Science.gov

Sample records for air fungal contaminants

  1. Air Contamination With Fungals In Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlat, Iuliana; Haiducu, Maria; Stepa, Raluca

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of fungal contamination of air in museum, deposits patrimony, restoration and conservation laboratories and their effects on health of workers. Microbiological air purity was measured with a SAS-100 Surface Air System impactor. The fungal contamination was observed in all 54 rooms where we made determinations. The highest levels of fungal were recorded at rooms with hygroscopic patrimony objects, eg carpets, chairs, upholstered chairs, books etc. The most species identified included under common allergens: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor. There fungal species belonging to the genus identified in this study, can trigger serious diseases museum workers, such as for example Aspergillus fumigatus, known allergies and toxic effects that may occur. In some places of the museum, occupational exposure limit values to fungi present in the air in the work environment, recommended by the specialized literature, have been overcome.

  2. ASSESSING ALLERGENICITY OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing Allergenicity of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, N Haykal-Coates1, L B Copeland1, S H Gavett1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Rationale: The indoor environment has increased in impor...

  3. Effect of air-conditioner on fungal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Nobuo; Fujita, Tadao

    Air-conditioners (AC) produce much dew and wet conditions inside their apparatus, when in operation. We studied the fungal contamination in AC and found that the average fungal contamination of AC filters was about 5-fold greater than that of a carpet, and Cladosporium and Penicillium were predominant in AC filters. The fungal contamination inside AC, which were used everyday, increased more markedly than those not used daily, e.g. a few days per week or rarely. Moreover, the airborne fungal contamination in rooms during air-conditioning was about 2-fold greater than one in rooms without AC, and was highest when air-conditioning started and decreased gradually with time. We recognized that the airborne fungal contamination was controlled by the environmental condition of the rooms, in which AC were used. It is suggested that AC might promote mold allergies in users via airborne fungal spores derived from the AC. On the other hand, AC was estimated to remove moisture in the room atmosphere and carpets, and reduce the relative humidity in rooms. It was found that the average fungal contamination in the house dust of carpets with AC was suppressed by two-third of that in rooms without AC. The use of AC for suppressing fungal hazards was discussed.

  4. THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The Allergenic Potential of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    Marsha D W Ward1, Michael E Viana2, Yongjoo Chung3, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Lisa B Copeland1, Steven H Gavett1, and MaryJane K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA, 3 UNC, SPH,...

  5. ASSESSING THE ALLERGIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the Allergic Potential of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    Marsha D W Ward1, Michael E Viana2, Yonjoo Chung3, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Lisa B Copeland1, Steven H Gavett1, and MaryJane K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA, 3 UNC, S...

  6. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGIC IMMUNE RESPONSES TO INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using a mouse model to assess immune and inflammatory responses as well as changes in respiratory function and pathology characteristic of allergic asthma to fungal extracts M. anisopliae (MACA), S. chartarum (SCE), and P. chrysogenum (PCE). This model will be useful to a...

  7. An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments

    PubMed Central

    Rogawansamy, Senthaamarai; Gaskin, Sharyn; Taylor, Michael; Pisaniello, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®), 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%−4.2% acetic acid), and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil) tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum), which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%–4.2% acetic acid) was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to inhibit the

  8. Comparison of Air Impaction and Electrostatic Dust Collector Sampling Methods to Assess Airborne Fungal Contamination in Public Buildings.

    PubMed

    Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane; Cassagne, Carole; Gaudart, Jean; Sallah, Kankoé; Charpin, Denis-André; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-03-01

    Many ailments can be linked to exposure to indoor airborne fungus. However, obtaining a precise measurement of airborne fungal levels is complicated partly due to indoor air fluctuations and non-standardized techniques. Electrostatic dust collector (EDC) sampling devices have been used to measure a wide range of airborne analytes, including endotoxins, allergens, β-glucans, and microbial DNA in various indoor environments. In contrast, viable mold contamination has only been assessed in highly contaminated environments such as farms and archive buildings. This study aimed to assess the use of EDCs, compared with repeated air-impactor measurements, to assess airborne viable fungal flora in moderately contaminated indoor environments. Indoor airborne fungal flora was cultured from EDCs and daily air-impaction samples collected in an office building and a daycare center. The quantitative fungal measurements obtained using a single EDC significantly correlated with the cumulative measurement of nine daily air impactions. Both methods enabled the assessment of fungal exposure, although a few differences were observed between the detected fungal species and the relative quantity of each species. EDCs were also used over a 32-month period to monitor indoor airborne fungal flora in a hospital office building, which enabled us to assess the impact of outdoor events (e.g. ground excavations) on the fungal flora levels on the indoor environment. In conclusion, EDC-based measurements provided a relatively accurate profile of the viable airborne flora present during a sampling period. In particular, EDCs provided a more representative assessment of fungal levels compared with single air-impactor sampling. The EDC technique is also simpler than performing repetitive air-impaction measures over the course of several consecutive days. EDC is a versatile tool for collecting airborne samples and was efficient for measuring mold levels in indoor environments. PMID:26491105

  9. A RAPID DNA EXTRACTION METHOD FOR PCR IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGAL INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following air sampling, fungal DNA needs to be extracted and purified to a state suitable for laboratory use. Our laboratory has developed a simple method of extraction and purification of fungal DNA appropriate for enzymatic manipulation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) appli...

  10. Indoor air quality and health does fungal contamination play a significant role?

    PubMed

    Bardana, Emil J

    2003-05-01

    Fungal contamination in buildings can vary greatly, and their presence in a dwelling does not necessarily constitute exposure. Measurement of mold spores and fragments varies depending on the methodology and instruments used. Meaningful comparison of data is rarely possible. The presence of a specific immune response to a fungal antigen only connotes that exposure to one or more related species has occurred, but not that there is a symptomatic clinical state. The response of individuals to indoor bioaerosols is complex and depends on age, gender, state of health, genetic makeup, and degree and time of bioaerosol exposure. In general, mold contamination in buildings is associated with incursion of water or moisture, which should be remedied as efficiently as possible. When disease occurs, it more likely is related to transient annoyance or irritational reactions. Allergic symptoms may be related to mold proliferation in the home environment. Because molds are encountered both indoors and outdoors, it is difficult to determine where the sensitivity initially arose and if the response is solely provoked by either an indoor or outdoor source. As an indoor allergen, mold is considered to be an infrequent participant in the induction of allergic disease when compared with housedust mites, animal dander, and cockroach allergens. Infection in healthy individuals is rare and usually is caused by an outdoor source. Building-related disease caused by mycotoxicosis has not been proved in the medical literature. PMID:12803364

  11. Fungal contamination in two Portuguese wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Viegas, C; Faria, T; Gomes, A Quintal; Sabino, R; Seco, A; Viegas, S

    2014-01-01

    The presence of filamentous fungi was detected in wastewater and air collected at wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) from several European countries. The aim of the present study was to assess fungal contamination in two WWTP operating in Lisbon. In addition, particulate matter (PM) contamination data was analyzed. To apply conventional methods, air samples from the two plants were collected through impaction using an air sampler with a velocity air rate of 140 L/min. Surfaces samples were collected by swabbing the surfaces of the same indoor sites. All collected samples were incubated at 27°C for 5 to 7 d. After lab processing and incubation of collected samples, quantitative and qualitative results were obtained with identification of the isolated fungal species. For molecular methods, air samples of 250 L were also collected using the impinger method at 300 L/min airflow rate. Samples were collected into 10 ml sterile phosphate-buffered saline with 0.05% Triton X-100, and the collection liquid was subsequently used for DNA extraction. Molecular identification of Aspergillus fumigatus and Stachybotrys chartarum was achieved by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the Rotor-Gene 6000 qPCR Detection System (Corbett). Assessment of PM was also conducted with portable direct-reading equipment (Lighthouse, model 3016 IAQ). Particles concentration measurement was performed at five different sizes: PM0.5, PM1, PM2.5, PM5, and PM10. Sixteen different fungal species were detected in indoor air in a total of 5400 isolates in both plants. Penicillium sp. was the most frequently isolated fungal genus (58.9%), followed by Aspergillus sp. (21.2%) and Acremonium sp. (8.2%), in the total underground area. In a partially underground plant, Penicillium sp. (39.5%) was also the most frequently isolated, also followed by Aspergillus sp. (38.7%) and Acremonium sp. (9.7%). Using RT-PCR, only A. fumigatus was detected in air samples collected, and only from partial

  12. Fungi as contaminants in indoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. David

    This article reviews the subject of contamination of indoor air with fungal spores. In the last few years there have been advances in several areas of research on this subject. A number of epidemiological studies have been conducted in the U.K., U.S.A. and Canada. These suggest that exposure to dampness and mold in homes is a significant risk factor for a number of respiratory symptoms. Well-known illnesses caused by fungi include allergy and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. There is now evidence that other consequences of exposure to spores of some fungi may be important. In particular, exposure to low molecular weight compounds retained in spores of some molds such as mycotoxins and β 1,3 glucans appears to contribute to some symptoms reported. Fungal contamination of building air is almost always caused by poor design and/or maintenance. Home owners and building operators need to take evidence of fungal contamination seriously.

  13. Fungal Infections Associated with Contaminated Steroid Injections.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Carol A; Malani, Anurag N

    2016-04-01

    In mid-September 2012, the largest healthcare-associated outbreak in U.S. history began. Before it was over, 751 patients were reported with fungal meningitis, stroke, spinal or paraspinal infection, or peripheral osteoarticular infection, and 64 (8.5%) died. Most patients had undergone epidural injection, and a few osteoarticular injection, of methylprednisolone acetate that had been manufactured at the New England Compounding Center (NECC). The offending pathogen in most cases was Exserohilum rostratum, a brown-black soil organism that previously was a rare cause of human infection. Three lots of methylprednisolone were contaminated with mold at NECC; the mold from unopened bottles of methylprednisolone was identical by whole-genome sequencing to the mold that was isolated from ill patients. Early cases manifested as meningitis, some patients suffered posterior circulation strokes, and later cases were more likely to present with localized infection at the injection site, including epidural abscess or phlegmon, vertebral diskitis or osteomyelitis, and arachnoiditis with intradural involvement of nerve roots. Many patients with spinal or paraspinal infection required surgical intervention. Recommendations for treatment evolved over the first few weeks of the outbreak. Initially, combination therapy with liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole was recommended for all patients; later, combination therapy was recommended only for those who were most ill, and voriconazole monotherapy was recommended for most patients. Among those patients who continued antifungal therapy for at least 6 months, outcomes for most appeared to be successful, although a few patients remain on therapy. PMID:27227303

  14. [Fungal contamination of hydrophilic contact lenses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Liotet, S; Warnet, V N

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted on 113 contact lens showing fungal colonies. The main genus isolated was Cepohalosporium (59.4 p. cent). Lens contamination is favoured by a major factor: contact lens spoliation, a secondary factor being inadequate contact lens maintenance. This contamination raises an economic problem, as every affected contact lens must be replaced. PMID:7199063

  15. Indoor fungal contamination: health risks and measurement methods in hospitals, homes and workplaces.

    PubMed

    Méheust, Delphine; Le Cann, Pierre; Reboux, Gabriel; Millon, Laurence; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Indoor fungal contamination has been associated with a wide range of adverse health effects, including infectious diseases, toxic effects and allergies. The diversity of fungi contributes to the complex role that they play in indoor environments and human diseases. Molds have a major impact on public health, and can cause different consequences in hospitals, homes and workplaces. This review presents the methods used to assess fungal contamination in these various environments, and discusses advantages and disadvantages for each method in consideration with different health risks. Air, dust and surface sampling strategies are compared, as well as the limits of various methods are used to detect and quantify fungal particles and fungal compounds. In addition to conventional microscopic and culture approaches, more recent chemical, immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods are described. This article also identifies common needs for future multidisciplinary research and development projects in this field, with specific interests on viable fungi and fungal fragment detections. The determination of fungal load and the detection of species in environmental samples greatly depend on the strategy of sampling and analysis. Quantitative PCR was found useful to identify associations between specific fungi and common diseases. The next-generation sequencing methods may afford new perspectives in this area. PMID:23586944

  16. Fungal Contamination of Food in Hematology Units

    PubMed Central

    Bouakline, Adel; Lacroix, Claire; Roux, Nicole; Gangneux, Jean Pierre; Derouin, Francis

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of thermotolerant fungi on non-heat-sterilizable food was determined. Aspergillus spp. were noted in 100% of pepper and regular tea samples, 12 to 66% of fruits, 27% of herbal teas, and 20% of freeze-dried soup samples. All soft cheese samples were contaminated by Geotrichum and yeast (Candida norvegensis) but Candida albicans was never identified. PMID:11060109

  17. Contamination by uranium mine drainages affects fungal growth and interactions between fungal species and strains.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Verónica; Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia; Pratas, João; Canhoto, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The presence of aquatic hyphomycetes has been reported for several heavy metal-contaminated waters. Tolerance probably is one adaptation to coping with heavy metals. To help clarify this issue strains of two species of aquatic hyphomycetes (Tricladium splendens Ingold and Varicosporium elodeae Kegel) were isolated from a reference stream and a stream contaminated with heavy metals and grown on malt extract agar prepared with reference and contaminated water to characterize colony morphology, growth rate, growth inhibition and interaction among species and strains. In V. elodeae the morphology of colonies differed between strains. Colony diameter increased linearly over time with growth rates being lower for strains isolated from contaminated than from reference streams (mostly for V. elodeae). Strains from the contaminated stream grew faster in medium prepared with contaminated water than in medium prepared with reference water, while for strains from the reference stream there was no significant difference in growth rates on the two media. In interacting isolates radial growth toward the opposing colony was generally lower than toward the dish edge. Percentage growth inhibition was higher for isolates in intraspecific interactions (13-37%) than in interspecific interactions (3-27%). However differences in growth inhibition experienced by interacting isolates were observed only in three cases out of 16. The difference between the percentage inhibition caused and experienced by a given isolate was highest in interactions involving isolates with distinct growth rates. Our results suggest that strains from the reference stream tolerate heavy metals while strains from the contaminated stream seem to be adapted to contaminated waters. We hypothesize that in natural environments fungal species-specific limits of tolerance to metal contamination might determine an abrupt or gradual response of the original fungal community to mine pollution giving origin to a poorer

  18. Development of Fungal Inocula for Bioaugmentation of Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lestan, D.; Lamar, R. T.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes novel fungal inocula for bioaugmentation of soils contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. The inocula are in the form of pelleted solid substrates coated with a sodium alginate suspension of fungal spores or mycelial fragments and incubated until overgrown with the mycelium of selected lignin-degrading fungi. The organisms evaluated were Phanerochaete chrysosporium (BKM F-1767, ATCC 42725), P. sordida (HHB-8922-Sp), Irpex lacteus (Mad-517, ATCC 11245), Bjerkandera adusta (FP-135160-Sp, ATCC 62023), and Trametes versicolor (MD-277). The pelleted fungal inocula resisted competition and proliferation from indigenous soil microbes, were lower in moisture content than current fungal inocula, and had sufficient mechanical strength to allow handling and introduction into the soil without a change in the mechanical consistency of the pellets. Inoculated at a rate of 3% in artificially contaminated nonsterile soil, I. lacteus, B. adusta, and T. versicolor removed 86, 82, and 90%, respectively, of the pentachlorophenol in 4 weeks. A mathematical model was developed to explain moisture distribution in a hydrogel-coated pelleted substrate. PMID:16535337

  19. Accessing indoor fungal contamination using conventional and molecular methods in Portuguese poultries.

    PubMed

    Viegas, C; Malta-Vacas, J; Sabino, R; Viegas, S; Veríssimo, C

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiological studies showed increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms and adverse changes in pulmonary function parameters in poultry workers, corroborating the increased exposure to risk factors, such as fungal load and their metabolites. This study aimed to determine the occupational exposure threat due to fungal contamination caused by the toxigenic isolates belonging to the complex of the species of Aspergillus flavus and also isolates from Aspergillus fumigatus species complex. The study was carried out in seven Portuguese poultries, using cultural and molecular methodologies. For conventional/cultural methods, air, surfaces, and litter samples were collected by impaction method using the Millipore Air Sampler. For the molecular analysis, air samples were collected by impinger method using the Coriolis μ air sampler. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real-time PCR using specific primers and probes for toxigenic strains of the Aspergillus flavus complex and for detection of isolates from Aspergillus fumigatus complex. Through conventional methods, and among the Aspergillus genus, different prevalences were detected regarding the presence of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus species complexes, namely: 74.5 versus 1.0 % in the air samples, 24.0 versus 16.0 % in the surfaces, 0 versus 32.6 % in new litter, and 9.9 versus 15.9 % in used litter. Through molecular biology, we were able to detect the presence of aflatoxigenic strains in pavilions in which Aspergillus flavus did not grow in culture. Aspergillus fumigatus was only found in one indoor air sample by conventional methods. Using molecular methodologies, however, Aspergillus fumigatus complex was detected in seven indoor samples from three different poultry units. The characterization of fungal contamination caused by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus raises the concern of occupational threat not only due to the detected fungal load but also because of the

  20. Bioremediation of an oil-contaminated soil by fungal intervention

    SciTech Connect

    McGugan, B.R.; Lees, Z.M.; Senior, E.

    1995-12-31

    The central aim of this study was to determine if indigenous fungal species present in an oil-contaminated soil are capable of bioremediating the contamination. Some of the contamination has been present at a disused oil-recycling plant site for over two decades, and it was felt that the indigenous microbial species should have been subjected to specific selection pressure for a protracted period, thus effecting key enzymatic capabilities for degradation in situ. Two experimental approaches to a landfarming type or remediation were examined. The first involved a simple biostimulation process of soil fungi. The second incorporated an extensive isolation and screening program with subsequent bulking and reinoculation into the contaminated soil.

  1. Relationship between Fungal Colonisation of the Respiratory Tract in Lung Transplant Recipients and Fungal Contamination of the Hospital Environment

    PubMed Central

    Brugière, Olivier; Chochillon, Christian; Porcher, Raphael; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; Menotti, Jean; Houze, Sandrine; Lucet, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspergillus colonisation is frequently reported after lung transplantation. The question of whether aspergillus colonisation is related to the hospital environment is crucial to prevention. Method To elucidate this question, a prospective study of aspergillus colonisation after lung transplantation, along with a mycological survey of the patient environment, was performed. Results Forty-four consecutive patients were included from the day of lung transplantation and then examined weekly for aspergillus colonisation until hospital discharge. Environmental fungal contamination of each patient was followed weekly via air and surface sampling. Twelve patients (27%) had transient aspergillus colonisation, occurring 1–13 weeks after lung transplantation, without associated manifestation of aspergillosis. Responsible Aspergillus species were A. fumigatus (6), A. niger (3), A. sydowii (1), A. calidoustus (1) and Aspergillus sp. (1). In the environment, contamination by Penicillium and Aspergillus was predominant. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between occurrence of aspergillus colonisation and fungal contamination of the patient’s room, either by Aspergillus spp. in the air or by A.fumigatus on the floor. Related clinical and environmental isolates were genotyped in 9 cases of aspergillus colonisation. For A. fumigatus (4 cases), two identical microsatellite profiles were found between clinical and environmental isolates collected on distant dates or locations. For other Aspergillus species, isolates were different in 2 cases; in 3 cases of aspergillus colonisation by A. sydowii, A. niger and A. calidoustus, similarity between clinical and environmental internal transcribed spacer and tubulin sequences was >99%. Conclusion Taken together, these results support the hypothesis of environmental risk of hospital acquisition of aspergillus colonisation in lung transplant recipients. PMID:26629994

  2. Hypoxia and Fungal Pathogenesis: To Air or Not To Air?

    PubMed Central

    Grahl, Nora; Shepardson, Kelly M.; Chung, Dawoon

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades, the frequency of life-threatening human fungal infections has increased as advances in medical therapies, solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, an increasing geriatric population, and HIV infections have resulted in significant rises in susceptible patient populations. Although significant advances have been made in understanding how fungi cause disease, the dynamic microenvironments encountered by fungi during infection and the mechanisms by which they adapt to these microenvironments are not fully understood. As inhibiting and preventing in vivo fungal growth are main goals of antifungal therapies, understanding in vivo fungal metabolism in these host microenvironments is critical for the improvement of existing therapies or the design of new approaches. In this minireview, we focus on the emerging appreciation that pathogenic fungi like Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus are exposed to oxygen-limited or hypoxic microenvironments during fungal pathogenesis. The implications of these in vivo hypoxic microenvironments for fungal metabolism and pathogenesis are discussed with an aim toward understanding the potential impact of hypoxia on invasive fungal infection outcomes. PMID:22447924

  3. [The use of individual protective devices for decreasing the microbial contamination of the inhaled air].

    PubMed

    Sedov, A V; Akin'shin, A V; Tregub, T I

    1995-01-01

    The work was aimed to justify application of gas masks and respirators with autonomous air source fo lower bacterial contamination of inhaled air. The studies also covered possible catch of bacteria by cotton and filters FPP-15-1.5, those composed of antimicrobial materials, containing furagin or copper ions. As the studies proved, for lower bacterial contaminations of inhaled air one can apply autonomous air source apparatus with filters made of Petrianov tissue, antimicrobial tissue (containing furagin or copper ions), as they reduce fungal content of the air. Such filters are self-disinfecting, but do not influence total contamination of the air. PMID:7663856

  4. Significance of air humidity and air velocity for fungal spore release into the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Pasanen, P.; Jantunen, M. J.; Kalliokoski, P.

    Our previous field studies have shown that the presence of molds in buildings does not necessarily mean elevated airborne spore counts. Therefore, we investigated the release of fungal spores from cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. at different air velocities and air humidities. Spores of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were released from conidiophores already at air velocity of 0.5 ms -1, whereas Cladosporium spores required at least a velocity of 1.0 ms -1. Airborne spore counts of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were usually higher in dry than moist air, being minimal at relative humidities (r.h.) above 70%, while the effect of r.h. on the release of Cladosporium sp. was ambivalent. The geometric mean diameter of released spores increased when the r.h. exceeded a certain level which depends on fungal genus. Thus, spores of all three fungi were hygroscopic but the hygroscopicity of various spores appeared at different r.h.-ranges. This study indicates that spore release is controlled by external factors and depends on fungal genus which can be one reason for considerable variation of airborne spore counts in buildings with mold problems.

  5. Fungal biomass in saltmarsh grass blades at two contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Newell, S Y; Wall, V D; Maruya, K A

    2000-04-01

    Ascomycetous fungi are the principal drivers of the decomposition of shoots of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). Shoots of smooth cordgrass move into the saltmarsh food web via the decomposition system. Therefore, influences on saltmarsh ascomycetes by pollutants of saltmarshes could have far-reaching impacts. Earlier examination of impacts of severe contamination of a Georgia saltmarsh by mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) revealed little or no influence of the toxicants on living standing crops or sexual productivities of cordgrass ascomycetes. Extension of the examination of saltmarsh-ascomycete response to sites containing other toxic pollutants (the chlorinated organocyclic insecticide toxaphene; chromium, copper, and lead; and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) has shown that none of the additional toxicants engendered saltmarsh-fungal responses in the form of reduced living standing crops or sexual productivities. Thus the ascomycetes of the cordgrass-decay system appear to be as resistant to anthropogenic-pollutant poisoning as smooth cordgrass itself. Unless the fungal and plant resistance mechanisms involve degradation of the toxicants, this may imply that saltmarshes are especially dangerous as receiving sites for toxic waste because they may have the potential to readily move toxicants into the food web. PMID:10667923

  6. INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY, AIR VELOCITY, AND AMPLIFICATION ON THE EMISSION RATES OF FUNGAL SPORES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the impact of relative humidity (RH), air velocity, and surface growth on the emission rates of fungal spores from the surface of contaminated material. Although the results show a complex interaction of factors, we have determined, for this limited data set,...

  7. Concentration of Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Contamination Shapes Fungal Endophytic Community Structure in Plant Roots

    PubMed Central

    Bourdel, Guillaume; Roy-Bolduc, Alice; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Plant-root inhabiting fungi are a universal phenomenon found in all ecosystems where plants are able to grow, even in harsh environments. Interactions between fungi and plant roots can vary widely from mutualism to parasitism depending on many parameters. The role of fungal endophytes in phytoremediation of polluted sites, and characterization of the endophytic diversity and community assemblages in contaminated areas remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the composition of endophytic fungal communities in the roots of two plant species growing spontaneously in petroleum-contaminated sedimentation basins of a former petro-chemical plant. The three adjacent basins showed a highly heterogeneous pattern of pollutant concentrations. We combined a culture-based isolation approach with the pyrosequencing of fungal ITS ribosomal DNA. We selected two species, Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. and Populus balsamifera L., and sampled three individuals of each species from each of three adjacent basins, each with a different concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. We found that contamination level significantly shaped endophytic fungal diversity and community composition in E. erythropoda, with only 9.9% of these fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) retrieved in all three basins. However, fungal community structure associated with P. balsamifera remained unaffected by the contamination level with 28.2% of fungal OTUs shared among all three basins. This could be explained by the smaller differences of pollutant concentrations in the soil around our set of P. balsamifera sampless compared to that around our set of E. erythropoda samples. Our culture-based approach allowed isolation of 11 and 30 fungal endophytic species from surface-sterilized roots of E. erythropoda and P. balsamifera, respectively. These isolates were ribotyped using ITS, and all were found in pyrosequensing datasets. Our results demonstrate that extreme levels of pollution reduce fungal

  8. Concentration of Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Contamination Shapes Fungal Endophytic Community Structure in Plant Roots.

    PubMed

    Bourdel, Guillaume; Roy-Bolduc, Alice; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Plant-root inhabiting fungi are a universal phenomenon found in all ecosystems where plants are able to grow, even in harsh environments. Interactions between fungi and plant roots can vary widely from mutualism to parasitism depending on many parameters. The role of fungal endophytes in phytoremediation of polluted sites, and characterization of the endophytic diversity and community assemblages in contaminated areas remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the composition of endophytic fungal communities in the roots of two plant species growing spontaneously in petroleum-contaminated sedimentation basins of a former petro-chemical plant. The three adjacent basins showed a highly heterogeneous pattern of pollutant concentrations. We combined a culture-based isolation approach with the pyrosequencing of fungal ITS ribosomal DNA. We selected two species, Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. and Populus balsamifera L., and sampled three individuals of each species from each of three adjacent basins, each with a different concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. We found that contamination level significantly shaped endophytic fungal diversity and community composition in E. erythropoda, with only 9.9% of these fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) retrieved in all three basins. However, fungal community structure associated with P. balsamifera remained unaffected by the contamination level with 28.2% of fungal OTUs shared among all three basins. This could be explained by the smaller differences of pollutant concentrations in the soil around our set of P. balsamifera sampless compared to that around our set of E. erythropoda samples. Our culture-based approach allowed isolation of 11 and 30 fungal endophytic species from surface-sterilized roots of E. erythropoda and P. balsamifera, respectively. These isolates were ribotyped using ITS, and all were found in pyrosequensing datasets. Our results demonstrate that extreme levels of pollution reduce fungal

  9. Biogeography in the air: fungal diversity over land and oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Burrows, S. M.; Xie, Z.; Engling, G.; Solomon, P. A.; Fraser, M. P.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Artaxo, P.; Begerow, D.; Conrad, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Després, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

    2011-07-01

    Biogenic aerosols are relevant for the Earth system, climate, and public health on local, regional, and global scales. Up to now, however, little is known about the diversity and biogeography of airborne microorganisms. We present the first DNA-based analysis of airborne fungi on global scales, showing pronounced geographic patterns and boundaries. In particular we found that the ratio of species richness between Basidiomycota and Ascomycota is much higher in continental air than in marine air. This may be an important difference between the "blue ocean" and "green ocean" regimes in the formation of clouds and precipitation, for which fungal spores can act as nuclei. Our findings also suggest that air flow patterns and the global atmospheric circulation are important for the evolution of microbial ecology and for the understanding of global changes in biodiversity.

  10. Biogeography in the air: fungal diversity over land and oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Burrows, S. M.; Xie, Z.; Engling, G.; Solomon, P. A.; Fraser, M. P.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Artaxo, P.; Begerow, D.; Conrad, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Després, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

    2012-03-01

    Biogenic aerosols are relevant for the Earth system, climate, and public health on local, regional, and global scales. Up to now, however, little is known about the diversity and biogeography of airborne microorganisms. We present the first DNA-based analysis of airborne fungi on global scales, showing pronounced geographic patterns and boundaries. In particular we find that the ratio of species richness between Basidiomycota and Ascomycota is much higher in continental air than in marine air. This may be an important difference between the "blue ocean" and "green ocean" regimes in the formation of clouds and precipitation, for which fungal spores can act as nuclei. Our findings also suggest that air flow patterns and the global atmospheric circulation are important for the understanding of global changes in biodiversity.

  11. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments. PMID:24813008

  12. Fungal microcolonies on indoor surfaces — an explanation for the base-level fungal spore counts in indoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Heinonen-Tanski, H.; Kalliokoski, P.; Jantunen, M. J.

    In the subarctic winter, fungal spores are found in indoor air even when outdoor spore levels are very low. The results of this study support an explanation that some indoor airborne fungal spores are derived from unnoticeable fungal microcolonies, which may develop on temporarily wet surfaces. Laboratory experiments on Penicillium verrucosum indicated that the fungus germinated on new wallpaper very quickly (about half an hour) under moist conditions. Hyphal growth and sporulation of the fungus on moist wallpaper occured within one day of incubation. In gravity-settling tape samples from occasionally wet surfaces in a suburban home, large spore aggregates, hyphal fragments with some spores and spores in the germination stage were found, indicating fungal growth. These experiments showed that fungal microcolonies can develop within a week on occasionally wet indoor surfaces.

  13. Fungal and mycotoxin contamination of coffee beans in Benguet province, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Culliao, Audrey Glenn L; Barcelo, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Coffee remains an important agricultural product in Benguet province, Philippines, but is highly susceptible to fungal and mycotoxin contamination in various stages of growth and processing and in different local climates. In this study, pre- and post-harvest coffee bean samples from temperate and warm farming areas were assessed for their fungal and mycotoxin contaminants. One hundred eighty-five fungal isolates belonging to six genera were isolated representing 88.1% of mycotoxigenic fungi. The predominant species belonged to the genus Aspergillus, which are known producers of mycotoxins. Coffee beans from the post-harvest temperate group were found to have the highest percentage mycotoxigenic contamination of 98.4%, suggesting that the risk for fungal contamination is high after drying. Determination of the mycotoxins indicated 28.6% contamination. Ochratoxin A was found to be highest in dried whole cherries which contained 97.3 μg kg(-1), whilst sterigmatocystin was also highest in dried whole cherries at 193.7 μg kg(-1). These results indicate that there are risks of fungal and mycotoxin contamination of Benguet coffee at the post-harvest stage. PMID:25534333

  14. Ambient air contamination: Characterization and detection techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nulton, C. P.; Silvus, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques to characterize and detect sources of ambient air contamination are described. Chemical techniques to identify indoor contaminants are outlined, they include gas chromatography, or colorimetric detection. Organics generated from indoor materials at ambient conditions and upon combustion are characterized. Piezoelectric quartz crystals are used as precision frequency determining elements in electronic oscillators.

  15. Microbial air contamination in indoor environment of a university library.

    PubMed

    Kalwasińska, Agnieszka; Burkowska, Aleksandra; Wilk, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the number of bacteria and mould fungi in the indoor and outdoor environment of Toruń University Library. The sampling sites were located in the rooms serving the functions typical of libraries (i.e. in the Main Reading Room, Current Periodicals Reading Room, Collections Conservation Laboratory, Old Prints Storeroom, in rooms serving other (non-library) functions (i.e. main hall, cafeteria, and toilet) as well as outside the library building. The analyses reveal that the concentrations of bacterial as well as fungal aerosols estimated with the use of the impaction method ranged between 10(1)-10(3) CFU·m(-3), which corresponds to the concentrations normally observed in areas of this kind. Evaluation of the hygienic condition of the studied areas was based on the criteria for microbiological cleanliness in interiors submitted by the European Commission in 1993. According to this classification, the air was considered to be heavily or moderately contaminated with bacteria, while the air contamination with mould fungi was described as low or moderate. The air in the Old Prints Storeroom was considered the least contaminated with microbial aerosol. PMID:22462441

  16. Microbial Air Quality and Bacterial Surface Contamination in Ambulances During Patient Services

    PubMed Central

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Pipitsangjan, Sirikun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to assess microbial air quality and bacterial surface contamination on medical instruments and the surrounding areas among 30 ambulance runs during service. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 106 air samples collected from 30 ambulances before patient services and 212 air samples collected during patient services to assess the bacterial and fungal counts at the two time points. Additionally, 226 surface swab samples were collected from medical instrument surfaces and the surrounding areas before and after ambulance runs. Groups or genus of isolated bacteria and fungi were preliminarily identified by Gram’s stain and lactophenol cotton blue. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient with a p-value of less than 0.050 considered significant. Results The mean and standard deviation of bacterial and fungal counts at the start of ambulance runs were 318±485cfu/m3 and 522±581cfu/m3, respectively. Bacterial counts during patient services were 468±607cfu/m3 and fungal counts were 656±612cfu/m3. Mean bacterial and fungal counts during patient services were significantly higher than those at the start of ambulance runs, p=0.005 and p=0.030, respectively. For surface contamination, the overall bacterial counts before and after patient services were 0.8±0.7cfu/cm2 and 1.3±1.1cfu/cm2, respectively (p<0.001). The predominant isolated bacteria and fungi were Staphylococcus spp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively. Additionally, there was a significantly positive correlation between bacterial (r=0.3, p<0.010) and fungal counts (r=0.2, p=0.020) in air samples and bacterial counts on medical instruments and allocated areas. Conclusions This study revealed high microbial contamination (bacterial and fungal) in ambulance air during services and higher bacterial contamination on medical instrument surfaces and allocated areas after ambulance services compared to the start of ambulance runs

  17. Correlation between environmental relative moldiness index (ERMI) values in French dwellings and other measures of fungal contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) is a DNA-based metric developed to describe the fungal contamination in US dwellings. Our goal was to determine if the ERMI values in dwellings in north western France were correlated with other measures of fungal contamination. D...

  18. Fungal growth pattern, sources and factors of mould contamination in a dry-cured meat production facility.

    PubMed

    Asefa, Dereje T; Kure, Cathrine F; Gjerde, Ragnhild O; Omer, Mohamed K; Langsrud, Solveig; Nesbakken, Truls; Skaar, Ida

    2010-06-15

    The aims of this study were to investigate the patterns of fungal growth on dry-cured meat products, identify the important sources and factors of contamination and recommend intervention measures. The production processes of two smoked dry-cured hams and one unsmoked dry-cured leg of lamb were studied. A longitudinal observational study was performed to collect 642 samples from the meat, production materials, room installations and indoor and outdoor air of the production facility. Standard mycological isolation and identification procedures were followed. Totally, 901 fungal isolates were obtained; of which 57% were moulds while 43% were yeast. Yeasts were dominant on meat surfaces by covering 64% of the isolates. Mould growth was not observed until late in the dry-ripening stage. Yeasts and moulds were isolated from half of the environmental samples, of which moulds contributed by 80%. More than 39 mould species were isolated from the entire production process with a 77% contribution by the species of Penicillium. Penicillium nalgiovense dominated the species composition of moulds isolated from the products and the production environment. A preliminary bioassay analysis on bacterial colonies indicated that most of the P. nalgiovense isolates have the ability to produce penicillin. Such isolates might produce penicillin on the products and can become potential food safety hazards. Improper pressing at the salting process, the air quality in salting, brining and smoking rooms and activities in the sorting room were identified as important factors and sources of fungal contamination. Technical solutions and organized production activities that reduce crack formation, airborne spore concentration and improve air circulation in the facility are recommended as intervention measures. PMID:20442004

  19. Study of canal sediments contaminated with heavy metals: fungal versus bacterial bioleaching techniques.

    PubMed

    Sabra, Nada; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles; Duval, Marie-Nadège; Hamieh, Tayssir

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous fungi and lithotrophic bacteria were used to leach heavy metals from dredged sediments in semi-pilot scale air-lift bioreactors. A preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the sediments comprising a sequential extraction study revealed their high metallic contamination and a predominant association of the metals with sulphides and organic matter. The mobility of heavy metals from sediments was ranked by decreasing order as follows: Mn > Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb. The conditions that favoured the solubilization of heavy metals by filamentous fungi turned out to be also favourable for the activity of the sediment organotrophic bacteria. The latter produced organic acids under temporary hypoxic conditions and resulted in the solubilization of 77% of manganese, 44% of zinc, 12% of copper, and less than 2% of cadmium or lead. In general, the fungal organotrophic treatments were limited to the relatively mobile metals due to the weak nature of the organic acids produced and to their microbial consumption under limited saccharose conditions. The lithotrophic treatments yielded higher solubilization results than the organotrophic experiments. Sulphur resulted in a faster, and for some metals such as copper and cadmium, in better bioleaching results compared with reduced iron or with a combination of reduced iron and sulphur. The bioleaching percentages varied between 72 and 93% for cadmium, copper, manganese and zinc, except for lead because of the poor solubility of lead sulphate. The sediment's lithotrophic bacteria acidified the matrix through sulphur oxidation, and leached both loosely and tightly bound metals. PMID:21970173

  20. The effect of domestic laundry processes on fungal contamination of socks.

    PubMed

    Amichai, Boaz; Grunwald, Marcelo H; Davidovici, Batya; Farhi, Renata; Shemer, Avner

    2013-11-01

    Tinea pedis is a common chronic skin disease. The role of contaminated clothes as a possible source of reinfection is not fully understood. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of domestic laundering at different temperatures in the eradication of fungal pathogens from contaminated socks. Samples from 81 socks worn by patients suffering from tinea pedis underwent domestic laundering at either 40 °C or 60 °C. The socks were dried at room temperature; fungal cultures were taken from two samples from, respectively, the toe and heel areas of the socks. Samples from socks washed at 40 °C revealed 29 (36%) positive fungal cultures, of which 14 came from the toe and 15 from the heel areas of socks. Trichophyton rubrum was isolated in four specimens, and Aspergillus spp. were found in 20 (70%) specimens. Samples from the same socks washed at 60 °C revealed five (6%) positive fungal cultures, of which three came from the toe and two from the heel areas of socks. Only Aspergillus spp. were detected. Yeasts were eradicated at 40 °C. Contravening current trends for energy saving and environmental protection, laundering at low temperatures is not effective in eradicating fungal pathogens, which requires high-temperature laundering at 60 °C. PMID:23879806

  1. Air contaminants in a submarine equipped with air independent propulsion.

    PubMed

    Persson, Ola; Ostberg, Christina; Pagels, Joakim; Sebastian, Aleksandra

    2006-11-01

    The Swedish Navy has operated submarines equipped with air independent propulsion for two decades. This type of submarine can stay submerged for periods far longer than other non-nuclear submarines are capable of. The air quality during longer periods of submersion has so far not been thoroughly investigated. This study presents results for a number of air quality parameters obtained during more than one week of continuous submerged operation. The measured parameters are pressure, temperature, relative humidity, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter and microbiological contaminants. The measurements of airborne particles demonstrate that air pollutants typically occur at a low baseline level due to high air exchange rates and efficient air-cleaning devices. However, short-lived peaks with comparatively high concentrations occur, several of the sources for these have been identified. The concentrations of the pollutants measured in this study do not indicate a build-up of hazardous compounds during eight days of submersion. It is reasonable to assume that a substantial build-up of the investigated contaminants is not likely if the submersion period is prolonged several times, which is the case for modern submarines equipped with air independent propulsion. PMID:17075617

  2. Biodegradation of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide-contaminated soils by white-rot fungal inocula.

    PubMed

    Purnomo, Adi Setyo; Putra, Surya Rosa; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2014-10-01

    The ability of certain white-rot fungi (WRF) inocula to transform heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide and its application in artificially contaminated soil were investigated. Fungal inoculum of Pleurotus ostreatus eliminated approximately 89 % of heptachlor after 28 days of incubation, and chlordene was detected as the primary metabolite. The fungal inoculum of Pleurotus ostreatus had the highest ability to degrade heptachlor epoxide; approximately 32 % were degraded after 28 days of incubation, and heptachlor diol was detected as the metabolite product. Because Pleurotus ostreatus transformed heptachlor into a less toxic metabolite and could also effectively degrade heptachlor epoxide, it was then selected to be applied to artificially contaminated soil. The spent mushroom waste (SMW) of Pleurotus ostreatus degraded heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide by approximately 91 and 26 %, respectively, over 28 days. This finding indicated that Pleurotus ostreatus SMW could be used to bioremediate heptachlor- and heptachlor epoxide-contaminated environments. PMID:24840358

  3. Field ecology, fungal sex and food contamination involving Aspergillus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species within the genus Aspergillus are capable of producing a myriad of toxic secondary metabolites, with aflatoxin being of most concern. These fungi happen to colonize important agricultural commodities, thereby having the potential to contaminate our food with carcinogenic aflatoxins. P...

  4. Resolution of a fungal mycotic aneurysm after a contaminated steroid injection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past ten years there have been three separate outbreaks of fungal contaminated steroid injections from compounding pharmacies. The 2012 outbreak of central nervous system fungal infections associated with contaminated methylprednisolone produced by a United States compounding pharmacy has led to 750 infections (151 with meningitis and paraspinal infections and 325 cases with paraspinal infections without meningitis) and 64 deaths as of October 23, 2013. Exserohilum rostratum has been the predominant pathogen identified by culture, polymerase chain reaction or antibody tests. According to previous reports, cerebral involvement with phaeohyphomycosis has a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Case presentation We report a 41 year-old Caucasian woman who received a lumbar methylprednisolone injection from a contaminated lot in August 2012. She was diagnosed with fungal meningitis by cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and positive (1, 3) beta-D-glucan after cultures and polymerase chain reaction were negative. Two weeks after onset of therapy, she developed a 4.1 mm superior cerebellar artery mycotic aneurysm associated with new stroke symptoms, which resolved with thirty-two weeks of antifungal treatment. Conclusions This is the rare case report of successful medical management of a cerebral mycotic aneurysm with stroke symptoms related to a presumed phaeohyphomycosis in an immunocompetent individual. Further studies are needed to determine the utility of cerebrospinal fluid (1, 3) beta-D-glucan in diagnosing and monitoring patients with meningitis thought to be related to fungal infection. PMID:24885172

  5. Fungal inoculum properties: extracellular enzyme expression and pentachlorophenol removal in highly contaminated field soils.

    PubMed

    Ford, Christopher I; Walter, Monika; Northcott, Grant L; Di, Hong J; Cameron, Keith C; Trower, Tania

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to improve the pentachlorophenol (PCP) bioremediation ability of white-rot fungi in highly contaminated field soils by manipulating bioaugmentation variables. These were the dry weight percentage of fungal inoculum addition (31-175 g kg(-1)), PCP concentration (100-2137 mg kg(-1) PCP), fungal inoculum formulation, and time (1-7 wk). Five fungal isolates were used: the New Zealand isolates Trametes versicolor (L.: Fr.) HR131 and Trametes sp. HR577; the North American isolates Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burds. (two isolates) and Phanerochaete sordida (Karst.) Erikss. & Ryv. Pentachlorophenol removal, manganese peroxidase, and laccase activity, and the formation of chloroanisoles in the contaminated field soils were measured. The majority of PCP removed by the Trametes isolates was in the first week after bioaugmentation. The maximum PCP removal by the fungi varied from 50 to 65% from a 1065 mg kg(-1) PCP contaminated field soil. Pentachlorophenol was preferentially converted to pentachloroanisole (PCA) by the Phanerochaete isolates (>60%), while 2 to 9% of the PCP removed by two Trametes isolates was converted to PCA. A pH increase was measured following bioaugmentation that was dependent on PCP concentration, fungal inoculum addition, and formulation. This, together with rapid initial PCP removal, possibly changed the bioavailability of the remaining PCP to the fungi and significantly decreased the sequestering of PCP in the contaminated field soils. The research supports the conclusion that New Zealand Trametes spp. can rapidly remove PCP in contaminated field soils. Bioavailability and extractability of PCP in the contaminated field soil may significantly increase after bioaugmentation. PMID:17940259

  6. Can airborne fungal allergens pass through an air-conditioning system. [Aspergillus fumigatus

    SciTech Connect

    Elixmann, J.H. ); Linskens, H.F.; Schata, M.; Jorde, W. )

    1989-01-01

    Fungal spores, an important fraction of aeroplankton particles, can be filtered in an air-conditioning system, resulting in a drastic reduction of the spore count in the air-conditioned rooms. Nevertheless, using the EISA inhibition test against Aspergillus fumigatus, it was found that air samples from air-conditioned rooms show inhibition of the serum activity of a highly sensitized patient. There is evidence that airborne allergens can pass both coarse and fine filters of an air-conditioning system.

  7. Early detection of fungal contamination on green coffee by a MOX sensors based Electronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sberveglieri, V.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Gobbi, E.; Pulvirenti, A.; Fava, P.

    2011-09-01

    Fungal growth can occur on green coffee beans along all the distribution chain, eventually bringing on health hazards to consumers, because of the production of toxic metabolites (mycotoxins) [1]. Besides, the sensorial contamination due to volatiles by-products of fungal metabolism could cause defects on coffee also after roasting. Therefore, it is necessary to devise strategies to detect and quantify fungal infection and toxin production at early stages of the food chain. One of the most promising techniques is the analysis of volatile compounds in the headspace gas surrounding the samples. The aim of this work was to verify the ability of the Electronic Nose (EN EOS835) to early detect the microbial contamination of Arabica green coffee. This EN is equipped with Metal Oxide Semiconductor sensor array. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the static headspace of non-contaminated Arabica green coffee samples was carried out to confirm the EN ability to provide satisfactory indications about the presence of contamination.

  8. Air cleaning issues with contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1997-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a list of contaminated sites that warrant special USNRC attention because they pose unique or complex decommissioning issues. This list of radiologically contaminated sites is termed the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP), and was first issued in 1990. A site is placed on the SDMP list if it has; (1) Problems with the viability of the responsible organization (e.g., the licensee for the site is unable or unwilling to pay for the decommissioning); (2) Large amounts of soil contamination or unused settling ponds or burial grounds that may make the waste difficult to dispose of; (3) The long-term presence of contaminated, unused buildings; (4) A previously terminated license; or (5) Contaminated or potential contamination of the ground water from on-site wastes. In deciding whether to add a site to the SDMP list, the NRC also considers the projected length of time for decommissioning and the willingness of the responsible organization to complete the decommissioning in a timely manner. Since the list was established, 9 sites have been removed from the list, and the current SDMP list contains 47 sites in 11 states. The USNRC annually publishes NUREG-1444, {open_quotes}Site Decommissioning Management Plan{close_quotes}, which updates the status of each site. This paper will discuss the philosophical goals of the SDMP, then will concentrate on the regulatory requirements associated with air cleaning issues at the SDMP sites during characterization and remediation. Both effluent and worker protection issues will be discussed. For effluents, the source terms at sites will be characterized, and measurement techniques will be presented. Off-site dose impacts will be included. For worker protection issues, air sampling analyses will be presented in order to show how the workers are adequately protected and their doses measured to satisfy regulatory criteria during decontamination operations. 1 tab.

  9. 40 CFR 52.1988 - Air contaminant discharge permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air contaminant discharge permits. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1988 Air contaminant... other provisions contained in Air Contaminant Discharge Permits issued by the State in accordance...

  10. Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing Potential Meteoritic Amino Acid Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bruckner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of non-protein alpha-dialkyl-amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-A1B) and isovaline (Iva), which are relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids, however, the discovery of alpha-AIB in peptides producers by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the alpha-AIB observed in some meteorites. The alpha-AIB-containing peptides produced by these fungi are dubbed peptaibiotics. We measured the molecular distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios for amino acids found in the total hydrolysates of four biologically synthesized peptaibiotics. We compared these aneasurenetts with those from the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Murchison and from three Antarctic CR2 carbonaceous chondrites in order to understand the peptaibiotics as a potential source of meteoritic contamination.

  11. Fungal DNA Detected in Blood Samples of Patients Who Received Contaminated Methylprednisolone Injections Reveals Increased Complexity of Causative Agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanan; Armeanu, Emilian; DiVerniero, Richard; Lewis, Terri A.; Dobson, Richard C.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Using Exserohilum rostratum-specific and panfungal real-time PCR, we studied 24 blood samples and 2 synovial fluid specimens from 20 patients with persistent or worsening pain following injections of contaminated methylprednisolone. Seven blood specimens from 6 patients were significantly positive for fungal DNA by panfungal PCR, with multiple fungal species identified. PMID:24719442

  12. Allergies to molds caused by fungal spores in air conditioning equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Schata, M.; Jorde, W. ); Elixmann, J.H.; Linskens, H.F. )

    1989-01-01

    People suffering from various symptoms while in air-conditioned rooms often show sensitizations to fungi that can be isolated when the fungi are removed from air conditioners. By using specific challenge tests it was shown that fungal spores in air conditioners can evoke allergic symptoms. Hyposensitization was the specific therapy prescribed for such allergic reactions. After hyposensitization therapy, more than 70% of the patients so treated could live and work again in air-conditioned rooms without developing specific symptoms.

  13. [The fungal flora of the air in the villages around Carsamba, Northern Turkey].

    PubMed

    Ulutan, F; Copur, S; Koçoğlu, T

    1985-07-01

    The fungal flora of the air was investigated in 13 villages of Samsun, Carşamba, Kizilot Health Center in December and February. In most of the villages, Penicillium and Alternaria were isolated most frequently. Scopulariopsis and Fusarium were also found at high quantity in the air. PMID:4033470

  14. Antimicrobial cocktails to control bacterial and fungal contamination in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Yang, Fengyuan; Chen, Huiyi; Fan, Zhiyue; Zhou, Yongkang; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Yuanlin

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga widely used for research in photosynthesis, cell cycle regulation, ciliary biogenesis, and other physiological processes. Sterile cultures are needed for these studies, but contamination from bacteria and fungi occurs frequently. Although the One-shot Solution cocktail consisting of carbendazim, ampicillin, and cefotaxime has been developed for removing these contaminants from algal cultures, it is not always effective. Here we report two new antimicrobial cocktails for treating mixed bacterial and fungal contamination of Chlamydomonas cultures. A combination of the bactericide nalidixic acid with one of two fungicides, azoxystrobin or tebuconazole, was more effective than the One-shot Solution cocktail. In some of our tests, we find that alternating use of our new cocktails with One-shot Solution is needed to remove obstinate contaminants. PMID:26956093

  15. Scrubbing of contaminants from contaminated air streams with aerogel materials with optional photocatalytic destruction

    DOEpatents

    Attia, Yosry A.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for separating a vaporous or gaseous contaminant from an air stream contaminated therewith. This method includes the steps of: (a) passing said contaminated air into a contact zone in which is disposed an aerogel material capable of selecting adsorbing said contaminant from air and therein contacting said contaminated air with an aerogel material; and (b) withdrawing from said zone, air depleted of said contaminant. For present purposes, "contaminant" means a material not naturally occurring in ambient air and/or a material naturally occurring in air but present at a concentration above that found in ambient air. Thus, the present invention scrubs (or treats) air for the purpose of returning it to its ambient composition. Also disclosed herein is a process for the photocatalytic destruction of contaminants from an air stream wherein the contaminated air stream is passed into a control cell or contact zone in which is disposed a photocatalytic aerogel and exposing said aerogel to ultraviolet (UV) radiation for photocatalytically destroying the adsorbed contaminant, and withdrawing from said cell an exhaust air stream depleted in said contaminant.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF CONTACT VACUUMING FOR REMEDIATION OF FUNGALLY CONTAMINATED DUCT MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental fungi become a potential Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) problem when adequate moisture and nutrients are present in building materials. Because of their potential to rapidly spread contamination throughout a building, ventilation system materials are of particular signifi...

  17. Air- and Dustborne Mycoflora in Houses Free of Water Damage and Fungal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Horner, W. Elliott; Worthan, Anthony G.; Morey, Philip R.

    2004-01-01

    Typically, studies on indoor fungal growth in buildings focus on structures with known or suspected water damage, moisture, and/or indoor fungal growth problems. Reference information on types of culturable fungi and total fungal levels are generally not available for buildings without these problems. This study assessed 50 detached single-family homes in metropolitan Atlanta, Ga., to establish a baseline of “normal and typical” types and concentrations of airborne and dustborne fungi in urban homes which were predetermined not to have noteworthy moisture problems or indoor fungal growth. Each home was visually examined, and samples of indoor and outdoor air and of indoor settled dust were taken in winter and summer. The results showed that rankings by prevalence and abundance of the types of airborne and dustborne fungi did not differ from winter to summer, nor did these rankings differ when air samples taken indoors were compared with those taken outdoors. Water indicator fungi were essentially absent from both air and dust samples. The air and dust data sets were also examined specifically for the proportions of colonies from ecological groupings such as leaf surface fungi and soil fungi. In the analysis of dust for culturable fungal colonies, leaf surface fungi constituted a considerable portion (>20%) of the total colonies in at least 85% of the samples. Thus, replicate dust samples with less than 20% of colonies from leaf surface fungi are unlikely to be from buildings free of moisture or mold growth problems. PMID:15528497

  18. Fungal infection and aflatoxin contamination in maize collected from Gedeo zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nitin M; Washe, Alemayehu P; Minota, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins contamination of maize exhibits a serious threat to human and animal health over the past few decades. To protect the safety of food commodities, regular monitoring for afltoxins in food is necessary. In the proposed study, we have followed a rapid and sensitive biosensor approach as well as thin layer chromatography method for quantification of aflatoxins. Our data demonstrate that all the samples tested were beyond the safety level of aflatoxins as determined by Food and Drug Administration and European Union. Results of fungal mycoflora evidenced the massive presence of Aspergillus species (75 %) followed by Fusarium (11 %), Penicillium (8 %) and Trichoderma (6 %) as characterized by biochemical and sporulation properties. Use of internationally developed biosensor for detection of fungal toxin in this work is the first approach that was utilized in the developing country like Ethiopia. In the end, we conclude that fungal contaminant and there metabolites are potential threat to the agricultural industry and require urgent intervention. PMID:27386236

  19. THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The indoor environment has increased in importance to children's health with children now spending more than 90% of their time indoors. Molds are an important component of this environment and have been associated with exacerbation of asthma. Their contribution t...

  20. Preliminary laboratory report of fungal infections associated with contaminated methylprednisolone injections.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Pham, Cau D; Gade, Lalitha; Iqbal, Naureen; Scheel, Christina M; Cleveland, Angela A; Whitney, Anne M; Noble-Wang, Judith; Chiller, Tom M; Park, Benjamin J; Litvintseva, Anastasia P; Brandt, Mary E

    2013-08-01

    In September 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) initiated an outbreak investigation of fungal infections linked to injection of contaminated methylprednisolone acetate (MPA). Between 2 October 2012 and 14 February 2013, the CDC laboratory received 799 fungal isolates or human specimens, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), synovial fluid, and abscess tissue, from 469 case patients in 19 states. A novel broad-range PCR assay and DNA sequencing were used to evaluate these specimens. Although Aspergillus fumigatus was recovered from the index case, Exserohilum rostratum was the primary pathogen in this outbreak and was also confirmed from unopened MPA vials. Exserohilum rostratum was detected or confirmed in 191 specimens or isolates from 150 case patients, primarily from Michigan (n=67 patients), Tennessee (n=26), Virginia (n=20), and Indiana (n=16). Positive specimens from Michigan were primarily abscess tissues, while positive specimens from Tennessee, Virginia, and Indiana were primarily CSF. E. rostratum antifungal susceptibility MIC50 and MIC90 values were determined for voriconazole (1 and 2 μg/ml, respectively), itraconazole (0.5 and 1 μg/ml), posaconazole (0.5 and 1 μg/ml), isavuconazole (4 and 4 μg/ml), and amphotericin B (0.25 and 0.5 μg/ml). Thirteen other mold species were identified among case patients, and four other fungal genera were isolated from the implicated MPA vials. The clinical significance of these other fungal species remains under investigation. The laboratory response provided significant support to case confirmation, enabled linkage between clinical isolates and injected vials of MPA, and described significant features of the fungal agents involved in this large multistate outbreak. PMID:23761142

  1. Culture and molecular identification of fungal contaminants in edible bird nests.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jennifer Xiao Jing; Wong, Shew Fung; Lim, Patricia Kim Chooi; Mak, Joon Wah

    2015-01-01

    Widespread food poisoning due to microbial contamination has been a major concern for the food industry, consumers and governing authorities. This study is designed to determine the levels of fungal contamination in edible bird nests (EBNs) using culture and molecular techniques. Raw EBNs were collected from five house farms, and commercial EBNs were purchased from five Chinese traditional medicine shops (companies A-E) in Peninsular Malaysia. The fungal contents in the raw and commercial EBNs, and boiled and unboiled EBNs were determined. Culturable fungi were isolated and identified. In this study, the use of these methods revealed that all EBNs had fungal colony-forming units (CFUs) that exceeded the limit set by Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) for yeast and moulds in EBNs. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the number of types of fungi isolated from raw and commercial EBNs, but no significant difference in the reduction of the number of types of fungi after boiling the EBNs (p > 0.05). The types of fungi isolated from the unboiled raw EBNs were mainly soil, plant and environmental fungi, while the types of fungi isolated from the boiled raw EBNs, unboiled and boiled commercial EBNs were mainly environmental fungi. Aspergillus sp., Candida sp., Cladosporium sp., Neurospora sp. and Penicillum sp. were the most common fungi isolated from the unboiled and boiled raw and commercial EBNs. Some of these fungi are mycotoxin producers and cause opportunistic infections in humans. Further studies to determine the mycotoxin levels and methods to prevent or remove these contaminations from EBNs for safe consumption are necessary. The establishment and implementation of stringent regulations for the standards of EBNs should be regularly updated and monitored to improve the quality of the EBNs and consumer safety. PMID:26429550

  2. Evaluation of Fungal Metabolic Compounds Released to the Air in a Restricted Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, Robert N.

    1991-01-01

    The metabolic action of selected fungi species on common components of the interior of Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be tested. When present, volatile organic chemicals will be collected on porous polymer adsorbent columns. Using thermal desorption, the volatile compounds will be passed onto a gas chromatographic column for analysis. The Space Station Freedom (SSF) modular complex will largely be individually self contained and the established air environment will not be easily adjusted. The development and maintenance of a safe working environment offers a considerable challenge. Present plans for use of SSF acknowledge periods of manned activities and alternate times when the station is unmanned. The obvious necessity for clean and safe air and water during periods of use have been pursued as fundamental systems to SSF success. Somewhat less obvious, although perhaps of no less importance to the success of long term cyclic usage, are those periods of inactivity. It is during these periods when spores from microorganisms may be afforded the best conditions to germinate and in the vegetative form react with the complex synthetic chemical polymers which compose the furnishings and hardware of SSF nodes. Biodegradation could constitute a real hygiene problem, if the organisms form and release volatile organic chemicals. Similar problems have been documented in closed and improperly ventilated buildings and work spaces. Many of the metabolic products of fungi and bacterial growth create a variety of health problems. Analytical chemical techniques will first be used to document the growth of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium fungal species on the potential substrates Nomex and Kevlar. Any volatile organics that are released will be measured using the spectrum of gas adsorption chromatography. The level of microbial contamination that is necessary to produce such volatile compounds and the relative amounts expected to accumulate will be estimated.

