Science.gov

Sample records for air ground combat

  1. Air Ground Integration and the Brigade Combat Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-13

    source of information on the ADAM Cell comes from FMI 3-01.50, Air Defense and Airspace Management Cell Operations. This publication outlines the...BCT. CPT Engelbrecht outlines issues with doctrine, organization, and training in preparing the ADAM Cell for operations. FMI 3-01.50 is full of...responsibilities of each cell within the BCT are clearly outlined by doctrine. Field Manual Interim ( FMI ) 3-01.50, Air Defense and Airspace Management Cell

  2. Anything But: Joint Air-Ground Training at the U.S. Army Ground Combat Training Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-03

    Antis, COL Jim Dickens, and COL (Ret) Tom Snukis. If I ever become a “ world class” planner, it will be a direct result of their hard work and patience...support of ground forces during World War I. Shortly thereafter, early air power theorists such as Giulio Douhet and Billy Mitchell changed the...military centers with strategic bombardment.2 While ground and air forces have worked together in all major conflicts since World War I, the US

  3. CACDA Ground Combat Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    5200, 5210) Air defense A(i) (5470, 5480) Copperhead S7 (5660) "Kills per target per FASCAMF. ml nef iel d Bull (5860) Plow (5880) Figure A-6. Attack...sýpace restrictions. (2) The variable E7 with S7 presently reflects that all committed attack helicopters are popping up as well as on station at the...3600 IF T&4:O TW7N 5750 5630 e.7=1-JQ*,•1/3 561-0 IF I.O•’ ANt) 37>0, wHEN 5560 5650 e7=0 5660 S7 =1.25 5670 GOSU• 201•0 5680 $7= S7 * (1-SO)5690 IF T

  4. Air Combat Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    By adapting COSMIC's One-on-One Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) for two versus one simulation, Link Division was able to reduce software and other design/development costs. Enhancements to the AML program developed by Link for simulation of two-versus one combat, two trainees can simultaneously engage a computer driven target, thereby doubling the training utility of the simulator.

  5. Interactive computerized air combat opponent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, W. W., III

    1976-01-01

    A computer program developed to fly interactive one-on-one simulated air combat maneuvers against human pilots is described. The program which is called Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML), is being used in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center's Differential Maneuvering Simulator. The basic control logic evaluates the relative states of the two aircraft and reacts by choosing the best of several elemental maneuvers. Pilot comments and results obtained when the computer was flown against combat-qualified fighter pilots indicate that the program performs realistic maneuvers and offers a very competitive standard pilot.

  6. Air Combat Maneuvering Performance Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    several major purposes. First, it would provide improved feedback to Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) students concerning their progress through the flight...materials and syllabi. Consistent patterns of weakness in the students would serve as an indicator of a need for adjustment and improvement in the program...adversary maneuvers. BFM students learn to perceive the aspect angle, angle-off, and closure rate of the opposing aircraft. They learn the proper maneuver

  7. Drilling and thermal gradient measurements at US Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California. Final report, October 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Seven temperature gradient holes were drilled at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California, as part of a cooperative research and development program, jointly funded by the Navy and Department of Energy. The purpose of this program was to assess geothermal resources at selected Department of Defense installations. Drill site selection was based on geophysical anomalies delineated by combined gravity, ground magnetic and aeromagnetic surveys. Temperature gradients ranged from 1.3/sup 0/C/100 m (1/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in hole No. 1 to 15.3/sup 0/C/100 m (8.3/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in temperature gradient hole No. 6. Large, positive geothermal gradients in temperature gradient holes 5 and 6, combined with respective bottom hole temperatures of 51.6/sup 0/C (125/sup 0/F) and 67/sup 0/C (153/sup 0/F), indicate that an extensive, moderate-temperature geothermal resource is located on the MCAGCC. The geothermal reservoir appears to be situated in old, unconsolidated alluvial material and is structurally bounded on the east by the Mesquite Lake fault and on the west by the Surprise Spring fault. If measured temperature gradients continue to increase at the observed rate, temperatures in excess of 80/sup 0/C (178/sup 0/F) can be expected at a depth of 2000 feet.

  8. Aviators, Air Combat, and Combat Stress: An Air Force Commander’s Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-22

    airmen, and reviews the risky nature of the air combat environment. It goes on the describe the impact of stress on airmen and covers the Air Force’s...characteristics of airmen, and reviews the risky nature of the air combat environment. It goes on to describe the impact of stress on airmen and covers...sections review Air Force policy regarding aircrew psychological casualties as it has developed since the years of the First World War. The final parts of

  9. Low Cost Air Combat Training System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Earl

    1987-10-01

    Air combat training has evolved into a highly sophisticated and expensive process. To effectively train fighter pilots in air-to-air combat, interaction between pilots is essential. This interaction can be accomplished using multiple low cost laser image projections of friend and/or foe aircraft controlled by pilots in a multiple dome configuration. A Laser Target Projector (LTP) produces a calligraphically written aircraft model comprised of up to 200 vectors which are updated at a 60 Hz rate. The resulting wire frame image imparts both position, velocity, distance and altitude information to the pilots. Using a laser light source guarantees high luminance levels and provides large depths of field. This large depth of field allows for unique packaging arrangements and cost saving attributes. The LTP has total dome coverage via a computer-controlled, servo-driven, gimb-alled two-axis assembly that projects the wire frame aircraft image onto the dome surface. To unburden the host computer, all dome-to-dome communication, real world-to-dome coordinate transformations and all geometry corrections are done by a special purpose high-speed computer called a Dome Master. Each dome has one Dome Master that can drive up to six LTP's. This paper will deal with the technical aspects of the design and development of the LTP and Dome Master as a low cost air combat training system.

  10. Rescinding the Ground Combat Exclusion Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-07

    memorandum, he then issued DoD’s current policy regarding the assignment of women : Rule. Service members are eligible to be assigned to all positioi). S ...Miller, " Feminism and the Exclusion of Army Women from Combat," in Women in the Military, ed. Rita James Simon (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction...index.php/issuepapers (accessed November 23, 2010). Miller, Laura L. " Feminism and the Exclusion of Army Women from Combat." In Women in the Military

  11. Active Behavior Recognition in Beyond Visual Range Air Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Active Behavior Recognition in Beyond Visual Range Air Combat Ron Alford RONALD.ALFORD.CTR@NRL.NAVY.MIL ASEE Postdoctoral Fellow; Naval Research...planning and recognition, as well as its im- plementation in a beyond visual range air combat simulator. We found that it yields better behavior recognition...SUBTITLE Active Behavior Recognition in Beyond Visual Range Air Combat 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  12. Multidimensional scaling analysis of simulated air combat maneuvering performance data.

    PubMed

    Polzella, D J; Reid, G B

    1989-02-01

    This paper describes the decomposition of air combat maneuvering by means of multidimensional scaling (MDS). MDS analyses were applied to performance data obtained from expert and novice pilots during simulated air-to-air combat. The results of these analyses revealed that the performance of expert pilots is characterized by advantageous maneuverability and intelligent energy management. It is argued that MDS, unlike simpler metrics, permits the investigator to achieve greater insights into the underlying structure associated with performance of a complex task.

  13. The Army’s Ground Combat Vehicle Program and Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Current and Upgraded Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle Notional Ground Combat Vehicle Israeli Namer Armored Personnel Carrier German Puma ...19Option 1: Purchase the Israeli Namer APC 21 Option 2: Upgrade the Bradley IFV 26 Option 3: Purchase the German Puma IFV 28 Option 4: Cancel the GCV Program...2008 German Puma IFV 35 to 47 6 6.9 2011 2013 dollars) (Millions of Unit Costb Existing Vehicles Vehicles Requiring Development Into Service Year of

  14. A two-dimensional air-to-air combat game - Toward an air-combat advisory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, Frank

    1987-01-01

    Air-to-air combat is modeled as a discrete differential game, and by constraining the game to searching for the best guidance laws from the sets of those considered for each opponent, feedback and outcome charts are obtained which can be used to turn one of the automatic opponents into an intelligent opponent against a human pilot. A one-on-one two-dimensional fully automatic, or manned versus automatic, air-to-air combat game has been designed which includes both attack and evasion alternatives for both aircraft. Guidance law selection occurs by flooding the initial-condition space with four simulated fights for each initial condition, depicting the various attack/evasion strategies for the two opponents, and recording the outcomes. For each initial condition, the minimax method from differential games is employed to determine the best choice from the available strategies.

  15. The Virtual Combat Air Staff. The Promise of Information Technologies,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-07

    Resource \\ cut 1 Combat i 1 power 1 T Chain of command & support hierarchy 1 1— Combat pow (air wings er 1 1...communications power at his fingertips than the entire Combat Operations Center used in two months in Desert Storm. The "L- T " called out to his boss...MR759.cover 8/7/96 12:07 PM Page 1 <^ Arthur F. Huber Philip S. Sauer J. Lawrence Hollett Kenneth Keskel William L. Shelton, Jr. John T

  16. Artificial immune system approach for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2007-04-01

    Since future air combat missions will involve both manned and unmanned aircraft, the primary motivation for this research is to enable unmanned aircraft with intelligent maneuvering capabilities. During air combat maneuvering, pilots use their knowledge and experience of maneuvering strategies and tactics to determine the best course of action. As a result, we try to capture these aspects using an artificial immune system approach. The biological immune system protects the body against intruders by recognizing and destroying harmful cells or molecules. It can be thought of as a robust adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. However, another critical aspect of the immune system is that it can remember how previous encounters were successfully defeated. As a result, it can respond faster to similar encounters in the future. This paper describes how an artificial immune system is used to select and construct air combat maneuvers. These maneuvers are composed of autopilot mode and target commands, which represent the low-level building blocks of the parameterized system. The resulting command sequences are sent to a tactical autopilot system, which has been enhanced with additional modes and an aggressiveness factor for enabling high performance maneuvers. Just as vaccinations train the biological immune system how to combat intruders, training sets are used to teach the maneuvering system how to respond to different enemy aircraft situations. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the potential of using immunized maneuver selection for the purposes of air combat maneuvering.

  17. Elevations. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevations. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, Combat Operations Building. By Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 14, approved March, 1962; specifications no. ENG-04-353-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/14, Rev. "B"; file drawer 77-1/102. Last revised 3 October 1966. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 30x36 inches. photocopy on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  18. Sections. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sections. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, Combat Operations Building. By Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 14, approved March, 1962; specifications no. ENG-04-353-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/15, Rev. "A"; file drawer 1290. Last revised 3 October 1966. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 30x36 inches. pencil on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  19. Stakeholder Analysis of Integrating Women Into Ground Combat Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    combat roles for over 15 years in Canada, women are not “ banging down the door” to serve in direct combat units, and, as of 2014, no woman has...feminists have unrealistic theories that land combat is just another career opportunity - about pushing political agendas that do not have the best...operations (CMR, August & July, 2013). Supporting (Incident related) vs. Primary Mission Combat (Infantry) “There’s not a big difference at all

  20. Close Air Support versus Close Combat Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-06

    Thomas Alexander. Over Lord: General Pete Quesada and the Triumph of Tactical Air Power in World War II. New York: Free Press, 1995. Hume , David B... David Tohn, On Point – The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom, (Fort Leavenworth, KS; Center for Army Lessons Learned, 2004), 405. 55...Mar/Apr 1996). Davis, Richard G. The 31 Initiatives. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1987. Fontenot, Gregory , E.J. Degen, and David

  1. Air-To-Air Combat Skills: Contribution of Platform Motion to Initial Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    AFHRL/FT) using the Advanced Simulator for Air-to-Air Combat (SAAC); (b) an A/A study Pilot Training ( ASPT ) indicated that platform using Northrop...Advanced interested in the implication of these findings in Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) at Williams view of their planned simulator procurements...i.e., air-to-surface weapons delivery TAC’s request, but the ASPT A/S study was (A/S) and air-to-air combat (A/A), was questioned. completed (Gray

  2. Air-to-air combat analysis - Review of differential-gaming approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of evaluating the combat performance of fighter/attack aircraft is discussed, and the mathematical nature of the problem is examined. The following approaches to air combat analysis are reviewed: (1) differential-turning differential game and (2) coplanar differential game. Selected numerical examples of these approaches are presented. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each are analyzed, and it is concluded that air combat analysis is an extremely difficult mathematical problem and that no one method of approach is best for all purposes. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the two approaches might be used in a complementary manner.

  3. Ground cloud air quality effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brubaker, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of the ground cloud associated with launching of a large rocket on air quality are discussed. The ground cloud consists of the exhaust emitted by the rocket during the first 15 to 25 seconds following ignition and liftoff, together with a large quantity of entrained air, cooling water, dust and other debris. Immediately after formation, the ground cloud rises in the air due to the buoyant effect of its high thermal energy content. Eventually, at an altitude typically between 0.7 and 3 km, the cloud stabilizes and is carried along by the prevailing wind at that altitude. For the use of heavy lift launch vehicles small quantities of nitrogen oxides, primarily nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, are expected to be produced from a molecular nitrogen impurity in the fuel or liquid oxygen, or from entrainment and heating of ambient air in the hot rocket exhaust. In addition, possible impurities such as sulfur in the fuel would give rise to a corresponding amount of oxidation products such as sulfur dioxide.

  4. Fear and Loathing in the Air: Combat Fear and Stress in the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    into three parts, each focusing on a major conflict—World War II, Korea, and Vietnam. Before beginning, it is important to explore what constitutes an...during the research process . 5. Did this change after the episode (new policy, changed policy)? How? This question helps understand how prepared...they not found in the post-Vietnam era? Has something else about air combat or the combatants changed since 1973? If so, what does this tell us

  5. The Application of Work Domain Analysis to Defining Australia’s Air Combat Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Australian Air Force’s Air Combat Capability is currently undergoing a significant restructure as new , advanced platforms are introduced to the fleet...the combat fleet of the Royal Australian Air Force has undergone a major shift in force structure, with new platforms and capabilities being...University of Auckland, New Zealand , in 1996. ____________________ ________________________________________________ UNCLASSIFIED

  6. Study of passive fuel tank inerting systems for ground combat vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Steven J.; Motzenbecker, Peter F.; Clauson, Michael J.

    1988-09-01

    Many flammable materials are carried aboard combat vehicles, including fuel, hydraulic fluid, and munitions. A fire involving any of these can lead to destruction of the vehicle and injury to the crew. Ground combat vehicles have relied on fire extinguishing systems to protect the vehicles and crew, while aircraft use passive inerting techniques as well as fire extinguishing systems. The apparent disparity between ground combat vehicles and aircraft has caused the U.S. Congress to direct the Secretary of the Army to examine the use of passive, multiple-hit, fuel tank inerting systems in tracked and wheeled vehicles. This report examines passive fuel tank inerting techniques and provides an assessment of their applicability to ground combat vehicles. The extent of the hazard posed by the combat vehicle fuel tanks has been defined. The adequacy of the technology in reducing this hazard is evaluated for each technique considered. The current technology for the suppression of fires in and from vehicle fuel tanks available to and in use by the armed services, other government agencies, the private sector, and foreign armed services has also been examined. Attention was restricted to passive systems (systems which do not require any mechanical or electrical activation) which can suppress multiple occurrences of fire. Both fuel tank fillers and systems which surround the fuel tanks were considered. A review of currently available passive fuel tank inerting technologies has shown that the majority of these techniques are not effective for ground combat vehicles considering the large antiarmor threats. A significant quantity of testing has been conducted which bears this out. An exception to this are fuel tank jackets which show great promise in improving ground combat fire survivability. Futher development work must be done before this approach can be integrated into production vehicles or retrofitted into fielded vehicles. Proper fuel system and vehicle design, in

  7. Study on combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system based on queuing theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z. Q.; Hao, J. X.; Li, L. J.

    2017-01-01

    Queuing Theory is a method to analyze the combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system. The model of service probability based on the queuing theory was constructed, and applied to analyzing the combat effectiveness of "Sidewinder" and "Tor-M1" air defense missile weapon system. Finally aimed at different targets densities, the combat effectiveness of different combat units of two types' defense missile weapon system is calculated. This method can be used to analyze the usefulness of air defense missile weapon system.

  8. A qualitative analysis of future air combat with 'fire and forget' missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinar, J.; Davidovitz, A.

    1987-01-01

    A set of previous examples have demonstrated that the two-target game formulation is adequate for modeling air-to-air combat between two aggressively motivated fighter aircraft. The present paper describes such an engagement between two aircraft of different speed but equipped with the same 'fire and forget' type guided missiles. The results of the analysis suggest a new concept of air combat tactics for future scenarios.

  9. Life after Future Combat System: a family of ground robotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knichel, David G.

    2010-04-01

    Until recently, the Army Future Combat System (FCS) was the future of Army ground robotics hallmarked by system of systems interoperability for manned and unmanned platforms. New missions, threats, and realities have caused the Army to restructure the Army Future Combat System, but still require unmanned systems interoperability without the FCS system of system interoperability architecture. The result is the Army material developer has no overarching unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) interoperability standards in place equal to the Army unmanned aircraft system (UAS) community. This paper will offer a Life After the FCS vision for an Army family of common ground robotics and payload standards with proposed IEEE, STANAG, SAE, and other standards to potentially achieve common ground robotics interoperability to support the Army and Army Maneuver Support Center of Excellence (MSCoE) Chemical, Engineer, and Military Police mission needs.

  10. A simulator investigation of air-to-air combat maneuvering for tilt-rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Isleib, Douglas; Johns, John

    1989-01-01

    As part of the Marine Corps's development of employment methods and maneuver techniques for the V-22 Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft, a piloted simulation study of one-on-one air-combat maneuvering (ACM) was conducted at NASA Ames. In addition to V-22 ACM, the simulation provided an opportunity for a preliminary investigation of maneuver requirements for a possible armed-escort tilt-rotor aircraft. Results from the study indicate that the tilt-rotor's low-speed masking and high-speed dash capabilities significantly enhance its survivability against both fixed-wing and helicopter aggressors. Furthermore, the tilt-rotor's conversion capability and, in turn, the variety and extent of its maneuvering characteristics make it an effective air-combat aircraft.

  11. Collaborative tactical behaviors for autonomous ground and air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albus, James; Barbera, Anthony; Scott, Harry; Balakirsky, Stephen

    2005-05-01

    Tactical behaviors for autonomous ground and air vehicles are an area of high interest to the Army. They are critical for the inclusion of robots in the Future Combat System (FCS). Tactical behaviors can be defined at multiple levels: at the Company, Platoon, Section, and Vehicle echelons. They are currently being defined by the Army for the FCS Unit of Action. At all of these echelons, unmanned ground vehicles, unmanned air vehicles, and unattended ground sensors must collaborate with each other and with manned systems. Research being conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and sponsored by the Army Research Lab is focused on defining the Four Dimensional Real-time Controls System (4D/RCS) reference model architecture for intelligent systems and developing a software engineering methodology for system design, integration, test and evaluation. This methodology generates detailed design requirements for perception, knowledge representation, decision making, and behavior generation processes that enable complex military tactics to be planned and executed by unmanned ground and air vehicles working in collaboration with manned systems.

  12. Situation assessment for air combat based on the Bayesian networks technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhaolin; Yang, Hongwen; Hu, Weidong; Yu, Wenxian

    2005-11-01

    This paper researches on the method of situation assessment for the air combat based on the Bayesian networks technology. It analyzes the events occur in the process of air combat, and presents a hybrid method of fuzzy sets and Bayesian networks to detect these events. Then, it presents a method to construct Bayesian networks using the events and then uses the networks to reason the purpose of enemy fighter pilots. Finally, it shows the method by an illustrative example.

  13. Computer-automated opponent for manned air-to-air combat simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, W. W., III

    1979-01-01

    Two versions of a real-time digital-computer program that operates a fighter airplane interactively against a human pilot in simulated air combat were evaluated. They function by replacing one of two pilots in the Langley differential maneuvering simulator. Both versions make maneuvering decisions from identical information and logic; they differ essentially in the aerodynamic models that they control. One is very complete, but the other is much simpler, primarily characterizing the airplane's performance (lift, drag, and thrust). Both models competed extremely well against highly trained U.S. fighter pilots.

  14. Transportation by Air-On the Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A Rolair air flotation system is a spinoff of NASA/General Motors technology developed for the Apollo Program. It allows heavy loads to be moved easily by separating the load from the ground by a thin air cushion, virtually eliminating surface friction. Rolair Systems, Inc. was formed by former General Motors engineers and has successfully employed the system for both aerospace and nonaerospace industries.

  15. An adaptive maneuvering logic computer program for the simulation of one-on-one air-to-air combat. Volume 1: General description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgin, G. H.; Fogel, L. J.; Phelps, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for computer simulation of air combat is described. Volume 1 decribes the computer program and its development in general terms. Two versions of the program exist. Both incorporate a logic for selecting and executing air combat maneuvers with performance models of specific fighter aircraft. In the batch processing version the flight paths of two aircraft engaged in interactive aerial combat and controlled by the same logic are computed. The realtime version permits human pilots to fly air-to-air combat against the adaptive maneuvering logic (AML) in Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS). Volume 2 consists of a detailed description of the computer programs.

  16. Combat Service Support of AirLand Battle Doctrine,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-20

    thereby causing him to lose control of the battle. In the offense, it means setting the tarfa of battle and never allowing the enemy to recover from...disorganizes his forces, causes him to lose control and ultimately brings about his defeat. To achieve these conditions on the battlefield requires a...units with a command and control system that allows the coordination and redirection of combat service support assets when and where required. Implied

  17. Air Combat Training: Good Stick Index Validation. Final Report for Period 3 April 1978-1 April 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Samuel B.; And Others

    A study was conducted to investigate and statistically validate a performance measuring system (the Good Stick Index) in the Tactical Air Command Combat Engagement Simulator I (TAC ACES I) Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) training program. The study utilized a twelve-week sample of eighty-nine student pilots to statistically validate the Good Stick…

  18. Enhancing Fires and Maneuver Capability Through Greater Air-Ground Joint Interdependence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    www.rand.org as a public service of the RAND Corporation. 6Jump down to document THE ARTS CHILD POLICY CIVIL JUSTICE EDUCATION ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT HEALTH ...AND HEALTH CARE INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS NATIONAL SECURITY POPULATION AND AGING PUBLIC SAFETY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SUBSTANCE ABUSE TERRORISM AND...and lessons learned during combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq highlight doctrinal and technical issues with air and ground integration. The

  19. Development of a Computer Based Air Combat Maneuvering Range Debrief System. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    cumulative training data or trend analysis infor- mation required to evaluate ACMR traliing progress on a longitudinal basis. m In general, current...Selected Objectives Imalight Air Combat Events Interaircraft Isometry i o Offensive vs defensive a Intial Traly Hoetae 1’, Radar contact Time-distance

  20. Origin and Control of the Flow Structure on Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Prescrtbed by ANSI Ski Z3S.18 AFOSR Final Repot 013108 ORIGIN AND CONTROL OF THE FLOW STRUCTURE ON UNMANNED COMBAT AIR VEHICLES AFOSR GRANT #FA9550-05...1991) described low-dimensional models for flows past a grooved channel and circular cylinders. By employing a Galerkin method, a governing partial

  1. The U.S. Ground Combat Presence in Korea: In Defense of U.S. Interests or a Strategic Dinosaur

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-09

    yD2 5?/ THE U.S. GROUND COMBAT PRESENCE IN KOREA : IN DEFENSE OF U.S. INTERESTS OR A STRATEGIC DINOSAUR 00 00 cV31 A tbosis presented to the Faculty...and Subttle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED The U.S. Ground Combat Presence in Korea : In Defense of U.S. Interests or a StrategicMatrsTei Dinosaur 6...U IT Y C .A S I ic A TrIO H O T1411 ! AG E flW Io. * b at. Ir ’ THE U.S. GROUND COMBAT PRESENCE IN KOREA : IN DEFENSE OF U.S. INTERESTS OR A STRATEGIC

  2. Architecture for an integrated real-time air combat and sensor network simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criswell, Evans A.; Rushing, John; Lin, Hong; Graves, Sara

    2007-04-01

    An architecture for an integrated air combat and sensor network simulation is presented. The architecture integrates two components: a parallel real-time sensor fusion and target tracking simulation, and an air combat simulation. By integrating these two simulations, it becomes possible to experiment with scenarios in which one or both sides in a battle have very large numbers of primitive passive sensors, and to assess the likely effects of those sensors on the outcome of the battle. Modern Air Power is a real-time theater-level air combat simulation that is currently being used as a part of the USAF Air and Space Basic Course (ASBC). The simulation includes a variety of scenarios from the Vietnam war to the present day, and also includes several hypothetical future scenarios. Modern Air Power includes a scenario editor, an order of battle editor, and full AI customization features that make it possible to quickly construct scenarios for any conflict of interest. The scenario editor makes it possible to place a wide variety of sensors including both high fidelity sensors such as radars, and primitive passive sensors that provide only very limited information. The parallel real-time sensor network simulation is capable of handling very large numbers of sensors on a computing cluster of modest size. It can fuse information provided by disparate sensors to detect and track targets, and produce target tracks.

  3. Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles: A Close Air Support Alternative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    War College, Maxwell AFB AL, Jones Auditorium, 24 October 2002. 30 Terry Somerville , “Global Strike Task Force—Kicking Down the Door”, Air Force...2002, 34. 49 Anne Marie Squeo, “Pentagon’s Aerodynamic Shift—Ascendant Unmanned Planes May Mothball Some Manned Ones,” The Wall Street Journal, 14...2002. Somerville , Terry. “Global Strike Task Force—Kicking Down the Door.” Air Force Link, 10 August 2001, n.p. On-line. Internet, 12 November 2002

  4. Preliminary performance estimates of an oblique, all-wing, remotely piloted vehicle for air-to-air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P., Jr.; Bailey, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    A computerized aircraft synthesis program has been used to assess the effects of various vehicle and mission parameters on the performance of an oblique, all-wing, remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) for the highly maneuverable, air-to-air combat role. The study mission consists of an outbound cruise, an acceleration phase, a series of subsonic and supersonic turns, and a return cruise. The results are presented in terms of both the required vehicle weight to accomplish this mission and the combat effectiveness as measured by turning and acceleration capability. This report describes the synthesis program, the mission, the vehicle, and results from sensitivity studies. An optimization process has been used to establish the nominal RPV configuration of the oblique, all-wing concept for the specified mission. In comparison to a previously studied conventional wing-body canard design for the same mission, this oblique, all-wing nominal vehicle is lighter in weight and has higher performance.

  5. An extended two-target differential game model for medium-range air combat game analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinar, J.

    1985-01-01

    The first phase of an investigation of a two-target game, representing an air combat with boresight limited all-aspect guided missiles is summarized. The results, obtained by using a line of sight coordinate system, are compared to a similar recently published work. The comparison indicates that improved insight, gained by using line of sight coordinates, allows to discover important new features of the game solution.

  6. Case-Based Behavior Recognition in Beyond Visual Range Air Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Case-Based Behavior Recognition in Beyond Visual Range Air Combat Hayley Borck 1 , Justin Karneeb 1 , Ron Alford 2 & David W. Aha 3 1Knexus...understanding the behaviors of hostile agents, which is challenging in partially observable environments such as the one we study. In particular, unobserved...hostile behaviors in our domain may alter the world state. To effectively counter hostile behaviors , they need to be recognized and predicted. We

  7. Calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, J. K.; Schildkraut, Elliot Robert; Bauldree, Russell S.; Goodrich, Shawn M.

    1996-06-01

    The calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer (CIGARS) is a new high performance, multi-purpose, multi- platform Fourier transform spectrometer (FPS) sensor. It covers the waveband from 0.2 to 12 micrometer, has spectral resolution as fine as 0.3 cm-1, and records over 100 spectra per second. Two CIGARS units are being used for observations of target signatures in the air or on the ground from fixed or moving platforms, including high performance jet aircraft. In this paper we describe the characteristics and capabilities of the CIGARS sensor, which uses four interchangeable detector modules (Si, InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe) and two optics modules, with internal calibration. The data recording electronics support observations of transient events, even without precise information on the timing of the event. We present test and calibration data on the sensitivity, spectral resolution, stability, and spectral rate of CIGARS, and examples of in- flight observations of real targets. We also discuss plans for adapting CIGARS for imaging spectroscopy observations, with simultaneous spectral and spatial data, by replacing the existing detectors with a focal plane array (FPA).

  8. Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Attack Strategies in Trained Birds of Prey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2015-0006 Air‐to‐air and air‐to‐ground attack strategies in trained birds of prey Prof. Graham K. Taylor...September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air‐to‐air and air‐to‐ground attack strategies in trained birds of prey 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER... birds of prey (peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus and Harris’ hawks Parabuteo unicinctus) during air‐to‐air and air‐to‐ground attacks, from the

  9. 3. AIR TO GROUND RADAR TYPE GT2122 & GRRR 2324, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AIR TO GROUND RADAR TYPE GT2122 & GRRR 2324, CIRCA 1978, INTERIOR OF BUILDING 408, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Operations Building & Annex, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  10. Predictors of Risk and Resilience for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Ground Combat Marines: Methods of the Marine Resiliency Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    and saliva are collected from each subject at T1, T3, and T4. Body measurements Height, weight, and waist circumference are measured at T1, T3, and...SPECIAL TOPIC Predictors of Risk and Resilience for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Ground Combat Marines: Methods of the Marine...PhD; the MRS Team Suggested citation for this article: Baker DG, Nash WP, Litz BT, Geyer MA, Risbrough VB, Nievergelt CM, et al. Predictors of Risk

  11. Optical Embedded Dust Sensor for Engine Protection and Early Warning on M1 Abrams/Ground Combat Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-11

    Optical embedded dust sensor for engine protection and early warning on M1 Abrams/ground combat vehicles Hai Lina, Gregor A. Waldherrb, Timothy...Burch*a aIntelligent Optical Systems, 73 N. Vinedo Ave., Pasadena, CA, USA 91107-3759 bHal Technology, LLC, 7970 Cherry Avenue, Suite 303, Fontana, CA...the DoA, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. ABSTRACT The Dual Optical Embedded Dust Sensor (DOEDS) is designed

  12. Redefining Combat Mission Reporting in Contemporary Operations: Focusing the Air Component’s Process in Support of the Joint Warfighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    REDEFINING COMBAT MISSION REPORTING IN CONTEMPORARY OPERATIONS: FOCUSING THE AIR COMPONENT’S PROCESS IN SUPPORT OF THE JOINT WARFIGHTER...Focusing the Air Component’s Process in Support of the Joint Warfighter 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  13. Study of a very low cost air combat maneuvering trainer aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. C.; Bowles, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    A very low cost aircraft for performing Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) training was studied using the BD-5J sport plane as a point of departure. The installation of a larger engine and increased fuel capacity were required to meet the performance and mission objectives. Reduced wing area increased the simulation of the ACM engagement, and a comparison with current tactical aircraft is presented. Other factors affecting the training transfer are considered analytically, but a flight evaluation is recommended to determine the concept utility.

  14. 33 CFR 334.700 - Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, Air Proving Ground Center, Eglin AFB, and...

  15. 33 CFR 334.700 - Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... gunnery ranges, Air Proving Ground Center, Air Research and Development Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla... regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, Air Proving Ground Center, Eglin AFB, and...

  16. TAC BRAWLER - An application of engagement simulation modeling to simulator visual system display requirements for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerchner, R. M.; Hughes, R. G.; Lee, A.

    1984-01-01

    The TAC BRAWLER air combat simulation models both the acquisition and use of visual information by the pilot. It was used to provide the designers of manned simulators for air-to-air combat with information regarding the training implications of display system resolution, inherent target contrast, field of view, and transport delay. Various display designs were simulated, and the resulting quantitative and qualitative differences in engagements were considered indicators of possible mistraining. Display resolution was found to alter combats primarily through its effect on detection ranges; the 'pixel averaging' contrast management technique was shown to largely compensate for this problem. Transport delay significantly degrades pilot tracking ability, but the training impact of the effect is unclear.

  17. Anthropometry of the Clothed US Army Ground Troop and Combat Vehicle Crewman

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    Arithropometric data on the amount of space required for each person in a -omltat .ehicle are essential input for the development of ar efficient man- vehicle...Faotwear Cover, Chemical Protective (Overboots); MIL-F-43987 Handwear Gloves. Combat Vehicle Crewman’s, Summer; LP/P DES 13-78 Clove Set, Chemical...Protective (Overbocts); MIL-F-43987 Handwear Clove Set, Chemicel Protective (Butyl Outer Gloves with Cotton Inner Cloves ); MIL-C-43971 Cloves , Combat Vehi le

  18. A piloted simulation investigation of yaw dynamics requirements for turreted gun use in low-level helicopter air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Morris, Patrick M.; Williams, Jeffrey N.

    1988-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation study was conducted to investigate the handling qualities requirements for helicopter air-to-air combat using turreted guns in the near-terrain environment. The study used a version of the helicopter air combat system developed at NASA Ames Research Center for one-on-one air combat. The study focused on the potential trade-off between gun angular movement capability and required yaw axis response. Experimental variables included yaw axis response frequency and damping and the size of the gun-movement envelope. A helmet position and sighting system was used for pilot control of gun aim. Approximately 340 simulated air combat engagements were evaluated by pilots from the Army and industry. Results from the experiment indicate that a highly-damped, high frequency yaw response was desired for Level I handling qualities. Pilot preference for those characteristics became more pronounced as gun turret movement was restricted; however, a stable, slow-reacting platform could be used with a large turret envelope. Most pilots preferred to engage with the opponent near the own-ship centerline. Turret elevation restriction affected the engagement more than azimuth restrictions.

  19. Air Force Combat Support: Adjusting Doctrine to Meet Expeditionary Air Force Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Force Battlelab Briefing”: U.S Air Force Air Expeditionary Force Battlelab Web Page, on-line, Netscape , 15 Mar 00, available from www.mountain.af.mil...Expeditionary Air Force Web Site, slide 4, on- line, Netscape , 2 Apr 00, www.af.mil/eaf/master.ppt This slide portrays how the Air Force has changed since...Center Web Page, on-line, Netscape , 26 Mar 00, available from www.hqafdc.maxwell.af.mil/library/doctrine/afdd2brief.ppt: slide 2 2 “The little

  20. Infrared and visible combat identification marking materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Eoin; Shohet, Adam; Swan, Martin

    2007-04-01

    Historically, it is believed that fratricide accounts for up to 15% of friendly casualties during operations and a UK MoD report identifies that almost half of all such casualties occur in situations involving ground units only. Such risks can be mitigated, to an extent, via operational awareness and effective communications. However, recent conflicts have involved a much more dynamic, complex and technically sophisticated battlefield than previously experienced. For example, Operation Telic (Desert Storm) involved almost one million combatants and ten thousand armoured vehicles in the coalition force, advancing across an extensive battlefront at high speed during daylight and at night, making effective use of a range of electro-optic sensors. The accelerated tempo of battle means that front lines can undergo rapid, punctuated advances that can leave individual combat units with a much degraded situational awareness, particularly of where they are in relation to other 'friendly' combatants. Consequently, there is a need for a robust, low cost, low weight, compact, unpowered, interoperable, Combat Identification technique for use with popular electro-optic sensors which can be deployed, and is effective, at the individual combat unit level. In this paper we discuss ground-to-ground combat identification materials that meet these requirements, all of which are based on the air-to-ground Mirage TM vehicle marking material. We show some preliminary ground-to-ground data collected from the new variant Mirage TM material in recent experimental trials conducted during the day, evening and at night.

  1. A preference-ordered discrete-gaming approach to air-combat analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, H. J.; Lefton, L.

    1978-01-01

    An approach to one-on-one air-combat analysis is described which employs discrete gaming of a parameterized model featuring choice between several closed-loop control policies. A preference-ordering formulation due to Falco is applied to rational choice between outcomes: win, loss, mutual capture, purposeful disengagement, draw. Approximate optimization is provided by an active-cell scheme similar to Falco's obtained by a 'backing up' process similar to that of Kopp. The approach is designed primarily for short-duration duels between craft with large-envelope weaponry. Some illustrative computations are presented for an example modeled using constant-speed vehicles and very rough estimation of energy shifts.

  2. Two-target game model of an air combat with fire-and-forget all-aspect missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidovitz, A.; Shinar, J.

    1989-01-01

    An air combat duel between similar aggressive fighter aircraft, both equipped with the same type of guided missiles, is formulated as a two-target differential game using the dynamic model of the game of two identical cars. Each of the identical target sets represents the effective firing envelope of an all-aspect fire-and-forget air-to-air missile. The firing range limits depend on the target aspect angle and are approximated by analytical functions. The maximum range, computed by taking into account the optimal missile avoidance maneuver of the target, determines the no-escape firing envelope. The solution consists of the decomposition of the game space into four regions: the respective winning zones of the two opponents, the draw zone, and the region where the game terminates by a mutual kill. The solution provides a new insight for future air combat analysis.

  3. Carbon dioxide, ground air and carbon cycling in Gibraltar karst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattey, D. P.; Atkinson, T. C.; Barker, J. A.; Fisher, R.; Latin, J.-P.; Durrell, R.; Ainsworth, M.

    2016-07-01

    We put forward a general conceptual model of CO2 behaviour in the vadose zone of karst aquifers, based on physical principles of air flow through porous media and caves, combined with a geochemical interpretation of cave monitoring data. This 'Gibraltar model' links fluxes of water, air and carbon through the soil with the porosity of the vadose zone, the circulation of ground air and the ventilation of caves. Gibraltar hosts many natural caves whose locations span the full length and vertical range of the Rock. We report results of an 8-year monitoring study of carbon in soil organic matter and bedrock carbonate, dissolved inorganic carbon in vadose waters, and gaseous CO2 in soil, cave and ground air. Results show that the regime of cave air CO2 results from the interaction of cave ventilation with a reservoir of CO2-enriched ground air held within the smaller voids of the bedrock. The pCO2 of ground air, and of vadose waters that have been in close contact with it, are determined by multiple factors that include recharge patterns, vegetation productivity and root respiration, and conversion of organic matter to CO2 within the soil, the epikarst and the whole vadose zone. Mathematical modelling and field observations show that ground air is subject to a density-driven circulation that reverses seasonally, as the difference between surface and underground temperatures reverses in sign. The Gibraltar model suggests that cave air pCO2 is not directly related to CO2 generated in the soil or the epikarstic zone, as is often assumed. Ground air CO2 formed by the decay of organic matter (OM) washed down into the deeper unsaturated zone is an important additional source of pCO2. In Gibraltar the addition of OM-derived CO2 is the dominant control on the pCO2 of ground air and the Ca-hardness of waters within the deep vadose zone. The seasonal regime of CO2 in cave air depends on the position of a cave in relation to the density-driven ground air circulation pattern which

  4. Air Superiority by the Numbers: Cutting Combat Air Forces in a Time of Uncertainty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    of life.68 “Unless we reduce flying operations that are already meeting the minimum requirement, my people cannot take leave, go on career ...with indecision over the role of airpower in support of the ground component, its acceptance within the services set the requirement for a larger

  5. The Importance of Combat Ethics Training: Solidifying Marines Footing on the Moral High Ground

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    levels ranging the Basic School to ~he Marine Corps War College. IS On Mar·ch 28,2007, General Conway summed up the extensive improvements and efforts...training at the School of Infantry (Sal). The development of ethics continues with core values discussions, Marine Corps Martial Arts program (MCMAP...training. 1) At the School ofInfantry, build on the current Marine Corps core values curriculum by specifically including the topic of combat ethics

  6. Piloted simulation of one-on-one helicopter air combat at NOE flight levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. S.; Aiken, E. W.

    1985-01-01

    A piloted simulation designed to examine the effects of terrain proximity and control system design on helicopter performance during one-on-one air combat maneuvering (ACM) is discussed. The NASA Ames vertical motion simulator (VMS) and the computer generated imagery (CGI) systems were modified to allow two aircraft to be independently piloted on a single CGI data base. Engagements were begun with the blue aircraft already in a tail-chase position behind the red, and also with the two aircraft originating from positions unknown to each other. Maneuvering was very aggressive and safety requirements for minimum altitude, separation, and maximum bank angles typical of flight test were not used. Results indicate that the presence of terrain features adds an order of complexiaty to the task performed over clear air ACM and that mix of attitude and rate command-type stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) design may be desirable. The simulation system design, the flight paths flown, and the tactics used were compared favorably by the evaluation pilots to actual flight test experiments.

  7. Joint Air-to-Ground Missile (JAGM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Navy. The JAGM mission is to develop the next generation of aviation launched fire and forget missiles to replace the HELLFIRE laser and Longbow...EMD contract to develop the next generation of aviation launched missiles to replace the HELLFIRE laser and Longbow radar missiles. JAGM December 2015... Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center and Lockheed Martin, successfully conducted the third JAGM flight test at Eglin Air

  8. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  9. 47 CFR 22.807 - General aviation air-ground application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General aviation air-ground application... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.807 General aviation air-ground application requirements. In addition to the...

  10. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  11. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  12. 47 CFR 22.807 - General aviation air-ground application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General aviation air-ground application... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.807 General aviation air-ground application requirements. In addition to the...

  13. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  14. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  15. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  16. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  17. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  18. 47 CFR 22.807 - General aviation air-ground application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General aviation air-ground application... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.807 General aviation air-ground application requirements. In addition to the...

  19. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  20. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  1. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  2. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  3. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  4. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  5. 47 CFR 22.807 - General aviation air-ground application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General aviation air-ground application... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.807 General aviation air-ground application requirements. In addition to the...

  6. 47 CFR 22.807 - General aviation air-ground application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General aviation air-ground application... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.807 General aviation air-ground application requirements. In addition to the...

  7. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  8. Investigation of the Influence of Air Defense Artillery on Combat Pilot Suppression and Attrition Management Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    with regulatory requirements. It has been given no primary distribution other than to DTIC and will be available only through DTIC or the National...should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position , policy, or decision, unless so designated by other authorized documents. 1992...Army Field Artillery School , 1979.) The issue of interest in this report is whether performance is degraded in air-to-ground missions that are disrupted

  9. Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange is a two-year research effort to visualize the U. S. aviation industry at a point 50 years in the future, and to define potential communication solutions to meet those future data exchange needs. The research team, led by XCELAR, was tasked with identifying future National Airspace System (NAS) scenarios, determining requirements and functions (including gaps), investigating technical and business issues for air, ground, & air-to-ground interactions, and reporting on the results. The project was conducted under technical direction from NASA and in collaboration with XCELAR's partner, National Institute of Aerospace, and NASA technical representatives. Parallel efforts were initiated to define the information exchange functional needs of the future NAS, and specific communication link technologies to potentially serve those needs. Those efforts converged with the mapping of each identified future NAS function to potential enabling communication solutions; those solutions were then compared with, and ranked relative to, each other on a technical basis in a structured analysis process. The technical solutions emerging from that process were then assessed from a business case perspective to determine their viability from a real-world adoption and deployment standpoint. The results of that analysis produced a proposed set of future solutions and most promising candidate technologies. Gap analyses were conducted at two points in the process, the first examining technical factors, and the second as part of the business case analysis. In each case, no gaps or unmet needs were identified in applying the solutions evaluated to the requirements identified. The future communication solutions identified in the research comprise both specific link technologies and two enabling technologies that apply to most or all specific links. As a result, the research resulted in a new analysis approach, viewing the

  10. A piloted simulation of helicopter air combat to investigate effects of variations in selected performance and control response characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michael S.; Mansur, M. Hossein; Chen, Robert T. N.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study investigating handling qualities and flight characteristics required for helicopter air to air combat is presented. The Helicopter Air Combat system was used to investigate this role for Army rotorcraft. Experimental variables were the maneuver envelope size (load factor and sideslip), directional axis handling qualities, and pitch and roll control-response type. Over 450 simulated, low altitude, one-on-one engagements were conducted. Results from the experiment indicate that a well damped directional response, low sideforce caused by sideslip, and some effective dihedral are all desirable for weapon system performance, good handling qualities, and low pilot workload. An angular rate command system was favored over the attitude type pitch and roll response for most applications, and an enhanced maneuver envelope size over that of current generation aircraft was found to be advantageous. Pilot technique, background, and experience are additional factors which had a significant effect on performance in the air combat tasks investigated. The implication of these results on design requirements for future helicopters is presented.

