in large air samples are given. The large air samples of nominally 300 L were collected during the passenger aircraft-based atmospheric chemistry research project CARIBIC and analyzed for a large number of trace gases and isotopic composition. In the laboratory, an ultra-pure and high efficiency extraction system and high-quality isotope ratio mass spectrometry were used. Because direct comparison with other laboratories was practically impossible, the extraction and measurement procedures were tested in considerable detail. Extracted CO2 was measured twice vs. two different working reference CO2 gases of different isotopic composition. The two data sets agree well and their distributions can be used to evaluate analytical errors due to isotope measurement, ion corrections, internal calibration consistency, etc. The calibration itself is based on NBS-19 and also verified using isotope analyses on pure CO2 gases (NIST Reference Materials (RMs) and NARCIS CO2 gases). The major problem encountered could be attributed to CO2-water exchange in the air sampling cylinders. This exchange decreased over the years. To exclude artefacts due to such isotopic exchange, the data were filtered to reject negative delta18O(CO2) values. Examples of the results are given. PMID:19219897

  9. FLYSAFE, nowcasting of in flight icing supporting aircrew decision making process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, A.; Le Bot, C.

    2009-09-01

    FLYSAFE is an Integrated Project of the 6th framework of the European Commission with the aim to improve flight safety through the development of a Next Generation Integrated Surveillance System (NGISS). The NGISS provides information to the flight crew on the three major external hazards for aviation: weather, air traffic and terrain. The NGISS has the capability of displaying data about all three hazards on a single display screen, facilitating rapid pilot appreciation of the situation by the flight crew. Weather Information Management Systems (WIMS) were developed to provide the NGISS and the flight crew with weather related information on in-flight icing, thunderstorms, wake-vortex and clear-air turbulence. These products are generated on the ground from observations and model forecasts. WIMS supply relevant information on three different scales: global, regional and local (over airport Terminal Manoeuvring Area). Within the flysafe program, around 120 hours of flight trials were performed during February 2008 and August 2008. Two aircraft were involved each with separate objectives : - to assess FLYSAFE's innovative solutions for the data-link, on-board data fusion, data-display, and data-updates during flight; - to evaluate the new weather information management systems (in flight icing and thunderstorms) using in-situ measurements recorded on board the test aircraft. In this presentation we will focus on the in-flight icing nowcasting system developed at Météo France in the framework of FLYSAFE: the local ICE WIMS. The local ICE WIMS is based on data fusion. The most relevant information for icing detection is extracted from the numerical weather prediction model, the infra-red and visible satellite imagery and the ground weather radar reflectivities. After a presentation of the local ICE WIMS, we detail the evaluation of the local ICE WIMS performed using the winter and summer flight trial data.

  10. Installation restoration program. Site investigation report, IRP sites No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3. 106th Civil Engineering Flight, New York Air National Guard, Roslyn Air National Guard Station, Roslyn, New York. Volume 1. Site Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the results of the Site Investigation (SI) conducted at IRP Sites No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3 at the 106th Civil Engineering Flight (CEF) located at Roslyn Air National Guard Station (ANGS), Roslyn, Long Island, New York. A Preliminary Assessment (PA) (AD-A238 847) of the 106th CEF resulted in the identification of two potentially contaminated waste holding areas and a waste sludge application site. These sites were identified as IRP Site No. 1 (Access Road to Aerospace Ground Equipment `AGE` Shop), IRP Site No. 2 (Old Waste Holding Area No. 1), and IRP Site No. 3 (Old Waste Holding Area No. 2) and recommended for further investigation under the Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

  11. Foreign technology summary of flight crucial flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of foreign technology in flight crucial flight controls is being conducted to provide a data base for planning future research and technology programs. Only Free World countries were surveyed, and the primary emphasis was on Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications, and a tour of several companies, government organizations, and research laboratories in the United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany. A summary of the survey results to date is presented.

  12. YF-17 in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Northrop Aviation YF-17 technology demonstrator aircraft in flight during a 1976 flight research program at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. From May 27 to July 14, 1976, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, flew the Northrop Aviation YF-17 technology demonstrator to test the high-performance U.S. Air Force fighter at transonic speeds. The objectives of the seven-week flight test program included the study of maneuverability of this aircraft at transonic speeds and the collection of in-flight pressure data from around the afterbody of the aircraft to improve wind-tunnel predictions for future fighter aircraft. Also studied were stability and control and buffeting at high angles of attack as well as handling qualities at high load factors. Another objective of this program was to familiarize center pilots with the operation of advanced high-performance fighter aircraft. During the seven-week program, all seven of the center's test pilots were able to fly the aircraft with Gary Krier serving as project pilot. In general the pilots reported no trouble adapting to the aircraft and reported that it was easy to fly. There were no familiarization flights. All 25 research flights were full-data flights. They obtained data on afterbody pressures, vertical-fin dynamic loads, agility, pilot physiology, and infrared signatures. Average flight time was 45 minutes, although two flights involving in-flight refueling lasted approximately one hour longer than usual. Dryden Project Manager Roy Bryant considered the program a success. Center pilots felt that the aircraft was generations ahead of then current active military aircraft. Originally built for the Air Force's lightweight fighter program, the YF-17 Cobra left Dryden to support the Northrop/Navy F-18 Program. The F-18 Hornet evolved from the YF-17.

  13. Calibration of HYPULSE for hypervelocity air flows corresponding to flight Mach numbers 13.5, 15, and 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calleja, John; Tamagno, Jose

    1993-01-01

    A series of air calibration tests were performed in GASL's HYPULSE facility in order to more accurately determine test section flow conditions for flows simulating total enthalpies in the Mach 13 to 17 range. Present calibration data supplements previous data and includes direct measurement of test section pitot and static pressure, acceleration tube wall pressure and heat transfer, and primary and secondary incident shock velocities. Useful test core diameters along with the corresponding free-stream conditions and usable testing times were determined. For the M13.5 condition, in-stream static pressure surveys showed the temporal and spacial uniformity of this quantity across the useful test core. In addition, finite fringe interferograms taken of the free-stream flow at the test section did not indicate the presence of any 'strong' wave system for any of the conditions investigated.

  14. Force generation and wing deformation characteristics of a flapping-wing micro air vehicle 'DelFly II' in hovering flight.

    PubMed

    Percin, M; van Oudheusden, B W; de Croon, G C H E; Remes, B

    2016-06-01

    The study investigates the aerodynamic performance and the relation between wing deformation and unsteady force generation of a flapping-wing micro air vehicle in hovering flight configuration. Different experiments were performed where fluid forces were acquired with a force sensor, while the three-dimensional wing deformation was measured with a stereo-vision system. In these measurements, time-resolved power consumption and flapping-wing kinematics were also obtained under both in-air and in-vacuum conditions. Comparison of the results for different flapping frequencies reveals different wing kinematics and deformation characteristics. The high flapping frequency case produces higher forces throughout the complete flapping cycle. Moreover, a phase difference occurs in the variation of the forces, such that the low flapping frequency case precedes the high frequency case. A similar phase lag is observed in the temporal evolution of the wing deformation characteristics, suggesting that there is a direct link between the two phenomena. A considerable camber formation occurs during stroke reversals, which is mainly determined by the stiffener orientation. The wing with the thinner surface membrane displays very similar characteristics to the baseline wing, which implies the dominance of the stiffeners in terms of providing rigidity to the wing. Wing span has a significant effect on the aerodynamic efficiency such that increasing the span length by 4 cm results in a 6% enhancement in the cycle-averaged X-force to power consumption ratio compared to the standard DelFly II wings with a span length of 28 cm. PMID:27194392

  15. The flight robotics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Williamson, Marlin J.; Glaese, John R.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Robotics Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center is described in detail. This facility, containing an eight degree of freedom manipulator, precision air bearing floor, teleoperated motion base, reconfigurable operator's console, and VAX 11/750 computer system, provides simulation capability to study human/system interactions of remote systems. The facility hardware, software and subsequent integration of these components into a real time man-in-the-loop simulation for the evaluation of spacecraft contact proximity and dynamics are described.

  16. Spatial and temporal variability of CO2 fluxes at the sediment-air interface in a tidal flat of a temperate lagoon (Arcachon Bay, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migné, Aline; Davoult, Dominique; Spilmont, Nicolas; Ouisse, Vincent; Boucher, Guy

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the spatial and temporal variability of benthic metabolism in a temperate mesotidal lagoon. This was achieved by measuring fluxes of CO2 in static chambers during emersion, both under light and dark conditions. Three sample sites were selected according to their tidal level (upper or mid), their sediment type (sand or mud) and the presence/absence of the seagrass Zostera noltei. The three sites were investigated at three seasons (end of winter, spring and beginning of autumn). At each site and each season, three benthic chambers were used simultaneously in successive incubations over the emersion period. The sediment chlorophyll-a content varied seasonally in the upper sands (reaching 283 mg.m- 2 in spring) but not in the mid muds (averaging 142 mg m- 2 in bare muds and 186 mg m- 2 in muds covered by seagrass). The maximum sediment CO2-uptake under light was 9.89 mmol m- 2 h- 1 in the mid-bare muds, in early autumn. The maximum sediment CO2-release under darkness was 6.97 mmol m- 2 h- 1 in the mid muds covered by seagrass, in spring. Both CO2-fluxes measured in the light and in the dark increased over periods of emersion. This increase, not related to light nor temperature variations, could be explained by changes in the amount and chemistry of pore water during the air exposure of sediments. The benthic trophic state index, based on the maximum light CO2-flux versus maximum dark CO2-flux ratio, assigned to each site at each season indicated that the sediments were net autotrophic in spring in upper sands and in mid muds covered by seagrass and highly autotrophic in other cases. The most autotrophic sediments were the mid-level bare muds whatever the season. The relevance of this index is discussed compared to carbon annual budget.

  17. ACAT Ground Collision Avoidance Flight Tests Over

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has concluded flight tests of an Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS) under the joint U.S. Air Force/NASA F-16D Automatic Collision Avoidance...

  18. Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality in the cities of Rouen and Le Havre, France, 1990-1995.

    PubMed

    Zeghnoun, A; Czernichow, P; Beaudeau, P; Hautemanière, A; Froment, L; Le Tertre, A; Quénel, P

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the short-term effects of ambient air pollution on mortality across 2 French cities: Rouen and Le Havre. In Poisson regression models, which controlled for day-of-week effects, the authors used nonparametric smoothing to control for temporal trend, weather, and influenza epidemics. In Rouen, an interquartile range increase of 60.5-94.1 microg/m3 of ozone was associated with an increase of 4.1% (95% confidence interval = 0.6, 7.8) of total mortality. Daily variations in sulfur dioxide (interquartile range increase = 17.6-36.4 microg/m3) were also associated with an 8.2% increase (95% confidence interval = 0.4, 16.6) in respiratory mortality. An increase of 6.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.5, 10.9) of cardiovascular mortality was also observed with an interquartile range increase of nitrogen dioxide (i.e., 25.3-42.2 microg/m3). With respect to Le Havre, an interquartile range increase in daily levels of sulfur dioxide (11.3-35.6 microg/m3) was associated with an increase of approximately 3% (95% confidence interval = 0.8, 5) of cardiovascular mortality. For particulate matter less than or equal to 13 microm in diameter (interquartile increase = 21.5, 45.4 microg/m3), an increase of 6.2% (95% confidence interval = 0.1, 12.8) was observed. The estimates of pollutant effects and their standard deviations were slightly affected by the degree of smoothing temporal variations in this study. When low collinearity was present, the 2-pollutant models provided acceptable estimates of pollutant effects. They suggested that the ozone effect was independent of the Black Smoke effect, and that the effects of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide were unlikely to be confounded by ozone concentrations. However, high collinearity leads to large estimates of the pollutant coefficient variances and, therefore, leads to inaccurate estimates of pollutant effects. The analysis of the contributory effects of different pollutant mixtures requires further

  19. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

  20. Air pollution and doctors' house calls: results from the ERPURS system for monitoring the effects of air pollution on public health in Greater Paris, France, 1991-1995. Evaluation des Risques de la Pollution Urbaine pour la Santé.

    PubMed

    Medina, S; Le Tertre, A; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Lameloise, P; Guzzo, J C; Festy, B; Ferry, R; Dab, W

    1997-10-01

    This study examines short-term relationships between doctors' house calls and urban air pollution in Greater Paris for the period 1991-1995. Poisson regressions using nonparametric smoothing functions controlled for time trend, seasonal patterns, pollen counts, influenza epidemics, and weather. The relationship between asthma visits and air pollution was stronger for children. A relative risk (RRP95/P5) of 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-1.47)] was observed for an increase from the 5th to the 95th percentile (7-51 micrograms/m3) in daily concentrations of black smoke (BS). The risks for 24-hr sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide levels were in the same range. Cardiovascular conditions, considered globally, showed weaker associations than angina pectoris/myocardial infarction, for which RRP95/P5 was 1.63 (95% CI = 1.10-2.41) in relation to ozone ambient levels. Eye conditions were exclusively related to ozone (RRP95/P5 = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.33). Asthma visits and ozone showed an interaction with minimum temperature: an effect was observed only at 10 degrees C or higher. In two-pollutant models including BS with, successively, SO2, NO2, and O3, only BS and O3 effects remained stable. Along with mortality and hospital admissions, house call activity data, available on a regular basis, may be a sensitive indicator for monitoring health effects related to air pollution. PMID:9356196

  1. F-14 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    NASA 991, an F-14 Navy Tomcat designated the F-14 (1X), cruises over the desert on a research flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The F-14 was used at Dryden between 1979 and 1985 in extensive high-angle-of-attack and spin-control-and-recovery tests. The NASA/Navy program, which included 212 total flights, achieved considerable improvement in the F-14 high-angle-of-attack flying qualities, improved departure and spin resistance, and contributed to substantial improvements in reducing 'wing rock,' (i.e., tilting from one side to another), at high angles of attack. NASA 991 had numerous special additions for high-angle-of-attack and spin-recovery research. These included a battery-powered auxiliary power unit, a flight test nose boom, and a special spin recovery system, consisting of forward mounted, hydraulically actuated canards and an emergency spin chute. NASA's F-14 was first flown by NASA research pilots, but was later flown by Grumman, and by Navy test pilots from Patuxent River Naval Air Station (NAS). The Navy test flights with the spin research vehicle constituted the first program that incorporated air combat maneuvering in its test flights at Dryden. The Navy brought F-14s from Point Mugu and Miramar NAS in San Diego to test the new spin control laws in combat situations. Although the new control laws proved valuable, the Navy did not incorporate them into production F-14s until the F-14D, nearly 15 years later. Among the 212 flights completed for this research project, the F-14 also tested a flush air data system, for gathering data about air speed; provided an updated aeromodel, which is currently in use on Navy F-14 training simulators; created natural laminar flow baseline data for many of NASA's later laminar flow programs; and tested low altitude, asymetric thrust.

  2. Chemical composition of tropospheric air masses encountered during high altitude flights (>11.5 km) during the 2009 fall Operation Ice Bridge field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mei Ying Melissa; Vay, Stephanie A.; Stohl, Andreas; Choi, Yonghoon; Diskin, Glenn S.; Sachse, Glen W.; Blake, Donald R.

    2012-09-01

    As part of the 2009 Operation Ice Bridge campaign, the NASA DC-8 aircraft was used to fill the data-time gap in laser observation of the changes in ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice between ICESat-I (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) and ICESat-II. Complementing the cryospheric instrument payload were four in situ atmospheric sampling instruments integrated onboard to measure trace gas concentrations of CO2, CO, N2O, CH4, water vapor and various VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds). This paper examines two plumes encountered at high altitude (12 km) during the campaign; one during a southbound transit flight (13°S) and the other at 86°S over Antarctica. The data presented are especially significant as the Southern Hemisphere is heavily under-sampled during the austral spring, with few if any high-resolution airborne observations of atmospheric gases made over Antarctica. Strong enhancements of CO, CH4, N2O, CHCl3, OCS, C2H6, C2H2 and C3H8 were observed in the two intercepted air masses that exhibited variations in VOC composition suggesting different sources. The transport model FLEXPART showed that the 13°S plume contained predominately biomass burning emissions originating from Southeast Asia and South Africa, while both anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions were observed at 86°S with South America and South Africa as indicated source regions. The data presented here show evidence that boundary layer pollution is transported from lower latitudes toward the upper troposphere above the South Pole, which may not have been observed in the past.

  3. Into turbulent air: size-dependent effects of von Kármán vortex streets on hummingbird flight kinematics and energetics.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor M; Sapir, Nir; Wolf, Marta; Variano, Evan A; Dudley, Robert

    2014-05-22

    Animal fliers frequently move through a variety of perturbed flows during their daily aerial routines. However, the extent to which these perturbations influence flight control and energetic expenditure is essentially unknown. Here, we evaluate the kinematic and metabolic consequences of flight within variably sized vortex shedding flows using five Anna's hummingbirds feeding from an artificial flower in steady control flow and within vortex wakes produced behind vertical cylinders. Tests were conducted at three horizontal airspeeds (3, 6 and 9 m s(-1)) and using three different wake-generating cylinders (with diameters equal to 38, 77 and 173% of birds' wing length). Only minimal effects on wing and body kinematics were demonstrated for flight behind the smallest cylinder, whereas flight behind the medium-sized cylinder resulted in significant increases in the variances of wingbeat frequency, and variances of body orientation, especially at higher airspeeds. Metabolic rate was, however, unchanged relative to that of unperturbed flight. Hummingbirds flying within the vortex street behind the largest cylinder exhibited highest increases in variances of wingbeat frequency, and of body roll, pitch and yaw amplitudes at all measured airspeeds. Impressively, metabolic rate under this last condition increased by up to 25% compared with control flights. Cylinder wakes sufficiently large to interact with both wings can thus strongly affect stability in flight, eliciting compensatory kinematic changes with a consequent increase in flight metabolic costs. Our findings suggest that vortical flows frequently encountered by aerial taxa in diverse environments may impose substantial energetic costs. PMID:24671978

  4. Into turbulent air: size-dependent effects of von Kármán vortex streets on hummingbird flight kinematics and energetics

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor M.; Sapir, Nir; Wolf, Marta; Variano, Evan A.; Dudley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Animal fliers frequently move through a variety of perturbed flows during their daily aerial routines. However, the extent to which these perturbations influence flight control and energetic expenditure is essentially unknown. Here, we evaluate the kinematic and metabolic consequences of flight within variably sized vortex shedding flows using five Anna's hummingbirds feeding from an artificial flower in steady control flow and within vortex wakes produced behind vertical cylinders. Tests were conducted at three horizontal airspeeds (3, 6 and 9 m s−1) and using three different wake-generating cylinders (with diameters equal to 38, 77 and 173% of birds' wing length). Only minimal effects on wing and body kinematics were demonstrated for flight behind the smallest cylinder, whereas flight behind the medium-sized cylinder resulted in significant increases in the variances of wingbeat frequency, and variances of body orientation, especially at higher airspeeds. Metabolic rate was, however, unchanged relative to that of unperturbed flight. Hummingbirds flying within the vortex street behind the largest cylinder exhibited highest increases in variances of wingbeat frequency, and of body roll, pitch and yaw amplitudes at all measured airspeeds. Impressively, metabolic rate under this last condition increased by up to 25% compared with control flights. Cylinder wakes sufficiently large to interact with both wings can thus strongly affect stability in flight, eliciting compensatory kinematic changes with a consequent increase in flight metabolic costs. Our findings suggest that vortical flows frequently encountered by aerial taxa in diverse environments may impose substantial energetic costs. PMID:24671978

  5. X-2 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    This inflight photograph of the X-2 (46-674) shows the twin set of shock-diamonds, characteristic of supersonic conditions in the exhaust plume from the two-chamber rocket engine. The Curtiss-Wright XLR-25 rocket engine caused one of several problems that delayed flight of the X-2. At one point, people in the project suggested its replacement. It was the first 'man-rated' (in the terminology of the day) rocket engine that was throttleable, and the technology was not yet mature. Other problems included the X-2's landing gear and the replacement of the planned electronic flight controls with a conventional hydromechanical system like that used in the F-86. The X-2 was a swept-wing, rocket-powered aircraft designed to fly faster than Mach 3 (three times the speed of sound). It was built for the U.S. Air Force by the Bell Aircraft Company, Buffalo, New York. The X-2 was flown to investigate the problems of aerodynamic heating as well as stability and control effectiveness at high altitudes and high speeds (in excess of Mach 3). Bell aircraft built two X-2 aircraft. These were constructed of K-monel (a copper and nickel alloy) for the fuselage and stainless steel for the swept wings and control surfaces. The aircraft had ejectable nose capsules instead of ejection seats because the development of ejection seats had not reached maturity at the time the X-2 was conceived. The X-2 ejection canopy was successfully tested using a German V-2 rocket. The X-2 used a skid-type landing gear to make room for more fuel. The airplane was air launched from a modified Boeing B-50 Superfortress Bomber. X-2 Number 1 made its first unpowered glide flight on Aug. 5, 1954, and made a total of 17 (4 glide and 13 powered) flights before it was lost Sept. 27, 1956. The pilot on Flight 17, Capt. Milburn Apt, had flown the aircraft to a record speed of Mach 3.2 (2,094 mph), thus becoming the first person to exceed Mach 3. During that last flight, inertial coupling occurred and the pilot was

  6. 14 CFR 91.169 - IFR flight plan: Information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IFR flight plan: Information required. 91... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Instrument Flight Rules § 91.169 IFR flight plan: Information required. (a) Information required....

  7. 14 CFR 91.153 - VFR flight plan: Information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false VFR flight plan: Information required. 91... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Visual Flight Rules § 91.153 VFR flight plan: Information required. (a) Information required. Unless...

  8. 14 CFR 91.169 - IFR flight plan: Information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false IFR flight plan: Information required. 91... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Instrument Flight Rules § 91.169 IFR flight plan: Information required. (a) Information required....

  9. 14 CFR 91.153 - VFR flight plan: Information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false VFR flight plan: Information required. 91... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Visual Flight Rules § 91.153 VFR flight plan: Information required. (a) Information required. Unless...

  10. 14 CFR 91.169 - IFR flight plan: Information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IFR flight plan: Information required. 91... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Instrument Flight Rules § 91.169 IFR flight plan: Information required. (a) Information required....

  11. 14 CFR 91.169 - IFR flight plan: Information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false IFR flight plan: Information required. 91... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Instrument Flight Rules § 91.169 IFR flight plan: Information required. (a) Information required....

  12. 14 CFR 91.153 - VFR flight plan: Information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false VFR flight plan: Information required. 91... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Visual Flight Rules § 91.153 VFR flight plan: Information required. (a) Information required. Unless...

  13. Statistical analysis of flight times for space shuttle ferry flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, M. E.; Perlmutter, M.

    1974-01-01

    Markov chain and Monte Carlo analysis techniques are applied to the simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter Ferry flights to obtain statistical distributions of flight time duration between Edwards Air Force Base and Kennedy Space Center. The two methods are compared, and are found to be in excellent agreement. The flights are subjected to certain operational and meteorological requirements, or constraints, which cause eastbound and westbound trips to yield different results. Persistence of events theory is applied to the occurrence of inclement conditions to find their effect upon the statistical flight time distribution. In a sensitivity test, some of the constraints are varied to observe the corresponding changes in the results.