  3. Invasive Fungal Infections Acquired from Contaminated Food or Nutritional Supplements: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Chiller, Tom M; Mody, Rajal K

    2016-07-01

    Fungi are an integral part of the natural environment and, therefore, play many roles in relation to food: some fungi are used in food production, some are food sources themselves, and some are agents of food spoilage. Some fungi that contaminate food can also be harmful to human health. The harmful but noninfectious health consequences of mycotoxins have been well-characterized, but the extent to which fungi in food pose a risk for invasive infections is unknown. We conducted a literature review to identify cases of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) believed to have resulted from ingestion or inhalation of food, beverages, or dietary supplements (excluding Saccharomyces infections). We identified 11 publications describing cases or small outbreaks of IFIs related to foods or beverages and three describing IFIs related to dietary supplements. These food-associated IFIs were predominantly mold infections, and the few yeast infections were associated with dairy products. Suspected foodborne IFIs appear to be rare, but are increasingly described in the electronically searchable literature. They are associated with a variety of foods, are due to a variety of fungal pathogens, and primarily occur in persons with immunosuppressive conditions or other predisposing factors. Various guidelines for high-risk patients recommend avoidance of certain food products that may contain high levels of fungi, but further work is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these restrictive diets in preventing fungal infections. The relationships between food spoilage, food insecurity, and IFI risk are another area that may warrant further exploration. PMID:27074753

  4. Mold contamination and air handling units.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen C; Palmatier, Robert N; Andriychuk, Larysa A; Martin, Jared M; Jumper, Cynthia A; Holder, Homer W; Straus, David C

    2007-07-01

    An investigation was conducted on selected locations in air handling units (AHUs) to (a) identify common mold species found on these locations, (b) determine whether some locations (and subsets) featured mold growth sites more frequently than others, (c) ascertain whether the operating condition of AHUs is related to mold contamination, and (d) provide a basis for a microbial sampling protocol for AHUs. A total of 566 tape lifts and 570 swab samples were collected from the blower wheel fan blades, insulation, cooling coil fins, and ductwork from 25 AHUs. All AHU conditions were numerically rated using a heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) survey. Results showed that Cladosporium sp. fungi were commonly recovered in terms of growth sites and deposited spores, and they were found mainly in the blower wheel fan blades, the ductwork, and the cooling coil fins. Subsections of the fan blades, insulation, and cooling coil fins showed no preferred area for mold growth sites. Other organisms such as Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., and Paecilomyces sp. were recovered from the cooling coil fins and insulation. Because of the widespread prevalence of Cladosporium sp., there was no relationship between mold growth and operating condition. However, the presence of different species of molds in locations other than the blower wheel blades may indicate that the AHU condition is not optimal. A suggested microbial sampling protocol including interpretations of sample results is presented. PMID:17487721

  5. Fungal dissemination by housefly (Musca domestica L.) and contamination of food commodities in rural areas of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Phoku, J Z; Barnard, T G; Potgieter, N; Dutton, M F

    2016-01-18

    Several insects that act as vectors, including houseflies (Musca domestica L.), are often considered to be an important source of fungal contamination in human foods. Houseflies are also involved in the transmission of bacterial pathogens that may pose a serious hazard to human health. Thus, the rural population of South Africa, as typified by that in the Gauteng Province investigated in this study, is at high risk from fungal exposure disseminated by houseflies and it is therefore important to assess the role of flies in contaminating various food commodities. Eighty four samples of houseflies (captured from households and pit toilets) were studied for their potential to carry fungal spores into food commodities. The fungi occurring in samples of raw maize (15) and porridge (19) were also assessed. Fungal isolates were identified based on morphological characteristics by conventional identification methods. Fifteen genera of fungi were isolated and identified, of which Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Moniliella and Mucor were the most prevalent in all three sample types analysed. The incidence rates of fungal contamination per total fungal count isolated in houseflies, maize and porridge were recorded with mean fungal load of 2×10(8) CFU/ml, 1×10(7)CFU/g and 2×10(7)CFU/g respectively. Additionally, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, P. verrucosum, P. aurantiogriseum and M. suaveolens were the most frequent fungal isolates in houseflies with incidence rate of 34%, 11%, 27%, 21%, 22%, 17% and 32% respectively. F. verticillioides, A. flavus, A. niger and P. oslonii were the most prevalent species contaminating porridge and maize with incidence rate of 23%, 32%, 16% and 28% in maize samples, while incidence rates of 59%, 15% and 29% were recorded in porridge samples with the exception of F. verticillioides. The prevalence of these genera of fungi may pose serious health risks. PMID:26544205

  6. [Biological treatments for contaminated soils: hydrocarbon contamination. Fungal applications in bioremediation treatment].

    PubMed

    Martín Moreno, Carmen; González Becerra, Aldo; Blanco Santos, María José

    2004-09-01

    Bioremediation is a spontaneous or controlled process in which biological, mainly microbiological, methods are used to degrade or transform contaminants to non or less toxic products, reducing the environmental pollution. The most important parameters to define a contaminated site are: biodegradability, contaminant distribution, lixiviation grade, chemical reactivity of the contaminants, soil type and properties, oxygen availability and occurrence of inhibitory substances. Biological treatments of organic contaminations are based on the degradative abilities of the microorganisms. Therefore the knowledge on the physiology and ecology of the biological species or consortia involved as well as the characteristics of the polluted sites are decisive factors to select an adequate biorremediation protocol. Basidiomycetes which cause white rot decay of wood are able to degrade lignin and a variety of environmentally persistent pollutants. Thus, white rot fungi and their enzymes are thought to be useful not only in some industrial process like biopulping and biobleaching but also in bioremediation. This paper provides a review of different aspects of bioremediation technologies and recent advances on ligninolytic metabolism research. PMID:15709784

  7. The potentiality of cross-linked fungal chitosan to control water contamination through bioactive filtration.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Elguindy, Nihal M

    2016-07-01

    Water contamination, with heavy metals and microbial pathogens, is among the most dangerous challenges that confront human health worldwide. Chitosan is a bioactive biopolymer that could be produced from fungal mycelia to be utilized in various applied fields. An attempt to apply fungal chitosan for heavy metals chelation and microbial pathogens inhibition, in contaminated water, was performed in current study. Chitosan was produced from the mycelia of Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella elegans, Mucor rouxii and from shrimp shells, using unified production conditions. The FT-IR spectra of produced chitosans were closely comparable. M. rouxii chitosan had the highest deacetylation degree (91.3%) and the lowest molecular weight (33.2kDa). All chitosan types had potent antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus; the most forceful type was C. elegans chitosan. Chitosan beads were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GLA) and ethylene-glycol-diglycidyl ether (EGDE); linked beads became insoluble in water, acidic and alkaline solutions and could effectively adsorb heavy metals ions, e.g. copper, lead and zinc, in aqueous solution. The bioactive filter, loaded with EGDE- A. niger chitosan beads, was able to reduce heavy metals' concentration with >68%, and microbial load with >81%, after 6h of continuous water flow in the experimentally designed filter. PMID:26995612

  8. Linkage between bacterial and fungal rhizosphere communities in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is related to plant phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Terrence H; El-Din Hassan, Saad; Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Al-Otaibi, Fahad; Hijri, Mohamed; Yergeau, Etienne; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to excavating and chemically treating contaminated soils. Certain plants can directly bioremediate by sequestering and/or transforming pollutants, but plants may also enhance bioremediation by promoting contaminant-degrading microorganisms in soils. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region to compare the community composition of 66 soil samples from the rhizosphere of planted willows (Salix spp.) and six unplanted control samples at the site of a former petrochemical plant. The Bray–Curtis distance between bacterial communities across willow cultivars was significantly correlated with the distance between fungal communities in uncontaminated and moderately contaminated soils but not in highly contaminated (HC) soils (>2000 mg kg−1 hydrocarbons). The mean dissimilarity between fungal, but not bacterial, communities from the rhizosphere of different cultivars increased substantially in the HC blocks. This divergence was partly related to high fungal sensitivity to hydrocarbon contaminants, as demonstrated by reduced Shannon diversity, but also to a stronger influence of willows on fungal communities. Abundance of the fungal class Pezizomycetes in HC soils was directly related to willow phylogeny, with Pezizomycetes dominating the rhizosphere of a monophyletic cluster of cultivars, while remaining in low relative abundance in other soils. This has implications for plant selection in phytoremediation, as fungal associations may affect the health of introduced plants and the success of co-inoculated microbial strains. An integrated understanding of the relationships between fungi, bacteria and plants will enable the design of treatments that specifically promote effective bioremediating communities. PMID:23985744

  9. Presence of Actinobacterial and Fungal Communities in Clean and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Subsurface Soil

    PubMed Central

    Björklöf, Katarina; Karlsson, Sanja; Frostegård, Åsa; Jørgensen, Kirsten S

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the microbial communities adapted to soil environments contaminated with aged complex hydrocarbon mixtures, especially in the subsurface soil layers. In this work we studied the microbial communities in two different soil profiles down to the depth of 7 m which originated from a 30-year-old site contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and from a clean site next to the contaminated site. The concentration of oxygen in the contaminated soil profile was strongly reduced in soil layers below 1 m depth but not in the clean soil profile. Total microbial biomass and community composition was analyzed by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) measurements. The diversity of fungi and actinobacteria was investigated more in detail by construction of rDNA-based clone libraries. The results revealed that there was a significant and diverse microbial community in subsoils at depth below 2 m, also in conditions where oxygen was limiting. The diversity of actinobacteria was different in the two soil profiles; the contaminated soil profile was dominated by Mycobacterium -related sequences whereas sequences from the clean soil samples were related to other, generally uncultured organisms, some of which may represent two new subclasses of actinobacteria. One dominating fungal sequence which matched with the ascomycotes Acremonium sp. and Paecilomyces sp. was identified both in clean and in contaminated soil profiles. Thus, although the relative amounts of fungi and actinobacteria in these microbial communities were highest in the upper soil layers, many representatives from these groups were found in hydrocarbon contaminated subsoils even under oxygen limited conditions. PMID:19543551

  10. 29 CFR 1910.19 - Special provisions for air contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions for air contaminants. 1910.19 Section 1910.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Standards § 1910.19 Special provisions for air contaminants. (a) Asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite,...

  11. A review of melanized (black) fungal contamination in pharmaceutical products-incidence, drug recall and control measures.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, R; Saleh Al-Aboody, M; Sandle, T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of contamination of pharmaceutical products by melanized fungi and to consider control measures in relation to bioburden and cleanrooms. This study reviews and analyses pharmaceutical product recalls and offers incidence rates of fungal detection from a typical cleanrooms. The recalls include some serious cases which resulted in the loss of life. Of different types of fungal contamination incidences some of the most damaging have been due to melanized fungi ('black mould'), such as Exserohilum rostratum. The focus of the article is with melanized fungi. The study concludes that, from the review of recent pharmaceutical product recalls, fungal contamination is either increasingly common within cleanroom environments or the accuracy of sampling and the level of reporting has risen. The prevalence of melanized fungi in pharmaceutical facilities rests on specific virulence factors particular to these types of fungi, which are outlined. The article identifies a gap in the way that such fungi are screened for using available cultural methods. The article provides some control strategies, including assessing the suitability of disinfectants and biocides, for reducing the risk of melanized fungal incidences within the pharmaceutical facility. Understanding the fungal risk to pharmaceutical products remains a poorly understood and often overlooked aspect of pharmaceutical microbiology. This article helps to identify this risk and offer some guidance to those involved with pharmaceutical products manufacture in relation to bio-contamination control strategies. PMID:26119714

  12. Effects of Temperature, Humidity and Air Flow on Fungal Growth Rate on Loaded Ventilation Filters.

    PubMed

    Tang, W; Kuehn, T H; Simcik, Matt F

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the fungal growth ratio on loaded ventilation filters under various temperature, relative humidity (RH), and air flow conditions in a controlled laboratory setting. A new full-size commercial building ventilation filter was loaded with malt extract nutrients and conidia of Cladosporium sphaerospermum in an ASHRAE Standard 52.2 filter test facility. Small sections cut from this filter were incubated under the following conditions: constant room temperature and a high RH of 97%; sinusoidal temperature (with an amplitude of 10°C, an average of 23°C, and a period of 24 hr) and a mean RH of 97%; room temperature and step changes between 97% and 75% RH, 97% and 43% RH, and 97% and 11% RH every 12 hr. The biomass on the filter sections was measured using both an elution-culture method and by ergosterol assay immediately after loading and every 2 days up to 10 days after loading. Fungal growth was detected earlier using ergosterol content than with the elution-culture method. A student's t-test indicated that Cladosporium sphaerospermum grew better at the constant room temperature condition than at the sinusoidal temperature condition. By part-time exposure to dry environments, the fungal growth was reduced (75% and 43% RH) or even inhibited (11% RH). Additional loaded filters were installed in the wind tunnel at room temperature and an RH greater than 95% under one of two air flow test conditions: continuous air flow or air flow only 9 hr/day with a flow rate of 0.7 m(3)/s (filter media velocity 0.15 m/s). Swab tests and a tease mount method were used to detect fungal growth on the filters at day 0, 5, and 10. Fungal growth was detected for both test conditions, which indicates that when temperature and relative humidity are optimum, controlling the air flow alone cannot prevent fungal growth. In real applications where nutrients are less sufficient than in this laboratory study, fungal growth rate may be reduced under the same operating conditions

  13. Regenerable Air Purification System for Gas-Phase Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, Ileana C.; Finn, John E.; LeVan, M. Douglas; Lung, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tests of a pre-prototype regenerable air purification system (RAPS) that uses water vapor to displace adsorbed contaminants from an adsorbent column have been performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A unit based on this design can be used for removing trace gas-phase contaminants from spacecraft cabin air or from polluted process streams including incinerator exhaust. During the normal operation mode, contaminants are removed from the air on the column. Regeneration of the column is performed on-line. During regeneration, contaminants are displaced and destroyed inside the closed oxidation loop. In this presentation we discuss initial experimental results for the performance of RAPS in the removal and treatment of several important spacecraft contaminant species from air.

  14. Fungal Contamination of Indoor Public Swimming Pools, Ahwaz, South-west of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, A; Amirrajab, N

    2010-01-01

    Background: Using public swimming pools during different seasons and poor health behavior could be responsible in transmission of fungal disease through pool water and its environment. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate fungal agents of indoor public swimming pools of Ahwaz, capital city of Khouzestan Province, south-west of Iran. Methods: Ten indoor swimming pools of Ahwaz were investigated during two seasons for 6 months. Water specimens were collected by pump and environment samples including shower-bath area, margin of pool walls, dressing rooms, and slippers, by sterile carpet pieces. All specimens were cultured in SC and SCC culture media and fungal agents identification were based on macroscopic, microscopic characteristic and complement tests when it was necessary. Data analyzing was performed using SPSS version 13 for descriptive analyzing. Results: A total of 593 samples were collected from different parts of pools. Interestingly in 13 samples from environmental places, dermatophytes were isolated as follows: Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum and Epidermophyton floccosum 5, 4, 3 and 1 cases respectively. Ten cases of dermatophytes were isolated from floor of dressing area. Three hundred seventy two saprophytic fungi species and 32 yeasts were recovered from water and environment surfaces samples. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Mucor were the most common isolated saprophytic fungi. Conclusion: Existence of saprophytic fungi and yeast in pools water seems to be an indicator of their resistance to detergent agents. In addition, yeast water contamination could be from swimmers. Dermatophytes isolation from pools environment areas and foot washing sink, reveals the importance of public swimming pools in disease transmission. Because dressing places are being used by all of the swimmers, take care of hygienic discipline in these places should be noted by health policy markers. PMID:23113031

  15. Fungal contamination of stored automobile-fuels in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Rodríguez, Evelyn; Blanco, Rigoberto; Cordero, Ivannia; Segura, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Because of the lack of reports, the base levels of microbial contamination on stored fuels are unknown in tropical regions and it is unclear whether these levels have some influence on fuel quality parameters. Therefore, fungal quality in automobile fuels stored across Costa Rican territory was evaluated during two years according to the standard ASTM D6974-04. For a total of 96 samples, counts and identification of molds and yeasts were performed on regular gas, premium gas and diesel taken from the bottom and superior part of the container tanks. The highest contamination was found on the bottom of the tanks, where an aqueous phase was usually identified, showing populations over the ones present in the hydrocarbon itself (up to 10(8) CFU/L). Diesel was the most contaminated fuel (up to 10(7) CFU/L); however, an alteration on the physicochemical parameters was not observed in any kind of fuel. Seventy-five mold strains were isolated, Penicillium sp. being the most common genus (45.8% of the samples), and ten yeast strains, from the genera Candida sp. and Rhodotorula sp. Four of the yeasts were able to grow on diesel as the sole carbon source, at concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 25%. Increasing the frequency of tank cleaning, adding antimicrobial agents and monitoring microbial populations are recommended strategies to improve microbial quality of stored fuels. PMID:21235191

  16. Distribution and mycotoxin-producing ability of some fungal isolates from the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetnić, Zdenka; Pepeljnjak, S.

    Research was carried out on presence and prevalence of common fungal air spores at locations in Croatia. The sampling method employed in the study was by exposure 350 of Petri agar plates to the air for 10 min. Approximately 3400 colonies were found and mould spores belonging to 22 fungal genera were identified. Cladosporium (44.7%), Penicillium (34.4%), Alternaria (26.3%), Aspergillus (21.6%) and Absidia (12.2%) were the most prevalent fungi encountered. Investigation of toxigenic potential of airborne fungi isolates of genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Trichoderma showed 16.9% mycotoxin-producing strains. The production of aflatoxin B 1 by A. flavus sterigmatocystin by A. versicolor zearalenon and T-2 toxin by F. graminearum and diacetoscirpenol by strains of T. viride were obtained.

  17. Update on Multistate Outbreak of Fungal Infections Associated with Contaminated Methylprednisolone Injections, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    McCotter, Orion Z; Smith, Rachel M; Westercamp, Mathew; Kerkering, Thomas M; Malani, Anurag N; Latham, Robert; Peglow, Sheree L; Mody, Rajal K; Pappas, Peter G; Chiller, Tom M

    2015-10-30

    During September 2012, CDC, in collaboration with state and local health departments and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), investigated a multistate outbreak of fungal meningitis and other infections caused by injections of contaminated methylprednisolone acetate solution (MPA). After this unprecedented outbreak, scientists in the CDC Mycotic Diseases Branch, along with infectious diseases specialists who cared for patients from the outbreak, clinical experts, and public health officials from affected states, have continued to monitor the recovery of affected patients. A long-term follow-up study involving these patients was initiated and is being conducted by the Mycoses Study Group Education and Research Consortium (MSGERC). This update summarizes subsequent information about the current state of the outbreak. PMID:26513534

  18. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Weintrob, Amy C.; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M. Leigh; Murray, Clinton K.; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-01-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001–2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions. PMID:26401897

  19. Advancements in IR spectroscopic approaches for the determination of fungal derived contaminations in food crops.

    PubMed

    McMullin, David; Mizaikoff, Boris; Krska, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a rapid, nondestructive analytical technique that can be applied to the authentication and characterization of food samples in high throughput. In particular, near infrared spectroscopy is commonly utilized in the food quality control industry to monitor the physical attributes of numerous cereal grains for protein, carbohydrate, and lipid content. IR-based methods require little sample preparation, labor, or technical competence if multivariate data mining techniques are implemented; however, they do require extensive calibration. Economically important crops are infected by fungi that can severely reduce crop yields and quality and, in addition, produce mycotoxins. Owing to the health risks associated with mycotoxins in the food chain, regulatory limits have been set by both national and international institutions for specific mycotoxins and mycotoxin classes. This article discusses the progress and potential of IR-based methods as an alternative to existing chemical methods for the determination of fungal contamination in crops, as well as emerging spectroscopic methods. PMID:25258282

  20. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Tribble, David R; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Weintrob, Amy C; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-10-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001-2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions. PMID:26401897

  1. Fungal colonization of air filters and insulation in a multi-story office building: production of volatile organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Crow, S. A.; Simmons, R. B.; Price, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Secondary air filters in the air-handling units on four floors of a multi-story office building with a history of fungal colonization of insulation within the air distribution system were examined for the presence of growing fungi and production of volatile organic compounds. Fungal mycelium and conidia of Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were observed on insulation from all floors and both sides of the air filters from one floor. Lower concentrations of volatile organics were released from air filter medium colonized with fungi as compared with noncolonized filter medium. However, the volatiles from the colonized filter medium included fungal metabolites such as acetone and a carbonyl sulfide-like compound that were not released from noncolonized filter medium. The growth of fungi in air distribution systems may affect the content of volatile organics in indoor air.

  2. REDUCTION OF GENOTOXICITY OF A CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL AFTER FUNGAL TREATMENT DETERMINED BY THE TRADESCANTIA-MICRONUCLEUS TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fungal degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a contaminated soil from a hazarous waste site was evaluated in a pilot-scale study. As some PAH are known to be mutagens, the Tradescantia-micronucleus test (TRAD-MCN) was selected to evaluate the genotoxicity of the s...

  3. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1996-01-01

    Progress and results in the development of an integrated air quality modeling, monitoring, fault detection, and isolation system are presented. The focus was on development of distributed models of the air contaminants transport, the study of air quality monitoring techniques based on the model of transport process and on-line contaminant concentration measurements, and sensor placement. Different approaches to the modeling of spacecraft air contamination are discussed, and a three-dimensional distributed parameter air contaminant dispersion model applicable to both laminar and turbulent transport is proposed. A two-dimensional approximation of a full scale transport model is also proposed based on the spatial averaging of the three dimensional model over the least important space coordinate. A computer implementation of the transport model is considered and a detailed development of two- and three-dimensional models illustrated by contaminant transport simulation results is presented. The use of a well established Kalman filtering approach is suggested as a method for generating on-line contaminant concentration estimates based on both real time measurements and the model of contaminant transport process. It is shown that high computational requirements of the traditional Kalman filter can render difficult its real-time implementation for high-dimensional transport model and a novel implicit Kalman filtering algorithm is proposed which is shown to lead to an order of magnitude faster computer implementation in the case of air quality monitoring.

  4. Mortality From Fungal Diseases in the US Air Force From 1970 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Kugblenu, Richard K; Reeves, Will K

    2016-01-01

    We review a unique set of documents, death certificates, catalogued in the US Air Force Mortality Registry, which tracks deaths for current and retired Air Force service members. We screened the records for all deaths caused by fungal diseases between 1970 and 2013. There were 216 deaths caused by a variety of diseases such as aspergillosis, blastomycosis, candidiasis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, mucormycosis, pneumocystosis, sporotrichosis, and zygomycosis. The single most common identified cause of death was opportunistic candidiasis. Of the total 216 deaths, only 7 were active duty or active reserve personnel. PMID:27613208

  5. Particulate Air Contamination in Puerto Rico: A Student Involvement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a research project undertaken by physics undergraduate students to monitor particulate air contamination in Ponce, Puerto Rico, and to determine the meteorological factors which contribute to it. (GA)

  6. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Control of air contaminants is a crucial factor in the safety considerations of crewed space flight. Indoor air quality needs to be closely monitored during long range missions such as a Mars mission, and also on large complex space structures such as the International Space Station. This work mainly pertains to the detection and simulation of air contaminants in the space station, though much of the work is easily extended to buildings, and issues of ventilation systems. Here we propose a method with which to track the presence of contaminants using an accurate physical model, and also develop a robust procedure that would raise alarms when certain tolerance levels are exceeded. A part of this research concerns the modeling of air flow inside a spacecraft, and the consequent dispersal pattern of contaminants. Our objective is to also monitor the contaminants on-line, so we develop a state estimation procedure that makes use of the measurements from a sensor system and determines an optimal estimate of the contamination in the system as a function of time and space. The real-time optimal estimates in turn are used to detect faults in the system and also offer diagnoses as to their sources. This work is concerned with the monitoring of air contaminants aboard future generation spacecraft and seeks to satisfy NASA's requirements as outlined in their Strategic Plan document (Technology Development Requirements, 1996).

  7. Critical environmental and genotypic factors for Fusarium verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin contamination in maize grown in northwestern Spain.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ana; Santiago, Rogelio; Ramos, Antonio J; Souto, Xosé C; Aguín, Olga; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Butrón, Ana

    2014-05-01

    In northwestern Spain, where weather is rainy and mild throughout the year, Fusarium verticillioides is the most prevalent fungus in kernels and a significant risk of fumonisin contamination has been exposed. In this study, detailed information about environmental and maize genotypic factors affecting F. verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin content in maize kernels was obtained in order to establish control points to reduce fumonisin contamination. Evaluations were conducted in a total of 36 environments and factorial regression analyses were performed to determine the contribution of each factor to variability among environments, genotypes, and genotype × environment interactions for F. verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin content. Flowering and kernel drying were the most critical periods throughout the growing season for F. verticillioides infection and fumonisin contamination. Around flowering, wetter and cooler conditions limited F. verticillioides infection and growth, and high temperatures increased fumonisin contents. During kernel drying, increased damaged kernels favored fungal growth, and higher ear damage by corn borers and hard rainfall favored fumonisin accumulation. Later planting dates and especially earlier harvest dates reduced the risk of fumonisin contamination, possibly due to reduced incidence of insects and accumulation of rainfall during the kernel drying period. The use of maize varieties resistant to Sitotroga cerealella, with good husk coverage and non-excessive pericarp thickness could also be useful to reduce fumonisin contamination of maize kernels. PMID:24607861

  8. Utilizing air purge to reduce water contamination of lube systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sirois, H.J.

    1994-12-31

    Lubrication systems are exposed to contaminants including dirt, process dilutants and water. Water contamination of lubricating oil is commonly experienced by users of machinery such as steam and gas turbines, compressors, pumps, motors, generators and others. Poorly designed or maintained turbomachinery features such as bearing housing seals and shaft packing do not prevent moisture laden air, the primary source of water, from entering the lube system. This paper presents a case history where a mechanical drive steam turbine and boiler feed pump was experiencing severe water contamination of the lube system. Bearing and control system component failures resulted from water induced corrosion. Various systems and approaches for dealing with this contamination are reviewed. Installation of a very simple and cost effective system using low pressure air applied directly to the bearing housing oil seals proved a most effective method for eliminating measurable water contamination of the lubrication system and can be applied to machinery of all types.

  9. 29 CFR 1910.1000 - Air contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910 in order to determine whether an employee is exposed over the... weighted average specified in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910 for the substance involved. (ii) To illustrate... contaminant. L is the exposure limit for that substance specified in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910. The...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.1000 - Air contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1915 in order to determine whether an employee is exposed over the regulatory... average specified in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1915 for the material involved. (ii) To illustrate the... particular contaminant. L is the exposure limit for that substance specified in subpart Z of 29 CFR part...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.1000 - Air contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910 in order to determine whether an employee is exposed over the... weighted average specified in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910 for the substance involved. (ii) To illustrate... contaminant. L is the exposure limit for that substance specified in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910. The...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.1000 - Air contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910 in order to determine whether an employee is exposed over the... weighted average specified in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910 for the substance involved. (ii) To illustrate... contaminant. L is the exposure limit for that substance specified in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910. The...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.1000 - Air contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1915 in order to determine whether an employee is exposed over the regulatory... average specified in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1915 for the material involved. (ii) To illustrate the... particular contaminant. L is the exposure limit for that substance specified in subpart Z of 29 CFR part...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.1000 - Air contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910 in order to determine whether an employee is exposed over the... weighted average specified in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910 for the substance involved. (ii) To illustrate... contaminant. L is the exposure limit for that substance specified in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910. The...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.1000 - Air contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910 in order to determine whether an employee is exposed over the... weighted average specified in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910 for the substance involved. (ii) To illustrate... contaminant. L is the exposure limit for that substance specified in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910. The...

  16. (1,3)-β-d-Glucan in Cerebrospinal Fluid for Diagnosis of Fungal Meningitis Associated with Contaminated Methylprednisolone Injections

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Bonita; Wheat, L. Joseph; Al Sous, Ola; Summons, Theresa A.; Durkin, Michelle M.; Pettit, April C.

    2014-01-01

    Prompt diagnosis and treatment of fungal meningitis are critical, but culture is insensitive. (1,3)-β-d-Glucan (BDG) testing is FDA approved for serological diagnosis of invasive fungal disease; however, BDG testing is not approved for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the appropriate cutoff value is unknown. We aimed to validate the diagnostic accuracy of CSF BDG measurements for fungal meningitis among patients exposed to contaminated methylprednisolone acetate (MPA). A retrospective observational study was conducted at St. Joseph Mercy Hospital and Vanderbilt University from November 2013 to February 2014. Patients were included if they had received a contaminated MPA injection. Cases were classified as probable or proven meningitis according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. CSF BDG testing was performed according to the package insert instructions for serum samples, and results were validated using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute procedures (MiraVista Diagnostics). Of 233 patients, 45 had meningitis (28 proven cases), 53 had spinal/paraspinal infections (19 proven cases), and 135 did not develop disease. Using the manufacturer's cutoff value (≥80 pg/ml), the sensitivity and specificity were 96% and 95%, respectively, for proven meningitis and 84% and 95% for probable or proven meningitis. Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified the optimal cutoff value for proven meningitis to be 66 pg/ml (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 94%) and that for probable or proven meningitis to be 66 pg/ml (sensitivity, 91%; specificity, 92%). Our results suggest that CSF BDG measurements are highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of fungal meningitis associated with contaminated MPA injections. Further study on the utility of CSF BDG testing for other types of fungal meningitis is needed. PMID:25540391

  17. Achieving indoor air quality through contaminant control

    SciTech Connect

    Katzel, J.

    1995-07-10

    Federal laws outlining industry`s responsibilities in creating a healthy, hazard-free workspace are well known. OSHA`s laws on interior air pollution establish threshold limit values (TLVs) and permissible exposure limits (PELs) for more than 500 potentially hazardous substances found in manufacturing operations. Until now, OSHA has promulgated regulations only for the manufacturing environment. However, its recently-proposed indoor air quality (IAQ) ruling, if implemented, will apply to all workspaces. It regulates IAQ, including environmental tobacco smoke, and requires employers to write and implement IAQ compliance plans.

  18. Monitoring airborne fungal spores in an experimental indoor environment to evaluate sampling methods and the effects of human activity on air sampling.

    PubMed Central

    Buttner, M P; Stetzenbach, L D

    1993-01-01

    Aerobiological monitoring was conducted in an experimental room to aid in the development of standardized sampling protocols for airborne microorganisms in the indoor environment. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the relative efficiencies of selected sampling methods for the retrieval of airborne fungal spores and to determine the effect of human activity on air sampling. Dry aerosols containing known concentrations of Penicillium chrysogenum spores were generated, and air samples were taken by using Andersen six-stage, Surface Air System, Burkard, and depositional samplers. The Andersen and Burkard samplers retrieved the highest numbers of spores compared with the measurement standard, an aerodynamic particle sizer located inside the room. Data from paired samplers demonstrated that the Andersen sampler had the highest levels of sensitivity and repeatability. With a carpet as the source of P. chrysogenum spores, the effects of human activity (walking or vacuuming near the sampling site) on air sampling were also examined. Air samples were taken under undisturbed conditions and after human activity in the room. Human activity resulted in retrieval of significantly higher concentrations of airborne spores. Surface sampling of the carpet revealed moderate to heavy contamination despite relatively low airborne counts. Therefore, in certain situations, air sampling without concomitant surface sampling may not adequately reflect the level of microbial contamination in indoor environments. PMID:8439150

  19. Evaluating the Biodeterioration Enzymatic Activities of Fungal Contamination Isolated from Some Ancient Yemeni Mummies Preserved in the National Museum

    PubMed Central

    Naji, Khalid Mohammed; Abdullah, Qais Yusuf M.; AL-Zaqri, Aida Qaseem M.; Alghalibi, Saeed M.

    2014-01-01

    Sophisticated mummification using chemical preservation was prevalent in ancient Yemeni civilization as noted in the 4th century B.C. mummies of the National Museum of Yemen, Sana'a, used in this study. Five of these mummies were used to evaluate hydrolytic enzymes produced as a result of fungal contamination. Forty-seven fungal species were isolated, thereby reflecting a high degree of contamination which may have resulted from the poor ventilation and preservation system. Aspergillus was the most common genus isolated (48.9%). Fifteen isolates exhibited ability to produce cellulase (EC; 3.2.1.4), Aspergillus candidus being the highest cellulose-producer. Pectin lyase (PL, EC; 4.2.2.2) and pectin methyl esterase (PME, EC; 3.1.1.11) were produced by Trichoderma hamatum, whereas chitinase (EC; 3.2.1.14) was produced by Aspergillus niger. Protease activity was noted by only Cladosporium herbarum. The higher activities of these fungal hydrolytic enzymes represent the major threats of biodeterioration including deteriorating linen bandages as well as the mummy bodies. Therefore, it is recommended to improve the preservation system of the mummies at the National Museum to minimize the contamination up to the lowest level and protect the mummies from biodeterioration. PMID:25478228

  20. Air emissions from exposed contaminated sediments and dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    Valsaraj, K.T.; Ravikrishna, R.; Reible, D.D.; Thibodeaux, L.J.; Choy, B.; Price, C.B.; Brannon, J.M.; Myers, T.E.; Yost, S.

    1999-01-01

    The sediment-to-air fluxes of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and pyrene) and a heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (dibenzofuran) from a laboratory-contaminated sediment and those of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) from three field sediments were investigated in experimental microcosms. The flux was dependent on the sediment moisture content, air-filled porosity, and the relative humidity of the air flowing over the sediment surface. The mathematical model predictions of flux from the laboratory-spiked sediment agreed with observed values. The fluxes of compounds with higher hydrophobicity were more air-side resistance controlled. Conspicuous differences were observed between the fluxes from the laboratory-spiked and two of the three field sediments. Two field sediments showed dramatic increases in mass-transfer resistances with increasing exposure time and had significant fractions of oil and grease. The proposed mathematical model was inadequate for predicting the flux from the latter field sediments. Sediment reworking enhanced the fluxes from the field sediments due to exposure of fresh solids to the air. Variations in flux from the lab-spiked sediment as a result of change in air relative humidity were due to differences in retardation of chemicals on a dry or wet surface sediment. High moisture in the air over the dry sediment increased the competition for sorption sites between water and contaminant and increased the contaminant flux.

  1. Spacecraft contamination programs within the Air Force Systems Command Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murad, Edmond

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft contamination programs exist in five independent AFSC organizations: Geophysics Laboratory (GL), Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC), Rome Air Development Center (RADC/OSCE), Wright Research and Development Center (MLBT), Armament Laboratory (ATL/SAI), and Space Systems Division (SSD/OL-AW). In addition, a sizable program exists at Aerospace Corp. These programs are complementary, each effort addressing a specific area of expertise: GL's effort is aimed at addressing the effects of on-orbit contamination; AEDC's effort is aimed at ground simulation and measurement of optical contamination; RADC's effort addresses the accumulation, measurement, and removal of contamination on large optics; MLBT's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of contamination on materials; ATL's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of plume contamination on systems; SSD's effort is confined to the integration of some contamination experiments sponsored by SSD/CLT; and Aerospace Corp.'s effort is aimed at supporting the needs of the using System Program Offices (SPO) in specific areas, such as contamination during ground handling, ascent phase, laboratory measurements aimed at understanding on-orbit contamination, and mass loss and mass gain in on-orbit operations. These programs are described in some detail, with emphasis on GL's program.

  2. Determination of tricresyl phosphate air contamination in aircraft.

    PubMed

    Denola, G; Hanhela, P J; Mazurek, W

    2011-08-01

    Monitoring of tricresyl phosphate (TCP) contamination of cockpit air was undertaken in three types of military aircraft [fighter trainer (FT), fighter bomber (FB), and cargo transport (CT) aircraft]. The aircraft had a previous history of pilot complaints about cockpit air contamination suspected to originate from the engine bleed air supply through the entry of aircraft turbine engine oil (ATO) into the engine compressor. Air samples were collected in flight and on the ground during engine runs using sorbent tubes packed with Porapak Q and cellulose filters. A total of 78 air samples were analysed, from 46 different aircraft, and 48 samples were found to be below the limit of detection. Nine incidents of smoke/odour were identified during the study. The concentrations of toxic o-cresyl phosphate isomers were below the level of detection in all samples. The highest total TCP concentration was 51.3 μg m(-3), while most were generally found to be <5 μg m(-3) compared with the 8-h time-weighted average exposure limit of 100 μg m(-3) for tri-o-cresyl phosphate. The highest concentrations were found at high engine power. Although TCP contamination of cabin/cockpit air has been the subject of much concern in aviation, quantitative data are sparse. PMID:21730359

  3. Distribution and Stable Isotopic Composition of Amino Acids from Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing the Potential for Meteoritic Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Brückner, Hans

    2011-03-01

    The presence of nonprotein α-dialkyl-amino acids such as α-aminoisobutyric acid (α-AIB) and isovaline (Iva), which are considered to be relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids. However, recent work showing the presence of α-AIB and Iva in peptides produced by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the α-AIB observed in some meteorites. We measured the amino acid distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of four α-AIB-containing fungal peptides and compared this data to similar meteoritic measurements. We show that the relatively simple distribution of the C4 and C5 amino acids in fungal peptides is distinct from the complex distribution observed in many carbonaceous chondrites. We also identify potentially diagnostic relationships between the stable isotopic compositions of pairs of amino acids from the fungal peptides that may aid in ruling out fungal contamination as a source of meteoritic amino acids.

  4. RADIAL COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF AIR CONTAMINANTS USING OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the application of an optical remote-sensing (ORS) system to map air contaminants and locate fugitive emissions. Many ORD systems may utilize radial non-overlapping beam geometry and a computed tomography (CT) algorithm to map the concentrations in a plane. In...

  5. Open air demolition of facilities highly contaminated with plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, E.R.; Lackey, M.B.; Stevens, J.M.; Zinsli, L.C.

    2007-07-01

    The demolition of highly contaminated plutonium buildings usually is a long and expensive process that involves decontaminating the building to near free- release standards and then using conventional methods to remove the structure. It doesn't, however, have to be that way. Fluor has torn down buildings highly contaminated with plutonium without excessive decontamination. By removing the select source term and fixing the remaining contamination on the walls, ceilings, floors, and equipment surfaces; open-air demolition is not only feasible, but it can be done cheaper, better (safer), and faster. Open-air demolition techniques were used to demolish two highly contaminated buildings to slab-on-grade. These facilities on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site were located in, or very near, compounds of operating nuclear facilities that housed hundreds of people working on a daily basis. To keep the facilities operating and the personnel safe, the projects had to be creative in demolishing the structures. Several key techniques were used to control contamination and keep it within the confines of the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition; applying fixative and misting with a fine spray of water as the buildings were being taken down; and demolishing the buildings in a controlled and methodical manner. In addition, detailed air-dispersion modeling was done to establish necessary building and meteorological conditions and to confirm the adequacy of the proposed methods. Both demolition projects were accomplished without any spread of contamination outside the modest buffer areas established for contamination control. Furthermore, personnel exposure to radiological and physical hazards was significantly reduced by using heavy equipment rather than 'hands on' techniques. (authors)

  6. OPEN AIR DEMOLITION OF FACILITIES HIGHLY CONTAMINATED WITH PLUTONIUM

    SciTech Connect

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2007-05-31

    The demolition of highly contaminated plutonium buildings usually is a long and expensive process that involves decontaminating the building to near free- release standards and then using conventional methods to remove the structure. It doesn't, however, have to be that way. Fluor has torn down buildings highly contaminated with plutonium without excessive decontamination. By removing the select source term and fixing the remaining contamination on the walls, ceilings, floors, and equipment surfaces; open-air demolition is not only feasible, but it can be done cheaper, better (safer), and faster. Open-air demolition techniques were used to demolish two highly contaminated buildings to slab-on-grade. These facilities on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site were located in, or very near, compounds of operating nuclear facilities that housed hundreds of people working on a daily basis. To keep the facilities operating and the personnel safe, the projects had to be creative in demolishing the structures. Several key techniques were used to control contamination and keep it within the confines of the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition; applying fixative and misting with a fine spray of water as the buildings were being taken down; and demolishing the buildings in a controlled and methodical manner. In addition, detailed air-dispersion modeling was done to establish necessary building and meteorological conditions and to confirm the adequacy of the proposed methods. Both demolition projects were accomplished without any spread of contamination outside the modest buffer areas established for contamination control. Furthermore, personnel exposure to radiological and physical hazards was significantly reduced by using heavy equipment rather than ''hands on'' techniques.

  7. An investigation of the source of air Ar contamination in KAr dating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mussett, A.E.; Brent, Dalrymple G.

    1968-01-01

    Precision of young KAr ages is limited by air argon contamination. A series of experiments in which the exposure of basalt and sanidine samples to air argon was controlled, shows that most of the air contamination does not arise in the laboratory. Because of this, it seems unlikely that air argon contamination can be significantly reduced by special sample handling and preparation techniques. ?? 1968.

  8. Analytical model for contaminant mass removal by air sparging

    SciTech Connect

    Rabideau, A.J.; Blayden, J.M.

    1998-12-31

    An analytical model was developed to predict the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from ground water by air sparging (AS). The model treats the air sparging zone as a completely mixed reactor subject to the removal of dissolved contaminants by volatilization, advection, and first-order decay. Nonequilibrium desorption is approximated as a first-order mass transfer process. The model reproduces the tailing and rebound behavior often observed at AS sites, and would normally require the estimation of three site-specific parameters. Dimensional analysis demonstrates that predicting tailing can be interpreted in terms of kinetic desorption or diffusion of aqueous phase contaminants into discrete air channels. Related work is ongoing to test the model against field data.

  9. Solving the aerodynamics of fungal flight: how air viscosity slows spore motion.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Mark W F; Stolze-Rybczynski, Jessica L; Davis, Diana J; Cui, Yunluan; Money, Nicholas P

    2010-01-01

    Viscous drag causes the rapid deceleration of fungal spores after high-speed launches and limits discharge distance. Stokes' law posits a linear relationship between drag force and velocity. It provides an excellent fit to experimental measurements of the terminal velocity of free-falling spores and other instances of low Reynolds number motion (Re<1). More complex, non-linear drag models have been devised for movements characterized by higher Re, but their effectiveness for modeling the launch of fast-moving fungal spores has not been tested. In this paper, we use data on spore discharge processes obtained from ultra-high-speed video recordings to evaluate the effects of air viscosity predicted by Stokes' law and a commonly used non-linear drag model. We find that discharge distances predicted from launch speeds by Stokes' model provide a much better match to measured distances than estimates from the more complex drag model. Stokes' model works better over a wide range projectile sizes, launch speeds, and discharge distances, from microscopic mushroom ballistospores discharged at <1 m s(-1) over a distance of <0.1mm (Re<1.0), to macroscopic sporangia of Pilobolus that are launched at >10 m s(-1) and travel as far as 2.5m (Re>100). PMID:21036338

  10. Solving the aerodynamics of fungal flight: How air viscosity slows spore motion

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Mark W. F.; Stolze-Rybczynski, Jessica L.; Davis, Diana J.; Cui, Yunluan; Money, Nicholas P.

    2010-01-01

    Viscous drag causes the rapid deceleration of fungal spores after high-speed launches and limits discharge distance. Stokes' law posits a linear relationship between drag force and velocity. It provides an excellent fit to experimental measurements of the terminal velocity of free-falling spores and other instances of low Reynolds number motion (Re<1). More complex, non-linear drag models have been devised for movements characterized by higher Re, but their effectiveness for modeling the launch of fast-moving fungal spores has not been tested. In this paper, we use data on spore discharge processes obtained from ultra-high-speed video recordings to evaluate the effects of air viscosity predicted by Stokes' law and a commonly used non-linear drag model. We find that discharge distances predicted from launch speeds by Stokes' model provide a much better match to measured distances than estimates from the more complex drag model. Stokes' model works better over a wide range projectile sizes, launch speeds, and discharge distances, from microscopic mushroom ballistospores discharged at <1 m/s over a distance of <0.1 mm (Re<1.0), to macroscopic sporangia of Pilobolus that are launched at >10 m/s and travel as far as 2.5 m (Re>100). PMID:21036338

  11. A SIMPLE MULTIPLEX POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF FOUR ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically, identification of filamentous fungal (mold) species has been based on morphological characteristics, both macroscopic and microscopic. These methods have proven to be time consuming and inaccurate, necessitating the development of identification protocols that are ...

  12. Watershed scale fungal community characterization along a pH gradient in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Jasrotia, Puja; Green, Stefan; Canion, Andy; Overholt, Will; Prakash, Om; Wafula, Dennis; Hubbard, Daniela; Watson, David B; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka,

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale, and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semi-quantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic SSU rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH < 4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta that were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified, and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota, and within a single genus within the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions.

  13. Photophoretic trapping-Raman spectroscopy for single pollens and fungal spores trapped in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuji; Pan, Yong-Le; Hill, Steven C.; Redding, Brandon

    2015-03-01

    Photophoretic trapping-Raman spectroscopy (PTRS) is a new technique for measuring Raman spectra of particles that are held in air using photophoretic forces. It was initially demonstrated with Raman spectra of strongly-absorbing carbon nanoparticles (Pan et al. [44] (Opt Express 2012)). In the present paper we report the first demonstration of the use of PTRS to measure Raman spectra of absorbing and weakly-absorbing bioaerosol particles (pollens and spores). Raman spectra of three pollens and one smut spore in a size range of 6.2-41.8 μm illuminated at 488 nm are shown. Quality spectra were obtained in the Raman shift range of 1600-3400 cm-1 in this exploratory study. Distinguishable Raman scattering signals with one or a few clear Raman peaks for all four aerosol particles were observed within the wavenumber region 2940-3030 cm-1. Peaks in this region are consistent with previous reports of Raman peaks in the 1600-3400 cm-1 range for pollens and spores excited at 514 nm measured by a conventional Raman spectrometer. Noise in the spectra, the fluorescence background, and the weak Raman signals in most of the 1600-3400 cm-1 region make some of the spectral features barely discernable or not discernable for these bioaerosols except the strong signal within 2940-3030 cm-1. Up to five bands are identified in the three pollens and only two bands appear in the fungal spore, but this may be because the fungal spore is so much smaller than any of the pollens. The fungal spore signal relative to the air-nitrogen Raman band is approximately 10 times smaller than that ratio for the pollens. The five bands are tentatively assigned to the CH2 symmetric stretch at 2948 cm-1, CH2 Fermi resonance stretch at 2970 cm-1, CH3 symmetric stretch at 2990 cm-1, CH3 out-of-plane end asymmetric stretch at 3010 cm-1, and unsaturated =CH stretch at 3028 cm-1. The two dominant bands of the up-to-five Raman bands in the 2940-3030 cm-1 region have a consistent band spacing of 25 cm-1 in all

  14. Circumventing shallow air contamination in Mid Ocean Ridge Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Parai, Rita; Tucker, Jonathan; Middleton, Jennifer; Langmuir, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Noble gases in mantle-derived basalts provide a rich portrait of mantle degassing and surface-interior volatile exchange. However, the ubiquity of shallow-level air contamination frequently obscures the mantle noble gas signal. In a majority of samples, shallow air contamination dominates the noble gas budget. As a result, reconstructing the variability in heavy noble gas mantle source compositions and inferring the history of deep recycling of atmospheric noble gases is difficult. For example, in the gas-rich popping rock 2ΠD43, 129Xe/130Xe ratios reach 7.7±0.23 in individual step-crushes, but the bulk composition of the sample is close to air (129Xe/130Xe of 6.7). Here, we present results from experiments designed to elucidate the source of shallow air contamination in MORBs. Step-crushes were carried out to measure He, Ne, Ar and Xe isotopic compositions on two aliquots of a depleted popping glass that was dredged from between the Kane and Atlantis Fracture Zones of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in May 2012. One aliquot was sealed in ultrapure N2 after dredge retrieval, while the other aliquot was left exposed to air for 3.5 years. The bulk 20Ne/22Ne and 129Xe/130Xe ratios measured in the aliquot bottled in ultrapure N2 are 12.3 and 7.6, respectively, and are nearly identical to the estimated mantle source values. On the other hand, step crushes in the aliquot left exposed to air for several years show Ne isotopic compositions that are shifted towards air, with a bulk 20Ne/22Ne of 11.5; the bulk 129Xe/130Xe, however, was close to 7.6. These results indicate that lighter noble gases exchange more efficiently between the bubbles trapped in basalt glass and air, suggesting a diffusive or kinetic mechanism for the incorporation of the shallow air contamination. Importantly, in Ne-Ar or Ar-Xe space, step-crushes from the bottled aliquot display a trend that can be easily fit with a simple two-component hyperbolic mixing between mantle and atmosphere noble gases. Step

  15. Regenerable Air Purification System for Gas-Phase Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, Ileana C.; Qi, Nan; LeVan, M. Douglas; Finn, Cory K.; Finn, John E.; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A regenerable air purification system (RAPS) that uses water vapor to displace adsorbed contaminants from an. adsorbent column into a closed oxidation loop is under development through cooperative R&D between Vanderbilt University and NASA Ames Research Center. A unit based on this design can be used for removing trace gas-phase contaminants from spacecraft cabin air or from polluted process streams including incinerator exhaust. Recent work has focused on fabrication and operation of a RAPS breadboard at NASA Ames, and on measurement of adsorption isotherm data for several important organic compounds at Vanderbilt. These activities support the use and validation of RAPS modeling software also under development at Vanderbilt, which will in turn be used to construct a prototype system later in the project.

  16. Growth of desferrioxamine-deficient Streptomyces mutants through xenosiderophore piracy of airborne fungal contaminations.

    PubMed

    Arias, Anthony Argüelles; Lambert, Stéphany; Martinet, Loïc; Adam, Delphine; Tenconi, Elodie; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Ongena, Marc; Rigali, Sébastien

    2015-07-01

    Due to the necessity of iron for housekeeping functions, nutrition, morphogenesis and secondary metabolite production, siderophore piracy could be a key strategy in soil and substrate colonization by microorganisms. Here we report that mutants of bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor unable to produce desferrioxamine siderophores could recover growth when the plates were contaminated by indoor air spores of a Penicillium species and Engyodontium album. UPLC-ESI-MS analysis revealed that the HPLC fractions with the extracellular 'resuscitation' factors of the Penicillium isolate were only those that contained siderophores, i.e. Fe-dimerum acid, ferrichrome, fusarinine C and coprogen. The restored growth of the Streptomyces mutants devoid of desferrioxamine is most likely mediated through xenosiderophore uptake as the cultivability depends on the gene encoding the ABC-transporter-associated DesE siderophore-binding protein. That a filamentous fungus allows the growth of desferrioxamine non-producing Streptomyces in cocultures confirms that xenosiderophore piracy plays a vital role in nutritional interactions between these taxonomically unrelated filamentous microorganisms. PMID:26183915

  17. Investigating incidence of bacterial and fungal contamination in shared cosmetic kits available in the women beauty salons

    PubMed Central

    Dadashi, Leila; Dehghanzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rich texture of cosmetics can provide a suitable medium for growth of pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, skin microflora of anyone is unique which might be harmful to another person. Skin and eye pathogenicity could be communicated by sharing cosmetics in beauty saloons. The main objective of this study was to evaluate microbial contamination of in-use skin and eye cosmetics which are available as public make-up kits for women in the beauty salons. Methods: Fifty-two in-use skin and eye cosmetics were included in this cross sectional study.The specimens from all the cosmetics were collected following the owner’s informed consent, and then about 1 g of the cosmetics was added to nine ml of liquid Eugon LT100 broth medium,two for each product. Ten beauty salons randomly selected from different regions of Tabriz city between June and August 2016. Cosmetics were sampled and carried to the laboratory in sterile condition and then examined to determine bacterial and fungal species in the samples. Results: All of in-use cosmetic were contaminated with bacteria (95% CI = 93.1%-100.0%) and about 19.2% by fungus and yeast (95% CI = 10.8%-31.9%). Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter, Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella,Citrobacter, Rhodotorula and Candida were dominant species which were isolated from the cosmetics. Powders with 38.5% (95% CI = 17.7%-64.5%) and eyeliners with 30.0% (95%CI = 6.7%-65.2%) were the most fungal contaminated products. Conclusion: Shared cosmetics in beauty salons are almost contaminated by bacteria and fungus.Therefore, it is suggested to avoid sharing cosmetics by women and prevent use of public cosmetics in toilet saloons. PMID:27579260

  18. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation on heavy metal accumulation of maize grown in a naturally contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fa Yuan; Lin, Xian Gui; Yin, Rui

    2007-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to study heavy metal (HM) phytoaccumulation from soil contaminated with Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd by maize (Zea mays L.) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (AMF). Two AM fungal inocula--MI containing only one AM fungal strain (Glomus caledonium 90036) and MII consisting of Gigaspora margarita ZJ37, Gigaspora decipens ZJ38, Scutellospora gilmori ZJ39, Acaulospora spp., and Glomus spp.--were applied to the soil under unsterilized conditions. The control received no mycorrhizal inoculation. The maize plants were harvested after 10 wk of growth. MI-treated plants had higher mycorrhizal colonization than MII-treated plants. Both MI and MII increased P concentrations in roots, but not in shoots. Neither MI nor MII had significant effects on shoot or root dry weight (DW). Compared with the control, shoot Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations were decreased by MI but increased by MII. Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd uptake into shoots and roots all increased in MII-treated plants, while in MI-treated plants Cu, Zn, and Pb uptake into shoots and Cd uptake into roots decreased but Cu, Zn, and Pb uptake into roots and Cd into shoots increased. MII was more effective than MI in promoting HM extraction efficiencies. The results indicate that MII can benefit HMphytoextraction and, therefore, show potential in the phytoremediation of HM-contaminated soils. PMID:18246710

  19. Development of a polymerase chain reaction-based assay for the detection of Alternaria fungal contamination in food products.

    PubMed

    Zur, G; Hallerman, E M; Sharf, R; Kashi, Y

    1999-10-01

    Alternaria sp. are important fungal contaminants of vegetable, fruit, and grain products, including Alternaria alternata, a contaminant of tomato products. To date, the Howard method, based on microscopic observation of fungal filaments, has been the standard examination for inspection of tomato products. We report development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for detection of Alternaria DNA. PCR primers were designed to anneal to the internal transcribed regions ITS1 and ITS2 of the 5.8S rRNA gene of Alternaria but not to other microbial or tomato DNA. We demonstrate use of the PCR assay to detect Alternaria DNA in experimentally infested and commercially obtained tomato sauce and tomato powder. Use of the PCR method offers a rapid and sensitive assay for the presence of Alternaria DNA in tomato products. The apparent breakdown of DNA in tomato sauce may limit the utility of the assay to freshly prepared products. The assay for tomato powder is not affected by storage time. PMID:10528725

  20. Ventilating-air change rate versus particulate contaminant spread

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, G.; Deitesfeld, C.A.

    1987-11-13

    This study provides information on the spread of particulate contamination from glovebox leaks in plutonium manufacturing facilities, with emphasis on the effect of ventilating-air change rate on contaminated spread. A new, very sensitive aerosol tracer technique was developed to simulate plutonium aerosol leaks and its dispersion in a room. The tracer, a submicron aerosol of phloroglucinol, does not interfere with work activity and is detected by its ability to form ice crystals in a supercooled cloud. This technique was applied in Buildings 371 and 707 plutonium production areas. The tracer spread throughout the rooms in a few minutes and reached its equilibrium concentration in 10 to 25 min. Also, to clear the room of all tracer took about the same time. In one room, tracer concentration decreased proportionally to the air change rate, while in the second one, air change rate had no effect. This points out the need for air velocity data. Also, future work must include simultaneous particle concentration measurements at several points. 4 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Biological removing of Cadmium from contaminated media by fungal biomass of Trichoderma species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Environment pollution by heavy metals is a global disaster and there are several cleaning methods including bioremediation. Trichoderma species inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi and play a useful role in agriculture and ecosystem management. Methods In this study, the removing of cadmium ions by three species of Trichoderma (T. asperellum, T. harzianum and T. tomentosum) were studied under different pH (5, 7, 9) and different concentrations of Cd (1, 100, 200 ppm) in liquid media containing potato extract and dextrose. Above mentioned fungal strains were cultured in the Cd-polluted media and the remaining amount of metal ions in the media was measured after two months growth, using atomic absorption. Results Results showed that all three fungal species were able to reduce the amount of Cd in the all three pH of the medias; but their removal ability varies depending on the species and cultural conditions. T. asperellum was showed maximum removal efficiency of cadmium (76.17%), (10.75 mg/g, at fungal dry weight). Based on our results, the most removal efficiency of Cd ions for the fungal species was evaluated in the alkaline pH. Conclusions Trichoderma species are important fungi in decreasing of Cadmium ions. They have bioremediation potency under various pH and concentration conditions. PMID:25068039

  2. Invasive aspergillosis: drug-dispensing systems as a source of filamentous fungal contamination in high-risk units?

    PubMed

    Gibert, P; Brudieu, E; Timsit, J F; Foroni, L; Thiébaut-Bertrand, A; Allenet, B; Pelloux, H; Brenier Pinchart, M-P

    2012-12-01

    High-risk units with air-control measures at Grenoble University Hospital are equipped with automated dispensing systems that are filled daily using drug trolleys routed from the pharmacy to the ward. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of filamentous fungi (FF) contamination present in trolleys under usual conditions and after cleaning with Aniosurf(®) (fungicidal disinfectant). FF were detected in all samples, and 83.3% of samples were contaminated with Aspergillus fumigatus. Cleaning trolleys with Aniosurf(®) decreased the level of FF significantly, but contamination re-appeared within 24 h due to storage in a non-controlled environment. PMID:23102819

  3. Methodology for Modeling the Microbial Contamination of Air Filters

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Yun Haeng; Yoon, Ki Young; Hwang, Jungho

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a theoretical model to simulate microbial growth on contaminated air filters and entrainment of bioaerosols from the filters to an indoor environment. Air filter filtration and antimicrobial efficiencies, and effects of dust particles on these efficiencies, were evaluated. The number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter could be characterized according to three phases: initial, transitional, and stationary. In the initial phase, the number was determined by filtration efficiency, the concentration of dust particles entering the filter, and the flow rate. During the transitional phase, the number of bioaerosols gradually increased up to the stationary phase, at which point no further increase was observed. The antimicrobial efficiency and flow rate were the dominant parameters affecting the number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter in the transitional and stationary phase, respectively. It was found that the nutrient fraction of dust particles entering the filter caused a significant change in the number of bioaerosols in both the transitional and stationary phases. The proposed model would be a solution for predicting the air filter life cycle in terms of microbiological activity by simulating the microbial contamination of the filter. PMID:24523908

  4. Evaluation of fungal contamination in operating rooms using a dusting cloth pad: comparison among different sampling methods.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Daniela; Cerquetani, Franco; Deriu, Maria Grazia; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Mura, Ida; Napoli, Christian; Vescia, Nicoletta

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate microbial contamination in hospitals environments, several methods are available, each one having its limitations. Therefore, the choice of system to use is open. This study compares the ability of a dusting cloth pad (DC pad) with 2 other methods (Rodac contact plate and air sampling) to detect contamination because of filamentous fungi in operating rooms, performing 110 sampling campaigns in hospitals of 3 Italian cities. Overall, 96% of the DC pad samples were positive compared with 51% of Rodac plates (P < .0001) and 35% of air samples (P < .0001). Authors conclude that the DC pad improves the ability to detect an environmental contamination of filamentous fungi. PMID:23380381

  5. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air. PMID:26405807

  6. Comparison of background levels of culturable fungal spore concentrations in indoor and outdoor air in southeastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, D.; Habib, J.; Luxner, J.; Galler, H.; Zarfel, G.; Schlacher, R.; Friedl, H.; Reinthaler, F. F.

    2014-12-01

    Background concentrations of airborne fungi are indispensable criteria for an assessment of fungal concentrations indoors and in the ambient air. The goal of this study was to define the natural background values of culturable fungal spore concentrations as reference values for the assessment of moldy buildings. The concentrations of culturable fungi were determined outdoors as well as indoors in 185 dwellings without visible mold, obvious moisture problems or musty odor. Samples were collected using the MAS-100® microbiological air sampler. The study shows a characteristic seasonal influence on the background levels of Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus. Cladosporium sp. had a strong outdoor presence, whereas Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were typical indoor fungi. For the region of Styria, the median outdoor concentrations are between 100 and 940 cfu/m³ for culturable xerophilic fungi in the course of the year. Indoors, median background levels are between 180 and 420 cfu/m³ for xerophilic fungi. The I/O ratios of the airborne fungal spore concentrations were between 0.2 and 2.0. For the assessment of indoor and outdoor air samples the dominant genera Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus should receive special consideration.