  11. The Relationship Between Realism in Air Force Exercises and Combat Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    confronted with in a contingency or combat situation. Reality consists of numerous physical and psychological elements which include factors such as time...unsuccessful infantrymen in combat and simulated combat situations. Although developed as a psychological study of the individual behavior trait- which 2...Company, Inc., 31 December 1951. 3. Cicarelli , James. "The Future of Economics: A Delphi Study," Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 25: 139-!5

  12. Improving Air-Ground Operations on the Complex Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    camera systems , Ground/Vehicle Laser Locator Designator (G/VLLD) and Long Range Advanced Scout Surveillance Systems (LRAS3), and radar systems that...meet the requirements of the future Joint Force, the Army must develop an organic capability to coordinate and execute air-ground operations. The...attack solutions in order to defeat an elusive enemy and minimize collateral damage. In order to meet the requirements of the future Joint Force, the Army

  13. Optical embedded dust sensor for engine protection and early warning on M1 Abrams/ground combat vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hai; Waldherr, Gregor A.; Burch, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    The Dual Optical Embedded Dust Sensor (DOEDS) is designed for the sensitive, accurate detection of particles for preventive health monitoring of the AGT1500 engine and M1 Abrams/Ground Combat Vehicles (GCVs). DOEDS is a real-time sensor that uses an innovative combination of optical particle sensing technologies and mechanical packaging in a rugged, compact and non-intrusive optical design. The optical sensor, implementing both a single particle sensor and a mass sensor, can operate in harsh environments (up to 400°F) to meet the particle size, size distribution, mass concentration, and response time criteria. The sensor may be flush- or inline-mounted in multiple engine locations and environments.

  14. Air Combat Maneuver, A Computer-Operated Simulation Model of a Strike Group, Its Escorts, and Enemy Interceptors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-14

    Introduction -General ... . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Basic Capabilities and Limitations .. . . . . . . . I 1.3 System Functional Overview...to run and use the model. 1.2 BASIC CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS : The AIR COMBAT MANEU- VER Model is a computer-operated logic model which simulates...following attributes: Maximum and 90-pct detection ranges, target signature for 90-pct detec- tion, sweep rate and width, upper and lower sweep limits , and

  15. Ground/Air Task Oriented Radar (G/ATOR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-386 Ground/Air Task Oriented Radar (G/ATOR) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY

  16. Anomalous Transmission of Infrasound Through Air-Water and Air-Ground Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, O. A.

    2009-05-01

    Speed of compressional waves in air is smaller than in water and in the ground, while mass density of air is much smaller than mass densities of water and the ground. This results in a very strong acoustic impedance contrast at air-water and air-ground interfaces. Sound transmission through a boundary with a strong impedance contrast is normally very weak. This paper reports theoretical studies of the power output of localized sound sources and acoustic power fluxes through plane gas-liquid and gas-solid interfaces in a layered medium. It is found that the transparency of the interfaces increases dramatically at low frequencies. For low-frequency sound, a phenomenon of anomalous transparency can occur where most of the acoustic power generated by a source in water is radiated into the atmosphere. Contrary to the conventional wisdom based on ray-theoretical predictions and observations at higher frequencies, infrasonic energy from localized waterborne sources can be effectively transmitted into air. The main physical mechanism responsible for the anomalous transparency of air-water interface is found to be an acoustic power transfer by inhomogeneous (evanescent) waves in the plane-wave decomposition of the acoustic field in water. The effects of ocean and atmosphere stratification and of guided sound propagation in water or in air on the anomalous transparency of the air-water interface are considered. In the case of air-ground interface, the increase of the acoustic power flux into atmosphere, when a compact source approaches the interface from below, proves to be even larger than for an underwater source. The physics behind the increase of the power flux into the atmosphere, when the source depth decreases, is shown to be rather different for the air-ground and air-water interfaces. Depending on attenuation of compressional and shear waves in the ground, a leaky interface wave supported by the air-ground interface can be responsible for the bulk of acoustic power

  17. A Framework for Dimensioning VDL-2 Air-Ground Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribeiro, Leila Z.; Monticone, Leone C.; Snow, Richard E.; Box, Frank; Apaza, Rafel; Bretmersky, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a framework developed at MITRE for dimensioning a Very High Frequency (VHF) Digital Link Mode 2 (VDL-2) Air-to-Ground network. This framework was developed to support the FAA's Data Communications (Data Comm) program by providing estimates of expected capacity required for the air-ground network services that will support Controller-Pilot-Data-Link Communications (CPDLC), as well as the spectrum needed to operate the system at required levels of performance. The Data Comm program is part of the FAA's NextGen initiative to implement advanced communication capabilities in the National Airspace System (NAS). The first component of the framework is the radio-frequency (RF) coverage design for the network ground stations. Then we proceed to describe the approach used to assess the aircraft geographical distribution and the data traffic demand expected in the network. The next step is the resource allocation utilizing optimization algorithms developed in MITRE's Spectrum ProspectorTM tool to propose frequency assignment solutions, and a NASA-developed VDL-2 tool to perform simulations and determine whether a proposed plan meets the desired performance requirements. The framework presented is capable of providing quantitative estimates of multiple variables related to the air-ground network, in order to satisfy established coverage, capacity and latency performance requirements. Outputs include: coverage provided at different altitudes; data capacity required in the network, aggregated or on a per ground station basis; spectrum (pool of frequencies) needed for the system to meet a target performance; optimized frequency plan for a given scenario; expected performance given spectrum available; and, estimates of throughput distributions for a given scenario. We conclude with a discussion aimed at providing insight into the tradeoffs and challenges identified with respect to radio resource management for VDL-2 air-ground networks.

  18. A CBO Study. Sea Basing and Alternatives for Deploying and Sustaining Ground Combat Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s Walrus program and by the Naval Air Systems Command. The notional airships would carry more than 10...for the performance of that air- ship are similar to those of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s Walrus program—an aircraft with a

  19. Sea Basing and Alternatives for Deploying and Sustaining Ground Combat Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s Walrus program and by the Naval Air Systems Command. The notional airships would carry more than...goals for the performance of that air- ship are similar to those of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s Walrus program—an aircraft with a

  20. Dying on the Vine: Air Combat Command’s Struggle to Provide Combat-Ready Aircrews with Limited Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    results from this experience- balance problem. First, by becoming “experienced” while executing a single mission-type, the aircrew will receive fewer...experience, funding, and sortie generation is a delicate balance that if not closely managed can rapidly devolve into an unrecoverable downward...to comply with the legally mandated budget cuts. Like the Air Force, the US Army plans to balance its budget by reducing readiness costs. To cope

  1. 47 CFR 22.881 - Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air... exclusive initial applications for general aviation Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service licenses and mutually exclusive initial applications for commercial Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service licenses are subject...

  2. 47 CFR 22.881 - Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air... exclusive initial applications for general aviation Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service licenses and mutually exclusive initial applications for commercial Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service licenses are subject...

  3. Detecting Intelligent Agent Behavior with Environment Abstraction in Complex Air Combat Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    by concept explorations, “wh optimizations of the models co y at multiple levels, the onceptual framework also 12, 13]. Starting from the tual...l with the modeling layer – where we have in frameworks as well as dynamic system forma Finally, the pragmatic level includes use of ON A: Approved...levels N (EA) rm and the DIS nal capabilities, on in a combat he entire combat formation to the orm level. The frastructure) are m2DIS API as

  4. Automatic speech recognition in air-ground data link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Herbert B.

    1989-01-01

    In the present air traffic system, information presented to the transport aircraft cockpit crew may originate from a variety of sources and may be presented to the crew in visual or aural form, either through cockpit instrument displays or, most often, through voice communication. Voice radio communications are the most error prone method for air-ground data link. Voice messages can be misstated or misunderstood and radio frequency congestion can delay or obscure important messages. To prevent proliferation, a multiplexed data link display can be designed to present information from multiple data link sources on a shared cockpit display unit (CDU) or multi-function display (MFD) or some future combination of flight management and data link information. An aural data link which incorporates an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system for crew response offers several advantages over visual displays. The possibility of applying ASR to the air-ground data link was investigated. The first step was to review current efforts in ASR applications in the cockpit and in air traffic control and evaluated their possible data line application. Next, a series of preliminary research questions is to be developed for possible future collaboration.

  5. Installation Restoration Program. Preliminary Assessment: 162nd Combat Communications Group and 149th Combat Communications Squadron, Nort Highlands Air National Guard Station, California Air National Guard, Sacramento, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    lattice clay minerals when wetted. MONZONITE - Plutonic rock intermediate in composition between syenite and diorite, containing approximately equal...ground surface, including streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes. SYENITE - Plutonic rock containing orthoclase and microcline with small amounts of

  6. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  7. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  8. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  9. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  10. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  11. Design Calculations 81’ MLW Structure. East Coast Air Combat Maneuvering Range Offshore Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    AD-A163 699 DESIGN CALCULATIONS 81’ MLN STRUCTURE EAST COAST AIR I COMBAT MANEUVERING R.. (U) CREST ENGINEERING INC TULSA OK SEP 76 27-771-94 N62477...6b. OFFICE SY1 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Crest Engineering . Inc. Ocean Engineering & Construction Project Office CHESNAVFACENGCOM 6c. ADDRESS...of the documentation required by U.S. Government Contract No. N62477-76--C-0179. Modification No. P0001, let by the Naval Facilities Engineering

  12. Operation JANGLE. Project 1(9)a. Ground Acceleration, Ground and Air Pressures for Underground Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-04-01

    Salmon 0, April .1952 -0o So 0 * per telecon w/Betty Fox ( DNA Tech Libr, Chief), the classified references contained herein may remain. 6-Z I- 7...73 693 Earth Pr.essure . 77 6.4 Damage Criteria - Surface Stracture .... 78 6.5 D-miage Criteria - Underground Targets ... 8...ground pressures, and air pressures produced by a buried shallow) nuclear explosive. AU2 of these physical quantities are functions of at least two

  13. TAGS: Multiservice Procedures for the Theater Air-Ground System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    procedures that participate in the planning Distribution is in accordance with MCPDS . Marine Corps: PCN 14300002000 i Navy. The Navy will incorporate these...MCC maritime component commander MCCDC Marine Corps Combat Development Command MCPDS Marine Corps Publication Distribution System MCWP Marine Corps...component commander MCCDC Marine Corps Combat Development Command MCPDS Marine Corps Publication Distribution System MCWP Marine Corps Warfighting

  14. Two-axis gimbal for air-to-air and air-to-ground laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talmor, Amnon G.; Harding, Harvard; Chen, Chien-Chung

    2016-03-01

    For bi-directional links between high-altitude-platforms (HAPs) and ground, and air-to-air communication between such platforms, a hemispherical +30°C field-of-regard and low-drag low-mass two-axis gimbal was designed and prototyped. The gimbal comprises two servo controlled non-orthogonal elevation over azimuth axis, and inner fast steering mirrors for fine field-of-regard adjustment. The design encompasses a 7.5cm diameter aperture refractive telescope in its elevation stage, folded between two flat mirrors with an exit lens leading to a two mirrors miniature Coude-path fixed to the azimuth stage. Multiple gimbal configurations were traded prior to finalizing a selection that met the requirements. The selected design was manifested onboard a carbon fiber and magnesium composite structure, motorized by custom-built servo motors, and commutated by optical encoders. The azimuth stage is electrically connected to the stationary base via slip ring while the elevation stage made of passive optics. Both axes are aligned by custom-built ceramic-on-steel angular contact duplex bearings, and controlled by embedded electronics featuring a rigid-flex PCB architecture. FEA analysis showed that the design is mechanically robust over a temperature range of +60°C to -80°C, and with first mode of natural frequencies above 400Hz. The total mass of the prototyped gimbal is 3.5kg, including the inner optical bench, which contains fast steering mirrors (FSMs) and tracking sensors. Future version of this gimbal, in prototyping stage, shall weigh less than 3.0kg.

  15. An Investigation of Combat Knowledge and Attitudes of Women in the United States Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    of Technology (AU), Wright Patterson AFB OH, September 1979 (AD-A075592). 10. Cecil , Major Thomas H. Women in Combat-.-Pros and Cons. Research Report...Task Force on Women in tnh MilitarL. Report, Washington: Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (FM&P), January 1988 (AD-A190369). 20. Goldman

  16. Analysis of Air Land Combat Tactics Using JANUS(T) System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    FORTRAN, a structured Digital Equipment Corporation extension of FORTRAN-77. [Ref.5: p. 221 b. Model Resolution The JANUS (T) combat simulation...reviewed and analy,,ed within the context of military operations research; thus, the analysis of the assumptions underlying the JANUSi (T) model are outside

  17. Air Force Combat Wings: Lineage and Honors Histories, 1947-1977

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Aeronautics and Space Administratiop iii The Author CHARLES A. RAVENSTEIN is a historian with the Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center...34wise, for short periods in 1958, 1960, verified combat record. and in 1961, the wing did not control Decorations. (See Appendix III .) KC-135 aircraft...7- . - - .7-74r*-*..’ .’ * - .. * % 41 Contents Page FGreword ..................................................... iii

  18. An Analysis of Rotary Wing Operations in Urban Combat Using the JCATS Combat Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    Operational Maneuver from the Sea RPG Rocket-Propelled Grenade SEAD Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses TRAP Tactical Recovery of Aircraft and...tactical insertion of ground forces and cargo, direct action, combat resupply and tactical recovery of aircraft and personnel (TRAP). In the end, the... recovery , tactical recovery of aircraft and personnel, airfield seizure, humanitarian assistance or show of force. Ultimately the ground tactical

  19. ASTP Technical Air-To-Ground Voice Transcription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The transcription of the technical air-to-ground voice communication of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission was presented. The transcript was divided into three columns giving, respectively, the time, speaker, and text. All times are expressed in Greenwich mean time for the appropriate Julian dates. The speaker column indicates the source of transmission; the text column contains the verbatim transcript of the communications. Special symbols were used to report garbling, pauses or self-interruptions, interruptions by other speakers or abrupt terminations, emphasized words, obliterations, and material translated from Russian.

  20. Check Six Begins on the Ground: Responding to the Evolving Ground Threat to U.S. Air Force Bases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    Jalibah and Talil, destroying 29 aircraft in the process. See Rick Atkinson, Crusade: The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War, New York: Houghton... Riordan , Air Base Ground Defense: Key Issues for the 1990s, Maxwell AFB, Ala.: Air War College Research Report, 1987. Nystrom, Charles W., Air Base...Press, "Salvadoran Rebels Hit Military Posts," Chicago Tribune, November 21,1990, p. 3. 86 "Check Six begins on the ground" Atkinson, Rick

  1. Ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, J.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The aquifer overlies a thick clay layer at an average depth of 65 feet. The water table is about 10 feet below land surface in the western part of the Base and about 25 feet below land surface in the eastern part. A ground-water divide cuts diagonally across the Base from northwest to southeast. South of the divide, ground water flows to the Au Sable River; north of the divide, it flows to Van Etten Creek and Van Etten Lake. Mathematical models were used to aid in calculating rates of groundwater flow. Rates range from about 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to about 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Models also were used as an aid in making decisions regarding purging of contaminated water from the aquifer. In 1977, trichloroethylene was detected in the Air Force Base water-supply system. It had leaked from a buried storage tank near Building 43 in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward under the influence of the natural ground-water gradient and the pumping of Base water-supply wells. In the most highly contaminated part of the plume, concentrations are greater than 1,000 micrograms per liter. Current purge pumping is removing some of the trichloroethylene, and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. Trichloroethylene has also been detected in ground water in the vicinity of the Base alert apron, where a plume from an unknown source extends northeastward off Base. A smaller, less well-defined area of contamination also occurs just north of the larger plume. Trichloroethylene, identified near the waste-treatment plant, seepage lagoons, and the northern landfill area, is related to activities and operations in these areas. Dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene occur in significant quantities westward of Building 43, upgradient from the major

  2. Terminal air-to-ground missile guidance by infrared seeker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christy, Stephane; Mazar, Bruno; Horaud, Radu

    1997-06-01

    In this paper, we describe a new method for terminal air-to- ground missile guidance based on IR seeker. The aim is to hit a building which has been previously selected in a 3D model of the scene. The proposed algorithm is divided in two steps: acquisition and tracking steps. Acquisition consists in estimating the location of the target in the first image and to reestimate the missile position. The second step is the tracking of the target along the sequence of images by predicting the target location in each image from the previous one. A supervisor module is in charge of verifying the correctness of the tracking, by doing some reacquisitions in background and ensure the coherence between reacquisitions in background and ensure the coherence between reacquisitions and tracking. All computations are real-time compatible.

  3. Extensive air showers, lightning, and thunderstorm ground enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Kozliner, L.

    2016-09-01

    For lightning research, we monitor particle fluxes from thunderclouds, the so-called thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs) initiated by runaway electrons, and extensive air showers (EASs) originating from high-energy protons or fully stripped nuclei that enter the Earth's atmosphere. We also monitor the near-surface electric field and atmospheric discharges using a network of electric field mills. The Aragats "electron accelerator" produced several TGEs and lightning events in the spring of 2015. Using 1-s time series, we investigated the relationship between lightning and particle fluxes. Lightning flashes often terminated the particle flux; in particular, during some TGEs, lightning events would terminate the particle flux thrice after successive recovery. It was postulated that a lightning terminates a particle flux mostly in the beginning of a TGE or in its decay phase; however, we observed two events (19 October 2013 and 20 April 2015) when the huge particle flux was terminated just at the peak of its development. We discuss the possibility of a huge EAS facilitating lightning leader to find its path to the ground.

  4. An air quality balance index estimating the total amount of air pollutants at ground level.

    PubMed

    Trivero, Paolo; Biamino, Walter; Borasi, Maria; Cavagnero, Marco; Musa, Maya; Rinaudo, Caterina; Sesia, Veronica

    2012-07-01

    A new index named Air Quality Balance Index (AQBI), which is able to characterise the amount of pollution level in a selected area, is proposed. This index is a function of the ratios between pollutant concentration values and their standards; it aims at identifying all situations in which there is a possible environmental risk even when several pollutants are below their limit values but air quality is reduced. AQBI is evaluated by using a high-resolution three-dimensional dispersion model: the air concentration for each substance is computed starting from detailed emissions sources: point, line and area emissions hourly modulated. This model is driven with accurate meteorological data from ground stations and remote sensing systems providing vertical profiles of temperature and wind; these data are integrated with wind and temperature profiles at higher altitudes obtained by a Local Area Model. The outputs of the dispersion model are compared with pollutant concentrations provided by measuring stations, in order to recalibrate emission data. A three-dimensional high resolution grid of AQBI data is evaluated for an industrial area close to Alessandria (Northern Italy), assessing air quality and environmental conditions. Performance of AQBI is compared with the Air Quality Index (AQI) developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. AQBI, computed taking into account all pollutants, is able to point out situations not evidenced by AQI, based on a preset limited number of substances; therefore, AQBI is a good tool for evaluating the air quality either in urban and in industrial areas. The AQBI values at ground level, in selected points, are in agreement with in situ observations.

  5. Aerodynamics of Combat Aircraft Controls and of Ground Effects (L’Aerodynamique des Commandes des Avions de Combat et des Effets de Sol)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    maneuverability and short field capability. Mangold and Wedekind (ref 16) addressed some of the same issues as Ref 1, but with an emphasis on pitch...Deployment on the Transient Forces on an Aerofoil" 16. Mangold, P., Wedekind , G., "Inflight Thrust Vectoring - A Further Degree of Freedom in the...Aerodynamic/Flightmechanical Design of Modern Fighter Aicraft" 17. Holmes, M., et.al., "A Propulsion View of Ground Effects Research" 12 18. Wedekind , G

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Internal and External Solutions to Provide Air Combat Maneuvering Instrumentation (ACMI) Functionality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    interview by author, 17 March 2000, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. 15 Jim Beaver, Software Eningeer , Smith Industries. Telephone interview by author...Software Eningeer , Smith Industries. Telephone interview by author, 10 Apr 2000, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. Boeing F-15E Suite 3 1553 Multiplex Bus #5

  7. A Systems Engineering Approach in Providing Air Defense Support to Ground Combat Vehicle Maneuver Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    and M. M. Van Krimpen. 2014. “Application of the Taguchi Method in Poultry Science: Estimation of the In Vitro Optimum Intrinsic Phytase Activity of...Rye, Wheat and Barley.” British Poultry Science 55 (2): 246–252. Smith, Edward A. 2003. Effects Based Operations: Applying Network Centric Warfare

  8. Preliminary Geothermal Exploration at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    several Mesozoic orogenies, the sedimentary series was folded during the formation of low-angle thrust faults and high-angle faults. In the central and...called quartz-conductive-cooling), quartz maximum steam loss, chalcedony, a- cristobalite , {- cristobalite , and amorphous silica (Fournier, 1981). All... hydrothermal history of the area and provide an indication of the northern limit and the subsurface temperature of the geothermal resource in the Main Camp

  9. Thermal Coupling Between Air and Ground Temperatures in the CMIP5 Historical and Future Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, A.; Cuesta-Valero, F. J.; Smerdon, J. E.; Beltrami, H.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal coupling between air and ground temperatures is investigated herein for General Circulation Models (GCMs) that participated in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). For each simulation, we evaluate the regional relationship between air and ground temperatures to study surface energy fluxes and the attenuation of the annual temperature signal across the air-ground interface and into the shallow subsurface for North America. Our results show that the transport of energy across the air-ground interface and into the shallow subsurface is different across GCMs and is dependent on the land surface models that each employs. The variability of the difference between air and ground temperatures is high among simulations and is not dependent on the depth of the bottom boundary of the subsurface soil model. The difference between air and ground temperatures differs significantly from observations. Additionally, while the variability among GCMs can be explained by the physics of the land surface models, the regional variability of the air-ground coupling is associated with the model treatment of soil properties as well as snow and vegetation processes within GCMs. The difference between air and ground temperatures at high latitudes within the majority of the CMIP5 models is directly proportional to the amount of snow on the ground, due to the insulating effect of snow cover. On the other hand, the difference between air and ground temperatures at low latitudes within some of the CMIP5 models is inversely proportional to the vegetation cover (leaf area index), due to changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes. The large variability among GCMs and the marked dependency of the results on the choice of the land-surface model illustrates the need for improving the simulation of air-ground coupling in land-surface models towards a robust simulation of near-surface processes, such as permafrost and soil carbon stability within GCMs.

  10. Air route selection for improved air-to-ground situation assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oispuu, Marc; Sciotti, Massimo; Charlish, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    Air-to-Ground Situation Assessment (SA) requires gathering information on the entities evolving on the ground (e.g., people, vehicles), and inferring the relations among them and their final intent. Several airborne sensor data might concur in the compilation of such high-level picture, which is aimed at identifying threats and promptly raising alarms. However, this process is intrinsically prone to errors: as the evidence - provided to the SA algorithm - originates from noisy sensor observations, the final outcome is also affected by uncertainty. High-level inferred variables, such as "Situation" and "Threat Level", can be seen as error-affected, incomplete estimates of the ground truth, hence they are subject to improvement by properly steering the data acquisition process. In this paper we address the problem of optimizing the air route of the sensing platform, in order to reduce the number of false declarations or the delay in threat declaration in the SA stage. Specifically, we consider the problem of detecting a hostile behavior between pairs of ground targets by exploiting track data generated from airborne bearings-only measurements. We model the optimization problem with a sequential Markov Decision Process (MDP): the platform sequentially selects the best maneuver (i.e., its acceleration vector) in order to maximize the total reward over an infinite horizon. We define the potential contribution of an action as a function of the expected environmental conditions (e.g., obscurations of the line-of-sight) and the improvement of the localization accuracy achievable for the tracked objects. We demonstrate that following the optimized trajectory the delay in the declaration of a hostile behavior between two targets is reduced at the same erroneous declaration rate.

  11. Air Quality Planning Unit | Ground-level Ozone | New England ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    Looking for answers about a specific air quality issue? Here's a list of topics and programs related to air quality and Air Quality Planning (AQP) staff who can answer questions and provide information about them.

  12. Air Quality Planning Unit | Ground-level Ozone | New England ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-16

    Looking for answers about a specific air quality issue? Here's a list of topics and programs related to air quality and Air Quality Planning (AQP) staff who can answer questions and provide information about them.

  13. Combat Support Execution Planning and Control. An Assessment of Initial Implementations in Air Force Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    time-phased force and deployment data USAFE U.S. Air Forces in Europe UTASC USAFE Theater Aerospace Support Center UTC unit type code WPC Warfighter...scenario and supporting simulated environment were developed and run by the Warfighter Preparation Center ( WPC ) facility at Einsedlerhof Air Station near...participate.11 Forces below the operational level were simulated by the WPC . The training audience consisted of the JFACC and staff, AFFOR staff, AOC, and the

  14. Combat Support Execution Planning and Control: An Assessment of Initial Implementations in Air Force Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Forces in Europe UTASC USAFE Theater Aerospace Support Center UTC unit type code WPC Warfighter Preparation Center XML Extensible Markup Language 1...developed and run by the Warfighter Preparation Center ( WPC ) facility at Einsedlerhof Air Station near Ramstein Air Base (AB), Germany, which is jointly...simulated by the WPC . The training audience consisted of the JFACC and staff, AFFOR staff, AOC, and the AFEUR.12 Because of this level of participa- tion

  15. Apollo 8 through 17 technical air-to-ground voice transcriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Magnetic tape recordings of air to ground voice communications which were conducted during Apollo flights are presented. Conversations were recorded on Apollo flights 8 through 17. The tapes are identified as prime goss air-to-ground voice transcriptions for each of the flights.

  16. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  17. Studies to Improve Environmental Assessments of Sonic Booms Produced during Air Combat Maneuvering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    aircraft longitudinal acceleration, (3) Lateral Cutoff booms - commonly heard as a low frequency rumble at ground locations near the edges of the boom...analyzed in this study. The booms corresponding to categories (1) and (2) occurred with aircraft longitudinal accelerations between about 3.7 to 5.1

  18. Combatting urban air pollution through Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) analysis, testing, and demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    Deteriorating urban air quality ranks as a top concern worldwide, since air pollution adversely affects both public health and the environment. The outlook for improving air quality in the world`s megacities need not be bleak, however, The use of natural gas as a transportation fuel can measurably reduce urban pollution levels, mitigating chronic threats to health and the environment. Besides being clean burning, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are economical to operate and maintain. The current cost of natural gas is lower than that of gasoline. Natural gas also reduces the vehicle`s engine wear and noise level, extends engine life, and decreases engine maintenance. Today, about 700,000 NGVs operate worldwide, the majority of them converted from gasoline or diesel fuel. This article discusses the economic, regulatory and technological issues of concern to the NGV industry.

  19. Project AIR FORCE Assessment of Operation Desert Shield. The Buildup of Combat Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    8217 , I~I, ’H I’ I 94 21 DTzc QUAWL 1nfwamD I :1 The research reported here was sponsored by the United States Air Force A %4Qte.- 4 dT under Contract...Defen. .. ISBN: 0-8330-1521-4 RAND is a nonprofit institution that seeks to improve pnhhc policy thiough research and analysis. RAND’s publications do...release; distribution unlimifted iii Preface This monograph is a declassified version of an earlier Project AIR FORCE report, R-4147-AF, desc ibing the

  20. Global Combat Support Basing. Robust Prepositioning Strategies for Air Force War Reserve Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    bibliographical references. ISBN 978- 0 -8330-4766-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Air bases, American. 2. United States. Air Force—Operational readiness...Optimized for predictable costs Optimized for total system costs 600 400 200 100 700 500 300 800 0 C o st ( $m ill io n s) 44% reduction in total...S.4 Optimized globally Optimized according to AOR 400 200 100 300 500 0 C o st ( $m ill io n s) aContingency-dependent bPredictable boundary of U.S

  1. Air Force’s Combat Aircraft: A Future Holding into the Past

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-07

    Europe was built and which gave it crucial relevance leading up to the events of June 1944.23 Because the integrity of Britain was maintained in 1940, a...established at the termination of DESERT STORM. During the opening days there were reported to be 1,660 SAM launches, 1,224 AAA events , 436 SAM...made 2S6 Tunguska . It is an integrated air defense system armed with 30 millimeter cannons and SA-19 surface-to-air missiles. The cannons used in

  2. Factors Affecting the Transfer of Basic Combat Skills Training in the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    In 2004 civilian corporations spent $80 billion on formal training programs (Clark & Kwinn, 2005). In 2005, the USAF planned to spend over $9M in...Studies, Vol. 9, 1-16. Beck, G. M. (2004). An analysis of the Air Force Basic Comunications Officer Training course : the impact of trainee and

  3. Strategic Implications of U.S. Fighter Force Reductions: Air-to-Air Combat Modeling Using Lanchester Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    and ensure air dominance is ours for the future generations ahead. 69 Bibliography Anderson, Eric C. and Jeffrey G. Engstrom. Capabilities... Sheppard , Chris. “The F-35 and Legacy Aircraft: The Case of the F-16 (Part 1).” Second Line of Defense. March 2010a. 71 -----. “The

  4. Air Force Manpower Requirements and Component Mix: A Focus on Agile Combat Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    2002–2011) SOURCES: IMA billets: MPES; deployed days: DMDC and Air Force (multiple files), FYs 2002–2011. In Figure 2.8, we array a subset of...characters, with an optional prefix or suffix . In the officer AFSC, the digits represent, in order, a career group, utilization field, functional area...a single AFSC, while the suffix (also called a shredout) represents particular equipment or functions within an AFSC. 30 AFSCs are used to identify

  5. Command in Air War: Centralized vs. Decentralized Control of Combat Airpower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-19

    January 2003, available at http://www.usni.org/Proceedings/Articles03/PROvego01.htm. 16 Robert R . Leonhard, The Principles of War for the Information...then use information technology to monitor the implementation of the details and adjust as necessary. Another, Mustafa R . Koprucu, Major, USAF...Mustafa R . Koprucu, Maj, USAF, �The Limits of Decentralized Execution: The Effects of Technology on a Central Air Force Tenet,� (Master�s thesis

  6. An Analysis of Modeling Satellite Data in Air Land Combat Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    of the spectral regions (20:71-72). When the man in the hot air balloon spotted something of interest, he would call or come down out of the balloon...pulses 12 Remotely Imagery in the ultra-violet, Sensed visible, infrared, and microwave Data spectral regions . IMAGE Observations with image scanners...standard deviation, respectively, of the differences between observations. The rejection region for the hypothesis tests occurred when tpaired ? t,n-l

  7. A Benchmark Study of the Air Force Program Executive Office for Combat and Mission Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-05

    Award for Academic Excellence. Capt. Finkenstadt earned his commission through Officer Training School, Maxwell AFB, AL, in 2007, where he earned...College of the Air Force, where he earned the Pitsenbarger Award for Academic Excellence. Capt. Finkenstadt holds certifications in both DAWIA APDP...contractor employees (newer slides are breaking this out into full-time equivalents [FTE] and part-time equivalents [ PTE ]). The program owner can

  8. Building Combat Strength through Logistics: Translating the New Air Force Logistics Concept of Operations into Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-31

    and external changes to the logistics environment. Wilder, Lim- exlStlflig luglstA LS CUL~ pL uro perOlu(v’it n itut-ma1 • ll , n ly nL ot in•1e are...GEN CAMPBELL USA: E/LG BRIG GEN BRACKEN AFLC/XR Up I WORKING- ...--- WORKING GROUP GROUP Fig 9. Air Force CLOUT Steerinj Group Structure. Within that

  9. Environmental Assessment for Combat Arms Training Maintenance (CATM) Range at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    to eliminate airborne lead. With the start of building construction, the building site would be graded and sediment and erosion controls would be...also help stabilize the soil by controlling wind and water erosion , reducing noise levels, and cleansing pollutants from the air. Trees also provide...Virginia Coastal Zone Management Program. Standard construction and demolition practices would be applied to control sedimentation and erosion during

  10. The Last Manned Fighter: Replacing Manned Fighters with Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    effects on aircraft design , particularly for stealth. Human pilots require space—space for an ejection seat , space for a control panel, space for...include no cockpit interface (which is signifi- cant for design , ergonomics , glass multifunction displays, etc.), no life-support equipment or...Looney, Prepress Production Daniel Armstrong, Cover Design Please send inquiries or comments to Editor The Wright Flyer Papers Air Command and Staff

  11. Sabers, Lances, B-17s and F-105s: An Essay on the Human Element, Napoleonic Warfare, and Air Combat.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    the best in a series of examinations of the pyschology of the battlefield. More recently, Richard Holmes’ Acts of War focuses on combat experiences...an "organic" approach to war. This would require a focus on the pyschology of combatants and the role of friction in conflict. It implies a view of war

  12. Thermal Coupling between Air and Ground Temperatures in the CMIP5 Historical and Future Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, Almudena; José Cuesta-Valero, Francisco; Beltrami, Hugo; Smerdon, Jason

    2016-04-01

    The decadal-scale thermal coupling between air and ground temperatures across North America is examined for 32 General Circulation Models (GCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). For each simulation, we evaluate the relationship between air and ground temperatures. Our results show that the transport of energy across the air-ground interface differs from observations, and among GCMs depending on each model's land-surface component. While the decadal variability among GCMs can be explained by the physics and parameterizations of each land-surface model, the spatial variability of the air-ground coupling for the historical and future simulations is associated with model treatment of the soil thermal properties as well as with processes associated with snow and vegetation cover within GCMs. The difference between air and ground temperatures at high latitudes within the majority of the CMIP5 models is related to the insulating effect of snow cover. On the other hand, the difference between air and ground temperatures at low latitudes within some of the CMIP5 models is inversely proportional to the leaf area index, due to changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes. The large variability among GCMs and the marked dependency of the results on the choice of the land-surface model illustrates the need for improving the simulation of air-ground coupling in land-surface models towards a robust simulation of near-surface processes, such as permafrost and soil carbon stability within GCMs.

  13. Operation Noble Eagle and the Use of Combat Air Patrols for Homeland Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Forces Base Winnipeg, Manitoba.44 Canada’s participation in NORAD was limited after the collapse of the Soviet Union due to budget constraints and...hit the north tower of the World Trade Center ( WTC ).66 The Otis AFB, Eagles were in the air by 08:53 and inbound to New York City when United...Airlines Flight 175 hit the south tower of the WTC at 09:03:11.67 Cape Cod, MA is approximately 200 miles from New York City and Hampton, VA is about

  14. U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II. Combat Chronology 1941-1945

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Vincent and Lt Col David L (‘Tex’) Hill, moves into E China along the Hengyang-Kweilin line. This brings US aircraft within range of all major...make contact. The airplanes swing E and bomb mili- tary installations at Baguio. Tarlac, Tuguegarao, and A/Fs at Cabantuan are also attacked. By 1130...and Fourth AFs are made responsible for air def on the E and W coasts, respectively. CG First AF orders I BC to begin overwater rcn with all available

  15. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project: Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard; Green, Steve; Ballin, Mark

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of active Distributed Air Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) work and reported on its overall progress to date. It does not include details on the concept elements (CEs).The DAG-TM research project is defined as a concept development and definition project and no tools will be delivered. Of the 14 CEs, three are being explored actively: CE-5, CE-6, and CE-11. Overviews of CE-5 (Free Maneuvering for User-Preferred Separation Assurance and Local TFM Conformance), CE-6 (En Route and Transition Trajectory Negotiation for User-Preferred Separation and Local TFM Conformance) and CE-11 (Self-Spacing for Merging and In-Trail Separation) are presented.

  16. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  17. Variations of the ambient dose equivalent rate in the ground level air.

    PubMed

    Lebedyte, M; Butkus, D; Morkŭnas, G

    2003-01-01

    The ambient dose equivalent rate is caused by ionizing radiation of radionuclides in the atmosphere and on the ground surface as well as by cosmic radiation. Seasonal and diurnal variations of the ambient dose equivalent rate (ADER) in the ground level air are influenced by the concentration of 222Rn daughters. The 222Rn concentration in the ground level atmosphere, in turn, depends on the rate of the 222Rn exhalation from soil and turbulent air mixing. Its diurnal and seasonal variations depend on meteorological conditions. The aim of this study is to estimate the influence of variations of the rate of the 222Rn exhalation from soil and its concentrations in the ground level air on variations of ADER in the ground level air, as well as the dependence of these parameters on meteorological conditions. The 222Rn diffusion coefficient and its exhalation rate in undisturbed loamy soil have been determined. The 222Rn concentration in the soil air and its concentration in the ground level air correlate inversely (correlation coefficient is r = -0.62). The main factors determining the 222Rn exhalation from soil are: the soil temperature (r = 0.64), the difference in temperature of soil and air (r = 0.57), and the precipitation amount (r = 0.50). The intensity of gamma radiation in the ground level air is mostly related to the 222Rn concentration in the air (r = 0.62), while the effect of the exhalation rate from soil is relatively low (r = 0.36). It has been shown that ADER due to 222Rn progeny causes only 7-16% of the total ADER and influences its variation. The comparison of variations of ADER due to 222Rn progeny and the total ADER during several years shows that these parameters correlate positively.

  18. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  19. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  20. Final Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Environmental Assessment for Realignment of Nellis Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    components only support the technological realism of these exercises. True combat realism can be achieved only by flying against “enemy” forces...interdiction strikes B-2 T Long range, high and low altitude bomber performing deep interdiction strikes with stealth technology B-52H T Long range...enemy air defenses F-117A T Light bomber with stealth technology F-22A B Air-to-air combat and intercept missions and air-to-ground missions with

  1. Imaging sensor systems for air to ground surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Bruce A.; Penn, Joseph A.

    2006-05-01

    Automated aerial surveillance and detection of hostile ground events, and the tracking of the perpetrators have become of critical importance in the prevention and control of insurgent uprisings and the global war on terror. Yet a basic understanding of the limitations of sensor system coverage as a function of aerial platform position and attitude is often unavailable to program managers and system administrators. In an effort to better understand this problem we present some of the design tradeoffs for two applications: 1) a 360° viewing focal-plane array sensor system modeled for low altitude aerostat applications, and 2) a fixed diameter area of constant surveillance modeled for high altitude fixed wing aircraft applications. Ground coverage requirement tradeoffs include the number of sensors, sensor footprint geometry, footprint coverage variability as a function of platform position and attitude, and ground surface modeling. Event location specification includes latitude, longitude, altitude for the pixel centroid and corners, and line-of-sight centroid range.

  2. Adjoint transport calculations for sensitivity analysis of the Hiroshima air-over-ground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B.L.; Cacuci, D.G.; Pace, J.V. III

    1984-01-01

    A major effort within the US Dose Reassessment Program is aimed at recalculating the transport of initial nuclear radiation in an air-over-ground environment. This paper is the first report of results from adjoint calculations in the Hiroshima air-over-ground environment. The calculations use a Hiroshima/Nagasaki multi-element ground, ENDF/B-V nuclear data, one-dimensional ANISN flux weighting for neutron and gamma cross sections, a source obtained by two-dimensional hydrodynamic and three-dimensional transport calculations, and best-estimate atmospheric conditions from Japanese sources. 7 references, 2 figures.

  3. Investigation of Ground Water Pollution at Air Force Plant Number 4, Fort Worth Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    INVESTIGATION L UNWaACTIPEWS OKMOMAM OF WILL U . E FAILING 1500 • , o. i. i8A-96 T, o , - MARKor TOTAL IMPR CORK OEU C Ra.V IL UATtOW GOUND WATER * 13...SSArm op US Army Corps ’ofS Enginee rs of Engineers Fort Worth District Kansas City District INVESTIGATION OF GROUND WATER POLLUTION AT AIR FORCE...Dbtibz~o Ud~mxtm!UCTtq! - INVESTIGATION OF GROUND WATER POLLUTION AT - AIR FORCE PLANT NO. 4 FORT WORTH, TEXAS REPORT TO - UNITED STATES AIR FORCE

  4. Attribution of precipitation changes on ground-air temperature offset: Granger causality analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermak, Vladimir; Bodri, Louise

    2016-06-01

    This work examines the causal relationship between the value of the ground-air temperature offset and the precipitation changes for monitored 5-min data series together with their hourly and daily averages obtained at the Sporilov Geophysical Observatory (Prague). Shallow subsurface soil temperatures were monitored under four different land cover types (bare soil, sand, short-cut grass and asphalt). The ground surface temperature (GST) and surface air temperature (SAT) offset, ΔT(GST-SAT), is defined as the difference between the temperature measured at the depth of 2 cm below the surface and the air temperature measured at 5 cm above the surface. The results of the Granger causality test did not reveal any evidence of Granger causality for precipitation to ground-air temperature offsets on the daily scale of aggregation except for the asphalt pavement. On the contrary, a strong evidence of Granger causality for precipitation to the ground-air temperature offsets was found on the hourly scale of aggregation for all land cover types except for the sand surface cover. All results are sensitive to the lag choice of the autoregressive model. On the whole, obtained results contain valuable information on the delay time of ΔT(GST-SAT) caused by the rainfall events and confirmed the importance of using autoregressive models to understand the ground-air temperature relationship.

  5. Development of an air ground data exchange concept: Flight deck perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flathers, G. W., II

    1987-01-01

    The planned modernization of the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) includes the development and use of a digital data link as a means to exchange information between aircraft and ground-based facilities. This report presents an operationally-oriented concept on how data link could be used for applications related directly to air traffic control. The specific goal is to establish the role that data link could play in the air-ground communications. Due regard is given to the unique characteristics of data link and voice communications, current principles of air traffic control, operational procedures, human factors/man-machine interfaces, and the integration of data link with other air and ground systems. The resulting concept is illustrated in the form of a paper-and-pencil simulation in which data link and voice communications during the course of a hypothetical flight are described.

  6. Combat games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Heymann, M.; Rajan, N.

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical formulation is proposed of a combat game between two opponents with offensive capabilities and offensive objective is proposed. Resolution of the combat involves solving two differential games with state constraints. Depending on the game dynamics and parameters, the combat can terminate in one of four ways: the first player wins; the second player wins; a draw (neither wins); or joint capture. In the first two cases, the optimal strategies of the two players are determined from suitable zero-sum games, whereas in the latter two the relevant games are nonzero-sum. Further, to avoid certain technical difficulties, the concept of a delta-combat game is introduced.

  7. Shaking the Heavens and Splitting the Earth: Chinese Air Force Employment Concepts in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    operations, focusing interference on enemy reconnaissance and early warning satellites, airborne early warning and command aircraft, ground - based ...and foe from the ground and in the air.9 Missions Airborne campaigns’ missions can include seizing enemy strategic points; seizing airfields, bases ...isolates airborne combat zones. Targets include enemy airfields, radar stations, ground - based air defenses, forces near the landing zone (especially

  8. Air-to-Ground Fratricide Reduction Technology: An Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Jennifer, and my children, Dean and Eden , for their patience and support during this long project. iv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Title: Air-to...Fire.” Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin, March 2004, 15. URL: http://infoweb.newsbank.com. Accessed 4 September 2004. Cline, Bobby

  9. Operational Assessment of CAS in COIN: Airing the Ground Truth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    might be excessively predisposed to organic fires. Such was the case during Anaconda, as a key lesson identified was the failure to include airmen...firing ordnance) might be optimal for a B-1 Bomber. This could be the case if an Army patrol is pinned in a valley based on SIGINT of enemy...build on practices adopted from service-oriented private industry rather than defense R&D constructs. The customer in this case is any ground commander

  10. Carbon Monoxide | Air Quality Planning Unit | Ground-level ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas that can increase the severity of lung ailments, cause dizziness, fatigue, nausea, and even death. EPA has defined the national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for carbon monoxide as nine parts per million averaged over an eight-hour period, and this threshold cannot be exceeded more than once a year or an area would be violating the standard.

  11. Combat cueing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachejian, Kerry C.; Vujcic, Doug

    1998-08-01

    The combat cueing (CBT-Q) research effort will develop and demonstrate a portable tactical information system that will enhance the effectiveness of small unit military operations by providing real-time target cueing information to individual warfighters and teams. CBT-Q consists of a network of portable radio frequency (RF) 'modules' and is controlled by a body-worn 'user station' utilizing a head mounted display . On the battlefield, CBT-Q modules will detect an enemy transmitter and instantly provide the warfighter with an emitter's location. During the 'fog of battle', CBT-Q would tell the warfighter, 'Look here, right now individuals into the RF spectrum, resulting in faster target engagement times, increased survivability, and reduce the potential for fratricide. CBT-Q technology can support both mounted and dismounted tactical forces involved in land, sea and air warfighting operations. The CBT-Q system combines robust geolocation and signal sorting algorithms with hardware and software modularity to offer maximum utility to the warfighter. A single CBT-Q module can provide threat RF detection. Three networked CBT-Q modules can provide emitter positions using a time difference of arrival (TDOA) technique. The TDOA approach relies on timing and positioning data derived from a global positioning systems. The information will be displayed on a variety of displays, including a flat-panel head mounted display. The end results of the program will be the demonstration of the system with US Army Scouts in an operational environment.

  12. Hiroshima Air-Over-Ground Analysis: Comparison of DORT and MCNP Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, RT

    2001-09-04

    Monte Carlo (MCNP4B) and Discrete Ordinates (DORT) calculations were carried out to estimate {sup 60}Co and {sup 152}Eu activation as a function of ground range due to neutrons emitted from the Hiroshima A-bomb. Results of ORNL DORT and MCNP calculations using RZ cylindrical air-over-ground models are compared with LANL MCNP results obtained with an XYZ air-over-ground model. All of the calculations were carried out using ENDF/B-VI cross-section data and detailed angle and energy resolved neutron emission spectra from the weapon. Favorable agreement was achieved for the {sup 60}Co and {sup 152}Eu activation for ground ranges out to 1000m from the three calculations.

  13. Analysis of a combat problem - The turret game

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M.; Heymann, M.; Rajan, N.