  14. Enhanced Flight Termination System Flight Demonstration and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tow, David; Arce, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodology, requirements, tests, and implementation plan for the live demonstration of the Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) using a missile program at two locations in Florida: Eglin Air Force Base (AFB) and Tyndall AFB. The demonstration included the integration of EFTS Flight Termination Receivers (FTRs) onto the missile and the integration of EFTS-program-developed transmitter assets with the mission control system at Eglin and Tyndall AFBs. The initial test stages included ground testing and captive-carry flights, followed by a launch in which EFTS was designated as the primary flight termination system for the launch.

  15. 14 CFR 141.79 - Flight training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight training. 141.79 Section 141.79... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.79 Flight training. (a) No person other than a certificated flight instructor or commercial pilot with a lighter-than-air rating who has...

  16. 14 CFR 93.323 - Flight plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight plans. 93.323 Section 93.323... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.323 Flight plans. Each certificate holder conducting a commercial...

  17. 14 CFR 93.323 - Flight plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards District Office Grand Canyon National Park Special Flight Rules Area Procedures Manual” which is... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.323 Flight plans. Each certificate holder conducting a commercial...

  18. 14 CFR 93.323 - Flight plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards District Office Grand Canyon National Park Special Flight Rules Area Procedures Manual” which is... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.323 Flight plans. Each certificate holder conducting a commercial...

  19. Urban Sociology in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiot, Michel

    1986-01-01

    Divides the history of urban sociology in France into three periods: (1) functionalism, which lasted from 1910 until the 1960s, (2) neo-Marxist socioeconomics lasting from 1968 until 1979, and (3) anthropological approach which is still dominant. Reviews theoretical perspectives and research characteristic of each period. (JDH)

  20. Industrial Psychology in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Montmollin, Maurice

    1977-01-01

    The current status of French industrial psychology is evaluated. Within the social and economic context of contemporary France, varying ideologies and scarce resources have created a gap between applied and academic industrial psychology. Personnel practices and systems and organizational research are noted. (Editor)

  1. Theory of flapping flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippisch, Alexander

    1925-01-01

    Before attempting to construct a human-powered aircraft, the aviator will first try to post himself theoretically on the possible method of operating the flapping wings. This report will present a graphic and mathematical method, which renders it possible to determine the power required, so far as it can be done on the basis of the wing dimensions. We will first consider the form of the flight path through the air. The simplest form is probably the curve of ordinary wave motion. After finding the flight curve, we must next determine the change in the angle of attack while passing through the different phases of the wave.

  2. C-47 in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    NASA Flight Research Center's Douglas R4D-5/C-47H (Bu. No. 17136) in flight, with its landing gear extended, in 1963. The R4D Skytrain was one of the early workhorses for NACA and NASA at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from 1952 to 1984. Designated the R4D by the U.S. Navy, the aircraft was called the C-47 by the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force and the DC-3 by its builder, Douglas Aircraft. Nearly everyone called it the 'Gooney Bird.' In 1962, Congress consolidated the military-service designations and called all of them the C-47. After that date, the R4D at NASA's Flight Research Center (itself redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1976) was properly called a C-47. Over the 32 years it was used at Edwards, three different R4D/C-47s were used to shuttle personnel and equipment between NACA/NASA Centers and test locations throughout the country and for other purposes. One purpose was landing on 'dry' lakebeds used as alternate landing sites for the X-15, to determine whether their surfaces were hard (dry) enough for the X-15 to land on in case an emergency occurred after its launch and before it could reach Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base. The R4D/C-47 served a variety of needs, including serving as the first air-tow vehicle for the M2-F1 lifting body (which was built of mahogany plywood). The C-47 (as it was then called) was used for 77 tows before the M2-F1 was retired for more advanced lifting bodies that were dropped from the NASA B-52 'Mothership.' The R4D also served as a research aircraft. It was used to conduct early research on wing-tip-vortex flow visualization as well as checking out the NASA Uplink Control System. The first Gooney Bird was at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) from 1952 to 1956 and flew at least one cross-country flight to the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The second R4D, used from 1956 to 1979, made many flights to the Ames Research Center, Mountain

  3. ASTRID rocket flight test

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.C.; Pittenger, L.C.; Colella, N.J.

    1994-07-01

    On February 4, 1994, we successfully flight tested the ASTRID rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base. The technology for this rocket originated in the Brilliant Pebbles program and represents a five-year development effort. This rocket demonstrated how our new pumped-propulsion technology-which reduced the total effective engine mass by more than one half and cut the tank mass to one fifth previous requirements-would perform in atmospheric flight. This demonstration paves the way for potential cost-effective uses of the new propulsion system in commercial aerospace vehicles, exploration of the planets, and defense applications.

  4. DAST in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of

  5. Medical issues associated with commercial flights.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Danielle; Gendreau, Mark

    2009-06-13

    Almost 2 billion people travel aboard commercial airlines every year. Health-care providers and travellers need to be aware of the potential health risks associated with air travel. Environmental and physiological changes that occur during routine commercial flights lead to mild hypoxia and gas expansion, which can exacerbate chronic medical conditions or incite acute in-flight medical events. The association between venous thromboembolism and long-haul flights, cosmic-radiation exposure, jet lag, and cabin-air quality are growing health-care issues associated with air travel. In-flight medical events are increasingly frequent because a growing number of individuals with pre-existing medical conditions travel by air. Resources including basic and advanced medical kits, automated external defibrillators, and telemedical ground support are available onboard to assist flight crew and volunteering physicians in the management of in-flight medical emergencies. PMID:19232708

  6. Flight. Science Series Grades 4, 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frensch, Helen

    The activities in this book are designed to reinforce the elementary concepts of flight. General background information, suggested activities, questions for discussion, and answers are provided. Twenty-eight reproducible worksheets are contained in this guide. Topics include: hot air balloons, the physics of flight, air resistance, airplane…

  7. [Primary care in France].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. PMID:26304179

  8. Pharmacy Education in France

    PubMed Central

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a “diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie” This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice. PMID:19325952

  9. Medical assistance during commercial airline flights: analysis of 11 years experience of the Paris Emergency Medical Service (SAMU) between 1989 and 1999.

    PubMed

    Szmajer, M; Rodriguez, P; Sauval, P; Charetteur, M P; Derossi, A; Carli, P

    2001-08-01

    Emergencies arising during commercial airline flights may have serious consequences. We report the experience of the Paris Emergency Medical Service (SAMU) in providing in-flight assistance to Air France between 1989 and 1999. During this period medical advice was sought 380 times during the carriage of about 350 million passengers. Analysis of the patient files suggests that serious emergencies were rare and that cardiopulmonary resuscitation was required only exceptionally. However the relative frequency of cardiac and neurological emergencies in our analysis supports the necessity of carrying adequate medical equipment and of having direct access to expert medical advice. The results suggest the requirement for a rigorous prospective epidemiological study of in-flight emergencies to evaluate the effectiveness of current practice and possible modifications of equipment and protocols for patient management. PMID:11719141

  10. Effects of airplane flexibility on wing strains in rough air at 35,000 feet as determined by a flight investigation of a large swept-wing airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhyne, Richard H

    1958-01-01

    A flight investigation was made on a large sweptback-wing bomber airplane and the results are compared with data previously obtained at low altitude (5,000 feet). The effects of wing flexibility on the wing strains were, on the average, about 20 percent larger at the higher altitude.

  11. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  12. 14 CFR 91.529 - Flight engineer requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 calendar months, that person has had at least 50 hours of flight time as a flight engineer on that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight engineer requirements. 91.529... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and...

  13. 14 CFR 91.529 - Flight engineer requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 calendar months, that person has had at least 50 hours of flight time as a flight engineer on that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight engineer requirements. 91.529... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and...

  14. 14 CFR 91.529 - Flight engineer requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 calendar months, that person has had at least 50 hours of flight time as a flight engineer on that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight engineer requirements. 91.529... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and...

  15. 14 CFR 91.105 - Flight crewmembers at stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at stations. 91.105... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.105 Flight crewmembers at stations. (a) During takeoff and landing, and while en route,...

  16. Petroleum statistics in France

    SciTech Connect

    De Saint Germain, H.; Lamiraux, C.

    1995-08-01

    33 oil companies, including Elf, Exxon, Agip, Conoco as well as Coparex, Enron, Hadson, Midland, Hunt, Canyon and Union Texas are present in oil and gas exploration and production in France. The production of oil and gas in France amounts to some 60,000 bopd of oil and 350 MMcfpd of marketed natural gas each year, which still accounts for 3.5% and 10% for French domestic needs, respectively. To date, 166 fields have been discovered, representing a total reserve of 3 billion bbl of crude oil and 13 trillion cf of raw gas. These fields are concentrated in two major onshore sedimentary basins of Mesozoic age, which are the Aquitaine basin and the Paris basin. The Aquitaine basin should be subdivided into two distinct domains: The Parentis basin where the largest field Parentis was discovered in 1954 with still production of about 3700 bopd of oil and where Les Arbouslers field, discovered at the end of 1991, is currently producing about 10,000 bopd of oil. The northern Pyrenees and their foreland, where the Lacq field, discovered in 1951, has produced about 7.7 tcf of gas since 1957, and is still producing 138 MMcfpd. In the Paris basin, the two large oil fields are Villeperclue discovered in 1982 by Triton and Total, and Chaunoy, discovered in 1983 by Essorep, which are still producing about 10,000 and 15,000 bopd, respectively. The last significantly sized discovery occurred in 1990 with Itteville by Elf Aquitaine which is currently producing 4,200 bopd. The poster shows statistical data related to the past 20 years of oil and gas exploration and production in France.

  17. Possible application of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index in France: A pilot study in Brittany

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our goal was to determine if the US Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) scale might have application in France. Twenty homes in Brittany, north western region of France were classified by inspection as “Moldy” or “Non-Moldy”. Dust and air samples were collected (MiTest ...

  18. European security and France

    SciTech Connect

    deRose, A.

    1985-01-01

    A French authority on security argues for new European initiatives in the face of the ''danger represented by Soviet military power deployed in support of an imperialistic ideology.'' His proposals, including the strengthening of conventional forces without abandoning the option of the first use of nuclear weapons, are meant to give substance to President Mitterrand's declaration in 1983: ''The European nations now need to realize that their defense is also their responsibility....'' A part of the increasingly important debate in France over defense policy in Europe.

  19. Breeder reactors in France

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, C.P.

    1980-04-11

    France relies on nuclear power as an important part of her energy program. Anticipating problems with the availability of natural uranium before the year 2020, the French have been pursuing a three-stage program of development of breeder reactors. The third reactor in this program, the near-commercial plant Super Phenix Mark I, is expected to reach power operation in 1983. Although there are still some uncertainties, particularly about the date when the breeder will become competitive with other energy sources, the outlook is considered favorable and preliminary designs for commercial plants are under way.

  20. Miracle Flights for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... today Saving Lives One Flight At A Time Miracle Flights provides free flights to distant specialized care and valuable second opinions. Miracle Flights Through June 2016 Flights Coordinated: 101,862 ...

  1. Flight (Children's Books).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Susan; Reid, Rebecca; Sylvan, Anne; Woolard, Linda; Freeman, Evelyn B.

    1997-01-01

    Presents brief annotations of 43 children's books, grouped around the theme of flight: flights of imagination, flights across time and around the globe, flights of adventure, and nature's flight. (SR)

  2. Legionnaires' disease in France.

    PubMed

    Campèse, C; Descours, G; Lepoutre, A; Beraud, L; Maine, C; Che, D; Jarraud, S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the current knowledge of Legionnaires' disease (LD) illustrated by the epidemiological situation in France in 2013. LD is a severe pneumonia commonly caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. The diagnosis is usually based on the urinary antigen test. This rapid method reduces the delay between clinical suspicion and initiation of an appropriate treatment. However, the availability of a clinical strain is important to improve knowledge of circulating bacteria, to document case clusters, and to identify the sources of contamination. The source of contamination is unknown in most cases. The main contamination sources generating aerosols are water network systems and cooling towers. Thanks to the strengthening of clinical and environmental monitoring and to several guidelines, no epidemic has been reported in France since 2006. Despite these efforts, the number of LD cases has not decreased in recent years. It is essential that applied research continue to better understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of the disease and its characteristics (impact of environmental factors, sources of exposure, strains, host, etc.). Fundamental knowledge has been greatly improved (pathogenesis, immune mechanisms, etc.). The results of this research should help define new strategies for the diagnosis, prevention, and control to decrease the number of LD cases diagnosed every year. PMID:25722040

  3. Battle of France WWII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadhath, Arpitha Rao

    The purpose of this thesis is to build an interactive Geographical Information System (GIS) tool, relating to the series of events that occurred during the Battle of France World War II. The tool gives us an insight about the countries involved in the battle, their allies and their strategies. This tool was created to use it as a one stop source of information regarding all the important battles that took place, which lead to the fall of France. The tool brings together the maps of all the countries involved. Integrated with each map is the data relevant to that map. The data for each country includes the place of attack, the strategies used during the attack, and the kind of warfare. The tool also makes use of HTML files to give all the information, along with the images from the time of the war and a footage which explains everything about the particular battle. The tool was build using JAVA, along with the use of MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) to develop Maps of each of the countries. MOJO is developed by ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) which makes it easier to add data to the maps. It also makes highlighting important information easier making use of pop-up windows, charts and infographics. HTML files were designed making use of the open-source template developed by Bootstrap. The tool is built in such a way that the interface is simple and easy for the user to use and understand.

  4. NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft 911's Final Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA 911, one of NASA's two modified Boeing 747 space shuttle carrier aircraft, flew its final flight Feb. 8, a short hop from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base to the ...

  5. International Reports on Literacy Research: Argentina, Mexico, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Mallozzi, Christine, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Argentina, Mexico, and France. In the first report, Melina Porto reports on a new implementation of a teacher-education program currently underway in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, under the leadership of teacher-researcher…

  6. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  7. SR-71 in flight with full afterburner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA's SR-71 streaks into the twilight with full afterburner on the first night/science flight from the Dryden Flight Research Facility, Mar. 9, 1993. Onboard were research pilot Steve Ishmael and flight engineer Marta Bohn-Meyer. Mounted in the nose of the SR-71 was an ultraviolet video camera aimed skyward to capture images of stars, asteroids and comets. This flight checked the operation of the camera to insure the air turbulence at Mach speeds and the vibration of the aircraft did not interfere with the operation of the camera. The science portion of the flight is a project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

  8. Validation of DSMC results for chemically nonequilibrium air flows against measurements of the electron number density in RAM-C II flight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevyrin, Alexander A.; Vashchenkov, Pavel V.; Bondar, Yevgeniy A.; Ivanov, Mikhail S.

    2014-12-01

    An ionized flow around the RAM C-II vehicle in the range of altitudes from 73 to 81 km is studied by the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method with three models of chemical reactions. It is demonstrated that vibration favoring in reactions of dissociation of neutral molecules affects significantly the predicted values of plasma density in the shock layer, and good agreement between the results of experiments and DSMC computations can be achieved in terms of the plasma density as a function of the flight altitude.

  9. Validation of DSMC results for chemically nonequilibrium air flows against measurements of the electron number density in RAM-C II flight experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shevyrin, Alexander A.; Vashchenkov, Pavel V.; Bondar, Yevgeniy A.; Ivanov, Mikhail S.

    2014-12-09

    An ionized flow around the RAM C-II vehicle in the range of altitudes from 73 to 81 km is studied by the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method with three models of chemical reactions. It is demonstrated that vibration favoring in reactions of dissociation of neutral molecules affects significantly the predicted values of plasma density in the shock layer, and good agreement between the results of experiments and DSMC computations can be achieved in terms of the plasma density as a function of the flight altitude.

  10. X-4 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    In the early days of transonic flight research, many aerodynamicists believed that eliminating conventional tail surfaces could reduce the problems created by shock wave interaction with the tail's lifting surfaces. To address this issue, the Army Air Forces's Air Technical Service awarded a contract to Northrop Aircraft Corporation on 5 April 1946 to build a piloted 'flying laboratory.' Northrop already had experience with tailless flying wing designs such as the N-1M, N-9M, XB-35, and YB-49. Subsequently, the manufacturer built two semi-tailless X-4 research aircraft, the first of which flew half a century ago. The X-4 was designed to investigate transonic compressibility effects at speeds near Mach 0.85 to 0.88, slightly below the speed of sound. Northrop project engineer Arthur Lusk designed the aircraft with swept wings and a conventional fuselage that housed two turbojet engines. It had a vertical stabilizer, but no horizontal tail surfaces. It was one of the smallest X-planes ever built, and every bit of internal space was used for systems and instrumentation. The first X-4 arrived at Muroc Air Force Base by truck on 15 November 1948. Over the course of several weeks, engineers conducted static tests, and Northrop test pilot Charles Tucker made initial taxi runs. Although small of stature, he barely fit into the diminutive craft. Tucker, a veteran Northrop test pilot, had previously flown the XB-35 and YB-49 flying wing bomber prototypes. Prior to flying for Northrop, he had logged 400 hours in jet airplanes as a test pilot for Lockheed and the Air Force. He would now be responsible for completing the contractor phase of the X-4 flight test program. Finally, all was ready. Tucker climbed into the cockpit, and made the first flight on 15 December 1948. It only lasted 18 minutes, allowing just enough time for the pilot to become familiar with the basic handling qualities of the craft. The X-4 handled well, but Tucker noted some longitudinal instability at all

  11. YF-12 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 60-6936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse of the program, with 146 flights between 11 December 1969 and 7 November 1979. The second YF-12A, 936, made 62 flights. It was lost in a non-fatal crash on 24 June 1971. It was replaced by the so-called YF-12C (SR-71A 61-7951, modified with YF-12A inlets and engines and a bogus tail number 06937). The Lockheed A-12 family, known as the Blackbirds, were designed by Clarence 'Kelly' Johnson. They were constructed mostly of titanium to withstand aerodynamic heating. Fueled by JP-7, the Blackbirds were capable of cruising at Mach 3.2 and attaining altitudes in excess of 80,000 feet. The first version, a CIA reconnaissance aircraft that first flew in April 1962 was called the A-12. An

  12. Women in physics in France

    SciTech Connect

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    2015-12-31

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  13. Auxiliary propulsion system flight package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company developed qualified and integrated flight, a flight test Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), on an Air Force technology satellite. The IAPS Flight Package consists of two identical Thruster Subsystems and a Diagnostic Subsystem. Each thruster subsystem (TSS) is comprised of an 8-cm ion Thruster-Gimbal-Beam Shield Unit (TGBSU); Power Electronics Unit; Digital Controller and Interface Unit (DCIU); and Propellant Tank, Valve and Feed Unit (PTVFU) plus the requisite cables. The Diagnostic Subsystem (DSS) includes four types of sensors for measuring the effect of the ion thrusters on the spacecraft and the surrounding plasma. Flight qualifications of IAPS, prior to installation on the spacecraft, consisted of performance, vibration and thermal-vacuum testing at the unit level, and thermal-vacuum testing at the subsystem level. Mutual compatibility between IAPS and the host spacecraft was demonstrated during a series of performance and environmental tests after the IAPS Flight Package was installed on the spacecraft. After a spacecraft acoustic test, performance of the ion thrusters was reverified by removing the TGBSUs for a thorough performance test at Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL). The TGBSUs were then reinstalled on the spacecraft. The IAPS Flight Package is ready for flight testing when Shuttle flights are resumed.

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) Between NASA Headquarters and MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) for NASA Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Salvadore V.; Clark-Ingram, Marceia A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a memorandum of agreement on Clean Air Regulations. NASA headquarters (code JE and code M) has asked MSFC to serve as principle center for review of Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations. The purpose of the principle center is to provide centralized support to NASA headquarters for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process and to identify the potential impact of proposed CAA reguations on NASA program hardware and supporting facilities. The materials and processes utilized in the manufacture of NASA's programmatic hardware contain HAPs (Hazardous Air Pollutants), VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds), and ODC (Ozone Depleting Chemicals). This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  15. Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  16. F-104 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    F-104G N826NA during a 1993 flight over the Mojave desert, outfitted with an experiment pylon under the center fuselage and wing racks. The F-104 was originally designed by Kelly Johnson of the Lockheed Skunk Works as a day fighter. The aircraft soon proved ideal for both research and training. For instance, a modified F-104 tested the reaction control jets for the X-15. The F-104's short wings and low lift to drag ratio made it ideal to simulate the X-15 landing profile, which the F-104s often undertook before X-15 flights in order to acquaint pilots with the rocket plane's landing characteristics. This training role continued with the lifting bodies. NASA F-104s were also used for high-speed research after the X-1E was retired. Finally, the F-104s were also used as chase planes for research missions. The F-104G was a late model designed as a fighter bomber for low-level strike missions. It was built for use by the West German Air Force and other foreign governments. N826NA accomplished a wide-range of research activities, including tests of the Space Shuttle's Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles. The aircraft made 1,415 flights before being retired. It is now on display at the Dryden Flight Research Center.

  17. Pegasus hypersonic flight research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Robert E.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.; Budd, Gerald D.

    1992-01-01

    Hypersonic aeronautics research using the Pegasus air-launched space booster is described. Two areas are discussed in the paper: previously obtained results from Pegasus flights 1 and 2, and plans for future programs. Proposed future research includes boundary-layer transition studies on the airplane-like first stage and also use of the complete Pegasus launch system to boost a research vehicle to hypersonic speeds. Pegasus flight 1 and 2 measurements were used to evaluate the results of several analytical aerodynamic design tools applied during the development of the vehicle as well as to develop hypersonic flight-test techniques. These data indicated that the aerodynamic design approach for Pegasus was adequate and showed that acceptable margins were available. Additionally, the correlations provide insight into the capabilities of these analytical tools for more complex vehicles in which design margins may be more stringent. Near-term plans to conduct hypersonic boundary-layer transition studies are discussed. These plans involve the use of a smooth metallic glove at about the mid-span of the wing. Longer-term opportunities are proposed which identify advantages of the Pegasus launch system to boost large-scale research vehicles to the real-gas hypersonic flight regime.

  18. [Measles in France].

    PubMed

    Antona, Denise; Baudon, Claire; Freymuth, François; Lamy, Mathieu; Maine, Catherine; Parent du Chatelet, Isabelle; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    From January 2008 to May 2012, over 22,000 cases of measles were reported in France. The highest incidence rate was observed in children below one year of age. Over 50% of cases were reported in young adults. Almost 5,000 patients were hospitalised including 1,023 with severe pneumonia, 27 with encephalitis and/or myelitis : 10 died. This situation is linked to insufficient and heterogeneous vaccination coverage with pockets of susceptible people allowing virus circulation. Although the vaccine coverage in children has now improved for both doses, the issue of convincing young susceptible adults to catch up for measles vaccination remains critical, if the elimination target is to be met, and in order to protect the most vulnerable population unable to benefit from this vaccination (children below 1 year, immunodeficient people, pregnant women). PMID:23171908

  19. Theoretical nitric oxide production incidental to autoignition and combustion of several fuels homogeneously dispersed in air under some typical hypersonic flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahn, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    A reaction package of 100 chemical reactions and attendant reaction rate constants defined for the autoignition and combustion of four carbonaceous fuels, CH4, CH3OH, C2H6, and C2H5OH. Definition of the package was made primarily by means of comparison between trial calculations and experimental data for the autoignition of CH4. Autoignition and combustion of each of these four fuels was calculated under three sets of conditions realistic for hypersonic flight applications, for comparison to hydrogen fuel, particularly with respect to formation of nitric oxide. Results show that, for all of the fuels including hydrogen, if NO production is a significant problem, compromise must be made between approaching equilibrium heat release and approaching equilibrium NO concentration.