  7. Ambient and Emission Trends of Toxic Air Contaminants in California.

    PubMed

    Propper, Ralph; Wong, Patrick; Bui, Son; Austin, Jeff; Vance, William; Alvarado, Álvaro; Croes, Bart; Luo, Dongmin

    2015-10-01

    After initiating a toxic air contaminant (TAC) identification and control program in 1984, the California Air Resources Board adopted regulations to reduce TAC emissions from cars, trucks, stationary sources, and consumer products. This study quantifies ambient concentration and emission trends for the period 1990-2012 for seven TACs that are responsible for most of the known cancer risk associated with airborne exposure in California. Of these seven, diesel particulate matter (DPM) is the most important; however DPM is not measured directly. Based on a novel surrogate method, DPM concentrations declined 68%, even though the state's population increased 31%, diesel vehicle-miles-traveled increased 81%, and the gross state product (GSP) increased 74%. Based on monitoring data, concentrations of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, perchloroethylene, and hexavalent chromium declined 88-94%. Also, the ambient and emissions trends for each of these four TACs were similar. Furthermore, these declines generally occurred earlier in California than elsewhere. However, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are formed in the air photochemically from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), declined only 20-21%. The collective cancer risk from exposure to these seven reviewed TACs declined 76%. Significant reduction in cancer risk to California residents from implementation of air toxics controls (especially for DPM) is expected to continue. PMID:26340590

  8. The dynamics of the fungal aerospores Alternaria sp. and Cladosporium sp. in Parisian atmospheric air, in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezoczki, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    The bioallergens occurring naturally in the atmospheric air are microorganisms, pollen grains, plant seeds, leaf and stem scrap, or their protein molecules. The presence of various airborne fungal spores determines a high allergenic potential for public health. This effect is due to the high number of produced spores, which under favourable meteorological conditions (dry weather and wind) reach the surrounding air. This paper traces the dynamics of two types of fungi, Alternaria sp and Cladosporium sp, fungi which can be found outdoors, in the surrounding air, as well as indoors, inside houses (especially the conidia of Cladosporium sp). The effects of these fungal spores on human health are varies, ranging from seasonal allergies (hay fever, rhinitis, sinusitis etc.) to sever afflictions of the respiratory system, onset of asthma, disfunctionalities of the nervous systems, of the immune system, zymoses etc. The monitoring of the dynamics of the aerospores Alternaria sp and Cladosporium sp was carried out between 2010 and 2013, over a period of 42 weeks during one calendar year, from February to the end of September, in the surrounding air in the French capital, Paris. The regional and global climate and meteorological conditions are directly involved in the occurrence and development of fungi colonies, the transportation and dispersion of fungal spores in the atmospheric air, as well as in the creation of the environment required for the interaction of chemical and biological components in the air. Knowledge of the dynamics of the studied fungal aerospores, coupled with climate and meteorological changes, offers a series of information on the magnitude of the allergenic potential these airborne spores can determine. Legal regulations in this domain set the allergen risk threshold for the Alternaria sp aerospores at 3500 ÷ 7000 spores/m3 air/week, and for the Cladosporium sp aerospores at 56,000 spores/m3 air/week. Besides these regulations there exist a series of

  9. EcM fungal community structure, but not diversity, altered in a Pb-contaminated shooting range in a boreal coniferous forest site in Southern Finland.

    PubMed

    Hui, Nan; Jumpponen, Ari; Niskanen, Tuula; Liimatainen, Kare; Jones, Kenneth L; Koivula, Teija; Romantschuk, Martin; Strömmer, Rauni

    2011-04-01

    Boreal forests contain diverse fungal communities that form essential ectomycorrhizal symbioses with trees. To determine the effects of lead (Pb) contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with the dominant pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), we surveyed sporocarps for 3 years, analyzed morphotyped ectomycorrhizal root tips by direct sequencing, and 454-sequenced fungal communities that grew into in-growth bags during a 2-year incubation at a shooting range where sectors vary in the Pb load. We recorded a total of 32 ectomycorrhizal fungi that formed conspicuous sporocarps, 27 ectomycorrhizal fungal phylotypes from 294 root tips, and 116 ectomycorrhizal fungal operation taxonomic unit (OTUs) from a total of 8194 internal transcribed spacer-2 454 sequences. Our ordination analyses by nonparametric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated that the Pb enrichment induced a shift in the ectomycorrhizal community composition. This was visible as indicative trends in the sporocarp and root tip data sets, but was explicitly clear in the communities observed in the in-growth bags. The compositional shift in the ectomycorrhizal community was mainly attributable to an increase in the frequencies of OTUs assigned to genus Thelephora and to a decrease in the OTUs assigned to Pseudotomentella, Suillus, and Tylospora in Pb-contaminated areas when compared with the control. While the compositional shifts are clear, their functional consequences for the dominant trees or soil ecosystem function remain undetermined. PMID:21223331

  10. Demolition of a hospital building by controlled explosion: the impact on filamentous fungal load in internal and external air.

    PubMed

    Bouza, E; Peláez, T; Pérez-Molina, J; Marín, M; Alcalá, L; Padilla, B; Muñoz, P; Adán, P; Bové, B; Bueno, M J; Grande, F; Puente, D; Rodríguez, M P; Rodríguez-Créixems, M; Vigil, D; Cuevas, O

    2002-12-01

    The demolition of a maternity building at our institution provided us with the opportunity to study the load of filamentous fungi in the air. External (nearby streets) and internal (within the hospital buildings) air was sampled with an automatic volumetric machine (MAS-100 Air Samplair) at least daily during the week before the demolition, at 10, 30, 60, 90,120, 180, 240, 420, 540 and 660 min post-demolition, daily during the week after the demolition and weekly during weeks 2, 3 and 4 after demolition. Samples were duplicated to analyse reproducibility. Three hundred and forty samples were obtained: 115 external air, 69 'non-protected' internal air and 156 protected internal air [high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered air under positive pressure]. A significant increase in the colony count of filamentous fungi occurred after the demolition. Median colony counts of external air on demolition day were significantly higher than from internal air (70.2 cfu/m(3) vs 35.8 cfu/m(3)) (P < 0.001). Mechanical demolition on day +4 also produced a significant difference between external and internal air (74.5 cfu/m(3) vs 41.7 cfu/m(3)). The counts returned to baseline levels on day +11. Most areas with a protected air supply yielded no colonies before demolition day and remained negative on demolition day. The reproducibility of the count method was good (intra-assay variance: 2.4 cfu/m(3)). No episodes of invasive filamentous mycosis were detected during the three months following the demolition. Demolition work was associated with a significant increase in the fungal colony counts of hospital external and non-protected internal air. Effective protective measures may be taken to avoid the emergence of clinical infections. PMID:12473466

  11. Wire-Mesh-Based Sorber for Removing Contaminants from Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay; Roychoudhury, Subir; Walsh, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A paper discusses an experimental regenerable sorber for removing CO2 and trace components principally, volatile organic compounds, halocarbons, and NH3 from spacecraft cabin air. This regenerable sorber is a prototype of what is intended to be a lightweight alternative to activated-carbon and zeolite-pellet sorbent beds now in use. The regenerable sorber consists mainly of an assembly of commercially available meshes that have been coated with a specially-formulated washcoat containing zeolites. The zeolites act as the sorbents while the meshes support the zeolite-containing washcoat in a configuration that affords highly effective surface area for exposing the sorbents to flowing air. The meshes also define flow paths characterized by short channel lengths to prevent excessive buildup of flow boundary layers. Flow boundary layer resistance is undesired because it can impede mass and heat transfer. The total weight and volume comparison versus the atmosphere revitalization equipment used onboard the International Space Station for CO2 and trace-component removal will depend upon the design details of the final embodiment. However, the integrated mesh-based CO2 and trace-contaminant removal system is expected to provide overall weight and volume savings by eliminating most of the trace-contaminant control equipment presently used in parallel processing schemes traditionally used for spacecraft. The mesh-based sorbent media enables integrating the two processes within a compact package. For the purpose of regeneration, the sorber can be heated by passing electric currents through the metallic meshes combined with exposure to space vacuum. The minimal thermal mass of the meshes offers the potential for reduced regeneration-power requirements and cycle time required for regeneration compared to regenerable sorption processes now in use.

  12. Indoor air contamination during a waterpipe (narghile) smoking session.

    PubMed

    Fromme, Hermann; Dietrich, Silvio; Heitmann, Dieter; Dressel, Holger; Diemer, Jürgen; Schulz, Thomas; Jörres, Rudolf A; Berlin, Knut; Völkel, Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    The smoke of waterpipe contains numerous substances of health concern, but people mistakenly believe that this smoking method is less harmful and addictive than cigarettes. An experiment was performed in a 57 m3 room on two dates with no smoking on the first date and waterpipe smoking for 4h on the second date. We measured volatile organic compounds (VOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), metals, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (e.g. NO), as well as particle mass (PM), particle number concentration (PNC) and particle surface area in indoor air. High concentrations were observed for the target analytes during the 4-h smoking event. The median (90th percentile) values of PM(2.5), PNC, CO and NO were 393 (737 microg/m(3)), 289,000 (550,000 particles/cm(3)), 51 (65 ppm) and 0.11 (0.13 ppm), respectively. The particle size distribution has a maximum of particles relating to a diameter of 17 nm. The seven carcinogenic PAH were found to be a factor 2.6 higher during the smoking session compared to the control day. In conclusion, the observed indoor air contamination of different harmful substances during a WP session is high, and exposure may pose a health risk for smokers but in particular for non-smokers who are exposed to ETS. PMID:19394392

  13. SPM and fungal spores in the ambient air of west Korea during the Asian dust (Yellow sand) period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Hwan-Goo; Kim, Jong-Ho

    The relationship between suspended particulate matter (SPM) and fungal spore was investigated in Seosan, a rural county along the west coast of Korea, in the spring of 2000. SPM concentrations in the air were 199.8 μg m -3 in the first Asian dust period (23-24 March), 249.4 μg m -3 in the second Asian dust period (7-9 April) and 98.9 μg m -3 in the non-Asian dust period (12-16 May), respectively. The majority of the total SPM were composed of coarse particles sized about 5 μm during the two Asian dust periods. Four molds genera grown from airborne fungal spores were identified in colonies grown from SPM samples taken during the Asian dust periods. All the genera found, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Basipetospora, are hyphomycetes in the division Deuteromycota. Morphologically, more diversified mycelia of hyphomycetes were grown on the sample captured from 1.1 to 2.1 μm sized SPM than on the other sized samples gathered in the dust periods. On the other hand, no mold was observed on the sample of 1.1-2.1 μm sized SPM in the non-Asian dust period. From these results, it seems evident that several sorts of fine sized fungal spores were suspended in the atmospheric environment of this study area during Asian dust periods.

  14. AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE TREATMENT OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM FUELS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report updates a 1992 report that summarizes available information on air emissions from the treatment of soils contaminated with fuels. Soils contaminated by leaks or spills of fuel products, such as gasoline or jet fuel, are a nationwide concern. Air emissions during remedi...

  15. The Bacterial and Fungal Diversity of an Aged PAH- and Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil is Affected by Plant Cover and Edaphic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Bourceret, Amélia; Cébron, Aurélie; Tisserant, Emilie; Poupin, Pascal; Bauda, Pascale; Beguiristain, Thierry; Leyval, Corinne

    2016-04-01

    Industrial wasteland soils with aged PAH and heavy metal contaminations are environments where pollutant toxicity has been maintained for decades. Although the communities may be well adapted to the presence of stressors, knowledge about microbial diversity in such soils is scarce. Soil microbial community dynamics can be driven by the presence of plants, but the impact of plant development on selection or diversification of microorganisms in these soils has not been established yet. To test these hypotheses, aged-contaminated soil samples from a field trial were collected. Plots planted with alfalfa were compared to bare soil plots, and bacterial and fungal diversity and abundance were assessed after 2 and 6 years. Using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene and ITS amplicons, we showed that the bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and was characterized by low Acidobacteria abundance, while the fungal community was mainly represented by members of the Ascomycota. The short-term toxic impact of pollutants usually reduces the microbial diversity, yet in our samples bacterial and fungal species richness and diversity was high suggesting that the community structure and diversity adapted to the contaminated soil over decades. The presence of plants induced higher bacterial and fungal diversity than in bare soil. It also increased the relative abundance of bacterial members of the Actinomycetales, Rhizobiales, and Xanthomonadales orders and of most fungal orders. Multivariate analysis showed correlations between microbial community structure and heavy metal and PAH concentrations over time, but also with edaphic parameters (C/N, pH, phosphorus, and nitrogen concentrations). PMID:26440298

  16. Inactivation of fungal contaminants on Korean traditional cashbox by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Lim, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, gamma irradiation was applied to decontaminate a Korean cultural artifact, a wooden cashbox stored in local museum. Fungi isolated from the wooden cashbox were identified by 18S rDNA sequencing methods. It was observed that the isolated fungi exhibited high similarity to Aspergillus niger, Penicillium verruculosum, and Trichoderma viride. Each strain was tested for sensitivity to gamma irradiation, and was inactivated by the irradiation at a dose of 5 kGy. The wooden cashbox was thus gamma-irradiated at this dose (5 kGy), and consequently decontaminated. Two months after the irradiation, when the wooden cashbox was retested to detect biological contamination, no fungi were found. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation at a low dose of 5 kGy can be applied for successful decontamination of wooden artifacts.

  17. Fungal arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and irritation (inflammation) of a joint by a fungal infection. It is also called mycotic arthritis. Causes Fungal ... symptoms of fungal arthritis. Prevention Thorough treatment of fungal infections elsewhere in the body may help prevent fungal ...

  18. Characterization of the bacterial and fungal microbiome in indoor dust and outdoor air samples: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Blake; Zhou, Yanjiao; Bautista, Eddy J; Urch, Bruce; Speck, Mary; Silverman, Frances; Muilenberg, Michael; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Weinstock, George; Sodergren, Erica; Gold, Diane R; Sordillo, Joanne E

    2016-06-15

    Environmental microbes have been associated with both protective and adverse health effects in children and adults. Epidemiological studies often rely on broad biomarkers of microbial exposure (i.e. endotoxin, 1 → 3-beta-d-glucan), but fail to identify the taxonomic composition of the microbial community. Our aim was to characterize the bacterial and fungal microbiome in different types of environmental samples collected in studies of human health effects. We determined the composition of microbial communities present in home, school and outdoor air samples by amplifying and sequencing regions of rRNA genes from bacteria (16S) and fungi (18S and ITS). Samples for this pilot study included indoor settled dust (from both a Boston area birth cohort study on Home Allergens and Asthma (HAA) (n = 12) and a study of school exposures and asthma symptoms (SICAS) (n = 1)), as well as fine and coarse concentrated outdoor ambient particulate (CAP) samples (n = 9). Sequencing of amplified 16S, 18S, and ITS regions was performed on the Roche-454 Life Sciences Titanium pyrosequencing platform. Indoor dust samples were dominated by Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes and Actinobacteria); the most abundant bacterial genera were those related to human flora (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Lactobacillus). Outdoor CAPs were dominated by Gram-negative Proteobacteria from water and soil sources, in particular the genera Acidovorax, and Brevundimonas (which were present at very low levels or entirely absent in indoor dust). Phylum-level fungal distributions identified by 18S or ITS regions showed very similar findings: a predominance of Ascomycota in indoor dust and Basidiomycota in outdoor CAPs. ITS sequencing of fungal genera in indoor dust showed significant proportions of Aureobasidium and Leptosphaerulina along with some contribution from Cryptococcus, Epicoccum, Aspergillus and the human commensal Malassezia. ITS sequencing detected more than 70 fungal genera

  19. Long-term in situ dynamics of the fungal communities in a multi-contaminated soil are mainly driven by plants.

    PubMed

    Thion, Cécile; Cébron, Aurélie; Beguiristain, Thierry; Leyval, Corinne

    2012-10-01

    The fungal communities of a multi-contaminated soil polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals (NM) were studied within a long-term in situ experiment of natural attenuation assisted by plants. Three treatments were monitored: bare soil (NM-BS), soil planted with alfalfa and inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi (NM-Msm), and soil with spontaneous vegetation (NM-SV). The same soil after thermal desorption (TD) was planted with alfalfa and inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi (TD-Msm). Twice a year for 5 years, the fungal abundance and the community structure were evaluated by real-time PCR and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis targeting 18S rRNA genes. The fungal abundance increased over time and was higher in planted than in bare NM soil and in TD than in NM soil. The Shannon diversity index (H') increased during the first 2 years with the emergence of more than 30 ribotypes, but decreased after 3 years with the selection of a few competitive species, mostly Ascomycetes. H' was higher under complex plant assemblage (NM-SV) than in the NM-BS plots but did not differ between NM and TD soils planted with alfalfa. These results indicated that even in a highly polluted soil, the plant cover was the main driver of the fungal community structure. PMID:22587649

  20. A source of PCB contamination in modified high-volume air samplers

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, I.; O'Dell, J.M.; Arnold, K.; Hites, R.A.

    2000-02-01

    Modified Anderson High Volume (Hi-Vol) air samplers are widely used for the collection of semi-volatile organic compounds (such as PCBs) from air. The foam gasket near the main air flow path in these samplers can become contaminated with PCBs if the sampler or the gasket is stored at a location with high indoor air PCB levels. Once the gasket is contaminated, it releases PCBs back into the air stream during sampling, and as a result, incorrectly high air PCB concentrations are measured. This paper presents data demonstrating this contamination problem using measurements from two Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network sites: one at Sleeping Bear Dunes on Lake Michigan and the other at Point Petre on Lake Ontario. The authors recommend that these gaskets be replaced by Teflon tape and that the storage history of each sampler be carefully tracked.

  1. Characterization of Cd- and Pb-resistant fungal endophyte Mucor sp. CBRF59 isolated from rapes (Brassica chinensis) in a metal-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zujun; Cao, Lixiang; Huang, Haiwei; Jiang, Xinyu; Wang, Wenfeng; Shi, Yang; Zhang, Renduo

    2011-01-30

    To better understand the characteristics of fungal endophytes in the development of effective phytoremediation of heavy metals, the objectives of this study were to isolate a fungal endophyte tolerant Cd and Pb from rape roots grown in a heavy metal-contaminated soil, to characterize the metal-resistant fungal endophyte, and to assess its potential applications in removal of Cd and Pb from contaminated solutions and experimental soil. The isolate CBRF59 was identified as Mucor sp. based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis. From a Cd solution of 2.0mM, the maximum biosorption capacity of Cd by dead biomass of Mucor sp. CBRF59 was 108 mg g(-1). Under the same conditions, the bioaccumulation capacity of Cd by active biomass of the strain was 173 mg g(-1). The bioaccumulation capacity of Pb by active biomass of the strain was significantly lower than that by dead biomass in the initial Pb concentrations from 1.0 to 2.0mM. The ratio of Pb to Cd and initial pH values in the mixed Cd+Pb solutions affected the bioaccumulation and biosorption capacities of the metals by CBRF59. The addition of the active mycelia of CBRF59 significantly increased the availability of soil Pb and Cd by 77% and 11.5-fold, respectively. The results showed that the endophytic fungus was potentially applicable for the decontamination of metal-polluted media. PMID:20956060

  2. Air Sampling Instruments for Evaluation of Atmospheric Contaminants. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH.

    This text, a revision and extension of the first three editions, consists of papers discussing the basic considerations in sampling air for specific purposes, sampler calibration, systems components, sample collectors, and descriptions of air-sampling instruments. (BT)

  3. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the sampling and chemical analysis of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of a field investigation of ground water contamination.

  4. Engineering Task Plan Supporting Rupture of Compressed Air Lines in Contaminated Areas USQ

    SciTech Connect

    JANICEK, G.P.

    2001-11-30

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) defines the Tasks and organizational responsibilities for obtaining Tank Farm data relative to pit structures and soil contamination levels for purposes of resolving the rupture of compressed air/gas lines unreviewed safety question.

  5. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  6. Evolution of Fuel-Air and Contaminant Clouds Resulting from a Cruise Missile Explosion Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, A S; Kul, A L

    2005-06-22

    A low-mach-number hydrodynamics model has been used to simulate the evolution of a fuel-air mixture and contaminant cloud resulting from the detonation of a cruise missile. The detonation has been assumed to be non-nuclear. The cloud evolution has been carried out to a time of 5.5 seconds. At this time the contaminant has completely permeated the initial fuel-air mixture cloud.

  7. A SURVEY OF INDOOR AIR CONTAMINATES USING SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in indoor areas in approximately 50 residences along the border between Arizona and Mexico to measure airborne contaminants. The results of the primary analyses and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric confirmation for org...

  8. Potential Air Contamination During CO{sub 2} Angiography Using a Hand-Held Syringe: Theoretical Considerations and Gas Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, David R.; Cho, Kyung J. Hawkins, Irvin F.

    2006-08-15

    Purpose. To assess air contamination in the hand-held syringes currently used for CO{sub 2} delivery and to determine whether there is an association between their position and the rate of air contamination. Methods. Assessment of air contamination in the syringe (20 ml) included theoretical modeling, mathematical calculation, and gas chromatography (GC). The model was used with Fick's first law to calculate the diffusion of CO{sub 2} and the amount of air contamination. For GC studies, the syringes were placed in the upright, horizontal, and inverted positions and gas samples were obtained after 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. All trials with each position for each sampling time were performed five times. Results. The amounts of air contamination with time calculated mathematically were 5-10% less than those of GC. With the diffusivity of air-CO{sub 2} at 0.1599 cm{sup 2}/sec (9.594 cm{sup 2}/min), air contamination was calculated to be 60% at 60 min. With GC air contamination was 13% at 5 min, 31% at 20 min, 43% at 30 min, and 68% at 60 min. There was no difference in air contamination between the different syringe positions. Conclusion. Air contamination occurs in hand-held syringes filled with CO{sub 2} when they are open to the ambient air. The amounts of air contamination over time are similar among syringes placed in the upright, horizontal, and inverted positions.

  9. Dynamics of airborne fungal populations in a large office building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burge, H. A.; Pierson, D. L.; Groves, T. O.; Strawn, K. F.; Mishra, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing concern with bioaerosols in large office buildings prompted this prospective study of airborne fungal concentrations in a newly constructed building on the Gulf coast. We collected volumetric culture plate air samples on 14 occasions over the 18-month period immediately following building occupancy. On each sampling occasion, we collected duplicate samples from three sites on three floors of this six-story building, and an outdoor sample. Fungal concentrations indoors were consistently below those outdoors, and no sample clearly indicated fungal contamination in the building, although visible growth appeared in the ventilation system during the course of the study. We conclude that modern mechanically ventilated buildings prevent the intrusion of most of the outdoor fungal aerosol, and that even relatively extensive air sampling protocols may not sufficiently document the microbial status of buildings.

  10. Air contaminant statistical distributions with application to PM10 in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Carolina; Leiva, Víctor; Cavieres, M Fernanda; Sanhueza, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The use of statistical distributions to predict air quality is valuable for determining the impact of air chemical contaminants on human health. Concentrations of air pollutants are treated as random variables that can be modeled by a statistical distribution that is positively skewed and starts from zero. The type of distribution selected for analyzing air pollution data and its associated parameters depend on factors such as emission source and local meteorology and topography. International environmental guideline use appropriate distributions to compute exceedance probabilities and percentiles for setting administrative targets and issuing environmental alerts. The distribution bears a relationship to the normal distribution, and there are theoretical - and physical-based mechanistic arguments that support its use when analyzing air-pollutant data. Others distribution have also been used to model air population data, such as the beta, exponential, gamma, Johnson, log-logistic, Pearson, and Weibull distribution. One model also developed from physical-mechanistic considerations that has received considerable interest in recent year is the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution. This distribution has theoretical arguments and properties similar to those of the log-normal distribution, which renders it useful for modeling air contamination data. In this review, we have addressed the range of common atmospheric contaminants and the health effects they cause. We have also reviewed the statistical distributions that have been use to model air quality, after which we have detailed the problem of air contamination in Santiago, Chile. We have illustrated a methodology that is based on the Birnbaum-Saunders distributions to analyze air contamination data from Santiago, Chile. Finally, in the conclusions, we have provided a list of synoptic statements designed to help readers understand the significance of air pollution in Chile, and in Santiago, in particular, but that can be

  11. Removal of volatile and semivolatile organic contamination from soil by air and steam flushing.

    PubMed

    Sleep, B E; McClure, P D

    2001-07-01

    A soil core, obtained from a contaminated field site, contaminated with a mixture of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOC and SVOC) was subjected to air and steam flushing. Removal rates of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds were monitored during flushing. Air flushing removed a significant portion of the VOC present in the soil, but a significant decline in removal rate occurred due to decreasing VOC concentrations in the soil gas phase. Application of steam flushing after air flushing produced a significant increase in contaminant removal rate for the first 4 to 5 pore volumes of steam condensate. Subsequently, contaminant concentrations decreased slowly with additional pore volumes of steam flushing. The passage of a steam volume corresponding to 11 pore volumes of steam condensate reduced the total VOC concentration in the soil gas (at 20 degrees C) by a factor of 20 to 0.07 mg/l. The corresponding total SVOC concentration in the condensate declined from 11 to 3 mg/l. Declines in contaminant removal rates during both air and steam flushing indicated rate-limited removal consistent with the persistence of a residual organic phase, rate-limited desorption, or channeling. Pressure gradients were much higher for steam flushing than for air flushing. The magnitude of the pressure gradients encountered during steam flushing for this soil indicates that, in addition to rate-limited contaminant removal, the soil permeability (2.1 x 10(-9) cm2) would be a limiting factor in the effectiveness of steam flushing. PMID:11475159

  12. Contamination of Ambient Air with Acinetobacter baumannii on Consecutive Inpatient Days.

    PubMed

    Shimose, Luis A; Doi, Yohei; Bonomo, Robert A; De Pascale, Dennise; Viau, Roberto A; Cleary, Timothy; Namias, Nicholas; Kett, Daniel H; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2015-07-01

    Acinetobacter-positive patients had their ambient air tested for up to 10 consecutive days. The air was Acinetobacter positive for an average of 21% of the days; the rate of contamination was higher among patients colonized in the rectum than in the airways (relative risk [RR], 2.35; P = 0.006). Of the 6 air/clinical isolate pairs available, 4 pairs were closely related according to rep-PCR results. PMID:25926496

  13. 40 CFR 52.1988 - Air contaminant discharge permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... other requirements of the SIP. Plant site emission limits and alternative emission limits (bubbles... Emission Limits for Sources of Hazardous Air Pollutants” and 060(8) “Alternative Emission Controls...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1988 - Air contaminant discharge permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... other requirements of the SIP. Plant site emission limits and alternative emission limits (bubbles... Emission Limits for Sources of Hazardous Air Pollutants” and 060(8) “Alternative Emission Controls...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1988 - Air contaminant discharge permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... other requirements of the SIP. Plant site emission limits and alternative emission limits (bubbles... Emission Limits for Sources of Hazardous Air Pollutants” and 060(8) “Alternative Emission Controls...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1988 - Air contaminant discharge permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... other requirements of the SIP. Plant site emission limits and alternative emission limits (bubbles... Emission Limits for Sources of Hazardous Air Pollutants” and 060(8) “Alternative Emission Controls...

  17. Relationships between in vivo and in vitro aflatoxin production: reliable prediction of fungal ability to contaminate maize with aflatoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic mycotoxins frequently produced by Aspergillus flavus. Contamination of maize with aflatoxins imposes both economic and health burdens in many regions. Identification of the most important etiologic agents of contamination is complicated by mixed infections and vary...

  18. Effects of water-contaminated air on blowoff limits of opposed jet hydrogen-air diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Jentzen, Marilyn E.; Wilson, Lloyd G.; Northam, G. Burton

    1988-01-01

    The effects of water-contaminated air on the extinction and flame restoration of the central portion of N2-diluted H2 versus air counterflow diffusion flames are investigated using a coaxial tubular opposed jet burner. The results show that the replacement of N2 contaminant in air by water on a mole for mole basis decreases the maximum sustainable H2 mass flow, just prior to extinction, of the flame. This result contrasts strongly with the analogous substitution of water for N2 in a relatively hot premixed H2-O2-N2 flame, which was shown by Koroll and Mulpuru (1986) to lead to a significant, kinetically controlled increase in laminar burning velocity.

  19. [Bacterial contamination of the indoor air in a transplant unit].

    PubMed

    Matoušková, Ivanka; Holý, Ondřej

    2013-12-01

    For one year (August 2010 to July 2011), microbial contamination of the indoor air in the Transplant Unit of the Haemato-Oncology Clinic, Olomouc University Hospital was monitored monthly. Twenty sampling sites were singled out and a total of 240 indoor air samples were collected. An MAS-100 air sampler (Merck, GER) was used, air flow rate of 100 liters per minute, 1 minute. The measured values of indoor air temperature were stable. The relative air humidity ranged from 17% to 68%. The highest average value of microbial air contamination was found in the "staff entry room" (1170 CFU/m3). The lowest microbial air contamination (150-250 CFU/m3) was measured in the patient isolation units. The most frequently isolated bacterial strains were coagulase-negative staphylococci (94.3%), followed by Micrococcus spp. (67%) and Bacillus subtilis (11%). It can be assumed that the -source of these airborne bacterial strains are both patients and medical staff. They are classified as -opportunistic pathogens and as such can cause hospital infections among haemato-oncology patients. PMID:24467177

  20. Formaldehyde: a candidate toxic air contaminant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, B.; Parker, T.

    1988-03-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a gas widely used in adhesives and resins, textiles, embalming fluids, fungicides, air fresheners, and cosmetics. It is directly emitted into the ambient outdoor air from vehicular and stationary sources, and is also produced in the atmosphere from other substances by photochemical smog processes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity of formaldehyde to animals, and limited evidence for carcinogenicity to humans. EPA classifies formaldehyde as a probable human carcinogen with a one in a million risk concentration of 0.08 ppb.

  1. INTEGRATION OF PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION WITH AIR STRIPPING OF CONTAMINATED AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench scale laboratory studies and pilot scale studies in a simulated field-test situation were performed to evaluate the integration of gas-solid ultaviolet (UV) photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) downstream if an air stripper unit as a technology for cost-effectively treating water...

  2. Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model development

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Hult, Erin L.

    2013-02-26

    A first-order, lumped capacitance model is used to describe the buffering of airborne chemical species by building materials and furnishings in the indoor environment. The model is applied to describe the interaction between formaldehyde in building materials and the concentration of the species in the indoor air. Storage buffering can decrease the effect of ventilation on the indoor concentration, compared to the inverse dependence of indoor concentration on the air exchange rate that is consistent with a constant emission rate source. If the exposure time of an occupant is long relative to the time scale of depletion of the compound from the storage medium, however, the total exposure will depend inversely on the air exchange rate. This lumped capacitance model is also applied to moisture buffering in the indoor environment, which occurs over much shorter depletion timescales of the order of days. This model provides a framework to interpret the impact of storage buffering on time-varying concentrations of chemical species and resulting occupant exposure. Pseudo-steady state behavior is validated using field measurements. Model behavior over longer times is consistent with formaldehyde and moisture concentration measurements in previous studies.

  3. Fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation in the air distribution system of a multi-story office building: VOC production and possible relationship to a sick building syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Crow, S. A.; Simmons, R. B.; Price, D. L.; Noble, J. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Complaints characteristic of those for sick building syndrome prompted mycological investigations of a modern multi-story office building on the Gulf coast in the Southeastern United States (Houston-Galveston area). The air handling units and fiberglass duct liner of the heating, ventilating and air conditioning system of the building, without a history of catastrophic or chronic water damage, demonstrated extensive colonization with Penicillium spp and Cladosporium herbarum. Although dense fungal growth was observed on surfaces within the heating-cooling system, most air samples yielded fewer than 200 CFU m-3. Several volatile compounds found in the building air were released also from colonized fiberglass. Removal of colonized insulation from the floor receiving the majority of complaints of mouldy air and continuous operation of the units supplying this floor resulted in a reduction in the number of complaints.

  4. Comparison of color removal from reactive dye contaminated water by systems containing fungal biosorbent, active carbon and their mixture.

    PubMed

    Gül, Ulküye Dudu; Silah, Hülya

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of Everzol Black (EB) from synthetic aqueous solution onto active carbon (AC) and dried fungal biosorbent (Rhizopus arrhizus) was studied under the same experimental conditions. The effects of initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage and contact time were examined at a batch-scale level. As an alternative to AC, fungus was investigated as a low-cost adsorbent for dye removal. The amount of EB adsorbed onto AC was lower compared with fungal biosorbent; dye adsorption capacity of AC and fungal biosorbent were 94.48 and 106.61 mg/g, respectively. The adsorbent dosage experiments showed that 4 g/L biosorbent removed 100% of EB (Co: 114.39 mg/L) after 2 hours. The results obtained from this study showed that biosorbent effectively removed reactive dye from dye-containing water in a short time period. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were used for mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium data; the Freundlich model was found to exhibit good fits to the experimental data. According to the Freundlich isotherm, the maximum dye adsorption capacities of AC and biosorbent were calculated as 344.82 and 357.14 mg/g, respectively. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectral analysis showed the involvement of functional groups for dye bindings. PMID:25325540

  5. [Quality of interior air: biological contaminants and their effects on health; bioaerosols and gathering techniques].

    PubMed

    Bălan, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    Indoor Air Quality: biological contaminants and health effects; airborne organisms and sampling instruments. Biological contaminants include bacteria, molds, viruses, animal dander and cat saliva, house dust, mites, cockroaches and pollen. Symptoms of health problems caused by biological pollutants include sneezing, watery eyes, coughing, shortness of breath, dizziness, lethargy, fevers. Children, elderly people with breathing problems, allergies and lung diseases are particularly susceptible to disease-causing biological agents in the indoor air. It is convenient to consider microbiological samplers for collecting organisms in air as falling into several broad categories. Many popular microbiological air samplers use the principle of impaction to trap the organisms by impacting them directly on to agar. Further distinct groups are the impingers, which operate by impinging organisms into liquid. PMID:18441954

  6. Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Concomitant Contamination of Air and Environmental Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shimose, Luis A; Masuda, Eriko; Sfeir, Maroun; Berbel Caban, Ana; Bueno, Maria X; dePascale, Dennise; Spychala, Caressa N; Cleary, Timothy; Namias, Nicholas; Kett, Daniel H; Doi, Yohei; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To concomitantly determine the differential degrees of air and environmental contamination by Acinetobacter baumannii based on anatomic source of colonization and type of ICU layout (single-occupancy vs open layout). DESIGN Longitudinal prospective surveillance study of air and environmental surfaces in patient rooms. SETTING A 1,500-bed public teaching hospital in Miami, Florida. PATIENTS Consecutive A. baumannii-colonized patients admitted to our ICUs between October 2013 and February 2014. METHODS Air and environmental surfaces of the rooms of A. baumannii-colonized patients were sampled daily for up to 10 days. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to type and match the matching air, environmental, and clinical A. baumannii isolates. RESULTS A total of 25 A. baumannii-colonized patients were identified during the study period; 17 were colonized in the respiratory tract and 8 were colonized in the rectum. In rooms with rectally colonized patients, 38.3% of air samples were positive for A. baumannii; in rooms of patients with respiratory colonization, 13.1% of air samples were positive (P=.0001). In rooms with rectally colonized patients, 15.5% of environmental samples were positive for A. baumannii; in rooms of patients with respiratory colonization, 9.5% of environmental samples were positive (P=.02). The rates of air contamination in the open-layout and single-occupancy ICUs were 17.9% and 21.8%, respectively (P=.5). Environmental surfaces were positive in 9.5% of instances in open-layout ICUs versus 13.4% in single-occupancy ICUs (P=.09). CONCLUSIONS Air and environmental surface contaminations were significantly greater among rectally colonized patients; however, ICU layout did not influence the rate of contamination. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:777-781. PMID:27045768

  7. Monitoring Trace Contaminants in Air Via Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Peter T.; Karr, Dane; Pearson, Richard; Valero, Gustavo; Wong, Carla

    1995-01-01

    Recent passage of the Clean Air Act with its stricter regulation of toxic gas emissions, and the ever-growing number of applications which require faster turnaround times between sampling and analysis are two major factors which are helping to drive the development of new instrument technologies for in-situ, on-line, real-time monitoring. The ion trap, with its small size, excellent sensitivity, and tandem mass spectrometry capability is a rapidly evolving technology which is well-suited for these applications. In this paper, we describe the use of a commercial ion trap instrument for monitoring trace levels of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. A number of sample introduction devices including a direct transfer line interface, short column GC, and a cryotrapping interface are employed to achieve increasing levels of sensitivity. MS, MS/MS, and MS/MS/MS methods are compared to illustrate trade-offs between sensitivity and selectivity. Filtered Noise Field (FNF) technology is found to be an excellent means for achieving lower detection limits through selective storage of the ion(s) of interest during ionization. Figures of merit including typical sample sizes, detection limits, and response times are provided. The results indicate the potential of these techniques for atmospheric assessments, the High Speed Research Program, and advanced life support monitoring applications for NASA.

  8. Fast detection of air contaminants using immunobiological methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Katrin; Bolwien, Carsten; Sulz, Gerd; Koch, Wolfgang; Dunkhorst, Wilhelm; Lödding, Hubert; Schwarz, Katharina; Holländer, Andreas; Klockenbring, Torsten; Barth, Stefan; Seidel, Björn; Hofbauer, Wolfgang; Rennebarth, Torsten; Renzl, Anna

    2009-05-01

    The fast and direct identification of possibly pathogenic microorganisms in air is gaining increasing interest due to their threat for public health, e.g. in clinical environments or in clean rooms of food or pharmaceutical industries. We present a new detection method allowing the direct recognition of relevant germs or bacteria via fluorescence-labeled antibodies within less than one hour. In detail, an air-sampling unit passes particles in the relevant size range to a substrate which contains antibodies with fluorescence labels for the detection of a specific microorganism. After the removal of the excess antibodies the optical detection unit comprising reflected-light and epifluorescence microscopy can identify the microorganisms by fast image processing on a single-particle level. First measurements with the system to identify various test particles as well as interfering influences have been performed, in particular with respect to autofluorescence of dust particles. Specific antibodies for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus spores have been established. The biological test system consists of protein A-coated polymer particles which are detected by a fluorescence-labeled IgG. Furthermore the influence of interfering particles such as dust or debris is discussed.

  9. Assessment of the bacterial contamination of hand air dryer in washrooms.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Salmen, Saleh Hussein; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Zayed, M E; Al-Johny, Bassam O; Wainwright, Milton

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out, using standard techniques, to identify and count the bacterial contamination of hand air dryers, used in washrooms. Bacteria were isolated from the air flow, outlet nozzle of warm air dryers in fifteen air dryers used in these washrooms. Bacteria were found to be relatively numerous in the air flows. Bacterially contaminated air was found to be emitted whenever a warm air dryer was running, even when not being used for hand drying. Our investigation shows that Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Bacillus cereus and Brevundimonad diminuta/vesicularis were emitted from all of the dryers sampled, with 95% showing evidence of the presence of the potential pathogen S. haemolyticus. It is concluded that hot air dryers can deposit pathogenic bacteria onto the hands and body of users. Bacteria are distributed into the general environment whenever dryers are running and could be inhaled by users and none-users alike. The results provide an evidence base for the development and enhancement of hygienic hand drying practices. PMID:26981009

  10. Slaughterhouses Fungal Burden Assessment: A Contribution for the Pursuit of a Better Assessment Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Viegas, Carla; Faria, Tiago; dos Santos, Mateus; Carolino, Elisabete; Sabino, Raquel; Quintal Gomes, Anita; Viegas, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In slaughterhouses, the biological risk is present not only from the direct or indirect contact with animal matter, but also from the exposure to bioaerosols. Fungal contamination was already reported from the floors and walls of slaughterhouses. This study intends to assess fungal contamination by cultural and molecular methods in poultry, swine/bovine and large animal slaughterhouses. Air samples were collected through an impaction method, while surface samples were collected by the swabbing method and subjected to further macro- and micro-scopic observations. In addition, we collected air samples using the impinger method in order to perform real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) amplification of genes from specific fungal species, namely A. flavus, A. fumigatus and A. ochraceus complexes. Poultry and swine/bovine slaughterhouses presented each two sampling sites that surpass the guideline of 150 CFU/m3. Scopulariopsis candida was the most frequently isolated (59.5%) in poultry slaughterhouse air; Cladosporium sp. (45.7%) in the swine/bovine slaughterhouse; and Penicillium sp. (80.8%) in the large animal slaughterhouse. Molecular tools successfully amplified DNA from the A. fumigatus complex in six sampling sites where the presence of this fungal species was not identified by conventional methods. This study besides suggesting the indicators that are representative of harmful fungal contamination, also indicates a strategy as a protocol to ensure a proper characterization of fungal occupational exposure. PMID:27005642

  11. Slaughterhouses Fungal Burden Assessment: A Contribution for the Pursuit of a Better Assessment Strategy.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Carla; Faria, Tiago; Dos Santos, Mateus; Carolino, Elisabete; Sabino, Raquel; Quintal Gomes, Anita; Viegas, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In slaughterhouses, the biological risk is present not only from the direct or indirect contact with animal matter, but also from the exposure to bioaerosols. Fungal contamination was already reported from the floors and walls of slaughterhouses. This study intends to assess fungal contamination by cultural and molecular methods in poultry, swine/bovine and large animal slaughterhouses. Air samples were collected through an impaction method, while surface samples were collected by the swabbing method and subjected to further macro- and micro-scopic observations. In addition, we collected air samples using the impinger method in order to perform real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) amplification of genes from specific fungal species, namely A. flavus, A. fumigatus and A. ochraceus complexes. Poultry and swine/bovine slaughterhouses presented each two sampling sites that surpass the guideline of 150 CFU/m³. Scopulariopsis candida was the most frequently isolated (59.5%) in poultry slaughterhouse air; Cladosporium sp. (45.7%) in the swine/bovine slaughterhouse; and Penicillium sp. (80.8%) in the large animal slaughterhouse. Molecular tools successfully amplified DNA from the A. fumigatus complex in six sampling sites where the presence of this fungal species was not identified by conventional methods. This study besides suggesting the indicators that are representative of harmful fungal contamination, also indicates a strategy as a protocol to ensure a proper characterization of fungal occupational exposure. PMID:27005642

  12. Indoor air condensate as a novel matrix for monitoring inhalable organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Roll, Isaac B; Halden, Rolf U; Pycke, Benny F G

    2015-05-15

    With the population of developed nations spending nearly 90% of their time indoors, indoor air quality (IAQ) is a critical indicator of human health risks from inhalation of airborne contaminants. We present a novel approach for qualitative monitoring of IAQ through the collection and analysis of indoor air condensate discharged from heat exchangers of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Condensate samples were collected from six suburban homes and one business in Maricopa County, Arizona, concentrated via solid-phase extraction, analyzed for 10 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and screened for additional organic compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 10 EDCs were detected in at least one of the sampled buildings. More than 100 additional compounds were detected by GC-MS, of which 40 were tentatively identified using spectral database searches. Twelve compounds listed as designated chemicals for biomonitoring by the California Environmental Contaminant Biomonitoring Program were detected. Microfiltration of condensate samples prior to extraction had no discernable effect on contaminant concentration, suggesting that contaminants were freely dissolved or associated with inhalable, submicron particles. This study is the first to document the utility of HVAC condensate for the qualitative assessment of indoor air for pollutants. PMID:25706557

  13. Brazing retort manifold design concept may minimize air contamination and enhance uniform gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruppe, E. P.

    1966-01-01

    Brazing retort manifold minimizes air contamination, prevents gas entrapment during purging, and provides uniform gas flow into the retort bell. The manifold is easily cleaned and turbulence within the bell is minimized because all manifold construction lies outside the main enclosure.

  14. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  15. Air-Seawater Exchange of Organochlorine Pesticides along the Sediment Plume of a Large Contaminated River.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian; Guo, Zhigang; Li, Yuanyuan; Nizzetto, Luca; Ma, Chuanliang; Chen, Yingjun

    2015-05-01

    Gaseous exchange fluxes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) across the air-water interface of the coastal East China Sea were determined in order to assess whether the contaminated plume of the Yangtze River could be an important regional source of OCPs to the atmosphere. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most frequently detected OCPs in air and water. Air-water exchange was mainly characterized by net volatilization for all measured OCPs. The net gaseous exchange flux ranged 10-240 ng/(m2·day) for γ-HCH, 60-370 ng/(m2·day) for trans-CHL, 97-410 ng/(m2·day) for cis-CHL, and ∼0 (e.g., equilibrium) to 490 ng/(m2·day) for p,p'-DDE. We found that the plume of the large contaminated river can serve as a significant regional secondary atmospheric source of legacy contaminants released in the catchment. In particular, the sediment plume represented the relevant source of DDT compounds (especially p,p'-DDE) sustaining net degassing when clean air masses from the open ocean reached the plume area. In contrast, a mass balance showed that, for HCHs, contaminated river discharge (water and sediment) plumes were capable of sustaining volatilization throughout the year. These results demonstrate the inconsistencies in the fate of HCHs and DDTs in this large estuarine system with declining primary sources. PMID:25827140

  16. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

    2010-05-10

    Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

  17. Quantitative assessment of bio-aerosols contamination in indoor air of University dormitory rooms

    PubMed Central

    Hayleeyesus, Samuel Fekadu; Ejeso, Amanuel; Derseh, Fikirte Aklilu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to provide insight into how students are exposed to indoor bio-aerosols in the dormitory rooms and to figure out the major possible factors that govern the contamination levels. Methodology The Bio-aerosols concentration level of indoor air of thirty dormitory rooms of Jimma University was determined by taking 120 samples. Passive air sampling technique; the settle plate method using open Petri-dishes containing different culture media was employed to collect sample twice daily. Results The range of bio-aerosols contamination detected in the dormitory rooms was 511–9960 CFU/m3 for bacterial and 531–6568 CFU/m3 for fungi. Based on the criteria stated by WHO expert group, from the total 120 samples 95 of the samples were above the recommended level. The statistical analysis showed that, occupancy were significantly affected the concentrations of bacteria that were measured in all dormitory rooms at 6:00 am sampling time (p-value=0.000) and also the concentrations of bacteria that were measured in all dormitory rooms were significantly different to each other (p-value=0.013) as of their significance difference in occupancy (p-value=0.000). Moreover, there were a significant different on the contamination level of bacteria at 6:00 am and 7:00 pm sampling time (p=0.015), whereas there is no significant difference for fungi contamination level for two sampling times (p= 0.674). Conclusion There is excessive bio-aerosols contaminant in indoor air of dormitory rooms of Jimma University and human occupancy produces a marked concentration increase of bacterial contamination levels and most fungi species present into the rooms air of Jimma University dormitory were not human-borne. PMID:26609289

  18. Source strength of fungal spore aerosolization from moldy building material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górny, Rafał L.; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Willeke, Klaus

    The release of Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Penicillium melinii spores from agar and ceiling tile surfaces was tested under different controlled environmental conditions using a newly designed and constructed aerosolization chamber. This study revealed that all the investigated parameters, such as fungal species, air velocity above the surface, texture of the surface, and vibration of contaminated material, affected the fungal spore release. It was found that typical indoor air currents can release up to 200 spores cm -2 from surfaces with fungal spores during 30-min experiments. The release of fungal spores from smooth agar surfaces was found to be inadequate for accurately predicting the emission from rough ceiling tile surfaces because the air turbulence increases the spore release from a rough surface. A vibration at a frequency of 1 Hz at a power level of 14 W resulted in a significant increase in the spore release rate. The release appears to depend on the morphology of the fungal colonies grown on ceiling tile surfaces including the thickness of conidiophores, the length of spore chains, and the shape of spores. The spores were found to be released continuously during each 30-min experiment. However, the release rate was usually highest during the first few minutes of exposure to air currents and mechanical vibration. About 71-88% of the spores released during a 30-min interval became airborne during the first 10 min.

  19. Ozone production by a dc corona discharge in air contaminated by n-heptane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekárek, S.

    2008-01-01

    Beneficial purposes of ozone such as elimination of odours, harmful bacteria and mildew can be used for transportation of food, fruits and vegetables with the aim to extend their storage life. To date the main technique used for this purpose in the transportation of these commodities, e.g. by trucks, was cooling. Here a combination of cooling together with the supply of ozone into containers with these commodities is considered. For these purposes we studied the effect of air contamination by n-heptane (part of automotive fuels) and humidity on ozone production by a dc hollow needle to mesh corona discharge. We found that, for both polarities of the needle electrode, addition of n-heptane to air (a) decreases ozone production; (b) causes discharge poisoning to occur at lower current than for air; (c) does not substantially influence the current for which the ozone production reaches the maximum. Finally the maximum ozone production for the discharge in air occurs for the same current as the maximum ozone production for the discharge contaminated by n-heptane. We also found that humidity decreases ozone production from air contaminated by n-heptane irrespective of the polarity of the coronating needle electrode. This dependence is stronger for the discharge with the needle biased positively.

  20. Negotiating indoor air-case report on negotiation of teachers' union, school board on air contaminants.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sarah; Levenstein, Charles

    2010-01-01

    School districts increasingly understand the need for an indoor air quality plan, but may have difficulty in producing a plan that all necessary parties will accept. This article provides a case study of how one Massachusetts school district, after experiencing environmental problems in an elementary school, worked with parents and unions to develop a comprehensive indoor air quality plan. PMID:20359997

  1. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, plant identity and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community determine assemblages of the AMF spore-associated microbes.

    PubMed

    Iffis, Bachir; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    The root-associated microbiome is a key determinant of pollutant degradation, soil nutrient availability and plant biomass productivity, but could not be examined in depth prior to recent advances in high-throughput sequencing. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbioses with the majority of vascular plants. They are known to enhance mineral uptake and promote plant growth and are postulated to influence the processes involved in phytoremediation. Amplicon sequencing approaches have previously shown that petroleum hydrocarbon pollutant (PHP) concentration strongly influences AMF community structure in in situ phytoremediation experiments. We examined how AMF communities and their spore-associated microbiomes were structured within the rhizosphere of three plant species growing spontaneously in three distinct waste decantation basins of a former petrochemical plant. Our results show that the AMF community was only affected by PHP concentrations, while the AMF-associated fungal and bacterial communities were significantly affected by both PHP concentrations and plant species identity. We also found that some AMF taxa were either positively or negatively correlated with some fungal and bacterial groups. Our results suggest that in addition to PHP concentrations and plant species identity, AMF community composition may also shape the community structure of bacteria and fungi associated with AMF spores. PMID:27376781

  2. Enhanced oxidation of air contaminants on an ultra-low density UV-accessible aerogel photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, M.; Newman, G.K.; Lobban, L.; Kersey, S.J.; Wang, R.; Harwell, J.H.

    1997-12-31

    This research developed new forms of photocatalysts that could potentially move photocatalytic degradation of air contaminants into the main stream of industrially used remediation technologies. Tests of the photocatalytic activity of the TiO{sub 2} aerogel catalysts have been carried out using both acetone and methane as the air contaminant. For comparison, the same tests were carried out on a standard (non-aerogel) anatase powder. Despite having very low crystallinity, the aerogel decontaminates the air far more effectively than an equal volume of the anatase powder which indicates that a much larger fraction of the aerogel is activated by the UV light. Experimental data were used to determine adsorption equilibrium constants for acetone, and to determine reaction rate constants assuming a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type rate expression.

  3. Effects of electrokinetic operation mode on removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the indigenous fungal community in PAH-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Li, Fengmei; Li, Xu; Wang, Xiujuan; Li, Xinyu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Huiwen; Guo, Shuhai

    2013-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an emerging physical remediation technology for the removal of heavy metals and organic chemicals from contaminated soil. We set up a soil chamber (24 × 12 × 8 cm) with two stainless steel electrodes (12 × 0.5 cm), and a constant voltage gradient of 1.0 v cm(-1) or 2.0 v cm(-1) was applied to study the effects of unidirectional and altered directional electric field operation modes on the moisture content and pH, the removal rate of PAHs, and the abundance and diversity of indigenous fungi in a PAH-contaminated soil at the Benxi Iron and Steel Group Corporation (N41°17'24.4″, E123°43'05.8″), Liaoning Province, Northeast China. Electrokinetic remediation increased the PAH removal rate, but had less effect on soil moisture content and pH, in comparison with the control. In the 1 v cm(-1) altered directional operation, in particular, the PAH removal rate by the end of the experiment (on day 23) had increased from 5.2% of the control to 13.84% and 13.69% at distances of 4 and 20 cm from the anode, respectively, and to 18.97% in the middle region of the soil chamber. On day 23, the indigenous fungal 18S rRNA gene copy numbers and community diversity were significantly higher in a voltage gradient of 1 v cm(-1) than in a voltage gradient 2 v cm(-1). An altered directional operation was more conducive to the fungal community's uniform distribution than was a unidirectional operation of the electric field. We found the major PAH-degrading fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizophlyctis rosea to be present under EK remediation. We suggest that a 1 v cm(-1) altered directional operation could be an appropriate electrokinetic operation mode for PAH removal, and the maintenance of abundance and diversity of the indigenous fungal community. PMID:23947706

  4. Multiplication of microorganisms in an evaporative air cooler and possible indoor air contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Macher, J.M.; Girman, J.R. )

    1990-01-01

    Evaporative air coolers (EACs) cool and humidify hot, dry, outdoor air by pulling it through pads that are wetted continuously by recirculated water. An EAC in a single-family house was examined for three summer months, during which the amount of dissolved solids in the sump water rose to ten times the level in the chlorinated tap water supply. Although the concentration of bacteria in the tap water was always <10 colony-forming units per milliliter (cfu/mL), the concentration in the cooler water reached 1 {times} 10{sup 5} cfu/mL in the ninth week. Indoors and outdoors, the concentrations of airborne microorganisms were similar on individual days, but throughout the study they varied from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 4} cfu/m{sup 3} for bacteria, and from 10{sup 2} to {ge} 10{sup 3} cfu/m{sup 3} for fungi. When the EAC was not operating, the concentration of airborne microorganisms tended to be higher indoors than outdoors. When operating, the cooler introduced large volumes of outdoor air into the house and there was less difference between the indoor and the outdoor microbiological air quality. Although the pads of the EAC appeared to filter microorganisms from the outdoor air, the types of bacteria that predominated in the sump water were more abundant in the indoor air, and several types of bacteria and fungi were found only in the sump water and in the indoor air.

  5. The Role of Dark Septate Endophytic Fungal Isolates in the Accumulation of Cesium by Chinese Cabbage and Tomato Plants under Contaminated Environments

    PubMed Central

    Diene, Ousmane; Sakagami, Nobuo; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the preservation of the food chain from radionuclides contamination has become of crucial importance. The potential of Dark septate endophytic fungi in the management of Cs accumulation in plants under contaminated environments was investigated using Chinese cabbage and tomato plants. Four endophytic fungal isolates of different species, i.e. Pseudosigmoidea ibarakiensis I.4-2-1, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, Helminthosporium velutinum 41-1, and as yet unidentified taxon 312-6 were tested In Vitro in two levels of Cs (5ppm and 10ppm). On the plant growth, the inoculation of the selected DSEs to both Chinese cabbage and tomato resulted in an increased biomass of up to 82% and 122%, respectively compared to control (non-inoculated) plants. With regards to the Cs accumulation, it varied with the host plant considered. In Chinese cabbage, DSEs inoculation caused higher Cs accumulation in above ground plant parts, whereas in tomato, Cs accumulation decreased significantly with three of the isolates tested, i.e., V. simplex Y34, P. ibarakiensis I.4-2-1, and the as yet unidentified taxon 312-6 suggesting low-risk transfer on the above ground plants parts as a result of high and negative plant reactions rather than high and positive reactions as it is the case with Chinese cabbage. These results suggested that DSEs can be recommended for use with Chinese cabbage to enhance phytoremediation of Cs in surrounding contaminated areas. With tomato, DSEs can be recommended for decreasing the accumulation of Cs in plants under contaminated environments. PMID:25296037

  6. Laboratory study of air sparging of TCE-contaminated saturated soils and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.A.; Reddy, K.R.

    1999-06-30

    Air sparging has proven to be an effective remediation technique for treating saturated soils and ground water contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Since little is known about the system variables and mass transfer mechanisms important to air sparging, several researchers have recently performed laboratory investigations to study such issues. This paper presents the results of column experiments performed to investigate the behavior of dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), specifically trichloroethylene (TCE), during air sparging. The specific objectives of the study were (1) to compare the removal of dissolved TCE with the removal of dissolved light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs), such as benzene or toluene; (2) to determine the effect of injected air-flow rate on dissolved TCE removal; (3) to determine the effect of initial dissolved TCE concentration on removal efficiency; and (4) to determine the differences in removal between dissolved and pure-chase TCE. The test results showed that (1) the removal of dissolved TCE was similar to that of dissolved LNAPL; (2) increased air-injection rates led to increased TCE removal at lower ranges of air injection, but further increases at higher ranges of air injection did not increase the rate of removal, indicating a threshold removal rate had been reached; (3) increased initial concentration of dissolved TCE resulted in similar rates of removal; and (4) the removal pf pure-phase TCE was difficult using a low air-injection rate, but higher air-injection rates led to easier removal.