    1987-01-01

    The turret game is defined and solved to illustrate the nature of games of combat. This game represents a highly simplified version of air combat, yet it is sufficiently complex so as to exhibit a rich variety of combat phenomena. A review of the formulation of delta-combat games is included.

  14. Ground level air convection produces frost damage patterns in turfgrass.

    PubMed

    Ackerson, Bruce J; Beier, Richard A; Martin, Dennis L

    2015-11-01

    Frost injury patterns are commonly observed on the warm-season turfgrass species bermudagrass (Cynodon species Rich.), zoysiagrass (Zoysia species Willd.), and buffalograss [Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt.) J.T. Columbus] in cool-temperate and subtropical zones. Qualitative observations of these injury patterns are presented and discussed. A model for the formation of such patterns based on thermal instability and convection of air is presented. The characteristic length scale of the observed frost pattern injury requires a temperature profile that decreases with height from the soil to the turfgrass canopy surface followed by an increase in temperature with height above the turfgrass canopy. This is justified by extending the earth temperature theory to include a turf layer with atmosphere above it. Then the theory for a thermally unstable layer beneath a stable region by Ogura and Kondo is adapted to a turf layer to include different parameter values for pure air, as well as for turf, which is treated as a porous medium. The earlier porous medium model of Thompson and Daniels proposed to explain frost injury patterns is modified to give reasonable agreement with observed patterns.

  15. Ground level air convection produces frost damage patterns in turfgrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerson, Bruce J.; Beier, Richard A.; Martin, Dennis L.

    2015-11-01

    Frost injury patterns are commonly observed on the warm-season turfgrass species bermudagrass ( Cynodon species Rich.), zoysiagrass ( Zoysia species Willd.), and buffalograss [ Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt.) J.T. Columbus] in cool-temperate and subtropical zones. Qualitative observations of these injury patterns are presented and discussed. A model for the formation of such patterns based on thermal instability and convection of air is presented. The characteristic length scale of the observed frost pattern injury requires a temperature profile that decreases with height from the soil to the turfgrass canopy surface followed by an increase in temperature with height above the turfgrass canopy. This is justified by extending the earth temperature theory to include a turf layer with atmosphere above it. Then the theory for a thermally unstable layer beneath a stable region by Ogura and Kondo is adapted to a turf layer to include different parameter values for pure air, as well as for turf, which is treated as a porous medium. The earlier porous medium model of Thompson and Daniels proposed to explain frost injury patterns is modified to give reasonable agreement with observed patterns.

  16. Air/ground wind shear information integration: Flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1992-01-01

    An element of the NASA/FAA wind shear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne wind shear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a wind shear flight test program in the summer of 1991 during which airborne processing of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) data was used to derive microburst alerts. High level microburst products were extracted from TDWR, transmitted to a NASA Boeing 737 in flight via data link, and processed to estimate the wind shear hazard level (F-factor) that would be experienced by the aircraft in the core of each microburst. The microburst location and F-factor were used to derive a situation display and alerts. The situation display was successfully used to maneuver the aircraft for microburst penetrations, during which in situ 'truth' measurements were made. A total of 19 penetrations were made of TDWR-reported microburst locations, resulting in 18 airborne microburst alerts from the TDWR data and two microburst alerts from the airborne in situ measurements. The primary factors affecting alerting performance were spatial offset of the flight path from the region of strongest shear, differences in TDWR measurement altitude and airplane penetration altitude, and variations in microburst outflow profiles. Predicted and measured F-factors agreed well in penetrations near microburst cores. Although improvements in airborne and ground processing of the TDWR measurement would be required to support an airborne executive-level alerting protocol, the feasibility of airborne utilization of TDWR data link data has been demonstrated.

  17. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.710 Section... Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area... regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin......

  18. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.710 Section... Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area... regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin......

  19. Air-to-ground Voice Transcriptions and on Board Voice Transcriptions for Skylab 2, Skylab 3 and Skylab 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Microfilm records of the Skylab 2, 3, and 4 voice transcriptions are presented. The data are contained on ten 16 millimeter reels. The transcriptions are identified as air-to-ground communication and onboard communication. The Skylab 2 data are contained on one roll for air-to-ground and one roll for onboard communication. Skylab 3 data consist of two rolls for air-to-ground and two rolls for on board communication. Skylab 4 data consists of three rolls for air-to-ground and two rolls for onboard communication.

  20. Search for tachyons associated with extensive air showers in the ground level cosmic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masjed, H. F.; Ashton, F.

    1985-01-01

    Events detected in a shielded plastic scintillation counter occurring in the 26 microsec preceding the arrival of an extensive air shower at ground level with local electron density or = 20 m to the -2 power and the 240 microsec after its arrival have been studied. No significant excess of events (tachyons) arriving in the early time domain have been observed in a sample of 11,585 air shower triggers.

  1. Network Centric Operations Conceptual Framework Air-to-Ground Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Network Centric Operations Conceptual Framework Air-to-Ground Case Study Final Brief 17 June 2004 Prepared by SAIC for: Evidence Based Research...JUN 2004 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Network Centric Operations Conceptual Framework Air-to... conceptual framework which drove approach Cognitive Social Interviews to provide insights into cognitive process Assumptions OEF and OIF would

  2. Improving Air Force Command and Control Through Enhanced Agile Combat Support Planning, Execution, Monitoring, and Control Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    meeting F-15 avionics maintenance requirements across a range of likely scenarios. The authors evaluate investments for new F-15 avionics ...generation capability is a function of many combat support param- eters, including removal rates of avionics components, maintenance throughput of the...flying F-15s will result in avionics -component failure. These failed components will be replaced with serviceable components from the contingency

  3. A Comparison of the US Air Force Fitness Test and Sister Services’ Combat-Oriented Fitness Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    chest down. 6) While the examiner holds the subject’s knees straight, the subject stands erect, barefooted , and with feet together, and then bends over...predictability of the Combat Composite proxy, although diminishing returns limits the feasibility of going beyond the two (1/2-mile run and 30-lb. lifts...done.” It created an advantage for those going at the end of each testing group. Secondly, this event required subjective scoring. The

  4. Effectiveness of a municipal ground-coupled reversible heat pump system compared to an air-source system

    SciTech Connect

    Oerder, S.A.; Meyer, J.P.

    1998-10-01

    A municipal water network ground-coupled reversible heat pump was investigated as an alternative to conventional air-source heat pumps. It is projected that a system of this kind can be installed and operated at a lower cost than the commercially available systems. Models for the analysis of the ground-coupled reversible heat pump and conventional air-to-air systems were developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the ground-coupled system. The results indicate that this system can provide a cost-effective alternative to the more conventional air-to-air systems.

  5. Mapping forest canopy gaps using air-photo interpretation and ground surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, T.J.; Knutson, M.G.; Hines, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    Canopy gaps are important structural components of forested habitats for many wildlife species. Recent improvements in the spatial accuracy of geographic information system tools facilitate accurate mapping of small canopy features such as gaps. We compared canopy-gap maps generated using ground survey methods with those derived from air-photo interpretation. We found that maps created from high-resolution air photos were more accurate than those created from ground surveys. Errors of omission were 25.6% for the ground-survey method and 4.7% for the air-photo method. One variable of inter est in songbird research is the distance from nests to gap edges. Distances from real and simulated nests to gap edges were longer using the ground-survey maps versus the air-photo maps, indicating that gap omission could potentially bias the assessment of spatial relationships. If research or management goals require location and size of canopy gaps and specific information about vegetation structure, we recommend a 2-fold approach. First, canopy gaps can be located and the perimeters defined using 1:15,000-scale or larger aerial photographs and the methods we describe. Mapped gaps can then be field-surveyed to obtain detailed vegetation data.

  6. Apollo 11 Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transcription (GOSS NET 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This is the transcription of the Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transmission (GOSS NET 1) from the Apollo 11 mission. Communicators in the text may be identified according to the following list [in part]: Commander: Neil A. Armstrong; Command Module Pilot: Michael Collins; Lunar Module Pilot: Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr.

  7. 78 FR 20852 - Safety Zones; Marine Week Air Ground Demonstration, Lake Washington; Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ..., amphibious vehicles, swimmers, combat equipment, and other elements that could create safety concerns for..., swimmers, combat equipment, and other elements. The following proposed safety zone is for the Marine...

  8. Quantitative reconstruction of paleoclimate - Air and ground temperature tracking from Emigrant Pass Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, D. S.; Bartlett, M. G.; Harris, R. N.

    2004-12-01

    Borehole temperature-depth profiles contain information about surface ground temperatures histories and provide a useful complement to proxy indicators of climate change. An inherent assumption in borehole temperature reconstructions is that air and ground temperatures are coupled through heat diffusion track each other at annual and longer periods. The Emigrant Pass Observatory (EPO), located in the Grouse Creek Mountains of northwestern Utah, is designed to test ground-air temperature tracking. Analyses of 10 years of observations at EPO demonstrate the following: 1) Ground temperatures track air temperatures at annual and longer periods exceptionally well at the site. Divergence between the observed temperatures at 1 m in the subsurface and air temperatures modeled as a boundary layer forcing is less than 0.04 K per annum. 2) Seasonal variations in incident solar radiation are ~200 Wm-2 leading to an average annual difference between ground and air temperatures, Δ Tg-a, of 2.55 K (±0.01) from 1993-2003. The temperature difference varies from -5 K to +10 K when averaged over a diurnal cycle, and from 2.50 K to 2.60 K over an annual cycle. However, inter-annual variations in insulation are less than 1 Wm-2; consequently, solar radiation is not observed to affect the inter-annual tracking at the site. 3) Model studies snow-ground thermal interactions at EPO demonstrate that seasonal snow cover can either warm or cool the ground relative to the annual mean air temperature and that the winter snow effect is an order of magnitude smaller than the summer radiation effect at the site. 4) Temperature observations at various depths within the granite and soils at the site allow us to make estimates of in-situ thermal diffusivity and its changes with time. The "apparent" thermal diffusivity of the upper meter of granite at EPO ranges from 0.88-0.98 x 10-6 m2s-1 while the soil varies from 0.57-0.68 x 10-6 m2s-1. The accumulation of data at EPO leads to a quantitative

  9. Ground-water conditions at Beale Air Force Base and vicinity, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Ground-water conditions were studied in a 168-square-mile area between the Sierra Nevada and the Feather River in Yuba County, Calif. The area is in the eastern part of the Sacramento Valley and includes most of Beale Air Force Base. Source, occurrence, movement, and chemical quality of the ground water were evaluated. Ground water occurs in sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Tertiary and Quaternary age. The base of the freshwater is in the undifferentiated sedimentary rocks of Oligocene and Eocene age, that contain water of high dissolved-solids concentration. The ground water occurs under unconfined and partly confined conditions. At Beale Air Force Base it is at times partly confined. Recharge is principally from the rivers. Pumpage in the study area was estimated to be 129,000 acre-feet in 1975. In the 1960's, water levels in most parts of the study area declined less rapidly than in earlier years or became fairly stable. In the 1970's, water levels at Beale Air Force Base declined only slightly. Spacing of wells on the base and rates of pumping are such that excessive pumping interference is avoided. Water quality at the base and throughout the study area is generally good. Dissolved-solids concentrations are 700 to 900 milligrams per liter in the undifferentiated sedimentary rocks beneath the base well field. (USGS)

  10. DETAIL OF DOORWAY INTO COMBAT INTELLIGENCE ROOM. view TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF DOORWAY INTO COMBAT INTELLIGENCE ROOM. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  11. Design and evaluation of an advanced air-ground data-link system for air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denbraven, Wim

    1992-01-01

    The design and evaluation of the ground-based portion of an air-ground data-link system for air traffic control (ATC) are described. The system was developed to support the 4D Aircraft/ATC Integration Study, a joint simulation experiment conducted at NASA's Ames and Langley Research Centers. The experiment focused on airborne and ground-based procedures for handling aircraft equipped with a 4D-Flight Management System (FMS) and the system requirements needed to ensure conflict-free traffic flow. The Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) at Ames was used for the ATC part of the experiment, and the 4D-FMS-equipped aircraft was simulated by the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) simulator at Langley. The data-link system supported not only conventional ATC communications, but also the communications needed to accommodate the 4D-FMS capabilities of advanced aircraft. Of great significance was the synergism gained from integrating the data link with CTAS. Information transmitted via the data link was used to improve the monitoring and analysis capability of CTAS without increasing controller input workload. Conversely, CTAS was used to anticipate and create prototype messages, thus reducing the workload associated with the manual creation of data-link messages.

  12. Combat Search and Rescue Air Force Doctrine Document 2-1.6 Compliments Joint Pub 3-50.2, 3-50.21, 3-50.3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    History). 1980. Veda Incorporated, Combat Search and Rescue Report to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Executive Agent for Combat Search and Rescue...Combat Search and Rescue Requirements and Capabilities Study. ( Veda Incor- porated, Washington D.C.). 1997. 30 Veith, George J., Code Name

  13. Ground Combat in the JICM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    command has a cross bar at the rear. 28- Units Move Within Mobile Commands According to Their Mission rsv -fwd-dist 10kms rsv -bck-dist 30 km* E3...skor] 1-CORPS/28-IDR[skor] KID 125- UNIT->pos_alloc Description: This option allows the user to precisely control the allocation of an in...distance, the reserve force will begin to move back. Default: 10 Example(s): Command Keyword Distance set landwar KN-7 rsv fwd dist

  14. The Joint Air Land Battle System: An Alternative to the Air Ground Operations System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-11

    doctrine for modern war. "The Sovieat.kad Forces maintain over one hundred higher military * choo ’#t-With courses ranging from four to five years" (42:IV...Terms. Public Affairs Press, 1963. 21. E:-ae,o Eugene M. The Impact of Air Power. New York; D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1959 22. Employment of

  15. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  16. Spatially-varying surface roughness and ground-level air quality in an operational dispersion model.

    PubMed

    Barnes, M J; Brade, T K; MacKenzie, A R; Whyatt, J D; Carruthers, D J; Stocker, J; Cai, X; Hewitt, C N

    2014-02-01

    Urban form controls the overall aerodynamic roughness of a city, and hence plays a significant role in how air flow interacts with the urban landscape. This paper reports improved model performance resulting from the introduction of variable surface roughness in the operational air-quality model ADMS-Urban (v3.1). We then assess to what extent pollutant concentrations can be reduced solely through local reductions in roughness. The model results suggest that reducing surface roughness in a city centre can increase ground-level pollutant concentrations, both locally in the area of reduced roughness and downwind of that area. The unexpected simulation of increased ground-level pollutant concentrations implies that this type of modelling should be used with caution for urban planning and design studies looking at ventilation of pollution. We expect the results from this study to be relevant for all atmospheric dispersion models with urban-surface parameterisations based on roughness.

  17. IDA GROUND-AIR MODEL I (IDAGAM I) Volume 1. Comprehensive Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Aonao» REPORT R-199 IDA GROUND-AIR MODEL I (IDAGAM I) Volume 1: Comprehensive Description Lowell Bruce Anderson Jerome Bracken...IDAGAM I) Volume 1: Comprehensive Description Lowell Bruce Anderson Jerome Bracken Inmes G. Healy Mary J. Hutzler Edward P. Kerlin October 1974... Jerome Bracken, James G. Healy, Mary J. Hutzler, Edward P. Kerlin • CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERS) IDA Independent Research Program

  18. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in ground level air using the ASS-500 high volume sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Frenzel, E.; Arnold, D.; Wershofen, H.

    1996-06-01

    A method for determination of radionuclide concentrations in air aerosol samples collected by the high volume aerosol sampler ASS-500 was elaborated. The aerosol sampling station ASS-500 is a Stand alone, all-weather proofed instrument. It is designed for representative sampling of airborne radionuclides from ground level air at a height of about 1.5 m above ground level. The ASS-500 station enables continuous air monitoring both normal and emergency Situations. The collection of aerosols on the Petrianov FPP-15-1.5 type filter out of an air volume of about 100,000 m{sup 3} (sampling period 1 wk) or of about 250,000 m{sup 3} (sampling period 3 wk) admits accurate spectrometric low level measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides. The achieved detection limit is 0.5 {mu}Bq m{sup -3} and 0.2 {mu}Bq m{sup -3} for {sup 137}Cs, respectively. A new developed air flow Meter system allows to enhance the collected air volume to about 150,000 m{sup 3} per week and lowers the detection limit to <0.4 {mu}Bq m{sup -3} for {sup 137}Cs for weekly collected aerosol samples. In Poland the CLOR uses 9 Stations ASS-500 at different sites as atmospheric radioactivity control system. On the basis of spectrometric measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides in the collected aerosol samples at the different sites, CLOR establishes a weekly report about the radiological situation at Poland for responsible authorities. The very low achievable detection limit of the Station ASS-500 due 10 the high air flow fate and the long possible sampling period were the key argument for other government radiation protection authorities in Europe to introduce the Station ASS-500 into their low level radionuclide atmospheric monitoring programs (Austria, Belarus, France, Germany, Iceland, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine).

  19. Beyond Close Air Support. Forging a New Air-Ground Partnership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    conflict appears in Lewis and Almond , 1997. 7 Joint Staff, 2002. 8 An intermediate category called battlefield air interdiction (BAI) no longer appears in...fire, and extracts them when the mission is done. Such forces routinely conduct joint operations at extremely low force levels. In Afghanistan, for...battalion was extracted from its untenable position near Ginger during the first evening. The following day, Task Force Rak- kasan reinforced its positions

  20. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Phase I, Task 5, Focused Feasibility Study (FFS) has been prepared as part of the Environmental Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Project being conducted by Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). The primary objective of this FFS was to select a cost-effective method of preventing migration of contaminated ground water across the southwestern boundary of Area C of the Base. The FFS presented in this document is a portion of a much larger effort being conducted at WPAFB. The detailed analysis of alternatives for the extraction, treatment, and discharge of contaminated ground water migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C at WPAFB led to the selection of a preferred removal action alternative. Specifically, this alternative is that ground water be extracted utilizing a three well array pumping at a total of 400 to 800 gpm, removed water be treated via air stripping to achieve appropriate effluent concentrations, and treated water be discharged to the Mad River in accordance with a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and other relevant permits.

  1. A phenomenological model of the muon density profile on the ground of very inclined air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembinski, H. P.; Billoir, P.; Deligny, O.; Hebbeker, T.

    2010-09-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic rays generate extensive air showers in Earth's atmosphere. A standard approach to reconstruct the energy of an ultra-high energy cosmic rays is to sample the lateral profile of the particle density on the ground of the air shower with an array of surface detectors. For cosmic rays with large inclinations, this reconstruction is based on a model of the lateral profile of the muon density observed on the ground, which is fitted to the observed muon densities in individual surface detectors. The best models for this task are derived from detailed Monte-Carlo simulations of the air shower development. We present a phenomenological parametrization scheme which allows to derive a model of the average lateral profile of the muon density directly from a fit to a set of individual Monte-Carlo simulated air showers. The model reproduces the detailed simulations with a high precision. As an example, we generate a muon density model which is valid in the energy range 10 18 eV < E < 10 20 eV and the zenith angle range 60°<θ<90°. We will further demonstrate a way to speed up the simulation of such muon profiles by three orders of magnitude, if only the muons in the shower are of interest.

  2. Air monitoring for volatile organic compounds at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Sytsma, L.F.; Cohut, V.J.; Cobo, H.A.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents (CWA). The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of CWA. Deterioration of the buildings and violations of environmental laws led to closure of the complex in 1986. Since that time, all equipment, piping, and conduit in the buildings have been removed. The buildings have been declared free of surface CWA contamination as a result of air sampling using the military system. However, no air sampling has been done to determine if other hazardous volatile organic compounds are present in the PPC, although a wide range of toxic and/or hazardous materials other than CWA was used in the PPC. The assumption has been that the air in the PPC is not hazardous. The purpose of this air-monitoring study was to screen the indoor air in the PPC to confirm the assumption that the air does not contain volatile organic contaminants at levels that would endanger persons in the buildings. A secondary purpose was to identify any potential sources of volatile organic contaminants that need to be monitored in subsequent sampling efforts.

  3. Open and Closed Loop Stability of Hingeless Rotor Helicopter Air and Ground Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, M. I.; Bailey, D. J.; Hirschbein, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    The air and ground resonance instabilities of hingeless rotor helicopters are examined on a relatively broad parametric basis including the effects of blade tuning, virtual hinge locations, and blade hysteresis damping, as well as size and scale effects in the gross weight range from 5,000 to 48,000 pounds. A special case of a 72,000 pound helicopter air resonance instability is also included. The study shows that nominal to moderate and readily achieved levels of blade inertial hysteresis damping in conjunction with a variety of tuning and/or feedback conditions are highly effective in dealing with these instabilities. Tip weights and reductions in pre-coning angles are also shown to be effective means for improving the air resonance instability.

  4. Calculation of conversion coefficients using Chinese adult reference phantoms for air submersion and ground contamination.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen; Li, Chunyan; Yang, Bo; Liu, Huan; Ren, Li; Li, Junli

    2017-03-21

    The effective and organ equivalent dose coefficients have been widely used to provide assessment of doses received by adult members of the public and by workers exposed to environmental radiation from nuclear facilities under normal or accidental situations. Advancements in phantom types, weighting factors, decay data, etc, have led to the publication of newer results in this regard. This paper presents a new set of conversion coefficients for air submersion and ground contamination (with the use of Geant4) for photons from 15 keV to 10 MeV using the Chinese and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adult reference male and female phantoms. The radiation fields, except for energy spectrum at low energies, were validated by the data obtained from the Monte Carlo code YURI. The effective dose coefficients of monoenergetic photons, obtained for the ICRP adult reference phantoms, agree well with recently published data for air submersion and ground contamination with a plane source at a depth of 0.5 g cm(-2) in soil, but an average difference of 36.5% is observed for ground surface contamination with the abovementioned radiation field. The average differences in organ equivalent dose coefficients between the Chinese and the ICRP adult reference phantoms are within 6% for most organs, but noticeable differences of up to 70% or even higher are found at photon energies below 30 keV under air submersion. The effective dose coefficients obtained with the Chinese adult reference phantoms are greater than those of the ICRP adult reference phantoms above 30 keV and 0.5 MeV for ground contamination and air submersion, respectively; the average differences from the Chinese adult reference phantoms are about 3.6% and 0.4% in the whole energy range with maximum differences of 31.8% and 27.6% at 15 keV for air submersion and ground contamination respectively. These differences are attributed to anatomical discrepancies in overlying tissue mass of an

  5. Calculation of conversion coefficients using Chinese adult reference phantoms for air submersion and ground contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen; Li, Chunyan; Yang, Bo; Liu, Huan; Ren, Li; Li, Junli

    2017-03-01

    The effective and organ equivalent dose coefficients have been widely used to provide assessment of doses received by adult members of the public and by workers exposed to environmental radiation from nuclear facilities under normal or accidental situations. Advancements in phantom types, weighting factors, decay data, etc, have led to the publication of newer results in this regard. This paper presents a new set of conversion coefficients for air submersion and ground contamination (with the use of Geant4) for photons from 15 keV to 10 MeV using the Chinese and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adult reference male and female phantoms. The radiation fields, except for energy spectrum at low energies, were validated by the data obtained from the Monte Carlo code YURI. The effective dose coefficients of monoenergetic photons, obtained for the ICRP adult reference phantoms, agree well with recently published data for air submersion and ground contamination with a plane source at a depth of 0.5 g cm‑2 in soil, but an average difference of 36.5% is observed for ground surface contamination with the abovementioned radiation field. The average differences in organ equivalent dose coefficients between the Chinese and the ICRP adult reference phantoms are within 6% for most organs, but noticeable differences of up to 70% or even higher are found at photon energies below 30 keV under air submersion. The effective dose coefficients obtained with the Chinese adult reference phantoms are greater than those of the ICRP adult reference phantoms above 30 keV and 0.5 MeV for ground contamination and air submersion, respectively; the average differences from the Chinese adult reference phantoms are about 3.6% and 0.4% in the whole energy range with maximum differences of 31.8% and 27.6% at 15 keV for air submersion and ground contamination respectively. These differences are attributed to anatomical discrepancies in overlying tissue mass of an

  6. Intelligently interactive combat simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogel, Lawrence J.; Porto, Vincent W.; Alexander, Steven M.

    2001-09-01

    To be fully effective, combat simulation must include an intelligently interactive enemy... one that can be calibrated. But human operated combat simulations are uncalibratable, for we learn during the engagement, there's no average enemy, and we cannot replicate their culture/personality. Rule-based combat simulations (expert systems) are not interactive. They do not take advantage of unexpected mistakes, learn, innovate, and reflect the changing mission/situation. And it is presumed that the enemy does not have a copy of the rules, that the available experts are good enough, that they know why they did what they did, that their combat experience provides a sufficient sample and that we know how to combine the rules offered by differing experts. Indeed, expert systems become increasingly complex, costly to develop, and brittle. They have face validity but may be misleading. In contrast, intelligently interactive combat simulation is purpose- driven. Each player is given a well-defined mission, reference to the available weapons/platforms, their dynamics, and the sensed environment. Optimal tactics are discovered online and in real-time by simulating phenotypic evolution in fast time. The initial behaviors are generated randomly or include hints. The process then learns without instruction. The Valuated State Space Approach provides a convenient way to represent any purpose/mission. Evolutionary programming searches the domain of possible tactics in a highly efficient manner. Coupled together, these provide a basis for cruise missile mission planning, and for driving tank warfare simulation. This approach is now being explored to benefit Air Force simulations by a shell that can enhance the original simulation.

  7. Evaluation of ground-water flow by particle tracking, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, W.L.; Sheets, R.A.; Schalk, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) began a Basewide Monitoring Program (BMP) in 1992. The purpose of the BMP was to establish a long-term ground-water and surface- water sampling network in order to (1) characterize current ground-water and surface-water quality; (2) describe water-quality changes as water enters, flows across, and exits Base boundaries; (3) conduct statistical analyses of water quality; and (4) estimate the effect of WPAFB on regional water quality. As part of the BMP, the USGS conducted ground-water particle-tracking analyses based on a ground-water-flow model produced during a previous USGS study. This report briefly describes the previous USGS study, the inherent assumptions of particle-tracking analyses, and information on the regional ground-water-flow field as inferred from particle pathlines. Pathlines for particles placed at the Base boundary and particles placed within identified Installation Restoration Program sites are described.

  8. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  9. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  10. Combat aircraft operations: Training requirements for the German Air Force tactical flying units and the noise problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jertz, W.

    1992-04-01

    The deterrence potential of an Air Force, and by that the capability to fulfill their mission in times of war, relies on threat oriented training in peacetime. Low level flying is a major tactical means to help aircrews reduce the anticipated threat imposed to them by enemy air defence systems to an acceptable degree. The demand for this capability applies also to air defence tasks against attacking fighter bombers. Military low level flying requires a high degree of proficiency, which can only be reached and maintained by constant training. A high performance level is then the key to air power. The possibilities for this kind of necessary training are restricted by superior demands concerning, amongst others, flying safety and environmental reasons. Too intensive restrictions might reduce the fighting capability of the wings to such an extent, that mission fulfillment could be seriously endangered.

  11. Radiotelemetry Study of a Desert Tortoise Population: Sand Hill Training Mea, Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    have dramatically declined, making it economically feasible to extend the utility and applications of this important field technique. The most...increases the probability of local extinctions from inbreeding depression, loss of heterosis (decreased genetic variability), and genetic drift (the...USACERLTR-98/39 57 Bürge, B.L., "Daily and Seasonal Behavior, and Areas Utilized by the Desert Tortoise Gopherus Agassizii in Southern Nevada," The

  12. Detailed Fuel Cell Demonstration Site Summary Report: Naval Hospital at Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center - Twentynine Palms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    in the water for sodium ions in the resin . Resin costs work out to approximately $1,120 per one thousand op- erating hours. Appendix F presents...A bed of ion -exchange resin is used to soften the water in the water treatment system. The softening proc- ess exchanges calcium and magnesium ions ...Timeline The first formal activity related to the fuel cell demonstration unit at the Na - val Hospital was a site evaluation meeting held in December

  13. The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight/The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Trained for the Urban Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    1 The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight Subject Area Training EWS 2006...The Marine Air-Ground Team: Still Not Adequately Training for the Urban Fight Submitted by Captain RC Rybka to Majors GC Schreffler and RR...estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the

  14. Installation-restoration program. Preliminary assessment: 162nd Combat Communications Group and 149th Combat Communications Squadron, Nort Highlands Air National Guard Station, California Air National Guard, Sacramento, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary assessment included the following activities: (1) An on-site visit, including interviews and field surveys; (2) Acquisition and analysis of information on past hazardous materials use, waste generation, and waste disposal at the Station; (3) Acquisition and analysis of available geological surveys, hydrological data, meteorological data, and environmental data; and (4) The identification and assessment of sites where contamination of soils, ground water and/or surface water may have occurred. Operations that have involved the use of hazardous materials and the disposal of hazardous wastes include vehicle maintenance and maintenance of aerospace ground equipment (AGE). The hazardous wastes disposed of through these operations include varying quantities of fuels, acids, paints, thinners, strippers, solvents, and oils. The field surveys and interviews resulted in two sites being identified that exhibit the potential for migration of contaminants due to leakage or seepage from landfills and storage tanks.

  15. A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against Asymmetric Homeland Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against Asymmetric Homeland Threat Ronald L. Cypert Scientific...units, along with coordination at the state and federal agency level, a dynamic process modeling capability was chosen to chart the myriad...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Process Model for Deployment Planning of Ground-based Air Defense System Against

  16. Two decades of temperature-time monitoring experiment: air - ground surface - shallow subsurface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermak, Vladimir; Dedecek, Petr; Safanda, Jan; Kresl, Milan

    2014-05-01

    Long-term observations (1994-2013) of air and shallow ground temperatures at borehole Prague-Sporilov (50º02'28.5"E, 14º28'40.2"N, 274 m a.s.l.) have been thoroughly analyzed to understand the relationship between these quantities and to describe the mechanism of heat transport at the land-atmosphere boundary layer. Data provided a surprisingly small mean ground-air temperature offset of only 0.31 K with no clear annual course and with the offset value changing irregularly even on a daily scale. Such value is substantially lower than similar values (1-2 K and more) found elsewhere, but may well characterize a mild temperate zone, when all so far available information referred rather to southern locations. Borehole data were correlated with similar observations in a polygon-site under four types of surface conditions (grass, soil, sand and asphalt) completed with registration of meteorological variables (wind direction & velocity, air & soil humidity, direct & reflected solar radiation, precipitation and snow cover). The "thermal orbits" technique proved to be an effective tool for the fast qualitative diagnostics of the thermal regime in the subsurface (conductive versus non-conductive).

  17. Final Environmental Assessment for a Proposed Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer Training Campus at Kirtland Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    beginning of 2005 within the ROI was 5.2 percent (New Mexico Department of Labor 2005). 3.3.2.3 Kirtland Air Force Base Kirtland AFB had...International Sunport, New Mexico. Accessed 5/2005 from http://www. wrcc.dri.edu/ CLIMA TEDA T A.html. AETC P J/CRO Campus at Kirtland AFB Preliminary

  18. Installation Restoration Program. Preliminary Assessment: 216th Engineering Installation Squadron and 234th Combat Communications Squadron, Hayward Air National Guard Station, California Air National Guard, Hayward, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Plutonic rock intermediate in composition between syenite and diorite, containing approximately equal amounts of alkali feldspar and plagioclase...exposed at the ground surface, including streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes. SYENITE - Plutonic rock containing orthoclase and microcline with small

  19. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  20. TeV γ-ray astronomy with ground-based air-shower arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafá, Miguel A.

    2016-07-01

    The TeV energy band is a very exciting window into the origin of high energy cosmic radiation, particle acceleration, and the annihilation of dark matter particles. Above a few hundred GeV, ground-based experiments of very large effective areas open a new domain to study extragalactic sources at intermediate redshifts, galaxy clusters, gamma ray bursts, AGN and their flaring states, extended sources and galactic diffuse emission, and to indirect searches for dark matter. In particular, ground arrays of particle detectors -that operate with high duty cycles and large fields of view- can extend to multi-TeV energies the measurements made with experiments on satellites, and complement the observations done with air Cherenkov telescopes on the ground. Key science goals of ground arrays include performing unbiased all-sky surveys, monitoring of transient events from known (and unknown) sources, and detecting extended regions of diffuse emission. In this paper, the status and most recent results from ARGO-YBJ, Tibet AS, HAWC, and LHAASO are presented.

  1. Environmental Assessment: Recapitalization of the 49th WG Combat Capabilities and Capacities, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    both native and introduced) and shade trees such as desert willow (Chilopsis linearis), ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens), yuccas (Yucca spp.), pines ...burrowing owl, also a USFWS Species of Concern, occurs on dry and open shortgrass prairie including disturbed areas such as barren grounds around the...mishap would have a higher risk of fire than would a mishap in a more barren and rocky area during the winter. When an aircraft crashes, it may

  2. Stream air temperature relations to classify stream ground water interactions in a karst setting, central Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Driscoll, Michael A.; DeWalle, David R.

    2006-09-01

    SummaryStream-ground water interactions in karst vary from complete losses through swallow holes, to reemergences from springs. Our study objective was to compare stream-air temperature and energy exchange relationships across various stream-ground water relationships in a carbonate watershed. It was hypothesized that ground water-fed stream segments could be distinguished from perched/losing segments using stream-air temperature relationships. Two types of computations were conducted: (1) comparisons of stream-air temperature relationships for the period of October 1999-September 2002 at 12 sites in the Spring Creek drainage and (2) detailed energy budget computations for the same period for ground water-dominated Thompson Run and Lower Buffalo Run, a stream with negligible ground water inputs. Weekly average air temperatures and stream temperatures were highly correlated, but slopes and intercepts of the relationship varied for the 12 sites. Slopes ranged from 0.19 to 0.67 and intercepts ranged from 3.23 to 9.07 °C. A two-component mixing model with end members of ground water and actual stream temperatures indicated that the slope and intercept of the stream-air temperature relationship was controlled by ground water inputs. Streams with large ground water inputs had greater intercepts and lesser slopes than streams that were seasonally losing, perched, and/or distant from ground water inputs. Energy fluxes across the air-water interface were greatest for the ground water-fed stream due to increased longwave, latent, and sensible heat losses from the stream in winter when large temperature and vapor pressure differences existed between the stream and air. Advection of ground water was an important source and sink for heat in the ground water-fed stream, depending on season. In contrast, along the seasonally losing stream reach, advection was of minimal importance and stream temperatures were dominated by energy exchange across the air- water interface. Overall

  3. ADS-B within a Multi-Aircraft Simulation for Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Chung, William W.; Loveness, Ghyrn W.

    2004-01-01

    Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) is an enabling technology for NASA s Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept. DAG-TM has the goal of significantly increasing capacity within the National Airspace System, while maintaining or improving safety. Under DAG-TM, aircraft exchange state and intent information over ADS-B with other aircraft and ground stations. This information supports various surveillance functions including conflict detection and resolution, scheduling, and conformance monitoring. To conduct more rigorous concept feasibility studies, NASA Langley Research Center s PC-based Air Traffic Operations Simulation models a 1090 MHz ADS-B communication structure, based on industry standards for message content, range, and reception probability. The current ADS-B model reflects a mature operating environment and message interference effects are limited to Mode S transponder replies and ADS-B squitters. This model was recently evaluated in a Joint DAG-TM Air/Ground Coordination Experiment with NASA Ames Research Center. Message probability of reception vs. range was lower at higher traffic levels. The highest message collision probability occurred near the meter fix serving as the confluence for two arrival streams. Even the highest traffic level encountered in the experiment was significantly less than the industry standard "LA Basin 2020" scenario. Future studies will account for Mode A and C message interference (a major effect in several industry studies) and will include Mode A and C aircraft in the simulation, thereby increasing the total traffic level. These changes will support ongoing enhancements to separation assurance functions that focus on accommodating longer ADS-B information update intervals.

  4. Map Design for a 1:100,000 Ground/Air Product.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    maps when viewed view. In addition, slope zoning quickly summarizes mask- through the AN/PVS-5 night vision goggles (blue-green ing potential and clear...useful if mapped. Glick, David D. and Roger W. Wiley (1975). A Visual Comparison of Standard and Experimental Maps Using the AN/FVS-5 Night Vision ...terrain analysis needs of air and ground users. Accesion For NTIS CRA&I DTIC TAB U a:I’.Oi ,ed 0j J ttC t ......................... By ------ - -- w

  5. Criteria for Side-Force Control in Air-to-Ground Target Acquisition and Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammonds, Robert I.; McNeill, Walter E.; Bunnell, John W.

    1982-01-01

    A moving-base simulator experiment conducted at Ames Research Center demonstrated that a wings-level-turn control mode improved flying qualities for air-to-ground weapons delivery compared with those of a conventional aircraft. Evaluations of criteria for dynamic response for this system have shown that pilot ratings correlate well with equivalent time constant of the initial response and with system bandwidth. Ranges of this time constant, as well as digital-system transport delays and lateral-acceleration control authorities that encompassed level 1 through level 3 handling qualities, were determined.

  6. Force Reconnaissance: A Key Enabler in the Marine Air Ground Task Force and Beyond

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-13

    Marine Air Ground Task N/A Force & Beyond Sb. GRANT NUMBER N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR( S ) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Carr, Bradford R...Major, USMC N/A Se. TASK NUMBER N/A Sf. WORK UNIT NUMBER N/A 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION USMC...Command and Staff College REPORT NUMBER Marine Corps University N/A 2076 South Street Quantico, VA 22134-5068 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S

  7. Ground moving target geo-location from monocular camera mounted on a micro air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li; Ang, Haisong; Zheng, Xiangming

    2011-08-01

    The usual approaches to unmanned air vehicle(UAV)-to-ground target geo-location impose some severe constraints to the system, such as stationary objects, accurate geo-reference terrain database, or ground plane assumption. Micro air vehicle(MAV) works with characteristics including low altitude flight, limited payload and onboard sensors' low accuracy. According to these characteristics, a method is developed to determine the location of ground moving target which imaged from the air using monocular camera equipped on MAV. This method eliminates the requirements for terrain database (elevation maps) and altimeters that can provide MAV's and target's altitude. Instead, the proposed method only requires MAV flight status provided by its inherent onboard navigation system which includes inertial measurement unit(IMU) and global position system(GPS). The key is to get accurate information on the altitude of the ground moving target. First, Optical flow method extracts background static feature points. Setting a local region around the target in the current image, The features which are on the same plane with the target in this region are extracted, and are retained as aided features. Then, inverse-velocity method calculates the location of these points by integrated with aircraft status. The altitude of object, which is calculated by using position information of these aided features, combining with aircraft status and image coordinates, geo-locate the target. Meanwhile, a framework with Bayesian estimator is employed to eliminate noise caused by camera, IMU and GPS. Firstly, an extended Kalman filter(EKF) provides a simultaneous localization and mapping solution for the estimation of aircraft states and aided features location which defines the moving target local environment. Secondly, an unscented transformation(UT) method determines the estimated mean and covariance of target location from aircraft states and aided features location, and then exports them for the

  8. Systems Health Monitoring — From Ground to Air — The Aerospace Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Mary

    2007-03-01

    The aerospace industry and the government are significantly investing in jet engine systems health monitoring. Government organizations such as the Air Force, Navy, Army, National Labs and NASA are investing in the development of state aware sensing for health monitoring of jet engines such as the Joint Strike Fighter, F119 and F100's. This paper will discuss on-going work in systems health monitoring for jet engines. Topics will include a general discussion of the approaches to engine structural health monitoring and the prognosis of engine component life. Real-world implementation challenges on the ground and in the air will be reviewed. The talk will conclude with a prediction of where engine health monitoring will be in twenty years.

  9. Numerical Simulations of Blast Loads from Near-Field Ground Explosions in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrociński, Stanisław; Flis, Leszek

    2015-12-01

    Numerical simulations of air blast loading in the near-field acting on the ground have been performed. A simplified blast model based on empirical blast loading data representing spherical and hemispherical explosive shapes has been simulated. Conwep is an implementation of the empirical blast models presented by Kingery and Bulmash, which is also implemented in the commercial code LS-DYNA based on work done by Rahnders-Pehrson and Bannister. This makes it possible to simulate blast loads acting on structures representing spherical and hemispherical explosive shapes of TNT with reasonable computational effort as an alternative to the SPH and Eulerian model. The CPU time for the simplified blast model is however considerably shorter and may still be useful in time consuming concept studies. Reasonable numerical results using reasonable model sizes can be achieved not only for modelling near-field explosions in air but most areas of geotechnical. Calculation was compared with blast SPH and Eulerian model.

  10. Impacts of aircraft emissions on the air quality near the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Youn, D.

    2013-01-01

    The continuing increase in demand for commercial aviation transport raises questions about the effects of resulting emissions on the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using a global chemistry transport model, to what extent aviation emissions outside the boundary layer influence air quality in the boundary layer. The effects of current levels of aircraft emissions were studied through comparison of multiple simulations allowing for the separated effects of aviation emissions occurring in the low, middle and upper troposphere. We show that emissions near cruise altitudes rather than emissions during landing and take-off are responsible for most of the total odd-nitrogen (NOy), ozone (O3) and aerosol perturbations near the ground with a noticeable seasonal difference. Overall, the perturbations of these species are smaller than 1 ppb even in winter when the perturbations are greater than in summer. Based on the widely used air quality standards and uncertainty of state-of-the-art models, we conclude that aviation-induced perturbations have a negligible effect on air quality even in areas with heavy air traffic. Aviation emissions lead to a less than 1% aerosol enhancement in the boundary layer due to a slight increase in ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) during cold seasons and a statistically insignificant aerosol perturbation in summer. In addition, statistical analysis using probability density functions, Hellinger distance, and p-value indicate that aviation emissions outside the boundary layer do not affect the occurrence of extremely high aerosol concentrations in the boundary layer. An additional sensitivity simulation assuming the doubling of surface ammonia emissions demonstrates that the aviation induced aerosol increase near the ground is highly dependent on background ammonia concentrations whose current range of uncertainty is large.

  11. Impacts of aircraft emissions on the air quality near the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Youn, D.

    2013-06-01

    The continuing increase in demand for commercial aviation transport raises questions about the effects of resulting emissions on the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using a global chemistry transport model, to what extent aviation emissions outside the boundary layer influence air quality in the boundary layer. The large-scale effects of current levels of aircraft emissions were studied through comparison of multiple simulations allowing for the separated effects of aviation emissions occurring in the low, middle and upper troposphere. We show that emissions near cruise altitudes (9-11 km in altitude) rather than emissions during landing and take-off are responsible for most of the total odd-nitrogen (NOy), ozone (O3) and aerosol perturbations near the ground with a noticeable seasonal difference. Overall, the perturbations of these species are smaller than 1 ppb even in winter when the perturbations are greater than in summer. Based on the widely used air quality standards and uncertainty of state-of-the-art models, we conclude that aviation-induced perturbations have a negligible effect on air quality even in areas with heavy air traffic. Aviation emissions lead to a less than 1% aerosol enhancement in the boundary layer due to a slight increase in ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) during cold seasons and a statistically insignificant aerosol perturbation in summer. In addition, statistical analysis using probability density functions, Hellinger distance, and p value indicate that aviation emissions outside the boundary layer do not affect the occurrence of extremely high aerosol concentrations in the boundary layer. An additional sensitivity simulation assuming the doubling of surface ammonia emissions demonstrates that the aviation induced aerosol increase near the ground is highly dependent on background ammonia concentrations whose current range of uncertainty is large.

  12. Hydrogeologic framework and ground-water resources at Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardinell, A.P.; Howe, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    A preliminary hydrogeologic framework of the Seymour Johnson Air Force Base was constructed from published data, available well data, and reports from Air Base files, City of Goldsboro and Wayne County records, and North Carolina Geological Survey files. Borehole geophysical logs were run in selected wells; and the surficial, Black Creek, and upper Cape Fear aquifers were mapped. Results indicate that the surficial aquifer appears to have the greatest lateral variability of clay units and aquifer material of the three aquifers. A surficial aquifer water-level surface map, constructed from selected monitoring wells screened exclusively in the surficial aquifer, indicates the general direction of ground-water movement in this mostly unconfined aquifer is toward the Neuse River and Stoney Creek. However, water-level gradient data from a few sites in the surficial aquifer did not reflect this trend, and there are insufficient hydrologic and hydrogeologic data to determine the cause of these few anamalous measurements. The Black Creek aquifer underlies the surficial aquifer and is believed to underlie most of Wayne County, including the Air Base where the aquifer and overlying confining unit are estimated from well log data to be as much as 100 feet thick. The Black Creek confining unit ranges in thickness from less than 8 feet to more than 20 feet. There are currently no accessible wells screened exclusively in the Black Creek aquifer from which to measure water levels. The upper Cape Fear aquifer and confining unit are generally found at depths greater than 80 feet below land surface at the Air Base, and are estimated to be as much as 70 feet thick. Hydrologic and hydrogeologic data are insufficient to determine localized surficial aquifer hydrogeology, ground-water movement at several sites, or hydraulic head differences between the three aquifers.