  20. Weather Requirements and Procedures for Step 1: High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Flight Operations in the National Air Space (NAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This cover sheet is for version 2 of the weather requirements document along with Appendix A. The purpose of the requirements document was to identify and to list the weather functional requirements needed to achieve the Access 5 vision of "operating High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) routinely, safely, and reliably in the National Airspace System (NAS) for Step 1." A discussion of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) references and related policies, procedures, and standards is provided as basis for the recommendations supported within this document. Additional procedures and reference documentation related to weather functional requirements is also provided for background. The functional requirements and related information are to be proposed to the FAA and various standards organizations for consideration and approval. The appendix was designed to show that sources of flight weather information are readily available to UAS pilots conducting missions in the NAS. All weather information for this presentation was obtained from the public internet.

  1. Paresev 1 in Flight on Tow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Pilot with Paresev 1 (Paraglider Research Vehicle) on tow in 1962. A normal flight was a takeoff on the dry lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base and a circling flight path skirting the lake edges to insure a landing on the lakebed in the event of a towline failure. Release altitude was normally 10,000 to 13,000 feet. Data was obtained on the glide part of the flight.

  2. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  3. 14 CFR 91.167 - Fuel requirements for flight in IFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel requirements for flight in IFR... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Instrument Flight Rules § 91.167 Fuel requirements for flight in IFR conditions. (a) No person...

  4. 14 CFR 91.167 - Fuel requirements for flight in IFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel requirements for flight in IFR... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Instrument Flight Rules § 91.167 Fuel requirements for flight in IFR conditions. (a) No person...

  5. 14 CFR 91.167 - Fuel requirements for flight in IFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel requirements for flight in IFR... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Instrument Flight Rules § 91.167 Fuel requirements for flight in IFR conditions. (a) No person...

  6. SR-71 Blackbird Refueling in Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two SR-71A aircraft were loaned from the U.S. Air Force for use for high-speed, high-altitude research at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. One of them was later returned...

  7. Theory of Aircraft Flight. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glascoff, W. G., III

    The textbook provides answers to many questions related to airplanes and properties of air flight. The first chapter provides a description of aerodynamic forces and deals with concepts such as acceleration, velocity, and forces of flight. The second chapter is devoted to the discussion of properties of the atmosphere. How different…

  8. High Flight. Aerospace Activities, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Following discussions of Oklahoma aerospace history and the history of flight, interdisciplinary aerospace activities are presented. Each activity includes title, concept fostered, purpose, list of materials needed, and procedure(s). Topics include planets, the solar system, rockets, airplanes, air travel, space exploration, principles of flight,…

  9. Theory of Aircraft Flight. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, James D.

    This revised textbook, one in the Aerospace Education II series, provides answers to many questions related to airplanes and properties of air flight. The first chapter provides a description of aerodynamic forces and deals with concepts such as acceleration, velocity, and forces of flight. The second chapter is devoted to the discussion of…

  10. 14 CFR 437.71 - Flight rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.71 Flight rules. (a) Before initiating..., § 91.141, or § 91.145 of this title, unless authorized by: (1) Air Traffic Control; or (2) A Flight... the provisions of part 91 of this title specified in an experimental permit issued under this part....

  11. 14 CFR 437.71 - Flight rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.71 Flight rules. (a) Before initiating..., § 91.141, or § 91.145 of this title, unless authorized by: (1) Air Traffic Control; or (2) A Flight... the provisions of part 91 of this title specified in an experimental permit issued under this part....

  12. 14 CFR 437.71 - Flight rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.71 Flight rules. (a) Before initiating..., § 91.141, or § 91.145 of this title, unless authorized by: (1) Air Traffic Control; or (2) A Flight... the provisions of part 91 of this title specified in an experimental permit issued under this part....

  13. F-111 TACT in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The General Dynamics TACT/F-111A Aardvark is seen In a banking-turn over the California Mojave desert. This photograph affords a good view of the supercritical wing airfoil shape. Starting in 1971 the NASA Flight Research Center and the Air Force undertook a major research and flight testing program, using F-111A (#63-9778), which would span almost 20 years before completion. Intense interest over the results coming from the NASA F-8 supercritical wing program spurred NASA and the Air Force to modify the General Dynamics F-111A to explore the application of supercritical wing technology to maneuverable military aircraft. This flight program was called Transonic Aircraft Technology (TACT).

  14. F-16XL ship #1 (#849) takes off for first flight of the Digital Flight Control System (DFCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The F-16XL #1 (NASA 849) takes off for the first flight of the Digital Flight Control System (DFCS) on December 16, 1997. Like most first flight, the DFCS required months of preparations. During July 1997, crews worked on the engine, cockpit, canopy, seat, and instrumentation. By late August, the aircraft began combined systems tests and a flight readiness review. Although the Air Force Safety Review Board (AFSRB)- a group that provided double checks on all flight operations - approved the program in late November 1997, a problem with the aircraft flight computer delayed the functional check flight until mid-December.

  15. X-4 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    In the early days of transonic flight research, many aerodynamicists believed that eliminating conventional tail surfaces could reduce the problems created by shock wave interaction with the tail's lifting surfaces. To address this issue, the Army Air Forces's Air Technical Service awarded a contract to Northrop Aircraft Corporation on 5 April 1946 to build a piloted 'flying laboratory.' Northrop already had experience with tailless flying wing designs such as the N-1M, N-9M, XB-35, and YB-49. Subsequently, the manufacturer built two semi-tailless X-4 research aircraft, the first of which flew half a century ago. The X-4 was designed to investigate transonic compressibility effects at speeds near Mach 0.85 to 0.88, slightly below the speed of sound. Northrop project engineer Arthur Lusk designed the aircraft with swept wings and a conventional fuselage that housed two turbojet engines. It had a vertical stabilizer, but no horizontal tail surfaces. It was one of the smallest X-planes ever built, and every bit of internal space was used for systems and instrumentation. The first X-4 arrived at Muroc Air Force Base by truck on 15 November 1948. Over the course of several weeks, engineers conducted static tests, and Northrop test pilot Charles Tucker made initial taxi runs. Although small of stature, he barely fit into the diminutive craft. Tucker, a veteran Northrop test pilot, had previously flown the XB-35 and YB-49 flying wing bomber prototypes. Prior to flying for Northrop, he had logged 400 hours in jet airplanes as a test pilot for Lockheed and the Air Force. He would now be responsible for completing the contractor phase of the X-4 flight test program. Finally, all was ready. Tucker climbed into the cockpit, and made the first flight on 15 December 1948. It only lasted 18 minutes, allowing just enough time for the pilot to become familiar with the basic handling qualities of the craft. The X-4 handled well, but Tucker noted some longitudinal instability at all

  16. The results of cosmic radiation in-flight TEPC measurements during the CAATER flight campaign and comparison with simulation.

    PubMed

    Latocha, M; Autischer, M; Beck, P; Bottolier-Depois, J F; Rollet, S; Trompier, F

    2007-01-01

    The European-Commission-supported project DOSMAX (Dosimetry of Aircrew Exposure to Radiation During Solar Maximum) was aimed at measuring aircrew exposure to cosmic radiation on-board the aircraft during solar maximum. During a dedicated international comparison mission (Co-ordinated Access to Aircraft for Transnational Environmental Research; CAATER) different measurement techniques have been compared by six European institutes (Results of the CAATER Mission, DOSMAX Meeting, Dublin, June 2004). In this paper, we present the tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) measurements carried out by ARC Seibersdorf research (ARCS), Austria, and Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), France, together with a comparison with simulation results under the same conditions. The whole flight campaign consists of four different in-flight investigations performed at two different geographical positions at 12.2 km (FL 400) and 9.8 km (FL 320). One location was chosen above Rome (42 degrees North, 12 degrees East), Italy, for high cut-off rigidity (6.4 GV) and the second above Aalborg (57 degrees North, 10 degrees East), Denmark, for low cut-off rigidity (1.8 GV). The TEPC measurements are presented in terms of absorbed dose and ambient dose equivalent as well as microdosimetric spectra as a function of lineal energy. For the same conditions of the CAATER flights the response of the TEPC has also been simulated by using the Monte Carlo Transport Code FLUKA (version 2003). The results from simulations are compared with measurements and they show a reasonable agreement. PMID:17043055

  17. B-57B in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is a photograph of the Martin B-57 Canberra light bomber in flight. The aircraft has a bare-metal finish. The 'V' insignia is from its use in the Viking Mars Lander parachute test program. In the early 1970s, a Martin B-57B Canberra light bomber was used in several NASA joint flight test programs at the NASA Flight Research Center (now Dryden Flight Research Center) located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The early 1970s showed a growing interest in continuing atmospheric research. The B-57B was at the NASA Flight Research Center for a joint program with NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia and was having a special set of instrumentation installed. Delays in completing the instruments provided an opportunity to support the NASA space program. The B-57B was used in proof-of-concept testing of the Viking Mars landers. The deceleration drop testing part of the program took place at the Joint Parachute Test Facility, El Centro, California. With completion of the Viking parachute tests, the B-57B was flown for measuring and analysis of atmospheric turbulence research in 1974-75 as part of a joint NASA program between the Flight Research Center and Langley Research Center. Additional atmospheric testing provided samples of aerosols for the University of Wyoming and clear-air turbulence data for the Department of Transportation. The aircraft was tested over a span of many years at Edwards Air Force Base by various NASA centers for other types of research. Earlier, in the 1960s, the aircraft was flown at the Flight Research Center by the Lewis Research Center (now the John Glenn Research Center) in support of the newly established NASA Electronics Center in Boston, Massachusetts. Later, in 1982, the B-57B aircraft returned to the Flight Research Center (then the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility) for more Langley-sponsored turbulence testing. The atmospheric research conducted using the B-57B Canberra provided information on mountain waves, jet

  18. Air traffic management evaluation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar (Inventor); Sheth, Kapil S. (Inventor); Chatterji, Gano Broto (Inventor); Bilimoria, Karl D. (Inventor); Grabbe, Shon (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods for evaluating and implementing air traffic management tools and approaches for managing and avoiding an air traffic incident before the incident occurs. A first system receives parameters for flight plan configurations (e.g., initial fuel carried, flight route, flight route segments followed, flight altitude for a given flight route segment, aircraft velocity for each flight route segment, flight route ascent rate, flight route descent route, flight departure site, flight departure time, flight arrival time, flight destination site and/or alternate flight destination site), flight plan schedule, expected weather along each flight route segment, aircraft specifics, airspace (altitude) bounds for each flight route segment, navigational aids available. The invention provides flight plan routing and direct routing or wind optimal routing, using great circle navigation and spherical Earth geometry. The invention provides for aircraft dynamics effects, such as wind effects at each altitude, altitude changes, airspeed changes and aircraft turns to provide predictions of aircraft trajectory (and, optionally, aircraft fuel use). A second system provides several aviation applications using the first system. Several classes of potential incidents are analyzed and averted, by appropriate change en route of one or more parameters in the flight plan configuration, as provided by a conflict detection and resolution module and/or traffic flow management modules. These applications include conflict detection and resolution, miles-in trail or minutes-in-trail aircraft separation, flight arrival management, flight re-routing, weather prediction and analysis and interpolation of weather variables based upon sparse measurements. The invention combines these features to provide an aircraft monitoring system and an aircraft user system that interact and negotiate changes with each other.

  19. Survey of missile simulation and flight mechanics facilities in NATO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, W. M.

    1983-05-01

    This report presents the results of a Flight Mechanics Panel (FMP) sponsored survey of twenty-four (24) simulation and flight mechanics facilities in six NATO community nations: France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. The survey included government and contractor facilities and was obtained by a combination of a questionnaire mailed to each facility and a follow-up on-site visit and interview with facility managers and operational personnel.

  20. AFTI F-111 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility photograph shows a modified General Dynamics AFTI/F-111A Aardvark with supercritical mission adaptive wings (MAW) installed. The Aircraft is in a banking turn towards Rogers Dry Lake and Edwards Air Force Base, California. With the phasing out of the TACT program came a renewed effort by the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory to extend supercritical wing technology to a higher level of performance. In the early 1980s the supercritical wing on the F-111A aircraft was replaced with a wing built by Boeing Aircraft Company System called a 'mission adaptive wing' (MAW), and a joint NASA and Air Force program called Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) was born.

  1. AFTI F-111 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility photograph shows a modified General Dynamics AFTI/F-111A Aardvark with supercritical mission adaptive wings (MAW) installed. In this photograph the AFTI/F111A is seen banking towards Rodgers Dry Lake and Edwards Air Force Base. With the phasing out of the TACT program came a renewed effort by the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory to extend supercritical wing technology to a higher level of performance. In the early 1980s the supercritical wing on the F-111A aircraft was replaced with a wing built by Boeing Aircraft Company System called a 'mission adaptive wing' (MAW), and a joint NASA and Air Force program called Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) was born.

  2. Réflexions sur lʼavenir de lʼénergie nucléaire, de la France dʼaujourdʼhui au monde de demain : IIe à IVe générations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dautray, Robert; Friedel, Jacques; Bréchet, Yves

    2012-06-01

    The recent events at the Fukushima power plants (PP) have brought to light key issues which have to be discussed concerning the position of nuclear energy in the energy mix, in the context of global warming, of waning petroleum resources, of an increasing world population, and of its industrial development. These questions are addressed here from the viewpoint of physical facts; and, without proposing definite choices, this article aims to provide information on the equipment required to benefit from the fission chain reaction, while explaining the possible incidents and accidents, and the possible hidden military misuse of nuclear matter. Specific issues, such as risk assessment and risk management, will be considered, under the constraints of dealing with international non-proliferation safeguards and France energy resources independence. A special emphasis will be given on the fuel cycle, on the variety of time scales involved, and on the requirements of developing the next generation of nuclear power plants, and more specifically the fast breeder option. The lessons to be drawn from the Fukushima accident, resulting mainly from the residual power of used fuel and the loss of cooling source, are outlined, and the consequences to be drawn about the various relevant time scales are emphasized.

  3. Daedalus - Last Dryden flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Daedalus 88, with Glenn Tremml piloting, is seen here on its last flight for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  4. 14 CFR 91.153 - VFR flight plan: Information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false VFR flight plan: Information required. 91.153 Section 91.153 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules...

  5. 14 CFR 91.1029 - Flight scheduling and locating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight scheduling and locating requirements... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1029 Flight scheduling and locating requirements. (a)...

  6. 14 CFR 91.1029 - Flight scheduling and locating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight scheduling and locating requirements... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1029 Flight scheduling and locating requirements. (a)...

  7. 14 CFR 91.1029 - Flight scheduling and locating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight scheduling and locating requirements... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1029 Flight scheduling and locating requirements. (a)...

  8. 14 CFR 91.1029 - Flight scheduling and locating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight scheduling and locating requirements... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1029 Flight scheduling and locating requirements. (a)...

  9. 14 CFR 91.515 - Flight altitude rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight altitude rules. 91.515 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.515 Flight altitude rules....

  10. 14 CFR 91.529 - Flight engineer requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineer requirements. 91.529... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.529 Flight...

  11. 14 CFR 91.533 - Flight attendant requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight attendant requirements. 91.533... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.533 Flight...

  12. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any...

  13. Lifting Body Flight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1998-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

  14. Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project Full Scale Flight Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Provide validation of adaptive control law concepts through full scale flight evaluation. Technical Approach: a) Engage failure mode - destabilizing or frozen surface. b) Perform formation flight and air-to-air tracking tasks. Evaluate adaptive algorithm: a) Stability metrics. b) Model following metrics. Full scale flight testing provides an ability to validate different adaptive flight control approaches. Full scale flight testing adds credence to NASA's research efforts. A sustained research effort is required to remove the road blocks and provide adaptive control as a viable design solution for increased aircraft resilience.

  15. Poor flight performance in deep-diving cormorants.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Takahashi, Akinori; Sato, Katsufumi; Viviant, Morgane; Bost, Charles-André

    2011-02-01

    Aerial flight and breath-hold diving present conflicting morphological and physiological demands, and hence diving seabirds capable of flight are expected to face evolutionary trade-offs regarding locomotory performances. We tested whether Kerguelen shags Phalacrocorax verrucosus, which are remarkable divers, have poor flight capability using newly developed tags that recorded their flight air speed (the first direct measurement for wild birds) with propeller sensors, flight duration, GPS position and depth during foraging trips. Flight air speed (mean 12.7 m s(-1)) was close to the speed that minimizes power requirement, rather than energy expenditure per distance, when existing aerodynamic models were applied. Flights were short (mean 92 s), with a mean summed duration of only 24 min day(-1). Shags sometimes stayed at the sea surface without diving between flights, even on the way back to the colony, and surface durations increased with the preceding flight durations; these observations suggest that shags rested after flights. Our results indicate that their flight performance is physiologically limited, presumably compromised by their great diving capability (max. depth 94 m, duration 306 s) through their morphological adaptations for diving, including large body mass (enabling a large oxygen store), small flight muscles (to allow for large leg muscles for underwater propulsion) and short wings (to decrease air volume in the feathers and hence buoyancy). The compromise between flight and diving, as well as the local bathymetry, shape the three-dimensional foraging range (<26 km horizontally, <94 m vertically) in this bottom-feeding cormorant. PMID:21228200

  16. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginn, Starr Renee

    2015-01-01

    Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project, sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.

  17. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginn, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Description of current ARMD projects; Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project (new ARMD reorg), sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.

  18. The NASA Sharp Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasky, Daniel J.; Salute, Joan; Kolodziej, Paul; Bull, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    The Slender Hypersonic Aerothermodynamic Research Program (SHARP) was initiated by NASA Ames, and executed in partnership with Sandia National Laboratory and the US Air Force, to demonstrate sharp, passive leading edge designs for hypersonic vehicles, incorporating new ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC's). These new ceramic composites have been undergoing development, characterization and ground testing at NASA Ames for the last nine years. This paper will describe the background, flight objectives, design and pertinent flight results of SHARP, and some of the potential implications for future hypersonic vehicle designs.

  19. Re-Examination of Mixed Media Communication: The Impact of Voice, Data Link, and Mixed Air Traffic Control Environments on the Flight Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Melisa; McGann, Alison; Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne; Lozito, Sandra; Ashford, Rose (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A simulation in the B747-400 was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center that compared how crews handled voice and data link air traffic control (ATC) messages in a single medium versus a mixed voice and data link ATC environment The interval between ATC messages was also varied to examine the influence of time pressure in voice, data link, and mixed ATC environments. For messages sent via voice, transaction times were lengthened in the mixed media environment for closely spaced messages. The type of environment did not affect data link times. However, messages times were lengthened in both single and mixed-modality environments under time pressure. Closely spaced messages also increased the number of requests for clarification for voice messages in the mixed environment and review menu use for data link messages. Results indicated that when time pressure is introduced, the mix of voice and data link does not necessarily capitalize on the advantages of both media. These findings emphasize the need to develop procedures for managing communication in mixed voice and data link environments.

  20. An estimation of the 18O / 16O ratio of UT/LMS ozone based on artefact CO in air sampled during CARIBIC flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, S.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2015-02-01

    An issue of O3-driven artefact production of O3 in the upper troposphere/lowermost stratosphere (UT/LMS) air analysed in the CARIBIC-1 project is being discussed. By confronting the CO mixing and isotope ratios obtained from different analytical instrumentation, we (i) reject natural/artificial sampling and mixing effects as possible culprits of the problem, (ii) ascertain the chemical nature and quantify the strength of the contamination, and (iii) demonstrate successful application of the isotope mass-balance calculations for inferring the isotope composition of the contamination source. The δ18O values of the latter indicate that the oxygen is very likely being inherited from O3. The δ13C values hint at reactions of trace amounts of organics with stratospheric O3 that could have yielded the artificial CO. While the exact contamination mechanism is not known, it is clear that the issue pertains only to the earlier (first) phase of the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) project. Finally, estimated UT/LMS ozone δ18O values are lower than those observed in the stratosphere within the same temperature range, suggesting that higher pressures (240-270 hPa) imply lower isotope fractionation controlling the local δ18O(O3) value.

  1. X-31 #2 in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The second X-31 (Bu. No. 164585) Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) aircraft flies over Edwards Air Force Base, California. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air

  2. 14 CFR 398.7 - Timing of flights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Timing of flights. 398.7 Section 398.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.7 Timing of flights. To qualify as essential air...

  3. Propulsion Flight-Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Nate; Vachon, M. Jake; Richwine, Dave; Moes, Tim; Creech, Gray

    2003-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center s new Propulsion Flight Test Fixture (PFTF), designed in house, is an airborne engine-testing facility that enables engineers to gather flight data on small experimental engines. Without the PFTF, it would be necessary to obtain such data from traditional wind tunnels, ground test stands, or laboratory test rigs. Traditionally, flight testing is reserved for the last phase of engine development. Generally, engines that embody new propulsion concepts are not put into flight environments until their designs are mature: in such cases, either vehicles are designed around the engines or else the engines are mounted in or on missiles. However, a captive carry capability of the PFTF makes it possible to test engines that feature air-breathing designs (for example, designs based on the rocket-based combined cycle) economically in subscale experiments. The discovery of unknowns made evident through flight tests provides valuable information to engine designers early in development, before key design decisions are made, thereby potentially affording large benefits in the long term. This is especially true in the transonic region of flight (from mach 0.9 to around 1.2), where it can be difficult to obtain data from wind tunnels and computational fluid dynamics. In January 2002, flight-envelope expansion to verify the design and capabilities of the PFTF was completed. The PFTF was flown on a specially equipped supersonic F-15B research testbed airplane, mounted on the airplane at a center-line attachment fixture, as shown in Figure 1. NASA s F-15B testbed has been used for several years as a flight-research platform. Equipped with extensive research air-data, video, and other instrumentation systems, the airplane carries externally mounted test articles. Traditionally, the majority of test articles flown have been mounted at the centerline tank-attachment fixture, which is a hard-point (essentially, a standardized weapon-mounting fixture

  4. 14 CFR 135.340 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors (simulator). 135.340 Section 135.340 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR...

  5. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS...

  6. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices. 125.297 Section 125.297 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND...

  7. 14 CFR 135.338 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). 135.338 Section 135.338 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS...

  8. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). 121.414 Section 121.414 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR...

  9. 14 CFR 91.1095 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors (simulator). 91.1095 Section 91.1095 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING...

  10. Beginning of viniculture in France.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Patrick E; Luley, Benjamin P; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P; Smith, Karen E; Hall, Gretchen R; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M

    2013-06-18

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport. PMID:23733937

  11. Beginning of viniculture in France

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500–475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425–400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport. PMID:23733937

  12. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  13. Advanced Command Destruct System (ACDS) Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tow, David K.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides information on the development, integration, and operational usage of the Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Air Force Flight Test Center. The presentation will describe the efforts completed to certify the system and acquire approval for operational usage, the efforts to integrate the system into the NASA Dryden existing flight termination infrastructure, and the operational support of aircraft with EFTS at Edwards AFB.

  14. [The relationship between fatigue and the specific features of a flight shift of civil aviation flight crew].

    PubMed

    Rodionov, O N

    2010-01-01

    The paper considers the development of fatigue in civil pilots in relation to the specific features of a flight shift, the duration of a flight, the size of a crew size, and the number of night flight hours. The flight lasting 28 consecutive days negatively affects the pilot's working capacity, with flight hours exceeding 90 hours, due to accumulated fatigue. At the stages "before landing" and "after landing", the degree of fatigue in aircraft commanders depends on the duration of a flight shift, peaking with the flights lasting more than 10-13 working hours. Inclusion of additional crewmen during flight shifts of more than 12 hours results in a reduction in the degree of fatigue in aircraft commanders. Night air departure and arrival are most unfavorable according to the degree of fatigue in aircraft commanders, i.e. the length of night time during flights, they are followed by a night air departure and daylight air arrival; a daylight air departure and night arrival rank third. Flights with daylight departure and daylight arrival are least of all exhausting. A night air arrival is characterized by the greatest degrees of integral fatigue at the stages "before landing" and "after landing", these are little associated with the duration of a flight shift. The existing provision, that such flights may be made thrice in succession, carries a risk for chronic fatigue. It is proposed to permit not more two flight shifts in succession during night air arrival. It is shown that it is necessary to take into account the factor of possible fatigue development on developing the regulation of flight shifts. PMID:20373715

  15. Human tolerance to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntoon, C. L.

    1989-01-01

    Medical studies of astronauts and cosmonauts before, during, and after space missions have identified several effects of weightlessness and other factors that influence the ability of humans to tolerate space flight. Weightlessness effects include space motion sickness, cardiovascular abnormalities, reduction in immune system function, loss of red blood cells, loss of bone mass, and muscle atrophy. Extravehicular activity (EVA) increases the likelihood that decompression sickness may occur. Radiation also gives reason for concern about health of crewmembers, and psychological factors are important on long-term flights. Countermeasures that have been used include sensory preadaptation, prebreathing and use of various air mixtures for EVA, loading with water and electrolytes, exercise, use of pharmacological agents and special diets, and psychological support. It appears that humans can tolerate and recover satisfactorily from at least one year of space flight, but a number of conditions must be further ameliorated before long-duration missions can be considered routine.

  16. Readiness for First Crewed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaible, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to develop a generic framework for evaluating whether any given program has sufficiently complete and balanced plans in place to allow crewmembers to fly safely on a human spaceflight system for the first time (i.e., first crewed flight). The NESC assembled a small team which included experts with experience developing robotic and human spaceflight and aviation systems through first crewed test flight and into operational capability. The NESC team conducted a historical review of the steps leading up to the first crewed flights of Mercury through the Space Shuttle. Benchmarking was also conducted with the United States (U.S.) Air Force and U.S. Navy. This report contains documentation of that review.

  17. X-31 flight test update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, AL; Knox, Fred; Smith, Rogers; Wisneski, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The goals of the tactical utility flight test are to verify the basic tactical lessons learned in simulation and determine the situational awareness implications of post-stall maneuvering. Tactics and lessons learned from post-stall engagements will supplement current fighter tactics and complement future fighter tactics development. Although the present envelope of the X-31 for carefree post stall (PST) use is limited to 225 KIAS versus 325 KIAS in simulations, the same initial conditions used in 'Pinball II' are being utilized in flight test. Starting conditions up to 325 KIAS are being flown during the build-up phase leading to the full close in air combat (CIC) evaluations. The flight control program has been modified to limit PST entry to below 225 KIAS. Full aft stick application above 225 KIAS cannot command angle of attack (AOA) in excess of 30 deg.

  18. Multi-man flight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, G.

    1983-01-01

    A prototype Air Traffic Control facility and multiman flight simulator facility was designed and one of the component simulators fabricated as a proof of concept. The facility was designed to provide a number of independent simple simulator cabs that would have the capability of some local, stand alone processing that would in turn interface with a larger host computer. The system can accommodate up to eight flight simulators (commercially available instrument trainers) which could be operated stand alone if no graphics were required or could operate in a common simulated airspace if connected to the host computer. A proposed addition to the original design is the capability of inputing pilot inputs and quantities displayed on the flight and navigation instruments to the microcomputer when the simulator operates in the stand alone mode to allow independent use of these commercially available instrument trainers for research. The conceptual design of the system and progress made to date on its implementation are described.

  19. Pathfinder Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long- duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar- powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  20. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  1. X-1 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-1 (#46-062) in flight. The shock wave pattern in the exhaust plume is visible. The X-1 series aircraft were air-launched from a modified Boeing B-29 or a B-50 Superfortress bombers. The X-1-1 was painted a bright orange by Bell Aircraft. It was thought that the aircraft would be more visable to those doing the tracking during a flight. When NACA received the airplanes they were painted white, which was an easier color to find in the skies over Muroc Air Field in California. This particular craft was nicknamed 'Glamorous Glennis' by Chuck Yeager in honor of his wife, and is now on permanent display in the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all

  2. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  3. Hypersonic Flight Vehicle X-43C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An artist's rendering of air-breathing, hypersonic X-43C, part of NASA's Hyper-X series of flight demonstrator. Now in development, the X-43C is expected to accelerate to a maximum potential speed of about 5,000 mph, and could undergo flight testing as early as the year 2008. Revolutionizing the way we gain access to space is NASA's primary goal for the Hypersonic Investment Area, managed for NASA by the Advanced Space Transportation Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The Hypersonic Investment area, which includes leading-edge partners in industry and academia, will support future generation reusable vehicles and improved access to space. These technology demonstrators, intended for flight testing by decade's end, are expected to yield a new generation of vehicles that routinely fly about 100,000 feet above Earth's surface and reach sustained speeds in excess of March 5 (3,750 mph), the point at which 'supersonic' flight becomes 'hypersonic' flight. The flight demonstrators, the Hyper-X series, will be powered by air-breathing rocket or turbine-based engines, and ram/scramjets. Air-breathing engines, known as combined-cycle systems, achieve their efficiency gains over rocket systems by getting their oxygen for combustion from the atmosphere, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its oxygen. Once a hypersonic vehicle has accelerated to more than twice the speed of sound, the turbine or rockets are turned off, and the engine relies solely on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn fuel. When the vehicle has accelerated to more than 10 to 15 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  4. YF-22 in flight (US AF photo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The YF-22, prototype aircraft for the Air Force's F-22 fighter, cruises over the desert on a flight for the Air Force. It was never involved in any programs with Dryden. The United States Air Force announced the demonstration/validation phase contractors selection for the Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) program October 31, 1986. These contractor programs were the Lockheed YF-22 and the Northrop YF-23; each produced two prototypes and ground-based avionics testbeds. First flights of all four prototypes occured in 1990. The YF-22 was first flown on Sept. 29, 1990. The YF-22 was powered by two General Electric YF120-GE-100 engines. The final design, the F-22, was flown sometime in May 1997. The F-22 is capable of efficient supersonic operation without afterburner use (supercruise). Lockheed teamed with General Dynamics (Fort Worth) and Boeing Military Airplanes to produce two YF-22 prototypes, civil registrations N22YF (with GE YF120) and N22YX (P&W YF119). N22YF rolled out at Palmdale August 29, 1990; first flight/ferry to Edwards AFB September 29, 1990; first air refuelling (11th sortie) October 26, 1990; thrust vectoring in flight November 15, 1990; achieved Mach 1.8 December 26, 1990. Flight test demonstrations included `supercruise' flight in excess of Mach 1.58 without afterburner.

  5. F-18 SRA during flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This bright blue-and-white twin-jet aircraft may look like an ordinary F/A-18 Hornet fighter, but inside its a different bird. Currently being flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in a multi-year, joint NASA/DOD/industry program, the former Navy fighter has been modified into a unique Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) to investigate a host of new technologies in the areas of flight controls, airdata sensing and advanced computing. One of the more than 20 experiments being tested aboard the SRA F-18 is an advanced air data sensing system which uses a group of pressure taps flush-mounted on the forward fuselage to measure both altitude and wind speed and direction--critical data for flight control and research investigations. The Real-Time Flush Air Data Sensing system concept is being evaluated for possible use on the X-33 resuable space-launch vehicle. The primary goal of the SRA program is to validate through flight research cutting-edge technologies which could benefit future aircraft and spacecraft by improving efficiency and performance, reducing weight and complexity, with a resultant reduction on development and operational costs.

  6. NASA's Flight Opportunities Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Flight Opportunities Program is facilitating low-cost access to suborbital space, where researchers can test technologies using commercially developed vehicles. Suborbital flights can quickl...

  7. Enterococcus cecorum human infection, France.

    PubMed

    Delaunay, E; Abat, C; Rolain, J-M

    2015-09-01

    Enterococcus cecorum is a bacterium of the intestinal tract of many domestic animals that is rarely reported as human pathogen. Here we report the first case of incisional hernia plate infection and the first case of urinary tract colonization due to E. cecorum from patients in Marseille, France. PMID:26199733

  8. F-16 AFTI in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This 27-second movie clip shows the F-16 Advanced Fighter Technology Integration aircraft in formation flight with another F-16. Note the lower forward-mounted canards just behind the engine intake, which in a dogfight, would be used for 'selective fuselage pointing' to quickly acquire and target the opponent. The AFTI (Advanced Fighter Technology Integration) /F-16 program has been a joint NASA/USAF effort evaluating advanced digital flight controls, automated maneuvering, voice-activated controls, sensors, and close-air support attack systems on a modified F-16. Research and test results could be applied to existing or future aircraft. Originally conceived as a program to explore flight control technology as well as various maneuvering concepts, this program has flown at Edwards Air Force Base continuously from 1982 through the late 1990s (as of this writing). This flight research aircraft was one of the original six F-16A airplanes that since has been modified extensively and repeatedly to study the feasibility of advanced technologies. For instance, it has demonstrated the operational value of voice command and automated ground collision avoidance systems, an automated maneuvering system for all aspects of air and ground combat, an automated threat avoidance and terrain following system, and a night vision helmet with a dual forward-looking infrared capability that was pointed by movement of the pilot's head. All of these systems served to reduce the pilot's workload in the demanding and dangerous role of close-air support. These systems would help ensure that a pilot was more effective in his first pass over a low-level target in a battle area. One of the most important technology spinoffs from the AFTI program has been the incorporation of an Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS) on all commercial airliner traffic. This system has been accepted industry, as well as world-wide, and is currently being installed on all commercial aircraft.

  9. X-43C Flight Demonstrator Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    The X-43C Flight Demonstrator Project is a joint NASA-USAF hypersonic propulsion technology flight demonstration project that will expand the hypersonic flight envelope for air-breathing engines. The Project will demonstrate sustained accelerating flight through three flights of expendable X-43C Demonstrator Vehicles (DVs). The approximately 16-foot long X-43C DV will be boosted to the starting test conditions, separate from the booster, and accelerate from Mach 5 to Mach 7 under its own power and autonomous control. The DVs will be powered by a liquid hydrocarbon-fueled, fuel-cooled, dual-mode, airframe integrated scramjet engine system developed under the USAF HyTech Program. The Project is managed by NASA Langley Research Center as part of NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program. Flight tests will be conducted by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center off the coast of California over water in the Pacific Test Range. The NASA/USAF/industry project is a natural extension of the Hyper-X Program (X-43A), which will demonstrate short duration (approximately 10 seconds) gaseous hydrogen-fueled scramjet powered flight at Mach 7 and Mach 10 using a heavy-weight, largely heat sink construction, experimental engine. The X-43C Project will demonstrate sustained accelerating flight from Mach 5 to Mach 7 (approximately 4 minutes) using a flight-weight, fuel-cooled, scramjet engine powered by much denser liquid hydrocarbon fuel. The X-43C DV design flows from integrating USAF HyTech developed engine technologies with a NASA Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle accelerator-class configuration and Hyper-X heritage vehicle systems designs. This paper describes the X-43C Project and provides the background for NASA's current hypersonic flight demonstration efforts.

  10. Atmospheric reentry flight test of winged space vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatani, Yoshifumi; Akiba, Ryojiro; Hinada, Motoki; Nagatomo, Makoto

    A summary of the atmospheric reentry flight experiment of winged space vehicle is presented. The test was conducted and carried out by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Feb. 1992 in Kagoshima Space Center. It is the first Japanese atmospheric reentry flight of the controlled lifting vehicle. A prime objective of the flight is to demonstrate a high speed atmospheric entry flight capability and high-angle-of-attack flight capability in terms of aerodynamics, flight dynamics and flight control of these kind of vehicles. The launch of the winged vehicle was made by balloon and solid propellant rocket booster which was also the first trial in Japan. The vehicle accomplishes the lfight from space-equivalent condition to the atmospheric flight condition where reaction control system (RCS) attitude stabilization and aerodynamic control was used, respectively. In the flight, the vehicle's attitude was measured by both an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and an air data sensor (ADS) which were employed into an auto-pilot flight control loop. After completion of the entry transient flight, the vehicle experienced unexpected instability during the atmospheric decelerating flight; however, it recovered the attitude orientation and completed the transonic flight after that. The latest analysis shows that it is due to the ADS measurement error and the flight control gain scheduling; what happened was all understood. Some details of the test and the brief summary of the current status of the post flight analysis are presented.

  11. Future Flight Central

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA 'Future Flight Central,' the world's first full-scale virtual airport control tower, opened December 13, 1999 at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Constructed at a cost of $10 million, the two story facility was jointly funded by NASA and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The facility is designed to test ways to solve potential air and ground traffic problems at commercial airports under realistic airport conditions and configurations. The facility provides an opportunity for airlines and airports to mitigate passenger delays by fine tuning airport hub operations, gate management, ramp movement procedures, and various other airport improvements. Twelve rear projection screens provide a seamless 360 degree high- resolution view of the airport or other screens being depicted. The imaging system, powered by supercomputers, provides a realistic view of weather conditions, enviromental and seasonal effects and the movement of up to 200 active aircraft and ground vehicles.

  12. Cibola flight experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, D.; Caffrey, M. P.

    2004-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is building the Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE), a reconfigurable processor payload intended for a Low Earth Orbit system. It will survey portions of the VHF and UHF radio spectra. The experiment uses networks of reprogrammable, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to process the received signals for ionospheric and lightning studies. The objective is to validate the on-orbit use of commercial, reconfigurable FPGA technology utilizing several different single-event upset mitigation schemes. It will also detect and measure impulsive events that occur in a complex background. Surrey Satellite Technology, Ltd (SSTL) is building the small host satellite, CFESat, based upon SSTL's disaster monitoring constellation (DMC) and Topsat mission satellite designs. The CFESat satellite will be launched by the Space Test Program in September 2006 on the US Air Force Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) using the EELV's Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) that allows up to six small satellites to be launched as 'piggyback' passengers with larger spacecraft.

  13. 14 CFR 91.173 - ATC clearance and flight plan required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ATC clearance and flight plan required. 91.173 Section 91.173 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Instrument Flight Rules § 91.173 ATC...

  14. 14 CFR 91.1062 - Duty periods and rest requirements: Flight attendants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... program manager may apply the flight crewmember flight time and duty limitations and rest requirements of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duty periods and rest requirements: Flight... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES...

  15. 14 CFR 91.1062 - Duty periods and rest requirements: Flight attendants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... program manager may apply the flight crewmember flight time and duty limitations and rest requirements of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duty periods and rest requirements: Flight... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES...

  16. 14 CFR 91.1062 - Duty periods and rest requirements: Flight attendants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... program manager may apply the flight crewmember flight time and duty limitations and rest requirements of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duty periods and rest requirements: Flight... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES...

  17. 14 CFR Table C to Part 117 - Flight Duty Period: Augmented Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...—Flight Duty Period: Augmented Operations Scheduled time of start (acclimated time) Maximum flight duty... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight Duty Period: Augmented Operations C... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS FLIGHT AND...

  18. 14 CFR 91.1062 - Duty periods and rest requirements: Flight attendants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... program manager may apply the flight crewmember flight time and duty limitations and rest requirements of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duty periods and rest requirements: Flight... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES...

  19. Flight Test Series 3: Flight Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Mike; Sternberg, Daniel; Valkov, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    This document is a flight test report from the Operational perspective for Flight Test Series 3, a subpart of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. Flight Test Series 3 testing began on June 15, 2015, and concluded on August 12, 2015. Participants included NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Langley Research center, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., and Honeywell. Key stakeholders analyzed their System Under Test (SUT) in two distinct configurations. Configuration 1, known as Pairwise Encounters, was subdivided into two parts: 1a, involving a low-speed UAS ownship and intruder(s), and 1b, involving a high-speed surrogate ownship and intruder. Configuration 2, known as Full Mission, involved a surrogate ownship, live intruder(s), and integrated virtual traffic. Table 1 is a summary of flights for each configuration, with data collection flights highlighted in green. Section 2 and 3 of this report give an in-depth description of the flight test period, aircraft involved, flight crew, and mission team. Overall, Flight Test 3 gathered excellent data for each SUT. We attribute this successful outcome in large part from the experience that was acquired from the ACAS Xu SS flight test flown in December 2014. Configuration 1 was a tremendous success, thanks to the training, member participation, integration/testing, and in-depth analysis of the flight points. Although Configuration 2 flights were cancelled after 3 data collection flights due to various problems, the lessons learned from this will help the UAS in the NAS project move forward successfully in future flight phases.

  20. Hypersonic Flight Vehicle X-43B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An artist's rendering of the air-breathing, hypersonic X-43B, the third and largest of NASA's Hyper-X series flight demonstrators, which could fly later this decade. Revolutionizing the way we gain access to space is NASA's primary goal for the Hypersonic Investment Area, managed for NASA by the Advanced Space Transportation Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The Hypersonic Investment area, which includes leading-edge partners in industry and academia, will support future generation reusable vehicles and improved access to space. These technology demonstrators, intended for flight testing by decade's end, are expected to yield a new generation of vehicles that routinely fly about 100,000 feet above Earth's surface and reach sustained speeds in excess of Mach 5 (3,750 mph), the point at which 'supersonic' flight becomes 'hypersonic' flight. The flight demonstrators, the Hyper-X series, will be powered by air-breathing rocket or turbine-based engines, and ram/scramjets. Air-breathing engines, known as combined-cycle systems, achieve their efficiency gains over rocket systems by getting their oxygen for combustion from the atmosphere, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its oxygen. Once a hypersonic vehicle has accelerated to more than twice the speed of sound, the turbine or rockets are turned off, and the engine relies solely on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn fuel. When the vehicle has accelerated to more than 10 to 15 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators includes three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  1. Aurora Flight Sciences' Perseus B Remotely Piloted Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the aircraft but no property damage, fire, or injuries in the area of the crash. Perseus B is flown remotely by a pilot

  2. Definition of the 2005 flight deck environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, K. W.; Regal, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed description of the functional requirements necessary to complete any normal commercial flight or to handle any plausible abnormal situation is provided. This analysis is enhanced with an examination of possible future developments and constraints in the areas of air traffic organization and flight deck technologies (including new devices and procedures) which may influence the design of 2005 flight decks. This study includes a discussion on the importance of a systematic approach to identifying and solving flight deck information management issues, and a description of how the present work can be utilized as part of this approach. While the intent of this study was to investigate issues surrounding information management in 2005-era supersonic commercial transports, this document may be applicable to any research endeavor related to future flight deck system design in either supersonic or subsonic airplane development.

  3. Honeybee flight: a novel 'streamlining' response.

    PubMed

    Luu, Tien; Cheung, Allen; Ball, David; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2011-07-01

    Animals that move rapidly through the air can save considerable energy by reducing the drag that they need to overcome during flight. We describe a novel 'streamlining' response in tethered, flying honeybees in which the abdomen is held in a raised position when the visual system is exposed to a pattern of image motion that is characteristic of forward flight. This visually evoked response, which can be elicited without exposing the insect to any airflow, presumably serves to reduce the aerodynamic drag that would otherwise be produced by the abdomen during real flight. The response is critically dependent on the presence of appropriate image motion everywhere within the large field of view of the insect. Thus, our results also underscore the importance of using panoramic stimulation for the study of visually guided flight in insects, and reveal the relative importance of various regions of the visual field in assessing the speed of flight through the environment. PMID:21653815

  4. L(sub 1) Adaptive Flight Control System: Flight Evaluation and Technology Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xargay, Enric; Hovakimyan, Naira; Dobrokhodov, Vladimir; Kaminer, Isaac; Gregory, Irene M.; Cao, Chengyu

    2010-01-01

    Certification of adaptive control technologies for both manned and unmanned aircraft represent a major challenge for current Verification and Validation techniques. A (missing) key step towards flight certification of adaptive flight control systems is the definition and development of analysis tools and methods to support Verification and Validation for nonlinear systems, similar to the procedures currently used for linear systems. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate the advantages of L(sub l) adaptive control architectures for closing some of the gaps in certification of adaptive flight control systems, which may facilitate the transition of adaptive control into military and commercial aerospace applications. As illustrative examples, we present the results of a piloted simulation evaluation on the NASA AirSTAR flight test vehicle, and results of an extensive flight test program conducted by the Naval Postgraduate School to demonstrate the advantages of L(sub l) adaptive control as a verifiable robust adaptive flight control system.

  5. X-38 - First Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In a scene reminiscent of the lifting body research flights conducted more than 30 years earlier, this photo shows a close-up view of NASA's B-52 mothership as it lifts off carrying a new generation of lifting body research vehicle--the X-38. The X-38 was designed to help develop an emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the

  6. X-38 - First Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Reminiscent of the lifting body research flights conducted more than 30 years earlier, NASA's B-52 mothership lifts off carrying a new generation of lifting body research vehicle--the X-38. The X-38 was designed to help develop an emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also

  7. Paresev 1-B in Tow Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    The Paresev experimental aircraft. A normal flight was a takeoff on the Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base and a circling flight path skirting the lake edges to insure a landing on the lakebed in the event of a towline failure. Release altitude was normally 10,000 to 13,000 feet. Data was obtained on the glide part of the flight. By maintaining simplicity during construction, it was possible to make control and configuration changes overnight and in many instances, in minutes.

  8. HIFiRE-5 Flight Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, Roger L.; Adamczak, David; Berger, Karen; Choudhari, Meelan

    2010-01-01

    The Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) program is a hypersonic flight test program executed by the Air Force Research Laboratories (AFRL) and Australian Defence Science and Technology Organization (DSTO). HIFiRE flight 5 is devoted to measuring transition on a three-dimensional body. This paper summarizes payload configuration, trajectory, vehicle stability limits and roughness tolerances. Results show that the proposed configuration is suitable for testing transition on a three-dimensional body. Transition is predicted to occur within the test window, and a design has been developed that will allow the vehicle to be manufactured within prescribed roughness tolerances

  9. "Franklin: Science, Politics and France"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, James E., III

    2003-04-01

    This presentation traces Benjamin Franklin's career as a "civic scientist" in Old-Regime France. It outlines the initial - and not always positive - reception of Franklin's work on electricity by the community of French scientists in the 1750s. It sketches Franklin's subsequent elevation into the pantheon of French Enlightenment heros, and it details his work as a "civic scientist" while American envoy to France in the 1770s and 1780s, notably his service on the government-sponsored commissions that repudiated the scientific and medical claims of Franz Anton Mesmer. This presentation concludes by examining a few features of Franklin's career that are not completely congruent with our notion of what a "civic scientist" might be, a contrast that is intended to illuminate both Franklin and the concept of "civic scientist."

  10. Cardiac remote monitoring in France.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Nicolas; Perrotton, Fanny; Delage, Emilie; Gourraud, Jean-Baptiste; Lande, Gilles; Solnon, Aude; Probst, Vincent; Grimandi, Gael; Clouet, Johann

    2014-04-01

    The increase in number of implanted cardiac medical devices and the announced decrease in number of cardiologists have led to remote monitoring being considered as a pivotal tool for patient follow-up. For 10 years, remote monitoring has been the subject of multiple clinical studies. In these studies, reliability and clinical efficacy have been demonstrated, but the use of remote monitoring remains quite limited in France compared with other countries. To explain this delay in uptake, some organizational difficulties and the lack of reimbursement of remote monitoring are often mentioned. The results of medico-economic studies might provide answers about the value of remote monitoring and enable the supervisory authorities to define how its use will be financed. This review provides a global view of remote monitoring in France, and covers the principle, clinical efficacy, organizational and regulatory aspects, and medico-economic data. PMID:24709285

  11. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a) In any operation in which one flight engineer or flight navigator is required, the flight...

  12. History of infrared optronics in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouilloy, J. P.; Siriex, Michel B.

    1995-09-01

    In France, the real start of work on the applications of infrared radiations occurred around 1947 - 1948. During many years, technological research was performed in the field of detectors, optical material, modulation techniques, and a lot of measurements were made in order to acquire a better knowledge of the propagation medium and radiation of IR sources, namely those of jet engines. The birth of industrial infrared activities in France started with the Franco-German missile guidance programs: Milan, HOT, Roland and the French air to air missile seeker programs: R530, MAGIC. At these early stages of IR technologies development, it was a great technical adventure for both the governmental agencies and industry to develop: detector technology with PbS and InSb, detector cooling for 3 - 5 micrometer wavelength range, optical material transparent in the infrared, opto mechanical design, signal processing and related electronic technologies. Etablissement Jean Turck and SAT were the pioneers associated with Aerospatiale, Matra and under contracts from the French Ministry of Defence (DGA). In the 60s, the need arose to enhance night vision capability of equipment in service with the French Army. TRT was chosen by DGA to develop the first thermal imagers: LUTHER 1, 2, and 3 with an increasing number of detectors and image frequency rate. This period was also the era in which the SAT detector made rapid advance. After basic work done in the CNRS and with the support of DGA, SAT became the world leader of MCT photovoltaic detector working in the 8 to 12 micron waveband. From 1979, TRT and SAT were given the responsibility for the joint development and production of the first generation French thermal imaging modular system so-called SMT. Now, THOMSON TTD Optronique takes over the opto-electronics activities of TRT. Laser based systems were also studied for military application using YAG type laser and CO2 laser: Laboratoire de Marcousis, CILAS, THOMSON CSF and SAT have

  13. JetStar in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This 18-second movie clip shows the NASA Dryden Lockheed C-140 JetStar in flight with its pylon-mounted air-turbine-drive system used to gather information on the acoustic characteristics of subscale advanced design propellers. Data was gathered through 28 flush-mounted microphones on the skin of the aircraft. From 1976 to 1987 the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio -- today known as the Glenn Research Center -- engaged in research and development of an advanced turboprop concept in partnership with Hamilton Standard, Windsor Locks, Connecticut, the largest manufacturer of propellers in the United States. The Advanced Turboprop Project took its impetus from the energy crisis of the early 1970's and sought to produce swept propeller blades that would increase efficiency and reduce noise. As the project progressed, Pratt & Whitney, Allison Gas Turbine Division of General Motors, General Electric, Gulfstream, Rohr Industries, Boeing, Lockheed, and McDonnell Douglas, among others, also took part. NASA Lewis did the much of the ground research and marshaled the resources of these and other members of the aeronautical community. The team came to include the NASA Ames Research Center, Langley Research Center, and the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (before and after that time, the Dryden Flight Research Center). Together, they brought the propeller to the flight research stage, and the team that worked on the project won the coveted Collier Trophy for its efforts in 1987. To test the acoustics of the propeller the team developed, it mounted propeller models on a C-140 JetStar aircraft fuselage at NASA Dryden. The JetStar was modified with the installation of an air-turbine-drive system. The drive motor, with a test propeller, was mounted on a pylon atop the JetStar. The JetStar was equipped with an array of 28 microphones flush-mounted in the fuselage of the aircraft beneath the propeller. Microphones mounted on the wings and on an accompanying Learjet chase

  14. Development of a Free-Flight Simulation Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Eric S.; Wing, David J.; Davis, Paul C.

    1999-01-01

    In anticipation of a projected rise in demand for air transportation, NASA and the FAA are researching new air-traffic-management (ATM) concepts that fall under the paradigm known broadly as ":free flight". This paper documents the software development and engineering efforts in progress by Seagull Technology, to develop a free-flight simulation (FFSIM) that is intended to help NASA researchers test mature-state concepts for free flight, otherwise referred to in this paper as distributed air / ground traffic management (DAG TM). Under development is a distributed, human-in-the-loop simulation tool that is comprehensive in its consideration of current and envisioned communication, navigation and surveillance (CNS) components, and will allow evaluation of critical air and ground traffic management technologies from an overall systems perspective. The FFSIM infrastructure is designed to incorporate all three major components of the ATM triad: aircraft flight decks, air traffic control (ATC), and (eventually) airline operational control (AOC) centers.

  15. Air radiation revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, K.

    1984-06-01

    The experimental data for air radiation from ground-based experiments and from the Fire II and Apollo 4 flights have been reviewed and compared with a single prediction method. The ground-based data agree generally with the trends predicted by the present calculations, but differences of a factor of two are noted. The flight data from Fire II and Apollo 4 are in good agreement with the present calculations with differences of less than 50 percent.

  16. Ride quality of terminal-area flight maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonover, W. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Complex terminal-area flight maneuvers being considered for airline operations may not be acceptable to passengers. To provide technology in this area, a series of flight experiments was conducted by NASA using the U. S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft to obtain subjective responses of a significant number of passenger test subjects to closely controlled and repeatable flight maneuvers. Regression analysis of the data produced a mathematical model which closely predicts mean passenger ride-comfort rating as a function of the rms six-degree-of-freedom aircraft motions during the maneuver. This ride-comfort model was exercised to examine various synthesized flight maneuvers.

  17. HIDEC F-15 adaptive engine control system flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolka, James W.

    1987-01-01

    NASA-Ames' Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) flight test program aims to develop fully integrated airframe, propulsion, and flight control systems. The HIDEC F-15 adaptive engine control system flight test program has demonstrated that significant performance improvements are obtainable through the retention of stall-free engine operation throughout the aircraft flight and maneuver envelopes. The greatest thrust increase was projected for the medium-to-high altitude flight regime at subsonic speed which is of such importance to air combat. Adaptive engine control systems such as the HIDEC F-15's can be used to upgrade the performance of existing aircraft without resort to expensive reengining programs.

  18. STS-93 Mission Specialist Tognini and daughter prepare to board aircraft for return flight to Housto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At the Skid Strip at the Cape Canaveral Air Station, Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France, representing the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), and his daughter Tatinana prepare to board an aircraft for their return flight to Houston following the completion of the STS-93 Space Shuttle mission. Landing occurred on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility on July 27 with main gear touchdown at 11:20:35 p.m. EDT. The mission's primary objective was to deploy the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. This was the 95th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 26th for Columbia. The landing was the 19th consecutive Shuttle landing in Florida and the 12th night landing in Shuttle program history. On this mission, Eileen Collins became the first woman to serve as a Shuttle commander.

  19. The physiology and biomechanics of avian flight at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Altshuler, Douglas L; Dudley, Robert

    2006-02-01

    Many birds fly at high altitude, either during long-distance flights or by virtue of residence in high-elevation habitats. Among the many environmental features that vary systematically with altitude, five have significant consequences for avian flight performance: ambient wind speeds, air temperature, humidity, oxygen availability, and air density. During migratory flights, birds select flight altitudes that minimize energy expenditure via selection of advantageous tail- and cross-winds. Oxygen partial pressure decreases substantially to as little as 26% of sea-level values for the highest altitudes at which birds migrate, whereas many taxa reside above 3000 meters in hypoxic air. Birds exhibit numerous adaptations in pulmonary, cardiovascular, and muscular systems to alleviate such hypoxia. The systematic decrease in air density with altitude can lead to a benefit for forward flight through reduced drag but imposes an increased aerodynamic demand for hovering by degrading lift production and simultaneously elevating the induced power requirements of flight. This effect has been well-studied in the hovering flight of hummingbirds, which occur throughout high-elevation habitats in the western hemisphere. Phylogenetically controlled studies have shown that hummingbirds compensate morphologically for such hypodense air through relative increases in wing size, and kinematically via increased stroke amplitude during the wingbeat. Such compensatory mechanisms result in fairly constant power requirements for hovering at different elevations, but decrease the margin of excess power available for other flight behaviors. PMID:21672723

  20. Surface tension dominates insect flight on fluid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Mukundarajan, Haripriya; Bardon, Thibaut C; Kim, Dong Hyun; Prakash, Manu

    2016-03-01

    Flight on the 2D air-water interface, with body weight supported by surface tension, is a unique locomotion strategy well adapted for the environmental niche on the surface of water. Although previously described in aquatic insects like stoneflies, the biomechanics of interfacial flight has never been analysed. Here, we report interfacial flight as an adapted behaviour in waterlily beetles (Galerucella nymphaeae) which are also dexterous airborne fliers. We present the first quantitative biomechanical model of interfacial flight in insects, uncovering an intricate interplay of capillary, aerodynamic and neuromuscular forces. We show that waterlily beetles use their tarsal claws to attach themselves to the interface, via a fluid contact line pinned at the claw. We investigate the kinematics of interfacial flight trajectories using high-speed imaging and construct a mathematical model describing the flight dynamics. Our results show that non-linear surface tension forces make interfacial flight energetically expensive compared with airborne flight at the relatively high speeds characteristic of waterlily beetles, and cause chaotic dynamics to arise naturally in these regimes. We identify the crucial roles of capillary-gravity wave drag and oscillatory surface tension forces which dominate interfacial flight, showing that the air-water interface presents a radically modified force landscape for flapping wing flight compared with air. PMID:26936640

  1. In-flight turbulence benefits soaring birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallon, Julie M; Bildstein, Keith L; Katzner, Todd Eli

    2015-01-01

    Birds use atmospheric updrafts to subsidize soaring flight. We observed highly variable soaring flight by Black Vultures (Coragyps atratus) and Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) in Virginia, USA, that was inconsistent with published descriptions of terrestrial avian flight. Birds engaging in this behavior regularly deviated vertically and horizontally from linear flight paths. We observed the soaring flight behavior of these 2 species to understand why they soar in this manner and when this behavior occurs. Vultures used this type of soaring mainly at low altitudes (<50 m), along forest edges, and when conditions were poor for thermal development. Because of the tortuous nature of this flight, we describe it as “contorted soaring.” The primary air movement suitable to subsidize flight at this altitude and under these atmospheric conditions is small-scale, shear-induced turbulence, which our results suggest can be an important resource for soaring birds because it permits continuous subsidized flight when other types of updraft are not available.

  2. F-111E IPCS in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This NASA Dryden Flight Research Center photograph taken in 1975 shows the General Dynamic IPCS/F-111E Aardvark with a camouflage paint pattern. This prototype F-111E was used during the flight testing of the Integrated Propulsion Control System (IPCS). The wings of the IPCS/F-111E are swept back to near 60 degrees for supersonic flight. During the same period as F-111 TACT program, an F-111E Aardvark (#67-0115) was flown at the NASA Flight Research Center to investigate an electronic versus a conventional hydro-mechanical controlled engine. The program called integrated propulsion control system (IPCS) was a joint effort by NASA's Lewis Research Center and Flight Research Center, the Air Force's Flight Propulsion Laboratory and the Boeing, Honeywell and Pratt & Whitney companies. The left engine of the F-111E was selected for modification to an all electronic system. A Pratt & Whitney TF30-P-9 engine was modified and extensively laboratory, and ground-tested before installation into the F-111E. There were 14 IPCS flights made from 1975 through 1976. The flight demonstration program proved an engine could be controlled electronically, leading to a more efficient Digital Electronic Engine Control System flown in the F-15.

  3. F-18 SRA during flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Systems Research Aircraft (SRA), a highly modified F-18 jet fighter, is seen here during a recent research flight. The former Navy aircraft is being flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California, to evaluate a number of experimental aerospace technologies in a multi-year, joint NASA/DOD/industry program. Among the more than 20 experiments being flight-tested were several involving fiber optic sensor systems. Experiments developed by McDonnell-Douglas and Lockheed-Martin centered on installation and maintenace techniques for various types of fiber-optic hardware proposed for use in military and commercial aircraft, while a Parker-Hannifin experiment focused in alternative fiber-optic designs for position measurement sensors as well as operational experience in handling optical sensor systems. Other experiments being flown on this testbed aircraft include electronically-controlled control surface actuators, flush air data collection systems, 'smart' skin antennae and laser-based systems. Incorporation of one or more of these technologies in future aircraft and spacecraft could result in signifigant savings in weight, maintenance and overall cost.

  4. An Overview of Flight Test Results for a Formation Flight Autopilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curtis E.; Ryan, Jack; Allen, Michael J.; Jacobson, Steven R.

    2002-01-01

    The first flight test phase of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Autonomous Formation Flight project has successfully demonstrated precision autonomous station-keeping of an F/A-18 research airplane with a second F/A-18 airplane. Blended inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS) measurements have been communicated across an air-to-air telemetry link and used to compute relative-position estimates. A precision research formation autopilot onboard the trailing airplane controls lateral and vertical spacing while the leading airplane operates under production autopilot control. Four research autopilot gain sets have been designed and flight-tested, and each exceeds the project design requirement of steady-state tracking accuracy within 1 standard deviation of 10 ft. Performance also has been demonstrated using single- and multiple-axis inputs such as step commands and frequency sweeps. This report briefly describes the experimental formation flight systems employed and discusses the navigation, guidance, and control algorithms that have been flight-tested. An overview of the flight test results of the formation autopilot during steady-state tracking and maneuvering flight is presented.

  5. B-57B in-flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    In this NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility photograph taken in 1982 the B-57B Canberra is shown making atmospheric measurements near a mountain range The Martin B-57B Canberra light bomber was used on several flight test programs at the NASA Flight Research Center and other NASA Centers. The two-seated aircraft was powered by two J56-W-5 turbojet engines. The atmospheric part of the research program provided information on mountain waves, jet streams, convective turbulence, and atmospheric contaminants. In the early 1970s, a Martin B-57B Canberra light bomber was used in several NASA joint flight test programs at the NASA Flight Research Center (now Dryden Flight Research Center) located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The early 1970s showed a growing interest in continuing atmospheric research. The B-57B was at the NASA Flight Research Center for a joint program with NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia and was having a special set of instrumentation installed. Delays in completing the instruments provided an opportunity to support the NASA space program. The B-57B was used in proof-of-concept testing of the Viking Mars landers. The deceleration drop testing part of the program took place at the Joint Parachute Test Facility, El Centro, California. With completion of the Viking parachute tests, the B-57B was flown for measuring and analysis of atmospheric turbulence research in 1974-75 as part of a joint NASA program between the Flight Research Center and Langley Research Center. Additional atmospheric testing provided samples of aerosols for the University of Wyoming and clear-air turbulence data for the Department of Transportation. The aircraft was tested over a span of many years at Edwards Air Force Base by various NASA centers for other types of research. Earlier, in the 1960s, the aircraft was flown at the Flight Research Center by the Lewis Research Center (now the John Glenn Research Center) in support of the newly established

  6. Flight Test Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Although the scope of flight test engineering efforts may vary among organizations, all point to a common theme: flight test engineering is an interdisciplinary effort to test an asset in its operational flight environment. Upfront planning where design, implementation, and test efforts are clearly aligned with the flight test objective are keys to success. This chapter provides a top level perspective of flight test engineering for the non-expert. Additional research and reading on the topic is encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of specific considerations involved in each phase of flight test engineering.

  7. In-flight measured human pilot describing function and remnant for pitch attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooij, H. A.

    1973-01-01

    Flight tests have been performed with a variable pitch-rate-command/attitude-hold flight control system in a Beechoraft Queen air-80 aircraft. Some results of in-flight measured runs for two pilots controlling typical easy and difficult dynamics are presented together with the initial results of the same tracking experiment performed on a ground-based flight simulator. Results are compared with results of other investigators using fixed-base flight simulators.

  8. CFB boiler at Gardanne (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Jaud, P.; Jacquet, L.; Delot, P.; Bayle, F.

    1995-06-01

    Among the new Clean Coal Technologies, {open_quotes}Circulating Fluidized Bed{close_quotes} is one of the most promising. Today, the largest project in commissioning`s the 250 MWe Provence CFB boiler, located near MARSEILLE in the south of France. At such a size, the CFB technique has now reached a capacity corresponding to thermal power plants operated by utilities. This new unit is a very important step towards larger size i.e. 400 MWe and greater. The SO{sub 2} emissions of this CFB boiler are guaranteed to be less than 400 mg / Nm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2} with the ratio of Ca/S lower than 3 while total sulfur in local coal used can reach 3.68 %. The purpose of the Provence project was to replace the existing pulverized coal boiler unit 4, commissioned in 1967, of the Provence power plant, with a new CFB boiler while reusing most of the existing equipment. The new boiler has been ordered from GEC ALSTHOM STEIN INDUSTREE (GASI) by Electricite de France (EDF) on behalf of the SOPROLIF consortium. Architect Engineering and construction management was performed by EDF jointly with Charbonnages de France (CdF: the French Coal Board). The 250 MWe CFB boiler is of the superheat-reheat type. The first firing of the boiler is due in April 1995. The poster session will describe the progress in the construction of the plant and provides technical details of the new boiler and auxiliaries.

  9. Home health care in France.

    PubMed

    Charles, B

    1990-02-23

    Home health care in France has a long tradition, but is limited in its development. Since 1970 hospitals are by law permitted to extend services at home. Apart from this, patient associations are a driving force in the organization of home health care. There is a trend to more home health care, but this is hampered by splitting of responsibilities of local, departmental or central authorities. The hospital pharmacist is recommended to focus on his scientific and technical competence. Improved relations between community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists are advocated. PMID:2314994

  10. 'Mighty Eagle' Takes Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    The "Mighty Eagle," a NASA robotic prototype lander, had a successful first untethered flight Aug. 8 at the Marshall Center. During the 34-second flight, the Mighty Eagle soared and hovered at 30 f...

  11. Autonomous Soaring Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

  12. Flight test of the YF-23A Advanced Tactical Fighter

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, P. )

    1992-02-01

    The paper describes the approach used in flight tests of the YF-23A Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF), the fighter which was conceived as a replacement for the F-1 Eagle and which combines stealth techologies with a supercruise capability while retaining the agility necessary in an air superiority fighter. Special attention is given to the flight test concept, flight test preparations, and test objectives. The test methods, the problems encountered, and the test results are described.

  13. Flight control experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, F. S.

    1977-01-01

    A multidisciplinary medical-management team at mission control provided Skylab crew support by monitoring health, retrieving and compiling experimental data, assisting in the development of flight plans, and by contributing to in-flight procedures and checklists. Real time computers assisted the flight crews in performing medical and other experiments.

  14. In Flight, Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucking, Robert A.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of flight for human beings has always been closely tied to imagination. To fly like a bird requires a mind that also soars. Therefore, good teachers who want to teach the scientific principles of flight recognize that it is helpful to share stories of their search for the keys to flight. The authors share some of these with the reader,…

  15. 17. Missile mural, third flight of stairs. Lyon Whiteman ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Missile mural, third flight of stairs. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Minuteman Missile Launch Facility Trainer T-12, Northeast of Oscar-01 Missile Alert Facility, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  16. 48 CFR 252.228-7001 - Ground and flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... installed equipment, accessories, and power plants, while the aircraft is in the open or in motion. The term.../instruction entitled “Contractor's Flight and Ground Operations” (Air Force Instruction 10-220,...

  17. DETAIL VIEW OF ELECTRONICS TEST AREA, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF ELECTRONICS TEST AREA, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. 1N12, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  18. Space-X Launches Falcon 9 on Demonstration Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft launched from Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 10:43 a.m. EST on Wednesday, Dec. 8. This is first demonstration flight for NAS...

  19. [Dengue fever in mainland France].

    PubMed

    Paty, M-C

    2014-11-01

    Dengue fever is the most widespread distributed vector borne viral disease. It is transmitted through the bites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. With the expansion of Aedes albopictus and increasing travel exchange, it is no longer limited to the tropical zone and transmission has been documented in temperate areas. In mainland France, where Aedes albopictus has been present and disseminating since 2004, 2 episodes of autochthonous transmission occurred in 2010 and in 2013. Control measures against dengue and chikungunya, which shares the same vector, are implemented every year since 2006, in the areas where the vector is present. They aim at preventing or limiting local transmission of these diseases. They are based on epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control measures. The diagnosis of dengue, and chikungunya should be considered in case of suggestive symptoms in patients returning from an area of virus circulation. It should also be considered for patients living or having stayed in areas of mainland France where Aedes albopictus is present, during its activity period from May 1 to November 30. The prevention and control system, including vector control measures and the notification of cases to the local health authority should be known, as the risk of autochthonous transmission increases every year. PMID:25080833

  20. 49 CFR 1544.237 - Flight deck privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., under 14 CFR parts 121, 125, or 135. This section does not restrict access for a Federal Air Marshal... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flight deck privileges. 1544.237 Section 1544.237... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.237 Flight deck privileges. (a) For each aircraft that has a door...

  1. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  2. Prototype Conflict Alerting Logic for Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Lee C.; Kuchar, James K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a prototype alerting system for a conceptual Free Flight environment. The concept assumes that datalink between aircraft is available and that conflicts are primarily resolved on the flight deck. Four alert stages are generated depending on the likelihood of a conflict. If the conflict is not resolved by the flight crews, Air Traffic Control is notified to take over separation authority. The alerting logic is based on probabilistic analysis through modeling of aircraft sensor and trajectory uncertainties. Monte Carlo simulations were used over a range of encounter situations to determine conflict probability. The four alert stages were then defined based on probability of conflict and on the number of avoidance maneuvers available to the flight crew. Preliminary results from numerical evaluations and from a piloted simulator study at NASA Ames Research Center are summarized.

  3. Flight test evaluation of the nondistributed flight reference off-boresight helmet-mounted display symbology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J. Chris; Thurling, Andrew J.; Havig, Paul R.; Geiselman, Eric E.

    2002-08-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has been working to optimize helmet-mounted display (HMD) symbology for off-boresight use. One candidate symbology is called the non-distributed flight reference (NDFR). NDFR symbology allows ownship status information to be directly referenced from the HMD regardless of pilot line of sight. The symbology is designed to aid pilot maintenance of aircraft state awareness during the performance of off-boresight tasks such as air-to-ground and air-to-air target acquisition. Previous HMD symbology research has shown that pilots spend longer periods of time off-boresight when using an HMD and therefore less time referencing primary displays in the aircraft cockpit. NDFR may provide needed information for the pilot to safely spend longer periods of search time off-boresight. Recently, NDFR was flight tested by the USAF Test Pilot School at Edwards AFB, CA, aboard the VISTA F-16 (Variable Stability In-flight Simulator Test Aircraft) during operationally representative air-to-air and air-to-ground tasks, as well as unusual attitude recoveries. The Mil-Std-1787B head-up display (HUD) symbology and another off-boresight HMD symbology called the Visually Coupled Acquisition and Targeting System (VCATS) were evaluated as comparison symbol sets. The results of the flight test indicate a clear performance advantage afforded by the use of off-boresight symbology compared to HUD use alone. There was a significant increase in the amount of time pilots looked off-boresight with both the NDFR and VCATS symbologies. With the NDFR, this increase was achieved without an associated primary task performance tradeoff. This was true for both air-to-ground and air-to-air tasks.

  4. Transpiration cooling in hypersonic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavella, Domingo; Roberts, Leonard

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary numerical study of transpiration cooling applied to a hypersonic configuration is presented. Air transpiration is applied to the NASA all-body configuration flying at an altitude of 30500 m with a Mach number of 10.3. It was found that the amount of heat disposal by convection is determined primarily by the local geometry of the aircraft for moderate rates of transpiration. This property implies that different areas of the aircraft where transpiration occurs interact weakly with each other. A methodology for quick assessments of the transpiration requirements for a given flight configuration is presented.

  5. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.

  6. AFTI/F-16 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Overhead photograph of the AFTI F-16 painted in a non-standard gray finish, taken during a research flight in 1989. The two sensor pods are visible on the fuselage just forward of the wings and one of the two chin canards can be seen as a light-colored triangle ahead of one of the pods. A Sidewinder air-to-air missile is mounted on each wing tip. During the 1980s and 1990s, NASA and the U.S. Air Force participated in a joint program to integrate and demonstrate new avionics technologies to improve close air support capabilities in next-generation aircraft. The testbed aircraft, seen here in flight over the desert at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was called the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) F-16. The tests demonstrated technologies to improve navigation and the pilot's ability to find and destroy enemy ground targets day or night, including adverse weather. The aircraft--an F-16A Fighting Falcon (Serial #75-0750)--underwent numerous modifications. A relatively low-cost testbed, it evaluated the feasability of advanced, intergrated-sensor, avionics, and flight control technologies. During the first phase of the AFTI/F-16 program, which began in 1983, the aircraft demonstrated voice-actuated commands, helmet-mounted sights, flat turns, and selective fuselage pointing using forward-mounted canards and a triplex digital flight control computer system. The second phase of research, which began in the summer of 1991, demonstrated advanced technologies and capabilities to find and destroy ground targets day or night, and in adverse weather while using maneuverability and speed at low altitude. This phase was known as the close air support and battlefield air interdiction (CAS/BAI) phase. Finally, the aircraft was used to assess the Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto - GCAS), a joint project with the Swedish Government. For these tests, the pilot flew the aircraft directly toward the ground, simulating a total

  7. Ariane flight testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedrenne, M.

    1983-11-01

    The object of this paper is to present the way in which the flight development tests of the Ariane launch vehicle have enabled the definition to be frozen and its qualification to be demonstrated before the beginning of the operational phase. A first part is devoted to the in-flight measurement facilities, the acquisition and evaluation systems, and to the organization of the in-flight results evaluation. The following part consists of the comparison between ground predictions and flight results for the main parameters as classified by system (stages, trajectory, propulsion, flight mechanics, auto pilot and guidance). The corrective actions required are then identified and the corresponding results shown.

  8. Comprehensive analysis of transport aircraft flight performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the art in comprehensive performance codes for fixed-wing aircraft. The importance of system analysis in flight performance is discussed. The paper highlights the role of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, aeroacoustics, flight operation, numerical optimisation, stochastic methods and numerical analysis. The latter discipline is used to investigate the sensitivities of the sub-systems to uncertainties in critical state parameters or functional parameters. The paper discusses critically the data used for performance analysis, and the areas where progress is required. Comprehensive analysis codes can be used for mission fuel planning, envelope exploration, competition analysis, a wide variety of environmental studies, marketing analysis, aircraft certification and conceptual aircraft design. A comprehensive program that uses the multi-disciplinary approach for transport aircraft is presented. The model includes a geometry deck, a separate engine input deck with the main parameters, a database of engine performance from an independent simulation, and an operational deck. The comprehensive code has modules for deriving the geometry from bitmap files, an aerodynamics model for all flight conditions, a flight mechanics model for flight envelopes and mission analysis, an aircraft noise model and engine emissions. The model is validated at different levels. Validation of the aerodynamic model is done against the scale models DLR-F4 and F6. A general model analysis and flight envelope exploration are shown for the Boeing B-777-300 with GE-90 turbofan engines with intermediate passenger capacity (394 passengers in 2 classes). Validation of the flight model is done by sensitivity analysis on the wetted area (or profile drag), on the specific air range, the brake-release gross weight and the aircraft noise. A variety of results is shown, including specific air range charts, take-off weight-altitude charts, payload-range performance

  9. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  10. Apprenticeship in France: Between Tradition and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Zarca, Georgie

    1996-01-01

    A study was made of the state of apprenticeship in France, using data gathered through telephone interviews with apprentices. Of a targeted group of 6,000 young apprentices, 70% participated in the survey. The study found that, until recently, apprenticeships had generally been used in France to train students in manual trades. During the past 10…

  11. Free Flight Rotorcraft Flight Test Vehicle Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, W. Todd; Walker, Gregory W.

    1994-01-01

    A rotary wing, unmanned air vehicle (UAV) is being developed as a research tool at the NASA Langley Research Center by the U.S. Army and NASA. This development program is intended to provide the rotorcraft research community an intermediate step between rotorcraft wind tunnel testing and full scale manned flight testing. The technologies under development for this vehicle are: adaptive electronic flight control systems incorporating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, small-light weight sophisticated sensors, advanced telepresence-telerobotics systems and rotary wing UAV operational procedures. This paper briefly describes the system's requirements and the techniques used to integrate the various technologies to meet these requirements. The paper also discusses the status of the development effort. In addition to the original aeromechanics research mission, the technology development effort has generated a great deal of interest in the UAV community for related spin-off applications, as briefly described at the end of the paper. In some cases the technologies under development in the free flight program are critical to the ability to perform some applications.

  12. X-31 in Flight over Edwards AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    One of two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator aircraft, flown by an international test organization at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, turns tightly over the desert floor on a research flight. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable aircraft of the future. The X-31 had a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight

  13. 14 CFR 91.139 - Emergency air traffic rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency air traffic rules. 91.139 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.139 Emergency air traffic rules. (a) This section prescribes a process for utilizing Notices to...

  14. 14 CFR 91.139 - Emergency air traffic rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency air traffic rules. 91.139 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.139 Emergency air traffic rules. (a) This section prescribes a process for utilizing Notices to...

  15. 14 CFR 91.139 - Emergency air traffic rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency air traffic rules. 91.139 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.139 Emergency air traffic rules. (a) This section prescribes a process for utilizing Notices to...

  16. 14 CFR 91.139 - Emergency air traffic rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency air traffic rules. 91.139 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.139 Emergency air traffic rules. (a) This section prescribes a process for utilizing Notices to...

  17. 14 CFR 91.139 - Emergency air traffic rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency air traffic rules. 91.139 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.139 Emergency air traffic rules. (a) This section prescribes a process for utilizing Notices to...

  18. Introduction of SARS in France, March–April, 2003

    PubMed Central

    van der Werf, Sylvie; Bonmarin, Isabelle; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Hoen, Bruno; Emmanuelli, Julien; Lesens, Olivier; Dupon, Michel; Natali, François; Michelet, Christian; Reynes, Jacques; Guery, Benoit; Larsen, Christine; Semaille, Caroline; Mouton, Yves; Christmann, Daniel; André, Michel; Escriou, Nicolas; Burguière, Anna; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Coignard, Bruno; Lepoutre, Agnés; Meffre, Christine; Bitar, Dounia; Decludt, Bénédicte; Capek, Isabelle; Antona, Denise; Che, Didier; Herida, Magid; Infuso, Andréa; Saura, Christine; Brücker, Gilles; Hubert, Bruno; LeGoff, Dominique; Scheidegger, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    We describe severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in France. Patients meeting the World Health Organization definition of a suspected case underwent a clinical, radiologic, and biologic assessment at the closest university-affiliated infectious disease ward. Suspected cases were immediately reported to the Institut de Veille Sanitaire. Probable case-patients were isolated, their contacts quarantined at home, and were followed for 10 days after exposure. Five probable cases occurred from March through April 2003; four were confirmed as SARS coronavirus by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, serologic testing, or both. The index case-patient (patient A), who had worked in the French hospital of Hanoi, Vietnam, was the most probable source of transmission for the three other confirmed cases; two had been exposed to patient A while on the Hanoi-Paris flight of March 22–23. Timely detection, isolation of probable cases, and quarantine of their contacts appear to have been effective in preventing the secondary spread of SARS in France. PMID:15030682

  19. Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS): Flight Demonstration and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tow, David; Arce, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    The Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) program was initiated and propelled due to the inadvertent terminations of Global Hawk and the Strategic Target System and the NASA Inspector General's assessment letter and recommendations regarding the exploration of low-cost, lightweight space COMSEC for FTS. Additionally, the standard analog and high alphabet systems most commonly used in FTS are secure, but not encrypted. A study group was initiated to select and document a robust, affordable, reliable technology that provides encrypted FTS capability. A flight demonstration was conducted to gain experience using EFTS in an operational environment, provide confidence in the use of the EFTS components, integrate EFTS into an existing range infrastructure to demonstrate the scalability of system components, to provide a command controller that generated the EFTS waveform using an existing range infrastructure, and to provide a report documenting the results of the demonstration. The primary goal of the demonstration was to obtain operational experience with EFTS. Areas of operational experience include: mission planning, pre-flight configuration and testing, mission monitoring and recording, vehicle termination, developing mission procedures. and post mission data reduction and other post mission activities. An Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) was selected to support the EFTS demonstration due to interest in future use of EFTS by the AMRAAM program, familiarity of EFTS by range personnel, and the availability of existing operational environment to support EFTS testing with available program funding. For demonstration purposes, the AMRAAM was successfully terminated using an EFTS receiver and successfully demonstrating EFTS. The EFTS monitoring software with spectrum analyzer and digital graphical display of aircraft, missile, and target were also demonstrated.

  20. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    PubMed

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context. PMID:17766290

  1. A USA Commercial Flight Track Database for Upper Tropospheric Aircraft Emission Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Donald P.; Minnis, Patrick; Costulis, Kay P.

    2003-01-01

    A new air traffic database over the contiguous United States of America (USA) has been developed from a commercially available real-time product for 2001-2003 for all non-military flights above 25,000 ft. Both individual flight tracks and gridded spatially integrated flight legs are available. On average, approximately 24,000 high-altitude flights were recorded each day. The diurnal cycle of air traffic over the USA is characterized by a broad daytime maximum with a 0130-LT minimum and a mean day-night air traffic ratio of 2.4. Each week, the air traffic typically peaks on Thursday and drops to a low Saturday with a range of 18%. Flight density is greatest during late summer and least during winter. The database records the disruption of air traffic after the air traffic shutdown during September 2001. The dataset should be valuable for realistically simulating the atmospheric effects of aircraft in the upper troposphere.

  2. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  3. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  4. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  5. The ASAC Flight Segment and Network Cost Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Bruce J.; Lee, David A.; Retina, Nusrat; Wingrove, Earl R., III; Malone, Brett; Hall, Stephen G.; Houser, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    To assist NASA in identifying research art, with the greatest potential for improving the air transportation system, two models were developed as part of its Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). The ASAC Flight Segment Cost Model (FSCM) is used to predict aircraft trajectories, resource consumption, and variable operating costs for one or more flight segments. The Network Cost Model can either summarize the costs for a network of flight segments processed by the FSCM or can be used to independently estimate the variable operating costs of flying a fleet of equipment given the number of departures and average flight stage lengths.

  6. Summary of results of NASA F-15 flight research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Trippensee, G. A.; Fisher, D. F.; Putnam, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    NASA conducted a multidisciplinary flight research program on the F-15 airplane. The program began in 1976 when two preproduction airplanes were obtained from the U.S. Air Force. Major projects involved stability and control, handling qualities, propulsion, aerodynamics, propulsion controls, and integrated propulsion-flight controls. Several government agencies and aerospace contractors were involved. In excess of 330 flights were flown, and over 85 papers and reports were published. This document describes the overall program, the projects, and the key results. The F-15 was demonstrated to be an excellent flight research vehicle, producing high-quality results.

  7. Real-Time Aerodynamic Parameter Estimation without Air Flow Angle Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2010-01-01

    A technique for estimating aerodynamic parameters in real time from flight data without air flow angle measurements is described and demonstrated. The method is applied to simulated F-16 data, and to flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft. Modeling results obtained with the new approach using flight data without air flow angle measurements were compared to modeling results computed conventionally using flight data that included air flow angle measurements. Comparisons demonstrated that the new technique can provide accurate aerodynamic modeling results without air flow angle measurements, which are often difficult and expensive to obtain. Implications for efficient flight testing and flight safety are discussed.

  8. 14 CFR 91.159 - VFR cruising altitude or flight level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false VFR cruising altitude or flight level. 91.159 Section 91.159 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules...

  9. 14 CFR 91.1069 - Flight crew: Instrument proficiency check requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (i) All or portions of a required flight check may be given in an aircraft simulator or other... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight crew: Instrument proficiency check... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES...

  10. 14 CFR 91.1069 - Flight crew: Instrument proficiency check requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (i) All or portions of a required flight check may be given in an aircraft simulator or other... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crew: Instrument proficiency check... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES...

  11. 14 CFR 91.159 - VFR cruising altitude or flight level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false VFR cruising altitude or flight level. 91.159 Section 91.159 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules...

  12. 14 CFR 91.609 - Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight data recorders and cockpit voice... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Additional Equipment and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft § 91.609 Flight...

  13. 14 CFR 91.609 - Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight data recorders and cockpit voice... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Additional Equipment and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft § 91.609 Flight...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 91 - Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications F... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, App. F Appendix F to Part 91—Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Installed system 1...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 91 - Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications F... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, App. F Appendix F to Part 91—Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Installed system 1...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 91 - Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications F... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, App. F Appendix F to Part 91—Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Installed system 1...

  17. 14 CFR 91.609 - Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight data recorders and cockpit voice... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Additional Equipment and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft § 91.609 Flight...

  18. 14 CFR 91.609 - Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight data recorders and cockpit voice... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Additional Equipment and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft § 91.609 Flight...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 91 - Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications F... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, App. F Appendix F to Part 91—Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Installed system 1...

  20. 14 CFR 91.147 - Passenger carrying flights for compensation or hire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger carrying flights for compensation or hire. 91.147 Section 91.147 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.147...

  1. Importance of body rotation during the flight of a butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2016-03-01

    In nature the body motion of a butterfly is clearly observed to involve periodic rotation and varied flight modes. The maneuvers of a butterfly in flight are unique. Based on the flight motion of butterflies (Kallima inachus) recorded in free flight, a numerical model of a butterfly is created to study how its flight relates to body pose; the body motion in a simulation is prescribed and tested with varied initial body angle and rotational amplitude. A butterfly rotates its body to control the direction of the vortex rings generated during flapping flight; the flight modes are found to be closely related to the body motion of a butterfly. When the initial body angle increases, the forward displacement decreases, but the upward displacement increases within a stroke. With increased rotational amplitudes, the jet flows generated by a butterfly eject more downward and further enhance the generation of upward force, according to which a butterfly executes a vertical jump at the end of the downstroke. During this jumping stage, the air relative to the butterfly is moving downward; the butterfly pitches up its body to be parallel to the flow and to decrease the projected area so as to avoid further downward force generated. Our results indicate the importance of the body motion of a butterfly in flight. The inspiration of flight controlled with body motion from the flight of a butterfly might yield an alternative way to control future flight vehicles.

  2. Insect flight on fluid interfaces: a chaotic interfacial oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundarajan, Haripriya; Prakash, Manu

    2013-11-01

    Flight is critical to the dominance of insect species on our planet, with about 98 percent of insect species having wings. How complex flight control systems developed in insects is unknown, and arboreal or aquatic origins have been hypothesized. We examine the biomechanics of aquatic origins of flight. We recently reported discovery of a novel mode of ``2D flight'' in Galerucella beetles, which skim along an air-water interface using flapping wing flight. This unique flight mode is characterized by a balance between capillary forces from the interface and biomechanical forces exerted by the flapping wings. Complex interactions on the fluid interface form capillary wave trains behind the insect, and produce vertical oscillations at the surface due to non-linear forces arising from deformation of the fluid meniscus. We present both experimental observations of 2D flight kinematics and a dynamic model explaining the observed phenomena. Careful examination of this interaction predicts the chaotic nature of interfacial flight and takeoff from the interface into airborne flight. The role of wingbeat frequency, stroke plane angle and body angle in determining transition between interfacial and fully airborne flight is highlighted, shedding light on the aquatic theory of flight evolution.

  3. Importance of body rotation during the flight of a butterfly.

    PubMed

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2016-03-01

    In nature the body motion of a butterfly is clearly observed to involve periodic rotation and varied flight modes. The maneuvers of a butterfly in flight are unique. Based on the flight motion of butterflies (Kallima inachus) recorded in free flight, a numerical model of a butterfly is created to study how its flight relates to body pose; the body motion in a simulation is prescribed and tested with varied initial body angle and rotational amplitude. A butterfly rotates its body to control the direction of the vortex rings generated during flapping flight; the flight modes are found to be closely related to the body motion of a butterfly. When the initial body angle increases, the forward displacement decreases, but the upward displacement increases within a stroke. With increased rotational amplitudes, the jet flows generated by a butterfly eject more downward and further enhance the generation of upward force, according to which a butterfly executes a vertical jump at the end of the downstroke. During this jumping stage, the air relative to the butterfly is moving downward; the butterfly pitches up its body to be parallel to the flow and to decrease the projected area so as to avoid further downward force generated. Our results indicate the importance of the body motion of a butterfly in flight. The inspiration of flight controlled with body motion from the flight of a butterfly might yield an alternative way to control future flight vehicles. PMID:27078464

  4. HIFIRE Flight 2 Overview and Status Update 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Kevin R.; Gruber, Mark R.; Buccellato, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    A collaborative international effort, the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) Program aims to study basic hypersonic phenomena through flight experimentation. HIFiRE Flight 2 teams the United States Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), NASA, and the Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO). Flight 2 will develop an alternative test technique for acquiring high enthalpy scramjet flight test data, allowing exploration of accelerating hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet performance and dual-to-scram mode transition up to and beyond Mach 8 flight. The generic scramjet flowpath is research quality and the test fuel is a simple surrogate for an endothermically cracked liquid hydrocarbon fuel. HIFiRE Flight 2 will be a first of its kind in contribution to scramjets. The HIFiRE program builds upon the HyShot and HYCAUSE programs and aims to leverage the low-cost flight test technique developed in those programs. It will explore suppressed trajectories of a sounding rocket propelled test article and their utility in studying ramjet-scramjet mode transition and flame extinction limits research. This paper describes the overall scramjet flight test experiment mission goals and objectives, flight test approach and strategy, ground test and analysis summary, development status and project schedule. A successful launch and operation will present to the scramjet community valuable flight test data in addition to a new tool, and vehicle, with which to explore high enthalpy scramjet technologies.

  5. The orbiter air data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillje, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Air data parameters are required during Orbiter atmospheric entry for use by the autoguidance, navigation, and flight control systems, and for crew displays. Conventional aircraft calibrations of the Orbiter air data system were not practicable for the Space Shuttle, therefore extensive wind tunnel testing was required to give confidence in the preflight calibrations. Many challenges became apparent as the program developed; in the overall system design, in the wind tunnel testing program, in the implementation of the air data system calibration, and in the use of the flight data to modify the wind tunnel results. These challenges are discussed along with the methods used to solve the problems.

  6. AFTI/F-16 in banked flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This photo depicts the AFTI F-16 in the configuration used midway through the program. The sensor pods were added to the fuselage, but the chin canards remained in place. Painted in non-standard gray tones, it carried Sidewinder air-to-air missles on its wingtips. During the 1980s and 1990s, NASA and the U.S. Air Force participated in a joint program to integrate and demonstrate new avionics technologies to improve close air support capabilities in next-generation aircraft. The testbed aircraft, seen here in flight over the desert at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was called the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) F-16. The tests demonstrated technologies to improve navigation and the pilot's ability to find and destroy enemy ground targets day or night, including adverse weather. The aircraft--an F-16A Fighting Falcon (Serial #75-0750)--underwent numerous modifications. A relatively low-cost testbed, it evaluated the feasability of advanced, intergrated-sensor, avionics, and flight control technologies. During the first phase of the AFTI/F-16 program, which began in 1983, the aircraft demonstrated voice-actuated commands, helmet-mounted sights, flat turns, and selective fuselage pointing using forward-mounted canards and a triplex digital flight control computer system. The second phase of research, which began in the summer of 1991, demonstrated advanced technologies and capabilities to find and destroy ground targets day or night, and in adverse weather while using maneuverability and speed at low altitude. This phase was known as the close air support and battlefield air interdiction (CAS/BAI) phase. Finally, the aircraft was used to assess the Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto - GCAS), a joint project with the Swedish Government. For these tests, the pilot flew the aircraft directly toward the ground, simulating a total loss of control. The GCAS was designed to take command in such emergencies and bring

  7. Flight code validation simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.A.

    1995-08-01

    An End-To-End Simulation capability for software development and validation of missile flight software on the actual embedded computer has been developed utilizing a 486 PC, i860 DSP coprocessor, embedded flight computer and custom dual port memory interface hardware. This system allows real-time interrupt driven embedded flight software development and checkout. The flight software runs in a Sandia Digital Airborne Computer (SANDAC) and reads and writes actual hardware sensor locations in which IMU (Inertial Measurements Unit) data resides. The simulator provides six degree of freedom real-time dynamic simulation, accurate real-time discrete sensor data and acts on commands and discretes from the flight computer. This system was utilized in the development and validation of the successful premier flight of the Digital Miniature Attitude Reference System (DMARS) in January 1995 at the White Sands Missile Range on a two stage attitude controlled sounding rocket.

  8. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  9. Pilot's Desk Flight Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Aircraft flight station designs have generally evolved through the incorporation of improved or modernized controls and displays. In connection with a continuing increase in the amount of information displayed, this process has produced a complex and cluttered conglomeration of knobs, switches, and electromechanical displays. The result was often high crew workload, missed signals, and misinterpreted information. Advances in electronic technology have now, however, led to new concepts in flight station design. An American aerospace company in cooperation with NASA has utilized these concepts to develop a candidate conceptual design for a 1995 flight station. The obtained Pilot's Desk Flight Station is a unique design which resembles more an operator's console than today's cockpit. Attention is given to configuration, primary flight controllers, front panel displays, flight/navigation display, approach charts and weather display, head-up display, and voice command and response systems.

  10. Upper-Stage Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Boxwell, R.; Crockett, D. V.; Ross, R.; Lewis, T.; McNeal, C.; Verdarame, K.

    1999-01-01

    For propulsion applications that require that the propellants are storable for long periods, have a high density impulse, and are environmentally clean and non-toxic, the best choice is a combination of high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (High Test Peroxide, or HTP) and a liquid hydrocarbon (LHC) fuel. The HTP/LHC combination is suitable for low-cost launch vehicles, space taxi and space maneuvering vehicles, and kick stages. Orbital Sciences Corporation is under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in cooperation with the Air Force Research Lab to design, develop and demonstrate a new low-cost liquid upper stage based on HTP and JP-8. The Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) focuses on key technologies necessary to demonstrate the operation of an inherently simple propulsion system with an innovative, state-of-the-art structure. Two key low-cost vehicle elements will be demonstrated - a 10,000 lbf thrust engine and an integrated composite tank structure. The suborbital flight test of the USFE is scheduled for 2001. Preceding the flight tests are two major series of ground tests at NASA Stennis Space Center and a subscale tank development program to identify compatible composite materials and to verify their compatibility over long periods of time. The ground tests include a thrust chamber development test series and an integrated stage test. This paper summarizes the results from the first phase of the thrust chamber development tests and the results to date from the tank material compatibility tests. Engine and tank configurations that meet the goals of the program are described.

  11. Flight Checklists And Interruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, C.; Goguen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Report examines relation between performances of flight checklists and interruptions. Based on study of simulated flights of Boeing 707 Airplane. During each flight series of overlapping problems introduced. Study investigated patterns of communication that in carrying out checklists, may contribute to accidents. Showed good crews had high continuity in following checklists and it is not number of interruptions but rather duration of interruptions associated with quality of performance. Suggests greater burden placed on memory by one long interruption than by several short ones.

  12. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  13. Unified powered flight guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, T. J.; Brown, D. W.; Higgins, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A complete revision of the orbiter powered flight guidance scheme is presented. A unified approach to powered flight guidance was taken to accommodate all phases of exo-atmospheric orbiter powered flight, from ascent through deorbit. The guidance scheme was changed from the previous modified version of the Lambert Aim Point Maneuver Mode used in Apollo to one that employs linear tangent guidance concepts. This document replaces the previous ascent phase equation document.

  14. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. PMID:25740899

  15. Flight Research and Validation Formerly Experimental Capabilities Supersonic Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Experimental Capabilities Supersonic project, that is being reorganized into Flight Research and Validation. The work of Experimental Capabilities Project in FY '09 is reviewed, and the specific centers that is assigned to do the work is given. The portfolio of the newly formed Flight Research and Validation (FRV) group is also reviewed. The various projects for FY '10 for the FRV are detailed. These projects include: Eagle Probe, Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment (CCIE), Supersonic Boundary layer Transition test (SBLT), Aero-elastic Test Wing-2 (ATW-2), G-V External Vision Systems (G5 XVS), Air-to-Air Schlieren (A2A), In Flight Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS), Dynamic Inertia Measurement Technique (DIM), and Advanced In-Flight IR Thermography (AIR-T).

  16. One Hundred Years of Powered Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This year, Centennial of Flight celebrations across the United States are marking the tremendous achievement of the Wright brothers successful, powered, heavier-than-air flight on December 17, 1903. The vision and persistence of these two men pioneered the way for explorers, inventors, and innovators to take aeronautics from the beaches of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to the outer reaches of the solar system. Along this 100-year journey, NASA has played a significant role in developing and supporting the technologies that have shaped the aviation industry.

  17. Paddling Mode of Forward Flight in Insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristroph, Leif; Bergou, Attila J.; Guckenheimer, John; Wang, Z. Jane; Cohen, Itai

    2011-04-01

    By analyzing high-speed video of the fruit fly, we discover a swimminglike mode of forward flight characterized by paddling wing motions. We develop a new aerodynamic analysis procedure to show that these insects generate drag-based thrust by slicing their wings forward at low angle of attack and pushing backwards at a higher angle. Reduced-order models and simulations reveal that the law for flight speed is determined by these wing motions but is insensitive to material properties of the fluid. Thus, paddling is as effective in air as in water and represents a common strategy for propulsion through aquatic and aerial environments.

  18. New drag laws for flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agre, Natalie; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif

    2014-11-01

    Classical aerodynamic theory predicts that a steadily-moving wing experiences fluid forces proportional to the square of its speed. For bird and insect flight, however, there is currently no model for how drag is affected by flapping motions of the wings. By considering simple wings driven to oscillate while progressing through the air, we discover that flapping significantly changes the magnitude of drag and fundamentally alters its scaling with speed. These measurements motivate a new aerodynamic force law that could help to understand the free-flight dynamics, control, and stability of insects and flapping-wing robots.

  19. X-1A in flight with flight data superimposed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    This photo of the X-1A includes graphs of the flight data from Maj. Charles E. Yeager's Mach 2.44 flight on December 12, 1953. (This was only a few days short of the 50th anniversary of the Wright brothers' first powered flight.) After reaching Mach 2.44, then the highest speed ever reached by a piloted aircraft, the X-1A tumbled completely out of control. The motions were so violent that Yeager cracked the plastic canopy with his helmet. He finally recovered from a inverted spin and landed on Rogers Dry Lakebed. Among the data shown are Mach number and altitude (the two top graphs). The speed and altitude changes due to the tumble are visible as jagged lines. The third graph from the bottom shows the G-forces on the airplane. During the tumble, these twice reached 8 Gs or 8 times the normal pull of gravity at sea level. (At these G forces, a 200-pound human would, in effect, weigh 1,600 pounds if a scale were placed under him in the direction of the force vector.) Producing these graphs was a slow, difficult process. The raw data from on-board instrumentation recorded on oscillograph film. Human computers then reduced the data and recorded it on data sheets, correcting for such factors as temperature and instrument errors. They used adding machines or slide rules for their calculations, pocket calculators being 20 years in the future. Three second generation Bell Aircraft Corporations X-1s were built, though four were requested. They were the X-1A (48-1384); X-1B (48-1385); X-1C (canceled and never built); X-1D (48-1386). These aircraft were similar to the X-1s, except they were five feet longer, had conventional canopies, and were powered by Reaction Motors, Inc. XLR11-RM-5 rocket engines. The RM-5, like the previous engines, had no throttle and was controlled by igniting one or more of the four thrust chambers at will. The original program outline called for the X-1A and X-1B to be used for dynamic stability and air loads investigations. The X-1D was to be used

  20. Drosophila melanogaster locomotion in cold thin air.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Michael E; Frazier, Melanie R

    2006-01-01

    The alpine environment is likely to challenge insect locomotion because of low mean temperatures and reduced barometric pressure. In this study, we measured the direct and interactive effects of these factors on walking and flight performance of wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster Meigen. We found that decreased temperature and decreased air pressure both reduced walking speed and flight performance. Flies walked more slowly at 18 degrees C and in the lowest air pressure treatment (34 kPa). This treatment, equivalent in air pressure to the top of Mount Everest, was the only air pressure that significantly reduced fly walking speed. Therefore, walking performance in the wild is likely limited by temperature, but not oxygen availability. In contrast to walking performance, low but ecologically realistic air pressures dramatically reduced overall flight performance. The effects of reduced air pressure on flight performance were more pronounced at colder temperatures. Reduced flight performance in high altitude conditions was primarily driven by an increased reluctance for flies to initiate flight rather than outright failure to fly. Such reluctance to fly in high altitude conditions may in part explain the prevalence of aptery and brachyptery in high altitude insects. The observed interactive effects of temperature and air pressure on flight performance confirm the importance of simultaneously manipulating both of these factors when studying the impact of altitudinal conditions on insect physiology and behavior. PMID:16391358

  1. Space Launch Flight Termination System initial development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratkevich, B.; Brierley, S.; Lupia, D.; Leiker, T.

    This paper describes the studies, capabilities and challenges in initial development of a new digital encrypted termination system for space launch vehicles. This system is called the Space Launch Flight Termination System (SLFTS). Development of SLFTS is required to address an obsolescence issue and to improve the security of flight termination systems presently in use on the nation's space launch vehicles. SLFTS development was implemented in a four phase approach with the goal of producing a high secure, cost effective flight termination system for United Launch Alliance (ULA) and the United States Air Force (USAF) Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). These detailed study phases developed the requirements, design and implementation approach for a new high secure flight termination system. Studies led to a cost effective approach to replace the High Alphabet Command Receiver Decoders (HA-CRD) presently used on the EELV (Delta-IV & Atlas-V), with a common SLFTS unit. SLFTS is the next generation flight termination system for space launch vehicles, providing an assured high secure command destruct system for launch vehicles in flight. The unique capabilities and challenges to develop this technology for space launch use will be addressed in this paper in detail. This paper summarizes the current development status, design and capabilities of SLFTS for EELV.

  2. Advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI)/F-16 Automated Maneuvering Attack System final flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowden, Donald J.; Bessette, Denis E.

    1987-01-01

    The AFTI F-16 Automated Maneuvering Attack System has undergone developmental and demonstration flight testing over a total of 347.3 flying hours in 237 sorties. The emphasis of this phase of the flight test program was on the development of automated guidance and control systems for air-to-air and air-to-ground weapons delivery, using a digital flight control system, dual avionics multiplex buses, an advanced FLIR sensor with laser ranger, integrated flight/fire-control software, advanced cockpit display and controls, and modified core Multinational Stage Improvement Program avionics.

  3. DAST Being Calibrated for Flight in Hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of the structure, driven by aerodynamic forces and resulting in structural failure. The program used refined theoretical tools to predict at what speed flutter would occur. It then designed a high-response control system to counteract the motion and permit a much lighter wing structure. The wing had, in effect, 'electronic stiffness.' Flight research with this concept was extremely hazardous because an error in either the flutter prediction or control system implementation would result in wing structural failure and the loss of the vehicle. Because of this, flight demonstration of a sub-scale vehicle made sense from the standpoint of both safety and cost. The program anticipated structural failure during the course of the flight research. The Firebee II was a supersonic drone selected as the DAST testbed because its wing could be easily replaced, it used only tail-mounted control surfaces, and it was available as surplus from the U. S. Air Force. It was capable of 5-g turns (that is, turns producing acceleration equal to 5 times that of gravity). Langley outfitted a drone with an aeroelastic, supercritical research wing suitable for a Mach 0.98 cruise transport with a predicted flutter speed of Mach 0.95 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Dryden and Langley, in conjunction with Boeing, designed and fabricated a digital flutter suppression system (FSS). Dryden developed an RPRV (remotely piloted research vehicle) flight control system; integrated the wing, FSS, and vehicle systems; and conducted the flight program. In addition to a digital flight control system and aeroelastic wings, each

  4. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of the structure, driven by aerodynamic forces and resulting in structural failure. The program used refined theoretical tools to predict at what speed flutter would occur. It then designed a high-response control system to counteract the motion and permit a much lighter wing structure. The wing had, in effect, 'electronic stiffness.' Flight research with this concept was extremely hazardous because an error in either the flutter prediction or control system implementation would result in wing structural failure and the loss of the vehicle. Because of this, flight demonstration of a sub-scale vehicle made sense from the standpoint of both safety and cost. The program anticipated structural failure during the course of the flight research. The Firebee II was a supersonic drone selected as the DAST testbed because its wing could be easily replaced, it used only tail-mounted control surfaces, and it was available as surplus from the U. S. Air Force. It was capable of 5-g turns (that is, turns producing acceleration equal to 5 times that of gravity). Langley outfitted a drone with an aeroelastic, supercritical research wing suitable for a Mach 0.98 cruise transport with a predicted flutter speed of Mach 0.95 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Dryden and Langley, in conjunction with Boeing, designed and fabricated a digital flutter suppression system (FSS). Dryden developed an RPRV (remotely piloted research vehicle) flight control system; integrated the wing, FSS, and vehicle systems; and conducted the flight program. In addition to a digital flight control system and aeroelastic wings, each DAST drone had research equipment mounted in its nose and a mid-air retrieval system in its tail. The drones were originally launched from the NASA B-52 bomber and later from a DC-130. The DAST vehicle's flight was monitored from the sky by an F

  5. 14 CFR 93.317 - Commercial Special Flight Rules Area operation curfew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial Special Flight Rules Area operation curfew. 93.317 Section 93.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand...

  6. 14 CFR 93.315 - Requirements for commercial Special Flight Rules Area operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for commercial Special Flight Rules Area operations. 93.315 Section 93.315 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity...

  7. 14 CFR 93.315 - Requirements for commercial Special Flight Rules Area operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for commercial Special Flight Rules Area operations. 93.315 Section 93.315 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity...

  8. 14 CFR 93.317 - Commercial Special Flight Rules Area operation curfew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial Special Flight Rules Area operation curfew. 93.317 Section 93.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand...

  9. 14 CFR 93.317 - Commercial Special Flight Rules Area operation curfew.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial Special Flight Rules Area operation curfew. 93.317 Section 93.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand...

  10. 14 CFR 93.315 - Requirements for commercial Special Flight Rules Area operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for commercial Special Flight Rules Area operations. 93.315 Section 93.315 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity...

  11. Development and flight testing of the HL-10 lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Painter, Weneth D.

    1993-01-01

    The Horizontal Lander 10 (HL-10) lifting body successfully completed 37 flights, achieved the highest Mach number and altitude of this class of vehicle, and contributed to the technology base used to develop the space shuttle and future generations of lifting bodies. Design, development, and flight testing of this low-speed, air-launched, rocket-powered, lifting body was part of an unprecedented effort by NASA and the Northrop Corporation. This paper describes the evolution of the HL-10 lifting body from theoretical design, through development, to selection as one of two low-speed flight vehicles chosen for fabrication and piloted flight testing. Interesting and unusual events which occurred during the program and flight tests, review of significant problems encountered during the first flight, and discussion of how these problems were solved are presented. In addition, impressions of the pilots who flew the HL-10 lifting body are given.

  12. F-15 HiDEC in flight over Mojave desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) research aircraft cruises over California's Mojave Desert at sunset on a flight out of the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The aircraft was used to carry out research on engine and flight control systems and most recently demonstrated the use of computer-assisted engine controls as a means of landing an aircraft safely with only engine power if its normal control surfaces such as elevators, rudders or ailerons are disabled. The aircraft also tested and evaluated a computerized self-repair flight control system for the Air Force that detects damaged or failed flight control surfaces, and then reconfigures undamaged flight surfaces so the mission can continue or the aircraft is landed safely. Nearly all research being carried out in the HIDEC program is applicable to future civilian and military aircraft.

  13. [The occupational physician in France].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-10-01

    The French Labor law defines the role and its allocation criteria of the occupational physician (OP) the same as in Japan. In France, occupational medicine is one of the medical specialties. The OP resident must follow the 4 years clinical training before certification. After having finished their residency, they are entitled to work for the occupational health service office of a company or company association (in the case of small and medium sized companies). The most important characteristics of the French system is that they cover all workers regardless of company size. The main role of the OP is prevention of work related diseases and accidents. They are not allowed to do clinical services except for emergency cases. Their main activities are health examinations, health education, patrol and advice for better working condition. Formerly, it was rather difficult to attract the medical students for OP resident course because of its prevention oriented characteristics. A growing concern about the importance of health management at the work site, however, has changed the situation. Now, the number of candidates for OP resident course is increasing. Their task has expanded to cover mental health and other life style related diseases. The 2011 modification of law redefines the role of the OP as a director of an occupational health service office who has a total responsibility of multidisciplinary services. The French and Japanese occupational health systems have many of similarities. A comparative study by researchers of UOEH is expected to yield useful information. PMID:24107336

  14. A flight test method for pilot/aircraft analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, R.; Buchacker, E.

    1986-01-01

    In high precision flight maneuvres a pilot is a part of a closed loop pilot/aircraft system. The assessment of the flying qualities is highly dependent on the closed loop characteristics related to precision maneuvres like approach, landing, air-to-air tracking, air-to-ground tracking, close formation flying and air-to air refueling of the receiver. The object of a research program at DFVLR is the final flight phase of an air to ground mission. In this flight phase the pilot has to align the aircraft with the target, correct small deviations from the target direction and keep the target in his sights for a specific time period. To investigate the dynamic behavior of the pilot-aircraft system a special ground attack flight test technique with a prolonged tracking maneuvres was developed. By changing the targets during the attack the pilot is forced to react continously on aiming errors in his sights. Thus the closed loop pilot/aircraft system is excited over a wide frequency range of interest, the pilot gets more information about mission oriented aircraft dynamics and suitable flight test data for a pilot/aircraft analysis can be generated.

  15. Establishing Lagrangian Connections between Observations within Air Masses Crossing the Atlantic during the ICARTT Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Methven, J.; Arnold, S. R.; Stohl, A.; Evans, M. J.; Avery, M.; Law, K.; Lewis, A. C.; Monks, P. S.; Parrish, D.; Reeves, C.; Schlager, H.; Atlas, E.; Blake, D.; Coe, H.; Cohen, R. C.; Crosier, J.; Flocke, F.; Holloway, J. S.; Hopkins, J. R.; Huber, G.; McQuaid, J.; Purvis, R.; Rappengluck, B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sachse, G. W.

    2006-01-01

    The International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT)-Lagrangian experiment was conceived with an aim to quantify the effects of photochemistry and mixing on the transformation of air masses in the free troposphere away from emissions. To this end attempts were made to intercept and sample air masses several times during their journey across the North Atlantic using four aircraft based in New Hampshire (USA), Faial (Azores) and Creil (France). This article begins by describing forecasts using two Lagrangian models that were used to direct the aircraft into target air masses. A novel technique is then used to identify Lagrangian matches between flight segments. Two independent searches are conducted: for Lagrangian model matches and for pairs of whole air samples with matching hydrocarbon fingerprints. The information is filtered further by searching for matching hydrocarbon samples that are linked by matching trajectories. The quality of these coincident matches is assessed using temperature, humidity and tracer observations. The technique pulls out five clear Lagrangian cases covering a variety of situations and these are examined in detail. The matching trajectories and hydrocarbon fingerprints are shown and the downwind minus upwind differences in tracers are discussed.

  16. Demoiselles and Drafts from Italy and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, M. Dane

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and Italy. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)

  17. Nuclear Energy - A Fateful Choice for France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Etienne; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In France the public is only moderately interested in technological problems, and so the question of energy choices has not seeped deeply into the political consciousness. The situation could change as the country strengthens its nuclear commitment. (BT)

  18. Women's Employment in France: Protection or Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaud, Marcelle; Levy, Martine

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the origin and evolution of special protection laws in France for employed women, describes those measures that still exist, and explains what employers, unions, and the authorities think of them. Discusses pregnancy, family responsibilities, and technological progress. (CT)

  19. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ..., 2009, the Commission established a schedule for the conduct of the review (74 FR 66992, December 17... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  20. Nuclear Shuttle in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle in flight. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development engineers, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  1. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  2. Space Flight. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on space flight. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Future Flight; Space Fun; Mission: Draw); (2) "Geography" (Space Places); (3) "History" (Space and Time); (4) "Information" (Space Transportation System;…

  3. Java for flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  4. Exploring flight crew behaviour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A programme of research into the determinants of flight crew performance in commercial and military aviation is described, along with limitations and advantages associated with the conduct of research in such settings. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships among personality factors, attitudes regarding flight operations, and crew performance. The potential theoretical and applied utility of the research and directions for further research are discussed.

  5. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  6. Members of the flight and ground crews prepare to unload equipment from NASA's B377SGT Super Guppy T

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Members of the flight and ground crews prepare to unload equipment from NASA's B377SGT Super Guppy Turbine cargo aircraft on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. The outsize cargo plane had delivered the latest version of the X-38 flight test vehicle to NASA Dryden when this photo was taken on June 11, 2000. The B-377SGT Super Guppy Turbine evolved from the 1960s-vintage Pregnant Guppy, Mini Guppy and Super Guppy, used for transporting sections of the Saturn rocket used for the Apollo program moon launches and other outsized cargo. The various Guppies were modified from 1940's and 50's-vintage Boeing Model 377 and C-97 Stratocruiser airframes by Aero Spacelines, Inc., which operated the aircraft for NASA. NASA's Flight Research Center assisted in certification testing of the first Pregnant Guppy in 1962. One of the turboprop-powered Super Guppies, built up from a YC-97J airframe, last appeared at Dryden in May, 1976 when it was used to transport the HL-10 and X-24B lifting bodies from Dryden to the Air Force Museum at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. NASA's present Super Guppy Turbine, the fourth and last example of the final version, first flew in its outsized form in 1980. It and its three sister ships were built in the 1970s for Europe's Airbus Industrie to ferry outsized structures for Airbus jetliners to the final assembly plant in Toulouse, France. It later was acquired by the European Space Agency, and then acquired by NASA in late 1997 for transport of large structures for the International Space Station to the launch site. It replaced the earlier-model Super Guppy, which has been retired and is used for spare parts. NASA's Super Guppy Turbine carries NASA registration number N941NA, and is based at Ellington Field near the Johnson Space Center. For more information on NASA's Super Guppy Turbine, log onto the Johnson Space Center Super Guppy web page at http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/station/assembly/superguppy/

  7. Miscarriage Among Flight Attendants

    PubMed Central

    Grajewski, Barbara; Whelan, Elizabeth A.; Lawson, Christina C.; Hein, Misty J.; Waters, Martha A.; Anderson, Jeri L.; MacDonald, Leslie A.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Cassinelli, Rick T.; Luo, Lian

    2015-01-01

    Background Cosmic radiation and circadian disruption are potential reproductive hazards for flight attendants. Methods Flight attendants from 3 US airlines in 3 cities were interviewed for pregnancy histories and lifestyle, medical, and occupational covariates. We assessed cosmic radiation and circadian disruption from company records of 2 million individual flights. Using Cox regression models, we compared respondents (1) by levels of flight exposures and (2) to teachers from the same cities, to evaluate whether these exposures were associated with miscarriage. Results Of 2654 women interviewed (2273 flight attendants and 381 teachers), 958 pregnancies among 764 women met study criteria. A hypothetical pregnant flight attendant with median firsttrimester exposures flew 130 hours in 53 flight segments, crossed 34 time zones, and flew 15 hours during her home-base sleep hours (10 pm–8 am), incurring 0.13 mGy absorbed dose (0.36 mSv effective dose) of cosmic radiation. About 2% of flight attendant pregnancies were likely exposed to a solar particle event, but doses varied widely. Analyses suggested that cosmic radiation exposure of 0.1 mGy or more may be associated with increased risk of miscarriage in weeks 9–13 (odds ratio = 1.7 [95% confidence interval = 0.95–3.2]). Risk of a first-trimester miscarriage with 15 hours or more of flying during home-base sleep hours was increased (1.5 [1.1–2.2]), as was risk with high physical job demands (2.5 [1.5–4.2]). Miscarriage risk was not increased among flight attendants compared with teachers. Conclusions Miscarriage was associated with flight attendant work during sleep hours and high physical job demands and may be associated with cosmic radiation exposure. PMID:25563432

  8. Surface tension dominates insect flight on fluid interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mukundarajan, Haripriya; Bardon, Thibaut C.; Kim, Dong Hyun; Prakash, Manu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Flight on the 2D air–water interface, with body weight supported by surface tension, is a unique locomotion strategy well adapted for the environmental niche on the surface of water. Although previously described in aquatic insects like stoneflies, the biomechanics of interfacial flight has never been analysed. Here, we report interfacial flight as an adapted behaviour in waterlily beetles (Galerucella nymphaeae) which are also dexterous airborne fliers. We present the first quantitative biomechanical model of interfacial flight in insects, uncovering an intricate interplay of capillary, aerodynamic and neuromuscular forces. We show that waterlily beetles use their tarsal claws to attach themselves to the interface, via a fluid contact line pinned at the claw. We investigate the kinematics of interfacial flight trajectories using high-speed imaging and construct a mathematical model describing the flight dynamics. Our results show that non-linear surface tension forces make interfacial flight energetically expensive compared with airborne flight at the relatively high speeds characteristic of waterlily beetles, and cause chaotic dynamics to arise naturally in these regimes. We identify the crucial roles of capillary–gravity wave drag and oscillatory surface tension forces which dominate interfacial flight, showing that the air–water interface presents a radically modified force landscape for flapping wing flight compared with air. PMID:26936640

  9. X-38 in Flight during Second Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's X-38, a research vehicle developed as part of an effort to build an emergency Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) for the International Space Station, descends toward the desert floor under its steerable parafoil on its second free flight. The X-38 was launched from NASA Dryden's B-52 Mothership on Saturday, February 6, 1999, from an altitude of approximately 23,000 feet. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA

  10. X-38 in Flight during Second Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's X-38, a research vehicle developed as part of an effort to build an emergency Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) for the International Space Station, descends toward a desert lakebed under its steerable parafoil on its second free flight. The X-38 was launched from NASA Dryden's B-52 Mothership on Saturday, February 6, 1999, from an altitude of approximately 23,000 feet. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA

  11. Range Safety Flight Elevation Limit Calculation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzi, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    inputs of vehicle characteristics (e.g., thrust and aerodynamic data), nor does it require reams of turn data after the traditional fashion of the Air Force ranges. The program requires a nominal trajectory table (time, altitude, range, velocity, and flight elevation) and makes heavy use of it to initialize and model a failure turn.

  12. Design and flight test of the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) flight control system on the NASA F-15 test aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Edward A.; Urnes, James M., Sr.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the design, development and flight testing of the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) flight control system performed at McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA), St. Louis, Missouri and at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards Air Force Base, California. This research and development program was conducted by MDA and directed by NASA through the Dryden Flight Research Facility for the period beginning January 1991 and ending December 1993. A propulsion steering backup to the aircraft conventional flight control system has been developed and flight demonstrated on a NASA F-15 test aircraft. The Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) flight system utilizes collective and differential thrust changes to steer an aircraft that experiences partial or complete failure of the hydraulically actuated control surfaces. The PCA flight control research has shown that propulsion steering is a viable backup flight control mode and can assist the pilot in safe landing recovery of a fighter aircraft that has damage to or loss of the flight control surfaces. NASA, USAF and Navy evaluation test pilots stated that the F-15 PCA design provided the control necessary to land the aircraft. Moreover, the feasibility study showed that PCA technology can be directly applied to transport aircraft and provide a major improvement in the survivability of passengers and crew of controls damaged aircraft.

  13. Air Force's First C-17 Flies into Retirement

    NASA Video Gallery

    The U.S. Air Force has retired its first C-17 transport after 21 years as a flight test aircraft and use in joint NASA-USAF propulsion research. NASA research pilot Frank Batteas, who was an Air Fo...

  14. 46. Communication equipment room, shock isolator air compressor at right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Communication equipment room, shock isolator air compressor at right, looking northeast - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  15. 45. Communication equipment room, cable air dryer on left, motorola ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Communication equipment room, cable air dryer on left, motorola base station (vhf) at right, looking southwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  16. In-flight cabin smoke control.

    PubMed

    Eklund, T I

    1996-12-31

    Fatal accidents originating from in-flight cabin fires comprise only about 1% of all fatal accidents in the civil jet transport fleet. Nevertheless, the impossibility of escape during flight accentuates the hazards resulting from low visibility and toxic gases. Control of combustion products in an aircraft cabin is affected by several characteristics that make the aircraft cabin environment unique. The aircraft fuselage is pressurized in flight and has an air distribution system which provides ventilation jets from the ceiling level air inlets running along the cabin length. A fixed quantity of ventilation air is metered into the cabin and air discharge is handled primarily by pressure controlling outflow valves in the rear lower part of the fuselage. Earlier airplane flight tests on cabin smoke control used generators producing minimally buoyant smoke products that moved with and served as a telltales for overall cabin ventilation flows. Analytical studies were done with localized smoke production to predict the percent of cabin length that would remain smoke-free during continuous generation. Development of a buoyant smoke generator allowed simulation of a fire plume with controllable simulated temperature and heat release rates. Tests on a Boeing 757, modified to allow smoke venting out through the top of the cabin, showed that the buoyant smoke front moved at 0.46m/s (1.5ft/sec) with and 0.27m/sec (0.9ft/sec) against, the axial ventilation airflow. Flight tests in a modified Boeing 727 showed that a ceiling level counterflow of about 0.55m/sec (1.8ft/sec) was required to arrest the forward movement of buoyant smoke. A design goal of 0.61m/s (2ft/sec) axial cabin flow would require a flow rate of 99m3/min (3500ft3/min) in a furnished Boeing 757. The current maximum fresh air cabin ventilation flow is 78m3/min (2756 ft3/min). Experimental results indicate that buoyancy effects cause smoke movement behaviour that is not predicted by traditional design analyses and

  17. Magnesium and Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in astronauts before, during, and after space missions, in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female) on 4-6 month space flight missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight, (head-down tilt bed rest, n=27, 35 +/- 7 y). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of magnesium along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-d space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4- to 6-month space missions.

  18. Future Flight Decks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Abbott, Kathy H.; Abbott, Terence S.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of commercial transport flight deck configurations over the past 20-30 years and expected future developments are described. Key factors in the aviation environment are identified that the authors expect will significantly affect flight deck designers. One of these is the requirement for commercial aviation accident rate reduction, which is probably required if global commercial aviation is to grow as projected. Other factors include the growing incrementalism in flight deck implementation, definition of future airspace operations, and expectations of a future pilot corps that will have grown up with computers. Future flight deck developments are extrapolated from observable factors in the aviation environment, recent research results in the area of pilot-centered flight deck systems, and by considering expected advances in technology that are being driven by other than aviation requirements. The authors hypothesize that revolutionary flight deck configuration changes will be possible with development of human-centered flight deck design methodologies that take full advantage of commercial and/or entertainment-driven technologies.

  19. A flight investigation of simulated data-link communications during single-pilot IFR flight. Volume 2: Flight evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. F., Jr.; Duffy, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Key problems in single pilot instrument flight operations are in the management of flight data and the processing of cockpit information during conditions of heavy workload. A flight data console was developed to allow simulation of a digital data link to replace the current voice communications stem used in air traffic control. This is a human factors evaluation of a data link communications system to determine how such a system might reduce cockpit workload, improve flight proficiency, and be accepted by general aviation pilots. The need for a voice channel as backup to a digital link is examined. The evaluations cover both airport terminal area operations and full mission instrument flight. Results show that general aviation pilots operate well with a digital data link communications system. The findings indicate that a data link system for pilot/ATC communications, with a backup voice channel, is well accepted by general aviation pilots and is considered to be safer, more efficient, and result in less workload than the current voice system.

  20. Flight Test Results on the Stability and Control of the F-15B Quiet Spike Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moua, Cheng; McWherter, Shaun H.; Cox, Timothy H.; Gera, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The Quiet Spike (QS) flight research program was an aerodynamic and structural proof-of-concept of a telescoping sonic-boom suppressing nose boom on an F-15 B aircraft. The program goal was to collect flight data for model validation up to 1.8 Mach. The primary test philosophy was maintaining safety of flight. In the area of stability and controls the primary concerns were to assess the potential destabilizing effect of the spike on the stability, controllability, and handling qualities of the aircraft and to ensure adequate stability margins across the entire QS flight envelop. This paper reports on the stability and control methods used for flight envelope clearance and flight test results of the F-15B Quiet Spike. Also discussed are the flight test approach, the criteria to proceed to the next flight condition, brief pilot commentary on typical piloting tasks, approach and landing, and refueling task, and air data sensitivity to the flight control system.

  1. The Flight Track Noise Impact Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burn, Melissa; Carey, Jeffrey; Czech, Joseph; Wingrove, Earl R., III

    1997-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. To accomplish this, NASA is building an Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). The Flight Track Noise Impact Model (FTNIM) has been developed as part of the ASAC. Its primary purpose is to enable users to examine the impact that quieter aircraft technologies and/or operations might have on air carrier operating efficiency at any one of 8 selected U.S. airports. The analyst selects an airport and case year for study, chooses a set of flight tracks for use in the case, and has the option of reducing the noise of the aircraft by 3, 6, or 10 decibels. Two sets of flight tracks are available for each airport: one that represents actual current conditions, including noise abatement tracks, which avoid flying over noise-sensitive areas; and a second set that offers more efficient routing. FTNIM computes the resultant noise impact and the time and distance saved for each operation on the more efficient, alternate tracks. Noise impact is characterized in three ways: the size of the noise contour footprint, the number of people living within the contours, and the number of homes located in the same contours. Distance and time savings are calculated by comparing the noise abatement flight path length to the more efficient alternate routing.

  2. Automated flight test management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, M. D.; Tartt, D. M.; Agarwal, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Phase 1 development of an automated flight test management system (ATMS) as a component of a rapid prototyping flight research facility for artificial intelligence (AI) based flight concepts is discussed. The ATMS provides a flight engineer with a set of tools that assist in flight test planning, monitoring, and simulation. The system is also capable of controlling an aircraft during flight test by performing closed loop guidance functions, range management, and maneuver-quality monitoring. The ATMS is being used as a prototypical system to develop a flight research facility for AI based flight systems concepts at NASA Ames Dryden.

  3. Intelligent flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

  4. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  5. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  6. Schlieren Imaging Of An Aircraft In Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1994-01-01

    Technique for making schlieren images of airplanes and missiles in supersonic flight devised to help understand physics of compressible aerodynamic flows about complicated aircraft shapes. Technique also used to study far-field sonic booms. Data obtained from schlieren images useful in optimizing designs of prototype aircraft. Technique incorporates elements of focusing schlieren photography, astronomical photography, and streak photography. Using sun or moon as source of light, apparatus forms image revealing gradients of density in air flow.

  7. Space flight operations communications phraseology and techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noneman, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    Communications are a critical link in space flight operations. Specific communications phraseology and techniques have been developed to allow rapid and clear transfer of information. Communications will be clear and brief through the use of procedural words and phrases. Communications protocols standardize the required information transferred. The voicing of letters and numbers is discussed. The protocols used in air-to-ground communications are given. A glossary of communications terminology is presented in the appendix.

  8. Air medical transport of cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Essebag, Vidal; Halabi, Abdul R; Churchill-Smith, Michael; Lutchmedial, Sohrab

    2003-11-01

    The air medical transport of cardiac patients is a rapidly expanding practice. For various medical, social, and economic indications, patients are being flown longer distances at commercial altitudes, including international and intercontinental flights. There are data supporting the use of short-distance helicopter flights early in the course of a cardiac event for patients needing emergent transfer for percutaneous coronary intervention or aortocoronary bypass. When considering elective long-distance air medical transport of cardiac patients for social or economic reasons, it is necessary to weigh the benefits against the potential risks of flight. A few recent studies suggest that long-distance air medical transport is safe under certain circumstances. Current guidelines for air travel after myocardial infarction do not address the use of medical escorts or air ambulances equipped with intensive care facilities. Further research using larger prospective studies is needed to better define criteria for safe long-distance air medical transport of cardiac patients. PMID:14605071

  9. Flight experience with the Novacor LVAS.

    PubMed

    Pristas, J M; Lee, J; Wheeldon, D R; Portner, P M

    2001-01-01

    As Novacor LVAS recipients continue to be discharged from the hospital to await cardiac transplantation, an increasing number of patients either need or desire to use air transportation. To date, two test experiences have been reported with the Novacor LVAS operating in a mock circulatory loop during air travel. One involved the transport of a mock loop on a medical helicopter, and another preceded an international flight of an LVAS recipient from Japan to the United States. In each situation, the LVAS, connected to a water-filled mock circulatory loop, was placed on the aircraft and instrumentation was checked to verify that there was no adverse effect on the Novacor equipment, or on aircraft systems, during flight. Novacor LVAS recipients have also been reported to have flown more than 37 commercial air transports throughout Europe, in both rotary and fixed wing aircraft, without incident. Laboratory testing of electromagnetic emissions were also conducted to include specific frequencies utilized by aircraft instrumentation. These tests show that the Novacor LVAS is well below the International Special Committee on Radio Interference (CISPR 11) emissions limits; these data can be provided to an air carrier anticipating transport of a Novacor recipient. Details of the results from the mock loop field testing, as well as the laboratory testing of electromagnetic emissions pertinent to air travel, are presented. This experience suggests that that there has been no impact on aircraft electronics from the LVAS, nor has the aircraft instrumentation generated any interference with the components of the Novacor LVAS. PMID:11374771

  10. NATO SET-093 joint field experiment at Bourges, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, C.; Bruel, F.; Prieur, D.; Naz, P.; Miller, L. S.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the NATO Task Group SET-093/RTG53/MSE (referred to as TG-53 in this report) Acoustic Detection of Weapons Firing Joint Field Experiment II conducted at the Etablissement Technique de Bourges (ETBS), Bourges, France, during 16 to 27 June 2008. This field experiment is a follow-on to the NATO TG-53 Acoustic Detection of Weapons Firing Joint Field Experiment I conducted at the Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG), Yuma, Arizona, USA, during 31 October to 4 November 2005 [1]. The objectives of the joint experiment were: (i) to collect acoustic signatures of direct and indirect firings from weapons' such as small arms, mortars, artillery, rockets, and C4 explosives, (ii) to analyze the propagation effects of grassy, wooded, and urban terrains, (iii) to share signatures collected from a variety of acoustic sensors, on the ground and in the air, distributed over a wide area, and (iv) to demonstrate the interoperability of disparate sensors developed by the various nations involved. The participating NATO countries , including France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States of America, and Israel as well as part of the Mediterranean dialogue countries, deployed nearly 90 sensors and sensor systems over the test range area.

  11. Aircraft digital flight control technical review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, Otha B.; Leggett, David B.

    1993-01-01

    The Aircraft Digital Flight Control Technical Review was initiated by two pilot induced oscillation (PIO) incidents in the spring and summer of 1992. Maj. Gen. Franklin (PEO) wondered why the Air Force development process for digital flight control systems was not preventing PIO problems. Consequently, a technical review team was formed to examine the development process and determine why PIO problems continued to occur. The team was also to identify the 'best practices' used in the various programs. The charter of the team was to focus on the PIO problem, assess the current development process, and document the 'best practices.' The team reviewed all major USAF aircraft programs with digital flight controls, specifically, the F-15E, F-16C/D, F-22, F-111, C-17, and B-2. The team interviewed contractor, System Program Office (SPO), and Combined Test Force (CTF) personnel on these programs. The team also went to NAS Patuxent River to interview USN personnel about the F/A-18 program. The team also reviewed experimental USAF and NASA systems with digital flight control systems: X-29, X-31, F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (SMTD), and the Variable In-Flight Stability Test Aircraft (VISTA). The team also discussed the problem with other experts in the field including Ralph Smith and personnel from Calspan. The major conclusions and recommendations from the review are presented.

  12. Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.

  13. Advanced MCT technologies in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefanis, Gérard; Tribolet, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the very recent developments of the HgCdTe infrared detector technology developed by CEA-LETI and industrialized by Sofradir in France. Today Sofradir uses in production for more than 15years a very mature, reproducible, well mastered and fully understood, planar n on p ion implanted technology. This process that allows very high yields to be achieved in all infrared bands from SWIR to LWIR uses the very conventional approach of LPE growth of MCT on lattice-matched CdZnTe substrates. Progress in this field is continuous from 20years and has recently leaded to the fabrication of high performance VLWIR FPA (320x256 with cut off wavelengths as high as 20μm). Moreover, thanks to the design of the epitaxial structure and to the substrate removal step MCT FPAs present the unique features to have very high quantum efficiency (above 70%) from the cut off wavelength down to the UV. This effect, which opens new application fields, was recently demonstrated in SWIR 320x256 FPAs with cut off wavelength of 2.5μm. Very high quality FPAs (1280x1024) with pitches as small as 15μm have already been demonstrated last year using the MBE growth of MWIR MCT epilayers on 4 inches germanium substrates, n on p ion implanted photodiodes and the hot welding indium bump hybridization technique. At the same time, with the MBE growth, bicolor and dual band FPAs which uses more complex multi hetero-junctions architectures (both 4 layers npn and 'pseudo planar' structures and extrinsically doped MCT layers) were fabricated with formats of 320x256 and pitches as small as 25μm. A very new area of development concerns avalanche photodiodes (APD) made with MCT. This semiconductor presents a unique feature among all the over semiconductors. Extremely high avalanche gains can be obtained on n on p photodiodes without absolutely any noise excess (F(K)=1): MCT APDs act as perfect amplifiers. These results open new interesting fields of investigation for low

  14. Society of Flight Test Engineers, Annual Symposium, 21st, Garden Grove, CA, Aug. 6-10, 1990, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on flight testing encompasses avionics, flight-testing programs, technologies for flight-test predictions and measurements, testing tools, analysis methods, targeting techniques, and flightline testing. Specific issues addressed include flight testing of a digital terrain-following system, a digital Doppler rate-of-descent indicator, a high-technology testbed, a low-altitude air-refueling flight-test program, techniques for in-flight frequency-response testing for helicopters, limit-cycle oscillation and flight-flutter testing, and the research flight test of a scaled unmanned air vehicle. Also addressed are AV-8B V/STOL performance analysis, incorporating pilot-response time in failure-case testing, the development of pitot static flightline testing, targeting techniques for ground-based hover testing, a low-profile microsensor for aerodynamic pressure measurement, and the use of a variable-capacitance accelerometer for flight-test measurements.

  15. Identification of atypical flight patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Whitney, Paul D. (Inventor); White, Amanda M. (Inventor); Willse, Alan R. (Inventor); Cooley, Scott K. (Inventor); Jay, Joseph Griffith (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Mosbrucker, Chris (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Method and system for analyzing aircraft data, including multiple selected flight parameters for a selected phase of a selected flight, and for determining when the selected phase of the selected flight is atypical, when compared with corresponding data for the same phase for other similar flights. A flight signature is computed using continuous-valued and discrete-valued flight parameters for the selected flight parameters and is optionally compared with a statistical distribution of other observed flight signatures, yielding atypicality scores for the same phase for other similar flights. A cluster analysis is optionally applied to the flight signatures to define an optimal collection of clusters. A level of atypicality for a selected flight is estimated, based upon an index associated with the cluster analysis.

  16. Efficient flapping flight of pterosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strang, Karl Axel

    In the late eighteenth century, humans discovered the first pterosaur fossil remains and have been fascinated by their existence ever since. Pterosaurs exploited their membrane wings in a sophisticated manner for flight control and propulsion, and were likely the most efficient and effective flyers ever to inhabit our planet. The flapping gait is a complex combination of motions that sustains and propels an animal in the air. Because pterosaurs were so large with wingspans up to eleven meters, if they could have sustained flapping flight, they would have had to achieve high propulsive efficiencies. Identifying the wing motions that contribute the most to propulsive efficiency is key to understanding pterosaur flight, and therefore to shedding light on flapping flight in general and the design of efficient ornithopters. This study is based on published results for a very well-preserved specimen of Coloborhynchus robustus, for which the joints are well-known and thoroughly described in the literature. Simplifying assumptions are made to estimate the characteristics that can not be inferred directly from the fossil remains. For a given animal, maximizing efficiency is equivalent to minimizing power at a given thrust and speed. We therefore aim at finding the flapping gait, that is the joint motions, that minimize the required flapping power. The power is computed from the aerodynamic forces created during a given wing motion. We develop an unsteady three-dimensional code based on the vortex-lattice method, which correlates well with published results for unsteady motions of rectangular wings. In the aerodynamic model, the rigid pterosaur wing is defined by the position of the bones. In the aeroelastic model, we add the flexibility of the bones and of the wing membrane. The nonlinear structural behavior of the membrane is reduced to a linear modal decomposition, assuming small deflections about the reference wing geometry. The reference wing geometry is computed for

  17. X-15 #3 in flight (USAF Photo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    This U.S. Air Force photo shows the X-15 ship #3 (56-6672) in flight over the desert in the 1960s. Ship #3 made 65 flights during the program, attaining a top speed of Mach 5.65 and a maximum altitude of 354,200 feet. Only 10 of the 12 X-15 pilots flew Ship #3, and only eight of them earned their astronaut wings during the program. Robert White, Joseph Walker, Robert Rushworth, John 'Jack' McKay, Joseph Engle, William 'Pete' Knight, William Dana, and Michael Adams all earned their astronaut wings in Ship #3. Neil Armstrong and Milton Thompson also flew Ship #3. In fact, Armstrong piloted Ship #3 on its first flight, on 20 December 1961. On 15 November 1967, Ship #3 was launched over Delamar Lake, Nevada with Maj. Michael J. Adams at the controls. The vehicle soon reached a speed of Mach 5.2, and a peak altitude of 266,000 feet. During the climb, an electrical disturbance degraded the aircraft's controllability. Ship #3 began a slow drift in heading, which soon became a spin. Adams radioed that the X-15 'seems squirrelly' and then said 'I'm in a spin.' Through some combination of pilot technique and basic aerodynamic stability, Adams recovered from the spin and entered an inverted Mach 4.7 dive. As the X-15 plummeted into the increasingly thicker atmosphere, the Honeywell adaptive flight control system caused the vehicle to begin oscillating. As the pitching motion increased, aerodynamic forces finally broke the aircraft into several major pieces. Adams was killed when the forward fuselage impacted the desert. This was the only fatal accident during the entire X-15 program. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot

  18. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Mount, Frances

    2004-01-01

    The first human space flight, in the early 1960s, was aimed primarily at determining whether humans could indeed survive and function in micro-gravity. Would eating and sleeping be possible? What mental and physical tasks could be performed? Subsequent programs increased the complexity of the tasks the crew performed. Table 1 summarizes the history of U.S. space flight, showing the projects, their dates, crew sizes, and mission durations. With over forty years of experience with human space flight, the emphasis now is on how to design space vehicles, habitats, and missions to produce the greatest returns to human knowledge. What are the roles of the humans in space flight in low earth orbit, on the moon, and in exploring Mars?

  19. Beta experiment flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser Doppler velocimeter system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. The system was flight tested at several different locations and the results of these tests are summarized.

  20. Space flight hazards catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The most significant hazards identified on manned space flight programs are listed. This summary is of special value to system safety engineers in developing safety checklists and otherwise tailoring safety tasks to specific systems and subsystems.