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation protects Miscanthus × giganteus against trace element toxicity in a highly metal-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Firmin, Stéphane; Labidi, Sonia; Fontaine, Joël; Laruelle, Frédéric; Tisserant, Benoit; Nsanganwimana, Florian; Pourrut, Bertrand; Dalpé, Yolande; Grandmougin, Anne; Douay, Francis; Shirali, Pirouz; Verdin, Anthony; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

    2015-09-15

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF)-assisted phytoremediation could constitute an ecological and economic method in polluted soil rehabilitation programs. The aim of this work was to characterize the trace element (TE) phytoremediation potential of mycorrhizal Miscanthus × giganteus. To understand the mechanisms involved in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis tolerance to TE toxicity, the fatty acid compositions and several stress oxidative biomarkers were compared in the roots and leaves of Miscanthus × giganteus cultivated under field conditions in either TE-contaminated or control soils. TEs were accumulated in greater amounts in roots, but the leaves were the organ most affected by TE contamination and were characterized by a strong decrease in fatty acid contents. TE-induced oxidative stress in leaves was confirmed by an increase in the lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA). TE contamination decreased the GSSG/GSH ratio in the leaves of exposed plants, while peroxidase (PO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were increased in leaves and in whole plants, respectively. AMF inoculation also increased root colonization in the presence of TE contamination. The mycorrhizal colonization determined a decrease in SOD activity in the whole plant and PO activities in leaves and induced a significant increase in the fatty acid content in leaves and a decrease in MDA formation in whole plants. These results suggested that mycorrhization is able to confer protection against oxidative stress induced by soil pollution. Our findings suggest that mycorrhizal inoculation could be used as a bioaugmentation technique, facilitating Miscanthus cultivation on highly TE-contaminated soil. PMID:25958358

  8. Estimated deaths and illnesses averted during fungal meningitis outbreak associated with contaminated steroid injections, United States, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel M; Derado, Gordana; Wise, Matthew; Harris, Julie R; Chiller, Tom; Meltzer, Martin I; Park, Benjamin J

    2015-06-01

    During 2012-2013, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and partners responded to a multistate outbreak of fungal infections linked to methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) injections produced by a compounding pharmacy. We evaluated the effects of public health actions on the scope of this outbreak. A comparison of 60-day case-fatality rates and clinical characteristics of patients given a diagnosis on or before October 4, the date the outbreak was widely publicized, with those of patients given a diagnosis after October 4 showed that an estimated 3,150 MPA injections, 153 cases of meningitis or stroke, and 124 deaths were averted. Compared with diagnosis after October 4, diagnosis on or before October 4 was significantly associated with a higher 60-day case-fatality rate (28% vs. 5%; p<0.0001). Aggressive public health action resulted in a substantially reduced estimated number of persons affected by this outbreak and improved survival of affected patients. PMID:25989264

  9. Estimated Deaths and Illnesses Averted During Fungal Meningitis Outbreak Associated with Contaminated Steroid Injections, United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Derado, Gordana; Wise, Matthew; Harris, Julie R.; Chiller, Tom; Meltzer, Martin I.; Park, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    During 2012–2013, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and partners responded to a multistate outbreak of fungal infections linked to methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) injections produced by a compounding pharmacy. We evaluated the effects of public health actions on the scope of this outbreak. A comparison of 60-day case-fatality rates and clinical characteristics of patients given a diagnosis on or before October 4, the date the outbreak was widely publicized, with those of patients given a diagnosis after October 4 showed that an estimated 3,150 MPA injections, 153 cases of meningitis or stroke, and 124 deaths were averted. Compared with diagnosis after October 4, diagnosis on or before October 4 was significantly associated with a higher 60-day case-fatality rate (28% vs. 5%; p<0.0001). Aggressive public health action resulted in a substantially reduced estimated number of persons affected by this outbreak and improved survival of affected patients. PMID:25989264

  10. Characterization of the frequency and nature of bleed air contamination events in commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Shehadi, M; Jones, B; Hosni, M

    2016-06-01

    Contamination of the bleed air used to pressurize and ventilate aircraft cabins is of concern due to the potential health and safety hazards for passengers and crew. Databases from the Federal Aviation Administration, NASA, and other sources were examined in detail to determine the frequency of bleed air contamination incidents. The frequency was examined on an aircraft model basis with the intent of identifying aircraft make and models with elevated frequencies of contamination events. The reported results herein may help investigators to focus future studies of bleed air contamination incidents on smaller number of aircrafts. Incident frequency was normalized by the number of aircraft, number of flights, and flight hours for each model to account for the large variations in the number of aircraft of different models. The focus of the study was on aircraft models that are currently in service and are used by major airlines in the United States. Incidents examined in this study include those related to smoke, oil odors, fumes, and any symptom that might be related to exposure to such contamination, reported by crew members, between 2007 and 2012, for US-based carriers for domestic flights and all international flights that either originated or terminated in the US. In addition to the reported frequency of incidents for different aircraft models, the analysis attempted to identify propulsion engines and auxiliary power units associated with aircrafts that had higher frequencies of incidents. While substantial variations were found in frequency of incidents, it was found that the contamination events were widely distributed across nearly all common models of aircraft. PMID:25864418

  11. Forced-air warming: a source of airborne contamination in the operating room?

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Mark; Gauthier, Robert; Leaper, David

    2009-01-01

    Forced-air-warming (FAW) is an effective and widely used means for maintaining surgical normothermia, but FAW also has the potential to generate and mobilize airborne contamination in the operating room. We measured the emission of viable and non-viable forms of airborne contamination from an arbitrary selection of FAW blowers (n=25) in the operating room. A laser particle counter measured particulate concentrations of the air near the intake filter and in the distal hose airstream. Filtration efficiency was calculated as the reduction in particulate concentration in the distal hose airstream relative to that of the intake. Microbial colonization of the FAW blower's internal hose surfaces was assessed by culturing the microorganisms recovered through swabbing (n=17) and rinsing (n=9) techniques. Particle counting revealed that 24% of FAW blowers were emitting significant levels of internally generated airborne contamination in the 0.5 to 5.0 µm size range, evidenced by a steep decrease in FAW blower filtration efficiency for particles 0.5 to 5.0 µm in size. The particle size-range-specific reduction in efficiency could not be explained by the filtration properties of the intake filter. Instead, the reduction was found to be caused by size-range-specific particle generation within the FAW blowers. Microorganisms were detected on the internal air path surfaces of 94% of FAW blowers. The design of FAW blowers was found to be questionable for preventing the build-up of internal contamination and the emission of airborne contamination into the operating room. Although we did not evaluate the link between FAW and surgical site infection rates, a significant percentage of FAW blowers with positive microbial cultures were emitting internally generated airborne contamination within the size range of free floating bacteria and fungi (<4 µm) that could, conceivably, settle onto the surgical site. PMID:21808690

  12. Environmental survey to assess viral contamination of air and surfaces in hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Carducci, A; Verani, M; Lombardi, R; Casini, B; Privitera, G

    2011-03-01

    The presence of pathogenic viruses in healthcare settings represents a serious risk for both staff and patients. Direct viral detection in the environment poses significant technical problems and the indirect indicators currently in use suffer from serious limitations. The aim of this study was to monitor surfaces and air in hospital settings to reveal the presence of hepatitis C virus, human adenovirus, norovirus, human rotavirus and torque teno virus by nucleic acid assays, in parallel with measurements of total bacterial count and haemoglobin presence. In total, 114 surface and 62 air samples were collected. Bacterial contamination was very low (<1 cfu/cm(2)) on surfaces, whereas the 'medium' detected value in air was 282 cfu/m(3). Overall, 19 (16.7%) surface samples tested positive for viral nucleic acids: one for norovirus, one for human adenovirus and 17 (14.9%) for torque teno virus (TTV). Only this latter virus was directly detected in 10 air samples (16.1%). Haemoglobin was found on two surfaces. No relationship was found between viral, biochemical or bacterial indicators. The data obtained confirm the difficulty of assessing viral contamination using bacterial indicators. The frequent detection of TTV suggests its possible use as an indicator for general viral contamination of the environment. PMID:21277649

  13. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  14. Trichoderma longibrachiatum Evx1 is a fungal biocatalyst suitable for the remediation of soils contaminated with diesel fuel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Brignoli, Pierlorenzo; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Trichoderma sp. strain Evx1 was isolated from a semi-deciduous forest soil in Southern Italy. It decolorizes polynuclear organic dyes and tolerates high concentrations of phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. The ability of this ascomycete fungus to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was verified in vitro and confirmed by its strong phenoloxidase activity in the presence of gallic acid. Phylogenetic characterization of Trichoderma sp. Evx1 positioned this strain within the species Trichoderma longibrachiatum. The potential use of this species for the bioremediation of contaminated environmental matrices was tested by inoculating diesel-spiked soil with a dense mycelial suspension. The biodegradation percentage of the C12-40 hydrocarbon fraction in the inoculated soil rose to 54.2 ± 1.6 %, much higher than that in non-inoculated soil or soil managed solely by a combination of watering and aeration. The survival and persistence of T. longibrachiatum Evx1 throughout the bioremediation trial was monitored by PCR-DGGE analysis. The fungal strain was still present in the soil 30 days after bioaugmentation. These findings indicate that T. longibrachiatum Evx1 may be a suitable inoculum in bioremediation protocols for the reclamation of soils contaminated by complex mixtures of hydrocarbons. PMID:26832871

  15. Impact of clay mineral, wood sawdust or root organic matter on the bacterial and fungal community structures in two aged PAH-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Cébron, Aurélie; Beguiristain, Thierry; Bongoua-Devisme, Jeanne; Denonfoux, Jérémie; Faure, Pierre; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Parisot, Nicolas; Peyret, Pierre; Leyval, Corinne

    2015-09-01

    The high organic pollutant concentration of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated wasteland soils is highly recalcitrant to biodegradation due to its very low bioavailability. In such soils, the microbial community is well adapted to the pollution, but the microbial activity is limited by nutrient availability. Management strategies could be applied to modify the soil microbial functioning as well as the PAH contamination through various amendment types. The impact of amendment with clay minerals (montmorillonite), wood sawdust and organic matter plant roots on microbial community structure was investigated on two aged PAH-contaminated soils both in laboratory and 1-year on-site pot experiments. Total PAH content (sum of 16 PAHs of the US-EPA list) and polar polycyclic aromatic compounds (pPAC) were monitored as well as the available PAH fraction using the Tenax method. The bacterial and fungal community structures were monitored using fingerprinting thermal gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) method. The abundance of bacteria (16S rRNA genes), fungi (18S rRNA genes) and PAH degraders (PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase and catechol dioxygenase genes) was followed through qPCR assays. Although the treatments did not modify the total and available PAH content, the microbial community density, structure and the PAH degradation potential changed when fresh organic matter was provided as sawdust and under rhizosphere influence, while the clay mineral only increased the percentage of catechol-1,2-dioxygenase genes. The abundance of bacteria and fungi and the percentage of fungi relative to bacteria were enhanced in soil samples supplemented with wood sawdust and in the plant rhizospheric soils. Two distinct fungal populations developed in the two soils supplemented with sawdust, i.e. fungi related to Chaetomium and Neurospora genera and Brachyconidiellopsis and Pseudallescheria genera, in H and NM soils respectively. Wood sawdust amendment favoured the

  16. Release and characteristics of fungal fragments in various conditions.

    PubMed

    Mensah-Attipoe, Jacob; Saari, Sampo; Veijalainen, Anna-Maria; Pasanen, Pertti; Keskinen, Jorma; Leskinen, Jari T T; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-03-15

    Intact spores and submicrometer size fragments are released from moldy building materials during growth and sporulation. It is unclear whether all fragments originate from fungal growth or if small pieces of building materials are also aerosolized as a result of microbial decomposition. In addition, particles may be formed through nucleation from secondary metabolites of fungi, such as microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs). In this study, we used the elemental composition of particles to characterize the origin of submicrometer fragments released from materials contaminated by fungi. Particles from three fungal species (Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium brevicompactum), grown on agar, wood and gypsum board were aerosolized using the Fungal Spore Source Strength Tester (FSSST) at three air velocities (5, 16 and 27 m/s). Released spores (optical size, dp ≥ 0.8 μm) and fragments (dp ≤ 0.8 μm) were counted using direct-reading optical aerosol instruments. Particles were also collected on filters, and their morphology and elemental composition analyzed using scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) coupled with an Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Among the studied factors, air velocity resulted in the most consistent trends in the release of fungal particles. Total concentrations of both fragments and spores increased with an increase in air velocity for all species whereas fragment-spore (F/S) ratios decreased. EDX analysis showed common elements, such as C, O, Mg and Ca, for blank material samples and fungal growth. However, N and P were exclusive to the fungal growth, and therefore were used to differentiate biological fragments from non-biological ones. Our results indicated that majority of fragments contained N and P. Because we observed increased release of fragments with increased air velocities, nucleation of MVOCs was likely not a relevant process in the formation of fungal fragments. Based on elemental

  17. Portable RF-Sensor System for the Monitoring of Air Pollution and Water Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joonhee; Kim, Jin Young

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring air pollution including the contents of VOC, O3, NO2, and dusts has attracted a lot of interest in addition to the monitoring of water contamination because it affects directly to the quality of living conditions. Most of the current air pollution monitoring stations use the expensive and bulky instruments and are only installed in the very limited area. To bring the information of the air and water quality to the public in real time, it is important to construct portable monitoring systems and distribute them close to our everyday living places. In this work, we have constructed a low-cost portable RF sensor system by using 400 MHz transceiver to achieve this goal. Accuracy of the measurement was comparable to the ones used in the expensive and bulky commercial air pollution forecast systems. PMID:22928151

  18. Groundwater flow and contaminant transport modelling at an air weapons range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Martel, Richard; Schäfer, Dirk; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2008-07-01

    Numerical modelling was done at the Cold Lake Air Weapons Range, Canada, to test whether the dissolved RDX and nitrate detected in groundwater come from the same sources, and to predict whether contamination poses a threat to the surface water receptors near the site. Military live fire training activities may indeed pose a risk of contamination to groundwater resources, however field investigations on military bases are quite recent, and little information is available on the long-term behaviour of munition residues related contaminants. Very limited information was available about the contaminant source zones, which were assigned based on our knowledge of current training activities. The RDX plume was well represented with the model, but the heterogeneous distribution of nitrate concentrations was more difficult to reproduce. It was nonetheless determined that both contaminants originate from the same areas. According to the model, both contaminants should reach the nearby river, but concentrations in the river should remain very low if the source zone concentration does not change. Finally, the model allowed the recommendation of a new location for the main bombing target, which would offer added protection to the river and the lake into which it flows.

  19. Back-trajectory modelling and DNA-based species-specific detection methods allow tracking of fungal spore transport in air masses.

    PubMed

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Sadyś, Magdalena; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Bednarz, Aleksandra; Pawłowska, Sylwia; Jedryczka, Malgorzata

    2016-11-15

    Recent advances in molecular detection of living organisms facilitate the introduction of novel methods to studies of the transport of fungal spores over large distances. Monitoring the migration of airborne fungi using microscope based spore identification is limited when different species produce very similar spores. In our study, DNA-based monitoring with the use of species-specific probes allowed us to track the aerial movements of two important fungal pathogens of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), i.e., Leptosphaeria maculans and Leptosphaeria biglobosa, which have identical spore shape and size. The fungi were identified using dual-labelled fluorescent probes that were targeted to a β-tubulin gene fragment of either Leptosphaeria species. Spore identification by Real-Time PCR techniques capable of detecting minute amounts of DNA of selected fungal species was combined with back-trajectory analysis, allowing the tracking of past movements of air masses using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model. Over a study period spanning the previous decade (2006-2015) we investigated two specific events relating to the long distance transport of Leptosphaeria spp. spores to Szczecin in North-West Poland. Based on the above mentioned methods and the results obtained with the additional spore sampler located in nearby Szczecin, and operating at the ground level in an oilseed rape field, we have demonstrated that on both occasions the L. biglobosa spores originated from the Jutland Peninsula. This is the first successful attempt to combine analysis of back-trajectories of air masses with DNA-based identification of economically important pathogens of oilseed rape in Europe. In our studies, the timing of L. biglobosa ascospore dispersal in the air was unlikely to result in the infection of winter oilseed rape grown as a crop plant. However, the fungus could infect other host plants, such as vegetable brassicas, cruciferous weeds, spring rapeseed

  20. Fungal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... effectiveness of treatment. For many superficial skin and yeast infections, a clinical examination of the affected person ... the chemical solution dissolves non-fungal elements; reveals yeast cells and fungal hyphae (branching filaments) on a ...

  1. Subsurface sediment contamination during borehole drilling with an air-actuated down-hole hammer.

    PubMed

    Malard, Florian; Datry, Thibault; Gibert, Janine

    2005-10-01

    Drilling methods can severely alter physical, chemical, and biological properties of aquifers, thereby influencing the reliability of water samples collected from groundwater monitoring wells. Because of their fast drilling rate, air-actuated hammers are increasingly used for the installation of groundwater monitoring wells in unconsolidated sediments. However, oil entrained in the air stream to lubricate the hammer-actuating device can contaminate subsurface sediments. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons, heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Pb, and Cd), and nutrients (particulate organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) were measured in continuous sediment cores recovered during the completion of a 26-m deep borehole drilled with a down-hole hammer in glaciofluvial deposits. Total hydrocarbons, Cu, Ni, Cr and particulate organic carbon (POC) were all measured at concentrations far exceeding background levels in most sediment cores. Hydrocarbon concentration averaged 124 +/- 118 mg kg(-1) dry sediment (n = 78 samples) with peaks at depths of 8, 14, and 20 m below the soil surface (maximum concentration: 606 mg kg(-1)). The concentrations of hydrocarbons, Cu, Ni, Cr, and POC were positively correlated and exhibited a highly irregular vertical pattern, that probably reflected variations in air loss within glaciofluvial deposits during drilling. Because the penetration of contaminated air into the formation is unpreventable, the representativeness of groundwater samples collected may be questioned. It is concluded that air percussion drilling has strong limitations for well installation in groundwater quality monitoring surveys. PMID:16091299

  2. Subsurface sediment contamination during borehole drilling with an air-actuated down-hole hammer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, Florian; Datry, Thibault; Gibert, Janine

    2005-10-01

    Drilling methods can severely alter physical, chemical, and biological properties of aquifers, thereby influencing the reliability of water samples collected from groundwater monitoring wells. Because of their fast drilling rate, air-actuated hammers are increasingly used for the installation of groundwater monitoring wells in unconsolidated sediments. However, oil entrained in the air stream to lubricate the hammer-actuating device can contaminate subsurface sediments. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons, heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Pb, and Cd), and nutrients (particulate organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) were measured in continuous sediment cores recovered during the completion of a 26-m deep borehole drilled with a down-hole hammer in glaciofluvial deposits. Total hydrocarbons, Cu, Ni, Cr and particulate organic carbon (POC) were all measured at concentrations far exceeding background levels in most sediment cores. Hydrocarbon concentration averaged 124 ± 118 mg kg - 1 dry sediment ( n = 78 samples) with peaks at depths of 8, 14, and 20 m below the soil surface (maximum concentration: 606 mg kg - 1 ). The concentrations of hydrocarbons, Cu, Ni, Cr, and POC were positively correlated and exhibited a highly irregular vertical pattern, that probably reflected variations in air loss within glaciofluvial deposits during drilling. Because the penetration of contaminated air into the formation is unpreventable, the representativeness of groundwater samples collected may be questioned. It is concluded that air percussion drilling has strong limitations for well installation in groundwater quality monitoring surveys.

  3. Air contamination with nitric oxide: effect on exhaled nitric oxide response.

    PubMed

    Therminarias, A; Flore, P; Favre-Juvin, A; Oddou, M F; Delaire, M; Grimbert, F

    1998-03-01

    This study examines the response of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration (ECNO) and quantity of exhaled NO over time (EVNO) in 10 healthy subjects breathing into five polyethylene bags, one in which synthetic air was free of NO and four in which NO was diluted to concentrations of 20 +/- 0.6, 49 +/- 0.8, 98 +/- 2, and 148 +/- 2 ppb, respectively. Each subject was connected to each bag for 10 min at random. Minute ventilation and ECNO were measured continuously, and EVNO was calculated continuously. ECNO and EVNO values were significantly higher for an inhaled NO concentration of 20 ppb than for NO-free air. Above 20 ppb, ECNO and EVNO increased linearly with inhaled NO concentration. It is reasonable to assume that a share of the quantity of inspired NO over time (InspVNO) because of air contamination by pollution is rejected by the ventilatory pathway. Insofar as InspVNO does not affect endogenous production or the metabolic fate of NO in the airway, this share may be estimated as being approximately one third of InspVNO, the remainder being taken by the endogenous pathway. Thus, air contamination by the NO resulting from pollution greatly increases the NO response in exhaled air. PMID:9517592

  4. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  5. Measurements of air contaminants during the Cerro Grande fire at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhart, Craig

    2010-08-01

    Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants was continued throughout the Cerro Grande fire that burned part of Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the fire, samples were collected more frequently than normal because buildup of smoke particles on the filters was decreasing the air flow. Overall, actual sampling time was 96% of the total possible sampling time for the May 2000 samples. To evaluate potential human exposure to air contaminants, the samples were analyzed as soon as possible and for additional specific radionuclides. Analyses showed that the smoke from the fire included resuspended radon decay products that had been accumulating for many years on the vegetation and the forest floor that burned. Concentrations of plutonium, americium, and depleted uranium were also measurable, but at locations and concentrations comparable to non-fire periods. A continuous particulate matter sampler measured concentrations that exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-10 (particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter). These high concentrations were caused by smoke from the fire when it was close to the sampler.

  6. Tentative method for the qualitative detection and quantitative assessment of air contamination by drugs.

    PubMed

    Buogo, A; Eboli, V

    1972-06-01

    A method for detecting and measuring air contamination by drugs is described which uses an electrostatic bacterial air sampler, sprayers for micronizing drugs, and Mueller-Hinton medium seeded with a highly susceptible strain of Sarcina lutea. Three antibiotics (penicillin, tetracycline, aminosidine) and a sulfonamide (sulfapyrazine) were identified by pretreating portions of medium, showing no bacterial growth, with penicillinase or p-aminobenzoic acid solution and subsequently determining how both drug(-) susceptible and drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus were affected by this pretreatment. Quantitative determinations were also attempted by measuring the size of the inhibition zones. PMID:4483536

  7. A tracer method for quantifying contamination of building supply air: reentrainment of laboratory hood exhausts.

    PubMed

    Barnett, J L; Richard, M L; Rose, V E

    1983-08-01

    A method is described for quantifying the reentrainment of exhaust air contaminants into a building's fresh-air supply system. The method relies on the "tracer" gas, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which Is detected by infrared (IR) absorption analysis. This method of analysis differs from the conventional gas chromatography, electron capture detection method due to the MIRAN-1 A's portability, direct-reading capabilities, ease of operation and modest cost. Specific instrument settings for the MIRAN-1 A are given such that detection of SF6 will be optimized without interference. Calculations for quantifying reentrainment are presented and discussed for the "worst case" reentrainment observed. PMID:6624644

  8. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  9. Use of inorganic dryer-salts in the determination of organic contaminants in air

    SciTech Connect

    Simonov, V.A.

    1985-09-01

    This paper presents results of a study of the adsorptive activity of a number of inorganic salts relative to water vapor and to organic vapors in air under the dynamic conditions which are uses in the indicator tube method. Data are also given on the properties of dryer salts having a surface modified with glycerin. It is shown that lithium chloride on porcelain and potassium carbonate having a surface modified with glycerin can be used to dry air in determining contaminants of nonpolar and polar organic substances in it. Anhydrone on porcelain, calcium chloride, and potassium carbonate absorb some substances which are being determined and therefore are less suitable.

  10. Tentative Method for the Qualitative Detection and Quantitative Assessment of Air Contamination by Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Buogo, A.; Eboli, V.

    1972-01-01

    A method for detecting and measuring air contamination by drugs is described which uses an electrostatic bacterial air sampler, sprayers for micronizing drugs, and Mueller-Hinton medium seeded with a highly susceptible strain of Sarcina lutea. Three antibiotics (penicillin, tetracycline, aminosidine) and a sulfonamide (sulfapyrazine) were identified by pretreating portions of medium, showing no bacterial growth, with penicillinase or p-aminobenzoic acid solution and subsequently determining how both drug- susceptible and drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus were affected by this pretreatment. Quantitative determinations were also attempted by measuring the size of the inhibition zones. Images PMID:4483536

  11. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-09-18

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

  12. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-09-01

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application.

  13. Atmospheric pressure discharge plasma decomposition for gaseous air contaminants -- Trichlorotrifluoroethane and trichloroethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Tetsuji; Yamashita, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Tadashi; Masuda, Senichi

    1996-03-01

    The decomposition performance of gaseous environmental destructive contaminants in air by using atmospheric pressure discharged plasma including the surface discharge induced plasma chemical processing (SPCP) was examined. The main contaminants tested were chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene, typically. The discharge exciting frequency range studied was wide--50 Hz to 50 kHz. Results showed the low frequency discharge requires high voltage to inject high electric power in the gas and to decompose the contaminants. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer was used to analyze discharge products of dense CFC-113 or trichloroethylene. Among the detected products were HCl, CClFO, and CHCl{sub 3}. Two different electrode configurations; the silent discharge (coaxial) electrode and the coil-electrode were also tested and compared to each other as a gas reactor.

  14. Comparative assessment of fungal augmentation treatments of a fine-textured and historically oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Covino, Stefano; Stella, Tatiana; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Lladó, Salvador; Baldrian, Petr; Čvančarová, Monika; Cajthaml, Tomas; Petruccioli, Maurizio

    2016-10-01

    The removal of aged hydrophobic contaminants from fine-textured soils is a challenging issue in remediation. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of augmentation treatments to that of biostimulation in terms of total aliphatic hydrocarbon (TAH) and toxicity removal from a historically contaminated clay soil and to assess their impact on the resident microbial community. To this aim, Pleurotus ostreatus, Botryosphaeria rhodina and a combination of both were used as the inoculants while the addition of a sterilized lignocellulose mixture to soil (1:5, w/w) was used as a biostimulation approach. As opposed to the non-amended control soil, where no changes in TAH concentration and residual toxicity were observed after 60days, the activation of specialized bacteria was found in the biostimulated microcosms resulting in significant TAH removal (79.8%). The bacterial community structure in B. rhodina-augmented microcosms did not differ from the biostimulated microcosms due to the inability of the fungus to be retained within the resident microbiota. Best TAH removals were observed in microcosms inoculated with P. ostreatus alone (Po) and in binary consortium with B. rhodina (BC) (86.8 and 88.2%, respectively). In these microcosms, contaminant degradation exceeded their bioavailability thresholds determined by sequential supercritical CO2 extraction. Illumina metabarcoding of 16S rRNA gene showed that the augmentation with Po and BC led to lower relative abundances of Gram(+) taxa, Actinobacteria in particular, than those in biostimulated microcosms. Best detoxification, with respect to the non-amended incubation control, was found in Po microcosms where a drop in collembola mortality (from 90 to 22%) occurred. At the end of incubation, in both Po and BC, the relative abundances of P. ostreatus sequences were higher than 60% thus showing the suitability of this fungus in bioaugmentation-based remediation applications. PMID:27220102

  15. PCB in the air during landfilling of a contaminated lake sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremle, G.; Larsson, P.

    We studied PCB concentration in the air during the build-up of a landfill of PCB-contaminated sediment. A small lake was remediated and the sediment (150 000 m 3 containing about 400 kg PCB) deposited in a nearby landfill. PCB concentration in the air was elevated during landfilling and the extent was determined by the amount of sediment handled and the temperature. The air was enriched in more volatile PCB congeners compared to the deposited sediment, suggesting volatilization as the major transport process in addition to particle transport. The PCB concentration in air showed an exponential decline with distance from the centre of the landfill, with a one order of magnitude decrease 350 m from the centre. At a distance of 850 m from the centre about 5% of the elevated PCB level remained, which was significantly higher when compared to the reference concentration (15 km from the landfill). The PCB congener pattern changed gradually from the landfill centre to the reference. After the landfill was closed and the contaminated, dewatered sediment covered by uncontaminated soil, PCB levels and pattern were similar to that of the reference.

  16. Effects of contaminants on reproductive success of aquatic birds nesting at Edwards Air Force Base, California.

    PubMed

    Hothem, R L; Crayon, J J; Law, M A

    2006-11-01

    Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and trace elements at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), located in the Mojave Desert, could adversely affect nesting aquatic birds, especially at the sewage lagoons that comprise Piute Ponds. Estimates of avian reproduction, in conjunction with analyses of eggs and avian foods for contaminant residues, may indicate the potential for negative effects on avian populations. From 1996 to 1999, we conducted studies at the Piute Ponds area of EAFB to evaluate the impacts of contaminants on nesting birds. Avian reproduction was evaluated in 1999. Eggs were collected for chemical analyses in 1996 and 1999, and African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a likely food source, were collected for chemical analyses in 1998. Avian species occupying the higher trophic levels--black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)--generally bioaccumulated higher concentrations of contaminants in their eggs. Reproductive success and egg hatchability of night-herons and white-faced ibises in the Piute Ponds were similar to results observed at other western colonies. Deformities were observed in only one embryo in this study, but concentrations of contaminants evaluated in this ibis embryo were considered insufficient to have caused the deformities. Because clawed frogs, a primary prey item for night-herons at Piute Ponds, had no detectable levels of any OCs, it is likely that OCs found in night-heron eggs were acquired from the wintering grounds rather than from EAFB. The presence of isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in ibis eggs indicated recent exposure, but invertebrates used for food by ibises were not sampled at Piute Ponds, and conclusions about the source of OCs in ibis eggs could not be made. Concentrations of contaminants in random and failed eggs of individual species were not different, and we concluded

  17. Effects of contaminants on reproductive success of aquatic birds nesting at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, R.L.; Crayon, J.J.; Law, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and trace elements at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), located in the Mojave Desert, could adversely affect nesting aquatic birds, especially at the sewage lagoons that comprise Piute Ponds. Estimates of avian reproduction, in conjunction with analyses of eggs and avian foods for contaminant residues, may indicate the potential for negative effects on avian populations. From 1996 to 1999, we conducted studies at the Piute Ponds area of EAFB to evaluate the impacts of contaminants on nesting birds. Avian reproduction was evaluated in 1999. Eggs were collected for chemical analyses in 1996 and 1999, and African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a likely food source, were collected for chemical analyses in 1998. Avian species occupying the higher trophic levels-black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)-generally bioaccumulated higher concentrations of contaminants in their eggs. Reproductive success and egg hatchability of night-herons and white-faced ibises in the Piute Ponds were similar to results observed at other western colonies. Deformities were observed in only one embryo in this study, but concentrations of contaminants evaluated in this ibis embryo were considered insufficient to have caused the deformities. Because clawed frogs, a primary prey item for night-herons at Piute Ponds, had no detectable levels of any OCs, it is likely that OCs found in night-heron eggs were acquired from the wintering grounds rather than from EAFB. The presence of isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in ibis eggs indicated recent exposure, but invertebrates used for food by ibises were not sampled at Piute Ponds, and conclusions about the source of OCs in ibis eggs could not be made. Concentrations of contaminants in random and failed eggs of individual species were not different, and we concluded

  18. Numerical Assessment of Indoor Air Exposure Risk from Subsurface NAPL Contamination under Hydrologic Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, A.; Yu, S.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the risk of indoor air exposure to residual contaminants in the subsurface following the redevelopment of contaminated land redevelopment project is a central issue at many brownfield sites. In this study, we examine various mechanisms controlling vapor phase intrusion into the indoor air of a typical residential dwelling from a NAPL source located below the water table, and consequently assess the indoor air exposure risk under multiple hydrologic uncertainties. For this purpose, a multi-phase multi-component numerical model, CompFlow Bio is used to simulate the evolution of a TCE source zone and dissolved plume in a variably saturated heterogeneous aquifer, along with the transport of dissolved TCE upwards through the capillary fringe with subsequent migration of TCE vapors in the vadose zone subject to barometric pressure fluctuations. The TCE vapors then enter the basement of the residential dwelling through a crack in the foundation slab, driven by a slight vacuum within the basement relative to the ambient atmosphere as well as the barometric pressure fluctuations. Hydrologic uncertainties affecting the indoor air concentration of TCE include the vacuum in the basement, the aperture of the crack in the foundation slab, the heterogeneous permeability field, the thickness of the capillary fringe, barometric fluctuations, recharge rates and the location of the TCE source zone. CompFlow Bio is then used to determine the future concentration of TCE into the basement as a consequence of imperfect knowledge in the various hydrologic parameters, and to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative remedial and foundation design options to minimize the exposure risk to the indoor air conditional upon the available data collected at the site. The outcome of this approach is two-fold. First, the owner of the site can reasonably evaluate the future indoor air exposure risk following the redevelopment of a formerly contaminated site following remediation

  19. Indoor fungal exposure.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Christine A

    2003-08-01

    Fungi affect humans in complex ways and are capable of eliciting a number of disease responses, such as infectious, allergic, and irritant and toxic effects. Fungal exposure is unequivocally associated with exacerbations of asthma, although the role of fungi in causing the disease is yet to be determined. The association between home dampness and respiratory health effects is strong, and fungal exposure is suspected to be associated with this linkage. Fear of toxin exposures has generated debate over the possible toxic health effects of airborne fungi; however, several recent reviews discount the health impacts of mycotoxin through indoor exposures. Nevertheless, fungal contamination of indoor environments is undesirable. Knowledge of sources and characteristics of fungal spore release and dispersal are important for understanding the processes of exposure. Environmental monitoring for fungi and their disease agents are important aspects of exposure assessment, but few guidelines exist for interpreting their health impacts. Much work is needed in isolating, characterizing and standardizing fungal disease agents to properly assess the prevalence of fungal health effects. PMID:14524388

  20. Remediation of arsenic contaminated soil by coupling oxalate washing with subsequent ZVI/Air treatment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Menghua; Ye, Yuanyao; Chen, Jing; Lu, Xiaohua

    2016-02-01

    The application of a novel coupled process with oxalate washing and subsequent zero-valent iron (ZVI)/Air treatment for remediation of arsenic contaminated soil was investigated in the present study. Oxalate is biodegradable and widely present in the environment. With addition of 0.1 mol L(-1) oxalate under circumneutral condition, 83.7% and 52.6% of arsenic could be removed from a spiked kaolin and an actual contaminated soil respectively. Much more oxalate adsorption on the actual soil was attributed to the higher soil organic matter and clay content. Interestingly, oxalate retained in the washing effluent could act as an organic ligand to promote the oxidation efficiency of ZVI/Air at near neutral pH. Compared with the absence of oxalate, much more As(III) was oxidized. Arsenic was effectively adsorbed on iron (hydr)oxides as the consumption of oxalate and the increase of pH value. For the actual soil washing effluent, about 94.9% of total arsenic was removed after 120 min's treatment without pH adjustment. It has been demonstrated that As(V) was the dominant arsenic speciation adsorbed on iron (hydr)oxides. This study provides a promising alternative for remediation of arsenic contaminated soil in view of its low cost and environmental benign. PMID:26476769

  1. Efficient remediation of pentachlorophenol contaminated soil with tetrapolyphosphate washing and subsequent ZVI/Air treatment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Menghua; Wang, Li; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2015-07-15

    In this study, we demonstrate that pentachlorophenol contaminated soil can be efficiently remediated with tetrapolyphosphate washing and subsequent zerovalent iron (ZVI)/Air treatment. 2 mmol L(-1) of tetrapolyphosphate could wash away 52.8% of pentachlorophenol (PCP) at pH 7.0 and 84.2% of pentachlorophenol at pH 11.0 from contaminated soil owing to the promotion effect of tetrapolyphosphate on the soil matrix dispersion and the subsequent solubilization of pentachlorophenol. More importantly, tetrapolyphosphate ions remained in the washing effluent could greatly enhance the molecular oxygen activation by ZVI to oxidize the desorbed PCP without any pH adjustment, and also avoid the competitive consumption of reactive oxygen species, as caused by the common organic surfactants in the washing effluent. Therefore, 85.1% of pentachlorophenol could be aerobically removed from the washing effluent by merely using 5 g L(-1) of ZVI. We also interestingly found that the dissolved iron ions released from the soil could enhance the oxidation of pentachlorophenol in the washing effluent, but the dissolved organic matter had the opposite effect. This study suggests the coupling tetrapolyphosphate washing and subsequent ZVI/Air treatment is an optional approach to remediate pentachlorophenol contaminated soil in view of its low cost and environmental benign. PMID:25781373

  2. Air emission flux from contaminated dredged materials stored in a pilot-scale confined disposal facility.

    PubMed

    Ravikrishna, R; Valsaraj, K T; Reible, D D; Thibodeaux, L J; Price, C B; Brannon, J M; Meyers, T E; Yost, S

    2001-03-01

    A pilot-scale field simulation was conducted to estimate the air emissions from contaminated dredged material stored in a confined disposal facility (CDF). Contaminated dredged material with a variety of organic chemicals, obtained from Indiana Harbor Canal, was used in the study. It was placed in an outdoor CDF simulator (i.e., a lysimeter of dimensions 4 ft x 4 ft x 2 ft). A portable, dynamic flux chamber was used to periodically measure emissions of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A weather station was set up to monitor and record the meteorological conditions during the experiment. The fluxes of several PAHs were monitored over time for 6 1/2 months. Initial 6-hr average fluxes varied from 2 to 20 ng/cm2/hr for six different PAHs. The flux values declined rapidly for all compounds soon after placement of the dredged material in the CDE Chemical concentrations derived from flux values were generally of low magnitude compared with ambient standards. Data obtained from the experiment were compared against those predicted using models for air emissions. Model simulations showed that initially the flux was largely from exposed pore water from saturated (wet) sediment, whereas the long-term flux was controlled by diffusion through the pore air of the unsaturated sediment. Model predictions generally overestimated the measured emissions. A rainfall event was simulated, and the dredged material was reworked to simulate that typical of a CDF operation. Increased flux was observed upon reworking the dredged material. PMID:11266100

  3. Tolerance of non-platinum group metals cathodes proton exchange membrane fuel cells to air contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetenko, Tatyana; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Matanovic, Ivana; Sarah Stariha; Atanassov, Plamen

    2016-08-01

    The effects of major airborne contaminants (SO2, NO2 and CO) on the spatial performance of Fe/N/C cathode membrane electrode assemblies were studied using a segmented cell system. The injection of 2-10 ppm SO2 in air stream did not cause any performance decrease and redistribution of local currents due to the lack of stably adsorbed SO2 molecules on Fe-Nx sites, as confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The introduction of 5-20 ppm of CO into the air stream also did not affect fuel cell performance. The exposure of Fe/N/C cathodes to 2 and 10 ppm NO2 resulted in performance losses of 30 and 70-75 mV, respectively. DFT results showed that the adsorption energies of NO2 and NO were greater than that of O2, which accounted for the observed voltage decrease and slight current redistribution. The cell performance partially recovered when the NO2 injection was stopped. The long-term operation of the fuel cells resulted in cell performance degradation. XPS analyses of Fe/N/C electrodes revealed that the performance decrease was due to catalyst degradation and ionomer oxidation. The latter was accelerated in the presence of air contaminants. The details of the spatial performance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results are presented and discussed.

  4. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

  5. Hospital ventilation standards and energy conservation: chemical contamination of hospital air. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, D.; Michaelsen, G.S.

    1980-03-01

    In an era of increasing energy conservation consciousness, a critical reassessment of the validity of hospital ventilation and thermal standards is made. If current standards are found to be excessively conservative, major energy conservation measures could be undertaken by rebalancing and/or modification of current HVAC systems. To establish whether or not reducing ventilation rates would increase airborne chemical contamination to unacceptable levels, a field survey was conducted to develop an inventory and dosage estimates of hospital generated airborne chemical contaminants to which patients, staff, and visitors are exposed. The results of the study are presented. Emphasis is on patient exposure, but an examination of occupational exposure was also made. An in-depth assessment of the laboratory air environment is documented. Housekeeping products used in survey hospitals, hazardous properties of housekeeping chemicals and probable product composition are discussed in the appendices.

  6. Three-dimensional modeling, estimation, and fault diagnosis of spacecraft air contaminants.

    PubMed

    Narayan, A P; Ramirez, W F

    1998-01-01

    A description is given of the design and implementation of a method to track the presence of air contaminants aboard a spacecraft using an accurate physical model and of a procedure that would raise alarms when certain tolerance levels are exceeded. Because our objective is to monitor the contaminants in real time, we make use of a state estimation procedure that filters measurements from a sensor system and arrives at an optimal estimate of the state of the system. The model essentially consists of a convection-diffusion equation in three dimensions, solved implicitly using the principle of operator splitting, and uses a flowfield obtained by the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the cabin geometry, assuming steady-state conditions. A novel implicit Kalman filter has been used for fault detection, a procedure that is an efficient way to track the state of the system and that uses the sparse nature of the state transition matrices. PMID:11543186

  7. Assessing Aircraft Supply Air to Recommend Compounds for Timely Warning of Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Richard B.

    Taking aircraft out of service for even one day to correct fume-in-cabin events can cost the industry roughly $630 million per year in lost revenue. The quantitative correlation study investigated quantitative relationships between measured concentrations of contaminants in bleed air and probability of odor detectability. Data were collected from 94 aircraft engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) bleed air tests from an archival data set between 1997 and 2011, and no relationships were found. Pearson correlation was followed by regression analysis for individual contaminants. Significant relationships of concentrations of compounds in bleed air to probability of odor detectability were found (p<0.05), as well as between compound concentration and probability of sensory irritancy detectability. Study results may be useful to establish early warning levels. Predictive trend monitoring, a method to identify potential pending failure modes within a mechanical system, may influence scheduled down-time for maintenance as a planned event, rather than repair after a mechanical failure and thereby reduce operational costs associated with odor-in-cabin events. Twenty compounds (independent variables) were found statistically significant as related to probability of odor detectability (dependent variable 1). Seventeen compounds (independent variables) were found statistically significant as related to probability of sensory irritancy detectability (dependent variable 2). Additional research was recommended to further investigate relationships between concentrations of contaminants and probability of odor detectability or probability of sensory irritancy detectability for all turbine oil brands. Further research on implementation of predictive trend monitoring may be warranted to demonstrate how the monitoring process might be applied to in-flight application.

  8. Volatile tritiated organic acids in stack effluents and in air surrounding contaminated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Belot, Y.; Camus, H.; Marini, T.; Raviart, S. )

    1993-06-01

    A small fraction of the tritium released into the atmosphere from tritium-handling or solid waste storage facilities was shown to be in the form of volatile organic acids. The same compounds were also found, but at a much higher proportion, in the tritium evolved at room temperature from highly contaminated materials placed under air atmospheres. This might be due to the oxidation and labeling of hydrocarbon(s) by mechanisms that are presumably of a radiolytic nature. The new forms could have an impact on operational requirements and waste management strategies within a tritium facility and a fusion reactor hall. Further data are needed to assess the related doses.

  9. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FUNGAL TREATMENT BULLETIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fungal treatment technology uses white rot fungi (lignin degrading fungi) to treat organic contaminated soils in situ. Organic materials inoculated with the fungi are mechanically mixed into the contaminated soil. Using enzymes normally produced for wood degradation as well as ot...

  10. In situ treatment of arsenic-contaminated groundwater by air sparging.

    PubMed

    Brunsting, Joseph H; McBean, Edward A

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a major problem in some areas of the world, particularly in West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh where it is caused by reducing conditions in the aquifer. In situ treatment, if it can be proven as operationally feasible, has the potential to capture some advantages over other treatment methods by being fairly simple, not using chemicals, and not necessitating disposal of arsenic-rich wastes. In this study, the potential for in situ treatment by injection of compressed air directly into the aquifer (i.e. air sparging) is assessed. An experimental apparatus was constructed to simulate conditions of arsenic-rich groundwater under anaerobic conditions, and in situ treatment by air sparging was employed. Arsenic (up to 200 μg/L) was removed to a maximum of 79% (at a local point in the apparatus) using a solution with dissolved iron and arsenic only. A static "jar" test revealed arsenic removal by co-precipitation with iron at a molar ratio of approximately 2 (iron/arsenic). This is encouraging since groundwater with relatively high amounts of dissolved iron (as compared to arsenic) therefore has a large theoretical treatment capacity for arsenic. Iron oxidation was significantly retarded at pH values below neutral. In terms of operation, analysis of experimental results shows that periodic air sparging may be feasible. PMID:24561624

  11. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the

  12. Impact of clay mineral on air oxidation of PAH-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Biache, Coralie; Kouadio, Olivier; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Faure, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    This work investigated the impact of a clay mineral (bentonite) on the air oxidation of the solvent extractable organic matters (EOMs) and the PAHs from contaminated soils. EOMs were isolated from two coking plant soils and mixed with silica sand or bentonite. These samples, as well as raw soils and bentonite/soil mixtures, were oxidized in air at 60 and 100 °C for 160 days. Mineralization was followed by measuring the CO2 produced over the experiments. EOM, polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC), including PAH, contents were also determined. Oxidation led to a decrease in EOM contents and PAH concentrations, these diminutions were enhanced by the presence of bentonite. Transfer of carbon from EOM to insoluble organic matter pointed out a condensation phenomenon leading to a stabilization of the contamination. Higher mineralization rates, observed during the oxidation of the soil/bentonite mixtures, seem to indicate that this clay mineral had a positive influence on the transformation of PAC into CO2. PMID:24816462

  13. Modeled occupational exposures to gas-phase medical laser-generated air contaminants.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Julia F; Lacey, Steven E; Jones, Rachael M

    2014-01-01

    Exposure monitoring data indicate the potential for substantive exposure to laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC); however the diversity of medical lasers and their applications limit generalization from direct workplace monitoring. Emission rates of seven previously reported gas-phase constituents of medical laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC) were determined experimentally and used in a semi-empirical two-zone model to estimate a range of plausible occupational exposures to health care staff. Single-source emission rates were generated in an emission chamber as a one-compartment mass balance model at steady-state. Clinical facility parameters such as room size and ventilation rate were based on standard ventilation and environmental conditions required for a laser surgical facility in compliance with regulatory agencies. All input variables in the model including point source emission rates were varied over an appropriate distribution in a Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations in the near and far field zones of the room in a conservative approach inclusive of all contributing factors to inform future predictive models. The concentrations were assessed for risk and the highest values were shown to be at least three orders of magnitude lower than the relevant occupational exposure limits (OELs). Estimated values do not appear to present a significant exposure hazard within the conditions of our emission rate estimates. PMID:24762065

  14. Acute effects of exposure to air contaminants in a sawmill on healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Dahlqvist, M; Palmberg, L; Malmberg, P; Sundblad, B M; Ulfvarson, U; Zhiping, W

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study whether air contaminants in sawmills can induce acute changes in the upper and lower airways of previously non-exposed subjects. METHODS: Nineteen healthy volunteers were examined to find the concentration of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in nasal lavage fluid and lung function before and after five hour exposure to dusts and fumes generated in a sawmill where timber from Scots pine was sawed. When exposed, the subjects had respirators with and without a particle filter. RESULTS: The median for daily time weighted average concentration of total dust for subjects with respirators without a filter was 0.13 mg/m3, which was significantly higher than the median of 0.04 mg/m3 for subjects who had respirators with a filter. The median for the concentration of IL-6 in the nasal lavage fluid increased after exposure from 0.5 to 5.9 pg/ml in subjects with respirators without a particle filter (P < 0.05). The increase of the concentration of IL-6 was significantly correlated with the dust concentration. A decrease in transfer factor of the lung was significantly correlated with daily time weighted average concentrations of terpenes. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that healthy volunteers, exposed to air contaminants in a sawmill, show a slight inflammatory reaction. Also, the results of the study indicate the importance of decreasing the concentrations of wood dust in the work environment. PMID:8882114

  15. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Bill

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  16. Alternative Methods for Assessing Contaminant Transport from the Vadose Zone to Indoor Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylor, K. J.; Lee, A.; Reddy, P.; Plate, M.

    2010-12-01

    Vapor intrusion, which is the transport of contaminant vapors from groundwater and the vadose zone to indoor air, has emerged as a significant human health risk near hazardous waste sites. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) can volatilize from groundwater and from residual sources in the vadose zone and enter homes and commercial buildings through cracks in the slab, plumbing conduits, or other preferential pathways. Assessment of the vapor intrusion pathway typically requires collection of groundwater, soil gas, and indoor air samples, a process which can be expensive and time-consuming. We evaluated three alternative vapor intrusion assessment methods, including 1) use of radon as a surrogate for vapor intrusion, 2) use of pressure differential measurements between indoor/outdoor and indoor/subslab to assess the potential for vapor intrusion, and 3) use of passive, longer-duration sorbent methods to measure indoor air VOC concentrations. The primary test site, located approximately 30 miles south of San Francisco, was selected due to the presence of TCE (10 - 300 ug/L) in shallow groundwater (5 to 10 feet bgs). At this test site, we found that radon was not a suitable surrogate to asses vapor intrusion and that pressure differential measurements are challenging to implement and equipment-intensive. More significantly, we found that the passive, longer-duration sorbent methods are easy to deploy and compared well quantitatively with standard indoor air sampling methods. The sorbent technique is less than half the cost of typical indoor air methods, and also provides a longer duration sample, typically 3 to 14 days rather than 8 to 24 hours for standard methods. The passive sorbent methods can be a reliable, cost-effective, and easy way to sample for TCE, PCE and other VOCs as part of a vapor intrusion investigation.

  17. Effects of H2O, CO2, and N2 air contaminants on critical airside strain rates for extinction of hydrogen-air counterflow diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, G. L.; Northam, G. B.; Wilson, L. G.; Guerra, Rosemary

    1989-01-01

    Dish-shaped counterflow diffusion flames centered by opposing laminar jets of H2 and clean and contaminant O2/N2 mixtures in an argon bath at 1 atm were used to study the effects of contaminants on critical airside strain. The jet velocities for both flame extinction and restoration are found for a wide range of contaminant and O2 concentrations in the air jet. The tests are also conducted for a variety of input H2 concentrations. The results are compared with those from several other studies.

  18. Assessment of ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, 1982-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    Study of ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, defined the movement and distribution of volatile organic compounds in the glacial sand and gravel aquifer at known sites of contamination, and has defined new plumes at two other sites. The Arrow Street purge system, installed in 1982 to remove contaminants from the Building 43 plume, has lowered concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater in the central part of the most contaminated area from a range of 1,000 to 2,000 microg/L to about 200 microg/L. TCE is not escaping off-Base from this area. In the southern part of the Base a plume containing principally TCE and dichloroethylene (DCE) has been delineated along Mission Drive. Maximum concentrations observed were 3,290 microg/L of TCE and 1,480 microg/L of DCE. Hydrologically suitable sites for purge wells were identified in the southern part of the plume using a new ground-water flow model of the Base. A benzene plume near the bulk-fuel storage area has shifted to a more northerly direction under influence of the Arrow Street purge system. Sites initially identified for purging the benzene plume have been repositioned because of the change in contaminant movement. JP-4 fuel was found to be accumulating in wells near the bulk-fuel storage area, largely in response to seasonal fluctuations in the water-table. It is thought to originate from a spill that occurred several years ago. In general, concentrations found in water do not differ greatly from those observed in 1981. Since 1981, concentrations of TCE have decreased significantly in the Alert Apron plume. Near the origin of the plume, the concentration of TCE has decreased from 1,000 microg/L in 1980 to 50 microg/L in 1984. Water from Van Etten Lake near the termination of the plume had only a trace of TCE at one site. Benzene detected in water from well AF2 seems to originate near the former site of buried fuel tanks west of the operational apron. During periods of normal

  19. Detoxification, endocrine, and immune responses of tree swallow nestlings naturally exposed to air contaminants from the Alberta oil sands.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Martinez, Luis; Fernie, Kim J; Soos, Catherine; Harner, Tom; Getachew, Fitsum; Smits, Judit E G

    2015-01-01

    Changes in environmental and wildlife health from contaminants in tailings water on the Canadian oil sands have been well-studied; however, effects of air contaminants on wildlife health have not. A field study was conducted to assess biological costs of natural exposure to oil sands-related air emissions on birds. Nest boxes for tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were erected at two sites; within 5 km of active oil sands mining and extraction, and ≥ 60 km south, at one reference site. Passive air monitors were deployed at the nest boxes to measure nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Nestlings were examined at day 9 post hatching to assess T cell function and morphometry. At day 14 post hatching, a subset of nestlings was euthanized to measure detoxification enzymes, endocrine changes, and histological alterations of immune organs. Except for ozone, all air contaminants were higher at the two oil sands sites than the reference site (up to 5-fold). Adult birds had similar reproductive performance among sites (p>0.05). Nestlings from industrial sites showed higher hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD) induction (p<0.0001) with lower relative hepatic mass (p=0.0001), a smaller T cell response to the phytohemagglutinin skin test (p=0.007), and smaller bursae of Fabricius (p<0.02); a low sample size for one site indicating lower body condition scores (p=0.01) at day 14 warrants cautious interpretation. There were no differences among nestlings for feather corticosterone (p>0.6), and no histological alterations in the spleen or bursa of Fabricius (p>0.05). This is the first report examining toxicological responses in wild birds exposed to air contaminants from industrial activity in the oil sands. It is also the first time that small, individual air contaminant monitors have been used to determine local contaminant levels in ambient air around nest boxes of wild birds. PMID:25240100

  20. Fungal hemolysins

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ajay P.; Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2015-01-01

    Hemolysins are a class of proteins defined by their ability to lyse red cells but have been described to exhibit pleiotropic functions. These proteins have been extensively studied in bacteria and more recently in fungi. Within the last decade, a number of studies have characterized fungal hemolysins and revealed a fascinating yet diverse group of proteins. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the known fungal hemolysins with an emphasis on those belonging to the aegerolysin protein family. New insight and perspective into fungal hemolysins in biotechnology and health are additionally presented. PMID:22769586

  1. Plasticizers, antioxidants, and other contaminants found in air delivered by PVC tubing used in respiratory therapy.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sandra S; Shaw, Brenda R; Wu, Alan H B

    2003-06-01

    Of the many compounds that leach from respiratory therapy tubing into air passing through it, we selected five compounds to analyze. The five compounds are known to be potentially carcinogenic, toxic or known to induce estrogenic activity. Parts-per-million and parts-per-billion concentrations of these species were found in the air passing through the tubing: the plasticizers di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), the antioxidants butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and p-nonylphenol (p-NP), and the contaminant (from commercial preparation of DEHP) 2-ethylhexanol (2-EH). These levels are high enough to cause some concern about exposure for patients who use oxygen on a long-term basis, those sensitive or allergic to these species, or those with asthma. A method was developed for analysis of solid tubing samples, showing great variability in concentrations of small, volatile molecules from sample to sample. A method was also developed for pre-concentration of small molecules onto Tenax adsorbants from air passing through the tubing. Both solid samples and adsorbant loaded with analyte were analyzed by direct dynamic thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). This study does not imply that adverse reactions by patients to chemical compounds leaching from respiratory medical tubing will occur but that further investigation is warranted. PMID:12833390

  2. High Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in Air from Ship Breaking Activities in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nøst, Therese H; Halse, Anne K; Randall, Scott; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin; Paul, Alak; Rahman, Atiqur; Breivik, Knut

    2015-10-01

    The beaches on the coast of Chittagong in Bangladesh are one of the most intense ship breaking areas in the world. The aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of organic contaminants in the air in the city of Chittagong, including the surrounding ship breaking areas using passive air samplers (N = 25). The compounds detected in the highest amounts were the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), whereas dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were several orders of magnitude lower in comparison. PCBs, PAHs, and HCB were highest at sites near the ship breaking activities, whereas DDTs and SCCPs were higher in the urban areas. Ship breaking activities likely act as atmospheric emission sources of PCBs, PAHs, and HCB, thus adding to the international emphasis on responsible recycling of ships. Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, HCB, and SCCPs in ambient air in Chittagong are high in comparison to those found in similar studies performed in other parts of Asia. Estimated toxic equivalent quotients indicate elevated human health risks caused by inhalation of PAHs at most sites. PMID:26351879

  3. Opposed jet burner studies of hydrogen combustion with pure and N2, NO-contaminated air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerra, Rosemary; Pellett, Gerald L.; Northam, G. Burton; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    1987-01-01

    A counterflow diffusion flame formed by an argon-bathed tubular-opposed jet burner (OJB) was used to determine the 'blowoff' and 'restore' combustion characteristics for jets of various H2/N2 mixtures and for jets of air contaminated by NO (which normally occurs in high-enthalpy airflows supplied to hypersonic test facilities for scramjet combustors). Substantial divergence of 'blowoff' and 'restore' limits occurred as H2 mass flux, M(H)2, increased, the H2 jet became richer, and the M(air)/M(H2 + N2) ratio increased from 1 to 3 (molar H2/O2 from 1 to 16). Both OJB limits were sensitive to reactant composition. One to six percent NO in air led to significant N2-corrected decreases in the M(H2) values for 'blowoff' (2-8 percent) and 'restore' (6-12 percent) for mole fractions of H2 ranging from 0.5 to 0.95. However, when H2/O2 was held constant, all N2-corrected changes in M(H2) were negligible.

  4. Use of dust fall filters as passive samplers for metal concentrations in air for communities near contaminated mine tailings

    PubMed Central

    Beamer, P.I.; Sugeng, A. J.; Kelly, M.D.; Lothrop, N.; Klimecki, W.; Wilkinson, S.T.; Loh, M.

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings are a source of metal exposures in many rural communities. Multiple air samples are necessary to assess the extent of exposures and factors contributing to these exposures. However, air sampling equipment is costly and requires trained personnel to obtain measurements, limiting the number of samples that can be collected. Simple, low-cost methods are needed to allow for increased sample collection. The objective of our study was to assess if dust fall filters can serve as passive air samplers and be used to characterize potential exposures in a community near contaminated mine tailings. We placed filters in cylinders, concurrently with active indoor air samplers, in 10 occupied homes. We calculated an estimated flow rate by dividing the mass on each dust fall filter by the bulk air concentration and the sampling duration. The mean estimated flow rate for dust fall filters was significantly different during sampling periods with precipitation. The estimated flow rate was used to estimate metal concentration in the air of these homes, as well as in 31 additional homes in another rural community impacted by contaminated mine tailings. The estimated air concentrations had a significant linear association with the measured air concentrations for beryllium, manganese and arsenic (p<0.05), whose primary source in indoor air is resuspended soil from outdoors. In the second rural community, our estimated metal concentrations in air were comparable to active air sampling measurements taken previously. This passive air sampler is a simple low-cost method to assess potential exposures near contaminated mining sites. PMID:24469149

  5. Simultaneous measurements of wire electrode surface contamination and corona discharge characteristics in an air-cleaning electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Kanazawa, Seiji; Ohkubo, Toshikazu; Nomoto, Yukiharu; Adachi, Takayoshi; Chang, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination of the corona wire in a wire-to-plate type air-cleaning electrostatic precipitator is studied experimentally. In order to enhance the contamination of wire, air containing dusts is directly supplied to a part of the wire electrode. Spores of Lycopodium and cigarette smoke particles are used as test dusts. Simultaneous measurements of wire electrode optical images and corona discharge modes are carried out during contamination processes. Results show that corona discharge modes and optical emission from the wire electrode change with time due to the surface contamination. In the case of cigarette smoke, after a time elapsed, streamer coronas appear due to the buildup of smoke particles on the wire surface. After the first streamer generation, the corona current fluctuates with time because the formation and diminution of the projections occur alternately at the different parts on the wire electrode surface.

  6. Modeling, estimation, fault detection and fault diagnosis of spacecraft air contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Anand P.

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to develop a framework for the modeling, estimation, fault detection and diagnosis of air contaminants aboard spacecraft. Safe air is a vital resource aboard spacecraft for crewed missions, and especially so in long range missions, where the luxury of returning to earth for a clean-up does not exist. This research uses modern control theory in conjunction with advanced fluid mechanics to achieve the objective of developing an implementable comprehensive monitoring systems, suitable for use on space missions. First, a three-dimensional transport model is developed in order to model the dispersion of air contaminants. The flow field, which is an important input to the transport model, is obtained by solving the Navier Stokes equations for the cabin geometry and the appropriate boundary conditions, using a finite element method. Steady flow fields are computed for various conditions for both laminar and turbulent cases. Contamination dispersion studies are undertaken both for routine substances introduced through the inlet ducts and for emissions of toxics inside the cabin volume. The dispersion studies indicate that lumped models and even a two-dimensional model are sometimes inadequate to assure that the Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are not exceeded locally. Since the research was targeted at real-time application aboard Spacecraft, a state estimation routine is implemented using Implicit Kalman Filtering. The routine makes use of the model predictions and measurements from the sensor system in order to arrive at an optimal estimate of the state of the system for each time step. Fault detection is accomplished through the use of analytical redundancy, where error residuals from the Kalman filter are monitored in order to detect any faults in the system, and to distinguish between sensor and process faults. Finally, a fault diagnosis system is developed, which is a combination of sensitivity analysis and an

  7. Fungal allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, W E; Helbling, A; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy to fungi require well-characterized or standardized extracts that contain the relevant allergen(s) of the appropriate fungus. Production of standardized extracts is difficult since fungal extracts are complex mixtures and a variety of fungi are allergenic. Thus, the currently available extracts are largely nonstandardized, even uncharacterized, crude extracts. Recent significant progress in isolating and characterizing relevant fungal allergens is summarized in the present review. Particularly, some allergens from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium are now thoroughly characterized, and allergens from several other genera, including some basidiomycetes, have also been purified. The availability of these extracts will facilitate definitive studies of fungal allergy prevalence and immunotherapy efficacy as well as enhance both the diagnosis and therapy of fungal allergy. PMID:7621398

  8. Quantifying fungal viability in air and water samples using quantitative PCR after treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA)

    SciTech Connect

    Vesper, Stephen; McKinstry, Craig A.; Hartmann, Chris; Neace, Michelle; Yoder, Stephanie; Vesper, Alex

    2007-11-28

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85 °C or held at 5 °C (controls) for 1 h. Polycarbonate filters (25 mm diameter, 0.8 μm pore size) were placed on "welled" slides (14 mm diameter) and the filters treated with either PBS or PMA. Propidium monoazide (PMA), which enters dead cells but not live cells, was incubated with cell suspensions, exposed to blue wavelength light-emitting diodes (LED) to inactivate remaining PMA and secure intercalation of PMAwith DNA of dead cells. Treated cells were extracted and the live and dead cells evaluated with quantitative PCR (QPCR). After heat treatment and DNA modification with PMA, all fungal species tested showed an approximate 100- to 1000-fold difference in cell viability estimated by QPCR analysis which was consistent with estimates of viability based on culturing.

  9. Opposed jet burner studies of effects of CO, CO2, and N2 air-contaminants on hydrogen-air diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerra, Rosemary; Pellett, Gerald L.; Northam, G. Burton; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    1987-01-01

    The blowoff/restore characteristics for jets of various H2/N2 mixtures opposed to jets of air contaminated by N2, CO, and CO2 have been determined using a counterflow diffusion flame formed by a tubular opposed jet burner. Both blowoff and restore limits are found to be sensitive to fuel and air composition. Empirically derived variations in the limits of the average mass flux of incoming H2 with percent contaminant, at fixed incoming fuel and H2/O2 inputs, are used to quantify the effects of oxygen dilution, flame augmentation, and flame retardation by N2, CO, and CO2 contaminants. The implications of the results are discussed.

  10. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  11. Thermal degradation of diesel-contaminated peats in an air atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, R.A.; Ugursal, V.I.; Ghaly, A.E.; Mansaray, K.G.

    1999-06-01

    Peat, plant matter that is partially fossilized, is formed in poorly oxygenated wetlands where the rate at which the plant matter accumulates is greater than the rate at which it decomposes. Peat is a common solid fuel ranked among coal, coke, wood, and sugarcane bagasse. Peat has also been used to recover oil during the soil and water remediation processes. However, industrial utilization of peat in thermochemical conversion systems to liberate energy requires the knowledge of its thermal characteristics. In this study, the thermal behavior of peat (both uncontaminated and diesel-contaminated) was examined at three heating rates (10, 20, and 50 C/min) in a stationary air atmosphere using a thermogravimetric analysis technique between ambient temperature (25 C) and 600 C. The thermal degradation rate in active and passive pyrolysis zones, the initial degradation temperature, and the residual weight at 600 C were determined. Increasing the heating rate increased both the thermal degradation rate and the residual weight at 600 C and decreased the initial degradation temperature. The residual weight at 600 C was less than the ash content in all of the peat samples indicating the burnout of some of the mineral oxides, which have low melting and boiling temperatures, such as K{sub 2}O and P{sub 2}O. The results provide useful information about utilization of diesel-contaminated peat in thermochemical conversion systems, especially gasifiers, because of its high energy content and low ash content.

  12. Development and Testing of an Air Fluorescence Imaging System for the Detection of Radiological Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Inrig, Elizabeth; Koslowsky, Vern; Andrews, Bob; Dick, Michael; Forget, Patrick; Ing, Harry; Hugron, Roger; Wong, Larry

    2011-12-13

    Detection of radionuclides emitting short-range radiation, such as {alpha} and low-energy {beta} particles, has always presented a challenge, particularly when such radionuclides are dispersed over a wide area. In this situation, conventional detection methods require the area of interest to be surveyed using a fragile probe at very close range--a slow, error-prone, and potentially dangerous process that may take many hours for a single room. The instrument under development uses a novel approach by imaging radiation-induced fluorescence in the air surrounding a contaminated area, rather than detecting the radiation directly. A robust and portable system has been designed and built that will allow contaminated areas to be rapidly detected and delineated. The detector incorporates position-sensitive photo-multiplier tubes, UV filters, a fast electronic shutter and an aspherical phase mask that significantly increases the depth-of-field. Preliminary tests have been conducted using sealed {sup 241}Am sources of varying activities and surface areas. The details of the instrument design will be described and the results of recent testing will be presented.

  13. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  14. Indirect exposure screening model for evaluating contaminant intake from air emissions via ingestion of milk and beef: Risk-based air concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, C.M.; Lorenzana, R.M.; Garry, M.

    1997-09-01

    A conceptual model has been developed to estimate screening level, risk-based contaminant air concentrations with respect to human health risks from indirect exposures to air emission. The model can evaluate risks from products of incomplete combustion, principal organic hazardous constituents associated with hazardous waste incinerator emissions and other air emittants. Derivation of screening levels is facilitated with a computer spreadsheet requiring six input values. To avoid complex air modeling, estimates are used for some parameters, such as particle deposition rate. The risk-based air concentrations can be used in the early stages of a risk investigation (prior to the trial burn at some incinerator sites) for screening purposes. These risk-based air concentrations can be compared to air concentrations extrapolated from trial burn or other relevant site historical data to determine whether or not a significant risk due to indirect exposures may be present. If screening comparisons reveal the possibility of significant risks, a more extensive risk assessment analysis can be performed and risk-drivers can be identified early in the process. Conversely, if significant risk is clearly not present for contaminants of concern, the analysis can be concluded cost-effectively with the screening process.

  15. Air purification from TCE and PCE contamination in a hybrid bioreactors and biofilter integrated system.

    PubMed

    Tabernacka, Agnieszka; Zborowska, Ewa; Lebkowska, Maria; Borawski, Maciej

    2014-01-15

    A two-stage waste air treatment system, consisting of hybrid bioreactors (modified bioscrubbers) and a biofilter, was used to treat waste air containing chlorinated ethenes - trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The bioreactor was operated with loadings in the range 0.46-5.50gm(-3)h(-1) for TCE and 2.16-9.02gm(-3)h(-1) for PCE. The biofilter loadings were in the range 0.1-0.97gm(-3)h(-1) for TCE and 0.2-2.12gm(-3)h(-1) for PCE. Under low pollutant loadings, the efficiency of TCE elimination was 23-25% in the bioreactor and 54-70% in the biofilter. The efficiency of PCE elimination was 44-60% in the bioreactor and 50-75% in the biofilter. The best results for the bioreactor were observed one week after the pollutant loading was increased. However, the process did not stabilize. In the next seven days contaminant removal efficiency, enzymatic activity and biomass content were all diminished. PMID:24316808

  16. Contamination mechanisms of air basin with tritium in venues of underground nuclear explosions at the former Semipalatinsk test site.

    PubMed

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V; Tur, Y S

    2012-11-01

    During the period of testing from 1945 to 1962 at the territory of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) within the Degelen Mountains in tunnels, 209 underground nuclear explosions were produced. Many of the tunnels have seasonal water seepage in the form of streams, through which tritium migrates from the underground nuclear explosion (UNE) venues towards the surface. The issue of tritium contamination occupies a special place in the radioactive contamination of the environment. In this paper we assess the level and distribution of tritium in the atmospheric air of ecosystems with water seepage at tunnels № 176 and № 177, located on "Degelen" site. There has been presented general nature of tritium distribution in the atmosphere relative to surface of a watercourse which has been contaminated with tritium. The basic mechanisms were studied for tritium distribution in the air of studied ecosystems, namely, the distribution of tritium in the systems: water-atmosphere, tunnel air-atmosphere, soil water-atmosphere, vegetation-atmosphere. An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere by the concentration of tritium in water has been performed. There has experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in air as a function of tritium concentration in one of the inlet sources such as water, tunnel air, soil water, vegetation, etc.. The paper also describes the general nature of tritium distribution in the air in the area "Degelen". PMID:22672895

  17. Production of proinflammatory mediators by indoor air bacteria and fungal spores in mouse and human cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Kati; Hyvärinen, Anne; Nevalainen, Aino; Komulainen, Hannu; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2003-01-01

    We compared the inflammatory and cytotoxic responses caused by household mold and bacteria in human and mouse cell lines. We studied the fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium spinulosum, and Stachybotrys chartarum and the bacteria Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Streptomyces californicus for their cytotoxicity and ability to stimulate the production of inflammatory mediators in mouse RAW264.7 and human 28SC macrophage cell lines and in the human A549 lung epithelial cell line in 24-hr exposure to 10(5), 10(6), and 10(7) microbes/mL. We studied time dependency by terminating the exposure to 10(6) microbes/mL after 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hr. We analyzed production of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukins 6 and 1ss (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1ss, respectively) and measured nitric oxide production using the Griess method, expression of inducible NO-synthase with Western Blot analysis, and cytotoxicity with the MTT-test. All bacteria strongly induced the production of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and, to a lesser extent, the formation of IL-1ss in mouse macrophages. Only the spores of Str. californicus induced the production of NO and IL-6 in both human and mouse cells. In contrast, exposure to fungal strains did not markedly increase the production of NO or any cytokine in the studied cell lines except for Sta. chartarum, which increased IL-6 production somewhat in human lung epithelial cells. These microbes were less cytotoxic to human cells than to mouse cells. On the basis of equivalent numbers of bacteria and spores of fungi added to cell cultures, the overall potency to stimulate the production of proinflammatory mediators decreased in the order Ps. fluorescens > Str. californicus > B. cereus > Sta. chartarum > A. versicolor > P. spinulosum. These data suggest that bacteria in water-damaged buildings should also be considered as causative agents of adverse inflammatory effects. PMID:12515684

  18. Assessment of air and water contamination by disinfection by-products at 41 indoor swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Robert; Catto, Cyril; Haddad, Sami; Simard, Sabrina; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the profiles (occurrence and speciation) of disinfection by-product (DBP) contamination in air and water of a group of 41 public indoor swimming pools in Québec (Canada). The contaminants measured in the water included the traditional DBPs [i.e., four trihalomethanes (THMs), six haloacetic acids (HAAs)] but also several emergent DBPs [i.e., halonitriles, halonitromethanes, haloketones and nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)]. Those measured in the air comprised THMs and chloramines (CAMs). Overall, extremely variable DBP levels were found from one pool to another (both quantitatively and in terms of speciation). For instance, in water, among the four THMs, chloroform was usually the most abundant compound (37.9±25.7µg/L). Nevertheless, the sum of the three other brominated THMs represented more than 25% of total THMs at almost half the facilities visited (19 cases). In 13 of them, the levels of brominated THMs (66±24.2µg/L) even greatly outweighed the levels of chloroform (15.2±6.31µg/L). Much higher levels of HAAs (294.8±157.6µg/L) were observed, with a consistent preponderance of brominated HAAs in the swimming pools with more brominated THMs. NDMA levels which were measured in a subset of 8 pools ranged between 2.8ng/L and 105ng/L. With respect to air, chloroform was still the most abundant THM globally (119.4±74.2µg/m(3)) but significant levels of brominated THMs were also observed in various cases, particularly in the previously evoked group of 13 swimming pools with preponderant levels of brominated THMs in water. CAM levels (0.23±0.15mg/m(3)) varied highly, ranging from not detected to 0.56mg/m(3). Overall, the levels were generally relatively high compared to current guidelines or reference values from several countries, and they point to a relatively atypical presence of brominated compounds, and to significant levels of emergent DBPs for which health risk is less documented. PMID:27131795

  19. Cat serum contamination by phthalates, PCBs, and PBDEs versus food and indoor air.

    PubMed

    Braouezec, Clélie; Enriquez, Brigitte; Blanchard, Martine; Chevreuil, Marc; Teil, Marie-Jeanne

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with semi-volatile properties are emitted to indoor air and, thus, humans might get exposed to these compounds. Pet cats spend the major part of their lifetime at home and might integrate indoor contamination so that they could mirror the human exposure. Three classes of EDCs, polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and phthalates (PAEs), were simultaneously considered and quantified in the serum of cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in the Paris area (France). The main compound concentrations by decreasing importance order were as follows: for PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate (79,900 ng L(-1)) next di-iso-butyl phthalate (53,200 ng L(-1)), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (43,800 ng L(-1)), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (32,830 ng L(-1)); for PCBs, CB153 (1378 ng L(-1)) next CB52 (509 ng L(-1)), CB101 (355 ng L(-1)), CB110 (264 ng L(-1)), and CB118 (165 ng L(-1)); and for PBDEs, BDE 153/154 (35 ng L(-1)) next BDE47 (10.7 ng L(-1)). Total serum concentrations as mean ± standard deviation were 107 ± 98 μg L(-1) for ∑9PAEs, 2799 ± 944 ng L(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 56 ± 21 ng L(-1) for ∑9BDEs. The three chemical groups were found in cat food: 0.088 ng g(-1) for ∑9BDEs, 1.7 ng g(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 2292 ng g(-1) for ∑9PAEs and in indoor air: 0.063 ng m(-3) for ∑9BDEs, 1.5 ng m(-3) for ∑19PCBs, and 848 ng m(-3) for ∑9PAEs. Contaminant intake by food ingestion was approximately 100-fold higher than that by indoor air inhalation. PMID:26841781

  20. Organophosphates in aircraft cabin and cockpit air--method development and measurements of contaminants.

    PubMed

    Solbu, Kasper; Daae, Hanne Line; Olsen, Raymond; Thorud, Syvert; Ellingsen, Dag Gunnar; Lindgren, Torsten; Bakke, Berit; Lundanes, Elsa; Molander, Paal

    2011-05-01

    Methods for measurements and the potential for occupational exposure to organophosphates (OPs) originating from turbine and hydraulic oils among flying personnel in the aviation industry are described. Different sampling methods were applied, including active within-day methods for OPs and VOCs, newly developed passive long-term sample methods (deposition of OPs to wipe surface areas and to activated charcoal cloths), and measurements of OPs in high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) recirculation filters (n = 6). In total, 95 and 72 within-day OP and VOC samples, respectively, have been collected during 47 flights in six different models of turbine jet engine, propeller and helicopter aircrafts (n = 40). In general, the OP air levels from the within-day samples were low. The most relevant OP in this regard originating from turbine and engine oils, tricresyl phosphate (TCP), was detected in only 4% of the samples (min-max contamination of the cabin and cockpit air, was an order of magnitude higher as compared to after engine replacement (p = 0.02). PMID:21399836

  1. Use of Source Term and Air Dispersion Modeling in Planning Demolition of Highly Alpha-Contaminated Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, James G.; Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bloom, Richard W.

    2011-06-22

    The current cleanup of structures related to cold-war production of nuclear materials includes the need to demolish a number of highly alpha-contaminated structures. The process of planning for the demolition of such structures includes unique challenges related to ensuring the protection of both workers and the public. Pre-demolition modeling analyses were conducted to evaluate potential exposures resulting from the proposed demolition of a number of these structures. Estimated emission rates of transuranic materials during demolition are used as input to an air-dispersion model. The climatological frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures at locations of interest are estimated based on years of hourly meteorological records. The modeling results indicate that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. The pre-demolition modeling directed the need for better contamination characterization and/or different demolition methods—and in the end, provided a basis for proceeding with the planned demolition activities. Post-demolition modeling was also conducted for several contaminated structures, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. Comparisons of modeled and monitoring results are shown. Recent monitoring data from the demolition of a UO3 plant shows increments in concentrations that were previously identified in the pre-demolition modeling predictions; these comparisons confirm the validity and value of the pre-demolition source-term and air dispersion computations for planning demolition activities for other buildings with high levels of radioactive contamination.

  2. Removal of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m

    SciTech Connect

    Kanagawa, T.; Mikami, E.

    1989-03-01

    Methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide were efficiently removed from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m and oxidized to sulfate stoichiometrically. More than 99.99% of dimethyl sulfide was removed when the load was less than 4.0 g of dimethyl sulfide per g (dry cell weight) per day.

  3. Impact of Blow/Fill/Seal process variables in determining rate of vial contamination by air dispersed microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Leo, Frank; Poisson, Patrick; Sinclair, Colin S; Tallentire, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Controlled challenges of air dispersed spores of Bacillus subtilis NCIMB 8649 have been generated in a custom-built challenge room housing a Blow/Fill/Seal machine filling filter-sterilized trypticase soy broth into 5.5 cm3 low density polyethylene vials. The effects on the rate of vial contamination of systematic changes in the process variables, rate of provision of ballooning air, delay in the application of mould vacuum and duration of transfer of the open vial, have been examined. Overall, the findings show that the conditions of vial formation can affect appreciably the rate of vial contamination from airborne spores. The indications are that heat lethality, associated with the elevated temperature required for polymer extrusion and vial formation, has a role in determining such contamination. PMID:16316067

  4. Protection by fungal starters against growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal spoilers of cheese.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M S; Frisvad, J C; Nielsen, P V

    1998-06-30

    The influence of fungal starter cultures on growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal contaminants associated with cheese was studied on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. Isolates of the species Penicillium nalgiovense, P. camemberti, P. roqueforti and Geotrichum candidum were used as fungal starters. The species P. commune, P. caseifulvum, P. verrucosum, P. discolor, P. solitum, P. coprophilum and Aspergillus versicolor were selected as contaminants. The fungal starters showed different competitive ability on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. The presence of the Penicillium species, especially P. nalgiovense, showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of the fungal contaminants on laboratory media. G. candidum caused a significant inhibition of the fungal contaminants on Camembert cheese. The results indicate that G. candidum plays an important role in competition with undesirable microorganisms in mould fermented cheeses. Among the starters, P. nalgiovense caused the largest reduction in secondary metabolite production of the fungal contaminants on the laboratory medium. On Camembert cheese no significant changes in metabolite production of the fungal contaminants was observed in the presence of the starters. PMID:9706802

  5. Hot air injection for removal of dense, non-aqueous-phase liquid contaminants from low-permeability soils

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, F.C.

    1996-08-01

    The performance of soil vapor extraction systems for the recovery of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is potentially enhanced by the injection of heated air to increase soil temperatures. The soil temperature increase is expected to improve soil vapor extraction (SVE) performance by increasing target compound vapor pressures and by increasing soil permeability through drying. The vapor pressure increase due to temperature rise relieves the vapor pressure limit on the feasibility of soil vapor extraction. However, the system still requires an air flow through the soil system to deliver heat and to recover mobilized contaminants. Although the soil permeability can be increased through drying, very low permeability soils and low permeability soils adjacent to high permeability air flow pathways will be treated slowly, if at all. AR thermal enhancement methods face this limitation. Heated air injection offers advantages relative to other thermal techniques, including low capital and operation costs. Heated air injection is at a disadvantage relative to other thermal techniques due to the low heat capacity of air. To be effective, heated air injection requires that higher air flows be established than for steam injection or radio frequency heating. Heated air injection is not economically feasible for the stratified soil system developed as a standard test for this document. This is due to the inability to restrict heated air flow to the clay stratum when a low-resistance air flow pathway is available in the adjoining sand. However, the technology should be especially attractive, both technically and economically, for low-volatile contaminant recovery from relatively homogeneous soil formations. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Contamination in Fractured-Rock Aquifers - Research at the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Tiedeman, Claire R.; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Shapiro, Allen M.; Chapelle, Francis H.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and cooperators are studying chlorinated solvents in a fractured sedimentary rock aquifer underlying the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, New Jersey. Fractured-rock aquifers are common in many parts of the United States and are highly susceptible to contamination, particularly at industrial sites. Compared to 'unconsolidated' aquifers, there can be much more uncertainty about the direction and rate of contaminant migration and about the processes and factors that control chemical and microbial transformations of contaminants. Research at the NAWC is improving understanding of the transport and fate of chlorinated solvents in fractured-rock aquifers and will compare the effectiveness of different strategies for contaminant remediation.

  7. Fungal Entomopathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal entomopathogens are important biological control agents worldwide and have been the subject of intense research for more than100 years. They exhibit both sexual and asexual reproduction and produce different types of infective propagules. Their mode of action against insects involves attachme...

  8. Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... it, you'll be saying bye-bye to fungi (say: FUN-guy). What Is a Fungal Infection? Fungi , the word for more than one fungus, can ... but of course, they're not!). Because the fungi that cause tinea (ringworm) live on different parts ...

  9. Bioaccumulation Potential Of Air Contaminants: Combining Biological Allometry, Chemical Equilibrium And Mass-Balances To Predict Accumulation Of Air Pollutants In Various Mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Veltman, Karin; McKone, Thomas E.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Hendriks, A. Jan

    2009-03-01

    In the present study we develop and test a uniform model intended for single compartment analysis in the context of human and environmental risk assessment of airborne contaminants. The new aspects of the model are the integration of biological allometry with fugacity-based mass-balance theory to describe exchange of contaminants with air. The developed model is applicable to various mammalian species and a range of chemicals, while requiring few and typically well-known input parameters, such as the adult mass and composition of the species, and the octanol-water and air-water partition coefficient of the chemical. Accumulation of organic chemicals is typically considered to be a function of the chemical affinity forlipid components in tissues. Here, we use a generic description of chemical affinity for neutral and polar lipids and proteins to estimate blood-air partition coefficients (Kba) and tissue-air partition coefficients (Kta) for various mammals. This provides a more accurate prediction of blood-air partition coefficients, as proteins make up a large fraction of total blood components. The results show that 75percent of the modeled inhalation and exhalation rate constants are within a factor of 2 from independent empirical values for humans, rats and mice, and 87percent of the predicted blood-air partition coefficients are within a factor of 5 from empirical data. At steady-state, the bioaccumulation potential of air pollutants is shown to be mainly a function of the tissue-air partition coefficient and the biotransformation capacity of the species and depends weakly on the ventilation rate and the cardiac output of mammals.

  10. Microlith-Based Catalytic Reactor for Air Quality and Trace Contaminant Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilekar, Saurabh; Hawley, Kyle; Junaedi, Christian; Crowder, Bruce; Prada, Julian; Mastanduno, Richard; Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, gaseous compounds such as methane, carbon monoxide, and trace contaminants have posed challenges for maintaining clean air in enclosed spaces such as crewed spacecraft cabins as they are hazardous to humans and are often difficult to remove by conventional adsorption technology. Catalytic oxidizers have provided a reliable and robust means of disposing of even trace levels of these compounds by converting them into carbon dioxide and water. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) and NASA - Marshall (MSFC) have been developing, characterizing, and optimizing high temperature catalytic oxidizers (HTCO) based on PCI's patented Microlith® technology to meet the requirements of future extended human spaceflight explorations. Current efforts have focused on integrating the HTCO unit with a compact, simple recuperative heat exchanger to reduce the overall system size and weight while also reducing its energy requirements. Previous efforts relied on external heat exchangers to recover the waste heat and recycle it to the oxidizer to minimize the system's power requirements; however, these units contribute weight and volume burdens to the overall system. They also result in excess heat loss due to the separation of the HTCO and the heat recuperator, resulting in lower overall efficiency. Improvements in the recuperative efficiency and close coupling of HTCO and heat recuperator lead to reductions in system energy requirements and startup time. Results from testing HTCO units integrated with heat recuperators at a variety of scales for cabin air quality control and heat melt compactor applications are reported and their benefits over previous iterations of the HTCO and heat recuperator assembly are quantified in this paper.

  11. Biofiltration of air contaminated by styrene: Effect of nitrogen supply, gas flow rate, and inlet concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Jorio, H.; Bibeau, L.; Heitz, M.

    2000-05-01

    The biofiltration process is a promising technology for the treatment of dilute styrene emissions in air. The efficiency of this process is however strongly dependent upon various operational parameters such as the filter bed characteristics, nutrient supplies, input contaminant concentrations, and gas flow rates. The biofiltration of air containing styrene vapors was therefore investigated, employing a novel biomass filter material, in two identical but separate laboratory scale biofiltration units (units 1 and 2), both biofilters being initially inoculated with a microbial consortium. Each biofilter was irrigated with a nutrient solution supplying nitrogen in one of two forms; i.e., mainly as ammonia for unit 1 and exclusively as nitrate for unit 2. The experimental results have revealed that greater styrene elimination rates are achieved in the biofilter supplied with ammonia as the major nitrogen source in comparison to the lesser elimination performance obtained with the nitrate provided biofilter. However, in achieving the high styrene removal rates in the ammonia supplied biofilter, the excess of biomass accumulates on the filtering pellets and causes progressive clogging of the filter media. Furthermore, the effectiveness of nitrate supply as the sole nitrogen nutrient form, on reducing or controlling the biomass accumulation in the filter media in comparison to ammonia, could not be satisfactorily demonstrated because the two biofilters operated with very different styrene elimination capacities. The monitoring of the carbon dioxide concentration profile through both biofilters revealed that the ratio of carbon dioxide produced to the styrene removed was approximately 3/1, which confirms the complete biodegradation of removed styrene, given that some of the organic carbon consumed is also used for the microbial growth. The effects of the most important design parameters, namely styrene input concentrations and gas flow rates, were investigated for each

  12. Bilirubin oxidase based enzymatic air-breathing cathode: Operation under pristine and contaminated conditions.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Carlo; Babanova, Sofia; Erable, Benjamin; Schuler, Andrew; Atanassov, Plamen

    2016-04-01

    The performance of bilirubin oxidase (BOx) based air breathing cathode was constantly monitored over 45 days. The effect of electrolyte composition on the cathode oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) output was investigated. Particularly, deactivation of the electrocatalytic activity of the enzyme in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution and in activated sludge (AS) was evaluated. The greatest drop in current density was observed during the first 3 days of constant operation with a decrease of ~60 μA cm(-2) day(-1). The rate of decrease slowed to ~10 μA cm(-2) day(-1) (day 3 to 9) and then to ~1.5 μA cm(-2)day(-1) thereafter (day 9 to 45). Despite the constant decrease in output, the BOx cathode generated residual current after 45 days operations with an open circuit potential (OCP) of 475 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. Enzyme deactivation was also studied in AS to simulate an environment close to the real waste operation with pollutants, solid particles and bacteria. The presence of low-molecular weight soluble contaminants was identified as the main reason for an immediate enzymatic deactivation within few hours of cathode operation. The presence of solid particles and bacteria does not affect the natural degradation of the enzyme. PMID:26544631

  13. Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, M.L.; Bentley, A.J.; Dunkin, K.A.; Hodgson, A.T.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Sextro, R.G.; Daisey, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    We report a field study of soil gas transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into a slab-on-grade building found at a site contaminated with gasoline. Although the high VOC concentrations (30-60 g m{sup -3}) measured in the soil gas at depths of 0.7 m below the building suggest a potential for high levels of indoor VOC, the measured indoor air concentrations were lower than those in the soil gas by approximately six orders of magnitude ({approx} 0.03 mg m{sup -3}). This large ratio is explained by (1) the expected dilution of soil gas entering the building via ambient building ventilation (a factor of {approx}1000), and (2) an unexpectedly sharp gradient in soil gas VOC concentration between the depths of 0.1 and 0.7 m (a factor of {approx}1000). Measurements of the soil physical and biological characteristics indicate that a partial physical barrier to vertical transport in combination with microbial degradation provides a likely explanation for this gradient. These factors are likely to be important to varying degrees at other sites.

  14. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  15. Utilization of air pollution control residues for the stabilization/solidification of trace element contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Travar, I; Kihl, A; Kumpiene, J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of trace element-contaminated soil using air pollution control residues (APCRs) prior to disposal in landfill sites. Two soil samples (with low and moderate concentrations of organic matter) were stabilized using three APCRs that originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste, bio-fuels and a mixture of coal and crushed olive kernels. Two APCR/soil mixtures were tested: 30% APCR/70% soil and 50% APCR/50% soil. A batch leaching test was used to study immobilization of As and co-occurring metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Solidification was evaluated by measuring the unconfined compression strength (UCS). Leaching of As was reduced by 39-93% in APCR/soil mixtures and decreased with increased amounts of added APCR. Immobilization of As positively correlated with the amount of Ca in the APCR and negatively with the amount of soil organic matter. According to geochemical modelling, the precipitation of calcium arsenate (Ca3(AsO4)2/4H2O) and incorporation of As in ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O) in soil/APCR mixtures might explain the reduced leaching of As. A negative effect of the treatment was an increased leaching of Cu, Cr and dissolved organic carbon. Solidification of APCR/soil was considerably weakened by soil organic matter. PMID:26233740

  16. Characterization of air contaminants formed by the interaction of lava and sea water.

    PubMed

    Kullman, G J; Jones, W G; Cornwell, R J; Parker, J E

    1994-05-01

    We made environmental measurements to characterize contaminants generated when basaltic lava from Hawaii's Kilauea volcano enters sea water. This interaction of lava with sea water produces large clouds of mist (LAZE). Island winds occasionally directed the LAZE toward the adjacent village of Kalapana and the Hawaii Volcanos National Park, creating health concerns. Environmental samples were taken to measure airborne concentrations of respirable dust, crystalline silica and other mineral compounds, fibers, trace metals, inorganic acids, and organic and inorganic gases. The LAZE contained quantifiable concentrations of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF); HCl was predominant. HCl and HF concentrations were highest in dense plumes of LAZE near the sea. The HCl concentration at this sampling location averaged 7.1 ppm; this exceeds the current occupational exposure ceiling of 5 ppm. HF was detected in nearly half the samples, but all concentrations were <1 ppm Sulfur dioxide was detected in one of four short-term indicator tube samples at approximately 1.5 ppm. Airborne particulates were composed largely of chloride salts (predominantly sodium chloride). Crystalline silica concentrations were below detectable limits, less than approximately 0.03 mg/m3 of air. Settled dust samples showed a predominance of glass flakes and glass fibers. Airborne fibers were detected at quantifiable levels in 1 of 11 samples. These fibers were composed largely of hydrated calcium sulfate. These findings suggest that individuals should avoid concentrated plumes of LAZE near its origin to prevent over exposure to inorganic acids, specifically HCl. PMID:8593853

  17. Analysis of industrial contaminants in indoor air: part 1. Volatile organic compounds, carbonyl compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Barro, Ruth; Regueiro, Jorge; Llompart, María; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2009-01-16

    This article reviews recent literature on the analysis of industrial contaminants in indoor air in the framework of the REACH project, which is mainly intended to improve protection of human health and the environment from the risks of more than 34 millions of chemical substances. Industrial pollutants that can be found in indoor air may be of very different types and origin, belonging to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) categories. Several compounds have been classified into the priority organic pollutants (POPs) class such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/PCDFs) and related polychlorinated compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many of these compounds are partially associated to the air gas phase, but also to the suspended particulate matter. Furthermore, settled dust can act as a concentrator for the less volatile pollutants and has become a matrix of great concern for indoors contamination. Main literature considered in this review are papers from the last 10 years reporting analytical developments and applications regarding VOCs, aldehydes and other carbonyls, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, and PAHs in the indoor environment. Sample collection and pretreatment, analyte extraction, clean-up procedures, determination techniques, performance results, as well as compound concentrations in indoor samples, are summarized and discussed. Emergent contaminants and pesticides related to the industrial development that can be found in indoor air are reviewed in a second part in this volume. PMID:19019381

  18. Effects of H2O, CO2, and N2 Air Contaminants on Critical Airside Strain Rates for Extinction of Hydrogen-Air Counterflow Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, G. L.; Wilson, L. G.; Northam, G. B.; Guerra, Rosemary

    1989-01-01

    Coaxial tubular opposed jet burners (OJB) were used to form dish shaped counterflow diffusion flames (CFDF), centered by opposing laminar jets of H2, N2 and both clean and contaminated air (O2/N2 mixtures) in an argon bath at 1 atm. Jet velocities for flame extinction and restoration limits are shown versus wide ranges of contaminant and O2 concentrations in the air jet, and also input H2 concentration. Blowoff, a sudden breaking of CFDF to a stable ring shape, occurs in highly stretched stagnation flows and is generally believed to measure kinetically limited flame reactivity. Restore, a sudden restoration of central flame, is a relatively new phenomenon which exhibits a H2 dependent hysteresis from Blowoff. For 25 percent O2 air mixtures, mole for mole replacement of 25 percent N2 contaminant by steam increased U(air) or flame strength at Blowoff by about 5 percent. This result is consistent with laminar burning velocity results from analogous substitution of steam for N2 in a premixed stoichiometric H2-O2-N2 (or steam) flame, shown by Koroll and Mulpuru to promote a 10 percent increase in experimental and calculated laminar burning velocity, due to enhanced third body efficiency of water in: H + O2 + M yields HO2 + M. When the OJB results were compared with Liu and MacFarlane's experimental laminar burning velocity of premixed stoichiometric H2 + air + steam, a crossover occurred, i.e., steam enhanced OJB flame strength at extinction relative to laminar burning velocity.

  19. Fungal Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Thomas R.; Wickes, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments. PMID:24692193

  20. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed. PMID:24565446

  1. Invasive Fungal Infections after Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Kaitlin

    2014-01-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed. PMID:24565446

  2. Drosophila melanogaster as a model to characterize fungal volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Inamdar, Arati A; Zaman, Taslim; Morath, Shannon U; Pu, David C; Bennett, Joan W

    2014-05-01

    Fungi are implicated in poor indoor air quality and may pose a potential risk factor for building/mold related illnesses. Fungi emit numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as alcohols, esters, ethers, ketones, aldehydes, terpenoids, thiols, and their derivatives. The toxicity profile of these VOCs has never been explored in a model organism, which could enable the performance of high throughput toxicological assays and lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of toxicity. We have established a reductionist Drosophila melanogaster model to evaluate the toxicity of fungal VOCs. In this report, we assessed the toxicity of fungal VOCs emitted from living cultures of species in the genera, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, and Penicillium and observed a detrimental effect on larval survival. We then used chemical standards of selected fungal VOCs to assess their toxicity on larval and adult Drosophila. We compared the survival of adult flies exposed to these fungal VOCs with known industrial toxic chemicals (formaldehyde [37%], xylene, benzene, and toluene). Among the tested fungal VOC standards, the compounds with eight carbons (C8) caused greater truncation of fly lifespan than tested non-C8 fungal VOCs and industrial toxins. Our data validate the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a model with the potential to elucidate the mechanistic attributes of different toxic VOCs emitted by fungi and also to explore the potential link between reported human illnesses/symptoms and exposure to water damaged and mold contaminated buildings. PMID:23139201

  3. Integration of photocatalytic oxidation with air stripping of contaminated aquifers. Report for 1 October 1993--30 June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Changrani, R.; Raupp, G.B.; Turchi, C.

    1998-12-01

    The global objective of this work was to evaluate the integration of gas-solid ultraviolet (UV) photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) downstream of an air stripper as a technology for cost-effectively treating water pumped from an aquifer contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Experimental work was performed at the bench-scale in the laboratory during the first phase of the project, and at the pilot-scale in a simulated field-test situation during the second phase.

  4. Characterization of air contaminants formed by the interaction of lava and sea water.

    PubMed Central

    Kullman, G J; Jones, W G; Cornwell, R J; Parker, J E

    1994-01-01

    We made environmental measurements to characterize contaminants generated when basaltic lava from Hawaii's Kilauea volcano enters sea water. This interaction of lava with sea water produces large clouds of mist (LAZE). Island winds occasionally directed the LAZE toward the adjacent village of Kalapana and the Hawaii Volcanos National Park, creating health concerns. Environmental samples were taken to measure airborne concentrations of respirable dust, crystalline silica and other mineral compounds, fibers, trace metals, inorganic acids, and organic and inorganic gases. The LAZE contained quantifiable concentrations of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF); HCl was predominant. HCl and HF concentrations were highest in dense plumes of LAZE near the sea. The HCl concentration at this sampling location averaged 7.1 ppm; this exceeds the current occupational exposure ceiling of 5 ppm. HF was detected in nearly half the samples, but all concentrations were <1 ppm Sulfur dioxide was detected in one of four short-term indicator tube samples at approximately 1.5 ppm. Airborne particulates were composed largely of chloride salts (predominantly sodium chloride). Crystalline silica concentrations were below detectable limits, less than approximately 0.03 mg/m3 of air. Settled dust samples showed a predominance of glass flakes and glass fibers. Airborne fibers were detected at quantifiable levels in 1 of 11 samples. These fibers were composed largely of hydrated calcium sulfate. These findings suggest that individuals should avoid concentrated plumes of LAZE near its origin to prevent over exposure to inorganic acids, specifically HCl. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 4. C Figure 4. D PMID:8593853

  5. Effect of nontoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on aflatoxin contamination of wounded peanut seeds inoculated with agricultural soil containing natural fungal populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts and other seed and grain crops are commonly contaminated with carcinogenic aflatoxins, secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin contamination of peanuts in the field can be reduced by 77 to 98% with biological control through the application of nont...

  6. OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA CONTAMINATED BUILDING MODLES VERSUS MEASURED AIR & SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2006-11-02

    The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures.

  7. CAirTOX, An inter-media transfer model for assessing indirect exposures to hazardous air contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment is a quantitative evaluation of information on potential health hazards of environmental contaminants and the extent of human exposure to these contaminants. As applied to toxic chemical emissions to air, risk assessment involves four interrelated steps. These are (1) determination of source concentrations or emission characteristics, (2) exposure assessment, (3) toxicity assessment, and (4) risk characterization. These steps can be carried out with assistance from analytical models in order to estimate the potential risk associated with existing and future releases. CAirTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in making these types of calculations. CAirTOX follows an approach that has been incorporated into the CalTOX model, which was developed for the California Department of Toxic Substances Control, With CAirTOX, we can address how contaminants released to an air basin can lead to contamination of soil, food, surface water, and sediments. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure assessments. The capacity to explicitly address uncertainty has been incorporated into the model in two ways. First, the spreadsheet form of the model makes it compatible with Monte-Carlo add-on programs that are available for uncertainty analysis. Second, all model inputs are specified in terms of an arithmetic mean and coefficient of variation so that uncertainty analyses can be carried out.

  8. Effects of walk-by and sash movement on contaminant leakage of air curtain-isolated fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Hong Da; Hung, Chien-Hsiung

    2007-12-01

    The effects of the walk-by motion and sash movement on the containment leakage of an air curtain-isolated fume hood were evaluated and compared with the results of a corresponding conventional fume hood. The air curtain was generated by a narrow planar jet issued from the double-layered sash and a suction slot-flow arranged on the floor of the hood just behind the doorsill. The conventional fume hood used for comparison had the major dimensions identical to the air-curtain hood. SF tracer-gas concentrations were released and measured following the prEN 14175-3:2003 protocol to examine the contaminant leakage levels. Experimental results showed that operating the air-curtain hood at the suction velocity above about 6 m/s and jet velocity about 1 m/s could provide drastically high containment performance when compared with the corresponding conventional fume hood operated at the face velocity of 0.5 m/s. The total air flow required for the air-curtain hood operated at 6 m/s suction velocity and 1 m/s jet velocity was about 20% less than that exhausted by the conventional fume hood. If the suction velocity of the air-curtain hood was increased above 8 m/s, the containment leakage during dynamic motions could be reduced to ignorable level (about 10(3) ppm). PMID:18212476

  9. Nonculture Diagnostics in Fungal Disease.

    PubMed

    Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2016-03-01

    Fungal diagnostics that utilize antibody, antigen or nucleic acid detection offer several advantages that supplement traditional culture-based methods. As a group, nonculture assays can help identify patients with invasive fungal infection (IFI) sooner than is possible with culture, are often more sensitive, and can be used to guide early interventions. Challenges associated with these techniques include the possibility for contamination or cross-reactivity as well as the potential for false negative tests. This review summarized the test characteristics and clinical utility of nonculture-based laboratory methods. PMID:26897062

  10. Fungal microbiota in air-conditioning installed in both adult and neonatal intensive treatment units and their impact in two university hospitals of the central western region, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simões, Sara de Almeida Alves; Leite Júnior, Diniz Pereira; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate fungal microbiota in air-conditioning units installed in intensive care units in two university hospitals in Cuiaba city, Mato Grosso, central western region of Brazil, 525 solid environmental samples were collected, 285 from Hospital A and 240 from Hospital B. Collections were performed using sterile swabs on air-conditioning unit components: cooling coils, ventilators, and filters. Mycelial fungi identification was achieved by observation of the macroscopic and micromorphological characteristics in different culture mediums (maize meal, oatmeal and potato dextrose agars and malt extract) using the Ridell technique. Eleven genera and 27 distinct species belonging to the hyphomycetes and ascomycetes classes were isolated and identified. The most frequently detected genera in both hospitals were Aspergillus spp, Penicillium spp, and Cladosporium spp. Values for colony-forming units per gram were 64 and 75%, well above the limits recommended by Health Ministry resolution 176/00 at the locations selected for analysis in Hospitals A and B, respectively. In conclusion, evaluation of fungal microbiota in the air-conditioning units indirectly determined that the air quality was compromised in both university hospitals analyzed, which constitutes a risk factor for the acquisition of infection in the intensive care units. PMID:21424438

  11. [Air contamination in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires: the current risk or future climate change, a false option].

    PubMed

    Abrutzky, Rosana; Dawidowski, Laura; Murgida, Ana; Natenzon, Claudia Eleonor

    2014-09-01

    Based on the theoretical framework of environmental risk, this article discusses the management of air quality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires in relation to current and potential impacts of toxic gases and global climate change on the health of the population. Information on historical and current management of the air was linked to the results of the South American Emissions, Megacities and Climate research project to assess danger, exposure, vulnerability and uncertainty as the dimensions of risk. By contextualizing public policies developed in recent decades on this subject, it was possible to identify emerging configurations of risk and uncertainties as accelerators of social vulnerability. On the one hand, the fact that there is a positive correlation between mortality, changes in temperature and air pollution was confirmed. On the other hand, it became clear that there is a disconnect between air quality management and health care management, while limitations were found in the proposed mitigation measures relating to emissions of greenhouse gases produced by fuel, revealing uncertainties regarding their efficacy. PMID:25184582

  12. Nitric Oxide and Oxygen Air-Contamination Effects on Extinction Limits of Non-Premixed Hydrocarbon-Air Flames for a HIFiRE Scramjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Dawson, Lucy C.; Vaden, Sarah N.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2009-01-01

    Unique nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen air-contamination effects on the extinction Flame Strength (FS) of non-premixed hydrocarbon (HC) vs. air flames are characterized for 7 gaseous HCs, using a new idealized 9.3 mm straight-tube Opposed Jet Burner (OJB) at 1 atm. FS represents a laminar strain-induced extinction limit based on cross-section-average air jet velocity, Uair, that sustains combustion of a counter jet of gaseous fuel just before extinction. Besides ethane, propane, butane, and propylene, the HCs include ethylene, methane, and a 64 mole-% ethylene / 36 % methane mixture, the writer s previously recommended gaseous surrogate fuel for HIFiRE scramjet tests. The HC vs. clean air part of the work is an extension of a May 2008 JANNAF paper that characterized surrogates for the HIFiRE project that should mimic the flameholding of reformed (thermally- or catalytically-cracked) endothermic JP-like fuels. The new FS data for 7 HCs vs. clean air are thus consolidated with the previously validated data, normalized to absolute (local) axial-input strain rates, and co-plotted on a dual kinetically dominated reactivity scale. Excellent agreement with the prior data is obtained for all 7 fuels. Detailed comparisons are also made with recently published (Univ. Va) numerical results for ethylene extinction. A 2009-revised ethylene kinetic model (Univ. Southern Cal) led to predicted limits within approx. 5 % (compared to 45 %, earlier) of this writer s 2008 (and present) ethylene FSs, and also with recent independent data (Univ. Va) obtained on a new OJB system. These +/- 5 % agreements, and a hoped-for "near-identically-performing" reduced kinetics model, would greatly enhance the capability for accurate numerical simulations of surrogate HC flameholding in scramjets. The measured air-contamination effects on normalized FS extinction limits are projected to assess ongoing Arc-Heater-induced "facility test effects" of NO production (e.g., 3 mole-%) and resultant oxygen

  13. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  14. Fungal Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cryptococcus is thought to be acquired through inhaling soil contaminated with bird droppings. Histoplasma is found in ... Mississippi Rivers. Blastomyces is thought to exist in soil rich in decaying organic matter in the Midwest ...

  15. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Appendix A, Part 2, Field Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the sampling and chemical analysis of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of a field investigation of ground water contamination.

  16. Prevention of clogging in a biological trickle-bed reactor removing toluene from contaminated air

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, F.J.; Hartmans, S.

    1996-04-05

    Removal of organic compounds like toluene from waste gases with a trickle-bed reactor can result in clogging of the reactor due to the formation of an excessive amount of biomass. The authors therefore limited the amount of nutrients available for growth, to prevent clogging of the reactor. As a consequence of this nutrient limitations a lower removal rate was observed. However, when a fungal culture was used to inoculate the reactor, the toluene removal rate under nutrient limiting conditions was higher. Over a period of 375 days, an average removal rate of 27 g C/(m{sup 3} h) was obtained with the reactor inoculated with the fungal culture. From the carbon balance over the reactor and the nitrogen availability it was concluded that, under these nutrient-limited conditions, large amounts of carbohydrates are probably formed. The authors also studied the application of a NaOH wash to remove excess biomass, as a method to prevent clogging. Under these conditions an average toluene removal rate of 35 g C/(m{sup 3} h) was obtained. After about 50 days there was no net increase in the biomass content of the reactor. The amount of biomass which was formed in the reactor equaled the amount removed by the NaOH wash.

  17. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 1, Site assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

  18. Micrometeorological Measurement of Fetch- and Atmospheric Stability-Dependent Air- Water Exchange of Legacy Semivolatile Organic Contaminants in Lake Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlinger, J. A.; Tobias, D. E.; Rowe, M. D.

    2008-12-01

    Coastal waters including the Laurentian Great Lakes are particularly susceptible to local, regional, and long- range transport and deposition of semivolatile organic contaminants (SOCs) as gases and/or associated with particles. Recently-marketed SOCs can be expected to undergo net deposition in surface waters, whereas legacy SOCs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are likely to be at equilibrium with respect to air-water exchange, or, if atmospheric concentrations decrease through, e.g., policy implementation, to undergo net gas emission. SOC air-water exchange flux is usually estimated using the two-film model. This model describes molecular diffusion through the air and water films adjacent to the air-water interface. Air-water exchange flux is estimated as the product of SOC fugacity, typically based on on-shore gaseous concentration measurements, and a transfer coefficient, the latter which is estimated from SOC properties and environmental conditions. The transfer coefficient formulation commonly applied neglects resistance to exchange in the internal boundary layer under atmospherically stable conditions, and the use of on-shore gaseous concentration neglects fetch-dependent equilibration, both of which will tend to cause overestimation of flux magnitude. Thus, for legacy chemicals or in any highly contaminated surface water, the rate at which the water is cleansed through gas emission tends to be over-predicted using this approach. Micrometeorological measurement of air-water exchange rates of legacy SOCs was carried out on ships during four transect experiments during off-shore flow in Lake Superior using novel multicapillary collection devices and thermal extraction technology to measure parts-per-quadrillion SOC levels. Employing sensible heat in the modified Bowen ratio, fluxes at three over-water stations along the transects were measured, along with up-wind, onshore gaseous concentration and aqueous concentration. The atmosphere was unstable for

  19. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY REPORT: DESTRUCTION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN AIR USING ADVANCED ULTRAVIOLET FLASHLAMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a new process for photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air using an advanced ultraviolet source, a Purus xenon flashlamp. wo full scale air emissions control systems for trichloroethene (TCE) were constructed at Purus and tested at Lawrence...

  20. Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... primitive organism. Mushrooms, mold and mildew are examples. Fungi live in air, in soil, on plants and ... body. Only about half of all types of fungi are harmful. Some fungi reproduce through tiny spores ...

  1. Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... fungus. A fungus is a primitive organism. Mushrooms, mold and mildew are examples. Fungi live in air, in soil, on plants and ... body. Only about half of all types of fungi are harmful. Some fungi reproduce through tiny spores ...

  2. Fungal burden in waste industry: an occupational risk to be solved.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Carla; Faria, Tiago; dos Santos, Mateus; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Anita Quintal; Sabino, Raquel; Viegas, Susana

    2015-04-01

    High loads of fungi have been reported in different types of waste management plants. This study intends to assess fungal contamination in one waste-sorting plant before and after cleaning procedures in order to analyze their effectiveness. Air samples of 50 L were collected through an impaction method, while surface samples, taken at the same time, were collected by the swabbing method and subject to further macro- and microscopic observations. In addition, we collected air samples of 250 L using the impinger Coriolis μ air sampler (Bertin Technologies) at 300 L/min airflow rate in order to perform real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) amplification of genes from specific fungal species, namely Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus complexes, as well as Stachybotrys chartarum species. Fungal quantification in the air ranged from 180 to 5,280 CFU m(-3) before cleaning and from 220 to 2,460 CFU m(-3) after cleaning procedures. Surfaces presented results that ranged from 29×10(4) to 109×10(4) CFU m(-2) before cleaning and from 11×10(4) to 89×10(4) CFU m(-2) after cleaning. Statistically significant differences regarding fungal load were not detected between before and after cleaning procedures. Toxigenic strains from A. flavus complex and S. chartarum were not detected by qPCR. Conversely, the A. fumigatus species was successfully detected by qPCR and interestingly it was amplified in two samples where no detection by conventional methods was observed. Overall, these results reveal the inefficacy of the cleaning procedures and that it is important to determine fungal burden in order to carry out risk assessment. PMID:25796518

  3. Assessment of internal contamination problems associated with bioregenerative air/water purification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Bounds, B. Keith; Gardner, Warren

    1990-01-01

    The emphasis is to characterize the mechanisms of bioregenerative revitalization of air and water as well as to assess the possible risks associated with such a system in a closed environment. Marsh and aquatic plants are utilized for purposes of wastewater treatment as well as possible desalinization and demineralization. Foliage plants are also being screened for their ability to remove toxic organics from ambient air. Preliminary test results indicate that treated wastewater is typically of potable quality with numbers of pathogens such as Salmonella and Shigella significantly reduced by the artificial marsh system. Microbiological analyses of ambient air indicate the presence of bacilli as well as thermophilic actinomycetes.

  4. Field monitoring and performance evaluation of an in situ air sparging system at a gasoline-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Hall, B L; Lachmar, T E; Dupont, R R

    2000-06-30

    In situ air sparging (IAS) has been used since the mid-1980s, but few carefully designed field studies have been performed to evaluate its effectiveness. In this study, 27 discrete monitoring points (MPs) were installed at a gasoline-contaminated site to investigate the efficacy of IAS. Each MP was instrumented with a pressure transducer and a Technalithics dissolved oxygen (DO) probe, and located so they could be used to characterize subsurface changes in total head and DO with depth, distance and orientation around a central injection well. Because the blower over-heated and automatically shut down after approximately 30 min and short-circuiting of air into two MPs occurred within 2 min, the study was designed as three sets of three 30-min trials. Longer trials would not have yielded different nor more insightful results. A volume of soil was not oxygenated during any injection. Instead, air traveled directly to at least four of seven different MPs during eight of the nine trials, probably as a result of an air bubble forming beneath a confining layer. The order of air arrival at the MPs varied during the first few trials, but once a preferential pathway was established, it did not collapse between trials and provided the shortest distance to the vadose zone during subsequent trials. Oxygen uptake rates estimated for MPs that received air during any trial exceeded the consumption rates of the Technalithics DO probes, and indicate that the probes could be used for estimating oxygen transfer during system operation or for oxygen uptake measurements during shut-down tests. The data from the monitoring system indicate that IAS is infeasible for remediation of soil and groundwater at this site due to its low horizontal hydraulic conductivity. Similar behavior is anticipated when IAS is applied at other sites with low hydraulic conductivity materials. PMID:10794912

  5. Integrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor for detection of air contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manfreda, A. M.; Homer, M. L.; Ksendzov, A.

    2004-01-01

    We report a silicon nitride-based ring resonator chemical sensor with sensing polymer coating. Its sensitivity to isopropanol in air is at least 50 ppm - well under the permissible exposure level of 400 ppm.

  6. Intregrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor for detection of air contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ksendzov, Alexander; Homer, Margie L.; Manfreda, Allison M.

    2004-01-01

    We report a silicon nitride-based ring resonator chemical sensor with sensing polymer coating. Its sensitivity to isopropanol in air is at least 50 ppm - well under the permissible exposure level of 400 ppm.

  7. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC CCL CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATERS BY GAC, AIR STRIPPING, AND MEMBRANE PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SWDA) require the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a list of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority-setting for the Agency's drinking water program. This list, known as t...

  8. FORCED AIR VENTILATION FOR REMEDIATION OF UNSATURATED SOILS CONTAMINATED BY VOC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Parameters which were expected to control the removal process of VOCs from contaminated soil during the SVE operation were studied by means of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments in this project. Experimental results of SVE with soil columns in the laboratory indicat...

  9. Copper contamination effects on hydrogen-air combustion under SCRAMJET (supersonic combustion ramjet) testing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Two forms of copper catalytic reactions (homogeneous and heterogeneous) in hydrogen flames were found in a literature survey. Hydrogen atoms in flames recombine into hydrogen molecules through catalytic reactions, and these reactions which affect the timing of the combustion process. Simulations of hydrogen flames with copper contamination were conducted by using a modified general chemical kinetics program (GCKP). Results show that reaction times of hydrogen flames are shortened by copper catalytic reactions, but ignition times are relatively insensitive to the reactions. The reduction of reaction time depends on the copper concentration, copper phase, particle size (if copper is in the condensed phase), and initial temperature and pressure. The higher the copper concentration of the smaller the particle, the larger the reduction in reaction time. For a supersonic hydrogen flame (Mach number = 4.4) contaminated with 200 ppm of gaseous copper species, the calculated reaction times are reduced by about 9%. Similar reductions in reaction time are also computed for heterogeneous copper contamination. Under scramjet testing conditions, the change of combustion timing appears to be tolerable (less than 5%) if the Mach number is lower than 3 or the copper contamination is less than 100 ppm. The higher rate the Mach number, the longer the reaction time and the larger the copper catalytic effects. 7 tabs., 8 figs., 34 refs.

  10. COMIS -- an international multizone air-flow and contaminant transport model

    SciTech Connect

    Feustel, H.E.

    1998-08-01

    A number of interzonal models have been developed to calculate air flows and pollutant transport mechanisms in both single and multizone buildings. A recent development in multizone air-flow modeling, the COMIS model, has a number of capabilities that go beyond previous models, much as COMIS can be used as either a stand-alone air-flow model with input and output features or as an infiltration module for thermal building simulation programs. COMIS was designed during a 12 month workshop at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in 1988-89. In 1990, the Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency`s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems program created a working group on multizone air-flow modeling, which continued work on COMIS. The group`s objectives were to study physical phenomena causing air flow and pollutant (e.g., moisture) transport in multizone buildings, develop numerical modules to be integrated in the previously designed multizone air flow modeling system, and evaluate the computer code. The working group supported by nine nations, officially finished in late 1997 with the release of IISiBat/COMIS 3.0, which contains the documented simulation program COMIS, the user interface IISiBat, and reports describing the evaluation exercise.

  11. Microbial survey of the mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Italy: biodeterioration risk and contamination of the indoor air

    PubMed Central

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Sterflinger, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo contain over 1800 preserved bodies dating from the 16th to 20th centuries AD and showing evidence of biodeterioration. An extensive microbiological and molecular investigation was recently performed. Samples were taken from skin, muscle, hair, bone, stuffing materials, clothes, and surrounding walls as well as from the indoor air. In this study, we witnessed that the different degradation phenomena observed on the variety of materials located at the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo are biological in origin. Molecular techniques showed the dominance of halophilic species of the domains Bacteria and Archaea on the walls and – as a result of salt emanating from the walls – on the mummies themselves. Nevertheless, specialized microorganisms belonging to taxa well-known for their cellulolytic and proteolytic activities were detected on clothes and stuffing material, and on skin, muscle, hair, and bone, respectively. This specialized microbiota is threatening the conservation of the mummies themselves. Additionally, sequences related to the human skin microbiome and to some pathogenic Bacteria (order Clostridiales) and fungi (genus Phialosimplex) were identified on samples derived from the mummies. Furthermore, a phosphate-reducing fungus, Penicillium radicum, was detected on bone. Finally, the high concentration of airborne fungal spores is not conducive to the conservation of the human remains and is posing a potential health risk for visitors. PMID:23772650

  12. Microbial survey of the mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Italy: biodeterioration risk and contamination of the indoor air.

    PubMed

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Sterflinger, Katja

    2013-11-01

    The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo contain over 1800 preserved bodies dating from the 16th to 20th centuries AD and showing evidence of biodeterioration. An extensive microbiological and molecular investigation was recently performed. Samples were taken from skin, muscle, hair, bone, stuffing materials, clothes, and surrounding walls as well as from the indoor air. In this study, we witnessed that the different degradation phenomena observed on the variety of materials located at the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo are biological in origin. Molecular techniques showed the dominance of halophilic species of the domains Bacteria and Archaea on the walls and - as a result of salt emanating from the walls - on the mummies themselves. Nevertheless, specialized microorganisms belonging to taxa well-known for their cellulolytic and proteolytic activities were detected on clothes and stuffing material, and on skin, muscle, hair, and bone, respectively. This specialized microbiota is threatening the conservation of the mummies themselves. Additionally, sequences related to the human skin microbiome and to some pathogenic Bacteria (order Clostridiales) and fungi (genus Phialosimplex) were identified on samples derived from the mummies. Furthermore, a phosphate-reducing fungus, Penicillium radicum, was detected on bone. Finally, the high concentration of airborne fungal spores is not conducive to the conservation of the human remains and is posing a potential health risk for visitors. PMID:23772650

  13. Community perspectives on the risk of indoor air pollution arising from contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill E; Kramer, Amanda J; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-05-01

    The migration of volatile contaminants into overlying buildings, known as vapor intrusion, is a health concern for people living above contaminated groundwater. As public health and environmental agencies develop protocols to evaluate vapor intrusion exposure, little attention has been paid to the experiences and opinions of communities likely to be affected by vapor intrusion. Using a community-driven research approach and qualitative interviews, we explored community perspectives on the vapor intrusion pathway and the perceived impact on community health and well-being among neighbors living atop a large, shallow-chlorinated solvent plume in San Antonio, TX. Most participants associated vapor intrusion with health risks, expressing concern about the unavoidable and uncontrollable nature of their exposure. Few were satisfied with the responsiveness of public officials. Above all, participants wanted more accurate, transparent information and additional independent scientific investigations. PMID:25815742

  14. Tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate--an unexpected organochlorine contaminant in some charcoal air-sampling sorbent tubes

    SciTech Connect

    van Netten, C.; Brands, R.; Park, J.; Deverall, R. )

    1991-09-01

    Air sampling in a government building was necessary in response to reports of a cancer cluster. SKC (Eighty Four, Pa.) charcoal coconut shell-based sorbent tubes (226-01 lot 120) were recommended for this procedure. A recently purchased supply was present at the University of British Columbia and consequently was used for this particular study. Analysis of the front charcoal section showed the presence of a flame retardant, tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate, which was confirmed by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and mass spectrometry analysis. In an effort to identify the source of this fire retardant in the building, it became apparent from the analysis done on unknown field blanks that tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate was a contaminant of the sorbent tubes used. Analysis of additional blank tubes identified the foam separators as the most likely source of contamination. Levels of tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate in the front charcoal section ranged from 1.3 to 5.9 micrograms. The foam separator contained between 11.4 and 16.5 micrograms, and the backup charcoal section contained between 14.5 and 24.0 micrograms of tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate. In addition, another flame retardant, tri (1,3 dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate was also found. Because these contaminants have long column retention times in GLC, it may not be apparent that these contaminants are present and consequently are likely to have modified the sorbent characteristics of the activated charcoal. Another batch of sorbent tubes bearing the same catalog number and lot number was purchased from the supplier; no flame retardants were found in this batch.

  15. A pilot study to determine medical laser generated air contaminant emission rates for a simulated surgical procedure.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Julia F; Lacey, Steven E; Lopez, Ramon; Franke, John; Conroy, Lorraine; Breskey, John; Esmen, Nurtan; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) estimates that half a million health-care workers are exposed to laser surgical smoke each year. The purpose of this study was to establish a methodology to (1) estimate emission rates of laser-generated air contaminants (LGACs) using an emission chamber, and to (2) perform a screening study to differentiate the effects of three laser operational parameters. An emission chamber was designed, fabricated, and assessed for performance to estimate the emission rates of gases and particles associated with LGACs during a simulated surgical procedure. Two medical lasers (Holmium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet [Ho:YAG] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) were set to a range of plausible medical laser operational parameters in a simulated surgery to pyrolyze porcine skin generating plume in the emission chamber. Power, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and beam diameter were evaluated to determine the effect of each operational parameter on emission rate using a fractional factorial design. The plume was sampled for particulate matter and seven gas phase combustion byproduct contaminants (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide): the gas phase emission results are presented here. Most of the measured concentrations of gas phase contaminants were below their limit of detection (LOD), but detectable measurements enabled us to determine laser operation parameter influence on CO2 emissions. Confined to the experimental conditions of this screening study, results indicated that beam diameter was statistically significantly influential and power was marginally statistically significant to emission rates of CO2 when using the Ho:YAG laser but not with the carbon dioxide laser; PRF was not influential vis-a-vis emission rates of these gas phase contaminants. PMID:24498966

  16. Air, water, and surface bacterial contamination in a university-hospital autopsy room.

    PubMed

    Maujean, Géraldine; Malicier, Daniel; Fanton, Laurent

    2012-03-01

    Today, little is known about the bacteriological environment of the autopsy room and its potential interest for medico-legal practices. Seven hundred fifty microbiological samples were taken from surface (n = 660), air (n = 48), and water (n = 42) to evaluate it in a French University Forensic Department. Median bacterial counts were compared before and during autopsy for air samples, and before and after autopsy for surface samples, using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test. Bacterial identification relied on traditional phenotypic methods. Bacterial counts in the air were low before autopsy, increased significantly during procedure, and seemed more linked to the number of people in the room than to an important production of aerosol-containing bacteria. Despite cleaning, human fecal flora was omnipresent on surfaces, which revealed insufficient disinfection. Bacteriological sampling is an easy way to monitor cleaning practices in postmortem rooms, but chiefly a way to improve the reliability of medico-legal proofs of infectious deaths. PMID:22309163

  17. Biofiltration of benzene contaminated air streams using compost-activated carbon filter media

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, L.; Kocher, W.M.; Abumaizar, R.J.

    1998-12-31

    Three laboratory-scale biofilter columns were operated for 81 days to investigate the removal of benzene from a waste gas stream. The columns contain a mixture of yard waste and sludge compost as biomedia. Different amounts of granular activated carbon (GAC) are mixed with the compost in two of the three columns to evaluate the extent to which biofilter performance can be enhanced. The effects of different operating conditions on the performance of the removal of benzene from air were evaluated. More than 90% removal efficiency was observed for an influent benzene concentration of about 75 ppm and an air flow rate of 0.3 L/min. in all 3 columns under steady-state conditions. Under most cases of shock loading conditions, such as a sudden increase in the air flow rate, or the benzene concentration in the influent, the biofilters containing GAC provided higher removal efficiencies and more stable operation than the biofilter containing compost only.

  18. Phytoremediation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene contaminated air by D. deremensis and O. microdasys plants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People usually spent about 90% of their time indoors, which are probably more polluted than outside the buildings. High levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known as causes of sick building syndrome. The present study was designed to determine the quantitative effects of some plants to improve the quality of the environmental air. Results D. deremensis and O. microdasys were chosen for the present study. There is no report of using O. microdasys for cleaning the air from pollutants. So, in this study, the effectiveness of O. microdasys in air removing from pollutants was studied and compared with D. dermensis. O. microdasys plant can remove 2 ppm concentration benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene from air in test chambers completely after 48, 55, 47 and 57 hours, respectively. The removal rates of benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene (BTEX) from air in the test chambers were 1.18, 0.54, 1.64 and 1.35 mg/ m2d1, respectively. Conclusions If an office containing 2.5 ppm of each of BTEX and had an approximate volume of 30 m3, it contains 16, 8, 22 and 22 mg/m3 benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene, respectively. Using ten O. microdasys pots with the same size used in this study, can remove benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene totally after 36, 40, 30 and 39 hours. The authors recommended studying the efficiency of the plants for removal of BTEX from air at higher range of concentrations such as 20-30 ppm. PMID:24451679

  19. PULSED AIR SPARGING IN AQUIFERS CONTAMINATED WITH DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging was evaluated for remediation of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) present as dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in aquifers. A two-dimensional laboratory tank with a transparent front wall allowed for visual observation of DNAPL mobilization. A DNAPL zone 50 cm high was ...

  20. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY REPORT: DESTRUCTION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN AIR USING ADVANCED ULTRAVIOLET FLASHLAMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a new process for photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air using an advanced ultraviolet source, a Purus xenon flashlamp. The flashlamps have greater output at 200-250 nm than medium-pressure mercury lamps at the same power and therefore ca...

  1. Fungal bioremediation of the creosote-contaminated soil: influence of Pleurotus ostreatus and Irpex lacteus on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal and soil microbial community composition in the laboratory-scale study.

    PubMed

    Byss, Marius; Elhottová, Dana; Tříska, Jan; Baldrian, Petr

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of selected basidiomycetes in the removing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the creosote-contaminated soil. Fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Irpex lacteus were supplemented with creosote-contaminated (50-200 mg kg(-1) PAH) soil originating from a wood-preserving plant and incubated at 15 °C for 120 d. Either fungus degraded PAH with 4-6 aromatic rings more efficiently than the microbial community present initially in the soil. PAH removal was higher in P. ostreatus treatments (55-67%) than in I. lacteus treatments (27-36%) in general. P. ostreatus (respectively, I. lacteus) removed 86-96% (47-59%) of 2-rings PAH, 63-72% (33-45%) of 3-rings PAH, 32-49% (9-14%) of 4-rings PAH and 31-38% (11-13%) of 5-6-rings PAH. MIS (Microbial Identification System) Sherlock analysis of the bacterial community determined the presence of dominant Gram-negative bacteria (G-) Pseudomonas in the inoculated soil before the application of fungi. Complex soil microbial community was characterized by phospholipid fatty acids analysis followed by GC-MS/MS. Either fungus induced the decrease of bacterial biomass (G- bacteria in particular), but the soil microbial community was influenced by P. ostreatus in a different way than by I. lacteus. The bacterial community was stressed more by the presence of I. lacteus than P. ostreatus (as proved by the ratio of the fungal/bacterial markers and by the ratio of trans/cis mono-unsaturated fatty acids). Moreover, P. ostreatus stimulated the growth of Gram-positive bacteria (G+), especially actinobacteria and these results indicate the potential of the positive synergistic interaction of this fungus and actinobacteria in creosote biodegradation. PMID:18782639

  2. Influence of atmospheric ozone, PM 10 and meteorological factors on the concentration of airborne pollen and fungal spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, S. I. V.; Martins, F. G.; Pereira, M. C.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Ribeiro, H.; Oliveira, M.; Abreu, I.

    The increase of allergenic symptoms has been associated with air contaminants such as ozone, particulate matter, pollen and fungal spores. Considering the potential relevance of crossed effects of non-biological pollutants and airborne pollens and fungal spores on allergy worsening, the aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of non-biological pollutants and meteorological parameters on the concentrations of pollen and fungal spores using linear correlations and multiple linear regressions. For that, the seasonal variation of ozone, particulate matter with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, pollen and fungal spores were assessed and statistical correlations were analysed between those parameters. The data were collected through 2003-2005 in Porto, Portugal. The linear correlations showed that ozone and particulate matter had no significant influence on the concentration of pollen and fungal spores. On the contrary, when using multiple linear regressions those parameters showed to have some influence on the biological pollutants, although results were different depending on the year analysed. Among the meteorological parameters analysed, temperature was the one that most influenced the pollen and fungal spores airborne concentrations, both when using linear and multiple linear correlations. Relative humidity also showed to have some influence on the fungal spore dispersion when multiple linear regressions were used. Nevertheless, the conclusions for each pollen and fungal spore were different depending on the analysed period, which means that the correlations identified as statistically significant may not be, even so, consistent enough. Furthermore, the comparison of the results here presented with those obtained by other authors for only one period should be made carefully.

  3. Mathematical Estimation of the Level of Microbial Contamination on Spacecraft Surfaces by Volumetric Air Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Oxborrow, G. S.; Roark, A. L.; Fields, N. D.; Puleo, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiological sampling methods presently used for enumeration of microorganisms on spacecraft surfaces require contact with easily damaged components. Estimation of viable particles on surfaces using air sampling methods in conjunction with a mathematical model would be desirable. Parameters necessary for the mathematical model are the effect of angled surfaces on viable particle collection and the number of viable cells per viable particle. Deposition of viable particles on angled surfaces closely followed a cosine function, and the number of viable cells per viable particle was consistent with a Poisson distribution. Other parameters considered by the mathematical model included deposition rate and fractional removal per unit time. A close nonlinear correlation between volumetric air sampling and airborne fallout on surfaces was established with all fallout data points falling within the 95% confidence limits as determined by the mathematical model. PMID:4151118

  4. Simulated experiment for elimination of air contaminated with odorous chemical agents by microwave plasma burner

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Shin, Dong Hun; Uhm, Han Sup

    2007-10-15

    An experimental study on elimination of odorous chemical agent was carried out by making use of a microwave plasma burner, which consists of a microwave plasma torch and a reaction chamber with a fuel injector. Injection of hydrocarbon fuels into a high-temperature microwave torch plasma generates a plasma flame. The plasma flame can eliminate the odorous chemical agent diluted in air or purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces. The specially designed reaction chamber eliminated H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} diluted in airflow rate of 5000 lpm (liters per minute), showing {beta} values of 46.52 and 39.69 J/l, respectively.

  5. Mathematical estimation of the level of microbial contamination on spacecraft surfaces by volumetric air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oxborrow, G. S.; Roark, A. L.; Fields, N. D.; Puleo, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiological sampling methods presently used for enumeration of microorganisms on spacecraft surfaces require contact with easily damaged components. Estimation of viable particles on surfaces using air sampling methods in conjunction with a mathematical model would be desirable. Parameters necessary for the mathematical model are the effect of angled surfaces on viable particle collection and the number of viable cells per viable particle. Deposition of viable particles on angled surfaces closely followed a cosine function, and the number of viable cells per viable particle was consistent with a Poisson distribution. Other parameters considered by the mathematical model included deposition rate and fractional removal per unit time. A close nonlinear correlation between volumetric air sampling and airborne fallout on surfaces was established with all fallout data points falling within the 95% confidence limits as determined by the mathematical model.

  6. Air contaminants associated with potential respiratory effects from unconventional resource development activities.

    PubMed

    McCawley, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Unconventional natural gas development uses horizontal drilling in conjunction with hydraulic fracturing to gain access to natural gas deposits which may be tightly held in shale deposits and unavailable to conventional vertical drilling operations. The intensive work required to extract this source of energy results in higher than usual numbers of vehicles involved, potential release of emissions from those vehicles in congested zones surrounding the drill site, and release of other contaminants from materials drawn back out of the borehole after fracturing of the shale. Typical contaminants would be diesel exhaust particulate and gases, volatile organic compounds and other hydrocarbons both from diesels and the drilling process, crystalline silica, used as part of the hydraulic fracturing process in kiloton quantities, and methane escaping from the borehole and piping. A rise in respiratory disease with proximity to the process has been reported in nearby communities and both silica and diesel exposures at the worksite are recognized respiratory hazards. Because of the relatively short time this process has been used to the extent it is currently being used, it is not possible to draw detailed conclusions about the respiratory hazards that may be posed. However, based on the traffic volume associated with each drill site and the number of drill sites in any locale, it is possible at least to compare the effects to that of large traffic volume highways which are known to produce some respiratory effects in surrounding areas. PMID:26024346

  7. Air mercury contamination in the gold mining town of Portovelo, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    González-Carrasco, Víctor; Velasquez-Lopez, Patricio C; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Pájaro-Castro, Nerlis

    2011-09-01

    Portovelo is one of the oldest gold mining towns in Ecuador. Artisanal gold mining still uses mercury in the process of gold recovery. In this study, mercury concentrations in the air of Portovelo were evaluated. High mercury levels in the ambient were found in El Pache sector, where most gold mining processing plants are located. These varied between 2,356.7 ± 1,807.6 and 3,699.5 ± 1,225.3 ng/m(3) during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. Lower levels were detected in the urban (central) area of Portovelo, with 214.6 ± 43.7 ng/m(3) in the rainy season and 574.2 ± 72.8 ng/m(3) in the dry season, exceeding the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry minimum risk level of 200 ng/m(3). Average mercury concentrations in exhaled air from miners, measured before and after amalgam burning ranged between 179-1,352 and 2,007-3,389 ng/m(3), respectively. These data suggest Portovelo air is polluted with mercury and humans are being dangerously exposed. Therefore, strong actions must be undertaken to protect human and environmental health, including changing gold recovery systems. PMID:21769613

  8. Control of aerosol contaminants in indoor air: combining the particle concentration reduction with microbial inactivation.

    PubMed

    Grinshpun, Sergey A; Adhikari, Atin; Honda, Takeshi; Kim, Ki Youn; Toivola, Mika; Rao, K S Ramchander; Reponen, Tiina

    2007-01-15

    An indoor air purification technique, which combines unipolar ion emission and photocatalytic oxidation (promoted by a specially designed RCI cell), was investigated in two test chambers, 2.75 m3 and 24.3 m3, using nonbiological and biological challenge aerosols. The reduction in particle concentration was measured size selectively in real-time, and the Air Cleaning Factor and the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) were determined. While testing with virions and bacteria, bioaerosol samples were collected and analyzed, and the microorganism survival rate was determined as a function of exposure time. We observed that the aerosol concentration decreased approximately 10 to approximately 100 times more rapidly when the purifier operated as compared to the natural decay. The data suggest that the tested portable unit operating in approximately 25 m3 non-ventilated room is capable to provide CADR-values more than twice as great than the conventional closed-loop HVAC system with a rating 8 filter. The particle removal occurred due to unipolar ion emission, while the inactivation of viable airborne microorganisms was associated with photocatalytic oxidation. Approximately 90% of initially viable MS2 viruses were inactivated resulting from 10 to 60 min exposure to the photocatalytic oxidation. Approximately 75% of viable B. subtilis spores were inactivated in 10 min, and about 90% or greater after 30 min. The biological and chemical mechanisms that led to the inactivation of stress-resistant airborne viruses and bacterial spores were reviewed. PMID:17310729

  9. Chlorinated contaminants in chorio-allantoic membranes from great blue heron eggs at Whidbey Island Naval Air Station.

    PubMed

    Cobb, G P; Norman, D M; Miller, M W; Brewer, L W; Johnston, R K

    1995-01-01

    Chorio-allantoic membranes (CAMs) were collected and analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons as part of a wildlife toxicology demonstration project at Naval Air Station (NAS) Whidbey Island, Washington, USA. Concentrations of DDT, DDE, DDD, Aroclor 1254, and Aroclor 1260 were found at concentrations below 0.4 ppm for 13 of 14 samples. The low correlations among DDT and its metabolites in CAMs suggest herons are not being exposed to a consistent source of these compounds. Comparison of chlorinated hydrocarbon data for CAMs from three Puget Sound heron colonies, NAS Whidbey, Samish Island and Dumas Bay, indicates contaminant burdens in herons from NAS Whidbey and Samish Island are significantly lower than burdens in herons from Dumas Bay. PMID:7874465

  10. Physical conditioning to enhance bioremediation of excavated hydrocarbon contaminated soil at McClellan Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanoff, J.G.; Garcia, M.B. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    McClellan Air Force Base conducted an evaluation of an aerated-pile composting process and a slurry bioreactor process for biologically treating excavated hydrocarbon-contaminated soils while controlling emissions of volatile organic compounds. A large aspect of process evaluation was development of soil conditioning steps prior to biological treatment. The conditioning steps evaluated were: soil washing, using rod and hammer mills. Scrubbing was not effective at producing a consistently clean oversize fraction. Milling was effective at reducing the size of larger material and breaking agglomerates. Bioremediation results indicated both processes capable of greater than 90 percent reduction in hydrocarbon levels within 90 days. Aerated-pile composting was the preferred process because it required less operation and maintenance and more easily handled varying soil characteristics. A full-scale treatment process was developed and is described. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fungal Skin Infections Overview of Fungal Skin Infections Candidiasis Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea) Athlete's Foot Jock ... are caused by yeasts (such as Candida —see Candidiasis ) or dermatophytes, such as Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton ( ...

  12. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Field Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  13. Development of a unique multi-contaminant air sampling device for a childhood asthma cohort in an agricultural environment†

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Cole F.; Loftus, Christine T.; Yost, Michael G.; Tchong-French, Maria; Karr, Catherine J.

    2016-01-01

    This research describes the design, deployment, performance, and acceptability of a novel outdoor active air sampler to provide simultaneous measurements of multiple contaminants at timed intervals for the Aggravating Factors of Asthma in Rural Environment (AFARE) study—a longitudinal cohort of 50 children in Yakima Valley, Washington. The sampler was constructed of multiple sampling media connected to individual critical orifices and a rotary vane vacuum pump. It was connected to a timed control valve system to collect 24 hours samples every six days over 18 months. We describe a spatially representative approach with both quantitative and qualitative location criteria to deploy a network of 14 devices at participant residences in a rural region (20 × 60 km). Overall the sampler performed well, as the concurrent mean sample flow rates were within or above the ranges of recommended sampling rates for each exposure metric of interest. Acceptability was high among the study population of Hispanic farmworker participant households. The sampler design may prove useful for future urban and rural community-based studies with aims at collecting multiple contaminant data during specific time periods. PMID:23896655

  14. Fate and transport of trichloroethane and trichloroethylene contaminated groundwater, building 719, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    Melchiorre, K.J.

    1996-08-01

    Trichloroethane and trichloroethylene are common chlorinated aliphatic industrial organic solvents used in degreasing operations. Both are typically found in groundwater environments as a result of leaking underground storage tanks, leachate from landfills, and contaminant migration from hazardous waste dump sites. Transformation by-products are also found in association with trichloroethane and trichloroethylene without any known source other than from reductive dechlorination. Dechlorinated by-products include 1,1-dichloroethane; cis and trans 1,2-dichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, chloroethane, and vinyl chloride. Trichloroethane and trichloroethylene and their transformation by-products are suspected human health hazards. Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen, while trichloroethylene is considered a probable human carcinogen, and 1,1-dichloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethane possible human carcinogens.

  15. Effect of air post contamination on mechanical properties of amorphous carbon nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejeune, M.; Benlahsen, M.; Lemoine, P.

    2005-08-01

    We report in this study the mechanical, structural and compositional characteristics of amorphous carbon nitride films (a-CN x) deposited on Si(100) using RF magnetron sputtering of graphite targets in pure nitrogen and under different RF powers. The properties of the films were determined in their as deposited state using nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), elastic recoil detection (ERDA), infrared (IR) absorption and Raman spectroscopy. The mechanical properties were obtained combining nanoindentation and residual stress measurements. The presence of various types of C-N bonds, as well as the post-deposition contamination of the deposited films by oxygen and water (voids) is revealed. The measured hardness and Young modulus were 0.9-2.03 and 23-27 GPa, respectively. These results have been analysed in term of the matrix flexibility which results from the nitrogen content and the porous character of the films, which can affect deeply the estimation of the physical-mechanical properties of the films.

  16. Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes are quite common in nature and some of them have been shown to have adverse effects against insects, nematodes, and plant pathogens. An introduction to fungal endophytes will be presented, followed by a discussion of research aimed at introducing Beauveria bassiana as a fungal endo...

  17. Effective protection of allogeneic stem cell recipients against Aspergillosis by HEPA air filtration during a period of construction--a prospective survey.

    PubMed

    Krüger, William H; Zöllner, Bernhard; Kaulfers, Paul-Michael; Zander, Axel R

    2003-06-01

    High incidence of aspergillosis on transplant units or hematological wards without HEPA air conditioning during periods of demolishing or construction has been reported by several investigators. Here we report monitoring of fungal air contamination during a period of construction on a stem cell transplantation ward using the gravity air-setting plate (GASP) method. Fungal air contamination in HEPA-conditioned patient rooms was constantly low, independent from construction activity. Outside of the patient rooms at the ward's corridor, the fungal load was significantly higher with some peak values. Outside the transplant unit measures of construction led to a significant increase of fungal spore concentration in air. Transplant activity was not reduced during construction and patients were nursed strictly under HEPA conditions. Patients were monitored prospectively for incidence of infections since 1990 and data of patients grafted during construction (n = 28) were compared to those grafted outside building activity (n = 652). An increase of aspergillosis during construction could be clearly excluded. It can be concluded: Nursing of patients undergoing stem cell transplantation in HEPA-conditioned rooms is an effective protection against acquisition of aspergillus-infection, even under environmental conditions with increased air contamination by conidia. The gravity air-setting plate (GASP) method is not expensive and easy to use and allows reliable and quantitative aerobiological spore monitoring. PMID:12857371

  18. Emerging technology summary: Destruction of organic contaminants in air using advanced ultraviolet flashlamps

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The summary describes a new process for photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air using an advanced ultraviolet (UV) source, and a pulsed xenon flashlamp. The flashlamps have greater output at 200 to 250 nm than medium-pressure mercury lamps at the same power and, therefore, cause much more rapid direct photolysis of VOCs. The observation of quantum yields greater than unity indicate the involvement of chain reactions for trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethene (PCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (DCE), CHCl3, and CH2Cl2. TCE was examined more closely because of its widespread occurrence and very high destruction rate.

  19. Characterisation of occupational exposure to air contaminants in a nitrate fertiliser production plant.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Kristin H; Thomassen, Yngvar; Skaugset, Nils Petter; Skyberg, Knut; Skogstad, Marit; Bakke, Berit

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise personal exposures to dust, acid vapours, and gases among workers in a Norwegian nitrate fertiliser production plant, as part of an ongoing epidemiological study. In total, 178 inhalable and 179 thoracic aerosol mass fraction samples were collected from randomly chosen workers (N = 141) from three compound fertiliser departments (A, B and C), a calcium nitrate fertiliser production department, nitric acid- and ammonia-production departments, and a shipping department. The overall median inhalable and thoracic aerosol mass concentrations were generally low (1.1 mg m(-3) (min-max: <0.93-45) and 0.21 mg m(-3) (min-max: <0.085-11), respectively). Workers at the compound fertiliser departments B and C had significantly higher inhalable aerosol mass air concentrations compared to the other departments (p < 0.05), except for compound fertiliser department A; however, the difference between the compound fertiliser department C and calcium nitrate department was slightly above the significant level. Workers at the compound fertiliser department A had significantly higher thoracic aerosol mass air concentrations compared to the other departments (p < 0.05), except for compound fertiliser departments B and C. The results indicate that the extrathoracic aerosol fraction of the aerosol compared to the thoracic fraction dominated in most departments. Measurement of the main constituents Ca, K, Mg, and P in the water-soluble and water-insoluble aerosol mass fractions showed that the air concentrations of these elements were low. There is, however, a shift towards more water-soluble species as the production goes from raw material with phosphate rock towards the final product of fertilisers. Overall, the arithmetic mean of water-soluble Ca in the thoracic mass fraction was 51% (min-max: 1-100). A total of 169 personal samples were analysed for HNO(3) vapour and HF. The highest median concentration of HNO(3) (0.63 mg m(-3)) was in the

  20. Effect of Particulate Contaminants on the Development of Biofilms at Air/Water Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhuan; Christopher, Gordon

    2016-03-22

    The development of biofilms at air/water or oil/water interfaces has important ramifications on several applications, but it has received less attention than biofilm formation on solid surfaces. A key difference between the growth of biofilms on solid surfaces versus liquid interfaces is the range of complicated boundary conditions the liquid interface can create that may affect bacteria, as they adsorb onto and grow on the interface. This situation is exacerbated by the existence of complex interfaces in which interfacially adsorbed components can even more greatly affect interfacial boundary conditions. In this work, we present evidence as to how particle-laden interfaces impact biofilm growth at an air/water interface. We find that particles can enhance the rate of growth and final strength of biofilms at liquid interfaces by providing sites of increased adhesive strength for bacteria. The increased adhesion stems from creating localized areas of hydrophobicity that protrude in the water phase and provide sites where bacteria preferentially adhere. This mechanism is found to be primarily controlled by particle composition, with particle size providing a secondary effect. This increased adhesion through interfacial conditions creates biofilms with properties similar to those observed when adhesion is increased through biological means. Because of the generally understood ubiquity of increased bacteria attachment to hydrophobic surfaces, this result has general applicability to pellicle formation for many pellicle-forming bacteria. PMID:26943272

  1. Study on decomposition of indoor air contaminants by pulsed atmospheric microplasma.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kazuo; Kuwabara, Tomoya; Blajan, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of formaldehyde (HCHO) by a microplasma reactor in order to improve Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) was achieved. HCHO was removed from air using one pass through reactor treatment (5 L/min). From an initial concentration of HCHO of 0.7 ppm about 96% was removed in one pass treatment using a discharge power of 0.3 W provided by a high voltage amplifier and a Marx Generator with MOSFET switches as pulsed power supplies. Moreover microplasma driven by the Marx Generator did not generate NOx as detected by a chemiluminescence NOx analyzer. In the case of large volume treatment the removal ratio of HCHO (initial concentration: 0.5 ppm) after 60 minutes was 51% at 1.2 kV when using HV amplifier considering also a 41% natural decay ratio of HCHO. The removal ratio was 54% at 1.2 kV when a Marx Generator energized the electrodes with a 44% natural decay ratio after 60 minutes of treatment. PMID:23202173

  2. Novel atmospheric pressure plasma device releasing atomic hydrogen: reduction of microbial-contaminants and OH radicals in the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojima, Hideo; Park, Rae-Eun; Kwon, Jun-Hyoun; Suh, Inseon; Jeon, Junsang; Ha, Eunju; On, Hyeon-Ki; Kim, Hye-Ryung; Choi, Kyoung Hui; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Seong, Baik-Lin; Jung, Hoon; Kang, Shin Jung; Namba, Shinichi; Takiyama, Ken

    2007-01-01

    A novel atmospheric pressure plasma device releasing atomic hydrogen has been developed. This device has specific properties such as (1) deactivation of airborne microbial-contaminants, (2) neutralization of indoor OH radicals and (3) being harmless to the human body. It consists of a ceramic plate as a positive ion generation electrode and a needle-shaped electrode as an electron emission electrode. Release of atomic hydrogen from the device has been investigated by the spectroscopic method. Optical emission of atomic hydrogen probably due to recombination of positive ions, H+(H2O)n, generated from the ceramic plate electrode and electrons emitted from the needle-shaped electrode have been clearly observed in the He gas (including water vapour) environment. The efficacy of the device to reduce airborne concentrations of influenza virus, bacteria, mould fungi and allergens has been evaluated. 99.6% of airborne influenza virus has been deactivated with the operation of the device compared with the control test in a 1 m3 chamber after 60 min. The neutralization of the OH radical has been investigated by spectroscopic and biological methods. A remarkable reduction of the OH radical in the air by operation of the device has been observed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The cell protection effects of the device against OH radicals in the air have been observed. Furthermore, the side effects have been checked by animal experiments. The harmlessness of the device has been confirmed.

  3. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins in subsurface soil, superficial dust, and air extracts from a contaminated landfill.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L G; O'Keefe, P W

    1996-08-01

    Extracts of soil, dust and air from a National Priorities List Landfill have been found to contain distinct profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The different extracts show subtle differences in toxicities and the soil extract has been shown to cause both Ah receptor mediated effects and Ah receptor independent effects in immature female rats. Evidence of open burning at the site dictated quantitation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) for a more accurate tabulation of dioxin equivalencies. High volume air sampling on XAD-2 resin cartridges captured trace amounts of PCDFs and no detectable PCDDs. Acetone:Hexane (1:1) extracts of soil and dust contained 762 microg/ml and 250 microg/ml PCDFs, respectively, and less than 10% as much PCDD. Subsequent benzene:methylene chloride (1:1) extracts were enriched in coplanar compounds relative to total PCBs. PCDF:PCB ratios in all extracts were higher than in the rice oils contaminated with heated PCBs in the Yusho and Yu-Cheng incidents. No 2,3,7,8-TCDD was detected, and total PCB+PCDD+PCDF toxic equivalencies were dominated by the high proportions of PCDFs. PMID:8785012

  4. Aspergillus flavus and Fusariumverticillioides Induce Tissue Specific Gene Expression of PRms and UGT in Maize Seed before Fungal Colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus and Fusariumverticillioides are fungal pathogens that colonize maize seeds and contaminate them with mycotoxins. To investigate the plant microbe interactions, we conducted histological and molecular studies to characterize the internal colonization of maize seed by the two fungal...

  5. Theoretical aspects of fluoride air contaminant formation in aluminium smelter potrooms.

    PubMed

    L'vov, Boris V; Polzik, Leonid K; Weinbruch, Stephan; Ellingsen, Dag G; Thomassen, Yngvar

    2005-05-01

    The amount of particulate fluorides evolved from aluminium electrolysis cells is not entirely accounted for by the fluorides entrained in the anode gas. The largest additional source of particulate fluoride formation is by direct evaporation of fluorides into the anode gas stream and subsequent condensation on the drops of electrolyte generated in the process of bubble burst. A theoretical model was used for the calculation of the main physical parameters responsible for the formation of particle nuclei when the hot anode-gas is mixed with ambient air. The results of these calculations are in agreement with experimental observations reported in the literature. In particular, the size distribution, composition and morphology of the nano-particles support the theory of a vapour condensation mechanism under conditions of extreme supersaturation, but further studies are necessary. PMID:15877162

  6. Lifetimes and fates of toxic air contaminants in California's atmosphere, June 1993. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, R.; Arey, J.

    1993-06-01

    The report presents information concerning the nature and rate of removal of toxic air pollutants (TAPs) from the atmosphere and any products formed; it also addresses the formation of possible TAPs in the atmosphere. It contains a comprehensive review of the atmospheric chemistry of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, N-nitrosomorpholine, and dialkylnitrosamines. It also outlines the atmospheric lifetimes of 23 possible TAPs, including: hexachlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, dimethyl sulfate, propylene oxide, chlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, benxyl chloride, acrylonitrile, toluene diisocyanates, and 1,4-dioxane. It also reviews possible atmospheric formation of TAPs. Acrolein, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and PAHs are shown to be present in the atmosphere largely due to atmospheric reactions. Another section describes an investigation of the mutagenicity of products of simulated atmospheric reactions of gasoline and terpenes (emitted from vegetation). These may not be major sources of ambient mutagenicity in California.

  7. Mercury poisoning dentistry: high-level indoor air mercury contamination at selected dental sites.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Mahmood A; Abbasi, Maryam Shabbir

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), also known as quick silver, is an essential constituent of dental amalgam. It is a toxic substance of global concern. Children are more at risk from mercury poisoning which affects their neurological development and brain. In the past, a number of studies at dental sites in many countries have been carried out and reported. The present report briefly describes and discusses our recent investigations carried out at 34 dental sites (teaching institutions, hospitals and private clinics) in Pakistan. It is evident from the data that at many sites the indoor mercury vapor levels exceed far above the permissible limit recommended for safe physical and mental health. At these sites, public in general and the medical, paramedical staff and vulnerable population in particular, are at most serious risk to health resulting from exposure to toxic and hazardous mercury. To minimize such risk, some of the recommendations are, best in-house environmental practices for occupational health and safety, mercury contaminated waste reduction at source, mercury specific legislation and ratification of Minamata convention on mercury by Pakistan and other world governments at the earliest time possible. PMID:24552960

  8. Removal of ammonia from contaminated air in a biotrickling filter - denitrifying bioreactor combination system.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Takeyuki; Jinsiriwanit, Siriwat; Hattori, Toshihiro; Deshusses, Marc A

    2008-11-01

    The removal of gaseous ammonia in a system consisting of a biotrickling filter, a denitrification reactor and a polishing bioreactor for the trickling liquid was investigated. The system allowed sustained treatment of ammonia while preventing biological inhibition by accumulating nitrate and nitrite and avoiding generation of contaminated water. All bioreactors were packed with cattle bone composite ceramics, a porous support with a large interfacial area. Excellent removal of ammonia gas was obtained. The critical loading ranged from 60 to 120 gm(-3)h(-1) depending on the conditions, and loadings below 56 gm(-3)h(-1) resulted in essentially complete removal of ammonia. In addition, concentrations of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and COD in the recycle liquid of the inlet and outlet of each reactor were measured to determine the fate of nitrogen in the reactor, close nitrogen balances and calculate nitrogen to COD ratios. Ammonia absorption and nitrification occurred in the biotrickling filter; nitrate and nitrite were biologically removed in the denitrification reactor and excess dissolved COD and ammonia were treated in the polishing bioreactor. Overall, ammonia gas was very successfully removed in the bioreactor system and steady state operation with respect to nitrogen species was achieved. PMID:18823641

  9. Air is still contaminated 40 years after the Michigan Chemical plant disaster in St. Louis, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Peverly, Angela A; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2014-10-01

    The Michigan Chemical (also known as Velsicol Chemical) plant located in St. Louis, Michigan operated from 1936-1978. During this time, the plant manufactured polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), hexabromobenzene (HBB), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), and tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP), among other products. Due to widespread PBB contamination of Michigan, the plant eventually became a Superfund site, and despite years of cleanup activities, many of the compounds can still be found in the local ecosystem. To investigate the current atmospheric levels and to determine their spatial distributions, we collected tree bark samples from around Michigan and measured the concentrations of these pollutants. For comparison, other organic pollutants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs), which were not manufactured at the Michigan Chemical plant, were also measured in the same tree bark samples. Our results show levels of PBBs, DDT, and HBB in tree bark collected within 10 km of the Velsicol Superfund site (43, 477, and 108 ng/g lipid wgt., respectively) are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than at sites located more than 10 km from the site (0.36, 28, and 0.36 ng/g lipid wgt., respectively). Levels of PBDEs and OPEs did not depend on distance from St. Louis. This is the first study on the atmospheric distribution of these chemicals around the Superfund site. PMID:25211223

  10. Imaging features of fungal infection in immuno-suppressed patients in a local ward outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad Sarji, S; Wan Abdullah, WA; Wastie, ML

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of study To examine the role of imaging in diagnosing and assessing fungal infections in paediatric patients undergoing chemotherapy in a facility, which had high fungal air contamination due to adjacent building construction work. Materials and method Nineteen patients aged five months to 12 years with various malignancies, mainly leukaemia, along with probable fungal infection were referred for imaging over a period of 12 months. The imaging findings from their CT and chest radiographs were reviewed by two radiologists and correlated with the clinical findings. Blood culture and/or biopsy of relevant lesions were performed for all patients. Results Fungus was positively isolated in 11 out of 19 patients, but the remaining patients clinically had fungal infection. The most common species isolated was Candida sp. (five patients), followed by Aspergillus sp. The most common site of fungal infection was the lungs (10 out of 19 patients), where consolidation or cavitating nodules were seen on CT or the plain chest radiograph. One patient developed pulmonary artery aneurysm as a complication. The other sites affected were the intra-abdominal organs (liver, kidneys, and spleen) and the paranasal sinuses, shown on CT. Two patients with clinical evidence of infection and Candida sp. isolated from their blood, however, showed no abnormal findings on imaging. Conclusion Early diagnosis of fungal infections in oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy is important, but diagnosis may be difficult through imaging because of the non-specific changes and the presence of abnormalities from the underlying disease. Even if a specific diagnosis cannot be reached, imaging is useful to monitor response to treatment and detect complications. PMID:21614228

  11. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Appendix A, Part 1, Field Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  12. Analysis of an Air Conditioning Coolant Solution for Metal Contamination Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Exercise Simulating an Industrial Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A real-life analytical assignment is presented to students, who had to examine an air conditioning coolant solution for metal contamination using an atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). This hands-on access to a real problem exposed the undergraduate students to the mechanism of AAS, and promoted participation in a simulated industrial activity.

  13. Prediction of Toxigenic Fungal Growth in Buildings by Using a Novel Modelling System

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Neil J.; Johnstone, Cameron M.; McLean, R. Craig; Anderson, John G.; Clarke, Joe A.

    1999-01-01

    There is growing concern about the adverse effects of fungal bioaerosols on the occupants of damp dwellings. Based on an extensive analysis of previously published data and on experiments carried out within this study, critical limits for the growth of the indoor fungi Eurotium herbariorum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum were mathematically described in terms of growth limit curves (isopleths) which define the minimum combination of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) at which growth will occur. Each growth limit curve was generated from a series of data points on a T-RH plot and mathematically fitted by using a third-order polynomial equation of the form RH = a3T3 + a2T2 + a1T + a0. This fungal growth prediction model was incorporated within the ESP-r (Environmental Systems Performance [r stands for “research”]) computer-based program for transient simulation of the energy and environmental performance of buildings. For any specified location, the ESP-r system is able to predict the time series evolution of local surface temperature and relative humidity, taking explicit account of constructional moisture flow, moisture generation sources, and air movement. This allows the predicted local conditions to be superimposed directly onto fungal growth curves. The concentration of plotted points relative to the curves allows an assessment of the risk of fungal growth. The system’s predictive capability was tested via laboratory experiments and by comparison with monitored data from a fungus-contaminated house. PMID:10543791

  14. Effects of low-pressure air on oxygen contamination and lithium corrosion of a tantalum alloy, T-111, at 980 and 1260 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    The effects were studied of low-pressure air on contamination and corrosion in the tantalum alloy T-111/lithium system at 980 and 1260 C. Capsules of T-111 containing lithium were exposed to six vacuum levels between 1 x 10 to the 8th power and 0.0003 torr by controlled air leakage into a vacuum system. Capsules exposed at 980 C and 0.0002 torr failed from intragranular oxidation. The remainder of the capsules completed the 96-hour tests. The depth of oxygen contamination was greater at 980 C than at 1260 C. Tests made at 0.0001 and 0.00001 torr levels caused large increases in the oxygen content of the T-111. Tests at 0.000001 torr or less produced no significant contamination. No lithium corrosion of the T-111 was observed under any of the conditions.

  15. Multivariate analysis comparing microbial air content of an air-conditioned building and a naturally ventilated building over one year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parat, Sylvie; Perdrix, Alain; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Saude, Isabelle; Grillot, Renee; Baconnier, Pierre

    Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) may be responsible for the production and spread of airborne microorganisms in office buildings. In order to compare airborne microbiological flora in an air-conditioned building with that in a naturally ventilated building, eight sets of measurements were made over a 1-year period. Concurrently with other environmental measurements, air samples were collected in each building, from three offices and from the outdoor air, using the Andersen single-stage sampler. Three different media were used to culture fungi, staphylococci and mesophilic bacteria. Multivariate analysis revealed a group of offices more contaminated than others, and a marked seasonal variation in fungal concentrations. A comparison of mean levels of microorganisms measured in the two buildings showed that the air microbial content was significantly higher and more variable in the naturally ventilated building than in the air-conditioned building. Moreover, in the naturally ventilated building, the interior fungal content was strongly dependent on the outdoor content, while in the air-conditioned building fungal concentrations remained constant despite significant variations measured outside. This was confirmed by a statistical comparison of the correlation coefficients between indoor and outdoor concentrations. No difference was observed regarding gaseous pollutants and temperature, but relative humidity was significantly higher in the air-conditioned building. The effect of HVAC was to prevent the intake of outdoor particles and to dilute the indoor concentrations. These results are consistent with the presence of high-efficiency filters and a steam humidifier in the HVAC system under study.

  16. Indoor Air Contamination from Hazardous Waste Sites: Improving the Evidence Base for Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill; MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline

    2015-12-01

    At hazardous waste sites, volatile chemicals can migrate through groundwater and soil into buildings, a process known as vapor intrusion. Due to increasing recognition of vapor intrusion as a potential indoor air pollution source, in 2015 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a new vapor intrusion guidance document. The guidance specifies two conditions for demonstrating that remediation is needed: (1) proof of a vapor intrusion pathway; and (2) evidence that human health risks exceed established thresholds (for example, one excess cancer among 10,000 exposed people). However, the guidance lacks details on methods for demonstrating these conditions. We review current evidence suggesting that monitoring and modeling approaches commonly employed at vapor intrusion sites do not adequately characterize long-term exposure and in many cases may underestimate risks. On the basis of this evidence, we recommend specific approaches to monitoring and modeling to account for these uncertainties. We propose a value of information approach to integrate the lines of evidence at a site and determine if more information is needed before deciding whether the two conditions specified in the vapor intrusion guidance are satisfied. To facilitate data collection and decision-making, we recommend a multi-directional community engagement strategy and consideration of environment justice concerns. PMID:26633433

  17. A Review of Monitoring Technologies for Trace Air Contaminants in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2004-01-01

    NASA issued a Request For Information (RFI) to identify technologies that might be available to monitor a list of air pollutants in the ISS atmosphere. After NASA received responses to the RFI, an expert panel was assembled to hear presentations from 9 technology proponents. The goal of the panel was to identify technologies that might be suitable for replacement of the current Volatile Organics Analyzer (VOA) within several years. The panelists consisted of 8 experts in analytical chemistry without any links to NASA and 7 people with specific expertise because of their roles in NASA programs. Each technology was scored using a tool that enabled rating of many specific aspects of the technology on a 4-point system. The maturity of the technologies ranged from well-tested instrument packages that had been designed for space applications and were nearly ready for flight to technologies that were untested and speculative in nature. All but one technology involved the use of gas chromatography for separation, and there were various detectors proposed including several mass spectrometers and ion mobility spectrometers. In general there was a tradeoff between large systems with considerable capability to address the target list and smaller systems that had much more limited capability.

  18. Indoor Air Contamination from Hazardous Waste Sites: Improving the Evidence Base for Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Jill; MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    At hazardous waste sites, volatile chemicals can migrate through groundwater and soil into buildings, a process known as vapor intrusion. Due to increasing recognition of vapor intrusion as a potential indoor air pollution source, in 2015 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a new vapor intrusion guidance document. The guidance specifies two conditions for demonstrating that remediation is needed: (1) proof of a vapor intrusion pathway; and (2) evidence that human health risks exceed established thresholds (for example, one excess cancer among 10,000 exposed people). However, the guidance lacks details on methods for demonstrating these conditions. We review current evidence suggesting that monitoring and modeling approaches commonly employed at vapor intrusion sites do not adequately characterize long-term exposure and in many cases may underestimate risks. On the basis of this evidence, we recommend specific approaches to monitoring and modeling to account for these uncertainties. We propose a value of information approach to integrate the lines of evidence at a site and determine if more information is needed before deciding whether the two conditions specified in the vapor intrusion guidance are satisfied. To facilitate data collection and decision-making, we recommend a multi-directional community engagement strategy and consideration of environment justice concerns. PMID:26633433

  19. Influences of ammonia contamination on leaching from air-pollution-control residues.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zhenzhen; Chen, Dezhen; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-12-01

    Application of selective non-catalytic reduction systems at municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) often involves over-stoichiometric injection of ammonia into flue gases. Un-reacted ammonia may be deposited on fly ash particles and can ultimately influence the leaching behaviour of air-pollution-control (APC) residues. Batch tests were conducted to investigate the impacts of ammonia levels on leaching of a range of metals (sodium, potassium, calcium, aluminium, chromium, iron, lead, cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc), as well as chloride and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Specific conductivity was also identified to reflect the soluble components. The results showed that with ammonia concentrations rising from a background level of 4 to 26,400 mg l(-1), the specific conductivity increased by 2-7 times as pH varied from alkaline to acidic values. DOC release was also significantly enhanced with high ammonia levels of 1400 mg l(-1) or higher at pH > 9; however at these high ammonia concentrations, the role of DOC in cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc leaching was negligible. Based on the experimental data, chloride, sodium and potassium were leached at high concentrations regardless of pH and ammonia concentrations. For aluminium, chromium, iron and lead, ammonia had little impact on their leaching behaviour. With respect to cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc, high ammonia concentrations significantly increased leaching in the pH range of 8-12 due to the formation of metal-ammonia complexes, which was also proved in the speciation calculations. However, the overall results suggest that typical levels of ammonia injection in MSWIs are not likely to affect metal leaching from APC residues. PMID:25147306

  20. The current practice of health risk assessment: Potential impact on standards for toxic air contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Paustenbach, D.J.; Jernigan, J.D.; Finley, B.L.; Ripple, S.R.; Keenan, R.E. )

    1990-12-01

    Since the Bhopal incident, the public has placed pressure on regulatory agencies to set community exposure limits for the dozens of chemicals that may be released by manufacturing facilities. More or less objective limits can be established for the vast majority of these chemicals through the use of risk assessment. However, each step of the risk assessment process (i.e., hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization) contains a number of pitfalls that scientists need to avoid to ensure that valid limits are established. For example, in the hazard identification step there has been little discrimination among animal carcinogens with respect to mechanism of action or the epidemiology experience. In the dose-response portion, rarely is the range of plausible estimated risks presented. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) models should be used to understand the difference between the tissue doses and the administered dose, as well as the difference in target tissue concentrations of the toxicant between rodents and humans. Biologically-based models like the Moolgavkar-Knudson-Venzon (MKV) should be developed and used, when appropriate. The exposure assessment step can be significantly improved by using more sensitive and specific sampling and analytical methods, more accurate exposure parameters, and computer models that can account for complex environmental factors. Whenever possible, model predictions of exposure and uptake should be validated by biological monitoring of exposed persons (urine, blood, adipose) or by field measurements of plants, soil, fish, air, or water. In each portion of an assessment, the weight of evidence approach should be used to identify the most defensible value. 129 refs.

  1. Treatment of Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater Using Highly-Selective, Regenerable Anion-Exchange Resins at Edwards Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, B.

    2003-05-30

    Selective ion exchange is one of the most effective treatment technologies for removing low levels of perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) from contaminated water because of its high efficiency without adverse impacts on the water quality caused by adding or removing any chemicals or nutrients. This report summarizes both the laboratory and a field pilot-scale studies to determine the ability and efficiency of the bifunctional synthetic resins to remove ClO{sub 4}{sup -} from the contaminated groundwater at the Edwards Air Force Base in California. Regeneration of the resins after groundwater treatment was also evaluated using the FeCl{sub 3}-HCl regeneration technique recently developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. On the basis of this study, the bifunctional resin, D-3696 was found to be highly selective toward ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and performed much better than one of the best commercial nitrate-selective resins (Purolite A-520E) and more than an order of magnitude better than the Purolite A-500 resin (with a relatively low selectivity). At an influent concentration of {approx} 450 {micro}g/L ClO{sub 4}{sup -} in groundwater, the bifunctional resin bed treated {approx} 40,000 empty bed volumes of groundwater before a significant breakthrough of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} occurred. The presence of relatively high concentrations of chloride and sulfate in site groundwater did not appear to affect the ability of the bifunctional resin to remove ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. However, the presence of high iron or iron oxyhydroxides and/or biomass in groundwater caused a significant fouling of the resin beds and greatly influenced the effectiveness in regenerating the resins sorbed with ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. Under such circumstances, a prefilter ({approx} 0.5-1 {micro}m) was found to be necessary to remove these particulates and to reduce the risk of fouling of the resin beds. Without significant fouling, the resin bed could be effectively regenerated by the FeCl{sub 3} displacement technique

  2. Fungal spores are transported long distances in smoke from biomass fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mims, Sarah A.; Mims, Forrest M.

    Viable fungal spores are present in smoke from distant biomass fires. This finding has potentially important implications for prescribed burning, agricultural management and public health. While attempting to find fungal spores in dust blown from China to Texas, one of us (S.A.M.) discovered that smoke from Yucatan contains viable bacteria and fungal spores, including the genera Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusariella and Curvularia. There was a high correlation ( r2=0.78) of spores and coarse carbon particles collected on microscope slides during 13 days of the 2002 smoke season. To eliminate possible contamination by local spores, an air sampler was flown from a kite at a Texas Gulf Coast beach during and after the 2003 smoke season on days when the NOAA back trajectory showed air arriving from Yucatan. Fifty-two spores and 19 coarse black carbon particles (>2.5 μm) were collected during a 30-min kite flight on the smoke day and 12 spores and four carbons on the day without smoke. We have found spores in smoke from an Arizona forest fire and in Asian smoke at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. We have tested these findings by burning dried grass, leaves, twigs and flood detritus. The smoke from all test fires contained many spores.

  3. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 9, Removal action system design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  4. Sensitivity of Hollow Fiber Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Systems to Potable Water Constituents, Contaminants and Air Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Trevino, Luis A.; Fritts, Sharon; Tsioulos, Gus

    2008-01-01

    The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is the baseline heat rejection technology selected for development for the Constellation lunar suit. The first SWME prototype, designed, built, and tested at Johnson Space Center in 1999 used a Teflon hydrophobic porous membrane sheet shaped into an annulus to provide cooling to the coolant loop through water evaporation to the vacuum of space. This present study describes the test methodology and planning and compares the test performance of three commercially available hollow fiber materials as alternatives to the sheet membrane prototype for SWME, in particular, a porous hydrophobic polypropylene, and two variants that employ ion exchange through non-porous hydrophilic modified Nafion. Contamination tests will be performed to probe for sensitivities of the candidate SWME elements to ordinary constituents that are expected to be found in the potable water provided by the vehicle, the target feedwater source. Some of the impurities in potable water are volatile, such as the organics, while others, such as the metals and inorganic ions are nonvolatile. The non-volatile constituents will concentrate in the SWME as evaporated water from the loop is replaced by the feedwater. At some point in the SWME mission lifecycle as the concentrations of the non-volatiles increase, the solubility limits of one or more of the constituents may be reached. The resulting presence of precipitate in the coolant water may begin to plug pores and tube channels and affect the SWME performance. Sensitivity to macroparticles, lunar dust simulant, and air bubbles will also be investigated.

  5. INDOOR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS: ASSESSING THE ALLERGIC POTENTIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The indoor environment has increased in importance to children's health with children now spending more than 90% of their time indoors. Molds are an important component of this environment and have been associated with exacerbation of asthma as well as a number of other health e...

  6. Fungal spore fragmentation as a function of airflow rates and fungal generation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaani, Hussein; Hargreaves, Megan; Ristovski, Zoran; Morawska, Lidia

    The aim of this study was to characterise and quantify the fungal fragment propagules derived and released from several fungal species ( Penicillium, Aspergillus niger and Cladosporium cladosporioides) using different generation methods and different air velocities over the colonies. Real time fungal spore fragmentation was investigated using an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVASP) and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The study showed that there were significant differences ( p < 0.01) in the fragmentation percentage between different air velocities for the three generation methods, namely the direct, the fan and the fungal spore source strength tester (FSSST) methods. The percentage of fragmentation also proved to be dependent on fungal species. The study found that there was no fragmentation for any of the fungal species at an air velocity ≤0.4 m s -1 for any method of generation. Fluorescent signals, as well as mathematical determination also showed that the fungal fragments were derived from spores. Correlation analysis showed that the number of released fragments measured by the UVAPS under controlled conditions can be predicted on the basis of the number of spores, for Penicillium and A. niger, but not for C. cladosporioides. The fluorescence percentage of fragment samples was found to be significantly different to that of non-fragment samples ( p < 0.0001) and the fragment sample fluorescence was always less than that of the non-fragment samples. Size distribution and concentration of fungal fragment particles were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively, by both UVAPS and SMPS, and it was found that the UVAPS was more sensitive than the SMPS for measuring small sample concentrations, whilethe results obtained from the UVAPS and SMAS were not identical for the same samples.

  7. Fungal and Bacterial Diseases.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal and bacterial diseases are important constraints to production. Recognition of diseases and information on their biology is important in disease management. This chapter is aimed at providing diagnostic information on fungal and bacterial diseases of sugar beet and their biology, epidemiolo...

  8. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  9. Energy distribution and quantum yield for photoemission from air-contaminated gold surfaces under ultraviolet illumination close to the threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hechenblaikner, Gerald; Ziegler, Tobias; Biswas, Indro; Seibel, Christoph; Schulze, Mathias; Brandt, Nico; Schöll, Achim; Bergner, Patrick; Reinert, Friedrich T.

    2012-06-01

    The kinetic energy distributions of photo-electrons emitted from gold surfaces under illumination by UV-light close to the threshold (photon energy in the order of the material work function) are measured and analyzed. Samples are prepared as chemically clean through Ar-ion sputtering and then exposed to atmosphere for variable durations before quantum yield measurements are performed after evacuation. During measurements, the bias voltage applied to the sample is varied and the resulting emission current measured. Taking the derivative of the current-voltage curve yields the energy distribution which is found to closely resemble the distribution of total energies derived by DuBridge for emission from a free electron gas. We investigate the dependence of distribution shape and width on electrode geometry and contaminant substances adsorbed from the atmosphere, in particular, to water and hydro-carbons. Emission efficiency increases initially during air exposure before diminishing to zero on a timescale of several hours, whilst subsequent annealing of the sample restores emissivity. A model fit function, in good quantitative agreement with the measured data, is introduced which accounts for the experiment-specific electrode geometry and an energy dependent transmission coefficient. The impact of large patch potential fields from contact potential drops between sample and sample holder is investigated. The total quantum yield is split into bulk and surface contributions which are tested for their sensitivity to light incidence angle and polarization. Our results are directly applicable to model parameters for the contact-free discharge system onboard the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Pathfinder spacecraft.

  10. Daily and hourly sourcing of metallic and mineral dust in urban air contaminated by traffic and coal-burning emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, T.; Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Coz, E.; Artíñano, B.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Boldo, E.; Linares, C.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Gibbons, W.

    2013-04-01

    A multi-analytical approach to chemical analysis of inhalable urban atmospheric particulate matter (PM), integrating particle induced X-ray emission, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry/atomic emission spectroscopy, chromatography and thermal-optical transmission methods, allows comparison between hourly (Streaker) and 24-h (High volume sampler) data and consequently improved PM chemical characterization and source identification. In a traffic hot spot monitoring site in Madrid (Spain) the hourly data reveal metallic emissions (Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe) and resuspended mineral dust (Ca, Al, Si) to be closely associated with traffic flow. These pollutants build up during the day, emphasizing evening rush hour peaks, but decrease (especially their coarser fraction PM2.5-10) after nocturnal road washing. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of a large Streaker database additionally reveals two other mineral dust components (siliceous and sodic), marine aerosol, and minor, transient events which we attribute to biomass burning (K-rich) and industrial (incinerator?) Zn, Pb plumes. Chemical data on 24-h filters allows the measurement of secondary inorganic compounds and carbon concentrations and offers PMF analysis based on a limited number of samples but using fuller range of trace elements which, in the case of Madrid, identifies the continuing minor presence of a coal combustion source traced by As, Se, Ge and Organic Carbon. This coal component is more evident in the city air after the change to the winter heating season in November. Trace element data also allow use of discrimination diagrams such as V/Rb vs. La/Ce and ternary plots to illustrate variations in atmospheric chemistry (such as the effect of Ce-emissions from catalytic converters), with Madrid being an example of a city with little industrial pollution, recently reduced coal emissions, but serious atmospheric contamination by traffic emissions.

  11. Recurrent Aspergillus contamination in a biomedical research facility: a case study.

    PubMed

    Cornelison, Christopher T; Stubblefield, Bryan; Gilbert, Eric; Crow, Sidney A

    2012-02-01

    Fungal contamination of biomedical processes and facilities can result in major revenue loss and product delay. A biomedical research facility (BRF) culturing human cell lines experienced recurring fungal contamination of clean room incubators over a 3-year period. In 2010, as part of the plan to mitigate contamination, 20 fungal specimens were isolated by air and swab samples at various locations within the BRF. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus were isolated from several clean-room incubators. A. niger and A. fumigatus were identified using sequence comparison of the 18S rRNA gene. To determine whether the contaminant strains isolated in 2010 were the same as or different from strains isolated between 2007 and 2009, a novel forensic approach to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR was used. The phylogenetic relationship among isolates showed two main genotypic clusters, and indicated the continual presence of the same A. fumigatus strain in the clean room since 2007. Biofilms can serve as chronic sources of contamination; visual inspection of plugs within the incubators revealed fungal biofilms. Moreover, confocal microscopy imaging of flow cell-grown biofilms demonstrated that the strains isolated from the incubators formed dense biofilms relative to other environmental isolates from the BRF. Lastly, the efficacies of various disinfectants employed at the BRF were examined for their ability to prevent spore germination. Overall, the investigation found that the use of rubber plugs around thermometers in the tissue culture incubators provided a microenvironment where A. fumigatus could survive regular surface disinfection. A general lesson from this case study is that the presence of microenvironments harboring contaminants can undermine decontamination procedures and serve as a source of recurrent contamination. PMID:22143434

  12. Interpretation of "fungal spikes" in Permian-Triassic boundary sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochuli, Peter A.

    2016-09-01

    Abundant occurrences of the palynomorph Reduviasporonites have been described as "fungal spike" from several Permian/Triassic boundary sections and related to the supposed destruction of woody vegetation by fungal pathogens during the Permian/Triassic extinction event. The biological affinity of this taxa considered by some authors of fungal origin is still controversially discussed since there is geochemical evidence that it is most probably related to algae. The abundance peak of this species is used by some authors as a stratigraphic marker, notably in terrestrial Permian/Triassic boundary sections from South China. Illustrations of the reported fungal remains however show potentially erroneous taxonomic identification of Reduviasporonites, and, based on differences in thermal maturation, they may represent recent contamination. Here Reduviasporonites chalastus of Early Triassic age is illustrated together with recent fungal remains originating from a strongly weathered and otherwise barren sample from a Middle Triassic section.

  13. Assessment of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at sites FT03, LF13, and WP14/LF15, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality, aquifer-sediment, and hydro-logic data were used to assess the effectiveness of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at Fire Training Area Three, the Rubble Area Landfill, the Liquid Waste Disposal Landfill, and the Receiver Station Landfill in the East Management Unit of Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. These sites, which are contaminated with chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons, are under-going long-term monitoring to determine if natural attenuation continues to sufficiently reduce contaminant concentrations to meet regulatory requirements. This report is the first assessment of the effectiveness of natural attenuation at these sites since long-term monitoring began in 1999, and follows a preliminary investigation done in 1995?96. This assessment was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force.Since 1995?96, additional information has been collected and used in the current assessment. The conclusions in this report are based primarily on ground-water samples collected from January through March 2000. Previous analytical results from selected wells, available geologic and geo-physical well logs, and newly acquired information such as sediment organic-carbon measurements, hydraulic-conductivity measurements determined from slug tests on wells in the natural attenuation study area, and water-level measurements from surficial-aquifer wells also were used in this assessment. This information was used to: (1) calculate retardation factors and estimate contaminant migration velocities, (2) improve estimates of ground-water flow directions and inferred contaminant migration pathways, (3) better define the areal extent of contamination and the proximity of contaminants to discharge areas and the Base boundary, (4) develop a better under-standing of the vertical variability of contaminant concentrations and redox conditions, (5) evaluate the effects of temporal changes on concentrations in the plumes and

  14. Fungal Genomics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  15. Insect pathology and fungal entomopathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi that occur inside asymptomatic plant tissues are known as fungal endophytes. Different genera of fungal entomopathogens have been reported as naturally occurring fungal endophytes, and it has been shown that it is possible to inoculate plants with fungal entomopathogens, making them endophytic...

  16. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Appendix A, Draft standard operating procedures and elements: Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation, Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  17. Nail Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicines can treat a fungal nail infection. Oral antifungal medicines help a new nail grow to replace ... infected nail. You might need to take the antifungal medicine for 6 to 12 weeks. It depends ...

  18. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  19. Fungal Nail Infection (Onychomycosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... vinegar, vitamin E oil, Vicks® VapoRub®, or tea tree oil. When to Seek Medical Care Fungal nail ... Trusted Links Related diseases: Psoriasis View all diseases Community: Discussion Forum Skinmatters Blog About Us | Terms of ...

  20. Fungal Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  1. Fungal diagnostics in pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lease, Erika D; Alexander, Barbara D

    2011-12-01

    Fungal pneumonia is increasingly common, particularly in highly immunosuppressed patients, such as solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, and the diagnosis is evolving. Although standard techniques such as microscopy and culture remain the mainstays of diagnosis, relatively recent advances in serological and molecular testing are important additions to the field. This article reviews the laboratory tools used to diagnose fungal respiratory disease. PMID:22167394

  2. Fungal Diagnostics in Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Lease, Erika D.; Alexander, Barbara D.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal pneumonia is increasingly common, particularly in highly immunosuppressed patients, such as solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, and the diagnosis is evolving. While standard techniques such as microscopy and culture remain the mainstay of diagnosis, relatively recent advances in serologic and molecular testing are important additions to the field. This chapter will review the laboratory tools used to diagnose fungal respiratory disease. PMID:22167394

  3. Evaluation of fungal burden and aflatoxin presence in packed medicinal plants treated by gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Simone; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Rossi, Maria Helena; Nogueira, Juliana Hellmeister de Campos; Reis, Tatiana Alves Dos; Corrêa, Benedito

    2010-05-01

    This study was developed to evaluate the fungal burden, toxigenic molds, and mycotoxin contamination and to verify the effects of gamma radiation in four kinds of medicinal plants stored before and after 30 days of irradiation treatment. Eighty samples of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, and Cassia angustifolia) purchased from drugstores, wholesale, and open-air markets in São Paulo city, Brazil, were analyzed. The samples were treated using a (60)Co gamma ray source (Gammacell) with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Nonirradiated samples were used as controls of fungal isolates. For enumeration of fungi on medicinal plants, serial dilutions of the samples were plated in duplicate onto dichloran 18% glycerol agar. The control samples revealed a high burden of molds, including toxigenic fungi. The process of gamma radiation was effective in reducing the number of CFU per gram in all irradiated samples of medicinal plants after 30 days of storage, using a dose of 10 kGy and maintaining samples in a protective package. No aflatoxins were detected. Gamma radiation treatment can be used as an effective method for preventing fungal deterioration of medicinal plants subject to long-term storage. PMID:20501045

  4. Immunotherapy of Fungal Infections.

    PubMed

    Datta, Kausik; Hamad, Mawieh

    2015-11-01

    Fungal organisms are ubiquitous in the environment. Pathogenic fungi, although relatively few in the whole gamut of microbial pathogens, are able to cause disease with varying degrees of severity in individuals with normal or impaired immunity. The disease state is an outcome of the fungal pathogen's interactions with the host immunity, and therefore, it stands to reason that deep/invasive fungal diseases be amenable to immunotherapy. Therefore, antifungal immunotherapy continues to be attractive as an adjunct to the currently available antifungal chemotherapy options for a number of reasons, including the fact that existing antifungal drugs, albeit largely effective, are not without limitations, and that morbidity and mortality associated with invasive mycoses are still unacceptably high. For several decades, intense basic research efforts have been directed at development of fungal immunotherapies. Nevertheless, this approach suffers from a severe bench-bedside disconnect owing to several reasons: the chemical and biological peculiarities of the fungal antigens, the complexities of host-pathogen interactions, an under-appreciation of the fungal disease landscape, the requirement of considerable financial investment to bring these therapies to clinical use, as well as practical problems associated with immunizations. In this general, non-exhaustive review, we summarize the features of ongoing research efforts directed towards devising safe and effective immunotherapeutic options for mycotic diseases, encompassing work on antifungal vaccines, adoptive cell transfers, cytokines, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and other agents. PMID:26575463

  5. PERFORMANCE OF AN AIR CLASSIFIER TO REMOVE LIGHT ORGANIC CONTAMINATION FROM ALUMINUM RECOVERED FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE BY EDDY CURRENT SEPARATION. TEST NO. 5.03, RECOVERY 1, NEW ORLEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a test in which aluminum cans recovered from municipal waste, together with known amounts of contaminant, were processed by a 'zig-zag' vertical air classifier to remove aerodynamically light contaminant. Twelve test runs were conducted; the proportions of co...

  6. Identification of airborne bacterial and fungal species in the clinical microbiology laboratory of a university teaching hospital employing ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR and gene sequencing techniques.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Yuriko; Walker, Jim; Loughrey, Anne; Millar, Cherie; Goldsmith, Colin; Rooney, Paul; Elborn, Stuart; Moore, John

    2009-06-01

    Universal or "broad-range" PCR-based ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed on a collection of 58 isolates (n = 30 bacteria + 28 fungi), originating from environmental air from several locations within a busy clinical microbiology laboratory, supporting a university teaching hospital. A total of 10 bacterial genera were identified including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative genera. Gram-positive organisms accounted for 27/30 (90%) of total bacterial species, consisting of seven genera and included (in descending order of frequency) Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Paenibacillus, Arthrobacter, Janibacter and Rothia. Gram-negative organisms were less frequently isolated 3/30 (10%) and comprised three genera, including Moraxella, Psychrobacter and Haloanella. Eight fungal genera were identified among the 28 fungal organisms isolated, including (in descending order of frequency) Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Thanatephorus, Absidia, Eurotium, Paraphaeosphaeria and Tritirachium, with Cladosporium accounting for 10/28 (35.7%) of the total fungal isolates. In conclusion, this study identified the presence of 10 bacterial and eight fungal genera in the air within the laboratory sampled. Although this reflected diversity of the microorganisms present, none of these organisms have been described previously as having an inhalational route of laboratory-acquired infection. Therefore, we believe that the species of organisms identified and the concentration levels of these airborne contaminants determined, do not pose a significant health and safety threat for immunocompotent laboratory personnel and visitors. PMID:20183192

  7. Contamination of indoor dust and air by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants and relevance of non-dietary exposure in Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Isobe, Tomohiko; Viet, Pham Hung; Kobara, Yuso; Seike, Nobuyasu; Zhang, Gan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor dust and air from two Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) and an urban site in order to assess the relevance of these media for human exposure. The levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in settled house dust from the EWRSs (130-12,000, 5.4-400, 5.2-620 and 31-1400 ng g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than in urban house dust but the levels of PCBs (4.8-320 ng g(-1)) were not higher. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs in air at e-waste recycling houses (1000-1800 and 620-720 pg m(-3), respectively), determined using passive sampling, were also higher compared with non-e-waste houses. The composition of BFRs in EWRS samples suggests the influence from high-temperature processes and occurrence of waste materials containing older BFR formulations. Results of daily intake estimation for e-waste recycling workers are in good agreement with the accumulation patterns previously observed in human milk and indicate that dust ingestion contributes a large portion of the PBDE intake (60%-88%), and air inhalation to the low-chlorinated PCB intake (>80% for triCBs) due to their high levels in dust and air, respectively. Further investigation of both indoor dust and air as the exposure media for other e-waste recycling-related contaminants and assessment of health risk associated with exposure to these contaminant mixtures is necessary. PMID:23228866

  8. Metal Toxicity Affects Fungal and Bacterial Activities in Soil Differently

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksha, R. M. C. P.; Tobor-Kapłon, M. A; Bååth, E.

    2004-01-01

    Although the toxic effect of heavy metals on soil microorganism activity is well known, little is known about the effects on different organism groups. The influence of heavy metal addition on total, bacterial, and fungal activities was therefore studied for up to 60 days in a laboratory experiment using forest soil contaminated with different concentrations of Zn or Cu. The effects of the metals differed between the different activity measurements. During the first week after metal addition, the total activity (respiration rate) decreased by 30% at the highest level of contamination and then remained stable during the 60 days of incubation. The bacterial activity (thymidine incorporation rate) decreased during the first days with the level of metal contamination, resulting in a 90% decrease at the highest level of contamination. Bacterial activity then slowly recovered to values similar to those of the control soil. The recovery was faster when soil pH, which had decreased due to metal addition, was restored to control values by liming. Fungal activity (acetate-in-ergosterol incorporation rate) initially increased with the level of metal contamination, being up to 3 and 7 times higher than that in the control samples during the first week at the highest levels of Zn and Cu addition, respectively. The positive effect of metal addition on fungal activity then decreased, but fungal activity was still higher in contaminated than in control soil after 35 days. This is the first direct evidence that fungal and bacterial activities in soil are differently affected by heavy metals. The different responses of bacteria and fungi to heavy metals were reflected in an increase in the relative fungal/bacterial ratio (estimated using phospholipid fatty acid analysis) with increased metal load. PMID:15128558

  9. Metal toxicity affects fungal and bacterial activities in soil differently.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksha, R M C P; Tobor-Kapłon, M A; Bååth, E

    2004-05-01

    Although the toxic effect of heavy metals on soil microorganism activity is well known, little is known about the effects on different organism groups. The influence of heavy metal addition on total, bacterial, and fungal activities was therefore studied for up to 60 days in a laboratory experiment using forest soil contaminated with different concentrations of Zn or Cu. The effects of the metals differed between the different activity measurements. During the first week after metal addition, the total activity (respiration rate) decreased by 30% at the highest level of contamination and then remained stable during the 60 days of incubation. The bacterial activity (thymidine incorporation rate) decreased during the first days with the level of metal contamination, resulting in a 90% decrease at the highest level of contamination. Bacterial activity then slowly recovered to values similar to those of the control soil. The recovery was faster when soil pH, which had decreased due to metal addition, was restored to control values by liming. Fungal activity (acetate-in-ergosterol incorporation rate) initially increased with the level of metal contamination, being up to 3 and 7 times higher than that in the control samples during the first week at the highest levels of Zn and Cu addition, respectively. The positive effect of metal addition on fungal activity then decreased, but fungal activity was still higher in contaminated than in control soil after 35 days. This is the first direct evidence that fungal and bacterial activities in soil are differently affected by heavy metals. The different responses of bacteria and fungi to heavy metals were reflected in an increase in the relative fungal/bacterial ratio (estimated using phospholipid fatty acid analysis) with increased metal load. PMID:15128558

  10. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  11. Indicators of airborne fungal concentrations in urban homes: understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Judith A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Anagnost, Susan E; Hunt, Andrew; Abraham, Jerrold L

    2015-06-01

    Indoor fungal exposure can compromise respiratory health. Low-income urban areas are of concern because of high asthma and allergy rates and housing disrepair. Understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures is important for assessing health risks and for developing mitigation strategies. We examined the types and concentrations of airborne fungi inside and outside of homes in low-income areas of Syracuse, NY as well as the effect of snow cover on fungal levels. At 103 homes, air samples for viable fungi were collected, occupants were interviewed and homes were inspected for visible mold, musty odors, water problems and other factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to relate high fungal levels to home conditions. Predominant indoor fungi included Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and hyaline unknowns. Basidiomycetes and an uncommon genus Acrodontium were also found frequently due to analysis methods developed for this project. With snow cover, outdoor total fungal levels were depressed and indoor concentrations were three times higher than outdoor on average with a maximum of 29 times higher. Visible mold was related to elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 4.11 95% CI 1.37-14.0) and bacteria (OR 3.79 95% CI 1.41-11.2). Musty, moldy odors were associated with elevated concentrations of total fungi (OR 3.48 95% CI 1.13-11.6) and basidiomycetes. Cockroaches, an indicator of moisture, were associated with elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 3.66 95% CI 1.16-13.1) and Aspergillus (OR 4.36 95% CI 1.60-13.4). Increasing relative humidity was associated with higher concentrations of Penicillium, yeasts and basidiomycetes. Visible mold, musty odors, indoor humidity and cockroaches are modifiable factors that were important determinants of indoor fungal exposures. Indoor air investigators should interpret indoor:outdoor fungal ratios cautiously when snow cover is present. PMID:25725196

  12. On-site application of air cleaner emitting plasma ion to reduce airborne contaminants in pig building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Man Su; Ko, Han Jong; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Ki Youn

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this field study is to evaluate temporal reduction efficiency of air cleaner emitting plasma ion on airborne pollutants emitted from pig building. The operation principle of air cleaner based on plasma ion is that hydrogen atoms and oxygen ions combine to form hydroperoxyl radicals (HOO-), which surround and attach to surface of airborne microorganisms and eliminate them by breaking the hydrogen bond in their protein structure. In gaseous pollutants, it was found that there is no reduction effect of the air cleaner on ammonia and hydrogen sulfide (p > 0.05). In particulate pollutants, the air cleaner showed mean 79%(±6.1) and 78%(±3.0) of reduction efficiency for PM2.5. and PM1, respectively, compared to the control without air cleaner (p < 0.05). However, there is no significant difference in TSP and PM10 between the treatment with air cleaner and the control without air cleaner (p > 0.05). In biological pollutants, the mean reduction efficiencies for airborne bacteria and fungi by application of air cleaner were 22%(±6.6) and 25%(±8.7), respectively (p < 0.05). Based on the results obtained from this study, it was concluded that the air cleaner had a positive reduction effect on PM2.5, PM1, airborne bacteria and airborne fungi among airborne pollutants distributed in pig building while it did not lead to significant reduction of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  13. Sampling artifacts in active air sampling of semivolatile organic contaminants: Comparing theoretical and measured artifacts and evaluating implications for monitoring networks.

    PubMed

    Melymuk, Lisa; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Prokeš, Roman; Kukučka, Petr; Klánová, Jana

    2016-10-01

    The effects of sampling artifacts are often not fully considered in the design of air monitoring with active air samplers. Semivolatile organic contaminants (SVOCs) are particularly vulnerable to a range of sampling artifacts because of their wide range of gas-particle partitioning and degradation rates, and these can lead to erroneous measurements of air concentrations and a lack of comparability between sites with different environmental and sampling conditions. This study used specially adapted filter-sorbent sampling trains in three types of active air samplers to investigate breakthrough of SVOCs, and the possibility of other sampling artifacts. Breakthrough volumes were experimentally determined for a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sampling volumes from 300 to 10,000 m(3), and sampling durations of 1-7 days. In parallel, breakthrough was estimated based on theoretical sorbent-vapor pressure relationships. The comparison of measured and theoretical determinations of breakthrough demonstrated good agreement between experimental and estimated breakthrough volumes, and showed that theoretical breakthrough estimates should be used when developing air monitoring protocols. Significant breakthrough in active air samplers occurred for compounds with vapor pressure >0.5 Pa at volumes <700 m(3). Sample volumes between 700 and 10,000 m(3) may lead to breakthrough for compounds with vapor pressures between 0.005 and 0.5 Pa. Breakthrough is largely driven by sample volume and compound volatility (therefore indirectly by temperature) and is independent of sampler type. The presence of significant breakthrough at "typical" sampling conditions is relevant for air monitoring networks, and may lead to under-reporting of more volatile SVOCs. PMID:26743995

  14. Surveillance of Fungal Allergic Sensitization Using the Fluorescent Halogen Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Green, Brett J.; Tovey, Euan R.; Beezhold, Donald H.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Acosta, Luis M.; Divjan, Adnan I.; Chew, Ginger L.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Conidia derived from a small number of common fungal genera are widely accepted as the etiological agents responsible for fungal allergic sensitization. The contribution of fungal conidia, spores, airborne hyphae, and subcellular fragments from other uncharacterized fungal genera remains unclear. In this proof-of-concept study, we examined the composition of mycoaerosols that atopic women were exposed and sensitized to in their own indoor environment using the fluorescent halogen immunoassay (fHIA). Patients and Methods Mycoaerosols were collected onto mixed cellulose ester protein binding membranes (PBMs) for 30 minutes with volumetric air sampling pumps. The PBMs were laminated with an adhesive cover slip and indirectly immunostained with individual patient serum IgE using the fHIA. Samples were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy and immunostained particles were expressed as a percentage of total particles. Results All air samples contained a broad spectrum of fungal spores, conidia, hyphae, and other fungal particulates. Airborne concentrations varied between individual study participant environments. Positively immunostained conidia belonging to moniliaceous amerospores, Cladosporium, Alternaria, and many unknown species were observed in the majority of air samples. Other fungal genera including Bipolaris, Curvularia, Pithomyces, and Stachybotrys, in addition to, ascospore genera and dematiaceous hyphal fragments released detectable allergen. Twelve percent of all fHIA haloes quantified in the analysis were directed towards fungal particles. No immunostaining was detected to conidia belonging to Epicoccum, Fusarium, and Spegazzinia species. Conclusion In addition to characterized fungal aeroallergens, we observed a wider composition of fungi that bound human IgE. Field surveillance studies that utilize immunodiagnostic techniques such as the fHIA will provide further insight into the diversity of fungi that function as

  15. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Badr Eldin; El Sharnoubi, Mohammed M K; El-Sersy, Hesham A A; Mahmoud, Mohammed S M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners. PMID:27274885

  16. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Badr Eldin; El Sharnoubi, Mohammed M. K.; El-Sersy, Hesham A. A.; Mahmoud, Mohammed S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners. PMID:27274885

  17. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigating the respiratory health impacts of traffic-related air pollutants on asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan, residential dust samples were collected to quantify mold exposure. Sett...

  18. Fungal production of volatiles during growth on fiberglass.

    PubMed Central

    Ezeonu, I M; Price, D L; Simmons, R B; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    1994-01-01

    Acoustic and thermal fiberglass insulation materials used in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems were colonized with fungi in laboratory chambers. The mixed fungal population, principally Aspergillus versicolor, Acremonium obclavatum, and Cladosporium herbarum, produced odoriferous volatiles, including 2-ethyl hexanol, cyclohexane, and benzene. These volatiles may be related to poor indoor air quality and the sick building syndrome. PMID:7993098

  19. Procedures for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to characterize potential health risk from trichloroethylene contaminated groundwater at Beale Air Force Base in California

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T; Daniels, J I; Hall, L C

    1999-09-01

    This study was designed to accomplish two objectives. The first was to provide to the US Air Force and the regulatory community quantitative procedures that they might want to consider using for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to better characterize potential health risk. Such methods could be used at sites where populations may now or in the future be faced with using groundwater contaminated with low concentrations of the chemical trichloroethylene (TCE). The second was to illustrate and explain the application of these procedures with respect to available data for TCE in ground water beneath an inactive landfill site that is undergoing remediation at Beale Air Force Base in California. The results from this illustration provide more detail than the more traditional conservative deterministic, screening-level calculations of risk, also computed for purposes of comparison. Application of the procedures described in this report can lead to more reasonable and equitable risk-acceptability criteria for potentially exposed populations at specific sites.

  20. Characteristics and determinants of ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Hsiao-Man; Rao, Carol Y.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Liu, Chi-Ming; Chao, H. Jasmine

    Characteristics and determinants of ambient aeroallergens are of much concern in recent years because of the apparent health impacts of allergens. Yet relatively little is known about the complex behaviors of ambient aeroallergens. To address this issue, we monitored ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan from 1993-1996 to examine the compositions and temporal variations of fungi, and to evaluate possible determinants. We used a Burkard seven-day volumetric spore trap to collect daily fungal spores. Air pollutants, meteorological factors, and Asian dust events were included in the statistical analyses to predict fungal levels. We found that the most dominant fungal categories were ascospores, followed by Cladosporium and Aspergillus/Penicillium. The majority of the fungal categories had significant diurnal and seasonal variations. Total fungi, Cladosporium, Ganoderma, Arthrinium/Papularia, Cercospora, Periconia, Alternaria, Botrytis, and PM 10 had significantly higher concentrations ( p<0.05) during the period affected by Asian dust events. In multiple regression models, we found that temperature was consistently and positively associated with fungal concentrations. Other factors correlated with fungal concentrations included ozone, particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM 10), relative humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressure, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. Most of the fungal categories had higher levels in 1994 than in 1995-96, probably due to urbanization of the study area. In this study, we demonstrated complicated interrelationships between fungi and air pollution/meteorological factors. In addition, long-range transport of air pollutants contributed significantly to local aeroallergen levels. Future studies should examine the health impacts of aeroallergens, as well as the synergistic/antagonistic effects of weather, and local and global-scale air pollutions.

  1. Biological remediation of contaminated soils at Los Angeles Air Force Base: Facility design and engineering cost estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Montemagno, C.D.; Irvine, R.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents a system design for using bioremediation to treat contaminated soil at Fort MacArthur near Los Angeles, California. The soil was contaminated by petroleum products that leaked from two underground storage tanks. Laboratory studies indicated that, with the addition of water and nutrients, soil bacteria can reduce the petroleum content of the soils to levels that meet regulatory standards. The system design includes soil excavation, screening, and mixing; treatment in five soil-slurry/sequencing-batch reactors; and dewatering by a rapid-infiltration basin. System specifications and cost estimates are provided. 5 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Alice E W; Borish, Larry; Gurrola, José; Payne, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the history of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the clinical, pathologic, and radiographic criteria necessary to establish its diagnosis and differentiate this disease from other types of chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a noninvasive fungal form of sinus inflammation characterized by an often times unilateral, expansile process in which the typical allergic "peanut-butter-like" mucin contributes to the formation of nasal polyps, hyposmia/anosmia, and structural changes of the face. IgE sensitization to fungi is a necessary, but not sufficient, pathophysiologic component of the disease process that is also defined by microscopic visualization of mucin-containing fungus and characteristic radiological imaging. This article expounds on these details and others including the key clinical and scientific distinctions of this diagnosis, the pathophysiologic mechanisms beyond IgE-mediated hypersensitivity that must be at play, and areas of current and future research. PMID:27393774

  3. Fungal synthesis of exopolysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Several fungal polysaccharides are currently used as thickening agents for materials ranging from enhanced oil recovery brines and drilling muds to foods. These polymers are generally produced during exponential fungal growth and appear to be normal cell wall constituents. As thickeners, they tend to be comparable to xanthan, and exhibit a similar non-Newtonian response to shear. Polymers which do not have carboxyl or amine group substituents tend to be less sensitive to high concentrations of multivalent ions, a problem in many brine and food systems. The fungal polymers have related fermentations and separations. They compete for a similar product market. Where families of polymers have a common backdone, they are susceptible to hydrolysis by the same enzymes.

  4. Prevalence of Fungal Skin Infections in Iranian Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Razaghi, Alireza; Noori, Adel; Hashemi, Sayed-Jamal; Asghari, Rajab; Ziaee, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Fungal infections are one of the most common skin infections. Athletes, especially in contact sports such as wrestlers are the group at risk of fungal skin infections (FSI). The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of FSI and some effective factors in wrestlers in Tehran, Iran. Methods This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study which was conducted in 2009 and subjects were wrestlers of wrestling clubs of Tehran, Iran. In this study the prevalence of FSI and its related factors was collected based on clinical history, physical examination and laboratory tests. We also determined the rate of dermatophytic contamination of wrestling mats. The relationship between independent variables and incidence of fungal infection analyzed by Chi square test and regression analysis. Results In this study, out of 454 wrestlers, 111 (24.5%) subjects had suspicious fungal skin lesions on physical examination. The Prevalence of FSI was 8.2% in all of the wrestlers (34.2% of the wrestlers with suspicious lesion). Malassezia furfur (50%) and trichophyton tonsurans (30%) were the most common causative agents. Epidermophyton floccosum (7.5%), Trichophyton rubrum (5%), Candida albicans (5%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (2.5%) were other isolated fungi. Eleven wrestling mats (44%) were contaminated with different fungal organisms. Conclusion The prevalence of fungal skin infection in Iranian wrestlers is relatively high. Appropriate preventive measures need to be prepared and implemented to reduce incidence of FSI in wrestlers. PMID:23785573

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air and soil from a high-altitude pasture in the Italian Alps: evidence of CB-209 contamination.

    PubMed

    Tremolada, Paolo; Guazzoni, Niccolò; Comolli, Roberto; Parolini, Marco; Lazzaro, Serena; Binelli, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    This study analyses the seasonal trend of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) concentrations in air and soil from a high-altitude mountain pasture in the Italian Alps. PCB concentrations in soil were generally comparable to background levels and were lower than those previously measured in the same area. Only CB-209 unexpectedly showed high concentrations with respect to the other congeners. GC-MS-MS identification was very clear, rising a new problem of increasing PCB contamination concerning only CB-209, which is not present in commercial mixtures used in the past in Italy and Europe. Considering all of the congeners, seasonal PCB trends were observed both in air and in soil that were related to the temperature and precipitation measured specifically in the study area. Highly significant relationships were found between the temperature-normalised concentrations in soil and the precipitation amounts. A north/south enrichment factor was present only in soil with rapid early summer re-volatilisation kinetics from soil to air and autumn re-deposition events from air to soil. Fugacity ratio calculations confirmed these trends. Surface soils respond rapidly to meteorological variables, while subsurface soils respond much more slowly. Seasonal trends were different for the northern and southern sides of the mountain. A detailed picture of the interactions among temperature, precipitation, mountain aspects and soil features was obtained. PMID:26272288

  6. Intervention study of airborne fungal spora in homes with portable HEPA filtration units.

    PubMed

    Cheong, C D; Neumeister-Kemp, H G; Dingle, P W; Hardy, G St J

    2004-11-01

    The concentrations and composition of airborne fungal spores in homes fitted with portable HEPA filtration units were examined to provide information to evaluate the importance of varying levels of fungal spores in residential environments in Perth, Australia. A novel method for simulating activity/impaction on carpeted environments was also investigated. Reductions in fungal (35%) and particulate (38%) levels were achieved in the air filter homes. Penicillium, Cladosporium and yeasts were the most common and widespread fungi recovered indoors and outdoors. Fungal range decreased over the study period but this could be due to an overall reduced dissemination of spores (less spores in the air). PMID:15536499

  7. Workplace and environmental air contaminant concentrations measured by open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: a statistical process control technique to detect changes from normal operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Malachowski, M S; Levine, S P; Herrin, G; Spear, R C; Yost, M; Yi, Z

    1994-05-01

    Open path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy is a new air monitoring technique that can be used to measure concentrations of air contaminants in real or near-real time. OP-FTIR spectroscopy has been used to monitor workplace gas and vapor exposures, emissions from hazardous waste sites, and to track emissions along fence lines. This paper discusses a statistical process control technique that can be used with air monitoring data collected with an OP-FTIR spectrometer to detect departures from normal operating conditions in the workplace or along a fence line. Time series data, produced by plotting consecutive air sample concentrations in time, were analyzed. Autocorrelation in the time series data was removed by fitting dynamic models. Control charts were used with the residuals of the model fit data to determine if departures from defined normal operating conditions could be rapidly detected. Shewhart and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts were evaluated for use with data collected under different room air flow and mixing conditions. Under rapidly changing conditions the Shewhart control chart was able to detect a leak in a simulated process area. The EWMA control chart was found to be more sensitive to drifts and slowly changing concentrations in air monitoring data. The time series and statistical process control techniques were also applied to data obtained during a field study at a chemical plant. A production area of an acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, and styrene (ABS) polymer process was monitored in near-real time. Decision logics based on the time series and statistical process control technique introduced suggest several applications in workplace and environmental monitoring. These applications might include signaling of an alarm or warning, increasing levels of worker respiratory protection, or evacuation of a community, when gas and vapor concentrations are determined to be out-of-control. PMID:8012765

  8. An accurate derivation of the air dose-rate and the deposition concentration distribution by aerial monitoring in a low level contaminated area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Sugita, Takeshi; Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo

    2015-04-01

    Since 2011, MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan) have been conducting aerial monitoring to investigate the distribution of radioactive cesium dispersed into the atmosphere after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), Tokyo Electric Power Company. Distribution maps of the air dose-rate at 1 m above the ground and the radioactive cesium deposition concentration on the ground are prepared using spectrum obtained by aerial monitoring. The radioactive cesium deposition is derived from its dose rate, which is calculated by excluding the dose rate of the background radiation due to natural radionuclides from the air dose-rate at 1 m above the ground. The first step of the current method of calculating the dose rate due to natural radionuclides is calculate the ratio of the total count rate of areas where no radioactive cesium is detected and the count rate of regions with energy levels of 1,400 keV or higher (BG-Index). Next, calculate the air dose rate of radioactive cesium by multiplying the BG-Index and the integrated count rate of 1,400 keV or higher for the area where the radioactive cesium is distributed. In high dose-rate areas, however, the count rate of the 1,365-keV peak of Cs-134, though small, is included in the integrated count rate of 1,400 keV or higher, which could cause an overestimation of the air dose rate of natural radionuclides. We developed a method for accurately evaluating the distribution maps of natural air dose-rate by excluding the effect of radioactive cesium, even in contaminated areas, and obtained the accurate air dose-rate map attributed the radioactive cesium deposition on the ground. Furthermore, the natural dose-rate distribution throughout Japan has been obtained by this method.

  9. The Use of Crop Proteomics and Fungal Genomics in Elucidating Fungus-Crop Interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the complex interrelationships of plant and fungal gene products during the host plant-Aspergillus flavus interaction is key in developing strategies to interrupt the aflatoxin contamination process. Fungal processes necessary for invasion of the plant and production of aflatoxin can ...

  10. Comparative parallel assessment of a transfer device in reducing 5-fluorouracil environmental contamination inside positive air pressure isolators.

    PubMed

    Forges, Fabien; Simoens, Xavier; Chauvin, Franck

    2011-03-01

    The environmental contamination of the antineoplastic drugs circuit, due to the centralization of preparation and the increased number of the patients treated, brought about a new occupational hazard: the chronic exposure to low doses of antineoplastic drugs. The rationalization of the hospital budgets imposes a meticulous assessment of the devices available for the preparation, in order to justify their interest, even their cost. A prospective comparative study with parallel arms was led inside the Pharmacy of the Institut de Cancerologie de la Loire in order to evaluate the Spike Swan®, a transfer device. The aim was to assess the Spike Swan® effectiveness. The antineoplastic drugs environmental contamination within the isolators is considered as a potential starting point for a larger dissemination of cytotoxic products. Therefore, the primary endpoint was the surface contamination level with 5-fluorouracil and the comparator was the standard preparation technique using needles and aeration needles. This study did not show significant effectiveness for the Spike Swan® in reducing surface contamination. Nevertheless, this device could be used to prepare large volumes and to secure occasional handlers, because it is easy to handle. PMID:20699332

  11. Electrical Characteristics, Electrode Sheath and Contamination Layer Behavior of a Meso-Scale Premixed Methane-Air Flame Under AC/DC Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi; Yan, Limin; Zhang, Hao; Li, Guoxiu

    2016-05-01

    Electrical characteristics of a nozzle-attached meso-scale premixed methane-air flame under low-frequency AC (0-4300 V, 0-500 Hz) and DC (0-3300 V) electric fields were studied. I-V curves were measured under different experimental conditions to estimate the magnitude of the total current 100-102 μA, the electron density 1015-1016 m‑3 and further the power dissipation ≤ 0.7 W in the reaction zone. At the same time, the meso-scale premixed flame conductivity 10‑4-10‑3 Ω‑1·m‑1 as a function of voltage and frequency was experimentally obtained and was believed to represent a useful order-of magnitude estimate. Moreover, the influence of the collision sheath relating to Debye length (31–98 μm) and the contamination layer of an active electrode on measurements was discussed, based on the combination of simulation and theoretical analysis. As a result, the electrode sheath dimension was evaluated to less than 0.5 mm, which indicated a complex effect of the collision sheath on the current measurements. The surface contamination effect of an active electrode was further analyzed using the SEM imaging method, which showed elements immigration during the contamination layer formation process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51376021), and the Fundamental Research Fund for Major Universities (No. 2013JBM079)

  12. Effects of warming on uptake and translocation of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in a contaminated soil-rice system under Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI).

    PubMed

    Ge, Li-Qiang; Cang, Long; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2016-07-01

    Global warming has received growing attentions about its potential threats to human in recent, however little is known about its effects on transfer of heavy metals in agro-ecosystem, especially for Cd in rice. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate Cd/Cu translocation in a contaminated soil-rice system under Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI). The results showed that warming gradually decreased soil porewater pH and increased water-soluble Cd/Cu concentration, reduced formation of iron plaque on root surface, and thus significantly increased total uptake of Cd/Cu by rice. Subsequently, warming significantly promoted Cd translocation from root to shoot, and increased Cd distribution percentage in shoot, while Cu was not significantly affected. Enhanced Cd uptake and translocation synergistically resulted in higher rice grain contamination with increasing concentration from 0.27 to 0.65 and 0.14-0.40 mg kg(-1) for Indica and Japonica rice, respectively. However increase of Cu in brown grain was only attributed to its uptake enhancement under warming. Our study provides a new understanding about the food production insecurity of heavy metal contaminated soil under the future global warming. PMID:27093634

  13. Procedures for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to characterize potential health risk from trichloroethylene contaminated ground water at Beale Air Force Base in California

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J I; Bogen, K T; Hall, L C

    1999-10-05

    Conservative deterministic, screening-level calculations of exposure and risk commonly are used in quantitative assessments of potential human-health consequences from contaminants in environmental media. However, these calculations generally are based on multiple upper-bound point estimates of input parameters, particularly for exposure attributes, and can therefore produce results for decision makers that actually overstate the need for costly remediation. Alternatively, a more informative and quantitative characterization of health risk can be obtained by quantifying uncertainty and variability in exposure. This process is illustrated in this report for a hypothetical population at a specific site at Beale Air Force Base in California, where there is trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated ground water and a potential for future residential use. When uncertainty and variability in exposure were addressed jointly for this case, the 95th-percentile upper-bound value of individual excess lifetime cancer risk was a factor approaching 10 lower than the most conservative deterministic estimate. Additionally, the probability of more than zero additional cases of cancer can be estimated, and in this case it is less than 0.5 for a hypothetical future residential population of up to 26,900 individuals present for any 7.6-y interval of a 70-y time period. Clearly, the results from application of this probabilistic approach can provide reasonable and equitable risk-acceptability criteria for a contaminated site.

  14. Metagenomics reveals diversity and abundance of meta-cleavage pathways in microbial communities from soil highly contaminated with jet fuel under air-sparging bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Brennerova, Maria V; Josefiova, Jirina; Brenner, Vladimir; Pieper, Dietmar H; Junca, Howard

    2009-01-01

    The extradiol dioxygenase diversity of a site highly contaminated with aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons under air-sparging treatment was assessed by functional screening of a fosmid library in Escherichia coli with catechol as substrate. The 235 positive clones from inserts of DNA extracted from contaminated soil were equivalent to one extradiol dioxygenase-encoding gene per 3.6 Mb of DNA screened, indicating a strong selection for genes encoding this function. Three subfamilies were identified as being predominant, with 72, 55 and 43 fosmid inserts carrying genes, related to those encoding TbuE of Ralstonia pickettii PK01 (EXDO-D), IpbC of Pseudomonas sp. JR1 (EXDO-K2) or DbtC of Burkholderia sp. DBT1 (EXDO-Dbt), respectively, whereas genes encoding enzymes related to XylE of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 were not observed. Genes encoding oxygenases related to isopropylbenzene dioxygenases were usually colocalized with genes encoding EXDO-K2 dioxygenases. Functional analysis of representative proteins indicated a subcluster of EXDO-D proteins to show exceptional high affinity towards different catecholic substrates. Based on Vmax/Km specificity constants, a task-sharing between different extradiol dioxygenases in the community of the contaminated site can be supposed, attaining a complementary and community-balanced catalytic power against diverse catecholic derivatives, as necessary for effective degradation of mixtures of aromatics. PMID:19575758

  15. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Sampling and analysis plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  16. Utilizing Pyrosequencing and Quantitative pCR to Characterize Fungal Populations among House Dust Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molecular techniques are an alternative to culturing and counting methods in quantifying indoor fungal contamination. Pyrosequencing offers the possibility of identifying unexpected indoor fungi. In this study, 50 house dust samples were collected from homes in the Yakima Valley,...

  17. Size-selective assessment of agricultural workers' personal exposure to airborne fungi and fungal fragments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-An; Liao, Chien-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous agents that cause human respiratory diseases. Very few studies have size-selectively assessed farmers' exposure to fungi and fungal fragments in agricultural settings. In this study, a two-stage bio-aerosol cyclone personal sampler was employed to collect airborne fungi and fungal fragments size-selectively at corn, swine, poultry, and mushroom farms. The collected air samples were analyzed for culturable fungi, fungal spores, viable fungi and (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan. The results show that the median concentrations ranged from 3.2 × 10(5) to 1.3 × 10(8)spores/m(3) for total fungal spores, from 1.3 × 10(5) to 5.1 × 10(7)spores/m(3) for total viable fungi, from 1.9 × 10(3) to 1.5 × 10(7)CFU/m(3) for total culturable fungi, and from 4.3 × 10(3) to 2.4 × 10(6)pg/m(3) for total (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan. The aerodynamic sizes of most of the collected fungal contaminants were larger than 1.8 μm. Total (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan significantly correlated with total fungal spores (r = 0.65, p < 0.001), total viable fungi (r = 0.68, p < 0.001) and total culturable fungi (r = 0.72, p < 0.001). Total (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan significantly correlated with Aspergillus/Penicillium, Alternaria, and Cladosporium. Alternaria and Botrytis were also found to highly correlate with (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan at the size <1 μm, which was less than the expected spore sizes (the mean measured aerodynamic sizes were 18.5 μm for Alternaria and 6.1 μm for Botrytis); therefore, Alternaria and Botrytis might release small fragments that could enter the deep lung and cause respiratory diseases. PMID:23973538

  18. Fungal bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues; opportunities & perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Schraft, Heidi; Qin, Wensheng

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases) and beta-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium) have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains. PMID:19774110

  19. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Schraft, Heidi; Qin, Wensheng

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases) and β-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium) have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains. PMID:19774110

  20. Biosorption of organochlorine pesticides using fungal biomass.

    PubMed

    Juhasz, A L; Smith, E; Smith, J; Naidu, R

    2002-10-01

    Cladosporium strain AJR(3)18501 was tested for its ability to sorb the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) p,p'-DDT from aqueous media. When p,p'-DDT was added to distilled water, ethanol or 1-propanol solutions in excess of its solubility, p,p'-DDT was sorbed onto the fungal biomass. Increasing the amount of p,p'-DDT in solution by changing the medium composition increased sorbent uptake: p,p'-DDT uptake by the fungal biomass was 2.5 times greater in 25% 1-propanol (17 mg of p,p'-DDT g(-1) dry weight fungal biomass) than in distilled water. When p,p'-DDT was dissolved in 25% 1-propanol (12 mg x l(-1)), rapid p,p'-DDT sorption occurred during the first 60 min of incubation. p,p'-DDT in solution was reduced to 2.5 mg x l(-1) with the remaining p,p'-DDT recovered from the fungal biomass. A number of environmental parameters were tested to determine their effect on p,p'-DDT biosorption. As arsenic (As) is prevalent at DDT-contaminated cattle dip sites, its effect on p,p'-DDT uptake was determined. The presence of As [As(III) or As(V) up to 50 mg x l(-1)] did not inhibit p,p'-DDT uptake and neither As species could be sorbed by the fungal biomass. Changing the pH of the medium from pH 3 to 10 had a small effect on p,p'-DDT sorption at low pH indicating that an ion exchange process is not the major mechanism for p,p'-DDT sorption. Other mechanisms such as Van der Waals forces, chemical binding, hydrogen bonding or ligand exchange may be involved in p,p'-DDT uptake by Cladosporium strain AJR(3)18501. PMID:12355313

  1. Pulmonary fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeannina A; Kauffman, Carol A

    2012-08-01

    This review details some of the advances that have been made in the recent decade in the diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of pulmonary fungal infections. These advances have occurred because of increasing knowledge regarding the fungal genome, better understanding of the structures of the fungal cell wall and cell membrane and the use of molecular epidemiological techniques. The clinical implications of these advances are more rapid diagnosis and more effective and less toxic antifungal agents. For example, the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, as well as histoplasmosis and blastomycosis, has improved with the use of easily performed antigen detection systems in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment of angioinvasive moulds has improved with the introduction of the new azoles, voriconazole and posaconazole that have broad antifungal activity. Amphotericin B is less frequently used, and when used is often given as lipid formulation to decrease toxicity. The newest agents, the echinocandins, are especially safe as they interfere with the metabolism of the fungal cell wall, a structure not shared with humans cells. Epidemiological advances include the description of the emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in North America and the increase in pulmonary mucormycosis and pneumonia due to Fusarium and Scedosporium species in transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. The emergence of azole resistance among Aspergillus species is especially worrisome and is likely related to increased azole use for treatment of patients, but also to agricultural use of azoles as fungicides in certain countries. PMID:22335254

  2. Who Gets Fungal Infections?

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections can also happen in people without weak immune systems Fungal infections that are not life-threatening, such ... likely to cause an infection. People with weak immune systems Infections that happen because a person’s immune system ...

  3. Simulation of ground-water flow and potential contaminant transport at Area 6 Landfill, Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Island County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simonds, F. William

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite-difference steady-state ground-water flow model was developed to simulate hydraulic conditions at the Area 6 Landfill, Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, near Oak Harbor, Washington. Remediation efforts were started in 1995 in an attempt to contain trichloroethene and other contaminants in the ground water. The model was developed as a tool to test the effectiveness of the pump-and-treat remediation efforts as well as alternative remediation strategies. The model utilized stratigraphic data from approximately 76 Navy and 19 private wells to define the geometry of the shallow, intermediate, and deep aquifers and the intervening confining layers. Initial aquifer parameters and recharge estimates from aquifer tests and published remedial investigation reports were used in the model and then adjusted until simulated water levels closely matched observed water-level data collected prior to the onset of remediation in 1995. The calibrated model was then modified to depict the remedial pump-and-treat system, in which contaminated ground water is extracted, treated, and returned to the ground surface for infiltration. The water levels simulated by the modified model were compared with observed water levels for the 1998 calendar year, during which time the pump-and-treat system was in nearly continuous operation and the ground-water system had equilibrated to steady-state conditions. Although artificial boundaries were used in the model, the choice of model boundary conditions was simulation in the area of primary concern surrounding the western contaminant plume and extraction wells. Particle tracking results indicate that the model can effectively simulate the advective transport of contaminants from the source area to the pumping wells and thus be used to test alternative remedial pumping strategies.

  4. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. [Demonstration plant at Newman, KY

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-21

    This document and its several appendices constitute an application for a Kentucky Permit to Construct an Air Contaminant Source as well as a Prevention of Significant Air Quality Deterioration (PSD) Permit Application. The information needed to satisfy the application requirements for both permits has been integrated into a complete and logical description of the proposed source, its emissions, control systems, and its expected air quality impacts. The Department of Energy believes that it has made every reasonable effort to be responsive to both the letter and the spirit of the PSD regulations (40 CFR 52.21) and Kentucky Regulation No. 401 KAR 50:035. In this regard, it is important to note that because of the preliminary status of some aspects of the process engineering and engineering design for the Demonstration Plant, it is not yet possible precisely to define some venting operations or their associated control systems. Therefore, it is not possible precisely to quantify some atmospheric emissions or their likely impact on air quality. In these instances, DOE and ICRC have used assumptions that produce impact estimates that are believed to be worst case and are not expected to be exceeded no matter what the outcome of future engineering decisions. As these decisions are made, emission quantities and rates, control system characteristics and efficiencies, and vent stack parameters are more precisely defined; this Permit Application will be supplemented or modified as appropriate. But, all needed modifications are expected to represent either decreases or at worst no changes in the air quality impact of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant.

  5. Algorithm and simulation development in support of response strategies for contamination events in air and water systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Waanders, Bart Van Bloemen

    2006-01-01

    Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR) contamination events pose a considerable threat to our nation's infrastructure, especially in large internal facilities, external flows, and water distribution systems. Because physical security can only be enforced to a limited degree, deployment of early warning systems is being considered. However to achieve reliable and efficient functionality, several complex questions must be answered: (1) where should sensors be placed, (2) how can sparse sensor information be efficiently used to determine the location of the original intrusion, (3) what are the model and data uncertainties, (4) how should these uncertainties be handled, and (5) how can our algorithms and forward simulations be sufficiently improved to achieve real time performance? This report presents the results of a three year algorithmic and application development to support the identification, mitigation, and risk assessment of CBR contamination events. The main thrust of this investigation was to develop (1) computationally efficient algorithms for strategically placing sensors, (2) identification process of contamination events by using sparse observations, (3) characterization of uncertainty through developing accurate demands forecasts and through investigating uncertain simulation model parameters, (4) risk assessment capabilities, and (5) reduced order modeling methods. The development effort was focused on water distribution systems, large internal facilities, and outdoor areas.

  6. Indigenous and Contaminant Microbes in Ultradeep Mines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onstott, T. C.; Moser, D. P.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Fredrickson, J. F.; Brockman, F. J.; Phelps, T. J.; White, D. C.; Peacock, A.; Balkwill, D.; Hoover, R.; Krumholz, L. R.; Borscik, M.; Kieft, T. L.; Wilson, R.

    2003-01-01

    Rock, air and service water samples were collected for microbial analyses from 3.2 kilometers depth in a working Au mine in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa. The approx. 1 meter wide mined zone was comprised of a carbonaceous, quartz, sulfide, uraninite and Au bearing layer, called the Carbon Leader, sandwiched by quartzite and conglomerates. The microbial community in the service water was dominated by mesophilic aerobic and anaerobic, alpha, beta and gamma-Proteobacteria with a total biomass concentration approx. l0(exp 4) cells/ ml, whereas, that of the mine air was dominated by members of the Chlorobi and Bacteroidetes groups and a fungal component. The microorganisms in the Carbon Leader were predominantly mesophilic, aerobic heterotrophic, nitrate reducing and methylotrophic, beta and gamma - Proteobacteria that were more closely related to service water microorganisms rather than air microbes. Rhodamine WT dye and fluorescent microspheres employed as contaminant tracers, however, indicated that service water contamination of most of the rock samples was less that 0.01% during acquisition. The microbial contaminants most likely originated from the service water, infiltrated the low permeability rock through and accumulated within mining-induced fractures where they survived for several days prior to being mined. Combined PLFA and terminal restriction fragment length profile (T-RFLP) analyses suggest that the maximum concentration of indigenous microorganisms in the Carbon Leader was less than lo(exp 2) cells/ g. PLFA, S-35 autoradiography and enrichments suggest that the adjacent quartzite was less contaminated and contained -10(exp 3) cells/gram of a thermophilic, sulfate reducing bacteria, SRB, some of who are delta Proteobacteria. Pore water and rock geochemical analyses suggest that these SRB's may have been sustained by sulfate diffusing from the adjacent U-rich, Carbon Leader where it was formed by radiolysis of sulfide.

  7. Indigenous and Contaminant Microbes in Ultradeep Mines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onstott, T. C.; Moser, D. P.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Brockman, F. J.; Phelps, T. J.; White, D. C.; Peacock, A.; Balkwill, D.; Hoover, R. B.; Krumholz, L. R.; Borscik, M.; Kieft, T. L.; Wilson, R.

    2003-01-01

    Rock, air and service water samples were collected for microbial analyses from 3.2 kilometers depth in a working Au mine in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa. The approx. 1 meter wide mined zone was comprised of a carbonaceous, quartz, sulfide, uraninite and Au bearing layer, called the Carbon Leader, sandwiched by quartzite and conglomerates. The microbial community in the service water was dominated by mesophilic aerobic and anaerobic, alpha, beta, and gamma-Proteobacteria with a total biomass concentration approx. 10(exp 4) cells/ml, whereas, that of the mine air was dominated by members of the Chlorobi and Bacteroidetes groups and a fungal component. The microorganisms in the Carbon Leader were predominantly mesophilic, aerobic heterotrophic, nitrate reducing and methylotrophic, beta and gamma-Proteobacteria that were more closely related to service water microorganisms rather than air microbes. Rhodamine WT dye and fluorescent microspheres employed as contaminant tracers, however, indicated that service water contamination of most of the rock samples was < 0.01% during acquisition. The microbial contaminants most likely originated from the service water, infiltrated the low permeability rock through and accumulated within mining-induced fractures where they survived for several days prior to being mined. Combined PLFA and terminal restriction fragment length profile (T-RFLP) analyses suggest that the maximum concentration of indigenous microorganisms in the Carbon Leader was < 10(exp 2) cells/g. PLFA, (35)S autoradiography and enrichments suggest that the adjacent quartzite was less contaminated and contained approx. 10(exp 3) cells/gram of a thermophilic, sulfate reducing bacteria, SRB, some of whom are delta Proteobacteria. Pore water and rock geochemical analyses suggest that these SRB's may have been sustained by sulfate diffusing from the adjacent U-rich, Carbon Leader where it was formed by radiolysis of sulfide.

  8. (Contaminated soil)

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.

    1991-01-08

    The traveler attended the Third International Conference on Contaminated Soil, held in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Conference was a status conference for worldwide research and practice in contaminated soil assessment and environmental restoration, with more than 1500 attendees representing over 26 countries. The traveler made an oral presentation and presented a poster. At the Federal Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, the traveler met with Dr. Z. Filip, Director and Professor, and Dr. R. Smed-Hildmann, Research Scientist. Detailed discussions were held regarding the results and conclusions of a collaborative experiment concerning humic substance formation in waste-amended soils.

  9. Probabilistic approach to estimating indoor air concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds from contaminated groundwater: a case study in San Antonio, Texas.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill E; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes a probabilistic model, based on the Johnson-Ettinger algorithm, developed to characterize the current and historic exposure to tricholorethylene (TCE) and tetrachlorethylene (PCE) in indoor air from plumes of groundwater contamination emanating from the former Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. We estimate indoor air concentration, house by house, in 30 101 homes and compare the estimated concentrations with measured values in a small subset of homes. We also compare two versions of the Johnson-Ettinger model: one used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and another based on an alternative parametrization. The modeled mean predicted PCE concentration historically exceeded PCE screening levels (0.41 ug/m(3)) in 5.5% of houses, and the 95th percentile of the predicted concentration exceeded screening levels in 85.3% of houses. For TCE, the mean concentration exceeded the screening level (0.25 ug/m(3)) in 49% of homes, and the 95th percentile of the predicted concentration exceeded the screening level in 99% of homes. The EPA model predicts slightly lower indoor concentrations than the alternative parametrization. Comparison with measured samples suggests both models, with the inputs selected, underestimate indoor concentrations and that the 95th percentiles of the predicted concentrations are closer to measured concentrations than predicted mean values. PMID:21162557

  10. Modeled effectiveness of ventilation with contaminant control devices on indoor air quality in a swine farrowing facility.

    PubMed

    Anthony, T Renée; Altmaier, Ralph; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Because adverse health effects experienced by swine farm workers in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been associated with exposure to dust and gases, efforts to reduce exposures are warranted, particularly in winter seasons when exposures increase due to decreased ventilation. Simulation of air quality and operating costs for ventilating swine CAFO, including treating and recirculating air through a farrowing room, was performed using mass and energy balance equations over a 90-day winter season. System operation required controlling heater operation to achieve room temperatures optimal to ensure animal health (20 to 22.5 °C). Five air pollution control devices, four room ventilation rates, and five recirculation patterns were examined. Inhalable dust concentrations were easily reduced using standard industrial air pollution control devices, including a cyclone, filtration, and electrostatic precipitator. Operating ventilation systems at 0.94 m3 s(-1) (2000 cfm) with 75 to 100% recirculation of treated air from cyclone, electrostatic precipitator, and shaker dust filtration system achieves adequate particle control with operating costs under $1.00 per pig produced ($0.22 to 0.54), although carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations approach 2000 ppm using in-room ventilated gas fired heaters. In no simulation were CO2 concentrations below industry recommended concentrations (1540 ppm), but alternative heating devices could reduce CO2 to acceptable concentrations. While this investigation does not represent all production swine farrowing barns, which differ in characteristics including room dimensions and swine occupancy, the simulation model and ventilation optimization methods can be applied to other production sites. This work shows that ventilation may be a cost-effective control option in the swine industry to reduce exposures. PMID:24433305

  11. Modeled Effectiveness of Ventilation with Contaminant Control Devices on Indoor Air Quality in a Swine Farrowing Facility

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, T. Renée; Altmaier, Ralph; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Because adverse health effects experienced by swine farm workers in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been associated with exposure to dust and gases, efforts to reduce exposures are warranted, particularly in winter seasons when exposures increase due to decreased ventilation. Simulation of air quality and operating costs for ventilating swine CAFO, including treating and recirculating air through a farrowing room, was performed using mass and energy balance equations over a 90-day winter season. System operation required controlling heater operation to achieve room temperatures optimal to ensure animal health (20 to 22.5°C). Five air pollution control devices, four room ventilation rates, and five recirculation patterns were examined. Inhalable dust concentrations were easily reduced using standard industrial air pollution control devices, including a cyclone, filtration, and electrostatic precipitator. Operating ventilation systems at 0.94 m3 s−1 (2000 cfm) with 75 to 100% recirculation of treated air from cyclone, electrostatic precipitator, and shaker dust filtration system achieves adequate particle control with operating costs under $1.00 per pig produced ($0.22 to 0.54), although carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations approach 2000 ppm using in-room ventilated gas fired heaters. In no simulation were CO2 concentrations below industry recommended concentrations (1540 ppm), but alternative heating devices could reduce CO2 to acceptable concentrations. While this investigation does not represent all production swine farrowing barns, which differ in characteristics including room dimensions and swine occupancy, the simulation model and ventilation optimization methods can be applied to other production sites. This work shows that ventilation may be a cost-effective control option in the swine industry to reduce exposures. PMID:24433305

  12. Fungal contribution to size-segregated aerosol measured through biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Filippo, Patrizia; Pomata, Donatella; Riccardi, Carmela; Buiarelli, Francesca; Perrino, Cinzia

    2013-01-01

    Fungal spores are the dominant biological component of air. Although ubiquitous in outdoor air, they are scarcely measured due to the inadequacy of measurement methods. The use of biomarkers as tools for the determination of fungal contribution to bioaerosol has often been suggested, and ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol have been associated to fungal spores as tracers. In the present paper, the fungal component of aerosol was studied at suburban/rural and at urban sites. Ergosterol, arabitol, and mannitol contents in airborne particulate matter, even at different sizes, were determined. Literature conversion factors and calculated conversion factors correlating ergosterol, arabitol, and mannitol masses to fungi mass were applied and compared to each other. The obtained fungal spore concentrations were different depending on the marker utilized both with the conversion factors found in literature and the calculated ones. Size-segregated marker distribution suggested different sources for the three tracers indicating ergosterol as the only reliable biomarker at our latitudes. The fungal spore concentrations were higher at the suburban/rural location and respectively inversely and directly proportional to temperature and relative humidity.

  13. [Microbiological quality of the air in "small gastronomy point"].

    PubMed

    Wójcik-Stopczyńska, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was the estimation of microbial contamination of the air in "small gastronomy point". The study included three places, which have been separated on the ground of their function: 1. area of subsidiaries, 2. area of distribution (sale and serving meal), 3. area of consumption. The total numbers of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds were determined by sedimentation method. Taxonomy units of fungal aerosol were also estimated. The samples of air were collected in 16 investigation points in the morning (8-8.30) and in the afternoon (14-14.30). Four series of measurements were carried out and in general 128 of air samples were tested. The results showed that numbers of bacteria, yeasts and moulds were variable and received respectively 30-3397, 0-254 and 0-138 cfu x m(-3). Microbial contamination of air changed depending on area character (the highest average count of bacteria occurred in the air of consumption area and fungi in subsidiaries area), time of a day (contamination of the air increased in the afternoon) and determination date. Only in single samples the numbers of bacteria and fungi were higher than recommended level. Pigmentary bacteria had high participation in total count of bacteria and filamentous fungi were represented mostly by Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. PMID:16900858

  14. Hydrodynamics, Fungal Physiology, and Morphology.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Carreón, L; Galindo, E; Rocha-Valadéz, J A; Holguín-Salas, A; Corkidi, G

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous cultures, such as fungi and actinomycetes, contribute substantially to the pharmaceutical industry and to enzyme production, with an annual market of about 6 billion dollars. In mechanically stirred reactors, most frequently used in fermentation industry, microbial growth and metabolite productivity depend on complex interactions between hydrodynamics, oxygen transfer, and mycelial morphology. The dissipation of energy through mechanically stirring devices, either flasks or tanks, impacts both microbial growth through shearing forces on the cells and the transfer of mass and energy, improving the contact between phases (i.e., air bubbles and microorganisms) but also causing damage to the cells at high energy dissipation rates. Mechanical-induced signaling in the cells triggers the molecular responses to shear stress; however, the complete mechanism is not known. Volumetric power input and, more importantly, the energy dissipation/circulation function are the main parameters determining mycelial size, a phenomenon that can be explained by the interaction of mycelial aggregates and Kolmogorov eddies. The use of microparticles in fungal cultures is also a strategy to increase process productivity and reproducibility by controlling fungal morphology. In order to rigorously study the effects of hydrodynamics on the physiology of fungal microorganisms, it is necessary to rule out the possible associated effects of dissolved oxygen, something which has been reported scarcely. At the other hand, the processes of phase dispersion (including the suspended solid that is the filamentous biomass) are crucial in order to get an integral knowledge about biological and physicochemical interactions within the bioreactor. Digital image analysis is a powerful tool for getting relevant information in order to establish the mechanisms of mass transfer as well as to evaluate the viability of the mycelia. This review focuses on (a) the main characteristics of the two most

  15. Growth under elevated air temperature alters secondary metabolites in Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y H; Jia, X; Wang, W K; Liu, T; Huang, S P; Yang, M Y

    2016-09-15

    Plant secondary metabolites play a pivotal role in growth regulation, antioxidant activity, pigment development, and other processes. As the global climate changes, increasing atmospheric temperatures and contamination of soil by heavy metals co-occur in natural ecosystems, which alters the pH of rhizosphere soil and influences the bioavailability and mobility of metals. Elevated temperatures in combination with heavy metals are expected to affect plant secondary metabolites, but this issue has not been extensively examined. Here, we investigated secondary metabolites in Robiniapseudoacacia seedlings exposed to elevated temperatures using a passive warming device in combination with Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils. Heavy metals significantly stimulated the accumulation of saponins, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids in leaves and stems; alkaloid compounds increased in leaves and decreased in stems, and condensed tannins fluctuated. Elevated temperatures, alone and in combination with Cd and Pb, caused increases in secondary metabolites in the plant tissues. Phenolic compounds showed the greatest changes among the secondary metabolites and significant interactive effects of temperature and metals were observed. These results suggest that slightly elevated temperature could enhance protective and defense mechanisms of Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings exposed to heavy metals by stimulating the production of secondary metabolites. PMID:27203519

  16. Fungal diseases of horses.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-11-29

    Among diseases of horses caused by fungi (=mycoses), dermatophytosis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are of particular concern, due their worldwide diffusion and, for some of them, zoonotic potential. Conversely, other mycoses such as subcutaneous (i.e., pythiosis and mycetoma) or deep mycoses (i.e., blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis) are rare, and/or limited to restricted geographical areas. Generally, subcutaneous and deep mycoses are chronic and progressive diseases; clinical signs include extensive, painful lesions (not pathognomonic), which resemble to other microbial infections. In all cases, early diagnosis is crucial in order to achieve a favorable prognosis. Knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical signs, and diagnosis of fungal diseases is essential for the establishment of effective therapeutic strategies. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic protocols of equine fungal infections as a support to early diagnosis and application of targeted therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:23428378

  17. Comparison of Near-field and Far-field Air Monitoring of Plutonium-contaminated Soils from the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    John L. Bowen; David S. Shafer

    2001-05-01

    Operation Roller Coaster, a series of nuclear material dispersal experiments, resulted in three areas (Clean Slates 1, 2, and 3) of widespread surface soil plutonium (Pu) contamination on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), located 225 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The State's Division of Environmental Protection raised concerns that dispersal of airborne Pu particles from the sites could result in undetected deposition further downwind that the background monitoring stations. Air monitoring data from different distances from the Clean Slate sites but during the same period of time were compared. From the available data, there is no indication that airborne PM10 particles are being transported to the farther distance,however, the data are statistically insufficient to conclude whether there is a difference in transport of respirable Pu particles to the closer verses the farther sites from the Clean Slate sites.

  18. A convenient N2-CCl4 mixture plasma treatment to improve TiO2 photocatalytic oxidation of aromatic air contaminants under both UV and visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaozheng; Li, Fayun; Fan, Zhiping

    2013-12-01

    A convenient N2-CCl4 mixture plasma treatment to improve TiO2 photocatalytic oxidation of aromatic air contaminants under both UV and visible light was reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the prepared TiO2 catalysts. The microstructures of the TiO2 catalysts were preserved after plasma treatments. Chlorine ions did not doped into TiO2 lattice but located on TiO2 surface via the coordination with Ti4+ sites. The doping N content of prepared TiO2 catalyst increased obviously by using this N2-CCl4 mixture plasma method. The activities were tested in the photocatalytic oxidation of benzene and toluene under both UV and visible light. Chlorine radicals which formed under illumination are effective in oxidizing aromatic side groups, but ineffective in reactions with the aromatic ring.

  19. Developments in Fungal Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Guarro, Josep; Gené, Josepa; Stchigel, Alberto M.

    1999-01-01

    Fungal infections, especially those caused by opportunistic species, have become substantially more common in recent decades. Numerous species cause human infections, and several new human pathogens are discovered yearly. This situation has created an increasing interest in fungal taxonomy and has led to the development of new methods and approaches to fungal biosystematics which have promoted important practical advances in identification procedures. However, the significance of some data provided by the new approaches is still unclear, and results drawn from such studies may even increase nomenclatural confusion. Analyses of rRNA and rDNA sequences constitute an important complement of the morphological criteria needed to allow clinical fungi to be more easily identified and placed on a single phylogenetic tree. Most of the pathogenic fungi so far described belong to the kingdom Fungi; two belong to the kingdom Chromista. Within the Fungi, they are distributed in three phyla and in 15 orders (Pneumocystidales, Saccharomycetales, Dothideales, Sordariales, Onygenales, Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Ophiostomatales, Microascales, Tremellales, Poriales, Stereales, Agaricales, Schizophyllales, and Ustilaginales). PMID:10398676

  20. Fungal toenail infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 12% of people. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral treatments for fungal toenail infections in adults? What are the effects of topical treatments for fungal toenail infections in adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 13 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amorolfine, butenafine, ciclopirox, fluconazole, itraconazole, terbinafine, tioconazole, and topical ketoconazole. PMID:24625577

  1. Fungal toenail infections

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 5% of people. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral treatments for fungal toenail infections? What are the effects of topical treatments for fungal toenail infections? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amorolfine, butenafine, ciclopirox, fluconazole, griseofulvin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, mechanical debridement, terbinafine, and tioconazole. PMID:21846413

  2. Fungal toenail infections

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3-5% of people. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral treatments for fungal toenail infections? What are the effects of topical treatments for fungal toenail infections? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 11 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amorolfine, butenafine, ciclopirox, fluconazole, griseofulvin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, mechanical debridement, terbinafine, and tioconazole. PMID:19445781

  3. The Black Yeast Exophiala dermatitidis and Other Selected Opportunistic Human Fungal Pathogens Spread from Dishwashers to Kitchens.

    PubMed

    Zupančič, Jerneja; Novak Babič, Monika; Zalar, Polona; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the diversity and distribution of fungi in nine different sites inside 30 residential dishwashers. In total, 503 fungal strains were isolated, which belong to 10 genera and 84 species. Irrespective of the sampled site, 83% of the dishwashers were positive for fungi. The most frequent opportunistic pathogenic species were Exophiala dermatitidis, Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Exophiala phaeomuriformis, Fusarium dimerum, and the Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces clade. The black yeast E. dermatitidis was detected in 47% of the dishwashers, primarily at the dishwasher rubber seals, at up to 106 CFU/cm2; the other fungi detected were in the range of 102 to 105 CFU/cm2. The other most heavily contaminated dishwasher sites were side nozzles, doors and drains. Only F. dimerum was isolated from washed dishes, while dishwasher waste water contained E. dermatitidis, Exophiala oligosperma and Sarocladium killiense. Plumbing systems supplying water to household appliances represent the most probable route for contamination of dishwashers, as the fungi that represented the core dishwasher mycobiota were also detected in the tap water. Hot aerosols from dishwashers contained the human opportunistic yeast C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and E. dermatitidis (as well as common air-borne genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Cladosporium). Comparison of fungal contamination of kitchens without and with dishwashers revealed that virtually all were contaminated with fungi. In both cases, the most contaminated sites were the kitchen drain and the dish drying rack. The most important difference was higher prevalence of black yeasts (E. dermatitidis in particular) in kitchens with dishwashers. In kitchens without dishwashers, C. parapsilosis strongly prevailed with negligible occurrence of E. dermatitidis. F. dimerum was isolated only from kitchens with dishwashers, while Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces isolates were only found within dishwashers. We

  4. The Black Yeast Exophiala dermatitidis and Other Selected Opportunistic Human Fungal Pathogens Spread from Dishwashers to Kitchens

    PubMed Central

    Zupančič, Jerneja; Novak Babič, Monika; Zalar, Polona; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the diversity and distribution of fungi in nine different sites inside 30 residential dishwashers. In total, 503 fungal strains were isolated, which belong to 10 genera and 84 species. Irrespective of the sampled site, 83% of the dishwashers were positive for fungi. The most frequent opportunistic pathogenic species were Exophiala dermatitidis, Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Exophiala phaeomuriformis, Fusarium dimerum, and the Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces clade. The black yeast E. dermatitidis was detected in 47% of the dishwashers, primarily at the dishwasher rubber seals, at up to 106 CFU/cm2; the other fungi detected were in the range of 102 to 105 CFU/cm2. The other most heavily contaminated dishwasher sites were side nozzles, doors and drains. Only F. dimerum was isolated from washed dishes, while dishwasher waste water contained E. dermatitidis, Exophiala oligosperma and Sarocladium killiense. Plumbing systems supplying water to household appliances represent the most probable route for contamination of dishwashers, as the fungi that represented the core dishwasher mycobiota were also detected in the tap water. Hot aerosols from dishwashers contained the human opportunistic yeast C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and E. dermatitidis (as well as common air-borne genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Cladosporium). Comparison of fungal contamination of kitchens without and with dishwashers revealed that virtually all were contaminated with fungi. In both cases, the most contaminated sites were the kitchen drain and the dish drying rack. The most important difference was higher prevalence of black yeasts (E. dermatitidis in particular) in kitchens with dishwashers. In kitchens without dishwashers, C. parapsilosis strongly prevailed with negligible occurrence of E. dermatitidis. F. dimerum was isolated only from kitchens with dishwashers, while Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces isolates were only found within dishwashers. We

  5. Simulation of ground-water flow and application to the design of a contaminant removal system, Loring Air Force Base, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starn, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    The fractured-bedrock aquifer underlying the former Fire Training Area at Loring Air Force Base, Maine, has been contaminated with petroleum products as a result of fire training activities. A numerical model of the ground-water-flow system near the Fire Training Area was developed to provide information for the design and operation of a contaminant removal system. The goals of the simulation modeling were to (1) determine the maximum pumping rate that could be sustained, giventhe constraint that water levels not rise above a specified altitude, and (2) determine the effect of seasonal variation in recharge on the ability of a transient pumping scenario to capture contaminants. A steady-state simulation model of ground-water flow was used to determine the optimal pumping rate at the site. The optimal pumping rate was 8,570 ft3/d (44 gal/min). Monthly recharge rates wereestimated for use in a transient simulation model. During a typical year, most recharge probably occurs during two periods-one during snowmelt in early spring and another, possibly less significant period, during the late fall. The transient response of the water table to 8.5 inches of recharge in April, 2 inches of recharge in October, and 0.25 inches of recharge per month for each remaining month wassimulated. Fluctuations in ground-water levels caused by simulated seasonal variation of recharge would have minimal effect on the operation of thecontaminant removal system because the system is not pumped when recharge is lowest, ground-water velocities are lowest, and ground-water flow past the trench is minimal.

  6. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 2, Work plan: Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  7. Fungal community associated with genetically modified poplar during metal phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Hur, Moonsuk; Lim, Young Woon; Yu, Jae Jeong; Cheon, Se Uk; Choi, Young Im; Yoon, Seok-Hwan; Park, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dong-Il; Yi, Hana

    2012-12-01

    Due to the increasing demand for phytoremediation, many transgenic poplars have been developed to enhance the bioremediation of heavy metals. However, structural changes to indigenous fungal communities by genetically modified organisms (GMO) presents a major ecological issue, due to the important role of fungi for plant growth in natural environments. To evaluate the effect of GM plant use on environmental fungal soil communities, extensive sequencing-based community analysis was conducted, while controlling the influence of plant clonality, plant age, soil condition, and harvesting season. The rhizosphere soils of GM and wild type (WT) poplars at a range of growth stages were sampled together with unplanted, contaminated soil, and the fungal community structures were investigated by pyrosequencing the D1/D2 region of the 28S rRNA gene. The results show that the overall structure of the rhizosphere fungal community was not significantly influenced by GM poplars. However, the presence of GM specific taxa, and faster rate of community change during poplar growth, appeared to be characteristic of the GM plant-induced effects on soil-born fungal communities. The results of this study provide additional information about the potential effects of GM poplar trees aged 1.5-3 years, on the soil fungal community. PMID:23274976

  8. The 2012 Fungal Meningitis Outbreak in the United States: Connections Between Soils and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Lynn; Brevik, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In September of 2012 the United States found itself facing a fungal meningitis outbreak that was traced back to contaminated steroid injections. The fungus Exserohilium rostratum, which is found in soil, among other locations in the environment, was identified as the main cause of the health issues created by the contaminated steroids. As of November 7, 2012 419 cases of fungal meningitis, stroke due to presumed fungal meningitis, or other central nervous system-related infections, 10 cases of peripheral joint infections, and 31 deaths linked to the contaminated steroids had been documented. However, the life cycle and soil ecology of E. rostratum is not well understood, and such knowledge would aid human health professionals in understanding the pathogenic potential of E. rostratum. Therefore, soil scientists have a role to play in developing the most effective ways to combat human health challenges such as the 2012 fungal meningitis outbreak.

  9. Decontamination of room air and adjoining wall surfaces by nebulizing hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Koburger, Torsten; Below, Harald; Dornquast, Tina; Kramer, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Aim: In 2010, the ASP GLOSAIRTM 400 was introduced in Germany for nebulizing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Since there were no results of practical experience, the new method was to be checked under practical conditions for its effectiveness in decontaminating air in rooms, infested with mold after water damage and, at the same time, under experimentally controlled conditions, test surfaces, contaminated with Aspergillus brasiliensis. Method: After the nebulizer was used in two rooms with a massive mold infestation, the air colony count was determined (MAS-100® Zinsser Analytik) and, at the same time, the mold infestation in samples of wall plaster. As part of this controlled study, test surfaces contaminated with Aspergillus brasiliensis were positioned vertically and horizontally in a test room. The effectiveness of the nebulization (5–6% H2O2 for 2 hours) was tested on these surfaces according to EN 13697. Results: In a massive mold infestation resulting from water damage (worst case), an approximately 9-fold decrease in the mold content and an approximately 13-fold decrease in the number of colony-forming units (sum of the bacteria + fungi) could be detected in the room air immediately after the nebulizing was finished. Even in samples of wall and joint plaster, the molds were reduced, although to a distinctly lesser extent. By indoor nebulization of 5–6% H2O2, A. brasiliensis was reduced >4 log on vertical and horizontal surfaces. Discussion: In rooms with a massive mold infestation, the ASP GLOSAIRTM 400 system is suitable for attaining a clear reduction in the fungal and bacterial room air load, lasting for a week. On vertical and horizontal surfaces, contaminated experimentally with A. brasiliensis, a reduction of >4 lg is achieved. As a load of 104 to 105 fungal spores is unlikely to occur on pre-cleaned surfaces, the GLOSAIRTM 400 can be considered a suitable complementary process for the substantial reduction of fungal contamination. PMID:22242090

  10. Design and characterization of a small chamber for chemical and biological evaluation of sources of indoor air contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, M.A.; Roache, N.F.; Guo, Z.; Costa, D.

    1996-12-31

    The potential for emissions from materials used indoors to cause sensory irritation has prompted several researchers to adapt the mouse bioassay, ASTM E 981, for evaluation of irritancy potential of product emissions.Standardized test procedures that produce comparable results are needed if bioassays, such as ASTM E 981, are to be used to rank and compare products based upon the irritation potential of product emissions. The authors designed, constructed, and determined performance characteristics for a 34-L source emissions chamber, which mates directly to the 2.3-L mouse exposure chamber specified by ASTM E 981 and found the glass chamber to be without significant air leaks and background emissions. Reversible adsorption of decane and p-dichlorobenzene was noted. They found it necessary to add a circulation fan inside the chamber to create air velocities that are representative of those found in indoor environments. The well controlled thermal environment and straightforward connection of the chamber to the mouse exposure chamber used in ASTM E 981 are features that may make this chamber useful in development and evaluation of protocols for biological characterization of product emissions.

  11. Ability of humans to smell geosmin, 2-MIB and nonadienal in indoor air when using contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Omür-Ozbek, P; Little, J C; Dietrich, A M

    2007-01-01

    The most common compounds responsible for off flavours are geosmin, 2-MIB, and nonadienal which are poorly removed by conventional water treatment operations and hence result in customer complaints. Because these odourants are moderately volatile and have very low odour threshold values, it is necessary to determine their concentrations in air when water is used indoors. If the detectable aqueous concentrations for these odourants are known, the utilities may take action to treat their water at times when the concentration of the raw water exceeds the threshold concentration. To predict the concentration in the shower stall and bathroom air after showering, recently published Henry's law constants for the selected odourants and a model developed to determine the volatilization of the odourous compounds by applying two-resistance theory were used. Then the results were compared with the odour threshold concentration data to determine under which conditions the odourants become detectable. For parameters representing a typical bathroom and shower stall setting, the results showed that the odourants become detectable when the aqueous concentration of geosmin and nonadienal exceed 10 ng/L at 42 degrees C. As the aqueous concentration increases, geosmin and nonadienal become detectable at lower temperatures, however 2-MIB is only detectable above 20 ng/L and at 42 degrees C. PMID:17489417

  12. Influence of ship emissions on air quality and input of contaminants in southern Alaska National Parks and Wilderness Areas during the 2006 tourist season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölders, Nicole; Porter, Stacy E.; Cahill, Catherine F.; Grell, Georg A.

    2010-04-01

    The impact of ship emissions on air quality in Alaska National Parks and Wilderness Areas was investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model inline coupled with chemistry (WRF/Chem). The visibility and deposition of atmospheric contaminants was analyzed for the length of the 2006 tourist season. WRF/Chem reproduced the meteorological situation well. It seems to have captured the temporal behavior of aerosol concentrations when compared with the few data available. Air quality follows certain predetermined patterns associated with local meteorological conditions and ship emissions. Ship emissions have maximum impacts in Prince William Sound where topography and decaying lows trap pollutants. Along sea-lanes and adjacent coastal areas, NO x, SO 2, O 3, PAN, HNO 3, and PM 2.5 increase up to 650 pptv, 325 pptv, 900 pptv, 18 pptv, 10 pptv, and 100 ng m -3. Some of these increases are significant (95% confidence). Enhanced particulate matter concentrations from ship emissions reduce visibility up to 30% in Prince William Sound and 5-25% along sea-lanes.

  13. Fungal stress biology: a preface to the Fungal Stress Responses special edition.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Drauzio E N; Alder-Rangel, Alene; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Finlay, Roger D; Kupiec, Martin; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Braga, Gilberto U L; Corrochano, Luis M; Hallsworth, John E

    2015-08-01

    There is currently an urgent need to increase global food security, reverse the trends of increasing cancer rates, protect environmental health, and mitigate climate change. Toward these ends, it is imperative to improve soil health and crop productivity, reduce food spoilage, reduce pesticide usage by increasing the use of biological control, optimize bioremediation of polluted sites, and generate energy from sustainable sources such as biofuels. This review focuses on fungi that can help provide solutions to such problems. We discuss key aspects of fungal stress biology in the context of the papers published in this Special Issue of Current Genetics. This area of biology has relevance to pure and applied research on fungal (and indeed other) systems, including biological control of insect pests, roles of saprotrophic fungi in agriculture and forestry, mycotoxin contamination of the food-supply chain, optimization of microbial fermentations including those used for bioethanol production, plant pathology, the limits of life on Earth, and astrobiology. PMID:26116075

  14. Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Genualdi, Susan A.; Mohammed, Azad; Massey Simonich, Stacy L.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9–126 ng/m3 (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05–0.71 ng/m3 (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1–3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses.

  15. Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Garrison, V H; Majewski, M S; Foreman, W T; Genualdi, S A; Mohammed, A; Massey Simonich, S L

    2014-01-15

    Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9-126 ng/m(3) (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05-0.71 ng/m(3) (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses. PMID:24055669

  16. Indirect Immunodetection of Fungal Fragments by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Afanou, Komlavi Anani; Straumfors, Anne; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Nayak, Ajay P.; Skaar, Ida; Hjeljord, Linda; Tronsmo, Arne; Green, Brett James

    2015-01-01

    Submicronic fungal fragments have been observed in in vitro aerosolization experiments. The occurrence of these particles has therefore been suggested to contribute to respiratory health problems observed in mold-contaminated indoor environments. However, the role of submicronic fragments in exacerbating adverse health effects has remained unclear due to limitations associated with detection methods. In the present study, we report the development of an indirect immunodetection assay that utilizes chicken polyclonal antibodies developed against spores from Aspergillus versicolor and high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Immunolabeling was performed with A. versicolor fragments immobilized and fixed onto poly-l-lysine-coated polycarbonate filters. Ninety percent of submicronic fragments and 1- to 2-μm fragments, compared to 100% of >2-μm fragments generated from pure freeze-dried mycelial fragments of A. versicolor, were positively labeled. In proof-of-concept experiments, air samples collected from moldy indoor environments were evaluated using the immunolabeling technique. Our results indicated that 13% of the total collected particles were derived from fungi. This fraction comprises 79% of the fragments that were detected by immunolabeling and 21% of the spore particles that were morphologically identified. The methods reported in this study enable the enumeration of fungal particles, including submicronic fragments, in a complex heterogeneous environmental sample. PMID:26092450

  17. Indirect Immunodetection of Fungal Fragments by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Afanou, Komlavi Anani; Straumfors, Anne; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Nayak, Ajay P; Skaar, Ida; Hjeljord, Linda; Tronsmo, Arne; Eduard, Wijnand; Green, Brett James

    2015-09-01

    Submicronic fungal fragments have been observed in in vitro aerosolization experiments. The occurrence of these particles has therefore been suggested to contribute to respiratory health problems observed in mold-contaminated indoor environments. However, the role of submicronic fragments in exacerbating adverse health effects has remained unclear due to limitations associated with detection methods. In the present study, we report the development of an indirect immunodetection assay that utilizes chicken polyclonal antibodies developed against spores from Aspergillus versicolor and high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Immunolabeling was performed with A. versicolor fragments immobilized and fixed onto poly-l-lysine-coated polycarbonate filters. Ninety percent of submicronic fragments and 1- to 2-μm fragments, compared to 100% of >2-μm fragments generated from pure freeze-dried mycelial fragments of A. versicolor, were positively labeled. In proof-of-concept experiments, air samples collected from moldy indoor environments were evaluated using the immunolabeling technique. Our results indicated that 13% of the total collected particles were derived from fungi. This fraction comprises 79% of the fragments that were detected by immunolabeling and 21% of the spore particles that were morphologically identified. The methods reported in this study enable the enumeration of fungal particles, including submicronic fragments, in a complex heterogeneous environmental sample. PMID:26092450

  18. Fungal Susceptibility of Polyurethanes

    PubMed Central

    Darby, Richard T.; Kaplan, Arthur M.

    1968-01-01

    One hundred laboratory-synthesized polyurethanes were tested by a mixed-culture petri dish method for susceptibility to fungus attack. Polyether polyurethanes were moderately to highly resistant to fungal attack, whereas all polyester polyurethanes tested were highly susceptible. The susceptibility of the polyethers was related to the number of adjacent methylene groups in the polymer chain. At least two such groups were required for appreciable attack to occur. The presence of side chains on the diol moiety of the polyurethane reduced susceptibility. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16349806

  19. Effect of relative humidity on fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation.

    PubMed Central

    Ezeonu, I M; Noble, J A; Simmons, R B; Price, D L; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    1994-01-01

    Fiberglass duct liners and fiberglass duct boards from eight buildings whose occupants complained of unacceptable or moldy odors in the air were found to be heavily colonized by fungi, particularly by Aspergillus versicolor. Unused fiberglass was found to be susceptible to fungal colonization in environmental chambers dependent upon relative humidity. No colonization was observed at relative humidities below 50%. Images PMID:8031101

  20. [Treatment of a 2,4-dichlorophenol contaminated wastewater in an air-lift inner-loop bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiangchun; Zhang, Yongming; Wang, Jianlong; Shi, Hanchang; Qian, Yi

    2002-07-01

    An air lift inner-loop bioreactor packed with honeycomb-like ceramic carrier was immobilized with a 2,4-Dichlorophenol-degrading pure culture and was investigated to degrade 2,4-Dichlorophenol and phenol. In fed-batch operation mode, 2,4-DCP biodegradation rate increased with run numbers and followed zero-order kinetics model when it existed alone, but when 2,4-DCP was present in the mixture with phenol, phenol degradation rate had an apparent trend to increase whereas 2,4-DCP removal rate became slower and slower. In continuous operation, 2,4-DCP at the concentration ranged from 6.9 to 102.4 mg/L could be degraded well at the dilution rate of 0.16 h-1 and the average removal percentage was 96.5%. Carbon sources changed from 2,4-DCP to acetate sodium and peptone in the course of operation for 12 days did not cause the bacteria loss the DCP-degrading ability. PMID:12371101

  1. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application. PMID:26810078

  2. Asthma & Allergy Development: Contrasting Influences of Yeasts & Other Fungal Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Behbod, Behrooz; Sordillo, Joanne E.; Hoffman, Elaine B.; Datta, Soma; Webb, Tara E.; Kwan, Doris L.; Kamel, Jimmy A.; Muilenberg, Michael L.; Scott, James A.; Chew, Ginger L.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent; Burge, Harriet; Gold, Diane R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infancy is a developmental stage with heightened susceptibility to environmental influences on the risk of chronic childhood disease. Few birth cohort studies have detailed measures of fungal diversity data in infants’ bedrooms, limiting the potential to measure long-term associations of these complex exposures with development of asthma or allergy. Objective We evaluated the relation of home fungal levels in infancy to repeated measures of wheeze and development of asthma and rhinitis by age 13, and sensitization by age 12 years. Methods In the Epidemiology of Home Allergens and Asthma prospective birth cohort study, we recruited 408 children with family history of allergic disease or asthma. When children were aged 2–3 months, we measured culturable fungi in bedroom air and dust, and in outdoor air. Main outcomes included ascertainment of symptoms/disease onset by questionnaire from birth through age 13. We estimated hazard ratios and, for wheeze and sensitization, odds ratios for an interquartile increase in log-transformed fungal concentrations, adjusting for other outcome predictors and potential confounders. Results Elevated levels of yeasts in bedroom floor dust were associated with reduced: i) wheeze at any age; ii) fungal sensitization; and iii) asthma development by age 13 (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), [0.75 to 0.98]). Outdoor airborne Cladosporium and dustborne Aspergillus predicted increased rhinitis. Risk of fungal sensitization by age 12, in response to environmental Alternaria and Aspergillus, was elevated in children with a maternal history of fungal sensitization. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Despite the irritant and allergenic properties of fungi, early-life elevated dust yeast exposures or their components may be protective against allergy and asthma in children at risk for these outcomes. Ascertainment of fungal components associated with immunoprotective effects may have therapeutic relevance for

  3. Fungal Entomopathogens in the Rhizosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic fungi are found in a wide variety of fungal groups from water molds to basidiomycetes, yet there are a number of fungal groups with no entomopathogenic representative. The order Hypocreales contains the largest number of entomogenous fungi including two of the most widely studied, ...

  4. Fungal rhinosinusitis and imaging modalities

    PubMed Central

    Gorovoy, Ian R.; Kazanjian, Mia; Kersten, Robert C.; Kim, H. Jane; Vagefi, M. Reza

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an overview of fungal rhinosinusitis with a particular focus on acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis (AFIFS). Imaging modalities and findings that aid in diagnosis and surgical planning are reviewed with a pathophysiologic focus. In addition, the differential diagnosis based on imaging suggestive of AFIFS is considered. PMID:23961027

  5. Monitoring impacts of air pollution: PIXE analysis and histopathological modalities in evaluating relative risks of elemental contamination.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Sohail; Camer, Gerry Amor; Anwar, Khaleeq; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2014-04-01

    Environmental toxicants invariably affect all biological organisms resulting to sufferings ranging from subclinical to debilitating clinical conditions. This novel research aimed to determine the toxic burdens of increased environmental elements in some vital organs/tissues of the wild animals (starling, owl, crow and pigeon), exposed to air polluted environment were assessed using particle induced X-ray emission and histopathological approaches. The presence of significantly elevated amounts of elemental toxicants namely: Aluminum (Al), Chlorine (Cl), Iron (Fe), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Silicon (Si) and Vanadium (V) from the skin, muscle, lungs, liver and kidney of sampled animals were in concurrence with the observed histopathological changes. The skin of sampled starling, owl, pigeon and crow spotlighted highly significant increase (P < 0.001) in Al, Cl, Mg and Si. Muscle samples with myodegenerative lesions and mineral depositions highlighted substantial augmentation (P < 0.001) in the amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Si and V. The lungs of starling, owl, and pigeon were severely intoxicated (P < 0.001) with increased amount of Al, Fe, K, Mn and Si producing pulmonary lesions of congestion, edema, pneumonitis and mineral debris depositions. Liver samples revealed that the sampled animals were laden with Cl, Fe, Mg, Mn and V with histopathological profound degenerative changes and hepatic necrosis. Kidney sections presented severe tubular degenerative and necrotic changes that may be attributed to increased amounts of Cl and Fe. These current findings implied that the environmental/elemental toxicants and the accompanying lesions that were discerned in the organs/tissues of sampled birds may as well be afflicting people living within the polluted area. Further assessment to more conclusively demonstrate correlations of current findings to those of the populace within the area is encouraged. PMID:24468923

  6. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  7. Submicronic fungal bioaerosols: high-resolution microscopic characterization and quantification.

    PubMed

    Afanou, Komlavi Anani; Straumfors, Anne; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Nilsen, Terje; Synnes, Ole; Skaar, Ida; Hjeljord, Linda; Tronsmo, Arne; Green, Brett James; Eduard, Wijnand

    2014-11-01

    Submicronic particles released from fungal cultures have been suggested to be additional sources of personal exposure in mold-contaminated buildings. In vitro generation of these particles has been studied with particle counters, eventually supplemented by autofluorescence, that recognize fragments by size and discriminate biotic from abiotic particles. However, the fungal origin of submicronic particles remains unclear. In this study, submicronic fungal particles derived from Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, and Penicillium chrysogenum cultures grown on agar and gypsum board were aerosolized and enumerated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). A novel bioaerosol generator and a fungal spores source strength tester were compared at 12 and 20 liters min(-1) airflow. The overall median numbers of aerosolized submicronic particles were 2 × 10(5) cm(-2), 2.6 × 10(3) cm(-2), and 0.9 × 10(3) cm(-2) for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. A. fumigatus released significantly (P < 0.001) more particles than A. versicolor and P. chrysogenum. The ratios of submicronic fragments to larger particles, regardless of media type, were 1:3, 5:1, and 1:2 for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Spore fragments identified by the presence of rodlets amounted to 13%, 2%, and 0% of the submicronic particles released from A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Submicronic particles with and without rodlets were also aerosolized from cultures grown on cellophane-covered media, indirectly confirming their fungal origin. Both hyphae and conidia could fragment into submicronic particles and aerosolize in vitro. These findings further highlight the potential contribution of fungal fragments to personal fungal exposure. PMID:25217010

  8. Submicronic Fungal Bioaerosols: High-Resolution Microscopic Characterization and Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Afanou, Komlavi Anani; Straumfors, Anne; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Nilsen, Terje; Synnes, Ole; Skaar, Ida; Hjeljord, Linda; Tronsmo, Arne; Green, Brett James

    2014-01-01

    Submicronic particles released from fungal cultures have been suggested to be additional sources of personal exposure in mold-contaminated buildings. In vitro generation of these particles has been studied with particle counters, eventually supplemented by autofluorescence, that recognize fragments by size and discriminate biotic from abiotic particles. However, the fungal origin of submicronic particles remains unclear. In this study, submicronic fungal particles derived from Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, and Penicillium chrysogenum cultures grown on agar and gypsum board were aerosolized and enumerated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). A novel bioaerosol generator and a fungal spores source strength tester were compared at 12 and 20 liters min−1 airflow. The overall median numbers of aerosolized submicronic particles were 2 × 105 cm−2, 2.6 × 103 cm−2, and 0.9 × 103 cm−2 for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. A. fumigatus released significantly (P < 0.001) more particles than A. versicolor and P. chrysogenum. The ratios of submicronic fragments to larger particles, regardless of media type, were 1:3, 5:1, and 1:2 for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Spore fragments identified by the presence of rodlets amounted to 13%, 2%, and 0% of the submicronic particles released from A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Submicronic particles with and without rodlets were also aerosolized from cultures grown on cellophane-covered media, indirectly confirming their fungal origin. Both hyphae and conidia could fragment into submicronic particles and aerosolize in vitro. These findings further highlight the potential contribution of fungal fragments to personal fungal exposure. PMID:25217010

  9. Leachability of organic and inorganic contaminants in ashes from lime-based air pollution control devices on a municipal waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sawell, S.E.; Bridle, T.R.; Constable, T.W. )

    1987-01-01

    Concern for public health, coupled with the implementation of more stringent guidelines for exhaust gas emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration units, has resulted in the development of more efficient flue gas cleaning systems. While these systems help reduce emissions of airborne contaminants, they also increase the quantities of ash which require proper disposal. Although recent studies have identified MSW incinerator bottom ash as a relatively benign waste, they have also indicated that MSW incinerator flue gas ashes may not be environmentally acceptable for landfilling. In 1984, the Wastewater Technology Centre began conducting a series of studies on the leachability of MSW incinerator ash, under Environment Canada's National Incinerator Testing and Evaluation Program (NITEP). The studies were undertaken to obtain additional information on the chemical and physical characteristics of these ashes and to assist in the development of solid waste management criteria for their ultimate disposal. This paper focuses on the results from the second study in the series, which was conducted on residues collected from an air pollution control (APC) pilot plant built by FLAKT Canada.

  10. Response surface modeling for hot, humid air decontamination of materials contaminated with Bacillus anthracis ∆Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology using a face-centered cube design was used to describe and predict spore inactivation of Bacillus anthracis ∆Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores after exposure of six spore-contaminated materials to hot, humid air. For each strain/material pair, an attempt was made to fit a first or second order model. All three independent predictor variables (temperature, relative humidity, and time) were significant in the models except that time was not significant for B. thuringiensis Al Hakam on nylon. Modeling was unsuccessful for wiring insulation and wet spores because there was complete spore inactivation in the majority of the experimental space. In cases where a predictive equation could be fit, response surface plots with time set to four days were generated. The survival of highly purified Bacillus spores can be predicted for most materials tested when given the settings for temperature, relative humidity, and time. These predictions were cross-checked with spore inactivation measurements. PMID:24949256

  11. Utilizing Pyrosequencing and Quantitative PCR to Characterize Fungal Populations among House Dust Samples

    PubMed Central

    Nonnenmann, Matthew W.; Coronado, Gloria; Thompson, Beti; Griffith, William C.; Hanson, John Delton; Vesper, Stephen; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular techniques are replacing culturing and counting methods in quantifying indoor fungal contamination. Pyrosequencing offers the possibility of identifying unexpected indoor fungi. In this study, 50 house dust samples were collected from homes in the Yakima Valley, WA. Each sample was analyzed by quantitative PCR (QPCR) for 36 common fungi and by fungal tag-encoded flexible (FLX) amplicon pyrosequencing (fTEFAP) for these and additional fungi. Only 24 of the samples yielded amplified results using fTEFAP but QPCR successfully amplified all 50 samples. Over 450 fungal species were detected by fTEFAP but most were rare. Twenty-two fungi were found by fTEFAP to occur with at least an average of ≥ 0.5% relative occurrence. Many of these fungi seem to be associated with plants, soil or human skin. Combining fTEFAP and QPCR can enhance studies of fungal contamination in homes. PMID:22767010

  12. Molecular Approaches to Development of Resistance to Preharvest Aflatoxin Contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites that can contaminate foods and feeds and cause toxic effects in higher organisms that consume the contaminated commodities. Therefore, mycotoxin contamination of foods and feeds results is a serious food safety issue and affects the competitiveness of agricultural ...

  13. Mycological contamination in dental unit waterlines in Istanbul, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kadaifciler, Duygu Göksay; Ökten, Suzan; Sen, Burhan

    2013-01-01

    Studies on dental units (DUs) are conducted either for the prevention or the reduction of the density of bacterial contamination in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs). However, the existence of fungi in the these systems requires more attention. During dental treatment, direct contact with water contaminated with fungi such as Candida, Aspergillus, or inhalation of aerosols from high-speed drill may cause various respiratory infections, such as asthma, allergies, and wounds on mucose membranes, especially on immunocompromised patients and dentists. The aims of this study are to investigate the number and colonization of fungi in DUWLs in the city of Istanbul, Turkey. Water samples were collected from air-water syringes, high-speed drills, and inlet waters from 41 DUs. The aerobic mesophilic fungi count in high- speed drills was higher than inlet waters and air-water syringes. Non-sporulating fungi were found in 7 DUs. The isolated fungi were identified as Penicillium waksmanii, Cladosporium spp., Penicillium spp., Candida famata, Cryptococcus laurentii, Candida guilliermondii, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus pseudoglaucus, Penicillium decumbens, and Acremonium sp. Some of these fungal genera are known as opportunistic pathogens that led to respiratory diseases such as allergic rhinits. This study shows the importance of regular control of mycological contamination on water at DUs. PMID:24516467

  14. Nucleic acid isolation from ecological samples--fungal associations, lichens.

    PubMed

    Grube, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Ecological samples of fungal associations pose particular challenges for nucleic acid extraction due to the presence of several genomes. Thorough examination of the samples prior to extraction is important to assess the risks of contamination. If manual separation of symbionts or their axenic cultivation is not feasible, symbiont-specific primers can be applied in PCR experiments. A basic protocol is suggested here which can be optimized for specific applications. PMID:15865960

  15. Fluorescence lidar imaging of fungal growth on high-voltage outdoor composite insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, M.; Grönlund, R.; Sjöholm, M.; Abrahamsson, Ch.; Dernfalk, A. D.; Wallström, S.; Larsson, A.; Weibring, P.; Karlsson, S.; Gubanski, S. M.; Kröll, S.; Svanberg, S.

    2005-06-01

    Remote fluorescence imaging of fungal growth on polymeric high-voltage insulators was performed using a mobile lidar system with a laser wavelength of 355 nm. Insulator areas contaminated by fungal growth could be distinguished from clean surfaces and readily be imaged. The experiments were supported by detailed spectral studies performed in laboratory using a fibre-optic fluorosensor incorporating an optical multi-channel analyser system (OMA) and a nitrogen laser emitting radiation at 337 nm.

  16. Fungal quorum sensing molecules: Role in fungal morphogenesis and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Wongsuk, Thanwa; Pumeesat, Potjaman; Luplertlop, Natthanej

    2016-05-01

    When microorganisms live together in high numbers, they need to communicate with each other. To achieve cell-cell communication, microorganisms secrete molecules called quorum-sensing molecules (QSMs) that control their biological activities and behaviors. Fungi secrete QSMs such as farnesol, tyrosol, phenylethanol, and tryptophol. The role of QSMs in fungi has been widely studied in both yeasts and filamentous fungi, for example in Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, Aspergillus niger, A. nidulans, and Fusarium graminearum. QSMs impact fungal morphogenesis (yeast-to-hypha formation) and also play a role in the germination of macroconidia. QSMs cause fungal cells to initiate programmed cell death, or apoptosis, and play a role in fungal pathogenicity. Several types of QSMs are produced during stages of biofilm development to control cell population or morphology in biofilm communities. This review article emphasizes the role of fungal QSMs, especially in fungal morphogenesis, biofilm formation, and pathogenicity. Information about QSMs may lead to improved measures for controlling fungal infection. PMID:26972663

  17. Impacts of Asian dust events on atmospheric fungal communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Eun Mi; Kim, Yong Pyo; Jeong, Kweon; Kim, Ik Soo; Eom, Suk Won; Choi, Young Zoo; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2013-12-01

    The composition of atmospheric fungi in Seoul during Asian dust events were assessed by culturing and by molecular methods such as mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) and internal transcribed spacer cloning (ITS cloning). Culturable fungal concentrations in the air were monitored from May 2008 to July 2011 and 3 pairs of ITS clone libraries, one during Asian dust (AD) day and the other during the adjacent non Asian dust (NAD) day for each pair, were constructed after direct DNA extraction from total suspended particles (TSP) samples. In addition, six aeroallergenic fungi in the atmosphere were also assessed by MSQPCR from October, 2009 to November, 2011. The levels of the airborne culturable fungal concentrations during AD days was significantly higher than that of NAD days (P < 0.005). In addition, the correlation of culturable fungal concentrations with particulate matters equal to or less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) concentrations was observed to be high (0.775) for the AD days while correlation coefficients of PM10 as well as other particulate parameters with airborne fungal concentrations were significantly negative for the NAD days during intensive monitoring periods (May to June, 2008). It was found that during AD days several airborne allergenic fungal levels measured with MSQPCR increased up to 5-12 times depending on the species. Comparison of AD vs. NAD clones showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in all three cases using libshuff. In addition, high proportions of uncultured soil fungus isolated from semi-arid regions were observed only in AD clone libraries. Thus, it was concluded that AD impacts not only airborne fungal concentrations but also fungal communities.

  18. Assessment of intrinsic bioremediation of gasoline contamination in the shallow aquifer, Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, Francis; Bradley, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory, field, and digital solute-transport- modeling studies demonstrate that microorganisms indigenous to the shallow ground-water system at Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina, can degrade petroleum hydrocarbons in gasoline released at the site. Microorganisms in aquifer sediments incubated in the laboratory under aerobic and anaerobic conditions mineralized radiolabeled carbon 14-toluene to 14C-carbon dioxide with first-order rate constants of Kbio = -0.640 per day and Kbio = -0.003 per day, respectively. Digital solute- transport modeling using the numerical code SUTRA revealed that anaerobic biodegradation of benzene occurs with a first-order rate constant near Kbio = -0.00025 per day. Sandy aquifer material beneath Laurel Bay Exchange is characterized by relatively high hydraulic conductivities (Kaq = 8.9 to 17.3 feet per day), average ground-water flow rate of about 60 feet per year, and a relatively uniform hydraulic gradient of 0.004 feet per foot. The sandy aquifer material also has low adsorptive potentials for toluene and benzene (both about Kad = 2.0 x 10-9 cubic feet per milligram), because of the lack of natural organic matter in the aquifer. The combination of this ground-water-flow rate and absence of significant adsorptive capacity in the aquifer permits toluene and benzene concentrations to be detected downgradient from the source area in monitoring wells, even though biodegradation of these compounds has been demonstrated. Solute-transport simulations, however, indicate that toluene and benzene will not reach the Broad River, the nearest point of contact with wildlife or human populations, about 3,600 feet west of the site boundary. These simulations also show that contamination will not be transported to the nearest Marine Corps property line about 2,400 feet south of the site. This is primarily because the source of contaminants has essentially been removed, and the low adsorptive capacity of the aquifer

  19. Fungal and Parasitic Infections of the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, Stephen A.; Penn, Christopher C.; Negvesky, Gerald J.; Butrus, Salim I.

    2000-01-01

    The unique structure of the human eye as well as exposure of the eye directly to the environment renders it vulnerable to a number of uncommon infectious diseases caused by fungi and parasites. Host defenses directed against these microorganisms, once anatomical barriers are breached, are often insufficient to prevent loss of vision. Therefore, the timely identification and treatment of the involved microorganisms are paramount. The anatomy of the eye and its surrounding structures is presented with an emphasis upon the association of the anatomy with specific infection of fungi and parasites. For example, filamentous fungal infections of the eye are usually due to penetrating trauma by objects contaminated by vegetable matter of the cornea or globe or, by extension, of infection from adjacent paranasal sinuses. Fungal endophthalmitis and chorioretinitis, on the other hand, are usually the result of antecedent fungemia seeding the ocular tissue. Candida spp. are the most common cause of endogenous endophthalmitis, although initial infection with the dimorphic fungi may lead to infection and scarring of the chorioretina. Contact lens wear is associated with keratitis caused by yeasts, filamentous fungi, and Acanthamoebae spp. Most parasitic infections of the eye, however, arise following bloodborne carriage of the microorganism to the eye or adjacent structures. PMID:11023963

  20. Combat-Related Invasive Fungal Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carlos J.

    2014-01-01

    Combat-related invasive fungal (mold) wound infections (IFIs) have emerged as an important and morbid complication following explosive blast injuries among military personnel. Similar to trauma-associated IFI cases among civilian populations, as in agricultural accidents and natural disasters, these infections occur in the setting of penetrating wounds contaminated by environmental debris. Specific risk factors for combat-related IFI include dismounted (patrolling on foot) blast injuries occurring mostly in southern Afghanistan, resulting in above knee amputations requiring resuscitation with large-volume blood transfusions. Diagnosis of IFI is based upon early identification of a recurrently necrotic wound following serial debridement and tissue-based histopathology examination with special stains to detect invasive disease. Fungal culture of affected tissue also provides supportive information. Aggressive surgical debridement of affected tissue is the primary therapy. Empiric antifungal therapy should be considered when there is a strong suspicion for IFI. Both liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole should be considered initially for treatment since many of the cases involve not only Mucorales species but also Aspergillus or Fusarium spp., with narrowing of regimen based upon clinical mycology findings. PMID:25530825

  1. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... mould-related diseases in immunocompromised patients. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2011;66:i5-i14. Ribaud P. Fungal ... al. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Neutropenic Patients with Cancer: 2010 Update ...

  2. Fungal Biotransformation of Tetracycline Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Shang, Zhuo; Salim, Angela A; Khalil, Zeinab; Bernhardt, Paul V; Capon, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    The commercial antibiotics tetracycline (3), minocycline (4), chlortetracycline (5), oxytetracycline (6), and doxycycline (7) were biotransformed by a marine-derived fungus Paecilomyces sp. to yield seco-cyclines A-H (9-14, 18 and 19) and hemi-cyclines A-E (20-24). Structures were assigned by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and in the case of 10 X-ray crystallography. Parallel mechanisms account for substrate-product specificity, where 3-5 yield seco-cyclines and 6 and 7 yield hemi-cyclines. The susceptibility of 3-7 to fungal biotransformation is indicative of an unexpected potential for tetracycline "degradation" (i.e., antibiotic resistance) in fungal genomes. Significantly, the fungal-derived tetracycline-like viridicatumtoxins are resistant to fungal biotransformation, providing chemical insights that could inform the development of new tetracycline antibiotics resistant to enzymatic degradation. PMID:27419475

  3. Biosynthesis of Fungal Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Gavia, Diego J.; Tang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This review provides a summary of recent research advances in elucidating the biosynthesis of fungal indole alkaloids. Different strategies used to incorporate and derivatize the indole/indoline moieties in various families of fungal indole alkaloids will be discussed, including tryptophan-containing nonribosomal peptides and polyketide-nonribosomal peptide hybrids; and alkaloids derived from other indole building blocks. This review also includes discussion regarding the downstream modifications that generate chemical and structural diversity among indole alkaloids. PMID:25180619

  4. Traversing the fungal terpenome

    PubMed Central

    Quin, Maureen B.; Flynn, Christopher M.; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) are prolific producers of structurally diverse terpenoid compounds. Classes of terpenoids identified in fungi include the sesqui-, di- and triterpenoids. Biosynthetic pathways and enzymes to terpenoids from each of these classes have been described. These typically involve the scaffold generating terpene synthases and cyclases, and scaffold tailoring enzymes such as e.g. cytochrome P450 monoxygenases, NAD(P)+ and flavin dependent oxidoreductases, and various group transferases that generate the final bioactive structures. The biosynthesis of several sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins and bioactive diterpenoids has been well-studied in Ascomycota (e.g. filamentous fungi). Little is known about the terpenoid biosynthetic pathways in Basidiomycota (e.g. mushroom forming fungi), although they produce a huge diversity of terpenoid natural products. Specifically, many trans-humulyl cation derived sesquiterpenoid natural products with potent bioactivities have been isolated. Biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for the production of trans-humulyl cation derived protoilludanes, and other sesquiterpenoids, can be rapidly identified by genome sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Genome mining combined with heterologous biosynthetic pathway refactoring has the potential to facilitate discovery and production of pharmaceutically relevant fungal terpenoids. PMID:25171145

  5. Neurospora illuminates fungal photoreception.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Hui; Dunlap, Jay C; Loros, Jennifer J

    2010-11-01

    Light not only is indispensable as an energy source for life on earth but also serves as an essential environmental cue conveying the information of daily and seasonal time to organisms across different kingdoms. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying light responses are actively explored in various light-sensitive organisms, these studies are either hindered by the complexity of the systems or an incomplete familiarity with the light signaling components involved in the scheme. Therefore, study of a simple and well-characterized model system is desirable to expand our knowledge of basic properties underlying the regulation of biological light responses. This review will briefly introduce the basic light sensing machinery in Neurospora crassa, a filamentous fungus, and then focus on the most recent advances in employing Neurospora as a model to study light signaling cascades, photoadaptation, and circadian clock-modulated effects in eukaryotic cells. Also, we will summarize the functions of a number of putative photoreceptors in Neurospora, and discuss the implications of the study of Neurospora to the field of fungal photobiology and some challenges for future studies. PMID:20637887

  6. Seasonal Trends in Airborne Fungal Spores in Coastal California Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfin, J.; Crandall, S. G.; Gilbert, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne fungal spores cause disease in plants and animals and may trigger respiratory illnesses in humans. In terrestrial systems, fungal sporulation, germination, and persistence are strongly regulated by local meteorological conditions. However, few studies investigate how microclimate affects the spatio-temporal dynamics of airborne spores. We measured fungal aerospora abundance and microclimate at varying spatial and time scales in coastal California in three habitat-types: coast redwood forest, mixed-evergreen forest, and maritime chaparral. We asked: 1) is there a difference in total airborne spore concentration between habitats, 2) when do we see peak spore counts, and 3) do spore densities correlate with microclimate conditions? Fungal spores were caught from the air with a volumetric vacuum air spore trap during the wet season (January - March) in 2013 and 2014, as well as monthly in 2014. Initial results suggest that mixed-evergreen forests exhibit the highest amounts of spore abundance in both years compared to the other habitats. This may be due to either a higher diversity of host plants in mixed-evergreen forests or a rich leaf litter layer that may harbor a greater abundance of saprotrophic fungi. Based on pilot data, we predict that temperature and to a lesser degree, relative humidity, will be important microclimate predictors for high spore densities. These data are important for understanding when and under what weather conditions we can expect to see high levels of fungal spores in the air; this can be useful information for managers who are interested in treating diseased plants with fungicides.

  7. Fungal Aflatoxins Reduce Respiratory Mucosal Ciliary Function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert J; Workman, Alan D; Carey, Ryan M; Chen, Bei; Rosen, Phillip L; Doghramji, Laurel; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N; Kennedy, David W; Cohen, Noam A

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO). Exposure to aflatoxins (0.1 to 10 μM; 5 to 10 minutes) reduced baseline (~6-12%) and agonist-stimulated CBF. Conditioned media (CM) from A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus cultures also reduced CBF by ~10% after 60 min exposure, but effects were blocked by an anti-aflatoxin antibody only with A. flavus CM. CBF reduction required protein kinase C but was not associated with changes in calcium or NO. However, AFB2 reduced NO production by ~50% during stimulation of the ciliary-localized T2R38 receptor. Using a fluorescent reporter construct expressed in A549 cells, we directly observed activation of PKC activity by AFB2. Aflatoxins secreted by respiratory A. flavus may impair motile and chemosensory functions of airway cilia, contributing to pathogenesis of fungal airway diseases. PMID:27623953

  8. JPL Contamination Control Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakkolb, Brian

    2013-01-01

    JPL has extensive expertise fielding contamination sensitive missions-in house and with our NASA/industry/academic partners.t Development and implementation of performance-driven cleanliness requirements for a wide range missions and payloads - UV-Vis-IR: GALEX, Dawn, Juno, WFPC-II, AIRS, TES, et al - Propulsion, thermal control, robotic sample acquisition systems. Contamination control engineering across the mission life cycle: - System and payload requirements derivation, analysis, and contamination control implementation plans - Hardware Design, Risk trades, Requirements V-V - Assembly, Integration & Test planning and implementation - Launch site operations and launch vehicle/payload integration - Flight ops center dot Personnel on staff have expertise with space materials development and flight experiments. JPL has capabilities and expertise to successfully address contamination issues presented by space and habitable environments. JPL has extensive experience fielding and managing contamination sensitive missions. Excellent working relationship with the aerospace contamination control engineering community/.

  9. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1995-01-24

    An apparatus and method are described for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants. An oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth. Withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene. 3 figures.

  10. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, Terry C.; Fliermans, Carl B.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodicially forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene.

  11. Fungal volatiles as indicators of food and feeds spoilage.

    PubMed

    Schnürer, J; Olsson, J; Börjesson, T

    1999-01-01

    Fungal growth leads to spoilage of food and animal feeds and to formation of mycotoxins and potentially allergenic spores. Fungi produce volatile compounds, during both primary and secondary metabolism, which can be used for detection and identification. Fungal volatiles from mainly Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium have been characterized with gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and sensory analysis. Common volatiles are 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 3-methylfuran, ethyl acetate, and the malodorous 2-methyl-isoborneol and geosmin. Volatile sesquiterpenes can be used for taxonomic classification and species identification in Penicillium, as well as to indicate mycotoxin formation in Fusarium and Aspergillus. Developments in sensor technology have led to the construction of "electronic noses" (volatile compound mappers). Exposure of different nonspecific sensors to volatile compounds produces characteristic electrical signals. These are collected by a computer and processed by multivariate statistical methods or in an artificial neural network (ANN). Such systems can grade cereal grain with regard to presence of molds as efficiently as sensory panels evaluating grain odor. Volatile compound mapping can also be used to predict levels of ergosterol and fungal colony-forming units in grain. Further developments should make it possible to detect individual fungal species as well as the degree of mycotoxin contamination of food and animal feeds. PMID:10441446

  12. Primary immunodeficiencies underlying fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Lanternier, Fanny; Cypowyj, Sophie; Picard, Capucine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review We review the primary immunodeficiencies underlying an increasing variety of superficial and invasive fungal infections. We also stress that the occurrence of such fungal infections should lead physicians to search for the corresponding single-gene inborn errors of immunity. Finally, we suggest that other fungal infections may also result from hitherto unknown inborn errors of immunity, at least in some patients with no known risk factors. Recent findings An increasing number of primary immunodeficiencies are being shown to underlie fungal infectious diseases in children and young adults. Inborn errors of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex (chronic granulomatous disease), severe congenital neutropenia and leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I confer a predisposition to invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. More rarely, inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie endemic mycoses. Inborn errors of IL-17 immunity have recently been shown to underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of CARD9 immunity underlie deep dermatophytosis and invasive candidiasis. Summary Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, deep dermatophytosis, pneumocystosis, and endemic mycoses can all be caused by primary immunodeficiencies. Each type of infection is highly suggestive of a specific type of primary immunodeficiency. In the absence of overt risk factors, single-gene inborn errors of immunity should be sought in children and young adults with these and other fungal diseases. PMID:24240293

  13. Fungal sensing of host environment.

    PubMed

    Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sánchez, D; Schaller, M

    2016-09-01

    To survive inside a host, fungi have to adapt to a changing and often hostile environment and therefore need the ability to recognize what is going on around them. To adapt to different host niches, they need to sense external conditions such as temperature, pH and to recognize specific host factors. The ability to respond to physiological changes inside the host, independent of being in a commensal, pathogenic or even symbiotic context, implicates mechanisms for sensing of specific host factors. Because the cell wall is constantly in contact with the surrounding, fungi express receptors on the surface of their cell wall, such as pheromone receptors, which have important roles, besides mediating chemotropism for mating. We are not restricting the discussion to the human host because the receptors and mechanisms used by different fungal species to sense their environment are often similar even for plant pathogens. Furthermore, the natural habitat of opportunistic pathogenic fungi with the potential to cause infection in a human host is in soil and on plants. While the hosts' mechanisms of sensing fungal pathogens have been addressed in the literature, the focus of this review is to fill the gap, giving an overview on fungal sensing of a host-(ile) environment. Expanding our knowledge on host-fungal interactions is extremely important to prevent and treat diseases of pathogenic fungi, which are important issues in human health and agriculture but also to understand the delicate balance of fungal symbionts in our ecosystem. PMID:27155351

  14. Quantification of Fungal Hyphae in Leaves of Deciduous Trees by Automated Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, O.; Schonholzer, F.; Zeyer, J.

    1995-01-01

    An optical method to quantify the fungal hyphae within decomposing leaves of deciduous trees was developed. The plant matrix was partially destroyed under hydrolytic conditions, and fungal hyphae and cellulose residues within the leaves were stained with Calcofluor M2R. Cellulose residues were subsequently depolymerized by cellulase, and fungal hyphae were separated from the remaining plant matrix with a pressurized air-water mixture. An image analysis program to quantify the fungal hyphae was written. The program included the recognition of fungal hyphae, the elimination of stomata from the images, and the measuring of lengths of fungal hyphae. The optical method was verified by a chemical method relying on glucosamine as an indicator of fungal biomass. The fungal biomass in leaves of Fagus silvatica and Quercus petraea at early states of decomposition was 0.2 to 0.4% of the leaf weight. The biomass reached a maximum within 2 to 4 weeks (optical method, 0.5 to 0.7%; chemical method, 1 to 1.4% of the initial leaf weight) and decreased thereafter. PMID:16535160

  15. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT METHODS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF DNA FROM FUNGAL CONIDIA BY QUANTITATIVE COMPETITIVE PCR ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five different DNA extraction methods were evaluated for their effectiveness in recovering PCR templates from the conidia of a series of fungal species often encountered in indoor air. The test organisms were Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartaru...

  16. Phoma herbarum, a fungal plant saprophyte, as a fish pathogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Yasutake, W.T.; Leek, Steve

    1975-01-01

    Phoma herbarum, a fungal plant saprophyte, was isolated from diseased hatchery-reared coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). The disease was observed at 10 national fish hatcheries in Washington and Oregon, but the low incidence of experimental infections indicate that it is only weakly contagious. Histopathological examination suggests that the air bladder is one of the primary organs infected. The visceral organs are also affected in both natural and experimental infections.

  17. Associations between fungal species and water-damaged building materials.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens C; Søndergaard, Ib; Rasmussen, Ib S; Larsen, Lisbeth S

    2011-06-01

    Fungal growth in damp or water-damaged buildings worldwide is an increasing problem, which has adverse effects on both the occupants and the buildings. Air sampling alone in moldy buildings does not reveal the full diversity of fungal species growing on building materials. One aim of this study was to estimate the qualitative and quantitative diversity of fungi growing on damp or water-damaged building materials. Another was to determine if associations exist between the most commonly found fungal species and different types of materials. More than 5,300 surface samples were taken by means of V8 contact plates from materials with visible fungal growth. Fungal identifications and information on building material components were analyzed using multivariate statistic methods to determine associations between fungi and material components. The results confirmed that Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus versicolor are the most common fungal species in water-damaged buildings. The results also showed Chaetomium spp., Acremonium spp., and Ulocladium spp. to be very common on damp building materials. Analyses show that associated mycobiotas exist on different building materials. Associations were found between (i) Acremonium spp., Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys spp., Ulocladium spp., and gypsum and wallpaper, (ii) Arthrinium phaeospermum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Cladosporium herbarum, Trichoderma spp., yeasts, and different types of wood and plywood, and (iii) Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus melleus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Chaetomium spp., Mucor racemosus, Mucor spinosus, and concrete and other floor-related materials. These results can be used to develop new and resistant building materials and relevant allergen extracts and to help focus research on relevant mycotoxins, microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs), and microparticles released into the indoor environment. PMID:21531835

  18. Monitoring fungal growth on brown rice grains using rapid and non-destructive hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Siripatrawan, U; Makino, Y

    2015-04-16

    This research aimed to develop a rapid, non-destructive, and accurate method based on hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for monitoring spoilage fungal growth on stored brown rice. Brown rice was inoculated with a non-pathogenic strain of Aspergillus oryzae and stored at 30 °C and 85% RH. Growth of A. oryzae on rice was monitored using viable colony counts, expressed as colony forming units per gram (CFU/g). The fungal development was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The HSI system was used to acquire reflectance images of the samples covering the visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range of 400-1000 nm. Unsupervised self-organizing map (SOM) was used to visualize data classification of different levels of fungal infection. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to predict fungal growth on rice grains from the HSI reflectance spectra. The HSI spectral signals decreased with increasing colony counts, while conserving similar spectral pattern during the fungal growth. When integrated with SOM, the proposed HSI method could be used to classify rice samples with different levels of fungal infection without sample manipulation. Moreover, HSI was able to rapidly identify infected rice although the samples showed no symptoms of fungal infection. Based on PLS regression, the coefficient of determination was 0.97 and root mean square error of prediction was 0.39 log (CFU/g), demonstrating that the HSI technique was effective for prediction of fungal infection in rice grains. The ability of HSI to detect fungal infection at early stage would help to prevent contaminated rice grains from entering the food chain. This research provides scientific information on the rapid, non-destructive, and effective fungal detection system for rice grains. PMID:25662486

  19. Comparison of six DNA extraction methods for recovery of fungal DNA as assessed by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Fredricks, David N; Smith, Caitlin; Meier, Amalia

    2005-10-01

    The detection of fungal pathogens in clinical samples by PCR requires the use of extraction methods that efficiently lyse fungal cells and recover DNA suitable for amplification. We used quantitative PCR assays to measure the recovery of DNA from two important fungal pathogens subjected to six DNA extraction methods. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia or Candida albicans yeast cells were added to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and subjected to DNA extraction in order to assess the recovery of DNA from a defined number of fungal propagules. In order to simulate hyphal growth in tissue, Aspergillus fumigatus conidia were allowed to form mycelia in tissue culture media and then harvested for DNA extraction. Differences among the DNA yields from the six extraction methods were highly significant (P<0.0001) in each of the three experimental systems. An extraction method based on enzymatic lysis of fungal cell walls (yeast cell lysis plus the use of GNOME kits) produced high levels of fungal DNA with Candida albicans but low levels of fungal DNA with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia or hyphae. Extraction methods employing mechanical agitation with beads produced the highest yields with Aspergillus hyphae. The Master Pure yeast method produced high levels of DNA from C. albicans but only moderate yields from A. fumigatus. A reagent from one extraction method was contaminated with fungal DNA, including DNA from Aspergillus and Candida species. In conclusion, the six extraction methods produce markedly differing yields of fungal DNA and thus can significantly affect the results of fungal PCR assays. No single extraction method was optimal for all organisms. PMID:16207973

  20. Fungal Presence in Selected Tree Nuts and Dried Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Tournas, VH; Niazi, NS; Kohn, JS

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-four tree nut samples (almonds, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts) and 50 dried fruit samples (apricots, cranberries, papaya, pineapple, and raisins) were purchased from local supermarkets and analyzed for fungal contamination using conventional culture as well as molecular methods. The results of our study showed that the highest yeast and mold (YM) counts (5.34 log10 CFU g−1) were found in walnuts and the lowest in pecans. The most common mold in nuts was Aspergillus niger, relatively low numbers of A. flavus were found across the board, while Penicillium spp. were very common in pine nuts and walnuts. Low levels (2.00–2.84 log10 CFU g−1) of yeasts were recovered from only two pine nut samples. Fungal contamination in dried fruits was minimal (ranging from <2.00 to 3.86 log10 CFU g−1). The highest fungal levels were present in raisins. All papaya samples and the majority of cranberry, pineapple, and apricot samples were free of live fungi. The most common mold in dried fruits was A. niger followed by Penicillium spp. One apricot sample also contained low levels (2.00 log10 CFU g−1) of yeasts. PMID:26056470