  13. NASA Langley and NLR Research of Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Hoekstra, Jacco M.; Wing, David J.; Lohr, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) is a concept of future air traffic operations that proposes to distribute information, decision-making authority, and responsibility among flight crews, the air traffic service provider, and aeronautical operational control organizations. This paper provides an overview and status of DAG-TM research at NASA Langley Research Center and the National Aerospace Laboratory of The Netherlands. Specific objectives of the research are to evaluate the technical and operational feasibility of the autonomous airborne component of DAG-TM, which is founded on the operational paradigm of free flight. The paper includes an overview of research approaches, the airborne technologies under development, and a summary of experimental investigations and findings to date. Although research is not yet complete, these findings indicate that free flight is feasible and will significantly enhance system capacity and safety. While free flight cannot alone resolve the complex issues faced by those modernizing the global airspace, it should be considered an essential part of a comprehensive air traffic management modernization activity.

  14. Feasibility of using frequency offset on very high frequency air/ground voice channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badinelli, Martin; Cushman, Arthur; Randazzo, Philip

    1990-03-01

    In some large Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) air traffic control sectors, the controller manually switches between multiple ground transmitters to communicate with aircraft at opposite ends of the sector. This puts an additional burden on the controller. Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC) uses a frequency offset system which produces five frequencies from one channel assignment. ARINC provides this service to commercial air carriers who use receivers designed to ARINC specifications. These receivers are capable of eliminating the audio heterodyne generated by the offsetting process. The commercial air carriers use this system for airline business. The testing performed at the FAA Technical Center to evaluate this system as a means of controlling the air traffic in large sectors is described. The tests indicate that a frequency offset system cannot be used with general aviation aircraft receivers because many cannot filter out the audio heterodyne. Use of frequency offset may be possible in high altitude sectors where commercial aviation receivers, which meet ARINC specifications, are used if some additional concerns are resolved.

  15. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinaman, Kurt C.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    Dover Air Force Base in Kent County, Delaware, has many contaminated sites that are in active remediation. To assist in this remediation, a steady-state model of ground-water flow was developed to aid in understanding the hydrology of the system, and for use as a ground-watermanagement tool. This report describes the hydrology on which the model is based, a description of the model itself, and some applications of the model.Dover Air Force Base is underlain by unconsolidated sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The primary units that were investigated include the upper Calvert Formation and the overlying Columbia Formation. The uppermost sand unit in the Calvert Formation at Dover Air Force Base is the Frederica aquifer, which is the deepest unit investigated in this report. A confining unit of clayey silt in the upper Calvert Formation separates the Frederica aquifer from the lower surficial aquifer, which is the basal Columbia Formation. North and northwest of Dover Air Force Base, the Frederica aquifer subcrops beneath the Columbia Formation and the upper Calvert Formation confining unit is absent. The Calvert Formation dips to the southeast. The Columbia Formation consists predominately of sands, silts, and gravels, although in places there are clay layers that separate the surficial aquifer into an upper and lower surficial aquifer. The areal extent of these clay layers has been mapped by use of gamma logs. Long-term hydrographs reveal substantial changes in both seasonal and annual ground-water recharge. These variations in recharge are related to temporal changes in evaporation, transpiration, and precipitation. The hydrographs show areas where extensive silts and clays are present in the surficial aquifer. In these areas, the vertical gradient between water levels in wells screened above and below the clays can be as large as several feet, and local ground-water highs typically form during normal recharge conditions. When drought conditions persist

  16. Combat aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  17. Use of cooperative unmanned air and ground vehicles for detection and disposal of mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawodny MacArthur, Erica; MacArthur, Donald; Crane, Carl

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this research is to extend the sensing capabilities of a multi-vehicle ground system by incorporating the environmental perception abilities of unmanned aerial vehicles. The aerial vehicle used in this research is a Miniature Aircraft Gas Xcell RC helicopter. It is outfitted with a sensor payload containing stereo vision cameras, GPS, and a digital compass. Geo- referenced images are gathered using the above sensors that are used in this research to create a map of the operating region. The ground vehicle used in this research is an automated Suzuki Mini-Quad ATV. It has the following onboard sensors: single-vision camera, laser range device, digital compass, GPS, and an encoder. The ground vehicle uses the above sensors and the map provided by the helicopter to traverse the region, locate, and isolate simulated land mines. The base station consists of a laptop that provides a communication link between the aerial and ground vehicle systems. It also provides the operator with system operation information and statistics. All communication between the vehicles and the base station is performed using JAUS (Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems) messages. The JAUS architecture is employed as a means to organize inter-vehicle and intra-vehicle communication and system component hierarchy. The purpose of JAUS is to provide interoperability between various unmanned systems and subsystems for both military and commercial applications. JAUS seeks to achieve this through the development of functionally cohesive building blocks called components whose interface messages are clearly defined. The JAUS architecture allows for a layered control strategy which has specific message sets for each layer of control. Implementation of the JAUS architecture allows for ease of software development for a multi- vehicle system. This experiment demonstrates how an air-ground vehicle system can be used to cooperatively locate and dispose of simulated mines.

  18. Understanding the Potential of Aeroelastic Couplings to Stabilize Ground and Air Resonance in a Soft-Inplane Tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Anna K. T.

    1999-01-01

    The tiltrotor offers the best mix of hovering and cruise flight of any of the current V/STOL configurations. One possible improvement on the tiltrotors of today designs would be using a soft-inplane hingeless hub. The advantages to a soft-inplane hingeless hub range from reduced weight and maintenance to reduced vibration and loads. However, soft-inplane rotor systems are inherently in danger of the aeromechanical instabilities of ground and air resonance. Furthermore tiltrotors can be subject to whirl flutter. At least in part because of the potential for air and ground resonance in a soft-inplane rotor, the Bell XV-15, the Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey, and the new Bell Augusta 609 have stiff-inplane, gimballed rotors which do not experience these instabilities. In order to design soft-inplane V/STOL aircraft that do not experience ground or air resonance, it is important to be able to predict these instabilities accurately. Much of the research studying the stability of tiltrotors has been focused on the understanding and prediction of whirl flutter. As this instability is increasingly well understood, air and ground resonance for a tiltrotor need to be investigated. Once we understand the problems of air and ground resonance in a tiltrotor, we must look for solutions to these instabilities. Other researchers have found composite or kinematic couplings in the blades of a helicopter helpful for ground and air resonance stability. Tiltrotor research has shown composite couplings in the wing to be helpful for whirl flutter. Therefore, this project will undertake to model ground and air resonance of a soft-inplane hingeless tiltrotor to understand the mechanisms involved and to evaluate whether aeroelastic couplings in the wing or kinematic couplings in the blades would aid in stabilizing these instabilities in a tiltrotor.

  19. Installation Restoration Program. Preliminary Assessment: 222nd Combat Communications Squadron, Costa Mesa Air National Guard Station, California Air National Guard, Costa Mesa, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    expanding-lattice clay minerals when wetted. iG1-9 I I MONZONITE - Plutonic rock intermediate in composition between syenite and I diorite, containing...below the solum. SURFACE WATER - All water exposed at the ground surface, including 3 streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes. SYENITE - Plutonic rock

  20. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Bill

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  1. Distributed pheromone-based swarming control of unmanned air and ground vehicles for RSTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, John A.; Mathews, Robert S.; Yinger, Andrew; Robinson, Joshua S.; Moody, John; Riddle, Stephanie

    2008-04-01

    The use of unmanned vehicles in Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA) applications has received considerable attention recently. Cooperating land and air vehicles can support multiple sensor modalities providing pervasive and ubiquitous broad area sensor coverage. However coordination of multiple air and land vehicles serving different mission objectives in a dynamic and complex environment is a challenging problem. Swarm intelligence algorithms, inspired by the mechanisms used in natural systems to coordinate the activities of many entities provide a promising alternative to traditional command and control approaches. This paper describes recent advances in a fully distributed digital pheromone algorithm that has demonstrated its effectiveness in managing the complexity of swarming unmanned systems. The results of a recent demonstration at NASA's Wallops Island of multiple Aerosonde Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) and Pioneer Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) cooperating in a coordinated RSTA application are discussed. The vehicles were autonomously controlled by the onboard digital pheromone responding to the needs of the automatic target recognition algorithms. UAVs and UGVs controlled by the same pheromone algorithm self-organized to perform total area surveillance, automatic target detection, sensor cueing, and automatic target recognition with no central processing or control and minimal operator input. Complete autonomy adds several safety and fault tolerance requirements which were integrated into the basic pheromone framework. The adaptive algorithms demonstrated the ability to handle some unplanned hardware failures during the demonstration without any human intervention. The paper describes lessons learned and the next steps for this promising technology.

  2. The Necessity of Company-Grade Air Defense Artillery Officers in the Air Defense and Airspace Management Cells Within the Brigade Combat Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    the role of ADAM Cell OIC. Utilizing the Army design methodology, the study compares the current training and performance of Air Defense officers to...junior company-grade officers to fulfill the role of ADAM Cell OIC. Utilizing the Army design methodology, the study compares the current training...Page Figure 1. Army design methodology ...............................................................................34 Figure 2. The cross-walk

  3. A formulation and analysis of combat games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, M.; Ardema, M. D.; Rajan, N.

    1985-01-01

    Combat is formulated as a dynamical encounter between two opponents, each of whom has offensive capabilities and objectives. With each opponent is associated a target in the event space in which he endeavors to terminate the combat, thereby winning. If the combat terminates in both target sets simultaneously or in neither, a joint capture or a draw, respectively, is said to occur. Resolution of the encounter is formulated as a combat game; namely, as a pair of competing event-constrained differential games. If exactly one of the players can win, the optimal strategies are determined from a resulting constrained zero-sum differential game. Otherwise the optimal strategies are computed from a resulting non-zero-sum game. Since optimal combat strategies frequencies may not exist, approximate of delta-combat games are also formulated leading to approximate or delta-optimal strategies. To illustrate combat games, an example, called the turret game, is considered. This game may be thought of as a highly simplified model of air combat, yet it is sufficiently complex to exhibit a rich variety of combat behavior, much of which is not found in pursuit-evasion games.

  4. Ensuring U.S. Air Force Operations During Cyber Attacks Against Combat Support Systems: Guidance for Where to Focus Mitigation Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    can be attacked by cyber means in various ways—on networks , hardware, and databases. Even though cyber defense responsibilities do not fall within the...23   vii Summary While combat support communities are not responsible for defending cyber networks , they are required to ensure...that many combat support systems do not reside on the most secure networks indicates potential vulnerabilities to cyber attack. Yet the sheer number of

  5. A Historical Look at Close Air Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the X Corps commander, General Almond . He had experience with effective air-to-ground operations in Italy during World War II. Almond attended the Air...Reservoir, General Almonds X Corps successfully withdrew with the assistance from the 1st MAW. The support that the Marines gave has been described by...Corps as an independent command, enabling Almond to plan, prepare and conduct his own combat missions. Once X Corps withdrew to the south it ceased to

  6. Piloted simulation of an air-ground profile negotiation process in a time-based Air Traffic Control environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Green, Steven M.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, development of airborne flight management systems (FMS) and ground-based air traffic control (ATC) systems has tended to focus on different objectives with little consideration for operational integration. A joint program, between NASA's Ames Research Center (Ames) and Langley Research Center (Langley), is underway to investigate the issues of, and develop systems for, the integration of ATC and airborne automation systems. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate a profile negotiation process (PNP) between the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) and an aircraft equipped with a four-dimensional flight management system (4D FMS). Prototype procedures were developed to support the functional implementation of this process. The PNP was designed to provide an arrival trajectory solution which satisfies the separation requirements of ATC while remaining as close as possible to the aircraft's preferred trajectory. Results from the experiment indicate the potential for successful incorporation of aircraft-preferred arrival trajectories in the CTAS automation environment. Fuel savings on the order of 2 percent to 8 percent, compared to fuel required for the baseline CTAS arrival speed strategy, were achieved in the test scenarios. The data link procedures and clearances developed for this experiment, while providing the necessary functionality, were found to be operationally unacceptable to the pilots. In particular, additional pilot control and understanding of the proposed aircraft-preferred trajectory, and a simplified clearance procedure were cited as necessary for operational implementation of the concept.

  7. Ground-to-air flow visualization using Solar Calcium-K line Background-Oriented Schlieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Michael A.; Haering, Edward A.

    2017-01-01

    The Calcium-K Eclipse Background-Oriented Schlieren experiment was performed as a proof of concept test to evaluate the effectiveness of using the solar disk as a background to perform the Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS) method of flow visualization. A ground-based imaging system was equipped with a Calcium-K line optical etalon filter to enable the use of the chromosphere of the sun as the irregular background to be used for BOS. A US Air Force T-38 aircraft performed three supersonic runs which eclipsed the sun as viewed from the imaging system. The images were successfully post-processed using optical flow methods to qualitatively reveal the density gradients in the flow around the aircraft.

  8. Effects of mission rehearsal simulation on air-to-ground target acquisition.

    PubMed

    Krebs, W K; McCarley, J S; Bryant, E V

    1999-12-01

    Traditionally military aviators have prepared for air-to-ground bombing missions with maps and aerial photographs of their targets. Mission rehearsal systems augment these media by allowing pilots to view simulated ingress to their target, as seen from the cockpit perspective. In the present experiment we assessed the benefits of mission rehearsal with a task requiring observers to view recorded approaches to target objects and to detect the target objects as quickly as possible. Results indicated that premission simulations allowed observers to detect target objects at greater stand-off ranges than did study with maps and aerial photographs alone. Actual or potential applications of this research include the deployment of a mission rehearsal system to assist aviators' mission planning.

  9. Chloride leaching from air pollution control residues solidified using ground granulated blast furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Lampris, Christos; Stegemann, Julia A; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2008-11-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (ggbs) has been used to solidify air pollution control (APC) residues obtained from a major UK energy-from-waste plant. Samples were prepared with ggbs additions between 10 and 50 wt% of total dry mass and water/solids ratios between 0.35 and 0.80. Consistence, setting time, compressive strength and leaching characteristics have been investigated. Results indicated that the highly alkaline nature of APC residues due to the presence of free lime can be used to activate ggbs hydration reactions. Increasing ggbs additions and reducing the water content resulted in increased compressive strengths, with 50 wt% ggbs samples having average 28 d strengths of 20.6 MPa. Leaching tests indicate low physical encapsulation and minimal chemical fixation of chloride in ggbs solidified APC residues. The results suggest that more than 50 wt% ggbs additions would be required to treat APC residues to meet the current waste acceptance criteria limits for chloride.

  10. A-2000: Close air support aircraft design team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrannanto, Paul; Lim, Don; Lucas, Evangeline; Risse, Alan; Weaver, Dave; Wikse, Steve

    1991-01-01

    The US Air Force is currently faced with the problem of providing adequate close air support for ground forces. Air response to troops engaged in combat must be rapid and devastating due to the highly fluid battle lines of the future. The A-2000 is the result of a study to design an aircraft to deliver massive fire power accurately. The low cost A-2000 incorporates: large weapons payload; excellent maneuverability; all weather and terrain following capacity; redundant systems; and high survivability.

  11. Assessing air quality and climate impacts of future ground freight choice in United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Bond, T. C.; Smith, S.; Lee, B.; Ouyang, Y.; Hwang, T.; Barkan, C.; Lee, S.; Daenzer, K.

    2013-12-01

    The demand for freight transportation has continued to increase due to the growth of domestic and international trade. Emissions from ground freight (truck and railways) account for around 7% of the greenhouse gas emissions, 4% of the primary particulate matter emission and 25% of the NOx emissions in the U.S. Freight railways are generally more fuel efficient than trucks and cause less congestion. Freight demand and emissions are affected by many factors, including economic activity, the spatial distribution of demand, freight modal choice and routing decision, and the technology used in each modal type. This work links these four critical aspects of freight emission system to project the spatial distribution of emissions and pollutant concentration from ground freight transport in the U.S. between 2010 and 2050. Macroeconomic scenarios are used to forecast economic activities. Future spatial structure of employment and commodity demand in major metropolitan areas are estimated using spatial models and a shift-share model, respectively. Freight flow concentration and congestion patterns in inter-regional transportation networks are predicted from a four-step freight demand forecasting model. An asymptotic vehicle routing model is also developed to estimate delivery ton-miles for intra-regional freight shipment in metropolitan areas. Projected freight activities are then converted into impacts on air quality and climate. CO2 emissions are determined using a simple model of freight activity and fuel efficiency, and compared with the projected CO2 emissions from the Second Generation Model. Emissions of air pollutants including PM, NOx and CO are calculated with a vehicle fleet model SPEW-Trend, which incorporates the dynamic change of technologies. Emissions are projected under three economic scenarios to represent different plausible futures. Pollutant concentrations are then estimated using tagged chemical tracers in an atmospheric model with the emissions serving

  12. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Appendix A, Part 2, Field Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the sampling and chemical analysis of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of a field investigation of ground water contamination.

  13. Evoked potential, cardiac, blink, and respiration measures of pilot workload in air-to-ground missions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G F; Fullenkamp, P; Davis, I

    1994-02-01

    Brain evoked potentials were successfully recorded from F-4 pilots during air-to-ground training missions. They were recorded during two flight segments. During one the pilot was flying, and during the other, the weapon systems officer was flying the aircraft. The P2 component of the brain-evoked potential evidenced reduced amplitude during the pilot-flying segment, while the N1 component was reduced during both flight tasks compared to ground-based tasks. These data indicate that the P2 amplitude is sensitive to the level of pilot workload. These results were further substantiated using simultaneously recorded physiological data and subjective workload measures. For example, cardiac inter-beat intervals decreased during flight segments relative to those recorded when performing a tracking task, and further reduced for the pilot-flying vs. the weapon systems officer-flying segment. Eye blink measures were sensitive to the visual demands of the various tasks. These data show that evoked potentials can be recorded during flight, and that, together with cardiac and eye blink data, they provide a composite picture of operator state.

  14. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

  15. Ground-water resources of the Holloman Air Force Base well field area, 1967, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballance, W.C.; Mattick, Robert E.

    1976-01-01

    Water consumption at Holloman Air Force Base (HAFB), N. Mex., reached an all time high in 1964 and 1965. Further increases in withdrawal without expansion of pumping facilities will hasten the chemical deterioration of the ground water pumped from the well fields. Saline water in the well-field area is present on the north and west sides of the potable-water area and in a thin shallow zone that overlies the potable-water sands in part of the potable-water area. The latter source is affecting quality of the water produced from most wells. The saturated thickness of material underlying the Boles well field ranges from about 3 ,500 feet in the western part of the field to about 1,200 feet in the eastern part of the field. In the Douglass and San Andres well fields, the saturated thickness ranges from 3,500 feet to about 300 feet. Expansion of the Boles and San Andres well fields to the east and southeast would move the center of pumping away from the highly saline water to the north and west. This would eliminate overpumping of the present wells that has resulted from the expanded facilities at Holloman Air Force Base. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Air-ground interface: Surface waves, surface impedance and acoustic-to-seismic coupling coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Gilles; Embleton, Tony

    1990-01-01

    In atmospheric acoustics, the subject of surface waves has been an area of discussion for many years. The existence of an acoustic surface wave is now well established theoretically. The mathematical solution for spherical wave propagation above an impedance boundary includes the possibility of a contribution that possesses all the standard properties for a surface wave. Surface waves exist when the surface is sufficiently porous, relative to its acoustical resistance, that it can influence the airborne particle velocity near the surface and reduce the phase velocity of sound waves in air at the surface. This traps some of the sound energy in the air to remain near the surface as it propagates. Above porous grounds, the existence of surface waves has eluded direct experimental confirmation (pulse experiments have failed to show a separate arrival expected from the reduced phase speed) and indirect evidence for its existence has appeared contradictory. The experimental evidence for the existence of an acoustical surface wave above porous boundaries is reviewed. Recent measurements including pulse experiments are also described. A few years ago the acoustic impedance of a grass-covered surface was measured in the frequency range 30 to 300 Hz. Here, further measurements on the same site are discussed. These measurements include core samples, a shallow refractive survey to determine the seismic velocities, and measurements of the acoustic-to-seismic coupling coefficient.

  17. Air-over-ground calculations of the neutron, prompt, and secondary-gamma free-in-air tissue kerma from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki devices

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, J.V. III; Knight, J.R.; Bartine, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary results of the two-dimensional discrete-ordinate, calculations for the air-over-ground transport of radiation from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki weapon devices. It was found that the gamma-ray kerma dominated the total kerma for both environments.

  18. Satellite and ground observations of the severe air pollution episode in North China in the winter of 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, Z.; Ma, Z.; Li, S.

    2013-12-01

    After two decades of rapid economic growth and urban sprawl, Beijing, China has become one of the most polluted megacities in the world. Severe air pollution has become a serious concern of both the general public and the central government. A prolonged severe fine particle pollution episode in January 2013 attracted nationwide and even worldwide attention. In this study, we describe the spatial and temporal characteristics of PM2.5 levels using ground measurements and remote sensing data. Mean PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing measured by the newly established national monitoring network exceeded 150 microgram/m3 and the maximum daily level reached 420 microgram/m3. High-resolution custom retrieval of AOD showed good correlations (r = 0.79) to the ground monitoring PM2.5 concentrations , and were then used together with ground PM2.5 to develop PM2.5 concentration contours over the North China Plain. From regional concentration contours, we found that Beijing was not the epicenter of the haze episodes, but located at northern edge of a large polluted air mass. Analysis of the temperature and power generation data suggests that these severe haze episodes were partly caused by a very cold winter and resulting significant increases (>20%) of daily power consumption. Back trajectory analysis showed air mass movement into Beijing from major power plants south of the city. Our results suggested regional transportation of fine particles significantly contributed to the air pollution in Beijing, therefore emission reduction in Beijing alone will not be sufficient to significantly improve air quality. Satellite remote sensing data can be used to supplement ground monitors for quantitative air quality assessment at urban to national scale in order to develop effective pollution mitigation policy. Distribution of Ground Monitoring Stations in the Study Region.

  19. EPA True NO2 ground site measurements ?? multiple sites, TCEQ ground site measurements of meteorological and air pollution parameters ?? multiple sites ,GeoTASO NO2 Vertical Column

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA True NO2 ground site measurements ?? multiple sites - http://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/ArcView/discover-aq.tx-2013; TCEQ ground site measurements of meteorological and air pollution parameters ?? multiple sites - http://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/ArcView/discover-aq.tx-2013; GeoTASO NO2 Vertical Column - http://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/ArcView/discover-aq.tx-2013?FALCON=1This dataset is associated with the following publication:Nowlan, C., X. Lu, J. Leitch, K. Chance, G. González Abad, C. Lu, P. Zoogman, J. Cole, T. Delker, W. Good, F. Murcray, L. Ruppert, D. Soo, M. Follette-Cook, S. Janz, M. Kowalewski, C. Loughner, K. Pickering, J. Herman, M. Beaver, R. Long, J. Szykman, L. Judd, P. Kelley, W. Luke, X. Ren, and J. Al-Saadi. Nitrogen dioxide observations from the Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument: Retrieval algorithm and measurements during DISCOVER-AQ Texas 2013. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. Copernicus Publications, Katlenburg-Lindau, GERMANY, 9(6): 2647-2668, (2016).

  20. Air Base Ground Defense Wargame: Study of a Security Police Training Device.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    or three battalions of combat swimmers , one parachute battalion and various supporting units (81:1210- 1211). Depending upon the specific mission...board while the ;. imt - i- under play (38:74). The appearance and use of these inirt; are often controlled by the rules ot the game. 45. Replacements

  1. Analysis of ground-water data for selected wells near Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1950-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water-level, ground-water-withdrawal, and ground- water-quality data were evaluated for trends. Holloman Air Force Base is located in the west-central part of Otero County, New Mexico. Ground-water-data analyses include assembly and inspection of U.S. Geological Survey and Holloman Air Force Base data, including ground-water-level data for public-supply and observation wells and withdrawal and water-quality data for public-supply wells in the area. Well Douglas 4 shows a statistically significant decreasing trend in water levels for 1972-86 and a statistically significant increasing trend in water levels for 1986-90. Water levels in wells San Andres 5 and San Andres 6 show statistically significant decreasing trends for 1972-93 and 1981-89, respectively. A mixture of statistically significant increasing trends, statistically significant decreasing trends, and lack of statistically significant trends over periods ranging from the early 1970's to the early 1990's are indicated for the Boles wells and wells near the Boles wells. Well Boles 5 shows a statistically significant increasing trend in water levels for 1981-90. Well Boles 5 and well 17S.09E.25.343 show no statistically significant trends in water levels for 1990-93 and 1988-93, respectively. For 1986-93, well Frenchy 1 shows a statistically significant decreasing trend in water levels. Ground-water withdrawal from the San Andres and Douglas wells regularly exceeded estimated ground-water recharge from San Andres Canyon for 1963-87. For 1951-57 and 1960-86, ground-water withdrawal from the Boles wells regularly exceeded total estimated ground-water recharge from Mule, Arrow, and Lead Canyons. Ground-water withdrawal from the San Andres and Douglas wells and from the Boles wells nearly equaled estimated ground- water recharge for 1989-93 and 1986-93, respectively. For 1987- 93, ground-water withdrawal from the Escondido well regularly exceeded estimated ground-water recharge from Escondido Canyon, and

  2. Particulate matter air quality assessment over southeast United States using satellite and ground measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pawan

    Fine particles (PM2.5, particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mum) can penetrate deep inside the human lungs and recent scientific studies have shown thousands of deaths occur each year around the world, prematurely, due to a high concentration of particulate matter. Therefore, monitoring and forecasting of surface level fine particulate matter air quality is very important. Typically air quality measurements are made from ground stations. In recent years, linear regression relationships between satellite derived aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and surface measured PM2.5 mass concentration are formed and used to estimate PM2.5 in the areas where surface measurements are not available. This type of simple linear relationships varies with regions and seasons, and does not provide accurate enough estimation of surface level pollution and many studies have shown that AOT alone is not sufficient for PM2.5 mass concentration estimations. Furthermore, AOT represents aerosol loading in the entire column of the atmosphere whereas PM2.5 is measured at the surface; hence, the knowledge of vertical distribution of aerosols coupled with meteorology becomes critical in PM2.5 estimations. In this dissertation I used three years (2004-2006) of coincident hourly PM2.5, MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived AOT, and Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) analyzed meteorological fields to assess PM2.5 air quality in the Southeast United States. I explored the use of two-variate (TVM), multi-variate (MVM) and artificial neural network (ANN) methods for estimating PM2.5 over 85 stations in the region. First, satellite data were analyzed for sampling biases, quality, and impact of clouds. Results show that MODIS-Terra AOT data was available only about 50% of the days in any given month due to cloud over and unfavorable surface conditions, but this produced a sampling bias of less than 2 mugm-3. Results indicate that there is up to three fold improvements in the

  3. Combat Support and the Operational Commander

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Findings .......................... 53 Chapter Overview ........................ 53 iii Page Data Collection Process ................. 53 Overall Survey...This questionnaire was sent to a panel of 30 personnel whose current assignment involved some aspect of combat support. Data was collected from U.S...support function. Secondly, the selection of a panel of experts in the field of combat support to obtain data was based on U.S Air Force and U.S. Navy duty

  4. A Combat Battle Damage Assessor Expert System,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    Next, the requirements should receive just enough repair to allow for the battle damage assessor software it to be flown to a rear area for complete are...R’ D-Ai48 898 A COMBAT BATTLE DAMAGE ASSESSOR EXPERT SYSTEM(U) AIR 1/i FORCE WRIGHT AERONAUTICAL LABS WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB ON D E NELSON MAY 84 SBI...8217.c.sw-x -: "--..... . .. .-. :;.-...... .............. .. . .. . . .. . .. . . r74 IV A COMBAT BATTLE DAMAGE ASSESSOR EXPERT SYSTEM DAL E. NELSON

  5. Simulation for close air support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hench, David L.

    2009-05-01

    Close Air Support (CAS) is the use of air power in close proximity to friendly forces against enemy combatants. CAS requires precise and detailed communication between the personnel on the ground and the air vehicles. To be useful, a network simulation should be a superposition on the planning simulations for these activities. In a CAS mission, all of the above activities are critical. A hypothetical CAS mission is modeled as an "as is" solution with stove-piped communications and a "to be" network enabled solution. A co-simulation laboratory using OPNET with SITL (SYSTEM in the Loop, cosim, JFORCES (Joint Force Operational Readiness Combat Effectiveness Simulator), and JSAF (Joint Semi-Automated Forces) simulation system is described.

  6. A Near-Term Concept for Trajectory Based Operations with Air/Ground Data Link Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNally, David; Mueller, Eric; Thipphavong, David; Paielli, Russell; Cheng, Jinn-Hwei; Lee, Chuhan; Sahlman, Scott; Walton, Joe

    2010-01-01

    An operating concept and required system components for trajectory-based operations with air/ground data link for today's en route and transition airspace is proposed. Controllers are fully responsible for separation as they are today, and no new aircraft equipage is required. Trajectory automation computes integrated solutions to problems like metering, weather avoidance, traffic conflicts and the desire to find and fly more time/fuel efficient flight trajectories. A common ground-based system supports all levels of aircraft equipage and performance including those equipped and not equipped for data link. User interface functions for the radar controller's display make trajectory-based clearance advisories easy to visualize, modify if necessary, and implement. Laboratory simulations (without human operators) were conducted to test integrated operation of selected system components with uncertainty modeling. Results are based on 102 hours of Fort Worth Center traffic recordings involving over 37,000 individual flights. The presence of uncertainty had a marginal effect (5%) on minimum-delay conflict resolution performance, and windfavorable routes had no effect on detection and resolution metrics. Flight plan amendments and clearances were substantially reduced compared to today s operations. Top-of-descent prediction errors are the largest cause of failure indicating that better descent predictions are needed to reliably achieve fuel-efficient descent profiles in medium to heavy traffic. Improved conflict detections for climbing flights could enable substantially more continuous climbs to cruise altitude. Unlike today s Conflict Alert, tactical automation must alert when an altitude amendment is entered, but before the aircraft starts the maneuver. In every other failure case tactical automation prevented losses of separation. A real-time prototype trajectory trajectory-automation system is running now and could be made ready for operational testing at an en route

  7. Tracking through laser-induced clutter for air-to-ground directed energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belen'kii, Mikhail; Brinkley, Timothy; Hughes, Kevin; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2003-09-01

    The agility and speed with which directed energy can be retargeted and delivered to the target makes a laser weapon highly desirable in tactical battlefield environments. A directed energy system can effectively damage and possibly destroy relatively soft targets on the ground. In order to accurately point a high-energy beam at the target, the directed energy system must be able to acquire and track targets of interest in highly cluttered environments, under different weather, smoke, and camouflage conditions and in the presence of turbulence and thermal blooming. To meet these requirements, we proposed a concept of a multi spectral tracker, which integrates three sensors: SAR radar, a passive MWIR optical tracker, and a range-gated laser illuminated tracker. In this paper we evaluated the feasibility of the integrated optical tracker and arrived to the following conclusions: a) the contrast enhancement by mapping the original pixel distribution to the desired one enhances the target identification capability, b) a reduction of the divergence of the illuminating beam reduces rms pointing error of a laser tracker, c) a clutter removal algorithm based on active contours is capable of capturing targets in highly cluttered environments, d) the daytime rms pointing error caused by anisoplanatism of the track point to the aim point is comparable to the diffraction-limited beam spot size, f) the peak intensity shift from the optical axis caused by thermal blooming at 5 km range for the air-to-ground engagement scenario is on the order of 8 μrad, and it is 10 μrad at 10 km range, and e) the thermal blooming reduces the peak average power in a 2 cm bucket at 5 km range by a factor of 8, and it reduces the peak average power in the bucket at 10 km range by a factor of 22.

  8. Cerebral arterial gas embolism in air force ground maintenance crew--a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, C T

    1999-07-01

    Two cases of cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) occurred after a decompression incident involving five maintenance crew during a cabin leakage system test of a Hercules C-130 aircraft. During the incident, the cabin pressure increased to 8 in Hg (203.2 mm Hg, 27 kPa) above atmospheric pressure causing intense pain in the ears of all the crew inside. The system was rapidly depressurized to ground level. After the incident, one of the crew reported chest discomfort and fatigue. The next morning, he developed a sensation of numbness in the left hand, with persistence of the earlier symptoms. A second crewmember, who only experienced earache and heaviness in the head after the incident, developed retrosternal chest discomfort, restlessness, fatigue and numbness in his left hand the next morning. Both were subsequently referred to a recompression facility 4 d after the incident. Examination by the Diving Medical Officer on duty recorded left-sided hemianesthesia and Grade II middle ear barotrauma as the only abnormalities in both cases. Chest X-rays did not reveal any extra-alveolar gas. Diagnoses of Static Neurological Decompression Illness were made and both patients recompressed on a RN 62 table. The first case recovered fully after two treatments, and the second case after one treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and bubble contrast echocardiography performed on the first case 6 mo after the incident were reported to be normal. The second case was lost to follow-up. Decompression illness (DCI) generally occurs in occupational groups such as compressed air workers, divers, aviators, and astronauts. This is believed to be the first report of DCI occurring among aircraft's ground maintenance crew.

  9. Coupled assimilation of satellite and ground based ozone data in order to improve modeling of Air Quality over Europe (POGEQA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, R.; Attié, J. L.; El Amraoui, L.; Josse, B.; Joly, M.; Jaumoillé, E.

    2012-04-01

    The POGEQA (Observation of Air Quality from a Geostationary Platform) project aims at defining optimal characteristics for a future instrument in geostationary orbit complementing current observations for Air Quality monitoring and forecasting. In this context, we perform simulations of key pollutants (e.g. ozone and carbon monoxide) in the lowermost troposphere at relevant spatial (less than 20 km) and temporal (one hour) scales using a sophisticated chemical data assimilation system used at Météo-France, MOCAGE-PALM. This study investigates the interest of coupled satellite (IASI) and ground-based (AIRBASE) data assimilation in monitoring air quality, with focus on lower troposphere measurements of ozone. We compare the performance of MOCAGE-PALM in four configurations: Free Run (no assimilation), Ground-Based assimilation Run, Satellite assimilation Run and coupled Ground-Based and Satellite assimilation Run. We discuss each configuration and compare lower troposphere simulation of ozone with in situ data . Finally, in the context of assessing the added value of the proposed geostationary satellite platform MAGEAQ (Monitoring the Atmosphere from Geostationary orbit for European Air Quality), we identify needs for each observing platforms in order to better estimate lower troposphere ozone concentrations and monitor Air Quality.

  10. Analysis of an Aircraft Honeycomb Sandwich Panel with Circular Face Sheet/Core Disbond Subjected to Ground-Air Pressurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinker, Martin; Krueger, Ronald; Ratcliffe, James

    2013-01-01

    The ground-air pressurization of lightweight honeycomb sandwich structures caused by alternating pressure differences between the enclosed air within the honeycomb core and the ambient environment is a well-known and controllable loading condition of aerospace structures. However, initial face sheet/core disbonds intensify the face sheet peeling effect of the internal pressure load significantly and can decrease the reliability of the sandwich structure drastically. Within this paper, a numerical parameter study was carried out to investigate the criticality of initial disbonds in honeycomb sandwich structures under ground-air pressurization. A fracture mechanics approach was used to evaluate the loading at the disbond front. In this case, the strain energy release rate was computed via the Virtual Crack Closure Technique. Special attention was paid to the pressure-deformation coupling which can decrease the pressure load within the disbonded sandwich section significantly when the structure is highly deformed.

  11. Assessment of ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, 1982-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    Continued study of ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, defined the movement and distribution of volatile organic compounds in the glacial sand and gravel aquifer at known sites of contamination, and has defined new plumes at two other sites. The Arrow Street purge system, installed in 1982 to remove contaminants from the Building 43 plume, has lowered concentrations of trichloroethylene in ground water in the central part of the most contaminated area from a range of 1,000 to 2,000 micrograms per liter to about 200 micrograms per liter. Trichloroethylene is not escaping off-Base from this area. In the southern part of the Base a plume containing principally trichloroethylene and dichloroethylene has been delineated along Mission Drive. Maximum concentrations observed were 5,290 micrograms per liter of trichloroethylene and 1,480 micrograms per liter of dichloroethylene. Hydrologically suitable sites for purge wells are identified in the southern part of the plume using a new ground-water flow model of the Base. A benzene plume near the bulk-fuel storage area, delineated in earlier work, lias shifted to a more northerly direction under influence of the Arrow Street purge system. Sites initially identified for purging the benzene plume have been repositioned because of the change in contaminant movement. JP-4 fuel was found to be accumulating in wells near the bulk-fuel storage area, largely in response to seasonal fluctuations in the water table. It is thought to originate from a spill that occurred several years ago. A more thorough definition of contaminants in the northern landfill area has permitted a determination of the most hydrologically suitable sites for purge wells. In general, Concentrations found in water do not differ greatly from those observed in 1981. Since 1981, concentrations of trichloroethylene have decreased significantly in the Alert Apron plume. Near the origin of the plume, the concentration of trichloroethylene

  12. Joint NASA Ames/Langley Experimental Evaluation of Integrated Air/Ground Operations for En Route Free Maneuvering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Kopardekar, Parimal; Battiste, Vernol; Doble, Nathan; Johnson, Walter; Lee, Paul; Prevot, Thomas; Smith, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    In order to meet the anticipated future demand for air travel, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investigating a new concept of operations known as Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM). Under the En Route Free Maneuvering component of DAG-TM, appropriately equipped autonomous aircraft self separate from other autonomous aircraft and from managed aircraft that continue to fly under today s Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). Controllers provide separation services between IFR aircraft and assign traffic flow management constraints to all aircraft. To address concept feasibility issues pertaining to integrated air/ground operations at various traffic levels, NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers conducted a joint human-in-the-loop experiment. Professional airline pilots and air traffic controllers flew a total of 16 scenarios under four conditions: mixed autonomous/managed operations at three traffic levels and a baseline all-managed condition at the lowest traffic level. These scenarios included en route flights and descents to a terminal area meter fix in airspace modeled after the Dallas Ft. Worth area. Pilots of autonomous aircraft met controller assigned meter fix constraints with high success. Separation violations by subject pilots did not appear to vary with traffic level and were mainly attributable to software errors and procedural lapses. Controller workload was lower for mixed flight conditions, even at higher traffic levels. Pilot workload was deemed acceptable under all conditions. Controllers raised several safety concerns, most of which pertained to the occurrence of near-term conflicts between autonomous and managed aircraft. These issues are being addressed through better compatibility between air and ground systems and refinements to air and ground procedures.

  13. Ten Thousand Feet and Ten Thousand Miles: Reconciling Our Air Force Culture to Remotely Piloted Aircraft and the New Nature of Aerial Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    During times of great technological asymmetries, though, these definitions would diverge. A heavily armored samurai is effec- tively invulnerable to...all foreseeable threats, save another samurai . An archer with a longbow remains almost immune to direct combat be- cause of his ranged weapons

  14. Weak beacon detection for air-to-ground optical wireless link establishment.

    PubMed

    Han, Yaoqiang; Dang, Anhong; Tang, Junxiong; Guo, Hong

    2010-02-01

    In an air-to-ground free-space optical communication system, strong background interference seriously affects the beacon detection, which makes it difficult to establish the optical link. In this paper, we propose a correlation beacon detection scheme under strong background interference conditions. As opposed to traditional beacon detection schemes, the beacon is modulated by an m-sequence at the transmitting terminal with a digital differential matched filter (DDMF) array introduced at the receiving end to detect the modulated beacon. This scheme is capable of suppressing both strong interference and noise by correlation reception of the received image sequence. In addition, the DDMF array enables each pixel of the image sensor to have its own DDMF of the same structure to process its received image sequence in parallel, thus it makes fast beacon detection possible. Theoretical analysis and an outdoor experiment have been demonstrated and show that the proposed scheme can realize fast and effective beacon detection under strong background interference conditions. Consequently, the required beacon transmission power can also be reduced dramatically.

  15. A flight test design for studying airborne applications of air to ground duplex data link communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1988-09-01

    The Automatic En Route Air Traffic Control (AERA) and the Advanced Automated System (AAS) of the NAS plan, call for utilization of data links for such items as computer generated flight clearances, enroute minimum safe altitude warnings, sector probes, out of conformance check, automated flight services, and flow management of advisories. A major technical challenge remaining is the integration, flight testing, and validation of data link equipment and procedures in the aircraft cockpit. The flight test organizational chart, was designed to have the airplane side of data link experiments implemented in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) experimental Boeing 737 airplane. This design would enable investigations into implementation of data link equipment and pilot interface, operations, and procedures. The illustrated ground system consists of a work station with links to a national weather database and a data link transceiver system. The data link transceiver system could be a Mode-S transponder, ACARS, AVSAT, or another type of radio system such as the military type HF data link. The airborne system was designed so that a data link transceiver, workstation, and touch panel could be interfaced with an input output processor to the aircraft system bus and thus have communications access to other digital airplane systems.

  16. Free Flight Simulation: An Initial Examination of Air-Ground Integration Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozito, Sandra; McGann, Alison; Cashion, Patricia; Dunbar, Melisa; Mackintosh, Margaret; Dulchinos, Victoria; Jordan, Kevin; Remington, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The concept of "free flight" is intended to emphasize more flexibility for operators in the National Airspace System (RTCA, 1995). This may include the potential for aircraft self-separation. The purpose of this simulation was to begin examining some of the communication and procedural issues associated with self-separation in an integrated air-ground environment. Participants were 10 commercial U.S. flight crews who flew the B747-400 simulator and 10 Denver ARTCC controllers who monitored traffic in an ATC simulation. A prototypic airborne alerting logic and flight deck display features were designed to allow for increased traffic and maneuvering information. Eight different scenarios representing different conflict types were developed. The effects of traffic density (high and low) and different traffic convergence angles (obtuse, acute, and right) were assessed. Conflict detection times were found to be lower for the flight crews in low density compared to high density scenarios. For the controllers, an interaction between density and convergence angle was revealed. Analyses on the controller detection times found longer detection times in the obtuse high density compared to obtuse low density, as well as the shortest detection times in the high density acute angle condition. Maneuvering and communication events are summarized, and a discussion of future research issues is provided.

  17. A five states survivability model for missions with ground-to-air threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandsson, Tina; Niklasson, Lars

    2013-05-01

    Fighter pilots are exposed to the risk of getting hit by enemy fire when flying missions with ground-to-air threats. A tactical support system including a survivability model could aid the pilot to assess and handle this risk. The survivability model presented here is a Markov model with five states; Undetected, Detected, Tracked, Engaged and Hit. The output from the model is the probabilities that the aircraft is in these states during the mission. The enemy's threat systems are represented with sensor and weapon areas and the transitions between the states depend on whether or not the aircraft is within any of these areas. Contrary to previous work, the model can capture the behaviors that the enemy's sensor systems communicate and that the risk of getting hit depends on the enemy's knowledge regarding the aircraft's kinematics. The paper includes a discussion regarding the interpretation of the states and the factors that influence the transitions between the states. Further developments are also identified for using the model to aid fighter pilots and operators of unmanned aerial vehicles with planning and evaluating missions as well as analyzing the situation during flight.

  18. A flight test design for studying airborne applications of air to ground duplex data link communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1988-01-01

    The Automatic En Route Air Traffic Control (AERA) and the Advanced Automated System (AAS) of the NAS plan, call for utilization of data links for such items as computer generated flight clearances, enroute minimum safe altitude warnings, sector probes, out of conformance check, automated flight services, and flow management of advisories. A major technical challenge remaining is the integration, flight testing, and validation of data link equipment and procedures in the aircraft cockpit. The flight test organizational chart, was designed to have the airplane side of data link experiments implemented in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) experimental Boeing 737 airplane. This design would enable investigations into implementation of data link equipment and pilot interface, operations, and procedures. The illustrated ground system consists of a work station with links to a national weather database and a data link transceiver system. The data link transceiver system could be a Mode-S transponder, ACARS, AVSAT, or another type of radio system such as the military type HF data link. The airborne system was designed so that a data link transceiver, workstation, and touch panel could be interfaced with an input output processor to the aircraft system bus and thus have communications access to other digital airplane systems.

  19. Pinatubo Global- to Micro-Scale Evolution: A Unified Picture from Space, Air, and Ground Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Livingston, J. M.; Puesche, R. F.; Pollack, J. B.; Brooks, S.; Hamill, P.; Hughes, J.; Thomason, L.; Stowe, L.; Deshler, T.; Podolske, James R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We combine space, air, and ground measurements to develop a composite picture of the post-Pinatubo aerosol, and assess the consistency and uncertainties of various measurement and retrieval techniques. impactor and optical counter measurements, as well as retrievals from optical depth spectra, paint a generally consistent picture of the evolution of particle effective radii, R(sub eff). In the first month after the eruption, although particle numbers increased by orders of magnitude, R(sub eff) was similar to the preeruption value of 4.2 micrometers, because both small (r less than 0.25 micrometers) and large (r greater than 0.6 micrometers) particles increased in number, Over the next 3-6 months, R(sub eff) increased rapidly to about 0.5 micrometers. In general, R(sub eff) continued to increase for about a year after the eruption. The peak wavelength of optical depth spectra increased from initial values of less than 0.42 micrometers to values between 0.78 and 1 micrometer. This coupled evolution in particle size distribution and optical depth spectra helps explain the relationship between the global maps of 0.5 and 1.0-micrometer optical depth derived from the AVHRR and SAGE satellite measurements. It also sets a context for evaluating remaining uncertainties in each of these satellite data products. We also make consensus recommendations for particle composition, shape, and temperature- and wavelength-dependent refractive index, and show how the latter effect on backscatter spectra can influence particle sizes retrieved from multiwavelength lidar measurements.

  20. Set-theoretic deconvolution (STD) for multichromatic ground/air/space-based imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronov, Aleksandr N.

    1997-09-01

    This paper proposes a class of nonlinear methods, called Set-Theoretic Deconvolution (STD), developed for joint restoration of M(M >1) monochrome distorted 2-dimensional images (snapshots) of an unknown extended object, being viewed through the optical channel with unknown PSF, whose true monochrome brightness profiles look distinct at M(M>!) slightly different wavelengths chosen. The presented method appeals to the generalized Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS) formalism, so that the proper projective metric is introduced and then minimized. Thus, a number of operators is derived in closed form and cyclically applied to M-dimensional functional vector built up from estimates for combinations of monochrome images. During the projecting of vector onto convex sets one attempts to avoid non-physical inversion and to correctly form a feasible solution (fixed point) consistent with qualitative not quantitative information being assumed to be known in advance. Computer simulation demonstrates that the resulting improved monochrome images reveal fine details which could not easily be discerned in the original distorted images. This technique recovers fairly reliably the total multichromatic 2-D portrait of an arbitrary compact object whose monochrome brightness distributions have discontinuities and are highly nonconvex plus multiply connected ones. Originally developed for the deblurring of passively observed objects, the STD approach can be carried over to scenario with actively irradiated objects (f.e., near-Earth space targets). Under advanced conditions, such as spatio-spectrally diversified laser illumination or coherent Doppler imaging implementation, the synthesized loop deconvolver could be universal tool in object feature extraction by means of occasionally aberrated space-borne telescope or turbulence-affected ground/air-based large aperture optical systems.

  1. A global ground truth view of the lunar air pressure tide L2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Dobslaw, Henryk

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive model of the lunar air pressure tide L2 is developed on the basis of 2315 ground truth estimates from land barometers and moored buoys. Regional-scale features of the tide and its seasonal modulations are well resolved by the in situ scatter and gridded to a 2° mesh through multiquadric interpolation. The resulting climatologies serve as an independent standard to validate the lunar semidiurnal tidal signal that is present in ERA-Interim reanalysis products despite the absence of L2-related gravitational forcing mechanisms in the prescribed model physics. Inconsistencies between the reanalysis solution of the barometric lunar tide and its empirical account are generally small, yet when averaged over the period 1979-2010, ERA-Interim underestimates the 100 μbar open ocean tidal amplitude in the Tropics by up to 20 μbar and produces times of peak pressure that are too early by 10 lunar minutes. Large-amplitude features of the reanalysis tide off the coast of Alaska, the eastern U.S., and Great Britain are evidently spurious, introduced to the analysis system by assimilating marine pressure data at an invariant reference surface instead of properly accounting for vertical sensor movements associated with the M2 ocean tide. Additionally, a credible L2 signal is documented for the ERA-20C pilot reanalysis of the twentieth century. The fact that this model rests upon input data from mere surface observations provides an unambiguous indication that the lunar tidal oscillation in atmospheric analysis systems is closely tied to the assimilation of conventional pressure measurements from stations and marine objects.

  2. Tentative detection of clear-air turbulence using a ground-based Rayleigh lidar.

    PubMed

    Hauchecorne, Alain; Cot, Charles; Dalaudier, Francis; Porteneuve, Jacques; Gaudo, Thierry; Wilson, Richard; Cénac, Claire; Laqui, Christian; Keckhut, Philippe; Perrin, Jean-Marie; Dolfi, Agnès; Cézard, Nicolas; Lombard, Laurent; Besson, Claudine

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric gravity waves and turbulence generate small-scale fluctuations of wind, pressure, density, and temperature in the atmosphere. These fluctuations represent a real hazard for commercial aircraft and are known by the generic name of clear-air turbulence (CAT). Numerical weather prediction models do not resolve CAT and therefore provide only a probability of occurrence. A ground-based Rayleigh lidar was designed and implemented to remotely detect and characterize the atmospheric variability induced by turbulence in vertical scales between 40 m and a few hundred meters. Field measurements were performed at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP, France) on 8 December 2008 and 23 June 2009. The estimate of the mean squared amplitude of bidimensional fluctuations of lidar signal showed excess compared to the estimated contribution of the instrumental noise. This excess can be attributed to atmospheric turbulence with a 95% confidence level. During the first night, data from collocated stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar were available. Altitudes of the turbulent layers detected by the lidar were roughly consistent with those of layers with enhanced radar echo. The derived values of turbulence parameters Cn2 or CT2 were in the range of those published in the literature using ST radar data. However, the detection was at the limit of the instrumental noise and additional measurement campaigns are highly desirable to confirm these initial results. This is to our knowledge the first successful attempt to detect CAT in the free troposphere using an incoherent Rayleigh lidar system. The built lidar device may serve as a test bed for the definition of embarked CAT detection lidar systems aboard airliners.

  3. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at Arnold Air Force Base, Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugh, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force at Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB), in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee, is investigating ground-water contamination in selected areas of the base. This report documents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the regional hydrogeology of the AAFB area. Three aquifers within the Highland Rim aquifer system, the shallow aquifer, the Manchester aquifer, and the Fort Payne aquifer, have been identified in the study area. Of these, the Manchester aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic use. Drilling and water- quality data indicate that the Chattanooga Shale is an effective confining unit, isolating the Highland Rim aquifer system from the deeper, upper Central Basin aquifer system. A regional ground-water divide, approximately coinciding with the Duck River-Elk River drainage divide, underlies AAFB and runs from southwest to northeast. The general direction of most ground-water flow is to the north- west or to the northwest or to the southeast from the divide towards tributary streams that drain the area. Recharge estimates range from 4 to 11 inches per year. Digital computer modeling was used to simulate and provide a better understanding of the ground-water flow system. The model indicates that most of the ground-water flow occurs in the shallow and Manchester aquifers. The model was most sensitive to increases in hydraulic conductivity and changes in recharge rates. Particle-tracking analysis from selected sites of ground-water contamination indicates a potential for contami- nants to be transported beyond the boundary of AAFB.

  4. Women in Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    out a fellow solider are unrealistic for a woman . 11 This weight is proportionately more difficult to carry by female soldiers who are, on average... Women in Combat Subject Area Topical Issues EWS 2006 Women in Combat...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Women in Combat 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  5. Systems for measuring thickness of temperate and polar ice from the ground or from the air.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, R.D.; Wright, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Equipment has been designed and tested for ground-based and airborne sounding of temperate glaciers. Echoes have been obtained from ice depths of 550m using the airborne system and about 1000m using the ground-based system. -from Authors

  6. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Field Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  7. Women in Combat: The Operational Impact of Meeting A National Security Necessity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-11

    Summer 1090, p. 7. Cecil , Thomas H. "Women in Combat--Pros and Cons.’ Unpublished Report, U.S. Air University, Air Command and Staff College. Maxwell Air...29. Goldman , Nancy Loring. The Utilization of Women in Combat! An Historical and Social Anal2sis of Twentieth-Centupy Wartime and Peacetime

  8. Analysis of Co-located Ground- and Space-based Infrared Atmospheric Measurements: AERI, AIRS, CERES, MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, P. E.; Anderson, G. P.; Chetwynd, J.; Roman, M.; Schaaf, C. B.; Turner, D. D.; Rutan, D. A.; Berk, A.; Shen, S. S.; Miller, D. P.; Kroutil, R.

    2008-12-01

    Sets of clear-sky, co-located, down-looking infrared data, from the NASA AQUA space-based Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), have been paired with the DOE Southern Great Plains (SGP) ground-based, up-looking Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). Only 26 cases are included in this study, the 8% of the available 2005 AIRS acquisitions at SGP that were defined as cloud free. These data sets have then been simulated using the MODTRAN® 5 (MOD5) radiative transfer code with auxiliary 'truth' data as input. Since MOD5 is unaffiliated with any of the instruments, its use as a transfer agent among the instrument suites provides important algorithm validation. Of particular interest is the impact, if any, of the Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) of AIRS, CERES and MODIS (13, 26 and 0.5 km, respectively) vs. the soda-straw up-looking mode of AERI. The sensitivity of the larger GSDs on measurements of outgoing long wave radiation (OLR) is an important question for next-stage climate monitoring. In addition to the coincident SGP 'ground truth' data (vertical profile sondes and AERONET measurements) and MODIS products, the AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has also augmented the available 'truth' input parameters. Initial calculations with MOD5 have replicated both the AERI and AIRS measurements to within 1% RMS. Preliminary calculations of the CERES long wave radiances suggest that differences will fall well within 3%. While these results are not sufficiently precise for specific instrument algorithms, they suggest some confidence in the generic use of MODTRAN® 5 as an integration tool for Climate Change studies.

  9. Reluctant Samurai? Partnering with Japan to Combat Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Forces members Colonel Shinichi Kaneko, Lieutenant Colonel Daisaku Sakaguchi, and Captain Masaki Oyama yielded excellent insights on Japanese...perspectives on combating terrorism. Dr. Toshi Yoshihara of the Air War College graciously provided materials and advice on this security topic

  10. Navy Combatives: Adjusting Course for the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    training to sending four members to the summer Olympic Games. Unfortunately, combatives training to the Air Force flight crew curriculum did...physical fitness than by traditional methods of running and swimming . For example, a submariner 65 or a deployed at sea Sailor has limited choices to

  11. Women in Combat: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-13

    and Navy aircraft on combat missions should be retained and codified by means of the reenactment of Section 8549 of Title 10, U.S. Code which was...repealed by P.L. 102-190, Section 531 for the Air Force, and reenactment of the provisions of 10 U.S.C. Section 6015 prohibiting women from assignment

  12. Women in Combat: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-09

    retained and codified by means of the reenactment of Section 8549 of Title 10, U.S. Code which was repealed by P.L. 102-190, Section 531 for the Air...Force, and reenactment of the provisions of 10 U.S.C. Section 6015 prohibiting women from assignment to duty on aircraft engaged in combat missions

  13. Women in Combat: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-05

    and codified by means of the reenactment of Section 8549 of Title 10, U.S. Code which was repealed by P.L. 102-190, Section 531 for the Air Force...and reenactment of the provisions of 10 U.S.C. Section 6015 prohibiting women from assignment to duty on aircraft engaged in combat missions, which

  14. Environmental Assessment - Construct a Ground-to-Air Transmitter and Receiver (GATR) Facility at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-06

    are long and severe with almost continuous snow cover. The spring and fall seasons are generally short transition periods. The average annual...the late fall, winter, and spring , and from the southeast during the summer. Grand Forks County is included in the ND Air Quality Control Region...approximately 10 miles northeast of Grand Forks AFB, the mean discharge of the Turtle River is 50.3 feet cubed per second (ft3/s). Peak flows

  15. The Digital GCC: USCYBERCOM As a Combatant Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    AU/ACSC/HELMS /AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE DIGITAL GCC: USCYBERCOM AS A COMBATANT COMMAND by...Unified Command Plan (UCP). AU/ACSC/HELMS/AY15 4 Contents The Digital GCC: USCYBERCOM as a Unified Combatant Command...up its allies. Cyberspace is a joint operating area, electronic warfare medium, information sharing area, and data repository of America’s military

  16. Roof plan, Combat Operations Center, Building No. 2605. (Also includes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof plan, Combat Operations Center, Building No. 2605. (Also includes a typical roof section, with new fiberglass and urethane insulation layers.) By Federal Builders, 575 Carreon Drive, Colton, California. Sheet 1 of 1, dated 18 May 1992. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 24x36 inches. ink on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  17. Land Combat Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    LAND COMBAT SYSTEMS It is not the strongest species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the ones most responsive to change. — Charles ... Darwin ABSTRACT: The Land Combat Systems (LCS) industry has significantly changed over the last decade. The days when production lines and factories

  18. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Appendix A, Part 1, Field Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  19. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 9, Removal action system design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  20. Field Test of High Efficiency Residential Buildings with Ground-source and Air-source Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the field performance of space conditioning and water heating equipment in four single-family residential structures with advanced thermal envelopes. Each structure features a different, advanced thermal envelope design: structural insulated panel (SIP); optimum value framing (OVF); insulation with embedded phase change materials (PCM) for thermal storage; and exterior insulation finish system (EIFS). Three of the homes feature ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and water heating while the fourth has a two-capacity air-source heat pump (ASHP) and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). Two of the GCHP-equipped homes feature horizontal ground heat exchange (GHX) loops that utillize the existing foundation and utility service trenches while the third features a vertical borehole with vertical u-tube GHX. All of the houses were operated under the same simulated occupancy conditions. Operational data on the house HVAC/Water heating (WH) systems are presented and factors influencing overall performance are summarized.

  1. Islamic Jihad: Sectarian Factors in Combating Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-17

    Bernard, Crisis in Islam : Holy War and Unholy Terror, ( USA : Modern Library, 2003). Lewis, Bernard, The Crisis of Islam , (New York: Random House...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ISLAMIC JIHAD: SECTARIAN FACTORS IN COMBATING TERRORISM by Michael W. Moyles, Lt Col, USAF A Research...fighting an explicitly Islamic adversary, motivated almost exclusively by religion. However, these militant Muslims are not representative of mainstream

  2. Face Sheet/Core Disbond Growth in Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Subjected to Ground-Air-Ground Pressurization and In-Plane Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Zhi M.; Krueger, Ronald; Rinker, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Typical damage modes in light honeycomb sandwich structures include face sheet/core disbonding and core fracture, both of which can pose a threat to the structural integrity of a component. These damage modes are of particular interest to aviation certification authorities since several in-service occurrences, such as rudder structural failure and other control surface malfunctions, have been attributed to face sheet/core disbonding. Extensive studies have shown that face sheet/core disbonding and core fracture can lead to damage propagation caused by internal pressure changes in the core. The increasing use of composite sandwich construction in aircraft applications makes it vitally important to understand the effect of ground-air-ground (GAG) cycles and conditions such as maneuver and gust loads on face sheet/core disbonding. The objective of the present study was to use a fracture mechanics based approach developed earlier to evaluate the loading at the disbond front caused by ground-air-ground pressurization and in-plane loading. A honeycomb sandwich panel containing a circular disbond at one face sheet/core interface was modeled with three-dimensional (3D) solid finite elements. The disbond was modeled as a discrete discontinuity and the strain energy release rate along the disbond front was computed using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT). Special attention was paid to the pressure-deformation coupling which can decrease the pressure load within the disbonded sandwich section significantly when the structure is highly deformed. The commercial finite element analysis software, Abaqus/Standard, was used for the analyses. The recursive pressure-deformation coupling problem was solved by representing the entrapped air in the honeycomb cells as filled cavities in Abaqus/Standard. The results show that disbond size, face sheet thickness and core thickness are important parameters that determine crack tip loading at the disbond front. Further, the pressure

  3. Rebuilding the Joint Airborne Forward Air Controller: Analyzing Joint Air Tasking Doctrine’s Ability to Facilitate Effective Air-Ground Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    Joint Training Directive LNO Liaison Officer MAAP Master Air Attack Plan MACCS Marine Air Command and Control System MACV Military Assistance...needed in creating a common understanding of force employment concepts, establishing effective information networks and joint communications systems , and...

  4. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  5. Dynamics and control of motion on the ground and in the air with application to biped robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemami, H.; Zheng, Y.-F.

    The dynamics of a multi-linkage model of natural or man-made systems with arbitrary holonomic and non-holonomic constraints at the joints are formulated. The formulation is equally applicable to movements on the ground or in the air. Nonlinear control strategies for postural balance and rhythmic motion are presented. A predictive algorithm to compensate for computation or transmission delay is proposed. Digital computer simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control strategy for a five-link three-dimensional biped.

  6. Flying-qualities criteria for wings-level-turn maneuvering during an air-to-ground weapon delivery task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammonds, R. I.; Bunnell, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    A moving base simulator experiment demonstrated that a wings-level-turn control mode improved flying qualities for air to ground weapon delivery compared with those of a conventionally controlled aircraft. Evaluations of criteria for dynamic response for this system have shown that pilot ratings correlate well on the basis of equivalent time constant of the initial response. Ranges of this time constant, as well as digital system transport delays and lateral acceleration control authorities that encompassed level 1 through 3 handling qualities, were determined.

  7. Flying-qualities criteria for wings-level-turn maneuvering during an air-to-ground weapon delivery task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammonds, R. I.; Bunnell, J. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A moving-base simulator experiment conducted at Ames Research Center demonstrated that a wings-level-turn control mode improved flying qualities for air-to-ground weapons delivery compared with those of a conventional aircraft. Evaluations of criteria for dynamic response for this system have shown that pilot ratings correlate well on the basis of equivalent time constant of the initial response. Ranges of this time constant, as well as digital-system transport delays and lateral-acceleration control authorities that encompassed Level I through Level III handling qualities, were determined.

  8. Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements of Urban Air Quality in Relation with Children's Asthma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria; Dida, Mariana Rodica

    2016-08-01

    The adverse health effects from aerosol particulate matter PM pollution, especially with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm PM2.5 must be considered in developing policies to improve air quality. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated that exposure to ambient particulate matter PM is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, particularly associated with cardiopulmonary disease and asthma of which children are most exposed for the rapid increase of asthma disease. Very early exposure to certain components of air pollution can increase the risk of developing of different allergies by age 7. The present study attempts to retrieve the aerosol load in terms of aerosol optical depth (AOD) related to air quality in the Bucharest metropolitan area. In this study is presented a spatio-temporal analysis of the aerosol concentrations in relation with meteorological parameters in two size fractions (PM10 and PM2.5) and Air Qualiy Index and possible health effects on children's asthma.

  9. Theoretical Study on Dynamic Characteristics of Energy Efficiency Standard Value of Ground Water Heat Pump Air-conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yi; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Zhonghe; Cao, Wei; Li, Peng

    The energy efficiency standard value of the ground water heat pump air-conditioning system is the benchmar parameter for energy saving operation and control of the system. According to each loop's process energy consumption of the system, the control equation of energy efficiency standard value of the water source side loop, heat pump unit and user side loop is established respectively. The dynamic characteristics of the standard value variation with the air-conditioning hourly heating and cooling load is revealed, and the energy efficiency standard value of each loop can be also obtained, and the qualitative sensitivity analysis of the dynamic characteristics in each subsystem is carried out. For system energy saving operation and control, the basic data and theoretical guidance can be provided.

  10. ARCHIE, FLAK, AAA, AND SAM A Short Operational History of Ground-Based Air Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    continent. American flak also made an impressive showing in com- bat (fig . 13) . During the Normandy campaign (7 through 30 June 1944), First Army...increasing burden. The AAF lost 18,418 aircraft in com- bat against Germany in World War 11 . The American air- men credited antiaircraft artillery with...Libyan air de- fenses were both large and sophisticated for a third world country. Besides MiGs, the defenses consisted of 100 bat - teries of SA-2s, SA

  11. SUCCESSFUL APPLICATION OF AIR SPARGING TO REMEDIATE ETHYLENE DEBROMIDE (EDB) IN GROUND WATER INKANSAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) was banned in conventional motor fuel in the USA by 1990, EDB continues to contaminate ground water at many old gasoline service station sites. Although EDB contamination is widespread, there is little performance data on technology to remediat...

  12. Ground performance of air conditioning and water recycle system for a Space Plant Box.

    PubMed

    Tani, A; Okuma, T; Goto, E; Kitaya, Y; Saito, T; Takahashi, H

    2001-01-01

    Researchers from 5 Japanese universities have developed a plant growth facility (Space Plant Box) for seed to seed experiments under microgravity. The breadboard model of the Space Plant Box was fabricated by assembling subsystems developed for microgravity. The subsystems include air conditioning and water recycle system, air circulation system, water and nutrient delivery system, lighting system and plant monitoring system. The air conditioning and water recycle system is simply composed of a single heat exchanger, two fans and hydrophilic fibrous strings. The strings allow water movement from the cooler fin in the Cooling Box to root supporting materials in the Plant Growth Chamber driven by water potential deficit. Relative humidity in the Plant Growth Chamber can be changed over a wide range by controlling the ratio of latent heat exchange to sensible heat exchange on the cooling fin of the heat exchanger. The transpiration rate was successfully measured by circulating air inside the Plant Growth Chamber only. Most water was recycled and a small amount of water needed to be added from the outside. The simple, air conditioning and water recycle system for the Space Plant Box showed good performance through a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) growth experiment.

  13. Zoning of the territory of Russia by the effectiveness of low-potential heat of the ground and atmospheric air for heating buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, G. P.; Kolesova, M. V.; Gornov, V. F.; Yurchenko, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    The article represents the results of researches to zone the territory of Russia and Europe division into districts of by efficiency of using for the heat supply of buildings of low-potential thermal energy of ground and free air and their combination. While modeling the heat regime of geothermal HPS in climatic conditions of different regions of the territory of Russia, the influence of the long-term extraction of geothermal heat energy on the ground heat regime has been taken into account as well as the influence of phase transitions of pore moisture in ground on the efficiency of operation of geothermal heat-pump heat-supply systems. Also considered were the sinking of temperatures of ground massif by long-term extraction of the heat energy from the ground as calculation parameters of the heat energy from the ground, and as calculation parameters of ground massif temperatures.

  14. Capturing Non-Linear Battlefield Operations: Conventional Air Forces’ Interdependence with Special Operations Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    COMBAT HOURS. MAJOR CIHAK IS MARRIED TO PATRICIA ( PATTI ) AND THEY CURRENTLY RESIDE IN MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA WITH THEIR FIVE CHILDREN; HEATHER (16...MY OWN CAREER. BORN AND RAISED ON THE GROUND , I GREW WINGS, BUT NEVER FORGOT WHERE MY ROOTS DEVELOPED. AS I RESEARCHED AND BEGAN TO BETTER...UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES AND FORGING TIGHT LINKS BETWEEN SATELLITES, PILOTS IN THE AIR, SPECIAL FORCES ON THE GROUND , AND LAND FORCE COMMANDERS TO RAPIDLY

  15. Ground-water hydrology and simulation of ground-water flow at Operable Unit 3 and surrounding region, U.S. Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The Naval Air Station, Jacksonville (herein referred to as the Station), occupies 3,800 acres adjacent to the St. Johns River in Duval County, Florida. Operable Unit 3 (OU3) occupies 134 acres on the eastern side of the Station and has been used for industrial and commercial purposes since World War II. Ground water contaminated by chlorinated organic compounds has been detected in the surficial aquifer at OU3. The U.S. Navy and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a cooperative hydrologic study to evaluate the potential for ground water discharge to the neighboring St. Johns River. A ground-water flow model, previously developed for the area, was recalibrated for use in this study. At the Station, the surficial aquifer is exposed at land surface and forms the uppermost permeable unit. The aquifer ranges in thickness from 30 to 100 feet and consists of unconsolidated silty sands interbedded with local beds of clay. The low-permeability clays of the Hawthorn Group form the base of the aquifer. The USGS previously conducted a ground-water investigation at the Station that included the development and calibration of a 1-layer regional ground-water flow model. For this investigation, the regional model was recalibrated using additional data collected after the original calibration. The recalibrated model was then used to establish the boundaries for a smaller subregional model roughly centered on OU3. Within the subregional model, the surficial aquifer is composed of distinct upper and intermediate layers. The upper layer extends from land surface to a depth of approximately 15 feet below sea level; the intermediate layer extends from the upper layer down to the top of the Hawthorn Group. In the northern and central parts of OU3, the upper and intermediate layers are separated by a low-permeability clay layer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities in the upper layer, determined from aquifer tests, range from 0.19 to 3.8 feet per day. The horizontal hydraulic

  16. Case Studies of the Air Force Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) acquisition Management Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    the methods for evaluating alternatives. A previous LMI study (LMI Task 72-1 Rev.) was undertaken at the request of the Air Force during 1972. That...developed for the sample. The sets of characteristics chosen include various functional types, levels of use, methods of procurement including Air... methods of procurement of the 76 items selected. >’ - ’•^•"^M’"iiirtnri,B’r’iäjiriMirlM ^ji^frito^»..*-,.^.«*).,.^.;.,. . ... ,.,..^.-^^;.- .: .fa

  17. Air Force Support of Army Ground Operations Lessons Learned during World War II, Korea, and Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-06

    Th ;e 8epre--cdin this paper .rv thoe. of ’:ceauhor IDep 2rtmt-nt of Diefense rayo t gr: s hsPcC % FOC, O P 0- C GOUND OP!-txA’TONS ’A NS tTAI.D 11...NOTE S T edder, Wi.th Preudice: The War Memoirs . - y Air Force. Lord Tedaer. rr- 40-43. 2.".~ : X :"~ , M~.c, ’ = A r Power in Three Wars WW 7:, Kora...that FEAF assume operational control over land based Marine air units and over carri.er bjdsed aviation operating over Korea effective as soon as X

  18. Ground-based & satellite DOAS measurements integration for air quality evaluation/forecast management in the frame of QUITSAT Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinov, Ivan; Petritoli, Andrea; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Masieri, Samuele; Premuda, Margarita; Bortoli, Daniele; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Palazzi, Elisa

    The observations of the Earth's atmosphere from space provide excellent opportunities for the exploration of the sophisticated physical-chemical processes on both global and regional scales. The major interest during the last three decades was focused mainly on the stratosphere and the ozone depletion. More recently the continuous improvements of satellite sensors have revealed new opportunities for larger applications of space observations, attracting scientific interest to the lower troposphere and air quality issues. The air quality depends strongly on the anthropogenic activity and therefore regional environmental agencies along with policy makers are in need of appropriate means for its continuous monitoring and control to ensure the adoption of the most appropriate actions. The goal of the pilot project QUITSAT, funded by the Italian Space Agency, is to develop algorithms and procedures for the evaluation and prediction of the air quality in Lombardia and Emilia-Romagna regions (Italy) by means of integrating satellite observations with ground-based in-situ and remote sensing measurements. This work presents dedicated Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements performed during the summer of 2007 and the winter of 2008. One of the DOAS instruments operate at Mt.Cimone station (2165m a.s.l) and the other two instruments conducted measurements in/near Bologna (90 m. a.s.l). Different observational geometry was adopted (zenith-sky, multi-axis and long-path) aimed to provide tropospheric NO2 columns and O3, SO2 and HCHO concentrations at ground level as an input data for QUITSAT procedures. Details of the instruments, the radiative transfer model used and the algorithms for retrieving and calculation of the target gases concentrations are presented. The obtained experimental results are correlated with the corresponding ones retrieved from SCIAMACHY /ENVISAT observations during the overpasses above the ground-based instruments. The analysis

  19. Comparison of air-launched and ground-coupled configurations of SFCW GPR in time, frequency and wavelet domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Vijver, Ellen; De Pue, Jan; Cornelis, Wim; Van Meirvenne, Marc

    2015-04-01

    A stepped frequency continuous wave (SFCW) ground penetrating radar (GPR) system produces waveforms consisting of a sequence of sine waves with linearly increasing frequency. By adopting a wide frequency bandwidth, SFCW GPR systems offer an optimal resolution at each achievable measurement depth. Furthermore, these systems anticipate an improved penetration depth and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as compared to time-domain impulse GPRs, because energy is focused in one single frequency at a time and the phase and amplitude of the reflected signal is recorded for each discrete frequency step. However, the search for the optimal practical implementation of SFCW GPR technology to fulfil these theoretical advantages is still ongoing. In this study we compare the performance of a SFCW GPR system for air-launched and ground-coupled antenna configurations. The first is represented by a 3d-Radar Geoscope GS3F system operated with a V1213 antenna array. This array contains 7 transmitting and 7 receiving antennae resulting in 13 measurement channels at a spacing of 0.075 m and providing a total scan width of 0.975 m. The ground-coupled configuration is represented by 3d-Radar's latest-generation SFCW system, GeoScope Mk IV, operated with a DXG1212 antenna array. With 6 transmitting and 5 receiving antennae this array provides 12 measurement channels and an effective scan width of 0.9 m. Both systems were tested on several sites representative of various application environments, including a test site with different road specimens (Belgian Road Research Centre) and two test areas in different agricultural fields in Flanders, Belgium. For each test, data acquisition was performed using the full available frequency bandwidth of the systems (50 to 3000 MHz). Other acquisition parameters such as the frequency step and dwell time were varied in different tests. Analyzing the data of the different tests in time, frequency and wavelet domain allows to evaluate different performance

  20. An inventory of aeronautical ground research facilities. Volume 2: Air breathing engine test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirrello, C. J.; Hardin, R. D.; Heckart, M. V.; Brown, K. R.

    1971-01-01

    The inventory covers free jet and direct connect altitude cells, sea level static thrust stands, sea level test cells with ram air, and propulsion wind tunnels. Free jet altitude cells and propulsion wind tunnels are used for evaluation of complete inlet-engine-exhaust nozzle propulsion systems under simulated flight conditions. These facilities are similar in principal of operation and differ primarily in test section concept. The propulsion wind tunnel provides a closed test section and restrains the flow around the test specimen while the free jet is allowed to expand freely. A chamber of large diameter about the free jet is provided in which desired operating pressure levels may be maintained. Sea level test cells with ram air provide controlled, conditioned air directly to the engine face for performance evaluation at low altitude flight conditions. Direct connect altitude cells provide a means of performance evaluation at simulated conditions of Mach number and altitude with air supplied to the flight altitude conditions. Sea level static thrust stands simply provide an instrumented engine mounting for measuring thrust at zero airspeed. While all of these facilities are used for integrated engine testing, a few provide engine component test capability.

  1. A study of air-to-ground sound propagation using an instrumented meteorological tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, P. K.; Pappa, R. S.; Keefe, L. R.; Sutherland, L. C.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an exploratory NASA study, leading to a better understanding of the effects of meteorological conditions on the propagation of aircraft noise, are reported. The experimental program utilized a known sound source fixed atop an instrumented meteorological tower. The basic experimental scheme consisted of measuring the amplitude of sound radiated toward the ground along a line of microphones fixed to a tower guy wire. Experimental results show the feasibility of this approach in the acquisition of data indicating the variations encountered in the time-averaged and instantaneous amplitudes of propagated sound. The investigation included a consideration of ground reflections, a comparison of measured attenuations with predicted atmospheric absorption losses, and an evaluation of the amplitude fluctuations of recorded sound pressures.

  2. Use of Real-Time Ground-To-Air Video during Aeromedical Response to Traffic Crashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perina, D.

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this feasibility study was to determine whether the use of ground-based video imaging by local rescue squad personnel, along with real-time transmission of this information to the Pegasus helicopter medical crew, is technically feasible and of sufficient quality to be used as a tool to improve pre-hospital care provided to crash victims. The scope of this project was to investigate various types of existing technology and equipment that may allow for the desired communication linkage between aircraft and ground responders either as is or with achievable modifications. Additionally, other stakeholder entities in this project would be identified and approached to solicit cooperation in the subsequent deployment of the equipment.

  3. Ground cloud dispersion measurements during the Titan IV mission number B33 (15 October 1997) at Cape Canaveral Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-30

    This report presents plume imagery documenting the development and dispersion of the Titan IV No. B33 launch ground cloud at Cape Canaveral Air Station on 15 October 1997 at 0443 EDT. Also presented are pertinent meteorological data taken from towers, Doppler radars, and rawinsonde balloons. IR cameras were used at four locations around the launch site to track the trajectory and time evolution of the exhaust ground cloud for 1.5-2.5 min following launch. Meteorological data were collected to improve understanding of cloud dispersion and to use as input during model simulations and evaluations. Rawinsonde balloon data, 915 MHz Doppler radar data, and meteorological tower data were collected and archived. These data and similar data from other launches will be used to determine the accuracy of atmospheric dispersion models such as the Rocket Exhaust Effluent Diffusion Model (REEDM) in predicting toxic hazard corridors (THCs) at the USAF Eastern and Western Ranges. Reduction of available imagery data yielded limited information on cloud rise and dispersion. The imagery showed that the bottom edge of the launch cloud rose above the altitude of the bottom of the atmospheric clouds (514 m AGL) within 2.3 min after launch. REEDM 7.08 predicted that the bottom edge of the launch cloud would stabilize at 480 m AGL. The bottom of the actual launch cloud therefore rose at least 7% higher than predicted by REEDM 7.08. Analysis of the imagery also showed that the rising cloud had an air entrainment coefficient (ratio of increase in diameter to increase in altitude) of 0.39. This is significantly smaller than the default air entrainment coefficient of 0.64 that is used in REEDM 7.08.

  4. A ground test measurement system for the shuttle entry air data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    The Ground Test Measurement System (GTMS) for determining vacuum decay leak rate within the orifice tubing assembly of SEADS is described. The system can also monitor the absolute pressure in the tubing assembly under certain conditions. The GTMS determines leak rate by measuring vacuum-pressure decay which can be converted into leakage flow rate. Results of performance testing and operation of the GTMS are given.

  5. Infrared remote sensing of cometary parent volatiles from the ground, air, and space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Disanti, Michael A.; Hoban, Susan; Reuter, Dennis C.

    1991-01-01

    A balanced view of the present generation of infrared instruments for cometary compositional studies is presented. Ground-based instruments are compared with airborne and spaceborne capabilities. An attempt to give examples of the unique science achievable with each is made, and particular emphasis is on the unique aspects of a dedicated Cometary Composition Telescope in earth orbit for investigating the chemical and structural heterogeneity of the cometary nucleus.

  6. Risk and Combat Compensation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Leader iii Executive Summary The Eleventh Quadrennial Review of Military Compensation (11th QRMC) was chartered to review four areas of the military...compensation is an important element in the remuneration of military personnel. The principal justification for combat compensation is to recognize...combat zone received at least $4,660 in federal tax savings and benefits. One unexpected aspect of CZTE-related compensation is that senior officers

  7. Global consistency check of AIRS and IASI total CO2 column concentrations using WDCGG ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Anyuan; Shu, Jiong; Song, Ci; Gao, Wei

    2016-12-01

    This article describes a global consistency check of CO2 satellite retrieval products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) using statistical analysis and data from the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG). We use the correlation coefficient (r), relative difference (RD), root mean square errors (RMSE), and mean bias error (MBE) as evaluation indicators for this study. Statistical results show that a linear positive correlation between AIRS/IASI and WDCGG data occurs for most regions around the world. Temporal and spatial variations of these statistical quantities reflect obvious differences between satellite-derived and ground-based data based on geographic position, especially for stations near areas of intense human activities in the Northern Hemisphere. It is noteworthy that there appears to be a very weak correlation between AIRS/IASI data and ten groundbased observation stations in Europe, Asia, and North America. These results indicate that retrieval products from the two satellite-based instruments studied should be used with great caution.

  8. Global consistency check of AIRS and IASI total CO2 column concentrations using WDCGG ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Anyuan; Shu, Jiong; Song, Ci; Gao, Wei

    2017-03-01

    This article describes a global consistency check of CO2 satellite retrieval products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) using statistical analysis and data from the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG). We use the correlation coefficient (r), relative difference (RD), root mean square errors (RMSE), and mean bias error (MBE) as evaluation indicators for this study. Statistical results show that a linear positive correlation between AIRS/IASI and WDCGG data occurs for most regions around the world. Temporal and spatial variations of these statistical quantities reflect obvious differences between satellite-derived and ground-based data based on geographic position, especially for stations near areas of intense human activities in the Northern Hemisphere. It is noteworthy that there appears to be a very weak correlation between AIRS/IASI data and ten groundbased observation stations in Europe, Asia, and North America. These results indicate that retrieval products from the two satellite-based instruments studied should be used with great caution.

  9. Injuries due to firearms and air guns among U.S. military members not participating in overseas combat operations, 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    During 2002-2011, active component U.S. service members sustained 4,657 firearm-related injuries in circumstances other than deployment to the wars in Iraq/Afghanistan; 35 percent of the injuries were fatal. The highest firearm-related injury rates reflected service members in law enforcement/security and combat occupations. Of fatal injuries, 28 percent and 24 percent were suicides and homicides, respectively; among service members 30 and older, 84 percent of noncombat firearm-related deaths were suicides and 14 percent were homicides. In circumstances other than war, rates of both fatal and nonfatal firearm- related injuries are much lower among military members than civilian males aged 18-44. During the period, rates of nonfatal firearm-related injuries among non-deployed military members increased sharply, peaking in 2008. The trend reflects that among U.S. civilian males aged 18-44. However, firearm-related fatality rates were stable among civilians but increased among military members. The increase in rates of firearm-related fatalities among non-deployed military members reflects the increase in rates of suicides by firearms. Rates of injuries due to BB, pellet or paintball guns also increased during the period.

  10. Learning to Get Ahead: Why Organizational Learning is Critical in Combating the Improvised Explosive Device Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    AU/ACSC/9797/AY09 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY LEARNING TO GET AHEAD: WHY ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING IS CRITICAL IN COMBATING THE...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Learning to Get Ahead: Why Organizational Learning is Critical in Combating the Improvised Explosive Device Threat 5a...9 ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING ..............................................................................................11

  11. Cursor on Target: Addressing the Challenge of Air-to-Ground Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-30

    G9L BAO Kit CoT CoT CoT GBS Predator CoT FBCB2 CoT ADOCS CoT GCCS CoT ACARS CT-II CoT AFATDS CoT SIRS RAIDER CoT NCCT CoT DLARS...Quest  Many others ISR High Mobility FLIR Litening Pod RAVE video exploitation Constant Hawk UAV Video Scout Raven and Wasp Air RECCE Low

  12. Air Power and the Ground War in Vietnam, Ideas and Actions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Air Command and Staff College, May 1981) . An unflattering commentary is J . Lewallen, Ecology of Devastation : Indochina (Baltimore : Penguin ...ofDevastation : Indochina (Baltimore : Penguin Books, 1971) ; also see W . Haseltine and A. H . Westing, "The Wasteland : Beating Plowshares into Swords...World War II proved to be only an approximation of Allied objectives, as the quiet guarantee of the personal security of the Japanese emperor

  13. Linking air-sea energy exchanges and European anchovy potential spawning ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammauta, R.; Molteni, D.; Basilone, G.; Guisande, C.; Bonanno, A.; Aronica, S.; Giacalone, G.; Fontana, I.; Zora, M.; Patti, B.; Cuttitta, A.; Buscaino, G.; Sorgente, R.; Mazzola, S.

    2008-10-01

    The physical and chemical processes of the sea greatly affect the reproductive biology of fishes, mainly influencing both the numbers of spawned eggs and the survivorship of early stages up to the recruitment period. In the central Mediterranean, the European anchovy constitutes one of the most important fishery resource. Because of its short living nature and of its recruitment variability, associated to high environmental variability, this small pelagic species undergo high interannual fluctuation in the biomass levels. Despite several efforts were addressed to characterize fishes spawning habitat from the oceanographic point of view, very few studies analyze the air-sea exchanges effects. To characterize the spawning habitat of these resources a specific technique (quotient rule analysis) was applied on air-sea heat fluxes, wind stress, sea surface temperature and turbulence data, collected in three oceanographic surveys during the summer period of 2004, 2005 and 2006. The results showed the existence of preferred values in the examined physical variables, associated to anchovy spawning areas. Namely, for heat fluxes the values were around -40 W/m2, for wind stress 0.04-0.11 N/m2, for SST 23°C, and 300 - 500 m3s-3 for wind mixing. Despite the obtained results are preliminary, this is the first relevant analysis on the air-sea exchanges and their relationship with the fish biology of pelagic species.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from obsolete pesticide dumping ground in Hyderabad City, Pakistan: contamination levels and their potential for air-soil exchange.

    PubMed

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Liu, Junwen; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination levels in the surface soil and air samples together with air-soil exchange fluxes at an obsolete pesticide dumping ground and the associated areas from Hyderabad City, Pakistan. Among all the sampling sites, concentrations of OCPs in the soil and air samples were found highest in obsolete pesticide dumping ground, whereas dominant contaminants were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) (soil: 77-212,200 ng g(-1); air: 90,700 pg m(-3)) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) (soil: 43-4,090 ng g(-1); air: 97,400 pg m(-3)) followed by chlordane, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). OCPs diagnostic indicative ratios reflect historical use as well as fresh input in the study area. Moreover, the air and soil fugacity ratios (0.9-1.0) at the dumping ground reflecting a tendency towards net volatilization of OCPs, while at the other sampling sites, the fugacity ratios indicate in some cases deposition and in other cases volatilization. Elevated concentrations of DDTs and HCHs at pesticide dumping ground and its surroundings pose potential exposure risk to biological organisms, to the safety of agricultural products and to the human health. Our study thus emphasizes the need of spatio-temporal monitoring of OCPs at local and regional scale to assess and remediate the future adverse implications.

  15. Tanks Within The Marine Air Ground Task Force: A N/A Versatile Combat Multiplier Throughout the Full Spectrum of Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-26

    control·capabilities and briJ ?g it much further into C4lR realm. 30 The improved loaders weapon station will do away with the mounted 7.62rnm 240B machine...maintaining cunent Hickey 17 and relevant skill sets. 35 The aggressive training these battalions are undertaking coupled with the advancements of...Interview with LtCol Thomas Gordon, CO, 1st Tank Battalion, 29 Palms CA. 29 January 2010. 33 Ibid, Leimbach 34 Ibid, Gordon Hickey 22 35 First hand

  16. Air-to-Ground Target Acquisition Source Book: A Review of the Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-30

    identification of targets. Sun ;tianle refern to the direction of thc un In relation to thu aIr- craft is track. ’lle effect of Hun angle on target rr-cogniLion...whether the observed contrast is groater than the contrast threshold using the equation CHIN " e-Ov where v is the visibility range. The threshold value...constructed by Jacqueline I. Gordon can be used to quickly determine (a) the beam transmittance for a horizontal path of sight from the attenuation

  17. A Piloted Simulation Investigating Handling Qualities and Performance Requirements of a Single-Pilot Helicopter in Air Combat Employing a Helmet-Driven Turreted Gun.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    57 10. Environmental IFactors ................................. 57 B. EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLES ............................ 60 I. Yaw Axis...chrceitiso oftre hanbl quities roure elpe Maior dfcmbait. Thsirbe iost rcoentiot eAir Comba 11 l PilotC im)pconduceJnuay196 inetgte control...equivalent to the IHADSS gunsight pipper used for the turreted gun. 10. Environmental Factors Adjustable environmental factors included visibility, wind

  18. A simulation of air pollution model parameter estimation using data from a ground-based LIDAR remote sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibler, J. F.; Suttles, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    One way to obtain estimates of the unknown parameters in a pollution dispersion model is to compare the model predictions with remotely sensed air quality data. A ground-based LIDAR sensor provides relative pollution concentration measurements as a function of space and time. The measured sensor data are compared with the dispersion model output through a numerical estimation procedure to yield parameter estimates which best fit the data. This overall process is tested in a computer simulation to study the effects of various measurement strategies. Such a simulation is useful prior to a field measurement exercise to maximize the information content in the collected data. Parametric studies of simulated data matched to a Gaussian plume dispersion model indicate the trade offs available between estimation accuracy and data acquisition strategy.

  19. The application of a marketing systems planning framework to design a ground-air medical transport service.

    PubMed

    Chasin, S; Schlacter, J; Shirley, C

    1986-01-01

    This article has examined the application of a marketing and community planning process to the development of a regional, complete patient transportation system. The model is designed to interface with a region whose existing Emergency Medical Service System is operating at the advanced Life Support (usually paramedic) level. It is suitable for regions whose existing ambulance (ground and air) services are in need of improvement and/or coordination, and specifically utilizes the concept of ownership and management by a hospital consortium. The model, as described, is sufficiently flexible to be usable in a variety of local and regional environments, where changes in the patient transportation system can enhance the quality and operations of emergency medical services.

  20. Transportation vehicle energy intensities. A joint DOT/NASA reference paper. [energy consumption of air and ground vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascy, A. C.; Paullin, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    A compilation of data on the energy consumption of air and ground vehicles is presented. The ratio BTU/ASM, British Thermal Units/Available Seat Mile, is used to express vehicle energy intensiveness, and related to the energy consumed directly in producing seat-mile or ton-mile productivity. Data is presented on passenger and freight vehicles which are in current use or which are about to enter service, and advanced vehicles which may be operational in the 1980's and beyond. For the advanced vehicles, an estimate is given of the date of initial operational service, and the performance characteristics. Other key considerations in interpreting energy intensiveness for a given mode are discussed, such as: load factors, operations, overhead energy consumption, and energy investments in new structure and equipment.

  1. Cockpit weather radar display demonstrator and ground-to-air sferics telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickum, J. D.; Mccall, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of two methods of obtaining timely and accurate severe weather presentations in the cockpit are detailed. The first method described is a course up display of uplinked weather radar data. This involves the construction of a demonstrator that will show the feasibility of producing a course up display in the cockpit of the NASA simulator at Langley. A set of software algorithms was designed that could easily be implemented, along with data tapes generated to provide the cockpit simulation. The second method described involves the uplinking of sferic data from a ground based 3M-Ryan Stormscope. The technique involves transfer of the data on the CRT of the Stormscope to a remote CRT. This sferic uplink and display could also be included in an implementation on the NASA cockpit simulator, allowing evaluation of pilot responses based on real Stormscope data.

  2. Combined Ground and Space-Based Measurements of Air Quality during the London Olympic Games 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, R. R.; Leigh, R. J.; Singh Anand, J.; McNally, M.; Lawrence, J.; Remedios, J.; Monks, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    During July and August 2012 the Summer Olympic Games were held in London. During this period, unusually high levels of traffic and visitors to the city were expected, it is important to understand the effect this had on the air quality in London during this period. To this end three novel CityScan instruments were installed in London from the 20th July though to the end of September; affording the unique opportunity to monitor the spatial and vertical structure of nitrogen dioxide within the boundary layer in unprecedented detail. The deployment was included as part of the large NERC funded ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London) involving many other institutions and complementary measurement techniques. CityScan is a Hemispherical Scanning Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (HSI-DOAS) which is has been optimised to measure concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. CityScan has a 95° field of view (FOV) between the zenith and 5° below the horizon. Across this FOV there are 128 resolved elements which are measured concurrently, the spectrometer is rotated azimuthally 1° per second providing full hemispherical coverage every 6 minutes. CityScan measures concentrations of nitrogen dioxide over specific lines of sight and due to the extensive field of view of the instrument this produces measurements which are representative over city-wide scales. Nitrogen dioxide is an important air pollutant which is produced in all combustion processes and can reduce lung function; especially in sensitised individuals. These instruments aim to bridge the gap in spatial scales between point source measurements of air quality and satellite measurements of air quality offering additional information on emissions, transport and the chemistry of nitrogen dioxide. More information regarding the CityScan technique can be found at http://www.leos.le.ac.uk/aq/index.html. The first of the three CityScan instruments was located in North Kensington, the second in Soho and third

  3. Combat Agility Management System (CAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skow, Andrew; Porada, William

    1994-01-01

    The proper management of energy becomes a complex task in fighter aircraft which have high angle of attack (AOA) capability. Maneuvers at high AOA are accompanied by high bleed rates (velocity decrease), a characteristic that is usually undesirable in a typical combat arena. Eidetics has developed under NASA SBIR Phase 1 and NAVAIR SBIR Phase 2 contracts a system which allows a pilot to more easily and effectively manage the trade-off of energy (airspeed or altitude) for turn rate while not imposing hard limits on the high AOA nose pointing capability that can be so important in certain air combat maneuver situations. This has been accomplished by incorporating a two-stage angle of attack limiter into the flight control laws. The first stage sets a limit on AOA to achieve a limit on the maximum bleed rate (selectable) by limiting AOA to values which are dependent on the aircraft attitude and dynamic pressure (or flight path, velocity, and altitude). The second stage sets an AOA limit near the AOA for C(sub l max). One of the principal benefits of such a system is that it enables a low-experience pilot to become much more proficient at managing his energy. The Phase 2 simulation work is complete, and an exploratory flight test on the F-18 HARV is planned for the Fall of 1994 to demonstrate/validate the concept.

  4. The CREATE Program Software Applications for the Design and Analysis of Air Vehicles, Naval Vessels, Radio Frequency Antennas, and Ground Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-10

    1 The CREATE Program Software Applications for the Design and Analysis of Air Vehicles, Naval Vessels, Radio Frequency Antennas, and Ground ... ground vehicles) through the construction and analysis of virtual prototypes for those systems. Code development began in 2008, and eight years later...in history–we have the potential to make accurate predictions of the behavior of complex physical systems (e.g. the weather, the behavior of chemical

  5. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 1, Site assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

  6. Ground-water hydrology and water quality of the southern high plains aquifer, Melrose Air Force Range, Cannon Air Force Base, Curry and Roosevelt Counties, New Mexico, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.; Falk, Sarah E.

    2004-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Geological Survey characterized the ground-water hydrology and water quality at Melrose Air Force Range in east-central New Mexico. The purpose of the study was to provide baseline data to Cannon Air Force Base resource managers to make informed decisions concerning actions that may affect the ground-water system. Five periods of water-level measurements and four periods of water-quality sample collection were completed at Melrose Air Force Range during 2002 and 2003. The water-level measurements and water-quality samples were collected from a 29-well monitoring network that included wells in the Impact Area and leased lands of Melrose Air Force Range managed by Cannon Air Force Base personnel. The purpose of this report is to provide a broad overview of ground-water flow and ground-water quality in the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Ogallala Formation at Melrose Air Force Range. Results of the ground-water characterization of the Southern High Plains aquifer indicated a local flow system in the unconfined aquifer flowing northeastward from a topographic high, the Mesa (located in the southwestern part of the Range), toward a regional flow system in the unconfined aquifer that flows southeastward through the Portales Valley. Ground water was less than 55 years old across the Range; ground water was younger (less than 25 years) near the Mesa and ephemeral channels and older (25 years to 55 years) in the Portales Valley. Results of water-quality analysis indicated three areas of different water types: near the Mesa and ephemeral channels, in the Impact Area of the Range, and in the Portales Valley. Within the Southern High Plains aquifer, a sodium/chloride-dominated ground water was found in the center of the Impact Area of the Range with water-quality characteristics similar to ground water from the underlying Chinle Formation. This sodium/chloride-dominated ground water of the unconfined aquifer in the Impact

  7. Another Way To Fight: Combat Aviation Advisory Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    their intention for advisors to conduct tactical flight operations with foreign aircrews. Further, theater responses detailed categories and types of...AIR FORCE FELLOWS PROGRAM AIR UNIVERSITY ANOTHER WAY TO FIGHT : COMBAT AVIATION ADVISORY OPERATIONS by Norman...0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing

  8. 32 CFR 813.4 - Combat camera operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMCAM and visual information support forces for still photographic, motion media, graphics, and other VI... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.4 Combat camera operations. (a) Air Force COMCAM forces document...

  9. 32 CFR 813.4 - Combat camera operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMCAM and visual information support forces for still photographic, motion media, graphics, and other VI... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.4 Combat camera operations. (a) Air Force COMCAM forces document...

  10. 32 CFR 813.4 - Combat camera operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMCAM and visual information support forces for still photographic, motion media, graphics, and other VI... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.4 Combat camera operations. (a) Air Force COMCAM forces document...

  11. Gaining Through Training: Pilot Proficiency in Modern Combat Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    the combat training of 567 aircrew in three RPA squadrons. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from Arizona State...University, a Master of Business Administration from Trident University, and a Master of Military Operational Art and Science from the US Air Force Command...58 10 Original Air Force ISD Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 11 Sample CPO for

  12. Assessment of concentrations of trace elements in ground water and soil at the Small-Arms Firing Range, Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from four shallow water-table aquifer observation wells beneath the Small-Arms Firing Range study area at Shaw Air Force Base. Water-chemistry analyses indicated that total lead concentrations in shallow ground water beneath the study area do not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level established for lead in drinking water (0.05 milligrams per liter). All other trace element total concentrations in ground water beneath the study area were at or below the detection limit of the analytical methodology.

  13. in situ Measures of LED Installations: Results of Air and Ground Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric Richard; Craine, Brian L.

    2015-08-01

    Light Emitting Diode (LED) outdoor light fixtures of different types are rapidly proliferating in many communities, particularly in the form of continuous roadway, work, and parking lot lights. These lights offer a wide range of benefits, but many in the astronomical community have expressed various concerns about their impact on local observatory facilities. We have spent several years developing complementary ground-based and aerial techniques of measuring light installations in the field. Unfortunately, large community retrofits of lighting preclude comprehensive measurement of the changes that result unless baseline data have been collected prior to completion of the new installations. Because of the rapidity of conversion to LEDs, it is increasingly difficult to conduct informative before and after surveys. As a point of interest to astronomers, we offer examples of some in situ measurements of LED installations, compare those measurements to results for older light fixtures, and discuss some of the implications for astronomy. These objective data may be helpful in reaching an informed perspective on how LED lights perform in typical settings.

  14. Ground-level air pollution changes during a boreal wildland mega-fire.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Hsu, Yu-Mei; Percy, Kevin; Legge, Allan; Fenn, Mark E; Schilling, Susan; Frączek, Witold; Alexander, Diane

    2016-12-01

    The 2011 Richardson wildland mega-fire in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northern Alberta, Canada had large effects on air quality. At a receptor site in the center of the AOSR ambient PM2.5, O3, NO, NO2, SO2, NH3, HONO, HNO3, NH4(+) and NO3(-) were measured during the April-August 2011 period. Concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NO2, SO2 and O3 were also monitored across the AOSR with passive samplers, providing monthly summer and bi-monthly winter average values in 2010, 2011 and 2012. During the fire, hourly PM2.5 concentrations >450μgm(-3) were measured at the AMS 1 receptor site. The 24-h National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 35μgm(-3) and the Canada Wide Standard (CWS) of 30μgm(-3) were exceeded on 13days in May and 7days in June. During the fire emission periods, sharp increases in NH3, HONO, HNO3, NH4(+), NO3(-) and total inorganic reactive N concentrations occurred, all closely correlated with the PM2.5 changes. There were large differences in the relative contribution of various N compounds to total inorganic N between the no-fire emission and fire emission periods. While in the absence of fires NO and NO2 dominated, their relative contribution during the fires was ~2 fold smaller, mainly due to increased NH3, NH4(+) and NO3(-). Concentrations of HONO and HNO3 also greatly increased during the fires, but their contribution to the total inorganic N pool was relatively small. Elevated NH3 and HNO3 concentrations affected large areas of northern Alberta during the Richardson Fire. While NH3 and HNO3 concentrations were not at levels considered toxic to plants, these gases contributed significantly to atmospheric N deposition. Generally, no significant changes in O3 and SO2 concentrations were detected and their ambient concentrations were below levels harmful to human health or sensitive vegetation.

  15. Instrumentation design and installation for monitoring air injection ground water remediation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.L.; Baldwin, C.K.; Lachmar, T.E.; Dupont, R.R.

    2000-03-31

    An in situ instrumentation bundle was designed for inclusion in monitoring wells that were installed at the Wasatch Trailer Sales site in Layton, Utah, to evaluate in situ air sparging (IAS) and in-well aeration (IWA). Sensors for the bundle were selected based on laboratory evaluation of accuracy and precision, as well as consideration of size and cost. SenSym pressure transducers, Campbell Scientific, Inc. (CSI) T-type thermocouples, and dissolved oxygen (DO) probes manufactured by Technalithics Inc. (Waco, Texas), were selected for each of the 27 saturated zone bundles. Each saturated zone bundle also included a stirring blade to mix water near the DO probe. A Figaro oxygen sensor was included in the vadose zone bundle. The monitoring wells were installed by direct push technique to minimize soil disruption and to ensure intimate contact between the 18 inch (46 cm) long screens and the soil. A data acquisition system, comprised of a CSI 21X data logger and four CSI AM416 multiplexers, was used to control the stirring blades and record signals from more than 70 in situ sensors. The instrumentation performed well during evaluation of IAS and IWA at the site. However, the SenSym pressure transducers were not adequately temperature compensated and will need to be replaced.

  16. Global Positioning Systems in Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-26

    Global Positioning Systems ( GPS ) in combat. Fratricide has been reduced because of the effective use of...gained by the use of Global Positioning Systems ( GPS ) in combat. Fratricide has been reduced because of the effective use of GPS in common equipment...The advantages of using Global Positioning Systems ( GPS ) in combat have proven to reduce fratricide, collateral damage, and the number of

  17. Profile negotiation: An air/ground automation integration concept for managing arrival traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Green, Steven M.; Denbraven, Wim

    1993-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and NASA Langley Research Center conducted a joint simulation study to evaluate a profile negotiation process (PNP) between a time-based air traffic control ATC system and an airplane equipped with a four dimensional flight management system (4D FMS). Prototype procedures were developed to support the functional implementation of this process. The PNP was designed to provide an arrival trajectory solution that satisfies the separation requirements of ATC while remaining as close as possible to the airplane's preferred trajectory. The Transport Systems Research Vehicle cockpit simulator was linked in real-time to the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) for the experiment. Approximately 30 hours of simulation testing were conducted over a three week period. Active airline pilot crews and active Center controller teams participated as test subjects. Results from the experiment indicate the potential for successful incorporation of airplane preferred arrival trajectories in the CTAS automation environment. Controllers were able to consistently and effectively negotiate nominally conflict-free trajectories with pilots flying a 4D-FMS-equipped airplane. The negotiated trajectories were substantially closer to the airplane's preference than would have otherwise been possible without the PNP. Airplane fuel savings relative to baseline CTAS were achieved in the test scenarios. The datalink procedures and clearances developed for this experiment, while providing the necessary functionality, were found to be operationally unacceptable to the pilots. Additional pilot control and understanding of the proposed airplane-preferred trajectory and a simplified clearance procedure were cited as necessary for operational implementation of the concept. From the controllers' perspective, the main concerns were the ability of the 4D airplane to accurately track the negotiated trajectory and the workload required to support the PNP as implemented in this study.

  18. The Role and Values of Combat Leadership in Modern Warfare: Can Combat Leadership and Personal Leadership Skills be Replaced by Modern Technology?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-29

    hour per mponee, lntfUding the ume lot revloMng !nstrudlons, searching exisiii’IQ data soorooa, gatrn:rintJ $nd malnttrinlng lhe data needed. end...same amount of French Army data the CLC commander has. But only the chief on the ground can measure other data like: combat readiness, enemy momentum...be assessed French Army I by any technology. The chief on the ground is able to measure data like combat readiness, moral, esprit de corp, enemy

  19. Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-479 Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then Year UCR

  20. Confronting Combat Stress Reactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-22

    of the scalp, skull , or brain. 4 Combat stress reaction is categorized as a range of behaviors resulting from the stress of battle which decreases...3) experiencing rage aimed at discriminate and indiscriminate targets, (4) psychic numbing or emotional shutdown, (5) alienation from themselves and

  1. History of Combat Pay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Adjudicating the dispute, Assistant Secretary of Defense Marx Leva posited that “compensation received by the soldiers, sailors, and airmen who go...agreed, and submitted legislation in December of 1950 for the authorization of Combat Pay. In their opinions, Marshall and Leva outlined the framework

  2. Mathematics in Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The purpose of this book is to familiarize the reader with how mathematics can solve important problems in modern military affairs. The authors discuss and explain, without resorting to complex mathematical calculations, the essence of the basic methods which modern mathematics makes available to military problems, design and combat deployment of modern weapons.

  3. ANEMOS: A computer code to estimate air concentrations and ground deposition rates for atmospheric nuclides emitted from multiple operating sources

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.W.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Begovich, C.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1986-11-01

    This code estimates concentrations in air and ground deposition rates for Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operating Sources. ANEMOS is one component of an integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in performing radiological assessments and in developing radiation standards. The concentrations and deposition rates calculated by ANEMOS are used in subsequent portions of the CRRIS for estimating doses and risks to man. The calculations made in ANEMOS are based on the use of a straight-line Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model with both dry and wet deposition parameter options. The code will accommodate a ground-level or elevated point and area source or windblown source. Adjustments may be made during the calculations for surface roughness, building wake effects, terrain height, wind speed at the height of release, the variation in plume rise as a function of downwind distance, and the in-growth and decay of daughter products in the plume as it travels downwind. ANEMOS can also accommodate multiple particle sizes and clearance classes, and it may be used to calculate the dose from a finite plume of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides passing overhead. The output of this code is presented for 16 sectors of a circular grid. ANEMOS can calculate both the sector-average concentrations and deposition rates at a given set of downwind distances in each sector and the average of these quantities over an area within each sector bounded by two successive downwind distances. ANEMOS is designed to be used primarily for continuous, long-term radionuclide releases. This report describes the models used in the code, their computer implementation, the uncertainty associated with their use, and the use of ANEMOS in conjunction with other codes in the CRRIS. A listing of the code is included in Appendix C.

  4. Operational use of the AIRS Total Column Ozone Retrievals along with the RGB Airmass Product as Part of the GOES-R Proving Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folmer, M.; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Red, Green, Blue (RGB) Air Mass product has been demonstrated in the GOES ]R Proving Ground as a possible decision aid. Forecasters have been trained on the usefulness of identifying stratospheric intrusions and potential vorticity (PV) anomalies that can lead to explosive cyclogenesis, genesis of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), or the transition of tropical cyclones to extratropical cyclones. It has also been demonstrated to distinguish different air mass types from warm, low ozone air masses to cool, high ozone air masses and the various interactions with the PV anomalies. To assist the forecasters in understanding the stratospheric contribution to high impact weather systems, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Total Column Ozone Retrievals have been made available as an operational tool. These AIRS retrievals provide additional information on the amount of ozone that is associated with the red coloring seen in the RGB Air Mass product. This paper discusses how the AIRS retrievals can be used to quantify the red coloring in RGB Air Mass product. These retrievals can be used to diagnose the depth of the stratospheric intrusions associated with different types of weather systems and provide the forecasters decision aid tools that can improve the quality of forecast products.

  5. CO Seasonal Variability and Trend over Paris Megacity Using Ground-Based QualAir FTS and Satellite IASI-MetOp Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Te, Yao; Jeseck, Pascal; Hadji-Lazaro, Juliette

    2012-11-01

    In a growing world with more than 7 billion inhabitants and big emerging countries such as China, Brazil and India, emissions of anthropogenic pollutants are increasing continuously. Monitoring and control of atmospheric pollutants in megacities have become a major challenge for scientists and public health authorities in environmental research area. The QualAir platform at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is an innovating experimental research platform dedicated to survey urban atmospheric pollution and air quality. A Bruker Optics IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer belonged to the Laboratoire de Physique Moléculaire pour l'Atmosphère et l'Astrophysique (LPMAA), was adapted for ground-based atmospheric measurements. As one of the major instruments of the QualAir platform, this ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS) analyses the composition of the urban atmosphere of Paris, which is the third largest European megacity. The continuous monitoring of atmospheric pollutants is essential to improve the understanding of urban air pollution processes. Associated with a sun-tracker, the QualAir remote sensing FTS operates in solar infrared absorption and enables to monitor many trace gases, and to follow up their variability in the Ile-de-France region. Concentrations of atmospheric pollutants are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT. These ground-based remote sensing measurements are compared to ground in-situ measurements and to satellite data from IASI-MetOp (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer). The remote sensing total column of the carbon monoxide (CO) obtained from January 2009 to June 2012, has a seasonal variability with a maximum in April and a minimum in October. While, after 2008, the mean CO level is quite stable (no significant decrease as before 2008).

  6. Combat aircraft noise: The operator's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogg, R.

    1992-04-01

    Combat aircraft are not subject to the same noise reduction regulations as civil aircraft. Additionally, combat aircraft are operated closer to their performance limits and at high power settings for extended periods. There is general pressure to reduce noise of all kinds, but particularly noise from low flying aircraft. Although there is little that can be done to quiet in-service engines, operational palliatives, such as noise abatement procedures and restrictions on low flying, have been introduced. Moreover, there has been a concerted education and public relations campaign, and numerous airspace management changes have been introduced to reduce the impact of low flying on the population. These subjects were considered during a Pilot Study into aircraft noise under the auspices of the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society; the findings of the Study are discussed, giving both the international viewpoint and the UK perspective in particular. Some options for the reduction of low flying are also considered, but so long as military aircraft need to fly low to evade enemy air defences, low flying will remain a principal tactic of NATO air forces, and peacetime training will remain an essential military requirement. Thus, noise from low flying combat aircraft will remain a sensitive issue, and ways of reducing it will continue to be of importance for many years to come.

  7. Brief history of ground-based very high energy gamma-ray astrophysics with atmospheric air Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, Razmik

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the Crab Nebula as the first source of TeV gamma rays in 1989, using the technique of ground-based imaging air Cherenkov telescope, has marked the birthday of observational gamma astronomy in very high energy range. The team led by Trevor Weekes, after twenty years of trial and error, success and misfortune, step-by-step improvements in both the technique and understanding of gamma shower discrimination methods, used the 10 m diameter telescope on Mount Hopkins in Arizona, and succeeded measuring a 9σ signal from the direction of Crab Nebula. As of today over 160 sources of gamma rays of very different types, of both galactic and extra-galactic origin, have been discovered due to this technique. This is a really fast evolving branch in science, rapidly improving our understanding of the most violent and energetic sources and processes in the sky. The study of these sources provides clues to many basic questions in astrophysics, astro-particle physics, physics of cosmic rays and cosmology. Today's telescopes, despite the young age of the technique, offer a solid performance. The technique is still maturing, leading to the next generation large instrument. This article is devoted to outlining the milestones in a long history that step-by-step have made this technique emerge and have brought about today's successful source hunting.

  8. A comparison of ground and satellite observations of cloud cover to saturation pressure differences during a cold air outbreak

    SciTech Connect

    Alliss, R.J.; Raman, S.

    1996-04-01

    The role of clouds in the atmospheric general circulation and the global climate is twofold. First, clouds owe their origin to large-scale dynamical forcing, radiative cooling in the atmosphere, and turbulent transfer at the surface. In addition, they provide one of the most important mechanisms for the vertical redistribution of momentum and sensible and latent heat for the large scale, and they influence the coupling between the atmosphere and the surface as well as the radiative and dynamical-hydrological balance. In existing diagnostic cloudiness parameterization schemes, relative humidity is the most frequently used variable for estimating total cloud amount or stratiform cloud amount. However, the prediction of relative humidity in general circulation models (GCMs) is usually poor. Even for the most comprehensive GCMs, the predicted relative humidity may deviate greatly from that observed, as far as the frequency distribution of relative humidity is concerned. Recently, there has been an increased effort to improve the representation of clouds and cloud-radiation feedback in GCMs, but the verification of cloudiness parameterization schemes remains a severe problem because of the lack of observational data sets. In this study, saturation pressure differences (as opposed to relative humidity) and satellite-derived cloud heights and amounts are compared with ground determinations of cloud cover over the Gulf Stream Locale (GSL) during a cold air outbreak.

  9. Investigation of inhomogeneity and anisotropy in near ground layers of atmospheric air turbulence using image motion monitoring method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi Razi, Ebrahim; Rasouli, Saifollah

    2017-01-01

    In this work the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of real atmospheric turbulence have been investigated using image motion monitoring and differential image motion monitoring methods. For this purpose the light beam of a point source is propagated through the atmospheric turbulence layers in horizontal path and then impinged to a telescope aperture. The telescope and point source were 350 m apart. In front of the telescope's aperture a mask consisting of four subapertures was installed. Image of the point source was formed on a sensitive CCD camera located at the focal plane of the telescope. By displacing CCD camera along the axis of telescope, four distinct images were recorded. Angle of arrival (AA) of each spot was calculated by image processing. Air turbulence causes AA to fluctuate. By comparing AA fluctuation variances of different spots in two directions isotropy and homogeneity of turbulence were studied. Results have shown that atmospheric turbulence in near ground layers is treated as an anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium. In addition, the inhomogeneity and anisotropy of turbulence decreases with the distance from earth surface.

  10. Reassessment of psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder in United States Air Force Distributed Common Ground System operators.

    PubMed

    Prince, Lillian; Chappelle, Wayne L; McDonald, Kent D; Goodman, Tanya; Cowper, Sara; Thompson, William

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study was to assess for the main sources of occupational stress, as well as self-reported symptoms of distress and post-traumatic stress disorder among U.S. Air Force (USAF) Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS) intelligence exploitation and support personnel. DCGS intelligence operators (n=1091) and nonintelligence personnel (n = 447) assigned to a USAF Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Wing responded to the web-based survey. The overall survey response rate was 31%. Study results revealed the most problematic stressors among DCGS intelligence personnel included high workload, low manning, as well as organizational leadership and shift work issues. Results also revealed 14.35% of DCGS intelligence operators' self-reported high levels of psychological distress (twice the rate of DCGS nonintelligence support personnel). Furthermore, 2.0% to 2.5% self-reported high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, with no significant difference between groups. The implications of these findings are discussed along with recommendations for USAF medical and mental health providers, as well as operational leadership.

  11. Cascade connection serial parallel hybrid acquisition synchronization method for DS-FHSS in air-ground data link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Zhou, Desuo

    2007-11-01

    In air-ground tactical data link system, a kind of primary anti jamming technology adopted is direct sequence - frequency hopping spread spectrum (DS-FHSS) technology. However, how to implement the quick synchronization of DS-FHSS is an important technology problem, which could influence the whole communication capability of system. Thinking of the application demand of anti jamming technology in actual, a kind of cascade connection serial parallel hybrid acquisition synchronization method is given for the DS-FHSS system. The synchronization consists of two stages. The synchronization of FH communication is adopted at the first stage, and the serial parallel hybrid structure is adopted for the DS PN code synchronization at the secondary stage. Through calculating the detect probability of the FH synchronization acquisition and the acquisition time of DS code chip synchronization, the contribution to the synchronization capability of system by this method in this paper is analyzed. Finally, through simulating on computer, the performance estimate about this cascade connection serial parallel hybrid acquisition synchronization method is given.

  12. Learning Large Lessons: The Evolving Roles of Ground Power and Air Power in the Post-Cold War Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Seize Initiative, Decisive Operations, and Transition .75 “Halt” was included in the Seize Initiative phase, when “JFCs seek to seize the initiative in...combat was necessary but not sufficient to meet the nation’s strategic goals. Transitioning Afghanistan to a stable and secure state that did not...16 In the aftermath of the collapse of the Iraqi regime, the coalition began what it believed was Phase IV operations—the transition to post-conflict

  13. Simulation of Air and Ground Temperatures in PMIP3/CMIP5 Last Millennium Simulations: Implications for Climate Reconstructions from Borehole Temperature Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, Hugo; García-García, Almudena; José Cuesta-Valero, Francisco; Smerdon, Jason

    2016-04-01

    For General Circulation Models (GCMs) to simulate the continental energy storage of the Earth's energy budget it is crucial that they correctly capture the processes that partition energy across the land-atmosphere boundary. We evaluate herein the characteristics of these processes as simulated by models in the third phase of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project and the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP3/CMIP5). We examine the seasonal differences between air and ground temperatures within PMIP3 last-millennium simulations concatenated with historical simulations from the CMIP5 archive. We find a strong air-ground coupling during the summer from 850 to 2000 CE. During the winter, the insulating effect of snow and latent heat exchanges produce a decoupling between air and ground temperatures in the northern high latitudes. Additionally, we use the simulated temperature trends as an upper boundary condition to force a one-dimensional conductive model to derive synthetic temperature-depth profiles for each PMIP3/CMIP5 simulation. The inversions of these subsurface profiles yield temperature trends that retain the surface temperature variations of the last millennium for all the PMIP3/CMIP5 simulations. These results support the use of underground temperatures to reconstruct past changes in ground surface temperature and to estimate the continental energy storage.

  14. Simulation of air and ground temperatures in PMIP3/CMIP5 last millennium simulations: implications for climate reconstructions from borehole temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, A.; Cuesta-Valero, F. J.; Beltrami, H.; Smerdon, J. E.

    2016-04-01

    For climate models to simulate the continental energy storage of the Earth’s energy budget they must capture the processes that partition energy across the land-atmosphere boundary. We evaluate herein the thermal consequences of these processes as simulated by models in the third phase of the paleoclimate modelling intercomparison project and the fifth phase of the coupled model intercomparison project (PMIP3/CMIP5). We examine air and ground temperature tracking at decadal and centennial time-scales within PMIP3 last-millennium simulations concatenated to historical simulations from the CMIP5 archive. We find a strong coupling between air and ground temperatures during the summer from 850 to 2005 CE. During the winter, the insulating effect of snow and latent heat exchanges produce a decoupling between the two temperatures in the northern high latitudes. Additionally, we use the simulated ground surface temperatures as an upper boundary condition to drive a one-dimensional conductive model in order to derive synthetic temperature-depth profiles for each PMIP3/CMIP5 simulation. Inversion of these subsurface profiles yields temperature trends that retain the low-frequency variations in surface air temperatures over the last millennium for all the PMIP3/CMIP5 simulations regardless of the presence of seasonal decoupling in the simulations. These results demonstrate the robustness of surface temperature reconstructions from terrestrial borehole data and their interpretation as indicators of past surface air temperature trends and continental energy storage.

  15. Strategic Misstep: ’Immortal’ Robotic Warfare, Inviting Combat to Suburban America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    locations of those combatants.59 Predator “ Porn ” – Immoral, or Just “Freaking Cool” Air Force RPA combatant operators and those around them will likely...accessed February 4, 2010). Predator “feeds” have been renamed in military circles to Predator “ porn ”. For reference see Mockenhaupt, “We’ve Seen the

  16. Combat and personality change.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, S L; Ohlde, C D; Horne, J B

    1993-01-01

    In response to combat, some soldiers develop a feeling of satisfaction in killing. The authors label this reaction the "heart of darkness experience," after the story by Joseph Conrad (1903/1982). They describe their clinical experience of seeing this response as part of a spectrum of reactions ranging from no personality change to rather gross personality change. After exploring psychological factors involved in this change, they suggest relevant treatment considerations.

  17. Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-374 Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...Executive Officer PM - Program Manager POE - Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition...Frigates, and down- select to one variant in FY 2019. The FY 2017 acquisition strategy supporting the final procurement of LCS is currently under review

  18. Close Quarters Combat Shooting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-14

    1994.at the Palm Beach Community College Criminal Justice Institute ofLakeworth, Florida to the more dynamic force-on-force, realistic scenario...Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC...Shooting is the Superior Method for Close Quarters Combat 5b. GRANT NUMBER Shooting" N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR( S ) Sd. PROJECT

  19. Combat Instructor Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    of passing Marine Combat Instructor’s Course (MCIC). MCIC is one of eight courses taught at the Advanced Infantry Training Company ( AITC ). These...Infantry Machine Gun Leader’s Course, Scout Sniper Basic Course, for Infantry Marines. Additionally, AITC trains Martial Arts Instructor’s Course and...Basic Machine Gun Course, which are open to all MOS’s. The mission statement of the AITC is as follows: 1. The primary mission of the

  20. Time-series ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction data, Edwards Air Force Base, Antelope Valley, California, January 1991 through September 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, a monitoring program was implemented to collect time-series ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction data at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The data presented in this report were collected from 18 piezometers, 3 extensometers, 1 barometer, and 1 rain gage from January 1991 through September 1993. The piezometers and extensometers are at eight sites in the study area. This report discusses the ground-water-level and aquifer-system compaction monitoring networks, and presents the recorded data in graphs. The data reported are available in the data base of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  1. Analysis of Upper Air, Ground and Remote Sensing Data For the ATLAS Field Campaign in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, J. E.; Luvall, J. C.; Rickman, D.; Comarazamy, D. E.; Picon, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Atlas San Juan Mission was conducted in February 2004 with the main objectives of observing the Urban Heat Island of San Juan, providing high resolution data of the land use for El Yunque Rain Forest and for calibrating remote sensors. The mission was coordinated with NASA staff members at Marshall, Stennis, Goddard, and Glenn. The Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS) from NASA/Stennis, that operates in the visual and IR bands, was used as the main sensor and was flown over Puerto Rico in a Lear 23 jet plane. To support the data gathering effort by the ATLAS sensor, remote sensing observations and upper air soundings were conducted along with the deployment of a number of ground based weather stations and temperature sensors. This presentation focuses in the analysis of this complementary data for the Atlas San Juan Mission. Upper air data show that during the days of the mission the Caribbean mid and high atmospheres were relatively dry and highly stable reflecting positive surface lifted index, a necessary condition to conduct this suborbital campaign. Surface wind patterns at levels below 850mb were dominated by the easterly trades, while the jet stream at the edge of the troposphere dominated the westerly wind at levels above 500mb. The jet stream remained at high latitudes reducing the possibility of fronts. In consequence, only 8.4 mm of precipitation were reported during the entire mission. Observation of soundings located about 150 km apart reflected minimum variations of the boundary layer across the island for levels below 850 meters and a uniform atmosphere for higher levels. The weather stations and the temperature sensors were placed at strategic locations to observe variations across the urban and rural landscapes. Time series plot of the stations' data show that heavily urbanized commercial areas have higher air temperatures than urban and suburban residential areas, and much higher temperatures than rural areas. Temperature

  2. Analysis of Upper Air, Ground and Remote Sensing Data for the ATLAS Field Campaign in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeff; Rickman, Douglas; Comarazamy, Daniel; Picon, Ana J.

    2005-01-01

    The Atlas San Juan Mission was conducted in February 2004 with the main objectives of observing the Urban Heat Island of San Juan, providing high resolution data of the land use for El Yunque Rain Forest and for calibrating remote sensors. The mission was coordinated with NASA staff members at Marsha& Stennis, Goddard, and Glenn. The Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS) from NASA/Stennis, that operates in the visual and IR bands, was used as the main sensor and was flown over Puerto Rico in a Lear 23 jet plane. To support the data gathering effort by the ATLAS sensor, remote sensing observations and upper air soundings were conducted along with the deployment of a number of ground based weather stations and temperature sensors. This presentation focuses in the analysis of this complementary data for the Atlas San Juan Mission. Upper air data show that during the days of the mission the Caribbean mid and high atmospheres were relatively dry and highly stable reflecting positive surface lifted index, a necessary condition to conduct this suborbital campaign. Surface wind patterns at levels below 850mb were dominated by the easterly trades, while the jet stream at the edge of the troposphere dominated the westerly wind at levels above 500mb. The jet stream remained at high latitudes reducing the possibility of fronts. In consequence, only 8.4 mm of precipitation were reported during the entire mission. Observation of soundings located about 150 km apart reflected minimum variations of the boundary layer across the Island for levels below 850 meters and a uniform atmosphere for higher levels. The weather stations and the temperature sensors were placed at strategic locations to observe variations across the urban and rural landscapes. Time series plot of the stations' data show that heavily urbanized commercial areas have higher air temperatures than urban and suburban residential areas, and much higher temperatures than rural areas. Temperature

  3. Estimated effects of ionizing radiation upon military task performance: individual combat crewmember assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Anno, G.H.; Wilson, D.B.

    1984-04-01

    Quantitative estimates are developed of the performance levels for selected individual Army combat crewmembers exposed to prompt ionizing radiation from nuclear weapons. The performance levels, expressed in percent of normal (baseline) task performance, provide information for military operations planning, combat training, and computer simulation modeling of combat crew and unit effectiveness. The methodology is described where data from two separate bodies of information: acute radiation sickness symptomatology, and judgment of task performance time from Army combat crew questionnaires - are integrated to compute performance levels as a function of dose (free-in-air) and post-exposure time.

  4. Soil Moisture Estimation Across Scales with Mobile Sensors for Cosmic-Ray Neutrons from the Ground and Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrön, Martin; Köhler, Mandy; Bannehr, Lutz; Köhli, Markus; Fersch, Benjamin; Rebmann, Corinna; Mai, Juliane; Cuntz, Matthias; Kögler, Simon; Schröter, Ingmar; Wollschläger, Ute; Oswald, Sascha; Dietrich, Peter; Zacharias, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable for environmental sciences, but its determination at various scales and depths is still an open challenge. Cosmic-ray neutron sensing has become a well accepted and unique method to monitor an effective soil water content, covering tens of hectares in area and tens of centimeters in depth. The technology is famous for its low maintanance, non-invasiveness, continous measurement, and most importantly its large footprint and penetration depth. Beeing more representative than point data, and finer resolved plus deeper penetrating than remote-sensing products, cosmic-ray neutron derived soil moisture products provide unrivaled advantage for agriculture, regional hydrologic and land surface models. The method takes advantage of omnipresent neutrons which are extraordinarily sensitive to hydrogen in soil, plants, snow and air. Unwanted hydrogen sources in the footprint can be excluded by local calibration to extract the pure soil water information. However, this procedure is not feasible for mobile measurements, where neutron detectors are mounted on a car to do catchment-scale surveys. As a solution to that problem, we suggest strategies to correct spatial neutron data with the help of available spatial data of soil type, landuse and vegetation. We further present results of mobile rover campaigns at various scales and conditions, covering small sites from 0.2 km2 to catchments of 100 km2 area, and complex terrain from agricultural fields, urban areas, forests, to snowy alpine sites. As the rover is limited to accessible roads, we further investigated the applicability of airborne measurements. First tests with a gyrocopter at 150 to 200m heights proofed the concept of airborne neutron detection for environmental sciences. Moreover, neutron transport simulations confirm an improved areal coverage during these campaigns. Mobile neutron measurements at the ground or air are a promising tool for the detection of water sources across many

  5. Networked sensors for the combat forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klager, Gene

    2004-11-01

    Real-time and detailed information is critical to the success of ground combat forces. Current manned reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) capabilities are not sufficient to cover battlefield intelligence gaps, provide Beyond-Line-of-Sight (BLOS) targeting, and the ambush avoidance information necessary for combat forces operating in hostile situations, complex terrain, and conducting military operations in urban terrain. This paper describes a current US Army program developing advanced networked unmanned/unattended sensor systems to survey these gaps and provide the Commander with real-time, pertinent information. Networked Sensors for the Combat Forces plans to develop and demonstrate a new generation of low cost distributed unmanned sensor systems organic to the RSTA Element. Networked unmanned sensors will provide remote monitoring of gaps, will increase a unit"s area of coverage, and will provide the commander organic assets to complete his Battlefield Situational Awareness (BSA) picture for direct and indirect fire weapons, early warning, and threat avoidance. Current efforts include developing sensor packages for unmanned ground vehicles, small unmanned aerial vehicles, and unattended ground sensors using advanced sensor technologies. These sensors will be integrated with robust networked communications and Battle Command tools for mission planning, intelligence "reachback", and sensor data management. The network architecture design is based on a model that identifies a three-part modular design: 1) standardized sensor message protocols, 2) Sensor Data Management, and 3) Service Oriented Architecture. This simple model provides maximum flexibility for data exchange, information management and distribution. Products include: Sensor suites optimized for unmanned platforms, stationary and mobile versions of the Sensor Data Management Center, Battle Command planning tools, networked communications, and sensor management software. Details

  6. Report on sampling and analysis of air at trenches 218-W-4C and218-W-5 {number_sign}31 of the low level burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M.

    1997-10-06

    This report presents analytical results of air samples collected from trenches at the Low Level Burial Grounds. The samples were collected with SUMMA canisters and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a modified EPA TO-14 procedure. The data suggest that the vent pipes of the 218-W-4C trenches had elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds. The ambient air samples collected at the 218-W-5 {number_sign}31 facility, an open trench that does not contain any waste at this time, did not show any target compounds above the method detection limit.

  7. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  8. Women in Active Combat Roles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    good hygiene .”6 Counter-Argument An argument may be presented that women must deal with their menstrual cycle while training. By the very nature...handle combat due to perceived physical fitness shortcomings or extra hygiene necessities 4 can be solved. Additionally they prove that any cohesion...be in combat MOSs. Hygiene Considerations Another area that is a consideration for allowing women to participate in an active combat role is

  9. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  10. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow and Optimization of Withdrawals from Aquifers at the Naval Air Station Patuxent River, St. Mary's County, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Fleck, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Potentiometric surfaces in the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, and Upper Patapsco aquifers have declined from 1950 through 2000 throughout southern Maryland. In the vicinity of Lexington Park, Maryland, the potentiometric surface in the Aquia aquifer in 2000 was as much as 170 feet below sea level, approximately 150 feet lower than estimated pre-pumping levels before 1940. At the present rate, the water levels will have declined to the regulatory allowable maximum of 80 percent of available drawdown in the Aquia aquifer by about 2050. The effect of the withdrawals from these aquifers by the Naval Air Station Patuxent River and surrounding users on the declining potentiometric surface has raised concern for future availability of ground water. Growth at Naval Air Station Patuxent River may increase withdrawals, resulting in further drawdown. A ground-water-flow model, combined with optimization modeling, was used to develop withdrawal scenarios that minimize the effects (drawdown) of hypothetical future withdrawals. A three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system in the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, and Upper Patapsco aquifers beneath the Naval Air Station Patuxent River. Transient and steady-state conditions were simulated to give water-resource managers additional tools to manage the ground-water resources. The transient simulation, representing 1900 through 2002, showed that the magnitude of withdrawal has increased over that time, causing ground-water flow to change direction in some areas. The steady-state simulation was linked to an optimization model to determine optimal solutions to hypothetical water-management scenarios. Two optimization scenarios were evaluated. The first scenario was designed to determine the optimal pumping rates for wells screened in the Aquia aquifer within three supply groups to meet a 25-percent increase in withdrawal demands, while minimizing the drawdown at a control

  11. Army Ground Vehicle Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-25

    IV (> 75 bhp ) compliant COTS engines and directly integrate into current and new heavy-duty vehicles. • Combat vehicle: permanent armor...propulsion system volume [ bhp /ft3] — Air filtration requirements, thermal management system, transmission, engine, ducting requirements, final drives...transmission 40 ft3;  engine 31 ft3;  air filtration 31 ft3 o Bradley FIV: Cummins VTA903 has SHRR of 0.6 BHP / BHP vs. today’s COTS > 0.85

  12. Space to ground talking through small different areas in the top part of the air where the space-house flies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, T.

    2015-12-01

    If you look between the middle and the top of the ball of rock on which we all live, the very excited part of the top air (as high as where the space-house flies) doesn't change much on a normal day. In fact, it is very much the same in every direction. However, sometimes when there is sudden, heavy wind from the sun, the excited top air can be different and changing, becoming more or less filled up, in many directions---especially if you look at toward the top and the right of the ball of rock on which we all live. Some of the excited top air becomes suddenly filled up in one big area. Near there, there are also parts of the the excited top air that start changing in many very small places. These small changing areas sometimes make it hard to talk between space and the ground. We studied this happening on days on and around day 17 of third month of 2015 when the wind from the sun hit the ball of rock on which we all live very hard. We used things that talk from space to the ground in an area around school up to several hundred 5280 feet away. We made pictures of the changing excited top air, especially the small changing places, and looked for when they did and didn't make for good talking from space to the ground. We studied these pictures to learn when and why this sometimes happens and sometimes it doesn't. We are excited to share what we learned with you.

  13. Comparison results of MOPITT, AIRS and IASI data with ground-based spectroscopic measurements of CO and CH4 total contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakitin, Vadim; Elansky, Nikolai; Shtabkin, Yury; Skorokhod, Andrey; Grechko, Eugeny; Pankratova, Natalia; Safronov, Alexandr

    2016-04-01

    A comparative analysis of satellite and ground-based spectroscopic measurements of CO and CH4 total content (CO TC) in the atmosphere in the background and polluted conditions (stations of OIAP RAS and NDACC) for the 2010-2015 time-period. The significant correlation between satellite and ground-based CO TC data for all satellite sensors in background conditions was obtained. Also the empirical private transient relationships between satellite CO MOPITT v6 Joint, AIRS v6, IASI MeTop-A products and the data of solar-tracking ground-based spectrometers are analyzed. Significant correlation between satellite and ground-based data of CO TC was obtained for all satellite sensors if measurements were carried out over unpolluted areas (2010-2014). It was shown that for polluted areas IASI MetOp-A and AIRSv6 data underestimate the actual value of CO TC by the factor of 1.5÷ 2.8. The average correlation between satellite and ground-based data increased significantly for the case if the measurement days, when the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) was less than 400-500 meters, were excluded from the comparison. This result was obtained for all of the selected sensors and observational sites. To improve the representativeness of the satellite CO TC data for polluted areas it could be recommended to exclude the days with low height of the PBL from the analysis of spatio-temporal variations and subsequent data assimilation (as example for the CO emissions estimating from powerful surface sources). Best correlation (R2≥0.5) in diurnal CH4 TC with ground-based data was found for AIRS v6. This work has supported by the Russian Scientific Foundation under grant №14-47-00049 and partially by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant № 13-05-41395).

  14. Air and Ground Gunnery: Test Areas A-73, A-77, A-78, A-79, B-7, and B-75, Range Environmental Assessment, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    or to safety that are attributable to products or substances that the child is likely to come in contact with or ingest (such as the air we breathe...onnwnL.B,.111 ~ -.ru, _it;:J ~•N i!J K<>s,...-., . <’ . . ,.. §SJ • ,..- ) . .. / . ~, /, -:; ..: • Air 11lld. C£Otind CUll:nO)’ Itt EgJln Air Porn

  15. 32 CFR 813.6 - Planning and requesting combat documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Planning and requesting combat documentation. 813.6 Section 813.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.6 Planning and requesting...

  16. Improved Dynamic Models for Air Combat Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    aircraft longitudinal axis ( T). a can be replaced as control variable by n (or CL) according to the following -rule: Below "corner velocity" defined as...Assuming that thrust is nearly aligned with aircraft longitudinal axis (aT P 0) and that angles of attack are not excessive (implying cos c s 1, and Tmax sin

  17. Neural Network Models of Air Combat Maneuvering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    great dcl of research has been conducted on the perceptual- motor skills of fighter plane pilots, the cognitive and decision-making skills have received...relatively little attention. A better understanding of cognitive skills can make important contributions to pilot training and to various aspects of...performance assessment. In previous work, we have collected data and developed models relating to pilots’ cognitive structures and to the selection of

  18. The Air Campaign: Planning for Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    was required. He was only able to move at night. He noted that the com- mander who could only move during darkness was like a chess player allowed...the com- poser decides how best to reach that objective. Should it be a piano concerto, a violin concerto, or a flute con- certo? Only one will get...him to the objective he has chosen; clearly, a piano cannot say what a violin can say, and vice versa. That he has chosen an instrument to be his kev

  19. A Concept for Directing Combat Air Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    within its inventory to meet this new requirement. However, by borrowing from the U.S. Army, a force of O-1 aircraft was assembled at Bien Hoa in July...1967, when an off-the-shelf commercial aircraft, the O-2, began service. Five years after the activation of the Bien Hoa O-1 squadron, and roughly a

  20. U.S. Air Force Combat Psychiatry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    mission. The excellent flight surgeon does not overidentify with the squadron, does not fear their rejection (a healthy personal sense of self - esteem ...cowardly, and therefore suppress or repress their own, out of guilt or the hurt to self - esteem . These superego tensions must be relieved by...knowledgable practitioner. Ideally, the squadron could undergo the process together, giving all a chance to achieve closure on matters of self - esteem

  1. Air Combat Training: Good Stick Index Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    the discriminant model aspotential predictor candidates. Included in the daca set were the fbur para- meters, in the original and improved 4GSI score...obj’ective predictok scoreý. This result reinforces the predictor model as, a measure of’ pilot ACM~skill. The statistically validated GSI was used in the...VARIABLES. . . 41 TABLE 6 A COMPARISON OF FRIDAY GSI RANK PREDICTIONS WITH INSTRUCTOR PILOT ( CIPP ) AND RANDOM SELECTION . . . . . . 43 TABLE 7

  2. Propagation of sound through the Earth's atmosphere. 1: Measurement of sound absorption in the air. 2: Measurement of ground impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becher, J.; Meredith, R. W.; Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The fabrication of parts for the acoustic ground impedance meter was completed, and the instrument tested. Acoustic ground impedance meter, automatic data processing system, cooling system for the resonant tube, and final results of sound absorption in N2-H2O gas mixtures at elevated temperatures are described.

  3. Combat Power Analysis is Combat Power Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Hostage Rescue, 1980; Beirut Peacekeeping Force, 1982; Grenada , 1983; and the Bekaa Valley Air Raid, 1984. While not exhaustive, this list...assumptions in the methodology.100 Despite the problems, the methodology reemerged during the Reagan Administration. The Administration assumed that ten...Soviet Union.101 Despite the seeming success of the Reagan Administration’s approach, the U.S. Army definitively discounts this methodology in the 2006

  4. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 2, Work plan: Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  5. Basement utility room (room 24; air handling room), near the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement utility room (room 24; air handling room), near the west end of the combat operations center, looking southwest towards fan system one, air ducts, and walk-in filter rooms. The exterior equipment well is visible at the left - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  6. Integrating Agile Combat Support within Title 10 Wargames

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    incorporate logistics into Air Force Title 10 wargames. More specifically, we capture Air Force Materiel Command’s (AFMC) Agile Combat Support (ACS...within an unclassified general wargame scenario. Logistics has been omitted from wargames for a multitude of reasons throughout the years. We...develop a logistics simulation model of a simplified wargame scenario designed to be run within the Logistics Composite Model (LCOM) Analysis Toolkit

  7. Coupling Between Air and Ground Temperatures in PMIP3/CMIP5 Last Millennium Simulations and the Implications for Climate Reconstructions from Borehole Temperature Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, H.; García-García, A.; Cuesta-Valero, F. J.; Smerdon, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    The continental energy storage for the second half of the 20th20^{th} century has been estimated from geothermal data to be about 7±1×1021J7 ± 1 × 10^{21} J under the assumption that there exists a long-term coupling between the lower atmosphere and the continental subsurface. For General Circulation Models (GCMs) to simulate the continental energy storage of the Earth's energy budget, however, it is crucial that they correctly capture the processes that partition energy across the land-atmosphere boundary. We evaluate herein the characteristics of these processes as simulated by models in the third phase of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project and the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP33/CMIP55). We examine the seasonal differences between air and ground temperatures within PMIP3 last-millennium simulations concatenated with historical simulations from the CMIP5 archive. We find a strong air-ground coupling during the summer from 850850 to 20002000 CE. During the winter, the insulating effect of snow and latent heat exchanges produce a decoupling between air and ground temperatures in the northern high latitudes. These seasonal differences decrease with depth, supporting the central assumption of climate reconstructions from borehole temperature profiles. Additionally, we use the simulated temperature trends as an upper boundary condition to force a one-dimensional conductive model to derive synthetic temperature-depth profiles for each PMIP3/CMIP5 simulation. The inversions of these subsurface profiles yield temperature trends that retain the surface temperature variations of the last millennium for all the PMIP3/CMIP5 simulations. These results support the use of underground temperatures to reconstruct past changes in ground surface temperature and to estimate the continental energy storage. Results also provide guidance for improving the land-surface components of GCMs.

  8. Ground-water-level monitoring, basin boundaries, and potentiometric surfaces of the aquifer system at Edwards Air Force Base, California, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rewis, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    A ground-water-level monitoring program was implemented at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from January through December 1992 to monitor spatial and temporal changes in poten-tiometric surfaces that largely are affected by ground-water pumping. Potentiometric-surface maps are needed to determine the correlation between declining ground- water levels and the distribution of land subsidence. The monitoring program focused on areas of the base where pumping has occurred, especially near Rogers Lake, and involved three phases of data collection: (1) well canvassing and selection, (2) geodetic surveys, and (3) monthly ground-water-level measurements. Construction and historical water- level data were compiled for 118 wells and pi-ezometers on or near the base, and monthly ground-water-level measurements were made in 82 wells and piezometers on the base. The compiled water-level data were used in conjunction with previously collected geologic data to identify three types of no-flow boundaries in the aquifer system: structural boundaries, a principal-aquifer boundary, and ground-water divides. Heads were computed from ground-water-level measurements and land-surface altitudes and then were used to map seasonal potentiometric surfaces for the principal and deep aquifers underlying the base. Pumping has created a regional depression in the potentiometric surface of the deep aquifer in the South Track, South Base, and Branch Park well-field area. A 15-foot decline in the potentiometric surface from April to September 1992 and 20- to 30-foot drawdowns in the three production wells in the South Track well field caused locally unconfined conditions in the deep aquifer.

  9. Installation restoration program: UST removal report. 117th Refueling Wing, Alabama Air National Guard, Birmingham Airport, Birmingham, Alabama and 226th Combat Information Systems Group, Martin Air National Guard Station, Gadsden Airport, Gadsden, Alabama. Volume II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Installation Restoration Program was initiated by the Air National Guard (ANG) to evaluate potential contamination to the environment caused by past practices at its installations. During the 1987 Preliminary Assessment (PA), ten abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs) were identified at nine sites. During the 1991 Site Investigation, surveys found four USTs at four sites and none at the other sites. The UST at Gadsden was removed in November 1989. Three USTs were removed at Birmingham in January 1991. Remaining soil was below Alabama Department of Environmental Management`s (ADEM) corrective action limit of 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) for the Gadsden UST and UST 380 at Birmingham. For USTs 120 and 130 at Birmingham, remaining soil was above ADEM`s corrective action limit, but believed to be limited to soils immediately adjacent to the tank pits. The report recommends no further action be taken at any of the UST sites.

  10. Installation restoration program: UST removal report. 117th Refueling Wing, Alabama Air National Guard, Birmingham Airport, Birmingham, Alabama and 226th Combat Information Systems Group, Martin Air National Guard Station, Gadsden Airport, Gadsden, Alabama. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Installation Restoration Program was initiated by the Air National Guard (ANG) to evaluate potential contamination to the environment caused by past practices at its installations. During the 1987 Preliminary Assessment (PA), ten abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs) were identified at nine sites. During the 1991 Site Investigation, surveys found four USTs at four sites and none at the other sites. The UST at Gadsden was removed in November 1989. Three USTs were removed at Birmingham in January 1991. Remaining soil was below Alabama Department of Environmental Management`s (ADEM) corrective action limit of 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) for the Gadsden UST and UST 380 at Birmingham. For USTs 120 and 130 at Birmingham, remaining soil was above ADEM`s corrective action limit, but believed to be limited to soils immediately adjacent to the tank pits. The report recommends no further action be taken at any of the UST sites.

  11. FELIN: tailored optronics and systems solutions for dismounted combat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milcent, A. M.

    2009-05-01

    The FELIN French modernization program for dismounted combat provides the Armies with info-centric systems which dramatically enhance the performances of the soldier and the platoon. Sagem now has available a portfolio of various equipments, providing C4I, data and voice digital communication, and enhanced vision for day and night operations, through compact high performance electro-optics. The FELIN system provides the infantryman with a high-tech integrated and modular system which increases significantly their detection, recognition, identification capabilities, their situation awareness and information sharing, and this in any dismounted close combat situation. Among the key technologies used in this system, infrared and intensified vision provide a significant improvement in capability, observation performance and protection of the ground soldiers. This paper presents in detail the developed equipments, with an emphasis on lessons learned from the technical and operational feedback from dismounted close combat field tests.

  12. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Appendix A, Draft standard operating procedures and elements: Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation, Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  13. Study on the influence of ground and satellite observations on the numerical air-quality for PM10 over Romanian territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrache, Rodica Claudia; Iriza, Amalia; Maco, Bogdan Alexandru; Barbu, Cosmin Danut; Hirtl, Marcus; Mantovani, Simone; Nicola, Oana; Irimescu, Anisoara; Craciunescu, Vasile; Ristea, Alina; Diamandi, Andrei

    2016-10-01

    The numerical forecast of particulate matter concentrations in general, and PM10 in particular is a theme of high socio-economic relevance. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of ground and satellite data assimilation of PM10 observations into the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-CHEM) numerical air quality model for Romanian territory. This is the first initiative of the kind for this domain of interest. Assimilation of satellite information - e.g. AOT's in air quality models is of interest due to the vast spatial coverage of the observations. Support Vector Regression (SVR) techniques are used to estimate the PM content from heterogeneous data sources, including EO products (Aerosol Optical Thickness), ground measurements and numerical model data (temperature, humidity, wind, etc.). In this study we describe the modeling framework employed and present the evaluation of the impact from the data assimilation of PM10 observations on the forecast of the WRF-CHEM model. Integrations of the WRF-CHEM model in data assimilation enabled/disabled configurations allowed the evaluation of satellite and ground data assimilation impact on the PM10 forecast performance for the Romanian territory. The model integration and evaluation were performed for two months, one in winter conditions (January 2013) and one in summer conditions (June 2013).

  14. Results of soil, ground-water, surface-water, and streambed-sediment sampling at Air Force Plane 85, Columbus, Ohio, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parnell, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, prepared the Surface- and Ground- Water Monitoring Work Plan for Air Force Plant 85 (AFP 85 or Plant), Columbus, Ohio, under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program to characterize any ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination that may exist at AFP 85. The USGS began the study in November 1996. The Plant was divided into nine sampling areas, which included some previously investi gated study sites. The investigation activities included the collection and presentation of data taken during drilling and water-quality sampling. Data collection focused on the saturated and unsatur ated zones and surface water. Twenty-three soil borings were completed. Ten monitoring wells (six existing wells and four newly constructed monitoring wells) were selected for water-quality sam pling. Surface-water and streambed-sediment sampling locations were chosen to monitor flow onto and off of the Plant. Seven sites were sampled for both surface-water and streambed-sediment quality. This report presents data on the selected inorganic and organic constituents in soil, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments at AFP 85. The methods of data collection and anal ysis also are included. Knowledge of the geologic and hydrologic setting could aid Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, and its governing regulatory agencies in future remediation studies.

  15. Ground-Water Hydrology and Water Quality of the Southern High Plains Aquifer, Cannon Air Force Base, Curry County, New Mexico, 1994-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Falk, Sarah E.; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.; Blanchard, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Geological Survey has collected hydrologic data about the Southern High Plains aquifer at Cannon Air Force Base in east-central New Mexico since 1994. Under the guidance of the State of New Mexico, ground-water quality of the aquifer has been analyzed as part of annual monitoring at regulated sites at the base. This report provides a summary and interpretation of all available hydrologic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey for Cannon Air Force Base environmental managers for the regulated sites of Landfill 5 and the Sewage Lagoons between 1994 and 2005. Cannon Air Force Base is in the Southern High Plains physiographic region, and saturated deposits of the Ogallala Formation underlying the base are within the western boundary of the Southern High Plains aquifer. The general direction of ground-water flow in the Southern High Plains aquifer at Cannon Air Force Base is from northwest to southeast. In 1962, ground water predominantly flowed northwest to southeast with minimal change in direction. Ground-water altitudes declined from 1962 to 1997, and a pronounced water-level recession (area of receding water level) developed northwest of the base, altering flow direction in this area. The recession northwest of the base and the subsequent change in direction of ground-water flow are indicative of local ground-water withdrawals upgradient from Cannon Air Force Base. Historical water levels in wells within a 3-mile radius of Cannon Air Force Base declined in 52 of 56 wells for various periods of record between 1962 and 2004. Forty-three of the wells indicated strong linear decreases with time, and the largest decline was 91.80 feet, an average annual decline of about 2.13 feet per year. Water levels in monitoring wells at Cannon Air Force Base reflected the regional decline; water levels declined for all wells with periods of record greater than 1 year, and the decreases were strongly linear. From 1994 to 2005

  16. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING AT GROUND ZERO AND LOWER MANHATTAN FOLLOWING THE COLLAPSE OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) collaborated with EPA's Regional offices to establish a monitoring network to characterize ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and air toxics in lower Manhattan following the collapse of the World Trade...

  17. Ground moving target indication via multi-channel airborne SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Duc; Guo, Bin; Xu, Luzhou; Li, Jian

    2011-06-01

    We consider moving target detection and velocity estimation for multi-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) based ground moving target indication (GMTI). Via forming velocity versus cross-range images, we show that small moving targets can be detected even in the presence of strong stationary ground clutter. Furthermore, the velocities of the moving targets can be estimated, and the misplaced moving targets can be placed back to their original locations based on the estimated velocities. An iterative adaptive approach (IAA), which is robust and user parameter free, is used to form velocity versus cross-range images for each range bin of interest. Moreover, we discuss calibration techniques to combat near-field coupling problems encountered in practical systems. Furthermore, we present a sparse signal recovery approach for stationary clutter cancellation. We conclude by demonstrating the effectiveness of our approaches by using the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) publicly-released Gotcha airborne SAR based GMTI data set.

  18. Environmental Assessment: Installation of Thermally Stable Jet Fuel (JPTS) Above Ground Storage System Westover Air Reserve Base, Chicopee, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-30

    project design and construction in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute and the National Fire Protection Association Standards...operations in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute , National Fire Protection Agency, Air Force Fuels handling standards and compliance with

  19. INTEGRATION OF SATELLITE, MODELED, AND GROUND BASED AEROSOL DATA FOR USE IN AIR QUALITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case studies of severe pollution events due to forest fires/dust storms/industrial haze, from the integrated 2001 aerosol dataset, will be presented within the context of air quality and human health.

  20. Chemical-Stockpile Disposal Program. Evaluation of multiple-incinerator air-quality impacts, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Final report, November 1986-May 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term additive ambient impact of certain toxic air pollutants that will potentially be emitted from the Chemical Agent Incinerator (AI) proposed for the Edgewood Area (EA) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland and from three additional planned or existing incinerators also located on the EA. This impact was determined in consideration of the existence and operation of three additional planned or existing incinerators also located on EA. Based on air-dispersion modeling conducted as part of an original analysis, emissions were estimated of chlorinated organics from the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center Decontamination/Detoxification Municipal Waste Incinerator (MWI), for downwind distances as great as the distance to the nearest boundary of the EA. Consequently, for this evaluation, only the MWI is considered to emit chlorinated organics.

  1. Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electromechanical Equipment Used in Air Force Ground C3I (Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence) Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    refrigerant line leak developed. Refrigerant could also be a long lead item at remote locations. 4.1.2.4 Legionnaires ’ Disease Air conditioning...menu listing the input options with appropriate prompts to the operator, would giide him through the process much as the automated teller machine does...ventillation systems have been identified by the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta as participating in the cause of this affliction. The Air Force should

  2. Ground-water quality, water year 1995, and statistical analysis of ground-water-quality data, water years 1994-95, at the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Roybal, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    The Chromic Acid Pit site is an inactive waste disposal site that is regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The 2.2-cubic-yard cement-lined pit was operated from 1980 to 1983 by a contractor to the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss. The pit, located on the Fort Bliss military reservation in El Paso, Texas, was used for disposal and evaporation of chromic acid waste generated from chrome plating operations. The site was closed in 1989, and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission issued permit number HW-50296 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency number TX4213720101), which approved and implemented post-closure care for the Chromic Acid Pit site. In accordance with an approved post-closure plan, the U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Army in monitoring and evaluating ground-water quality at the site. One upgradient ground-water monitoring well (MW1) and two downgradient ground-water monitoring wells (MW2 and MW3), installed adjacent to the chromic acid pit, are monitored on a quarterly basis. Ground-water sampling of these wells by the U.S. Geological Survey began in December 1993. The ground-water level, measured in a production well located approximately 1,700 feet southeast of the Chromic Acid Pit site, has declined about 29.43 feet from 1982 to 1995. Depth to water at the Chromic Acid Pit site in September 1995 was 284.2 to 286.5 feet below land surface; ground-water flow at the water table is assumed to be toward the southeast. Ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells at the Chromic Acid Pit site during water year 1995 contained dissolved- solids concentrations of 481 to 516 milligrams per liter. Total chromium concentrations detected above the laboratory reporting limit ranged from 0.0061 to 0.030 milligram per liter; dissolved chromium concentrations ranged from 0.0040 to 0.010 milligram per liter. Nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 2.8 milligrams per

  3. Development of a 12-Thrust Chamber Kerosene /Oxygen Primary Rocket Sub-System for an Early (1964) Air-Augmented Rocket Ground-Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, D.; Hyde, E. H.; Escher, W. J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Airbreathing/Rocket combined-cycle, and specifically rocket-based combined- cycle (RBCC), propulsion systems, typically employ an internal engine flow-path installed primary rocket subsystem. To achieve acceptably short mixing lengths in effecting the "air augmentation" process, a large rocket-exhaust/air interfacial mixing surface is needed. This leads, in some engine design concepts, to a "cluster" of small rocket units, suitably arrayed in the flowpath. To support an early (1964) subscale ground-test of a specific RBCC concept, such a 12-rocket cluster was developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The small primary rockets used in the cluster assembly were modified versions of an existing small kerosene/oxygen water-cooled rocket engine unit routinely tested at MSFC. Following individual thrust-chamber tests and overall subsystem qualification testing, the cluster assembly was installed at the U. S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) for RBCC systems testing. (The results of the special air-augmented rocket testing are not covered here.) While this project was eventually successfully completed, a number of hardware integration problems were met, leading to catastrophic thrust chamber failures. The principal "lessons learned" in conducting this early primary rocket subsystem experimental effort are documented here as a basic knowledge-base contribution for the benefit of today's RBCC research and development community.

  4. An exploratory study to determine the integrated technological air transportation system ground requirements of liquid-hydrogen-fueled subsonic, long-haul civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A baseline air terminal concept was developed which permitted airlines and the airport to operate JP- or LH2-fueled aircraft at common terminal gates. The concept included installation of a hydrogen liquefaction and storage facility on airport property, as well as the fuel distribution system. The capital investment and hydrogen-related operating costs to the airlines were estimated.

  5. Comparison of field soil vapor results with laboratory ground water and soil results at a former air force rocket engine test cell, Chanute Air Force Base, IL

    SciTech Connect

    Thies, G.J. ); Bailey, W.M.; Madaj, A.J. III

    1993-10-01

    A soil vapor survey utilizing 276 survey points was performed at the site to help determine the areal extent of soil and ground-water contamination. Survey results indicated a VOC anomaly approximately four acres in size present at the eastern end of the site. Historical information supported the soil vapor results in that the eastern portion of the site was the most active during engine testing activities. The most common and abundant VOC identified was TCE. The highest TCE concentration detected was 12.8 ppm. Forty subsurface soil samples were collected from the anomaly area. The most common VOC detected was again TCE at a maximum concentration of 84 [mu]g/kg. Fourteen temporary monitoring wells and 13 permanent wells were installed and sampled to determine the horizontal and vertical extent of contamination. One well was installed in the source area to determine the maximum contaminant concentrations. TCE was again the most common VOC detected with a maximum concentration of 4000 [mu]g/1. Isoconcentration maps for VOCs in the three media (soil vapor, ground water, and soil) all overlay very closely indicating a distinct anomaly at the eastern end of the site. Field soil vapor results are supported by laboratory analytical results for soil and ground water in terms of compounds detected and location of anomaly.

  6. Simulation of ground-water flow and potential contaminant transport at Area 6 Landfill, Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Island County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simonds, F. William

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite-difference steady-state ground-water flow model was developed to simulate hydraulic conditions at the Area 6 Landfill, Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, near Oak Harbor, Washington. Remediation efforts were started in 1995 in an attempt to contain trichloroethene and other contaminants in the ground water. The model was developed as a tool to test the effectiveness of the pump-and-treat remediation efforts as well as alternative remediation strategies. The model utilized stratigraphic data from approximately 76 Navy and 19 private wells to define the geometry of the shallow, intermediate, and deep aquifers and the intervening confining layers. Initial aquifer parameters and recharge estimates from aquifer tests and published remedial investigation reports were used in the model and then adjusted until simulated water levels closely matched observed water-level data collected prior to the onset of remediation in 1995. The calibrated model was then modified to depict the remedial pump-and-treat system, in which contaminated ground water is extracted, treated, and returned to the ground surface for infiltration. The water levels simulated by the modified model were compared with observed water levels for the 1998 calendar year, during which time the pump-and-treat system was in nearly continuous operation and the ground-water system had equilibrated to steady-state conditions. Although artificial boundaries were used in the model, the choice of model boundary conditions was simulation in the area of primary concern surrounding the western contaminant plume and extraction wells. Particle tracking results indicate that the model can effectively simulate the advective transport of contaminants from the source area to the pumping wells and thus be used to test alternative remedial pumping strategies.

  7. Simulation of ground-water flow and application to the design of a contaminant removal system, Loring Air Force Base, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starn, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    The fractured-bedrock aquifer underlying the former Fire Training Area at Loring Air Force Base, Maine, has been contaminated with petroleum products as a result of fire training activities. A numerical model of the ground-water-flow system near the Fire Training Area was developed to provide information for the design and operation of a contaminant removal system. The goals of the simulation modeling were to (1) determine the maximum pumping rate that could be sustained, giventhe constraint that water levels not rise above a specified altitude, and (2) determine the effect of seasonal variation in recharge on the ability of a transient pumping scenario to capture contaminants. A steady-state simulation model of ground-water flow was used to determine the optimal pumping rate at the site. The optimal pumping rate was 8,570 ft3/d (44 gal/min). Monthly recharge rates wereestimated for use in a transient simulation model. During a typical year, most recharge probably occurs during two periods-one during snowmelt in early spring and another, possibly less significant period, during the late fall. The transient response of the water table to 8.5 inches of recharge in April, 2 inches of recharge in October, and 0.25 inches of recharge per month for each remaining month wassimulated. Fluctuations in ground-water levels caused by simulated seasonal variation of recharge would have minimal effect on the operation of thecontaminant removal system because the system is not pumped when recharge is lowest, ground-water velocities are lowest, and ground-water flow past the trench is minimal.

  8. Potential Impact of Rainfall on the Air-Surface Exchange of Total Gaseous Mercury from Two Common Urban Ground Surfaces

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of rainfall on total gaseous mercury (TGM) flux from pavement and street dirt surfaces was investigated in an effort to determine the influence of wet weather events on mercury transport in urban watersheds. Street dirt and pavement are common urban ground surfaces tha...

  9. Demonstration-site development and phytoremediation processes associated with trichloroethene (TCE) in ground water, Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Braun, Christopher L.

    2004-01-01

    A field-scale phytoremediation demonstration study was initiated in 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, at a site on Naval Air StationJoint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS–JRB) adjacent to Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) in Fort Worth, Tex. (fig. 1). Trichloroethene (TCE) has been used at AFP4 in aircraft manufacturing processes for decades; spills and leaks from tanks in the manufacturing building have resulted in shallow ground-water contamination on-site and downgradient from the facility (Eberts and others, 2003). The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of eastern cottonwoods (Populus deltoides) in decreasing the mass of dissolved TCE in ground water through phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is a process by which plants decrease the mass of a contaminant through a variety of chemical, physical, and biological means. Before development of the phytoremediation demonstration site, natural attenuation of TCE at the site occurred by sorption, dispersion, dilution, and possibly volatilization (Eberts and others, 2003).Long-term, field-scale monitoring and evaluation of this site contribute to the understanding of the processes associated with phytoremediation and provide practical information about field-scale applications of the method. This fact sheet briefly summarizes the development of the phytoremediation demonstration site at NAS–JRB and describes some of the physical and chemical processes associated with phytoremediation. The phytoremediation demonstration site is on the southern edge of the central lobe of a TCE plume in the surficial (alluvial) aquifer. The plume originates at AFP4 about 0.9 mile upgradient from the site (fig. 1). The 9.5-acre site is in the northwestern corner of the golf course on NAS–JRB. The saturated thickness of the alluvial aquifer, which is composed of clay, silt, sand, and gravel, ranges from about 1.5 to 5 feet at the site. The total thickness of the alluvial

  10. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Sampling and analysis plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  11. Extensive air shower Monte Carlo modeling at the ground and aircraft flight altitude in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly and comparison with neutron measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazianotto, M. T.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Federico, C. A.; Hubert, G.; Gonçalez, O. L.; Quesada, J. M.; Carlson, B. V.

    2017-02-01

    Modeling cosmic-ray-induced particle fluxes in the atmosphere is very important for developing many applications in aeronautics, space weather and on ground experimental arrangements. There is a lack of measurements and modeling at flight altitude and on ground in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. In this work we have developed an application based on the Geant4 toolkit called gPartAt that is aimed at the analysis of extensive air shower particle spectra. Another application has been developed using the MCNPX code with the same approach in order to evaluate the models and nuclear data libraries used in each application. Moreover, measurements were performed to determine the ambient dose equivalent rate of neutrons at flight altitude in different regions and dates in the Brazilian airspace; these results were also compared with the simulations. The results from simulations of the neutron spectra at ground level were also compared to data from a neutron spectrometer in operation since February 2015 at the Pico dos Dias Observatory in Brazil, at 1864 m above sea level, as part of a collaboration between the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) and the French Aerospace Lab (ONERA). This measuring station is being operated with support from the National Astrophysics Laboratory (LNA). The modeling approaches were also compared to the AtmoRad computational platform, QARM, EXPACS codes and with measurements of the neutron spectrum taken in 2009 at the Pico dos Dias Observatory.

  12. MODTRAN5 analysis of clear-sky, co-located space- and ground-based infrared atmospheric measurements: AERI, AIRS, CERES, MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Paul E.; Anderson, Gail P.; Shen, Sylvia S.; Chetwynd, James; Roman, Miguel, III; Schaaf, Crystal; Turner, David D.; Rutan, David A.; Berk, Alexander; Miller, David P.; Kroutil, Robert

    2009-05-01

    A set of 26 clear-sky, co-located, infrared data from NASA's space-based, downward looking Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)1 and its Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)2 have been paired with the DOE's Southern Great Plains (SGP)3 ground-based, upward looking Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI)4. These data sets have then been simulated using the MODTRAN®55 (MOD5) radiative transfer code with standard auxiliary 'truth' data as input. Of particular interest is the impact, if any, of the large Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) of AIRS and CERES (minimum radii of approximately 13 and 26 km, respectively) vs. the soda-straw up-looking mode of AERI. The smaller Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)6 GSD (<1 km) provides estimated distributions of land-type and albedo within the larger footprints. The SGP's coincident vertical profile sondes and Aeronet7 retrievals, along with other satellite data [Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)8] constrain the surface type, column ozone and aerosol optical depth that existed during the measurement events. Initial MOD5 calculations, using these ancillary data as input, have replicated the AERI and AIRS measurements to within an average difference of ~1% over their entire spectral range. Using MODIS visible albedo9 retrievals to extend the albedo into the long wave (LW) only slightly improved the statistical comparison between the CERES and MOD5 broadband LW radiances agreement, from 3% to ~1.5%, while increasing the variance. While these results are not sufficient for specific instrument inversion algorithms, they suggest some confidence in the generic use of MODTRAN®5 to help integrate and spectrally extend assorted data sets for sensitivity studies of Climate Change, where the estimated required sensitivity is <1%.

  13. Integrated Mission Precision Attack Cockpit Technology (IMPACT). Phase 1: Identifying Technologies for Air-to-Ground Fighter Integration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-31

    also used as a "first cut" assessment of thebe oud n hediscussion section. Emphasis technologies. The next set of ratings be found in the presented (see...and control aircraft orbiting a display, giving Jack a real time, accurate,secure update of the enemy ground order of 49 battle . What a quantum leap...CAS aircraft were multiple friendly and enemy forces are intermixed (tanks on battle field), but for long distant deliveries of advanced weapons from

  14. Environmental Assessment for Construction of the Distributed Common Ground Station (DCGS) at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    their ability to store and filter stormwater, provide habitat, and naturally control shoreline and stream bank erosion . These areas are usually...Appropriate erosion and siltation controls would be implemented prior to any land disturbance and maintained in effective operating condition...construction site prior to any ground-disturbing activities. • Erosion control measures would be inspected on a weekly basis and after rain events; controls

  15. Operational Use of the AIRS Total Column Ozone Retrievals Along with the RGB Air Mass Product as Part of the GOES-R Proving Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folmer, Michael; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (HPC) and Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) provide short-term and medium-range forecast guidance of heavy precipitation, strong winds, and other features often associated with mid-latitude cyclones over both land and ocean. As a result, detection of factors that lead to rapid cyclogenesis and high wind events is key to improving forecast skill. One phenomenon that has been identified with these events is the stratospheric intrusion that occurs near tropopause folds. This allows for deep mixing near the top of the atmosphere where dry air high in ozone concentrations and potential vorticity descends (sometimes rapidly) deep into the mid-troposphere. Observations from satellites can aid in detection of these stratospheric air intrusions (SAI) regions. Specifically, multispectral composite imagery assign a variety of satellite spectral bands to the red, green, and blue (RGB) color components of imagery pixels and result in color combinations that can assist in the detection of dry stratospheric air associated with PV advection, which in turn may alert forecasters to the possibility of a rapidly strengthening storm system. Single channel or RGB satellite imagery lacks quantitative information about atmospheric moisture unless the sampled brightness temperatures or other data are converted to estimates of moisture via a retrieval process. Thus, complementary satellite observations are needed to capture a complete picture of a developing storm system. Here, total column ozone retrievals derived from a hyperspectral sounder are used to confirm the extent and magnitude of SAIs. Total ozone is a good proxy for defining locations and intensity of SAIs and has been used in studies evaluating that phenomenon (e.g. Tian et al. 2007, Knox and Schmidt 2005). Steep gradients in values of total ozone seen by satellites have been linked

  16. A global assessment of NASA AIRS v6 and EUMETSAT IASI v6 precipitable water vapor using ground-based GPS SuomiNet stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, Jacola; Knuteson, Robert; August, Thomas; Hultberg, Tim; Ackerman, Steve; Revercomb, Hank

    2016-08-01

    Satellite remote sensing of precipitable water vapor (PWV) is essential for monitoring moisture in real time for weather applications, as well as tracking the long-term changes in PWV for climate change trend detection. This study assesses the accuracies of the current satellite observing system, specifically the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) v6 PWV product and the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellite Studies (EUMETSAT) Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) v6 PWV product, using ground-based SuomiNet Global Positioning System (GPS) network as truth. Elevation-corrected collocated matchups to each SuomiNet GPS station in North America and around the world were created, and results were broken down by station, ARM region, climate zone, and latitude zone. The greatest difference, exceeding 5%, between IASI and AIRS retrievals occurred in the tropics. Generally, IASI and AIRS fall within a 5% error in the PWV range of 20-40 mm (a mean bias less than 2 mm), with a wet bias for extremely low PWV values (less than 5 mm) and a dry bias for extremely high PWV values (greater than 50 mm). The operational IR satellite products are able to capture the mean PWV but degrade in the extreme dry and wet regimes.

  17. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Thomas, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Chromic Acid Pit site is an inactive waste disposal site that is regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The 2.2-cubic-yard cement-lined pit was operated from 1980 to 1983 by a contractor to the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss. The pit, located on the Fort Bliss military reservation, in El Paso, Texas, was used for disposal and evaporation of chromic acid waste generated from chrome plating operations. The site was certified closed in 1989 and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission issued Permit Number HW-50296 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Number TX4213720101), which approved and implemented post-closure care for the Chromic Acid Pit site. In accordance with an approved post-closure plan, the U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Army in evaluating hydrogeologic conditions and ground- water quality at the site. One upgradient and two downgradient ground-water monitoring wells were installed adjacent to the chromic acid pit by a private contractor. Quarterly ground-water sampling of these wells by the U.S. Geological Survey began in December 1993. The Chromic Acid Pit site is situated in the Hueco Bolson intermontane valley. The Hueco Bolson is a primary source of ground water in the El Paso area. City of El Paso and U.S. Army water-supply wells are located on all sides of the study area and are completed 600 to more than 1,200 feet below land surface. The ground-water level in the area of the Chromic Acid Pit site has declined about 25 feet from 1982 to 1993. Depth to water at the Chromic Acid Pit site in September 1994 was about 284 feet below land surface; ground-water flow is to the southeast. Ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells at the Chromic Acid Pit site contained dissolved-solids concentrations of 442 to 564 milligrams per liter. Nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 2.7 milligrams per liter; nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen

  18. Automatic target classification of slow moving ground targets using space-time adaptive processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malas, John Alexander

    2002-04-01

    Air-to-ground surveillance radar technologies are increasingly being used by theater commanders to detect, track, and identify ground moving targets. New radar automatic target recognition (ATR) technologies are being developed to aid the pilot in assessing the ground combat picture. Most air-to-ground surveillance radars use Doppler filtering techniques to separate target returns from ground clutter. Unfortunately, Doppler filter techniques fall short on performance when target geometry and ground vehicle speed result in low line of sight velocities. New clutter filter techniques compatible with emerging advancements in wideband radar operation are needed to support surveillance modes of radar operation when targets enter this low velocity regime. In this context, space-time adaptive processing (STAP) in conjunction with other algorithms offers a class of signal processing that provide improved target detection, tracking, and classification in the presence of interference through the adaptive nulling of both ground clutter and/or jamming. Of particular interest is the ability of the radar to filter and process the complex target signature data needed to generate high range resolution (HRR) signature profiles on ground targets. A new approach is proposed which will allow air-to-ground target classification of slow moving vehicles in clutter. A wideband STAP approach for clutter suppression is developed which preserves the amplitude integrity of returns from multiple range bins consistent with the HRR ATR approach. The wideband STAP processor utilizes narrowband STAP principles to generate a series of adaptive sub-band filters. Each sub-band filter output is used to construct the complete filtered response of the ground target. The performance of this new approach is demonstrated and quantified through the implementation of a one dimensional template-based minimum mean squared error classifier. Successful minimum velocity identification is defined in terms of

  19. Defense Health: Actions Needed to Help Ensure Combat Casualty Care Research Achieves Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Department of Health and Human Services JPC -6 Joint Program Committee for Combat Casualty Care MRMC Army Medical Research and...and development.) Note: The JPC -6 includes representatives from each military service (Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps) and is chartered...care, which is managed by the Joint Program Committee for Combat Casualty Care ( JPC -6). The JPC -6 includes representatives from the DOD biomedical

  20. Air to Air Helicopter Combat (USMC Helicopters versus Russian HIND)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-11

    OGAIATOW IAt AND ADODRB8 10. PR TAS US Army War College Carlisle Barracks, PA 17013 IrTAT II OTO6H FIKNAME AND ORKSS h.Ot.*e G Is..~I 3.DISTRIBUTION...KUY WORDS (COaiiUw on eveeeb oldb It 80400040V 4011 1IMlU 6F Week M0060) So. ANAT"ACY tconlbus M meree .ds of ***....v Med 4daentoly 4 1"k mosei ) The

  1. Nightfall: Machine Autonomy in Air-to-Air Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    pro- cessing.9 The principle of “first look, first kill” belongs to the aircraft with the most processing power and the best software to leverage it...F-22 processing power is on the order of 5 billion decimal operations per second.10 Modern graphics processing units can execute digital sig- nal... processing for radar applications at 10 to 100 times that speed and are available as affordable commercial off-the-shelf hardware.11 FQ-X uses arrays

  2. Radon data acquisition: An automated system for radon analysis of both ground air and tower air and for the simultaneous logging of meteorological data

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, S.

    1990-10-01

    A system to acquire radon data was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to provide information about the effect of weather conditions on the release of radon gas from soils into air. One of the system criteria that drive other design considerations was the need for operation at remote sites where the availability of 120-volt AC power was problematic. As a consequence, all components were selected or designed to run on +12 and/or {minus}12 volts DC. PC-based laptop computers were used for all data acquisition because of their availability, their low power consumption, and the abundance of software written for this platform. The system is comprised of four major sub-systems that are linked by laptop computers: radon-monitor controller, HANDAR 540 data-capture platform, radon-detection units, and barometric pressure unit. Using this system, we successfully collected data at an LLNL field site during 1990. Data from meteorological sensors and radon-concentration profiles from both air and soil were acquired simultaneously and logged on MS-DOS computers for data reduction at a future time. This document describes the functions, hardware, firmware, and software of this system.

  3. Analytical results from ground-water sampling using a direct-push technique at the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, June-July 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guertal, William R.; Stewart, Marie; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; McHale, Timthoy J.

    2004-01-01

    A joint study by the Dover National Test Site and the U.S. Geological Survey was conducted from June 27 through July 18, 2001 to determine the spatial distribution of the gasoline oxygenate additive methyl tert-butyl ether and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer underlying the Dover National Test Site at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. The study was conducted to support a planned enhanced bio-remediation demonstration and to assist the Dover National Test Site in identifying possible locations for future methyl tert-butyl ether remediation demonstrations. This report presents the analytical results from ground-water samples collected during the direct-push ground-water sampling study. A direct-push drill rig was used to quickly collect 115 ground-water samples over a large area at varying depths. The ground-water samples and associated quality-control samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds and methyl tert-butyl ether by the Dover National Test Site analytical laboratory. Volatile organic compounds were above the method reporting limits in 59 of the 115 ground-water samples. The concentrations ranged from below detection limits to maximum values of 12.4 micrograms per liter of cis-1,2-dichloroethene, 1.14 micrograms per liter of trichloroethene, 2.65 micrograms per liter of tetrachloroethene, 1,070 micrograms per liter of methyl tert-butyl ether, 4.36 micrograms per liter of benzene, and 1.8 micrograms per liter of toluene. Vinyl chloride, ethylbenzene, p,m-xylene, and o-xylene were not detected in any of the samples collected during this investigation. Methyl tert-butyl ether was detected in 47 of the 115 ground-water samples. The highest methyl tert-butyl ether concentrations were found in the surficial aquifer from -4.6 to 6.4 feet mean sea level, however, methyl tert-butyl ether was detected as deep as -9.5 feet mean sea level. Increased methane concentrations and decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations were found in

  4. Ground-Water Levels and Water-Quality Data for Wells in the Crumpton Creek Area near Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee, November 2001 to January 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Shannon D.

    2003-01-01

    From November 2001 to January 2002, a study of the ground-water resources in the Crumpton Creek area of Middle Tennessee was conducted to determine whether volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB) have affected local private water supplies and to advance understanding of the ground-water-flow system in this area. VOC samples were collected from private wells that were not included in previous sampling efforts conducted in the Crumpton Creek area near AAFB. Ground-water-flow directions were investigated by measuring water levels in wells and constructing a potentiometric-surface map of the Manchester aquifer in the study area. Data were collected from a total of 68 private wells, 82 monitoring wells, and 1 cave during the period of study. Ground-water levels were determined for 42 of the private wells and for all 82 monitoring wells. Of the 82 monitoring wells, 81 withdraw water from the Manchester aquifer and 1 well withdraws water from the overlying shallow aquifer. The Manchester aquifer wells range in depth from 20 to 150 feet. Water-level altitudes for the Manchester aquifer ranged from 956 to 1,064 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929. Water levels ranged from approximately 6 feet above land surface to 94 feet below land surface. Water-quality samples were collected from all 68 private wells, 8 of the monitoring wells, and the 1 cave. Of the 55 VOCs analyzed, 42 were not detected. Thirteen VOCs were detected; however, only tetrachloroethylene (PCE), methylene chloride, and toluene were detected at concentrations equal to or above reporting levels for the analytical method used. PCE was detected in water samples from 15 private wells and was the only VOC that exceeded drinking water maximum contaminant levels for public water systems. PCE concentrations in samples from five of the wells were below the reporting level and ranged from estimated concentrations of 0.46 to 0.80 microgram per liter (?g/L). Samples from 10

  5. Transitions and Roman Gates Unbarred: The Joint Integration of Air and Ground Power in Past, Present, and Future Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    daughter of a Roman city guardsman betrayed her fellow citizens by opening a gate into Rome and then leading the invading Sabines to that gate. Before the...invaders could enter and commence their attack, Janus commanded a hot spring to erupt and this stopped the Sabines from entering and sacking the city...AirLand Battle,(Fort Monroe, VA.: U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, 1984), pg. 62. 34 Colonel Bruce L. Brown, USAF, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas A

  6. Operation PLUMBBOB. Project 3.7. Instruction of Structures of Air-Blast and Ground-Shock Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1959-01-01

    of 8-inch pipes spaced by ten^ntial steel piatea velded bat-ween thca . A flangs facing ground zero was provided, RM to this was bolted a section...I t^ PÜ\\ fel?^f:; /C\\ ■jL. DISCLAIMER NOTICE THIS DOCUWENT IS BEST QUALITY PRACTICABLE. THE COPY FURNISHED TO DTIC CONTAINED A ...rch tebore- taries (BRL) eiectroalc instr^- a ^ststicm la secjteged la .Aits of 20 record ia£ cly.anei.3 each end aust be protected by «aqpCMtW b-ast

  7. Ground cloud effluent measurements during the May 30, 1974, Titan 3 launch at the Air Force eastern test range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendura, R. J.; Crumbly, K. H.

    1977-01-01

    Surface-level exhaust effluent measurements of HCl, CO, and particulates, ground-cloud behavior, and some comparisons with model predictions for the launch of a Titan 3 rocket are presented along with a limited amount of airborne sampling measurements of other cloud species (O3, NO, NOX). Values above background levels for these effluents were obtained at 20 of the 30 instrument sites; these values were lower than model predictions and did not exceed public health standards. Cloud rise rate, stabilization altitude, and volume are compared with results from previous launches.

  8. Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosol Behavior and Climatic Effects by Analysis of SAGE 2 and Other Space, Air, and Ground Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the research performed under NASA Ames Cooperative Agreement NCC 2-991, which covered the period 1 April 1997 through 31 March 1999. Previously, an interim technical report (Technical Report No. 1, 20 March 1998) summarized the work completed during the period 1 April 1997 through 31 March 1998. The objective of the proposed research was to advance our understanding of atmospheric aerosol behavior, aerosol-induced climatic effects, and the remote measurement and retrieval capabilities of spaceborne sensors such as SAGE II by combining and comparing data from these instruments and from airborne and ground-based instruments.

  9. Limited Evaluation of an 802.11b Air-to-Ground Wireless Datalink (Project "HAVE HALO")

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Table 1: Components of the SUT for the HAVE HALO TMP Component Model Manufacturer Aerial Blade Antenna 6030-2 Haigh - Farr Ground Antenna 6030-2... Haigh - Farr 10-20 dB Attenuator 768-20 Narda 5 Watt Amplifier HA2405GTI-NF Hyperlink Technologies GPSMAP 296 GARMIN®GPS Receiver Itronix®Duo Touch...true) to standardize the runs and mitigate any possible antenna nulls which were investigated with flight profile two. The Haigh - Farr manufacturer

  10. Personality Factors Affecting Pilot Combat Performance: A Preliminary Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    collected by personnel from Metrica , Inc., under Contract F33615-91-D-0010 (Delivery Order 0005) sponsored by the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory. The...authors would like to thank ’their colleagues at Metrica for their contributions to . this effort; in particular, Mr John Quebe and Mr Martin Dittmar...aircrew combat performance. San Antonio TX: Metrica Inc. 7 . Dolgin, D.L., & Gibb, G.D. (1988). Personality assessment in aviator selection (NAMRL

  11. A Tactical Database for the Low Cost Combat Direction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    A Tactical Database for the Low Cost Combat Direction System by Everton G. de Paula Captain, Brazilian Air Force B.S., Instituto Tecnologico de...objects as a unit. The AVANCE object management system [Ref. 29] uses the timestamp 156 model (pessimistic approach) for concurrency control. The Vbase...are no longer used). In AVANCE [Ref. 291, garbage collection is performed on user request. In GemStone [Ref. 25], garbage collection is executed in

  12. Integration of Satellite, Modeled, and Ground Based Aerosol Data for use in Air Quality and Public Health Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, V.; Kondragunta, S.; Holland, D.; Dimmick, F.; Boothe, V.; Szykman, J.; Chu, A.; Kittaka, C.; Al-Saadi, J.; Engel-Cox, J.; Hoff, R.; Wayland, R.; Rao, S.; Remer, L.

    2006-05-01

    Advancements in remote sensing over the past decade have been recognized by governments around the world and led to the development of the international Global Earth Observation System of Systems 10-Year Implementation Plan. The plan for the U.S. contribution to GEOSS has been put forth in The Strategic Plan for the U.S. Integrated Earth Observation System (IEOS) developed under IWGEO-CENR. The approach for the development of the U.S. IEOS is to focus on specific societal benefits that can be achieved by integrating the nation's Earth observation capabilities. One such challenge is our ability to understand the impact of poor air quality on human health and well being. Historically, the air monitoring networks put in place for the Nations air quality programs provided the only aerosol air quality data on an ongoing and systematic basis at national levels. However, scientific advances in the remote sensing of aerosols from space have improved dramatically. The MODIS sensor and GOES Imager aboard NASA and NOAA satellites, respectively, provide synoptic-scale measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) which have been demonstrated to correlate with high levels of PM10 and PM2.5 at the surface. The MODIS sensor has been shown to be capable of a 1 km x 1 km (at nadir) AOD product, while the GOES Imager can provide AOD at 4 km x 4 km every 30 minutes. Within the next several years NOAA and EPA will begin to issue PM2.5 air quality forecasts over the entire domain of the eastern United States, eventually extending to national coverage. These forecasts will provide continuous estimated values of PM2.5 on a daily basis. A multi-agency collaborative project among government and academia is underway to improve the spatial prediction of fine particulate matter through the integration of multi-sensor and multi-platform aerosol observations (MODIS and GOES), numerical model output, and air monitoring data. By giving more weight to monitoring data in monitored areas and relying

  13. 78 FR 40619 - Combating Wildlife Trafficking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... combating transnational organized crime, executive departments and agencies (agencies) shall take all..., review the Strategy to Combat Transnational Organized Crime of July 19, 2011, and, if appropriate, make... the Federal Government's transnational organized crime strategy; (c) coordinate efforts among...

  14. Insights on linking forests, trees, and people from the air, on the ground, and in the laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Ostrom, Elinor; Nagendra, Harini

    2006-01-01

    Governing natural resources sustainably is a continuing struggle. Major debates occur over what types of policy “interventions” best protect forests, with choices of property and land tenure systems being central issues. Herein, we provide an overview of findings from a long-term interdisciplinary, multiscale, international research program that analyzes the institutional factors affecting forests managed under a variety of tenure arrangements. This program analyzes satellite images, conducts social-ecological measurements on the ground, and tests the impact of structural variables on human decisions in experimental laboratories. Satellite images track the landscape dimensions of forest-cover change within different management regimes over time. On-the-ground social-ecological studies examine relationships between forest conditions and types of institutions. Behavioral studies under controlled laboratory conditions enhance our understanding of explicit changes in structure that affect relevant human decisions. Evidence from all three research methods challenges the presumption that a single governance arrangement will control overharvesting in all settings. When users are genuinely engaged in decisions regarding rules affecting their use, the likelihood of them following the rules and monitoring others is much greater than when an authority simply imposes rules. Our results support a frontier of research on the most effective institutional and tenure arrangements for protecting forests. They move the debate beyond the boundaries of protected areas into larger landscapes where government, community, and comanaged protected areas are embedded and help us understand when and why deforestation and regrowth occur in specific regions within these larger landscapes. PMID:17088538

  15. Insights on linking forests, trees, and people from the air, on the ground, and in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Elinor; Nagendra, Harini

    2006-12-19

    Governing natural resources sustainably is a continuing struggle. Major debates occur over what types of policy "interventions" best protect forests, with choices of property and land tenure systems being central issues. Herein, we provide an overview of findings from a long-term interdisciplinary, multiscale, international research program that analyzes the institutional factors affecting forests managed under a variety of tenure arrangements. This program analyzes satellite images, conducts social-ecological measurements on the ground, and tests the impact of structural variables on human decisions in experimental laboratories. Satellite images track the landscape dimensions of forest-cover change within different management regimes over time. On-the-ground social-ecological studies examine relationships between forest conditions and types of institutions. Behavioral studies under controlled laboratory conditions enhance our understanding of explicit changes in structure that affect relevant human decisions. Evidence from all three research methods challenges the presumption that a single governance arrangement will control overharvesting in all settings. When users are genuinely engaged in decisions regarding rules affecting their use, the likelihood of them following the rules and monitoring others is much greater than when an authority simply imposes rules. Our results support a frontier of research on the most effective institutional and tenure arrangements for protecting forests. They move the debate beyond the boundaries of protected areas into larger landscapes where government, community, and comanaged protected areas are embedded and help us understand when and why deforestation and regrowth occur in specific regions within these larger landscapes.

  16. Trends in Land Combat (TLC).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Combat Operations, US Army Concepts Analysis Agency Research Paper, CAA-RP-90-1, June 1990, AD- A225 635. CAA-MR-98-10 THE US ARMY’S CENTEX FOR...about 1,430,000. 22 CAA-MR-98-10 THE VS ARMY’S CENTER FOR STRATEGY AND FORCE EVALUATION M wrKxrt3^Ka.isBAcef/ cr m Ratio of Combat Personnel to...deviation, cr 1.9774 1.75792 2.79433 Drift, g(t) -3.3728 + 0.006458? 7.315103-0.00392596? 12.1337-9.51438 10ř? C-4

  17. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, 1987-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eimers, J.L.; Daniel, C. C.; Coble, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Geophysical and lithologic well-log data from 30 wells and chloride data, and water-level data from oil-test wells, supply wells, and observation wells were evaluated to define the hydrogeologic framework at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina. Elements of the hydrogeologic framework important to this study include six aquifers and their respective confining units. In descending order, these aquifers are the surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River, upper and lower Castle Hayne, and Beaufort. The upper and lower Castle Hayne and Beaufort aquifers and related confining units are relatively continuous throughout the study area. The surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River, and upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers contain freshwater. The upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers serve as the Air Station?s principal supply of freshwater. However, the lower Castle Hayne aquifer contains brackish water near its base and there is potential for upward movement of this water to supply wells completed in this aquifer. The potential for brackish-water encroachment is greatest if wells are screened too deep in the lower Castle Hayne aquifer or if pumping rates are too high. Lateral movement of brackish water into aquifers incised by estuarine streams is also possible if ground-water flow gradients toward these bodies are reversed by pumping. The potential for the reversed movement of water from the surficial aquifer downward to the water-supply aquifer is greatest in areas where clay confining units are missing. These missing clay units could indicate the presence of a paleochannel of the Neuse River. A quasi three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model was constructed and calibrated to simulate conditions at and in the vicinity of the Air Station for the period of 1987-90. Comparisons of 94 observed and computed heads were made, and the average difference between them is -0.2 feet with a root mean square error of 5.7 feet. An analysis was made to

  18. Potential effects of the introduction of the discrete address beacon system data link on air/ground information transfer problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study of Aviation Safety Reporting System reports suggests that benefits should accure from implementation of discrete address beacon system data link. The phase enhanced terminal information system service is expected to provide better terminal information than present systems by improving currency and accuracy. In the exchange of air traffic control messages, discrete address insures that only the intended recipient receives and acts on a specific message. Visual displays and printer copy of messages should mitigate many of the reported problems associated with voice communications. The problems that remain unaffected include error in addressing the intended recipient and messages whose content is wrong but are otherwise correct as to format and reasonableness.

  19. Integrated Heat Pump (IHP) System Development - Air-Source IHP Control Strategy and Specifications and Ground-Source IHP Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Richard W; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D

    2007-05-01

    The integrated heat pump (IHP), as one appliance, can provide space cooling, heating, ventilation, and dehumidification while maintaining comfort and meeting domestic water heating needs in near-zero-energy home (NZEH) applications. In FY 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed development of a control strategy and system specification for an air-source IHP. The conceptual design of a ground-source IHP was also completed. Testing and analysis confirm the potential of both IHP concepts to meet NZEH energy services needs while consuming 50% less energy than a suite of equipment that meets current minimum efficiency requirements. This report is in fulfillment of an FY06 DOE Building Technologies (BT) Joule Milestone.

  20. Airborne Use of Traffic Intent Information in a Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management Concept: Experiment Design and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Adams, Richard J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Moses, Donald

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents initial findings of a research study designed to provide insight into the issue of intent information exchange in constrained en-route air-traffic operations and its effect on pilot decision making and flight performance. The piloted simulation was conducted in the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two operational modes for autonomous operations were compared under conditions of low and high operational complexity. The tactical mode was characterized primarily by the use of state information for conflict detection and resolution and an open-loop means for the pilot to meet operational constraints. The strategic mode involved the combined use of state and intent information, provided the pilot an additional level of alerting, and allowed a closed-loop approach to meeting operational constraints. Operational constraints included separation assurance, schedule adherence, airspace hazard avoidance, flight efficiency, and passenger comfort. Potential operational benefits of both modes are illustrated through several scenario case studies. Subjective pilot ratings and comments comparing the tactical and strategic modes are presented.

  1. Airborne Use of Traffic Intent Information in a Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management Concept: Experiment Design and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Adams, Richard J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Moses, Donald

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents initial findings of a research study designed to provide insight into the issue of intent information exchange in constrained en-route air-traffic operations and its effect on pilot decision making and flight performance. The piloted simulation was conducted in the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two operational modes for autonomous operations were compared under conditions of low and high operational complexity. The tactical mode was characterized primarily by the use of state information for conflict detection and resolution and an open-loop means for the pilot to meet operational constraints. The strategic mode involved the combined use of state and intent information, provided the pilot an additional level of alerting, and allowed a closed-loop approach to meeting operational constraints. Operational constraints included separation assurance, schedule adherence, airspace hazard avoidance, flight efficiency, and passenger comfort. Potential operational benefits of both modes are illustrated through several scenario case studies. Subjective pilot ratings and comments comparing the tactical and strategic modes are presented.

  2. Assessment of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at sites FT03, LF13, and WP14/LF15, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality, aquifer-sediment, and hydro-logic data were used to assess the effectiveness of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at Fire Training Area Three, the Rubble Area Landfill, the Liquid Waste Disposal Landfill, and the Receiver Station Landfill in the East Management Unit of Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. These sites, which are contaminated with chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons, are under-going long-term monitoring to determine if natural attenuation continues to sufficiently reduce contaminant concentrations to meet regulatory requirements. This report is the first assessment of the effectiveness of natural attenuation at these sites since long-term monitoring began in 1999, and follows a preliminary investigation done in 1995?96. This assessment was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force.Since 1995?96, additional information has been collected and used in the current assessment. The conclusions in this report are based primarily on ground-water samples collected from January through March 2000. Previous analytical results from selected wells, available geologic and geo-physical well logs, and newly acquired information such as sediment organic-carbon measurements, hydraulic-conductivity measurements determined from slug tests on wells in the natural attenuation study area, and water-level measurements from surficial-aquifer wells also were used in this assessment. This information was used to: (1) calculate retardation factors and estimate contaminant migration velocities, (2) improve estimates of ground-water flow directions and inferred contaminant migration pathways, (3) better define the areal extent of contamination and the proximity of contaminants to discharge areas and the Base boundary, (4) develop a better under-standing of the vertical variability of contaminant concentrations and redox conditions, (5) evaluate the effects of temporal changes on concentrations in the plumes and

  3. Well-construction, water-level, geophysical, and water-quality data for ground-water monitoring wells for Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.; Robinson, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-five wells were installed at 39 sites in the Arnold Air Force Base area in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. The wells were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. Well depths ranged from 11 to 384 feet. Water-quality samples were collected from 60 wells and analyzed for common inorganic ions, trace metals, and volatile organic compounds. The median dissolved-solids concentrations were 60 milligrams per liter in the shallow aquifer, 48 million gallons per liter in the Manchester aquifer, 1,235 milligrams per liter in the Fort Payne aquifer, and 1,712 milligrams per liter in the upper Central Basin aquifer. Caliper, temperature, natural gamma, electric, neutron porosity, gamma-gamma density, and acoustic velocity borehole-geophysical logs were obtained for the six deep wells completed below the Chattanooga Shale. Petrographic and modal analysis were performed on rock samples from each deep well. These six deep wells provide the first information in the study area on hydraulic head and water quality from below the Chattanooga Shale.

  4. A presentation of ATR processing chain validation procedure of IR terminal guidance version of the AASM modular air-to-ground weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclos, D.; Quinquis, N.; Broda, G.; Galmiche, F.; Oudyi, F.; Coulon, N.; Cordier, D.; Sonier, C.

    2009-05-01

    Developed by Sagem (SAFRAN Group), the AASM is a modular Air-To-Ground "Fire and Forget" weapon designed to be able to neutralise a large range of targets under all conditions. The AASM is composed of guidance and range enhancement kits that give bombs, already in service, new operational capabilities. AASM Guidance kit exists in two different versions. The IMU/GPS guidance version is able to achieve "ten-meter class" accuracy on target in all weather conditions. The IMU/GPS/IR guidance version is able to achieve "meter class" accuracy on target with poor precision geographic designation or in GPS-denied flight context, thanks to a IR sensor and a complex image processing chain. In this night/day IMU/GPS/IR version, the terminal guidance phase adjusts the missile navigation to the true target by matching the image viewed through the infrared sensor with a target model stored in the missile memory. This model will already have been drawn up on the ground using a mission planning system and, for example, a satellite image. This paper will present the main steps of the procedure applied to qualify the complete image processing chain of the AASM IMU/GPS/IR version, including open-loop validation of ATR algorithms on real and synthetic images, and closed-loop validation using AASM simulation reference model.

  5. Characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from ground beef collected in different socioeconomic strata markets in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Patricia; Barnech, Laura; Irino, Kinue; Rumi, María Valeria; Bentancor, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of raw/undercooked ground beef is the most common route of transmission of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The aim of the study was to determine the STEC contamination level of the ground beef samples collected in 36 markets of different socioeconomic strata in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the characterization of the isolated strains. Ninety-one out of 252 (36.1%) samples were stx+. Fifty-seven STEC strains were recovered. Eleven STEC strains belonged to O157 serogroup, and 46 to non-O157 serogroups. Virulence markers of the 57 STEC were stx1, 5.3% (3/57); stx2, 86.0% (49/57); stx1/stx2, 8.8% (5/57); ehxA, 61.4% (35/57); eae, 26.3% (15/57); saa, 24.6% (14/57). Shiga toxin subtypes were stx2, 31.5% (17/54); stx2c-vhb, 24.1% (13/54); stx2c-vha, 20.4% (11/54); stx2/stx2c-vha, 14.8% (8/54); stx2/stx2c-vhb, 5.6% (3/54); stx2c-vha/vhb, 3.7% (2/54). Serotypes O178:H19 and O157:H7 were prevalent. Contamination rate of STEC in all strata was high, and the highest O157 contamination was observed at low strata at several sampling rounds. Persistence of STEC was not detected. Sixteen strains (28.1%) were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, amikacin, or tetracycline. The STEC contamination level of ground beef could vary according to the sociocultural characteristics of the population.

  6. Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Ground Beef Collected in Different Socioeconomic Strata Markets in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Llorente, Patricia; Barnech, Laura; Irino, Kinue; Rumi, María Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of raw/undercooked ground beef is the most common route of transmission of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The aim of the study was to determine the STEC contamination level of the ground beef samples collected in 36 markets of different socioeconomic strata in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the characterization of the isolated strains. Ninety-one out of 252 (36.1%) samples were stx+. Fifty-seven STEC strains were recovered. Eleven STEC strains belonged to O157 serogroup, and 46 to non-O157 serogroups. Virulence markers of the 57 STEC were stx1, 5.3% (3/57); stx2, 86.0% (49/57); stx1/stx2, 8.8% (5/57); ehxA, 61.4% (35/57); eae, 26.3% (15/57); saa, 24.6% (14/57). Shiga toxin subtypes were stx2, 31.5% (17/54); stx2c-vhb, 24.1% (13/54); stx2c-vha, 20.4% (11/54); stx2/stx2c-vha, 14.8% (8/54); stx2/stx2c-vhb, 5.6% (3/54); stx2c-vha/vhb, 3.7% (2/54). Serotypes O178:H19 and O157:H7 were prevalent. Contamination rate of STEC in all strata was high, and the highest O157 contamination was observed at low strata at several sampling rounds. Persistence of STEC was not detected. Sixteen strains (28.1%) were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, amikacin, or tetracycline. The STEC contamination level of ground beef could vary according to the sociocultural characteristics of the population. PMID:25006586

  7. Task Organizing for Urban Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-09

    varying urbanisation s-a exatmined in this chapter. Nine ex&aples of Soviet and German task organization employed in urban combat ranging frca emaml...in swaler vill •ges. ’rhus if a tank battalion supported an infantry battalion in small village actions, it covid have to support up to eight infantry

  8. Combating Stagefright: Selected Vocal Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    Noting that stagefright has been the subject of intensive analysis and subjected to almost every conceivable test or measurement without revealing either its "cause" or its "cure," this paper presents vocal exercises to help combat the performance malady. After listing four principles concerning the nature of stagefright (it is…

  9. Habeas Corpus and "Enemy Combatants"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Carolyn; Chavkin, Nisan

    2008-01-01

    The writ of habeas corpus has been a critical tool for balancing the rights of individuals with the government's responsibility to protect the nation's welfare. In this article, the authors discuss the writ of habeas corpus and how it affects the federal government and hundreds of prisoners who are held as enemy combatants. Elementary, middle, and…

  10. Resiliency in Future Cyber Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-04

    cyberspace espionage. Cyberspace attacks change friendly systems through manipulating data , causing hardware failures, or physically destroying objects...Combat Strategic Studies Quarterly ♦ Winter 2015 [ 89 ] state on nation-state cyberspace attacks with a reasonable amount of open-source data , only...domain within the information environment consisting of the interdependent network of information technology infrastructures and resident data

  11. Evidence of Combat in Triceratops

    PubMed Central

    Farke, Andrew A.; Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Tanke, Darren H.

    2009-01-01

    Background The horns and frill of Triceratops and other ceratopsids (horned dinosaurs) are interpreted variously as display structures or as weapons against conspecifics and predators. Lesions (in the form of periosteal reactive bone, healing fractures, and alleged punctures) on Triceratops skulls have been used as anecdotal support of intraspecific combat similar to that in modern horned and antlered animals. If ceratopsids with different cranial morphologies used their horns in such combat, this should be reflected in the rates of lesion occurrence across the skull. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a G-test of independence to compare incidence rates of lesions in Triceratops (which possesses two large brow horns and a smaller nasal horn) and the related ceratopsid Centrosaurus (with a large nasal horn and small brow horns), for the nasal, jugal, squamosal, and parietal bones of the skull. The two taxa differ significantly in the occurrence of lesions on the squamosal bone of the frill (P = 0.002), but not in other cranial bones (P>0.20). Conclusions/Significance This pattern is consistent with Triceratops using its horns in combat and the frill being adapted as a protective structure for this taxon. Lower pathology rates in Centrosaurus may indicate visual rather than physical use of cranial ornamentation in this genus, or a form of combat focused on the body rather than the head. PMID:19172995

  12. Combating Training-Stress Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the nature and ramifications of various training stress syndromes (overtraining, under-recovery, distress, staleness, and burnout) that can accompany inappropriate training practices, examining the interventions that players and coaches can use to combat these syndromes (including physical, psychological, and performance interventions),…

  13. Teaching Combative Sports through Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozub, Francis M.; Kozub, Mary L.

    2004-01-01

    Martial arts have become popular in the United States and have transitioned from being spectator sports to avenues for active participation by people of all ages. The purpose of this article is to highlight tactical similarities in selected combative sport activities and to provide martial arts and wrestling instructors with an alternative…

  14. Proof-of-Concept of a Networked Validation Environment for Distributed Air/Ground NextGen Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisham, James; Larson, Natalie; Nelson, Justin; Reed, Joshua; Suggs, Marvin; Underwood, Matthew; Papelis, Yiannis; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    The National Airspace System (NAS) must be improved to increase capacity, reduce flight delays, and minimize environmental impacts of air travel. NASA has been tasked with aiding the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in NAS modernization. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is an enabling technology that is fundamental to realization of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Despite the 2020 FAA mandate requiring ADS-B Out equipage, airspace users are lacking incentives to equip with the requisite ADS-B avionics. A need exists to validate in flight tests advanced concepts of operation (ConOps) that rely on ADS-B and other data links without requiring costly equipage. A potential solution is presented in this paper. It is possible to emulate future data link capabilities using the existing in-flight Internet and reduced-cost test equipment. To establish proof-of-concept, a high-fidelity traffic operations simulation was modified to include a module that simulated Internet transmission of ADS-B messages. An advanced NASA ConOp, Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM), was used to evaluate technical feasibility. A preliminary assessment of the effects of latency and dropout rate on FIM was performed. Flight hardware that would be used by proposed test environment was connected to the simulation so that data transfer from aircraft systems to test equipment could be verified. The results indicate that the FIM ConOp, and therefore, many other advanced ConOps with equal or lesser response characteristics and data requirements, can be evaluated in flight using the proposed concept.

  15. Computational Models of Human Performance: Validation of Memory and Procedural Representation in Advanced Air/Ground Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Labacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Man-Machine Interaction Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) under joint U.S. Army and NASA cooperative is intended to assist designers of complex human/automation systems in successfully incorporating human performance capabilities and limitations into decision and action support systems. MIDAS is a computational representation of multiple human operators, selected perceptual, cognitive, and physical functions of those operators, and the physical/functional representation of the equipment with which they operate. MIDAS has been used as an integrated predictive framework for the investigation of human/machine systems, particularly in situations with high demands on the operators. We have extended the human performance models to include representation of both human operators and intelligent aiding systems in flight management, and air traffic service. The focus of this development is to predict human performance in response to aiding system developed to identify aircraft conflict and to assist in the shared authority for resolution. The demands of this application requires representation of many intelligent agents sharing world-models, coordinating action/intention, and cooperative scheduling of goals and action in an somewhat unpredictable world of operations. In recent applications to airborne systems development, MIDAS has demonstrated an ability to predict flight crew decision-making and procedural behavior when interacting with automated flight management systems and Air Traffic Control. In this paper, we describe two enhancements to MIDAS. The first involves the addition of working memory in the form of an articulatory buffer for verbal communication protocols and a visuo-spatial buffer for communications via digital datalink. The second enhancement is a representation of multiple operators working as a team. This enhanced model was used to predict the performance of human flight crews and their level of compliance with commercial aviation communication

  16. Passive bioventing driven by natural air exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Foor, D.C.; Zwick, T.C.; Hinchee, R.E.; Hoeppel, R.E.; Kyburg, C.; Bowling, L.

    1995-12-31

    Bioventing wells installed in the vadose zone of petroleum-contaminated sites at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC) in Twentynine Palms, California, naturally inhale and exhale air. This natural air exchange appears to be driven primarily by barometric pressure changes. The natural air exchange was utilized to engineer a passive bioventing system in which a valve allows only air injection and prevents soil gas extraction. The system is effective in aerating petroleum-contaminated, oxygen-limited subsurface soils. This aeration resulted in enhanced biological activity and site remediation. The bioventing wells (vent wells) were fitted with a passive valve mechanism that opens when the atmospheric pressure overcomes the internal vent well pressure. When the valve is open it permits atmospheric air to enter the vent well and infiltrate into the soil, thereby stimulating bioremediation. When the vent well pressure overcomes atmospheric pressure, the valve is closed and inhibits soil gas extraction. The vent wells are installed in a coarse sand where the depth to groundwater is approximately 220 ft (67 m). Generally, deeper vent wells produce greater flowrates. Passive airflow rates of up to 7 cfm (12 m{sup 3}/h) have been achieved at the bioventing wells.

  17. Constraining aerosol optical models using ground-based, collocated particle size and mass measurements in variable air mass regimes during the 7-SEAS/Dongsha experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Shaun W.; Hansell, Richard A.; Chow, Judith C.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Lin, Neng-Huei; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Ji, Qiang; Li, Can; Watson, John G.; Khlystov, Andrey

    2013-10-01

    During the spring of 2010, NASA Goddard's COMMIT ground-based mobile laboratory was stationed on Dongsha Island off the southwest coast of Taiwan, in preparation for the upcoming 2012 7-SEAS field campaign. The measurement period offered a unique opportunity for conducting detailed investigations of the optical properties of aerosols associated with different air mass regimes including background maritime and those contaminated by anthropogenic air pollution and mineral dust. What appears to be the first time for this region, a shortwave optical closure experiment (λ = 550 nm) for both scattering and absorption was attempted over a 12-day period during which aerosols exhibited the most change. Constraints to the optical model included combined SMPS and APS number concentration data for a continuum of fine and coarse-mode particle sizes up to PM2.5. We also take advantage of an IMPROVE chemical sampler to help constrain aerosol composition and mass partitioning of key elemental species including sea-salt, particulate organic matter, soil, non sea-salt sulfate, nitrate, and elemental carbon. Achieving full optical closure is hampered by limitations in accounting for the role of water vapor in the system, uncertainties in the instruments and the need for further knowledge in the source apportionment of the model's major chemical components. Nonetheless, our results demonstrate that the observed aerosol scattering and absorption for these diverse air masses are reasonably captured by the model, where peak aerosol events and transitions between key aerosols types are evident. Signatures of heavy polluted aerosol composed mostly of ammonium and non sea-salt sulfate mixed with some dust with transitions to background sea-salt conditions are apparent in the absorption data, which is particularly reassuring owing to the large variability in the imaginary component of the refractive indices. Consistency between the measured and modeled optical parameters serves as an

  18. Constraining Aerosol Optical Models Using Ground-Based, Collocated Particle Size and Mass Measurements in Variable Air Mass Regimes During the 7-SEAS/Dongsha Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Shaun W.; Hansell, Richard A.; Chow, Judith C.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Ji, Qiang; Li, Can; Watson, John G.; Khlystov, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    During the spring of 2010, NASA Goddard's COMMIT ground-based mobile laboratory was stationed on Dongsha Island off the southwest coast of Taiwan, in preparation for the upcoming 2012 7-SEAS field campaign. The measurement period offered a unique opportunity for conducting detailed investigations of the optical properties of aerosols associated with different air mass regimes including background maritime and those contaminated by anthropogenic air pollution and mineral dust. What appears to be the first time for this region, a shortwave optical closure experiment for both scattering and absorption was attempted over a 12-day period during which aerosols exhibited the most change. Constraints to the optical model included combined SMPS and APS number concentration data for a continuum of fine and coarse-mode particle sizes up to PM2.5. We also take advantage of an IMPROVE chemical sampler to help constrain aerosol composition and mass partitioning of key elemental species including sea-salt, particulate organic matter, soil, non sea-salt sulphate, nitrate, and elemental carbon. Our results demonstrate that the observed aerosol scattering and absorption for these diverse air masses are reasonably captured by the model, where peak aerosol events and transitions between key aerosols types are evident. Signatures of heavy polluted aerosol composed mostly of ammonium and non sea-salt sulphate mixed with some dust with transitions to background sea-salt conditions are apparent in the absorption data, which is particularly reassuring owing to the large variability in the imaginary component of the refractive indices. Extinctive features at significantly smaller time scales than the one-day sample period of IMPROVE are more difficult to reproduce, as this requires further knowledge concerning the source apportionment of major chemical components in the model. Consistency between the measured and modeled optical parameters serves as an important link for advancing remote

  19. Differential processing to separate radionuclide and VOC from soil and ground water by air-sparged hydrocyclone technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Yi

    1996-03-29

    There are a wide variety of radioactive, toxic, and heavy metal contaminants in the ground waters and soils at DOE facilities. Some of the most common are uranium, technetium, trichloroethylene, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The project is a challenging task based on several key factors. For the removal of radio nuclide or heavy metal particles, first, on a mass fraction basis there is only a small amount of radionuclide particles in either writer or soil. In this way, a successful separation process must be capable of removing small amount of radio nuclide particles or other heavy metals from a very large quantities of soil or water. This feature poses a significant difficulty for most separation technologies which have a low specific processing capacity. Second, in addition to the need to have a high specific processing capacity, the separation technology must be able to selectively separate fine particles. For example, it is expected that most of radionuclide particles as well as 10-30% of the soil particles (depending on the site) are in the size range of less than 100 microns. Thus, a successful separation process must also be capable of efficiently removing minute quantities of small-sized particles from large quantities of soil of the same fine particle size. These two key factors are of critical importance and pose tremendous difficulties for any conventional technology available today.

  20. The History of Ground-Based Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Astrophysics with the Atmospheric Air Cherenkov Telescope Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, Razmik

    2013-06-01

    In the recent two decades the ground-based technique of imaging atmosphericescopes has established itself as a powerful new discipline in science. As of today some ˜ 150 sources of gamma rays of very different types, of both galactic and extragalactic origin, have been discovered due to this technique. The study of these sources is providing clues to many basic questions in astrophysics, astro-particle physics, physics of cosmic rays and cosmology. The current generation of telescopes, despite the young age of the technique, offers a solid performance. The technique is still maturing, leading to the next generation large instrument known under the name Cherenkov Telescope Array. The latter's sensitivity will be an order of magnitude higher than that of the currently best instruments VERITAS, H.E.S.S. and MAGIC. This article is devoted to outlining the milestones in a long history that step-by-step have given shape to this technique and have brought about today's successful source marathon.

  1. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jaegyu; Ahn, Woo-Guen; Seo, Seungwoo; Lee, Jang Yong; Park, Jun-Pyo

    2015-01-01

    The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS) is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo). In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services) SC (special committee)-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias) during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP) or fluctuations in the received signal quality. PMID:26569251

  2. Abductive networks applied to electronic combat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Gerard J.; Hess, Paul; Hwang, Jong S.

    1990-08-01

    A practical approach to dealing with combinatorial decision problems and uncertainties associated with electronic combat through the use of networks of high-level functional elements called abductive networks is presented. It describes the application of the Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIMTM) a supervised inductive learning tool for synthesizing polynomial abductive networks to the electronic combat problem domain. From databases of historical expert-generated or simulated combat engagements AIM can often induce compact and robust network models for making effective real-time electronic combat decisions despite significant uncertainties or a combinatorial explosion of possible situations. The feasibility of applying abductive networks to realize advanced combat decision aiding capabilities was demonstrated by applying AIM to a set of electronic combat simulations. The networks synthesized by AIM generated accurate assessments of the intent lethality and overall risk associated with a variety of simulated threats and produced reasonable estimates of the expected effectiveness of a group of electronic countermeasures for a large number of simulated combat scenarios. This paper presents the application of abductive networks to electronic combat summarizes the results of experiments performed using AIM discusses the benefits and limitations of applying abductive networks to electronic combat and indicates why abductive networks can often result in capabilities not attainable using alternative approaches. 1. ELECTRONIC COMBAT. UNCERTAINTY. AND MACHINE LEARNING Electronic combat has become an essential part of the ability to make war and has become increasingly complex since

  3. Influence of synoptic meteorological conditions on urban air quality -A study over Hyderabad, India using satellite data and ground based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani Sharma, Anu; Kharol, Shailesh Kumar; Kvs, Badarinath

    Urban areas were considered to be a major source of atmospheric pollution due to popula-tion growth, migration, increasing industrialization and energy use particularly in developing countries. The air quality in urban areas is governed by temporal distribution of emissions from various activities in the city, the topography, and the weather, including atmospheric circulation patterns in the region. The extensive coastal belt of India is very vulnerable to low pressure systems in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) or the Arabian Sea. Most importantly, the formation of a low pressure system in the ocean is one of the most prominent weather systems characterized by high atmospheric pressure gradients and wind. In the present study, variation in aerosol properties and ground reaching solar irradiance were analyzed over a tropical urban environment of Hyderabad associated with a low pressure system during December, 3-10, 2008 over Bay of Bengal (BoB). The low pressure system formed over southeast BoB on Decem-ber 4, 2008, moved westwards and lay centered at 23:30 Indian Standard Time. The study area of Hyderabad is located between 17° 10' and 17° 50' N latitude and 78° 10' and 78° 50' E longitude, in the southeastern part of the Indian region, 300 km from the BoB. Synchronous measurements of aerosol optical depth were carried out using handheld MICROTOPS -II in the premises of the National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC) campus located at Balanagar, Hyderabad. Along with the daytime measurements of AOD500, continuous measurements of the vertical profile of aerosols and planetary boundary layer were carried out using a portable micropulse lidar (MPL) system at 532 nm. An ultraviolet (UV)-B radiometer from Solar Light Company was used to measure UVery in the range 280-320 nm. Continuous measurements of the Particulate-matter (PM) size distributions were performed with GRIMM aerosol spectrom-eter model 1-108. Ground-reaching solar radiation in 310 to 2800 nm broadband was carried

  4. Ground-water levels and water-quality data for wells in the Spring Creek area near Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee, April and May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Shannon D.; Aycock, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB) occupies about 40,000 acres in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. Numerous site-specific ground-water contamination investigations have been conducted at designated solid waste management units (SWMU?s) at AAFB. Several synthetic volatile organic compounds (VOC?s), primarily chlorinated solvents, have been identified in groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells near SWMU 8 in the Spring Creek area. During April and May 2000, a study of the groundwater resources in the Spring Creek area was conducted to determine if VOC?s from AAFB have affected local private water supplies and to advance understanding of the ground-water-flow system in this area. The study focused on sampling private wells located within the Spring Creek area that are used as a source of drinking water. Ground-water-flow directions were determined by measuring water levels in wells and constructing a potentiometric-surface map of the Manchester aquifer in the study area. Data were collected from a total of 35 private wells and 22 monitoring wells during the period of study. Depths to ground water were determined for 22 of the private wells and all 22 of the monitoring wells. The wells ranged in depth from 21 to 105 feet. Water-level altitudes ranged from 930 to 1,062 feet above sea level. Depths to water ranged from 8 to 83 feet below land surface. Water-quality samples were collected from 29 private wells which draw water from either gravel zones in the upper part of the Manchester aquifer, fractured bedrock in the lower part of the Manchester aquifer, or a combination of these two zones. Concentrations of 50 of the 55 VOC?s analyzed for were less than method detection limits. Chloroform, acetone, chloromethane, 2-butanone, and tetrachloroethylene were detected in concentrations exceeding the method detection limits. Only chloroform and acetone were detected in concentrations equal to or exceeding reporting limits. Chloroform was detected in a sample

  5. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. SIG: Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; Palanque, Philippe; Martinie, Célia; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects/systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  7. Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael S.; Palanque, Philippe Andre Rolan; Martinie, De Almeida; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault-tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  8. A proposed super-fast scheme for instant-detect-instant-kill of a ground-to-air missile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chialun J.

    2013-01-01

    When we apply the newly developed LPED (local polar edge detection) image processing method to a binary IR-image which contains a special meteorite-like streak produced by the enemy SAM, the image processing speed can be even enhanced further if another novel preprocessing scheme is used. This novel preprocessing scheme is achieved by taking the advantage of the characteristic geometry of the meteorite-like target into consideration. That is, we only take the clustered high temperature image points making the shape of a slender cylinder ended with a broom-like exhaust fume into consideration. Then we can spatial-filter or pre-extract the cylinder by its geometrical property before we apply the LPED method. This will then result in a super-fast detection, super-fast tracking and super-fast targeting on the CM (center of mass) point of the cylinder. This CM point is just the "heart" of the flying missile. Incorporating this targeting system with a high power laser gun through the use of a Wollaston prism, an air-borne instant detect-instant-kill SAM killer system may then be constructed.

  9. Cold Memories: An Examination of U.S. Army Doctrine for Combat in Cold Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-14

    enormous loss of combat. power due to cold injuries caused a massive study by the Surgeon General’s office before the invasion of Italy, and the immediate...dense cold air. and the trapping of the cold air by temperature inversions. These cause local concentrations of extremely low ambient. air...temperatures. Thus. short days can cause the subarctic regions of Siberia, Alaska, and Canada to produce the coldest temperatures on Earth’. CoM Rl•iimx Pbemwena

  10. Ground Water Modeling Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is supporting region, state, and tribal partners at Superfund sites and brownfields to develop new methods to better characterize, monitor, and treat ground water contamination; in order to protect drinking water, surface water, and indoor air.

  11. Analysis of Upper Air, Ground and Remote Sensing Data for the Atlas Field Campaign in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Cruz, Jorge E.

    2005-01-01

    The general climate of the island of Puerto Rico is dominated by the easterly trade winds from the Atlantic Ocean, and during synoptically calm days by the topographic and local land surface characteristics [1]. The urban canopy of the metropolitan area of San Juan, capital city of the Island, may introduce a new microclimate that changes the characteristics of the low atmosphere and interacts with the other microclimates already present in the island. The primitive land cover and land use (LCLU) of the metropolitan area of San Juan was composed by broadleaf trees, moist soils, and very dense vegetation in general. The urban LCLU changes the balance for the mass, momentum and energy between the bottom boundary and the lower atmosphere, creating different climate conditions over urban and rural regions. Some of these differences are low relative humidity and high temperatures observed in urban areas when compared to rural areas. These in turn produces a convective circulation over the urban areas, a phenomenon compared to the sea and land breezes, commonly known as heat islands (UHI). Factors that contribute to the formation of the UHI are anthropogenic heat sources, aerosols from pollutants, fast water canalization due to the presence of buildings and streets, among others. The comparison between urban and rural climates is the most common approach to analyze the UHI. These contrasts are larger in clear and calm conditions and tend to disappear in cloudy and windy weather. The UHI was recognized in the early 1950 s as closed isotherms that separates the city from the general temperature field [2]. The impact of the urban LCLU in San Juan, Puerto Rico, was quantified calculating the difference between historical data sets for the air temperature over an identified urban area and a rural area dT(U-R). The analysis of the climatological data revealed that a UHI exists in the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The data reveals a permanent urban heat island

  12. Multi-Level Wild Land Fire Fighting Management Support System for an Optimized Guidance of Ground and Air Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almer, Alexander; Schnabel, Thomas; Perko, Roland; Raggam, Johann; Köfler, Armin; Feischl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    -fighting missions. The ongoing development focuses on the following topics: (1) Development of a multi-level management solution to coordinate and guide different airborne and terrestrial deployed firefighting modules as well as related data processing and data distribution activities. (2) Further, a targeted control of the thermal sensor based on a rotating mirror system to extend the "area performance" (covered area per hour) in time critical situations for the monitoring requirements during forest fire events. (3) Novel computer vision methods for analysis of thermal sensor signatures, which allow an automatic classification of different forest fire types and situations. (4) A module for simulation-based decision support for planning and evaluation of resource usage and the effectiveness of performed fire-fighting measures. (5) Integration of wearable systems to assist ground teams in rescue operations as well as a mobile information system into innovative command and fire-fighting vehicles. In addition, the paper gives an outlook on future perspectives including a first concept for the integration of the near real-time multilevel forest fire fighting management system into an "EU Civil Protection Team" to support the EU civil protection modules and the Emergency Response Coordination Centre in Brussels. Keywords: Airborne sensing, multi sensor imaging, near real-time fire monitoring, simulation-based decision support, forest firefighting management, firefighting impact analysis.

  13. Focused Mission High Speed Combatant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-09

    hull types to determine which hull type best meets the requirements for the Focused Mission High Speed Combatant. The first step in the analysis...MAPC, uses parametric models and scaling to create high level designs of various hull types. The inputs are desired speed , range, payload, sea state...reached 10 SWATH vessels exhibit superior seakeeping at near zero speed compared to other hull forms 5 Assumes 2 equal-sized GE Gas Turbines 11

  14. Forced Changes of Combat Posture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-30

    effectiveness. Adkins’s thesi-s on modeling battlefield decision-making provided additional factors. M& Quic addressed the questien of posture change directly in...the study was to gain increased knowledge of the fac- - tors associated with forced changes in combat posture, in order to develop a model of forced...posture change model for use, with appro- priate parameter values, at the divisional and regimental levels. Principles guiding the model development may

  15. Combating Terrorism: 2005 TSWG Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) Washington, DC 20402-0001 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Support Working Group (TSWG) is an additional instrument that cuts across a number of these areas: TSWG develops and uses science and technology to thwart... GROUP 2005 TSWG REVIEW - COMBATING TERRORISM “Revolutionary advances in technology are transforming war in our favor.” George W. Bush May

  16. Traceability of ground based air temperature measurements: a case study on the Meteorological Observatory of Moncalieri (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopardo, Giuseppina; Bertiglia, Fabio; Roggero, Guido; Merlone, Andrea; Mercalli, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Assessing climate change will depend crucially on the robustness of climate data and uncertainties associated with measurements. Measurement uncertainties can only be determined and hence minimized if proper consideration is given to the metrological traceability of the measurement results. The metrological traceability is the property of a measurement to be related to a SI (International System of Units) standard through an unbroken chain of calibrations each contributing to the measurement uncertainty [1]. This work illustrates the three principal steps to guarantee traceability to measurements of air temperature recorded by automatic weather stations: 1. The first step in traceability is related to the primary standards, which are maintained in each country by the National Institute of Metrology (NMI). The internationally agreed reference for the temperature is the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90). The fixed point cells and the transfer instruments, standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRT), are here descried. 2. The second step is the calibration: the temperature sensors are compared directly with primary standards or through secondary standards, according to the target uncertainty and the procedure adopted or required. In this work we illustrate a procedure and a calibration facility manufactured for meteorological purpose by the Italian NMI [2]. The calibration facility is a chamber, with reduced dimensions, transportable for in situ calibrations. 3. Third requirement is the evaluation of the calibration uncertainties. To account in the uncertainty budget for this type B uncertainty, in addition to the usual type A, will allow to obtain more reliable temperature data. (Type A, as defined in the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) [3], is the component of uncertainty determined by means of statistical analysis, and type B by means other than statistical analysis). An application example of a complete traceability

  17. Mitigating Cyber Security Risk in Satellite Ground Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    AU/ACSC/BICHLER/AY2015 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY MITIGATING CYBER SECURITY RISK IN SATELLITE GROUND SYSTEMS by...7 Cyberspace Components of Satellite Ground Systems...9 CYBER THREATS TO SATELLITE GROUND SYSTEMS .................................................10 Cyber Espionage

  18. CSAR (Combat, Search and Rescue) Aide: Design Requirements for a Combat Search and Rescue Decision Support System for Joint Rescue Coordination Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    resources—HAC through 23 AF through commander combat rescue forces.; for fighter support—TAC [Tactical Air Command] through NAF [ Numbered Air Force...making rather than the science of data aggregation, information analysis, and alternative evaluation. Numbers on the battlefield are important...Technology on the battlefield is important. But ineffective judgments and decisions made in the employment of those forces can render the numbers helpless

  19. SOSIE: A pragmatic approach to the simulation of Broad Air Defense applied to the theater level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanter, A.; Deas, M.

    1995-01-01

    The SOSIE concept rests on an approach consisting of using existing simulation models of various systems and subsystems and automatically integrating them with minimum modifications within a center of simulation. The defense simulation against ballistic missiles on the theater level calls upon three levels of simulation: DIAMS; TACSIT, and SPOOK. DIAMS presents a fine level system simulation of weapon ground-to-air average carry, TACSIT presents a level of site defense (base air for example), and SPOOK deals with the theater level itself. SOSIE enables users to use the same detailed simulators, developed by an originator of weapon systems or information and communications, without having to know in detail the models of the simulation. Envisioned in the future is the integration of other models of simulations relating to the air-to-air combat, in particular, the networks of command, controls and communications.

  20. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective