Science.gov

Sample records for air groundwater meteorology

  1. Meteorological determinants of air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turoldo, F.; Del Frate, S.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Montanari, F.; Stel, F.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    Air quality is the result of complex phenomena, among which the major role is played by human emissions of pollutants. Atmospheric processes act as determinants, e.g., modulating, dumping or amplifying the effects of emissions as an orchestra's director does with musical instruments. In this work, a series of small-scale and meso-scale meteorological determinants of air-quality are presented as they are observed in an area characterized by complex orography (Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-eastern side of Italy). In particular, attention is devoted to: i) meso-scale flows favouring the persistence of high concentrations of particulate matter; ii) meso-scale periodic flows (breezes) favouring high values of particulate matter; iii) local-scale thermodynamic behaviour favouring high atmospheric values of nitrogen oxides. The effects of these different classes of determinants are shown through comparisons between anthropic emissions (mainly traffic) and ground-based measurements. The relevance of complex orography (relatively steep relieves near to the sea) is shown for the meso-scale flows and, in particular, for local-scale periodic flows, which favour the increase of high pollutants concentrations mainly in summer, when the breezes regime is particularly relevant. Part of these results have been achieved through the ETS - Alpine Space EU project iMONITRAF!

  2. The Influence of Meteorological Conditions on Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, N. A.; Gipps, J.

    1975-01-01

    Explains the distribution of air pollutants as related to such meteorological conditions as temperature inversions, ground inversion, and wind velocity. Uses a power station to illustrate the effect of some of the meteorological conditions mentioned. (GS)

  3. Dependence of urban air pollutants on meteorology.

    PubMed

    Elminir, Hamdy K

    2005-11-01

    Dependence of air pollutants on meteorology is presented with the aim of understanding the governing processes pollutants phase interaction. Intensive measurements of particulate matter (PM10) and gaseous materials (e.g., CO, NO2, SO2, and O3) are carried out regularly in 2002 at 14 measurement sites distributed over the whole territory of Great Cairo by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency to assess the characteristics of air pollutants. The discussions in this work are based upon measurements performed at Abbassiya site as a case study. The nature of the contributing sources has been investigated and some attempts have been made to indicate the role played by neighboring regions in determining the air quality at the site mentioned. The results hint that, wind direction was found to have an influence not only on pollutant concentrations but also on the correlation between pollutants. As expected, the pollutants associated with traffic were at highest ambient concentration levels when wind speed was low. At higher wind speeds, dust and sand from the surrounding desert was entrained by the wind, thus contributing to ambient particulate matter levels. We also found that, the highest average concentration for NO2 and O3 occurred at humidity

  4. A FEDERATED PARTNERSHIP FOR URBAN METEOROLOGICAL AND AIR QUALITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, applications of urban meteorological and air quality models have been performed at resolutions on the order of km grid sizes. This necessitated development and incorporation of high resolution landcover data and additional boundary layer parameters that serve to descri...

  5. Groundwater treatment with zero air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheuvront, D.A. ); Giggy, C.L.; Loven, C.G. ); Swett, G.H. )

    1990-08-01

    Air emissions from the treatment of volatile organic compound (VOC) - contaminated groundwater are a growing problem in the US. Historically, air stripping has been used to remove VOCs from contaminated groundwater. Air stripping technology is a cross media treatment technique, i.e., it solves a groundwater problem by transferring contamination to the atmosphere. In response to the air pollution problem created by air stripping, the public, air quality regulatory agencies, the federal government and private industry are exerting pressure to eliminate and/or reduce air emissions from the clean-up of contaminated groundwater. These forces make it desirable to consider alternative and innovative technologies for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with VOCs.

  6. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is impor...

  7. Future directions of meteorology related to air-quality research.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Nelson L

    2003-06-01

    Meteorology is one of the major factors contributing to air-pollution episodes. More accurate representation of meteorological fields has been possible in recent years through the use of remote sensing systems, high-speed computers and fine-mesh meteorological models. Over the next 5-20 years, better meteorological inputs for air quality studies will depend on making better use of a wealth of new remotely sensed observations in more advanced data assimilation systems. However, for fine mesh models to be successful, parameterizations used to represent physical processes must be redesigned to be more precise and better adapted for the scales at which they will be applied. Candidates for significant overhaul include schemes to represent turbulence, deep convection, shallow clouds, and land-surface processes. Improvements in the meteorological observing systems, data assimilation and modeling, coupled with advancements in air-chemistry modeling, will soon lead to operational forecasting of air quality in the US. Predictive capabilities can be expected to grow rapidly over the next decade. This will open the way for a number of valuable new services and strategies, including better warnings of unhealthy atmospheric conditions, event-dependent emissions restrictions, and now casting support for homeland security in the event of toxic releases into the atmosphere.

  8. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliam, Robert C.; Hogrefe, Christian; Godowitch, James M.; Napelenok, Sergey; Mathur, Rohit; Rao, S. Trivikrama

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is important to understand how uncertainties in these inputs affect the simulated concentrations. Ensembles are one method to explore how uncertainty in meteorology affects air pollution concentrations. Most studies explore this uncertainty by running different meteorological models or the same model with different physics options and in some cases combinations of different meteorological and air quality models. While these have been shown to be useful techniques in some cases, we present a technique that leverages the initial condition perturbations of a weather forecast ensemble, namely, the Short-Range Ensemble Forecast system to drive the four-dimensional data assimilation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with a key focus being the response of ozone chemistry and transport. Results confirm that a sizable spread in WRF solutions, including common weather variables of temperature, wind, boundary layer depth, clouds, and radiation, can cause a relatively large range of ozone-mixing ratios. Pollutant transport can be altered by hundreds of kilometers over several days. Ozone-mixing ratios of the ensemble can vary as much as 10-20 ppb or 20-30% in areas that typically have higher pollution levels.

  9. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-01-01

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology. PMID:27029386

  10. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-31

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  11. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-01-01

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology. PMID:27029386

  12. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-01

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  13. Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  14. Meteorological and air pollution modeling for an urban airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, P. R.; Lee, I. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of numerical experiments modeling meteorology, multiple pollutant sources, and nonlinear photochemical reactions for the case of an airport in a large urban area with complex terrain. A planetary boundary-layer model which predicts the mixing depth and generates wind, moisture, and temperature fields was used; it utilizes only surface and synoptic boundary conditions as input data. A version of the Hecht-Seinfeld-Dodge chemical kinetics model is integrated with a new, rapid numerical technique; both the San Francisco Bay Area Air Quality Management District source inventory and the San Jose Airport aircraft inventory are utilized. The air quality model results are presented in contour plots; the combined results illustrate that the highly nonlinear interactions which are present require that the chemistry and meteorology be considered simultaneously to make a valid assessment of the effects of individual sources on regional air quality.

  15. Meteorological Processes Affecting Air Quality – Research and Model Development Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorology modeling is an important component of air quality modeling systems that defines the physical and dynamical environment for atmospheric chemistry. The meteorology models used for air quality applications are based on numerical weather prediction models that were devel...

  16. Impact of High Resolution Land-Use Data in Meteorology and Air Quality Modeling Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate land use information is important in meteorology for land surface exchanges, in emission modeling for emission spatial allocation, and in air quality modeling for chemical surface fluxes. Currently, meteorology, emission, and air quality models often use outdated USGS Gl...

  17. Meteorological and Wave Measurements for Improving Meteorological and Air Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, J.; MacDonald, C.; Ray, A.; Fairall, C. W.; Pezoa, S.; Gibson, B.; Huang, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    A unique collaboration between corporate, government, and university researchers have teamed up to develop a marine environmental observations program on an offshore platform in the Gulf of Mexico. The meteorological and oceanographic sensors have been deployed for an extended period (12-24 months) on a Chevron service platform (90.5W, 29N) to collect boundary layer and sea surface data sufficient to improve dispersion modeling in and around the Gulf of Mexico. This task has recently been provided significant import, given the large industrial presence in the Gulf, the large regional population, and the recognized need for precise and accurate dispersion forecasts. Observations include marine boundary layer winds, height, and temperature, sea surface temperature and current, wave height, downwelling solar and infrared radiation, air-sea momentum and heat fluxes, and mean meteorological parameters. We will present a summary of the instrument deployment, show the initial time series of the observations, and provide context for the experimental outcomes.

  18. Air sparging of organic compounds in groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, P.M.

    1994-12-31

    Soils and aquifers containing organic compounds have been traditionally treated by excavation and disposal of the soil and/or pumping and treating the groundwater. These remedial options are often not practical or cost effective solutions. A more favorable alternative for removal of the adsorbed/dissolved organic compounds would be an in situ technology. Air sparging will remove volatile organic compounds from both the adsorbed and dissolved phases in the saturated zone. This technology effectively creates a crude air stripper below the aquifer where the soil acts as the ``packing``. The air stream that contacts dissolved/adsorbed phase organics in the aquifer induces volatilization. A case history illustrates the effectiveness of air sparging as a remedial technology for addressing organic compounds in soil and groundwater. The site is an operating heavy equipment manufacturing facility in central Florida. The soil and groundwater below a large building at the facility was found to contain primarily diesel type petroleum hydrocarbons during removal of underground storage tanks. The organic compounds identified in the groundwater were Benzene, Xylenes, Ethylbenzene and Toluenes (BTEX), Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) and naphthalenes in concentrations related to diesel fuel.

  19. Decomposing groundwater head variations into meteorological and pumping components: a synthetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoori, V.; Peterson, T. J.; Western, A. W.; Costelloe, J. F.

    2015-11-01

    Time-series modeling is often used to decompose groundwater hydrographs into individual drivers such as pumping and meteorological factors. To date, there has been an assumption that a simulation fitting the total hydrograph produces reliable estimates of the impact from each driver. That is, assessment of the decomposition has not used an independent estimate of each decomposition result. To begin to address this, a synthetic study is undertaken so that the impact of each driver is known. In this study, 500 MODFLOW groundwater models of a one-layer unconfined aquifer were constructed. For each model, three hydrogeological properties (saturated hydraulic conductivity, storativity and depth to aquifer basement), the distance between observation and pumping bores, and extraction rate were set randomly and synthetic groundwater hydrographs were derived. For each hydrograph, the influence of individual drivers was estimated using six different time-series models. These estimates were then compared to the known meteorological and pumping influences derived from the MODFLOW models. The results demonstrate that hydrograph separations obtained from time-series models do not always result in reliable estimation of pumping and meteorological influences even when the overall hydrograph fit is good. However, when the time-series model represents the important processes (e.g. phreatic evaporation is included for shallow water tables) and the (head) variance of the pumping signal to the meteorological signal is between 0.1 and 10, the time-series model has the potential to adequately separate the influence of pumping and climate.

  20. Role of Meteorological Controls on the Inter-annual Groundwater Dynamics of Wetlands in a Southeastern US Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Kumar, M.

    2015-12-01

    Wetlands are highly valued for their numerous ecological services including water quality improvement and land-atmosphere interactions. The effectiveness of wetlands in delivering these services is strongly influenced by the shallow groundwater dynamics. As such, in order to understand the variation of ecological processes in wetlands, it is crucial to first quantify the controls on the temporal variations in the groundwater table. In this paper, a physically based and fully distributed hydrologic model was applied to simulate the long term variation of groundwater and the distribution of wetlands in the Second Creek watershed. Covariation in simulated groundwater table and meteorological variables were analyzed using Bayesian regression to evaluate the integrated role of seasonal meteorological controls on interannual variations in maximum groundwater height and the start date and length of the wet period (defined as the period when the groundwater depth is shallower than 30cm). The meteorological controls were quantified based on the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which is an indicator of net wet or dry recharge period. Results indicate that the PDSI in autumn and spring is the dominant control on the length of wet time. The start date of wet time in downstream wetlands is controlled by the autumn PDSI while that in headwater wetlands is controlled by the PDSI in both autumn and the previous summer. The maximum groundwater table height inundation depth of wetlands is controlled by the winter PDSI. These results highlight that to understand that susceptibility of a given groundwater dynamics characteristic, one needs to track the corresponding changes in meteorological forcings within particular seasons. Results will help understand and predict anticipated changes in groundwater dynamics and ecological processes of wetlands in response to changes in meteorological forcings due to climate change in the southeastern U.S.

  1. Groundwater air stripping: Effect on water toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, R.B.; Simpson, C.W.; Elliott, D.J.

    1995-02-01

    An air stripping unit was designed to reduce groundwater hydrocarbon content and biotoxicity to acceptable levels. A pilot plant study was conducted to determine the water treatability and to optimize the commercial unit design conditions. A measurement of the pilot plant effluent toxicity was obtained from {open_quotes}Microtox{close_quotes} analysis and rigorous bio-assays. These results indicated that reduction of the water hydrocarbon content to permitted discharge limits was accompanied by the elimination of water toxicity. The Onda mass transfer model was used to prepare the commercial unit design. A post-installation evaluation indicated that the model gave a good representation of the commercial unit performance. Toxicity reductions observed in the pilot plant were also observed in the commercial unit. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Some principles governing the establishment of meteorological stations along air routes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aujames, P

    1922-01-01

    The organization of a meteorological service for an air route involves the solution of two distinct problems: distribution and grouping of meteorological stations and communications. Experience gained in the establishment of two lines, Paris-Warsaw and Constantinople-Bucharest enables us to establish certain principles, which may be of interest to note here.

  3. Air stripping & photocatalytic oxidation: A winning team for groundwater remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Kittrell, J.R.; Quinlan, C.W.

    1995-09-01

    The Dover AFB Groundwater Reclamation Project demonstrated advanced technologies to control groundwater contamination, including comparisons of traditional countercurrent air atrippers to a crossflow air stripping technology. Another demonstration involved an advanced photocatalytic VOC destruction technology, which operates on the effluent air from the stripper. The combination of air stripping and photocatalytic destruction was shown to be effective for remediation of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds, both because of its low cost and its ability to prevent toxic air emissions. A detailed performance comparison of stripper designs shows that the crossflow air stripper design was comparable in effectiveness to the conventional countercurrent air stripper at high air-to-water ratios, but at a substantially lower pressure drop.

  4. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Modeling for Combined Meteorology and Air Quality Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric Eulerian grid models for mesoscale and larger applications require sub-grid models for turbulent vertical exchange processes, particularly within the Planetary Boundary Layer (PSL). In combined meteorology and air quality modeling systems consistent PSL modeling of wi...

  5. Baseline meteorological soundings for parametric environmental investigations at Kennedy Space Center and Vandenberg Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susko, M.; Stephens, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Meteorological soundings representative of the atmospheric environment at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida and Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, are presented. Synthetic meteorological soundings at Kennedy Space Center, including fall, spring, and a sea breeze, and at Vandenberg Air Force Base (sea breeze with low and high level inversion and stationary upper level troughs) are shown. Soundings of frontal passages are listed. The Titan launch soundings at Kennedy Space Center present a wide range of meteorological conditions, both seasonal and time of day variations. The meteorological data input of altitude, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, and pressure may be used as meteorological inputs for the NASA/MSFC Multilayer Diffusion Model or other models to obtain quantitative estimates of effluent concentrations associated with the potential emission of major combustion products in the lower atmosphere to simulate actual launches of space vehicles. The Titan launch soundings are also of value in terms of rocket effluent measurements for analysis purposes.

  6. BOREAS AES Five-Day Averaged Surface Meteorological and Upper Air Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service (AES) provided BOREAS with hourly and daily surface meteorological data from 23 of the AES meteorological stations located across Canada and upper air data from 1 station at The Pas, Manitoba. Due to copyright restrictions on the full resolution surface meteorological data, this data set contains 5-day average values for the surface parameters. The upper air data are provided in their full resolution form. The 5-day averaging was performed in order to create a data set that could be publicly distributed at no cost. Temporally, the surface meteorological data cover the period of January 1975 to December 1996 and the upper air data cover the period of January 1961 to November 1996. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-staff data. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  7. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  8. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  9. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  10. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  11. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  12. Comprehensive air quality and meteorological monitoring program. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This data report contains air monitoring results for: total suspended particulates, particulates matter less than 10 micrometers, metals (including arsenic mercury), volatile organic compounds, organochlorine pesticides, semivolatile organic compounds, air compounds, air stripper semivolatile organic compounds, basin F waste pile, pond A, tank farm vents (VOCs).

  13. Response of surface and groundwater on meteorological drought in Topla River catchment, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendekova, Miriam; Fendek, Marian; Vrablikova, Dana; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Slivova, Valeria; Horvat, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Continuously increasing number of drought studies published in scientific journals reflects the attention of the scientific community paid to drought. The fundamental works among many others were published by Yevjevich (1967), Zelenhasic and Salvai (1987), later by Tallaksen and van Lanen Eds. (2004). The aim of the paper was to analyze the response of surface and groundwater to meteorological drought occurrence in the upper and middle part of the Topla River Basin, Slovakia. This catchment belongs to catchments with unfavourable hydrogeological conditions, being built of rocks with quite low permeability. The basin is located in the north-eastern part of Slovakia covering the area of 1050.05 km2. The response was analyzed using precipitation data from the Bardejov station (long-term annual average of 662 mm in 1981 - 2012) and discharge data from two gauging stations - Bardejov and Hanusovce nad Toplou. Data on groundwater head from eight observation wells, located in the catchment, were also used, covering the same observation period. Meteorological drought was estimated using characterisation of the year humidity and SPI index. Hydrological drought was evaluated using the threshold level method and method of sequent peak algorithm, both with the fixed and also variable thresholds. The centroid method of the cluster analysis with the squared Euclidean distance was used for clustering data according to occurrence of drought periods, lasting for 100 days and more. Results of the SPI index showed very good applicability for drought periods identification in the basin. The most pronounced dry periods occurred in 1982 - 1983, 1984, 1998 and 2012 being classified as moderately dry, and also in 1993 - 1994, 2003 - 2004 and 2007 evolving from moderately to severely dry years. Short-term drought prevailed in discharges, only three periods of drought longer than 100 days occurred during the evaluated period in 1986 - 1987, 1997 and 2003 - 2004. Discharge drought in the

  14. Eighth joint conference on applications of air pollution meteorology with A & WMA

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The eighth Joint Conference on Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology, held January 23-28, 1994, again brings together the American Meteorological Society and Air and Waste Management Association with a broader scientific community to examine the role of the atmosphere on current air quality issues. The CAA Amendments non-attainment title has brought renewed interest in the pairing of complex dynamical meteorological models with photochemical air quality models. Requirements that future attainment to regulations be demonstrated with these models invite a new look at model evaluation. The CAAA titles addressing air toxics have brought renewed interest in near-source dispersion and deposition of toxic chemicals. Consequently, this conference is divided into sessions focusing on topics related to these issues. They include: The Dispersion Environment; Meteorology in Emissions Determination; Long-Range and Mesoscale Pollutant Transport and Fate; Meteorology and Photochemistry; Advanced Dispersion Models and Modeling Systems; Topics in Model Evaluation; Complex Flow Affecting Dispersion Near Structures; and Coastal and Complex Terrain Issues Evaluation.

  15. Technology Needs Assessment of an Atmospheric Observation System for Multidisciplinary Air Quality/Meteorology Missions, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarado, U. R.; Bortner, M. H.; Grenda, R. N.; Brehm, W. F.; Frippel, G. G.; Alyea, F.; Kraiman, H.; Folder, P.; Krowitz, L.

    1982-01-01

    The technology advancements that will be necessary to implement the atmospheric observation systems are considered. Upper and lower atmospheric air quality and meteorological parameters necessary to support the air quality investigations were included. The technology needs were found predominantly in areas related to sensors and measurements of air quality and meteorological measurements.

  16. Pollution by Urticaceae pollen-influence of selected air pollutants and meteorological parameters.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Nataša Čamprag; Kiš, Tibor; Janaćković, Peđa; Đorđević, Dragana; Popović, Aleksandar

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the influence of pollutants (concentrations of NO2, SO2, and soot in the air) and meteorological parameters (air temperature, humidity, wind speed, air pressure, cloud index) on Urticaceae pollen type emission measured in the region of Subotica, Serbia. The concentrations of the air pollutants, Urticaceae pollen, and meteorological parameters were measured over a 5-year period (2009-2013), followed by a statistical analysis of the values obtained. For most of the years examined, the concentration of NO2 correlates significantly with the concentration of Urticaceae pollen type. It was also established that air temperature, humidity, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, and cloud index have an influence on Urticaceae pollen type emission, while SO2 and soot do not contribute. PMID:26865493

  17. Relationships between meteorological parameters and criteria air pollutants in three megacities in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongliang; Wang, Yungang; Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Hu, Xiao-Ming

    2015-07-01

    Meteorological conditions play a crucial role in ambient air pollution by affecting both directly and indirectly the emissions, transport, formation, and deposition of air pollutants. In this study, the relationships between meteorological parameters and ambient air pollutants concentrations in three megacities in China, Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou were investigated. A systematic analysis of air pollutants including PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, and O3 and meteorological parameters including temperature, wind speed (WS), wind direction (WD) and relative humanity (RH) was conducted for a continuous period of 12 months from March 2013 to February 2014. The results show that all three cities experienced severe air quality problems. Clear seasonal trends were observed for PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2 and NO2 with the maximum concentrations in the winter and the minimum in the summer, while O3 exhibited an opposite trend. Substantially different correlations between air pollutants and meteorological parameters were observed among these three cities. WS reversely correlated with air pollutants, and temperature positively correlated with O3. Easterly wind led to the highest PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing, westerly wind led to high PM2.5 concentrations in Shanghai, while northern wind blew air parcels with the highest PM2.5 concentrations to Guangzhou. In Beijing, days of top 10% PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NO2 concentrations were with higher RH compared to days of bottom 10% concentrations, and SO2 and O3 showed no distinct RH dependencies. In Guangzhou, days of top 10% PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2 and O3 concentrations were with lower RH compared to days of bottom 10% concentrations. Shanghai showed less fluctuation in RH between top and bottom 10%. These results confirm the important role of meteorological parameters in air pollution formation with large variations in different seasons and geological areas. These findings can be utilized to improve the understanding of the mechanisms

  18. [Study on the groundwater petroleum contaminant remediation by air sparging].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Qiang; Zou, Zu-Guang; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xun-Chang; Zhao, Ji-Chu

    2007-04-01

    The groundwater petroleum contaminant remediation effect by air sparging was investigated in an oil field. The results show that the soil geological situation has great influence on the air distribution, and the shape of air distribution is not symmetrical to the air sparging (AS) well as axis. The influence distance in the left of AS well is 6 m, and only 4 m in the right. The petroleum removal rate can reach 70% in the zone with higher air saturation, but only 40% in the zone with lower air saturation, and the average petroleum removal rate reaches 60% in the influence zone for 40 days continuous air sparging. The petroleum components in groundwater were analyzed by GC/MS (gas chromatogram-mass spectrograph) before and after experiments, respectively. The results show that the petroleum removal rate has relationship with the components and their properties. The petroleum components with higher volatility are easily removed by volatilization, but those with lower volatility are difficult to remove, so a tailing effect of lingering residual contaminant exists when the air sparging technology is adopted to treat groundwater contaminated by petroleum products.

  19. The meteorological monitoring system for the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dianic, Allan V.

    1994-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) are involved in many weather-sensitive operations. Manned and unmanned vehicle launches, which occur several times each year, are obvious example of operations whose success and safety are dependent upon favorable meteorological conditions. Other operations involving NASA, Air Force, and contractor personnel, including daily operations to maintain facilities, refurbish launch structures, prepare vehicles for launch, and handle hazardous materials, are less publicized but are no less weather-sensitive. The Meteorological Monitoring System (MMS) is a computer network which acquires, processes, disseminates, and monitors near real-time and forecast meteorological information to assist operational personnel and weather forecasters with the task of minimizing the risk to personnel, materials, and the surrounding population. CLIPS has been integrated into the MMS to provide quality control analysis and data monitoring. This paper describes aspects of the MMS relevant to CLIPS including requirements, actual implementation details, and results of performance testing.

  20. A NEW COMBINED LOCAL AND NON-LOCAL PBL MODEL FOR METEOROLOGY AND AIR QUALITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new version of the Asymmetric Convective Model (ACM) has been developed to describe sub-grid vertical turbulent transport in both meteorology models and air quality models. The new version (ACM2) combines the non-local convective mixing of the original ACM with local eddy diff...

  1. Summary of the setting, air quality problems, and meteorological activities in the oil shale region

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; Clements, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This document discusses air quality problems that may arise in the valleys of the Uinta mountains and the Roan Ridge in the oil shale area in western Colorado and eastern Utah. A meteorological field expedition that was undertaken in August 1980 by LASL and PNL is described. (DLC)

  2. Meteorological Modeling of Wintertime Cold Air Pool Stagnation Episodes in the Uintah and Salt Lake Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, E.; Horel, J.; Blaylock, B. K.; Foster, C.

    2014-12-01

    High wintertime ozone concentrations in rural areas associated with oil and gas development and high particulate concentrations in urban areas have become topics of increasing concern in the Western United States, as both primary and secondary pollutants become trapped within stable wintertime boundary layers. While persistent cold air pools that enable such poor wintertime air quality are typically associated with high pressure aloft and light winds, the complex physical processes that contribute to the formation, maintenance, and decay of persistent wintertime temperature inversions are only partially understood. In addition, obtaining sufficiently accurate numerical weather forecasts and meteorological simulations of cold air pools for input into chemical models remains a challenge. This study examines the meteorological processes associated with several wintertime pollution episodes in Utah's Uintah and Salt Lake Basins using numerical Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations and observations collected from the Persistent Cold Air Pool and Uintah Basin Ozone Studies. The temperature, vertical structure, and winds within these cold air pools was found to vary as a function of snow cover, snow albedo, land use, cloud cover, large-scale synoptic flow, and episode duration. We evaluate the sensitivity of key atmospheric features such as stability, planetary boundary layer depth, local wind flow patterns and transport mechanisms to variations in surface forcing, clouds, and synoptic flow. Finally, noted deficiencies in the meteorological models of cold air pools and modifications to the model snow and microphysics treatment that have resulted in improved cold pool simulations will be presented.

  3. Air stripping of organics from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.; Valsaraj, K.T.; Wetzel, D.M. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    As awareness of the problem of contaminated ground water increases, the demand for reliable and cost-effective treatment processes will also increase. Although a number of treatment options exist or are under development, air stripping using counter current flow in packed columns is the current technology of choice in many situations. This paper reviews the basic principles of packed-column design and defines the limits of counter current contacting when applied to situations in which the resistance to mass transfer in the gas phase is important. The cascade crossflow configuration allows water and air flow to be varied independently, providing added design flexibility. Reductions in pressure drop by as much as two orders of magnitude result in stable column operation at air and water flow rates which would cause flooding in a counter current column. Mass transfer efficiencies comparable to, and in some cases greater than, counter current operation have been measured. Experimental results for cascade crossflow air stripping of 1,2-dichloroethane and methyl ethyl ketone are presented. The gas-phase, mass-transfer resistance is important for both compounds due to their small Henry's constants, 1,2-dichloroethane is considered to be difficult to strip using counter current contacting, while high efficiency air stripping of methyl ethyl ketone is impractical at ambient temperature.

  4. Atmospheric light air ion concentrations and related meteorologic factors in Rezekne city, Latvia.

    PubMed

    Skromulis, Andris; Noviks, Gotfrids

    2012-04-01

    The well-minded impact of light negative air ions on human organism is still under discussion. The measurements of air ions are not widespread in Latvia yet. The paper presents new results of air pollution evaluation in Rezekne city. Measurements of positive and negative air ion concentrations in Rezekne city were taken during the spring, summer and autumn 2009 and during the winter 2010. Measurements were taken by portative air ions counter "Sapfir-3M" in eight different points of Rezekne city thrice a day. The concentrations of positive and negative air ions with mobility factor k > or = 0.4 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) were measured. Temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, direction, etc., were also taken into account. The approximate interconnection between ionization and chemical and mechanical air pollution in relation with meteorological conditions was analyzed. The highest level of air ion concentration was observed in mornings, whereas in afternoons this concentration level decreased due to the growth of anthropogenic air pollution in the city, as light air ions, because of their charge, promoted the coagulation and the settlement of pollution particles. This regularity is typical for summer, whereas in spring, autumn and winter it is not characteristic. The unipolarity factor was usually less than 1 in mornings, but usually larger than 1 in afternoons especially in the most polluted city areas where minor concentration of air ions was detected. The ionization level is an original indicator of energetic saturation and aerosol pollution of atmospheric air.

  5. Meteorological influences on extreme duration PM2.5 air pollution episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthys, J.; Horton, D. E.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2014-12-01

    The public health impact of poor air quality events increases as their duration lengthens. Potentially hazardous air pollution episodes result when meteorological conditions facilitate the accumulation and/or formation of airborne pollutants in the near-surface atmosphere and may persist if ventilation, vertical escape, and/or scavenging of the pollutants fails to occur. Here, we analyze particulate matter (PM) observations from a suite of globally-distributed locations, characterize the intensity and persistence of extreme duration above-EPA/WMO-standard PM2.5 pollution events, and examine the role of meteorological factors in their occurrence. We focus on the atmospheric phenomenon of air stagnation and its constituent meteorological components (dry day occurrence and light surface and upper air wind speed occurrence) and characterize the role of each on observed extreme duration episodes. Based on this observational analysis, we then use an ensemble of CMIP5 historical and high-emission scenario simulations to examine the occurrence of model-simulated stagnation and stagnation component persistence. We characterize extreme duration stagnation episodes within the multi-model ensemble and assess the response of stagnation persistence to enhanced mid-twenty first century radiative forcing.

  6. An intercomparison of several diagnostic meteorological processors used in mesoscale air quality modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Vimont, J.C.; Scire, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    A major component, and area of uncertainty, in mesoscale air quality modeling, is the specification of the meteorological fields which affect the transport and dispersion of pollutants. Various options are available for estimating the wind and mixing depth fields over a mesoscale domain. Estimates of the wind field can be obtained from spatial and temporal interpolation of available observations or from diagnostic meteorological models, which estimate a meteorological field from available data and adjust those fields based on parameterizations of physical processes. A major weakness of these processors is their dependence on spatially and temporally sparse input data, particularly upper air data. These problems are exacerbated in regions of complex terrain and along the shorelines of large bodies of water. Similarly, the estimation of mixing depth is also reliant upon sparse observations and the parameterization of the convective and mechanical processes. The meteorological processors examined in this analysis were developed to drive different Lagrangian puff models. This paper describes the algorithms these processors use to estimate the wind fields and mixing depth fields.

  7. Relations between groundwater levels and anthropogenic and meteorological stressors at selected sites in east-central Florida, 1995-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, Louis C.

    2010-01-01

    Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to define the relations of water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) and surficial aquifer system (SAS) to anthropogenic and meteorological stressors between 1995 and 2007 at two monitoring well sites (Charlotte Street and Lake Oliver) in east-central Florida. Anthropogenic stressors of interest included municipal and agricultural groundwater withdrawals, and application of reclaimed-water to rapid-infiltration basins (source of aquifer recharge). Meteorological stressors included precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Overall, anthropogenic and meteorological stressors accounted for about 40 to 89 percent of the variance in UFA and SAS groundwater levels and water-level changes. While mean monthly water levels were better correlated with monthly stressor values, changes in UFA and SAS water levels were better correlated with changes in stressor values. Water levels and water-level changes were influenced by system persistence as the moving-averaged values of both stressor types, which accounted for the influence of the previous month(s) conditions, consistently yielded higher adjusted coefficients of determination (R2 adj) values than did single monthly values. While monthly water-level changes tend to be influenced equally with both stressors across the hydrologically averaged 13-year period, changes were more influenced by one stressor or the other seasonally and during extended wet and dry periods. Seasonally, UFA water-level changes tended to be more influenced by anthropogenic stressors than by meteorological stressors, while changes in SAS water levels tended to be more influenced by meteorological stressors. During extended dry periods (12 months or greater), changes in UFA water levels at Charlotte Street were more affected by anthropogenic stressors than by meteorological stressors, while changes in SAS levels were more affected by meteorological stressors. At Lake Oliver, changes in both

  8. Sensitivity of coastal meteorology and air quality to urban surface characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Surface characteristics play an important role in shaping the local meteorological conditions in urban areas, and subsequently affect the generation and transport of pollutants. A basic understanding of this relationship in urban climates has led researchers to explore surface modification strategies for cooling cities, saving energy, and reducing pollution. These strategies include planting of urban vegetation and increasing urban albedo, both of which represent a significant modification to the urban surface. The air temperature reductions resulting from enhanced evapotranspiration (from increasing vegetation), and reduced solar gain (from increasing albedo) have positive energy use and air quality implications. Research has shown that decreasing air temperature by 1{degrees}C in the Los Angeles Basin could save consumers $50,000 per hour in avoided energy use and reduce peak ozone levels by 5 to 10 parts per billion. Driven by these figures, this study is part of a larger research effort focusing on air quality in the Los Angeles Basin. Prior to conducting full three-dimensional meteorological simulations and the corresponding photochemical smog simulations, two-dimensional simulations were designed to isolate each surface characteristic and examine its role in a developing mesoscale coastal flow. The air temperature and mixing height impacts, having the most air quality significance, were then investigated through a preliminary photochemical sensitivity study.

  9. Meteorological air pollution potential for Santiago, Chile: Towards an objective episode forecasting.

    PubMed

    Rutllant, J; Garreaud, R

    1995-02-01

    The geography and climate of the Santiago basin are, in general, unfavorable for the diffusion of air pollutants. Consequently, extreme events occur frequently during the high pollution season extending from April to August. The meteorological conditions concurrent with those extreme events are mainly associated with the leading edges of coastal lows that bring down the base of the semipermanent temperature inversion reducing the dirunal growth of the surface mixed layer. In order to produce an objective 12 to 24-hour episode forecast, a two-way multivariate discriminant analysis has been used in the definition of a meteorological air-pollution potential index (MAPPI), separating high and low meteorological air-pollution potential days. The same procedure has been applied in the selection of the most efficient predictors for the MAPPI objective forecast, based on 12 and 24 UTC radiosonde data at Quintero, about 100 km to the NW of Santiago. Results indicate about 70% correctly forecasted days, with satisfactory skill-scores relative to persistency. The strong persistency characterizing the most efficient predictors in the 12-hour objective forecast scheme, makes the prediction of the first and last days of any particular air-pollution potential episode particularly difficult. To overcome this problem, a new set of predictors based on continuous measurements near the level of the top of the temperature inversion layer (900 hPa during air-pollution episodes) is being tested. Preliminary results indicate that the time-integrated zonal wind component at that level is a reliable precursor for both the onset and the end of air-pollution potential episodes. PMID:24202138

  10. [Study on air quality and pollution meteorology conditions of Guangzhou during the 2010 Asian games].

    PubMed

    Li, Ting-Yuan; Deng, Xue-Jiao; Fan, Shao-Jia; Wu, Dui; Li, Fei; Deng, Tao; Tan, Hao-Bo; Jiang, De-Hai

    2012-09-01

    Based on the monitoring data of NO2, O3, SO2, PM, visibility, regional air quality index (RAQI) and the atmospheric transport and diffusion data from Nov. 4, 2010 to Dec. 10, 2010 in Guangzhou area, the variations of air quality and meteorological conditions during the Guangzhou Asian Games were analyzed. It was found that, during the Asian Games, the air quality was better than the air quality before or after the Asian Games. The visibility was greater than the visibility before or after the Asian Games, while the concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 were lower. The correlation coefficient between visibility and the concentrations of PM1, PM2.5 indicated anti-correlation relationships. Daily and hourly concentrations of NO2 and SO2 met the primary ambient air quality standards, whereas the daily concentration of PM10 and hourly concentration of O3 met the secondary ambient air quality standards. Pollutants had been well controlled during the Asian Games. The concentration of SO2 in Guangzhou was influenced by local sources and long distance transmission, while the concentration of NO2 was significantly influenced by local sources. The emissions of NO2, SO2 and PM10 surrounding Guangzhou had a trend to affect the concentrations in Guangzhou, but the situation of O3 was opposite, the relatively high concentration of O3 in Guangzhou had tendency to be transported to the surrounding areas. The pollution meteorology conditions in the period of Asian Games were better than the conditions before or after the Asian Games. The decrease in the concentrations during the Asian Games did not only benefit from the emission control by the government, but also from the good meteorological conditions.

  11. Meteorology and air pollution in an alpine Valley during two strikingly different winter periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgeri, F.; Schäfer, K.; Obleitner, F.

    2009-04-01

    During winter essentially, Alpine valleys are frequently prone to enhanced air pollution inducing serious impairments of human health and of sustainable development in these regions. This is mainly due to particular topographic and meteorological effects, which are investigated within this study. The focus of this contribution is based on comparison of consistent data collected during two winters with strikingly different characteristics. The measurements were performed in context of specific campaigns covering the full winter periods 2005/06 and 2007/08 and a cross section in the lower Inn valley (Austria). Notably, the concentrations of air pollutant species matters and the meteorological parameters were measured at the same places employing almost identical instrumentation during both periods. Meteorological analysis is mainly based on data from routine synoptic stations and automatic weather stations located at different elevations in a cross section of the valley, which is supported by mixing-height data derived from SODAR and ceilometers operated at the valley bottom. Air pollution analysis consider NO, NO2 and PM10 and is based on data from routine monitoring stations, a passive sampler network and differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) yielding quasi-continuous information about the small scale gradients of the nitrogen compounds. Partly these measurements are strongly influenced by a nearby motorway. The analysis shows that both winter periods differed significant from the climatology. In 2005/06 there was a long-lasting snow cover and the meteorological regime was characterized by outstandingly low air temperatures (-1.5°C compared to the long-term average) in response to persistent high-pressure periods during the central winter months. Mixing processes were inhibited due to the inherent inversion conditions and low-lying mixing heights which both support high concentrations of the investigated air pollutants. In contrast to the first

  12. Meteorological regimes for the classification of aerospace air quality predictions for NASA-Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. B.; Sloan, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for developing a statistical air quality assessment for the launch of an aerospace vehicle from the Kennedy Space Center in terms of existing climatological data sets. The procedure can be refined as developing meteorological conditions are identified for use with the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center Rocket Exhaust Effluent Diffusion (REED) description. Classical climatological regimes for the long range analysis can be narrowed as the synoptic and mesoscale structure is identified. Only broad synoptic regimes are identified at this stage of analysis. As the statistical data matrix is developed, synoptic regimes will be refined in terms of the resulting eigenvectors as applicable to aerospace air quality predictions.

  13. Visibility characteristics and the impacts of air pollutants and meteorological conditions over Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dan; Li, Chengfan; Liu, Qian

    2015-06-01

    In China, visibility condition has become an important issue that concerns both society and the scientific community. In order to study visibility characteristics and its influencing factors, visibility data, air pollutants, and meteorological data during the year 2013 were obtained over Shanghai. The temporal variation of atmospheric visibility was analyzed. The mean value of daily visibility of Shanghai was 19.1 km. Visibility exhibited an obvious seasonal cycle. The maximum and minimum visibility occurred in September and December with the values of 27.5 and 7.7 km, respectively. The relationships between the visibility and air pollutant data were calculated. The visibility had negative correlation with NO2, CO, PM2.5, PM10, and SO2 and weak positive correlation with O3. Meteorological data were clustered into four groups to reveal the joint contribution of meteorological variables to the daily average visibility. Usually, under the meteorological condition of high temperature and wind speed, the visibility of Shanghai reached about 25 km, while visibility decreased to 16 km under the weather type of low wind speed and temperature and high relative humid. Principle component analysis was also applied to identify the main cause of visibility variance. The results showed that the low visibility over Shanghai was mainly due to the high air pollution concentrations associated with low wind speed, which explained the total variance of 44.99 %. These results provide new knowledge for better understanding the variations of visibility and have direct implications to supply sound policy on visibility improvement in Shanghai.

  14. Meteorological conditions are associated with physical activities performed in open-air settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suminski, Richard R.; Poston, Walker C.; Market, Patrick; Hyder, Melissa; Sara, Pyle A.

    2008-01-01

    Meteorological conditions (MC) are believed to modify physical activity. However, studies in this area are limited and none have looked at the associations between MC and physical activity in open-air settings. Therefore, we examined the relationships between MC and physical activities performed on sidewalks/streets and outdoor oval tracks. Observation techniques were used to count individuals walking to school, exercising on oval tracks and walking/jogging/biking on sidewalks/streets. Meteorological conditions were obtained from an Automated Surface Observing System located at a nearby airport for the same time periods physical activities were observed. On weekdays, fewer children were seen walking to school and more bicyclists were observed on sidewalks/streets as wind speed increased ( p < 0.05). Ambient and apparent temperatures were positively ( p < 0.05) and humidity and barometric pressure negatively ( p < 0.005) related to the number of individuals walking on the track. Meteorological conditions were not significantly associated with physical activities observed on weekends. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that apparent temperature (+), barometric pressure (-) and dew point (-) accounted for 58.0% of the variance in the number of walkers on the track. A significant proportion of the variance (>30%) in the number of joggers and the length of time they jogged was accounted for by apparent temperature (+) and dew point (-). We found that meteorological conditions are related to physical activity in open-air settings. The results embellish the context in which environmental-physical activity relationships should be interpreted and provide important information for researchers applying the observation method in open-air settings.

  15. Technical procedures for implementation of meteorology/air quality site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    This report describes The Technical Procedures that will be used to monitor air quality and meteorology. Topics include: high-volume filter handling; operation, maintenance, and calibration of the 10-M meteorological and air quality system; processing data from the 10-M meteorological tower; processing data from the 60-M meteorological tower; processing total suspended particulate filters and data from the high-volume air samplers; operation maintenance, and calibration of the 60-M meteorological and air quality system; and auditing the air quality system. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Development and testing of meteorology and air dispersion models for Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. D.; Brown, M. J.; Cruz, X.; Sosa, G.; Streit, G.

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo are completing a joint study of options for improving air quality in Mexico City. We have modified a three-dimensional, prognostic, higher-order turbulence model for atmospheric circulation (HOTMAC) and a Monte Carlo dispersion and transport model (RAPTAD) to treat domains that include an urbanized area. We used the meteorological model to drive models which describe the photochemistry and air transport and dispersion. The photochemistry modeling is described in a separate paper. We tested the model against routine measurements and those of a major field program. During the field program, measurements included: (1) lidar measurements of aerosol transport and dispersion, (2) aircraft measurements of winds, turbulence, and chemical species aloft, (3) aircraft measurements of skin temperatures, and (4) Tethersonde measurements of winds and ozone. We modified the meteorological model to include provisions for time-varying synoptic-scale winds, adjustments for local wind effects, and detailed surface-coverage descriptions. We developed a new method to define mixing-layer heights based on model outputs. The meteorology and dispersion models were able to provide reasonable representations of the measurements and to define the sources of some of the major uncertainties in the model-measurement comparisons.

  17. Predicting residential air exchange rates from questionnaires and meteorology: model evaluation in central North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Breen, Miyuki; Williams, Ronald W; Schultz, Bradley D

    2010-12-15

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure models is the estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) of individual homes, where people spend most of their time. The AER, which is the airflow into and out of a building, is a primary mechanism for entry of outdoor air pollutants and removal of indoor source emissions. The mechanistic Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) AER model was linked to a leakage area model to predict AER from questionnaires and meteorology. The LBL model was also extended to include natural ventilation (LBLX). Using literature-reported parameter values, AER predictions from LBL and LBLX models were compared to data from 642 daily AER measurements across 31 detached homes in central North Carolina, with corresponding questionnaires and meteorological observations. Data was collected on seven consecutive days during each of four consecutive seasons. For the individual model-predicted and measured AER, the median absolute difference was 43% (0.17 h(-1)) and 40% (0.17 h(-1)) for the LBL and LBLX models, respectively. Additionally, a literature-reported empirical scale factor (SF) AER model was evaluated, which showed a median absolute difference of 50% (0.25 h(-1)). The capability of the LBL, LBLX, and SF models could help reduce the AER uncertainty in air pollution exposure models used to develop exposure metrics for health studies.

  18. Seamless Meteorology-Chemistry Modelling: Status and Relevance for Numerical Weather Prediction, Air Quality and Climate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; EuMetChem Team

    2015-04-01

    Online coupled meteorology atmospheric chemistry models have undergone a rapid evolution in recent years. Although mainly developed by the air quality modelling community, these models are also of interest for numerical weather prediction and climate modelling as they can consider not only the effects of meteorology on air quality, but also the potentially important effects of atmospheric composition on weather. Two ways of online coupling can be distinguished: online integrated and online access coupling. Online integrated models simulate meteorology and chemistry over the same grid in one model using one main timestep for integration. Online access models use independent meteorology and chemistry modules that might even have different grids, but exchange meteorology and chemistry data on a regular and frequent basis. This paper is an overall outcome of the European COST Action ES1004: European Framework for Online Integrated Air Quality and Meteorology Modelling (EuMetChem) and conclusions from the recently organized Symposium on Coupled Chemistry-Meteorology/Climate Modelling: Status and Relevance for Numerical Weather Prediction, Air Quality and Climate Research. It offers a review of the current research status of online coupled meteorology and atmospheric chemistry modelling, a survey of processes relevant to the interactions between atmospheric physics, dynamics and composition; and highlights selected scientific issues and emerging challenges that require proper consideration to improve the reliability and usability of these models for the three scientific communities: air quality, numerical meteorology modelling (including weather prediction) and climate modelling. It presents a synthesis of scientific progress and provides recommendations for future research directions and priorities in the development, application and evaluation of online coupled models.

  19. Exploring the nature of air quality over southwestern Ontario: main findings from the Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, J. R.; Makar, P. A.; Sills, D. M. L.; Hayden, K. L.; McLaren, R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper serves as an overview and discusses the main findings from the Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met) in southwestern Ontario in 2007. This region is dominated by the Great Lakes, shares borders with the United States and consistently experiences the highest ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter concentrations in Canada. The purpose of BAQS-Met was to improve our understanding of how lake-driven meteorology impacts air quality in the region, and to improve models used for forecasting and policy scenarios. Results show that lake breeze occurrence frequencies and inland penetration distances were significantly greater than realized in the past. Due to their effect on local meteorology, the lakes were found to enhance secondary O3 and aerosol formation such that local anthropogenic emissions have their impact closer to the populated source areas than would otherwise occur in the absence of the lakes. Substantial spatial heterogeneity in O3 was observed with local peaks typically 30 ppb above the regional values. Sulfate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) enhancements were also linked to local emissions being transported in the lake breeze circulations. This study included the first detailed evaluation of regional applications of a high-resolution (2.5 km grid) air quality model in the Great Lakes region. The model showed that maxima in secondary pollutants occur in areas of convergence, in localized updrafts and in distinct pockets over the lake surfaces. These effects are caused by lake circulations interacting with the synoptic flow, with each other or with circulations induced by urban heat islands. Biogenic and anthropogenic emissions were both shown to play a role in the formation of SOA in the region. Detailed particle measurements and multivariate receptor models reveal that while individual particles are internally mixed, they often exist within more complex external mixtures. This makes it difficult to predict aerosol optical

  20. Exploring the nature of air quality over southwestern Ontario: main findings from the border air quality and meteorology study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, J. R.; Makar, P. A.; Sills, D. M. L.; Hayden, K. L.; McLaren, R.

    2013-04-01

    This paper serves as an overview and discusses the main findings from the Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met) in southwestern Ontario in 2007. This region is dominated by the Great Lakes, shares borders with the United States and consistently experiences the highest ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter in Canada. The purpose of BAQS-Met was to improve our understanding of how lake-driven meteorology impacts air quality in the region, and to improve models used for forecasting and policy scenarios. Results show that lake breeze occurrence frequencies and inland penetration distances were significantly greater than realized in the past. Due to their effect on local meteorology, the lakes were found to enhance secondary O3 and aerosol formation such that local anthropogenic emissions have their impact closer to the populated source areas than would otherwise occur in the absence of the lakes. Substantial spatial heterogeneity in O3 was observed with local peaks typically 30 ppb above the regional values. Sulphate and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) enhancements were also linked to local emissions being transported in the lake breeze circulations. This study included the first detailed evaluation of regional applications of a high resolution (2.5 km grid) air quality model in the Great Lakes region. The model showed that maxima in secondary pollutants occur in areas of convergence, in localized updrafts and in distinct pockets over the lake surfaces. These effects are caused by lake circulations interacting with the synoptic flow, with each other or with circulations induced by urban heat islands. Biogenic and anthropogenic emissions were both shown to play a role in the formation of SOA in the region. Detailed particle measurements and multivariate receptor models reveal that while individual particles are internally mixed, they often exist within more complex external mixtures. This makes it difficult to predict aerosol optical properties and

  1. Analysis of the US Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Imagery for Global Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharfen, Gregory R.

    1999-01-01

    The U. S. Air Force operates the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), a system of near-polar orbiting satellites designed for use in operational weather forecasting and other applications. DMSP satellites carry a suite of sensors that provide images of the earth and profiles of the atmosphere. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) at the University of Colorado has been involved with the archival of DMSP data and its use for several research projects since 1979. This report summarizes the portion of this involvement funded by NASA.

  2. The effects of meteorological factors on the occurrence of Ganoderma sp. spores in the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka

    2011-03-01

    Ganoderma sp. is an airborne fungal spore type known to trigger respiratory allergy symptoms in sensitive patients. Aiming to reduce the risk for allergic individuals, we analysed fungal spore circulation in Szczecin, Poland, and its dependence on meteorological conditions. Statistical models for the airborne spore concentrations of Ganoderma sp.—one of the most abundant fungal taxa in the area—were developed. Aerobiological sampling was conducted over 2004-2008 using a volumetric Lanzoni trap. Simultaneously, the following meteorological parameters were recorded: daily level of precipitation, maximum and average wind speed, relative humidity and maximum, minimum, average and dew point temperatures. These data were used as the explaining variables. Due to the non-linearity and non-normality of the data set, the applied modelling techniques were artificial neural networks (ANN) and mutlivariate regression trees (MRT). The obtained classification and MRT models predicted threshold conditions above which Ganoderma sp. appeared in the air. It turned out that dew point temperature was the main factor influencing the presence or absence of Ganoderma sp. spores. Further analysis of spore seasons revealed that the airborne fungal spore concentration depended only slightly on meteorological factors.

  3. The role of boundary layer schemes in meteorological and air quality simulations of the Taiwan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang-Yi; Chin, Shan-Chieh; Liu, Tsun-Hsien

    2012-07-01

    Adequate air quality modeling is reliant on accurate meteorological simulations especially in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). To understand how the boundary layer processes affect the mixing and transport of air pollutants, the sensitivity of Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model with different PBL schemes (YSU and MYJ) is utilized. Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is performed subsequently to study the effects of the PBL physical processes on the meteorological and air quality simulations. A comparison is made of two distinct atmospheric conditions. Case 1 considers the influence of the Asian continental outflow where air pollutants carried by long-range transport (LRT) to Taiwan. The variation in ozone (O3) concentration between the two sensitivity runs is mainly caused by the PBL height difference with WRF-MYJ predicts much deeper PBL height near the frontal low-pressure region than does the WRF-YSU. Case 2 is associated with the land-sea breeze flow. In this situation O3 is locally produced from the western side of the country where major metropolitan cities and highways are located. Distinctions in O3 are caused by difference in the strength of the land-sea breeze flow between the two runs. At night the WRF-YSU predicts a weaker offshore land breeze than does the WRF-MYJ near the western coastline. During the day, the WRF-YSU predicts a stronger sea breeze near the offshore area than does the WRF-MYJ, while over the landside, the WRF-YSU predicts a lower wind speed than does the WRF-MYJ.

  4. Effects of urban land expansion on the regional meteorology and air quality of Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, W.; Liu, J.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Q.; Cheng, Y.; Yu, Y.; Tao, S.

    2015-04-01

    Rapid urbanization throughout Eastern China is imposing an irreversible effect on local climate and air quality. In this paper, we examine the response of a range of meteorological and air quality indicators to urbanization. Our study uses the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) to simulate the climate and air quality impacts of four hypothetical urbanization scenarios with fixed surface pollutant emissions during the month of July from 2008 to 2012. An improved integrated process rate (IPR) analysis scheme is implemented in WRF/Chem to investigate the mechanisms behind the forcing-response relationship at the process level. For all years, as urban land area expands, concentrations of CO, elemental carbon (EC), and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) tend to decrease near the surface (below ~ 500 m), but increase at higher altitudes (1-3 km), resulting in a reduced vertical concentration gradient. On the other hand, the O3 burden averaged over all newly urbanized grid cells consistently increases from the surface to a height of about 4 km. Sensitivity tests show that the response of meteorology and pollutant concentrations to the spatial extent of urbanization are nearly linear near the surface, but nonlinear at higher altitudes. Over eastern China, each 10% increase in nearby urban land coverage (NULC) on average leads to a decrease of approximately 2% in surface concentrations for CO, EC, and PM2.5, while for O3 an increase of about 1% is simulated. At 800 hPa, each 10% increase in the square of NULC enhances air pollution concentrations by 5-10%, depending on species. This indicates that as large tracts of new urban land emerge, the influence of urban expansion on meteorology and air pollution would be amplified. IPR results indicate that, for primary pollutants, the enhanced sink (source) caused by turbulent mixing and vertical advection in the lower (upper) atmosphere could be a key

  5. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants and correlation with meteorological factors and air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the most important cause of severe respiratory infections in infants with seasonal epidemics. Environmental factors (temperature, humidity, air pollution) could influence RSV epidemics through their effects on virus activity and diffusion. Methods We conducted a retrospective study on a paediatric population who referred to our Paediatric Emergency Unit in order to analyze the correlation between weekly incidence of RSV positive cases during winter season in Bologna and meteorological factors and air pollutants concentration. Results We observed a significant correlation between the incidence of RSV infections and the mean minimum temperature registered during the same week and the previous weeks. The weekly number of RSV positive cases was also correlated to the mean PM10 concentration of the week before. Conclusions RSV epidemic trend in Bologna (Italy) is related to the mean minimum temperature, and the mean PM10 concentration. PMID:23311474

  6. [Simulation on remediation of benzene contaminated groundwater by air sparging].

    PubMed

    Fan, Yan-Ling; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Dan; Zhong, Mao-Sheng; Jia, Xiao-Yang

    2012-11-01

    Air sparging (AS) is one of the in situ remedial technologies which are used in groundwater remediation for pollutions with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). At present, the field design of air sparging system was mainly based on experience due to the lack of field data. In order to obtain rational design parameters, the TMVOC module in the Petrasim software package, combined with field test results on a coking plant in Beijing, is used to optimize the design parameters and simulate the remediation process. The pilot test showed that the optimal injection rate was 23.2 m3 x h(-1), while the optimal radius of influence (ROI) was 5 m. The simulation results revealed that the pressure response simulated by the model matched well with the field test results, which indicated a good representation of the simulation. The optimization results indicated that the optimal injection location was at the bottom of the aquifer. Furthermore, simulated at the optimized injection location, the optimal injection rate was 20 m3 x h(-1), which was in accordance with the field test result. Besides, 3 m was the optimal ROI, less than the field test results, and the main reason was that field test reflected the flow behavior at the upper space of groundwater and unsaturated area, in which the width of flow increased rapidly, and became bigger than the actual one. With the above optimized operation parameters, in addition to the hydro-geological parameters measured on site, the model simulation result revealed that 90 days were needed to remediate the benzene from 371 000 microg x L(-1) to 1 microg x L(-1) for the site, and that the opeation model in which the injection wells were progressively turned off once the groundwater around them was "clean" was better than the one in which all the wells were kept operating throughout the remediation process.

  7. Air stripping VOCs from groundwater: Process design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, B.R.; Edwards, M.D. )

    1992-02-01

    Considerations for evaluating and designing the air stripping process are presented by case study. The case study involves the design of an air stripping process to remediate groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at a National Priorities List site in Tacoma, WA. Design objectives included developing a tower with minimum volume and energy requirements while complying with discharge air and water quality standards. A two-phase resistance model using Onda Correlations to determine liquid- and gas-phase mass transfer coefficients was used to assist in the evaluation and design. Considerations for applying the two-phase resistance model to air stripping tower design are presented. The ability of the model to simulate process performance is demonstrated by comparison with actual data for 11 priority pollutant list VOCs evaluated during an onsite pilot study. Design procedures with which to develop a tower with minimum volume and energy requirements are described. Other considerations involving the evaluation of VOC emissions and the precipitation and buildup of inorganic constituents within the internal packing media are described.

  8. Urban air quality assessment using monitoring data of fractionized aerosol samples, chemometrics and meteorological conditions.

    PubMed

    Yotova, Galina I; Tsitouridou, Roxani; Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonov, Vasil D

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with assessment of urban air by using monitoring data for 10 different aerosol fractions (0.015-16 μm) collected at a typical urban site in City of Thessaloniki, Greece. The data set was subject to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) and, additionally, to HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling in order to assess in a better way the impact of the weather conditions on the pollution sources identified. A specific element of the study is the effort to clarify the role of outliers in the data set. The reason for the appearance of outliers is strongly related to the atmospheric condition on the particular sampling days leading to enhanced concentration of pollutants (secondary emissions, sea sprays, road and soil dust, combustion processes) especially for ultra fine and coarse particles. It is also shown that three major sources affect the urban air quality of the location studied-sea sprays, mineral dust and anthropogenic influences (agricultural activity, combustion processes, and industrial sources). The level of impact is related to certain extent to the aerosol fraction size. The assessment of the meteorological conditions leads to defining of four downwind patterns affecting the air quality (Pelagic, Western and Central Europe, Eastern and Northeastern Europe and Africa and Southern Europe). Thus, the present study offers a complete urban air assessment taking into account the weather conditions, pollution sources and aerosol fractioning.

  9. AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO ADDRESSING NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE AIR QUALITY CONCERNS: THE INTEGRATION OF GIS, URBAN MORPHOLOGY, PREDICTIVE METEOROLOGY, AND AIR QUALITY MONITORING TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a project that combines the capabilities of urban geography, raster-based GIS, predictive meteorological and air pollutant diffusion modeling, to support a neighborhood-scale air quality monitoring pilot study under the U.S. EPA EMPACT Program. The study ha...

  10. Predicting groundwater level fluctuations with meteorological effect implications—A comparative study among soft computing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiri, Jalal; Kisi, Ozgur; Yoon, Heesung; Lee, Kang-Kun; Hossein Nazemi, Amir

    2013-07-01

    The knowledge of groundwater table fluctuations is important in agricultural lands as well as in the studies related to groundwater utilization and management levels. This paper investigates the abilities of Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) techniques for groundwater level forecasting in following day up to 7-day prediction intervals. Several input combinations comprising water table level, rainfall and evapotranspiration values from Hongcheon Well station (South Korea), covering a period of eight years (2001-2008) were used to develop and test the applied models. The data from the first six years were used for developing (training) the applied models and the last two years data were reserved for testing. A comparison was also made between the forecasts provided by these models and the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) technique. Based on the comparisons, it was found that the GEP models could be employed successfully in forecasting water table level fluctuations up to 7 days beyond data records.

  11. Air Temperature Error Correction Based on Solar Radiation in an Economical Meteorological Wireless Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xingming; Yan, Shuangshuang; Wang, Baowei; Xia, Li; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Air temperature (AT) is an extremely vital factor in meteorology, agriculture, military, etc., being used for the prediction of weather disasters, such as drought, flood, frost, etc. Many efforts have been made to monitor the temperature of the atmosphere, like automatic weather stations (AWS). Nevertheless, due to the high cost of specialized AT sensors, they cannot be deployed within a large spatial density. A novel method named the meteorology wireless sensor network relying on a sensing node has been proposed for the purpose of reducing the cost of AT monitoring. However, the temperature sensor on the sensing node can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Previous research has confirmed that there is a close relation between AT and solar radiation (SR). Therefore, this paper presents a method to decrease the error of sensed AT, taking SR into consideration. In this work, we analyzed all of the collected data of AT and SR in May 2014 and found the numerical correspondence between AT error (ATE) and SR. This corresponding relation was used to calculate real-time ATE according to real-time SR and to correct the error of AT in other months. PMID:26213941

  12. Air Temperature Error Correction Based on Solar Radiation in an Economical Meteorological Wireless Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xingming; Yan, Shuangshuang; Wang, Baowei; Xia, Li; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Air temperature (AT) is an extremely vital factor in meteorology, agriculture, military, etc., being used for the prediction of weather disasters, such as drought, flood, frost, etc. Many efforts have been made to monitor the temperature of the atmosphere, like automatic weather stations (AWS). Nevertheless, due to the high cost of specialized AT sensors, they cannot be deployed within a large spatial density. A novel method named the meteorology wireless sensor network relying on a sensing node has been proposed for the purpose of reducing the cost of AT monitoring. However, the temperature sensor on the sensing node can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Previous research has confirmed that there is a close relation between AT and solar radiation (SR). Therefore, this paper presents a method to decrease the error of sensed AT, taking SR into consideration. In this work, we analyzed all of the collected data of AT and SR in May 2014 and found the numerical correspondence between AT error (ATE) and SR. This corresponding relation was used to calculate real-time ATE according to real-time SR and to correct the error of AT in other months. PMID:26213941

  13. Meteorological factors and air pollution in Lithuanian forests: possible effects on tree condition.

    PubMed

    Ozolincius, Remigijus; Stakenas, Vidas; Serafinaviciute, Brigita

    2005-10-01

    This study investigates changes in tree condition and environmental factors in Lithuania during the active growing season in 1991-2001. The average crown defoliation and the proportion of healthy trees of Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula sp., Fraxinus excelsior, Alnus incana, Alnus glutinosa, Populus tremula, and Quercus robur, meteorological (average temperature, amount of precipitation, hydrothermal coefficient) and air pollution data (acidity of precipitation, concentrations of SO2, NO2 and exposure of O3) were analysed. During the period 1991-2001 the condition of Pinus sylvestris, Populus tremula showed a tendency of improvement, while defoliation of Fraxinus excelsior significantly increased. The proportion of healthy trees correlated well with the average temperature and O3 (AOT40), while defoliation correlated well with the acidity of precipitation and the concentrations of SO2 and NO2. Deciduous species appeared to be more sensitive to O3 exposure and conifers to the concentrations of SO2 and NO2.

  14. Mixing layer height measurements determines influence of meteorology on air pollutant concentrations in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Bonn, Boris; Gerwig, Holger; Hase, Frank; Münkel, Christoph; Nothard, Rainer; von Schneidemesser, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter to determine the influence of meteorological parameters upon air pollutants such as trace gas species and particulate concentrations near the surface. Meteorology, and MLH as a key parameter, affect the budget of emission source strengths, deposition, and accumulation. However, greater possibilities for the application of MLH data have been identified in recent years. Here, the results of measurements in Berlin in 2014 are shown and discussed. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, CO, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and about 70 volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic and biogenic of origin) as well as particle size distributions and contributions of SOA and soot species to PM were measured at the urban background station of the Berlin air quality network (BLUME) in Nansenstr./Framstr., Berlin-Neukölln. A Vaisala ceilometer CL51, which is a commercial mini-lidar system, was applied at that site to detect the layers of the lower atmosphere in real time. Special software for these ceilometers with MATLAB provided routine retrievals of MLH from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR spectrometers were set up around Berlin to detect column averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 by solar absorption spectrometry. Correlation analyses were used to show the coupling of temporal variations of trace gas compounds and PM with MLH. Significant influences of MLH upon NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and toluene (marker for traffic emissions) concentrations as well as particle number concentrations in the size modes 70 - 100 nm, 100 - 200 nm and 200 - 500 nm on the basis of averaged diurnal courses were found. Further, MLH was taken as important auxiliary information about the development of the boundary layer during each day of observations, which was required for the proper estimation of CO2 and CH4 source strengths from Berlin on the basis of atmospheric column density measurements.

  15. Meteorological analyses data set for air quality assessment modelling from national to local scale: verification and applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finardi, S.; Pace, G.; Tinarelli, G.; Vitali, C.

    2009-09-01

    Since 2002, on behalf of the Italian Ministry of the Environment, ENEA has been leading a national Project, named MINNI (National Integrated Modelling system for International Negotiation), for the development of an Integrated Assessment Modelling system. The objective of the project is to support policy makers in the elaboration and assessment of air pollution policies at international, national and local level, by means of the more recent understandings of the atmospheric processes. The project activities include the realisation of air quality analysis and assessment at national and sub-national scale through model simulations with space resolution of 20x20 and 4x4 km2 and hourly time step on different target years. A Eulerian Atmospheric Modelling System (AMS), built around the chemical transport model FARM, has been applied to years 1999 and 2005 during the first phase of the project, while a second phase is presently ongoing and foresees simulations for years 2003 and 2007. The meteorological analyses used to drive the quality model have been produced by means of the meteorological models RAMS (http://atmet.com/) and LAPS (http://laps.noaa.gov/) using ECMWF synoptic analyses and surface observations as main input data. The meteorological data set is being used for MINNI project but also distributed to Regional Environmental Protection Agencies and other users to support air quality simulations at local scale employing different air quality model types. To verify the meteorological fields reliability and possibly define the usability limits of the dataset, model results have been compared with independent observations over different areas of the country (Friuli, Piedmont, Sardinia, Lazio and Puglia). The comparison confirmed that analysed meteorological fields can be considered representative over most part of the country, even if some critical areas emerged mainly due to the limited density of the input observations network and to the coarse resolution of

  16. Effects of urban land expansion on the regional meteorology and air quality of eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, W.; Liu, J.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Q.; Cheng, Y.; Yu, Y.; Tao, S.

    2015-08-01

    Rapid urbanization throughout eastern China is imposing an irreversible effect on local climate and air quality. In this paper, we examine the response of a range of meteorological and air quality indicators to urbanization. Our study uses the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF/Chem) to simulate the climate and air quality impacts of four hypothetical urbanization scenarios with fixed surface pollutant emissions during the month of July from 2008 to 2012. An improved integrated process rate (IPR) analysis scheme is implemented in WRF/Chem to investigate the mechanisms behind the forcing-response relationship at the process level. For all years, as urban land area expands, concentrations of CO, elemental carbon (EC), and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) tend to decrease near the surface (below ~ 500 m), but increase at higher altitudes (1-3 km), resulting in a reduced vertical concentration gradient. On the other hand, the O3 burden, averaged over all newly urbanized grid cells, consistently increases from the surface to a height of about 4 km. Sensitivity tests show that the responses of pollutant concentrations to the spatial extent of urbanization are nearly linear near the surface, but nonlinear at higher altitudes. Over eastern China, each 10 % increase in nearby urban land coverage on average leads to a decrease of approximately 2 % in surface concentrations for CO, EC, and PM2.5, while for O3 an increase of about 1 % is simulated. At 800 hPa, pollutants' concentrations tend to increase even more rapidly with an increase in nearby urban land coverage. This indicates that as large tracts of new urban land emerge, the influence of urban expansion on meteorology and air pollution would be significantly amplified. IPR analysis reveals the contribution of individual atmospheric processes to pollutants' concentration changes. It indicates that, for primary pollutants, the enhanced sink (source

  17. Evaluation of near surface ozone and particulate matter in air quality simulations driven by dynamically downscaled historical meteorological fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltzer, Karl M.; Nolte, Christopher G.; Spero, Tanya L.; Appel, K. Wyat; Xing, Jia

    2016-08-01

    In this study, techniques typically used for future air quality projections are applied to a historical 11-year period to assess the performance of the modeling system when the driving meteorological conditions are obtained using dynamical downscaling of coarse-scale fields without correcting toward higher-resolution observations. The Weather Research and Forecasting model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model are used to simulate regional climate and air quality over the contiguous United States for 2000-2010. The air quality simulations for that historical period are then compared to observations from four national networks. Comparisons are drawn between defined performance metrics and other published modeling results for predicted ozone, fine particulate matter, and speciated fine particulate matter. The results indicate that the historical air quality simulations driven by dynamically downscaled meteorology are typically within defined modeling performance benchmarks and are consistent with results from other published modeling studies using finer-resolution meteorology. This indicates that the regional climate and air quality modeling framework utilized here does not introduce substantial bias, which provides confidence in the method's use for future air quality projections.

  18. Effect of groundwater flow on remediation of dissolved-phase VOC contamination using air sparging.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K R; Adams, J A

    2000-02-25

    This paper presents two-dimensional laboratory experiments performed to study how groundwater flow may affect the injected air zone of influence and remedial performance, and how injected air may alter subsurface groundwater flow and contaminant migration during in situ air sparging. Tests were performed by subjecting uniform sand profiles contaminated with dissolved-phase benzene to a hydraulic gradient and two different air flow rates. The results of the tests were compared to a test subjected to a similar air flow rate but a static groundwater condition. The test results revealed that the size and shape of the zone of influence were negligibly affected by groundwater flow, and as a result, similar rates of contaminant removal were realized within the zone of influence with and without groundwater flow. The air flow, however, reduced the hydraulic conductivity within the zone of influence, reducing groundwater flow and subsequent downgradient contaminant migration. The use of a higher air flow rate further reduced the hydraulic conductivity and decreased groundwater flow and contaminant migration. Overall, this study demonstrated that air sparging may be effectively implemented to intercept and treat a migrating contaminant plume.

  19. EVALUATING THE USE OF OUTPUTS FROM COMPREHENSIVE METEOROLOGICAL MODELS IN AIR QUALITY MODELING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently used dispersion models, such as the AMS/EPA Regulatory Model (AERMOD), process routinely available meteorological observations to construct model inputs. Thus, model estimates of concentrations depend on the availability and quality of Meteorological observations, as we...

  20. Air pollution and meteorological processes in the growing dryland city of Urumqi (Xinjiang, China).

    PubMed

    Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X

    2011-03-01

    Seven years (2000-2006) of monthly PM₁₀ (particulate matter, d ≤ 10 μm), SO₂, and NO₂ concentrations are reported for Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang in NW China. Considerably high mean annual concentrations have been observed, which ranged between 150 and 240 μg m⁻³ (PM₁₀, 31 and 50 μg m⁻³ (NO₂), and 49 and 160 μg m⁻³ (SO₂). The shapes of seasonal variation of all pollutants were remarkably similar; however, winter/summer ratios of concentrations were quite different for PM₁₀ (2-3) and NO₂ (≈4) compared to SO₂ (up to 30). Very high consumption rates of fossil fuels for energy generation and domestic heating are mainly responsible for high annual pollution levels, as well as the (very) high winter/summer ratios. Detailed analysis of the 2000-2006 records of Urumqi's meteorological data resulted in inter-annual and seasonal frequency distributions of (a) (surface) inversion events, (b) heights of surface inversions, (c) stability classes of Urumqi's boundary layer, and (d) the "Air Stagnation Index (ASI)". Urumqi's boundary layer is shown to be characterized by high mean annual and seasonal frequencies of (surface) inversions and by the dominance of stable dispersion classes. A further outcome of the meteorological analysis is the proof of Urumqi's strong diurnal wind system, which might have particularly contributed to the stabilization of the nocturnal boundary layer. Annual and seasonal variations of pollutant's concentrations are discussed in the context of occurrences of inversions, boundary layer, stability classes, and ASI. The trend of Urumqi's air pollution indicates a strong increase of mean annual concentrations 2000-2003, followed by a slight increase during 2003-2006. These are in strong contrast to (a) the growth of Urumqi's fleet of motor vehicles and (b) to the growing number of stable regimes of Urumqi's boundary layer climate during same period. It is concluded that the (regional and) local administrative

  1. Air pollution and meteorological processes in the growing dryland city of Urumqi (Xinjiang, China).

    PubMed

    Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X

    2011-03-01

    Seven years (2000-2006) of monthly PM₁₀ (particulate matter, d ≤ 10 μm), SO₂, and NO₂ concentrations are reported for Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang in NW China. Considerably high mean annual concentrations have been observed, which ranged between 150 and 240 μg m⁻³ (PM₁₀, 31 and 50 μg m⁻³ (NO₂), and 49 and 160 μg m⁻³ (SO₂). The shapes of seasonal variation of all pollutants were remarkably similar; however, winter/summer ratios of concentrations were quite different for PM₁₀ (2-3) and NO₂ (≈4) compared to SO₂ (up to 30). Very high consumption rates of fossil fuels for energy generation and domestic heating are mainly responsible for high annual pollution levels, as well as the (very) high winter/summer ratios. Detailed analysis of the 2000-2006 records of Urumqi's meteorological data resulted in inter-annual and seasonal frequency distributions of (a) (surface) inversion events, (b) heights of surface inversions, (c) stability classes of Urumqi's boundary layer, and (d) the "Air Stagnation Index (ASI)". Urumqi's boundary layer is shown to be characterized by high mean annual and seasonal frequencies of (surface) inversions and by the dominance of stable dispersion classes. A further outcome of the meteorological analysis is the proof of Urumqi's strong diurnal wind system, which might have particularly contributed to the stabilization of the nocturnal boundary layer. Annual and seasonal variations of pollutant's concentrations are discussed in the context of occurrences of inversions, boundary layer, stability classes, and ASI. The trend of Urumqi's air pollution indicates a strong increase of mean annual concentrations 2000-2003, followed by a slight increase during 2003-2006. These are in strong contrast to (a) the growth of Urumqi's fleet of motor vehicles and (b) to the growing number of stable regimes of Urumqi's boundary layer climate during same period. It is concluded that the (regional and) local administrative

  2. FACILITATING ADVANCED URBAN METEOROLOGY AND AIR QUALITY MODELING CAPABILITIES WITH HIGH RESOLUTION URBAN DATABASE AND ACCESS PORTAL TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information of urban morphological features at high resolution is needed to properly model and characterize the meteorological and air quality fields in urban areas. We describe a new project called National Urban Database with Access Portal Tool, (NUDAPT) that addresses this nee...

  3. Evaluation of near surface ozone and particulate matter in air quality simulations driven by dynamically downscaled historical meteorological fields

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, techniques typically used for future air quality projections are applied to a historical 11-year period to assess the performance of the modeling system when the driving meteorological conditions are obtained using dynamical downscaling of coarse-scale fields witho...

  4. Excess air formation as a mechanism for delivering oxygen to groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mächler, L.; Peter, S.; Brennwald, M. S.; Kipfer, R.

    2013-10-01

    The temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of the concentrations of dissolved gases (He, Ar, Kr, N2, O2, and CO2) in an infiltrating groundwater system fed by the peri-alpine river Thur (Switzerland) were analyzed before, during and after a single, well-defined flood event. The analysis was based on measurements taken in five different groundwater observation wells that were located approximately 10 m apart and tapped the same groundwater body, but were situated in three different riparian zones. The input of O2 into the groundwater as a result of the formation of excess air was found to be of the same order of magnitude as that resulting from the advection of river water, although the amount of excess air formed and the amount of O2 delivered varied significantly among the riparian zones. The results suggest that the input of O2 into groundwater as a result of excess air formation is controlled not only by the hydraulic conditions prevailing in the river and the groundwater, but also by the thickness of the confining bed at the top of the aquifer. The sandy gravel aquifer itself is too coarse to trap a significant amount of air during the water level rise. The clay layer confining the aquifer, however, acts as a barrier hindering the escape of air from the subsoil to the surface, and hence is likely to be a key factor controlling the trapping and dissolution of air in groundwater.

  5. Air-pollution transport characteristics at Mount Tai during two atmospheric campaigns in spring and summer 2007: A meteorological overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, A.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.

    2009-12-01

    As part of China’s 973 research program on acid rain, two measurement campaigns of trace gases, aerosols and cloud/rain water were conducted at Mt Tai in the spring and summer of 2007. This study presents a meteorological overview for the measurement campaign. Main synoptic processes and air masses transport pathways are identified with the aid of surface meteorological observations, global reanalysis data, and back trajectories analysis. A global 3-D chemical transport model (MOZART) are used to simulate and understand the major large-scale air pollution transport mechanisms associated with different synoptic conditions. High-resolution mesoscale meteorological simulation (using WRF-ARW) and Lagrangian Particle release simulations (with WRF/FELEXPART) are conducted to identify the key processes and mechanisms of mesoscale-scale air pollution transport related to mountain-valley breezes and boundary layer - free troposphere exchange under different synoptic conditions in the most polluted North China Plain. The results show that synoptic processes, especially the mid-latitude cyclones, and PBL dynamics play important roles in shaping the variation of trace gases and aerosols at the site. The summit of Mt. Tai, as a receptor of air masses from the entire North China Plain with an air-mass age of 2-3 days, serves as a perfect platform to study atmospheric photochemistry, gas-particle-cloud interaction, and PBL-free troposphere exchange in North China.

  6. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    In 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the US Department of Energy (DOE), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR)). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero. Three tests, Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat; the fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. DOE is working to clean up and close all four sites. Substantial cleaned up has been accomplished at Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1. Cleanup of Clean Slate 2 and 3 is on the DOE planning horizon for some time in the next several years. The Desert Research Institute installed two monitoring stations, number 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories Range Operations Center and number 401 at Clean Slate 3, in 2008 and a third monitoring station, number 402 at Clean Slate 1, in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The primary objectives of the data collection and analysis effort are to (1) monitor the concentration of radiological parameters in dust particles suspended in air, (2) determine whether winds are re-distributing radionuclides or contaminated soil material, (3) evaluate the controlling meteorological conditions if wind transport is occurring, and (4) measure ancillary radiological, meteorological, and environmental parameters that might provide insight to the above assessments. The following observations are based on data collected during CY2012. The mean annual concentration of gross alpha and gross beta is highest at Station 400 and lowest at Station

  7. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF GROUNDWATER AT AIR FORCE PLANT 4, CARSWELL, TEXAS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 600 Cottonwood trees were planted over a shallow groundwater plume in an attempt to detoxify the trichloroethylene (TCE) in a groundwater plume at a former Air Force facility. Two planting techniques were used: rooted stock about two years old, and 18 inch cuttings were inst...

  8. Meteorological phenomena affecting the presence of solid particles suspended in the air during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariñanos, P.; Galán, C.; Alcázar, P.; Dominguez, E.

    Winter is not traditionally considered to be a risky season for people who suffer from pollen allergies. However, increasing numbers of people are showing symptoms in winter. This prompted our investigation into the levels of solid material in the air, and some of the meteorological phenomena that allow their accumulation. This study showed a possible relationship between the phenomenon of thermal inversion, which occurs when very low temperatures, cloudless skies and atmospheric calms coincide, and an increase in the concentration of solid material in the atmosphere. Frequently, this situation is associated with other predictable phenomena such as fog, dew and frost. This may allow a warning system to be derived for urban pollution episodes. The effect caused by parameters such as wind and rainfall was also analysed. Solid material was differentiated into non-biological material from natural and non-natural sources (e.g. soot, dust, sand, diesel exhaust particles, partially burnt residues) and biological material. The latter mainly comprises pollen grains and fungal spores. Owing to its abundance and importance as a causal agent of winter allergies, Cupressaceae pollen was considered separately.

  9. Meteorological phenomena affecting the presence of solid particles suspended in the air during winter.

    PubMed

    Cariñanos, P; Galán, C; Alcázar, P; Dominguez, E

    2000-05-01

    Winter is not traditionally considered to be a risky season for people who suffer from pollen allergies. However, increasing numbers of people are showing symptoms in winter. This prompted our investigation into the levels of solid material in the air, and some of the meteorological phenomena that allow their accumulation. This study showed a possible relationship between the phenomenon of thermal inversion, which occurs when very low temperatures, cloudless skies and atmospheric calms coincide, and an increase in the concentration of solid material in the atmosphere. Frequently, this situation is associated with other predictable phenomena such as fog, dew and frost. This may allow a warning system to be derived for urban pollution episodes. The effect caused by parameters such as wind and rainfall was also analysed. Solid material was differentiated into non-biological material from natural and non-natural sources (e.g. soot, dust, sand, diesel exhaust particles, partially burnt residues) and biological material. The latter mainly comprises pollen grains and fungal spores. Owing to its abundance and importance as a causal agent of winter allergies, Cupressaceae pollen was considered separately.

  10. Impacts of Photovoltaic Power Plant Sitings and Distributed Solar Panels on Meteorology and Air Quality in Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, L. A.; Jin, L.; Brown, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    California's electric utility companies are required to use renewable energy to produce 20% of their power by 2010 and 33% by 2020. A main source of the power will be solar energy because photovoltaic technologies have advanced so much that large scale installations are being built and will be built in the future with even greater capacity. Rather than being a large emission source, these plants affect the ambient environment through albedo changes and by emission reductions associated with not burning fossil fuels to generate the same amount of electricity. Like conventional power plants, their impact on local meteorology and air quality depends on the specific technology, ambient atmospheric conditions, and the spatial location of the plant. Also, as solar panels on commercial and residential rooftops become even more common, the effect of distributed photovoltaic panels on meteorology and air quality is likely to become significant. In this study, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model at high resolution of 4 km x 4 km over several 5-day high-ozone episodes of the summer 2000 to assess the impact of photovoltaic panels on meteorology and air quality in Central California. We investigate the effect of locating a 1.0 Giga watt solar plant in different locations and the effect of distributed rooftop photovoltaic panels in major Californian cities, with a focus on peak and 8-hour average ozone and 24-hour average PM2.5.

  11. MP3 - A Meteorology and Physical Properties Package to explore Air:Sea interaction on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2012-04-01

    The exchange of mass, heat and momentum at the air:sea interface are profound influences on our environment. Titan presents us with an opportunity to study these processes in a novel physical context. The MP3 instrument, under development for the proposed Discovery mission TiME (Titan Mare Explorer) is an integrated suite of small, simple sensors that combines the a traditional meteorology package with liquid physical properties and depth-sounding. In TiME's 6-Titan-day (96-day) nominal mission, MP3 will have an extended measurement opportunity in one of the most evocative environments in the solar system. The mission and instrument benefit from APL's expertise and experience in marine as well as space systems. The topside meteorology sensors (METH, WIND, PRES, TEMP) will yield the first long-duration in-situ data to constrain Global Circulation Models. The sea sensors (TEMP, TURB, DIEL, SOSO) allow high cadence bulk composition measurements to detect heterogeneities as the TiME capsule drifts across Ligeia, while a depth sounder (SONR) will measure the bottom profile. The combination of these sensors (and vehicle dynamics, ACCL) will characterize air:sea exchange. In addition to surface data, a measurement subset (ACCL, PRES, METH, TEMP) is made during descent to characterize the structure of the polar troposphere and marine boundary layer. A single electronics box inside the vehicle performs supervising and data handling functions and is connected to the sensors on the exterior via a wire and fiber optic harness. ACCL: MEMS accelerometers and angular rate sensors measure the vehicle motion during descent and on the surface, to recover wave amplitude and period and to correct wind measurements for vehicle motion. TEMP: Precision sensors are installed at several locations above and below the 'waterline' to measure air and sea temperatures. Installation of topside sensors at several locations ensures that at least one is on the upwind side of the vehicle. PRES: The

  12. A numerical model simulation of the regional air pollution meteorology of the greater Chesapeake Bay area - Summer day case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.; Mcnider, R. T.; Mcdougal, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    The mesoscale numerical model of the University of Virginia (UVMM), has been applied to the greater Chesapeake Bay area in order to provide a detailed description of the air pollution meteorology during a typical summer day. This model provides state of the art simulations for land-sea thermally induced circulations. The model-predicted results agree favorably with available observed data. The effects of synoptic flow and sea breeze coupling on air pollution meteorological characteristics in this region, are demonstrated by a spatial and temporal presentation of various model predicted fields. A transport analysis based on predicted wind velocities indicated possible recirculation of pollutants back onto the Atlantic coast due to the sea breeze circulation.

  13. Precipitation and Air Temperature Impact on Seasonal Variations of Groundwater Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitola, Ilva; Vircavs, Valdis; Abramenko, Kaspars; Lauva, Didzis; Veinbergs, Arturs

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify seasonal effects of precipitation and temperature on groundwater level changes in monitoring stations of the Latvia University of Agriculture - Mellupīte, Bērze and Auce. Groundwater regime and level fluctuations depend on climatic conditions such as precipitation intensity, evapotranspiration, surface runoff and drainage, as well as other hydrological factors. The relationship between precipitation, air temperature and groundwater level fluctuations could also lead and give different perspective of possible changes in groundwater quality. Using mathematical statistics and graphic-analytic methods it is concluded that autumn and winter precipitation has the dominant impact on groundwater level fluctuations, whereas spring and summer season fluctuations are more dependent on the air temperature.

  14. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Nikoloch, George; Shadel, Craig; Chapman, Jenny; Mizell, Steve A.; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J.

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  15. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  16. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 12: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Twelve papers dealing with the meteorological aspects of air pollution were translated. These papers were initially presented at an international symposium held in Leningrad during July 1968. The papers are: Status and prospective development of meteorological studies of atmospheric pollution, Effect of the stability of the atmosphere on the…

  17. Meteorological adjustment of yearly mean values for air pollutant concentration comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidik, S. M.; Neustadter, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Using multiple linear regression analysis, models which estimate mean concentrations of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP), sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide as a function of several meteorologic variables, two rough economic indicators, and a simple trend in time are studied. Meteorologic data were obtained and do not include inversion heights. The goodness of fit of the estimated models is partially reflected by the squared coefficient of multiple correlation which indicates that, at the various sampling stations, the models accounted for about 23 to 47 percent of the total variance of the observed TSP concentrations. If the resulting model equations are used in place of simple overall means of the observed concentrations, there is about a 20 percent improvement in either: (1) predicting mean concentrations for specified meteorological conditions; or (2) adjusting successive yearly averages to allow for comparisons devoid of meteorological effects. An application to source identification is presented using regression coefficients of wind velocity predictor variables.

  18. Multivariate analysis of respiratory problems and their connection with meteorological parameters and the main biological and chemical air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Bálint, Beatrix; Guba, Zoltán; Sümeghy, Zoltán

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study is to analyse the joint effect of biological (pollen) and chemical air pollutants, as well as meteorological variables, on the hospital admissions of respiratory problems for the Szeged region in Southern Hungary. The data set used covers a nine-year period (1999-2007) and is unique in the sense that it includes—besides the daily number of respiratory hospital admissions—not just the hourly mean concentrations of CO, PM 10, NO, NO 2, O 3 and SO 2 with meteorological variables (temperature, global solar flux, relative humidity, air pressure and wind speed), but two pollen variables ( Ambrosia and total pollen excluding Ambrosia) as well. The analysis was performed using three age categories for the pollen season of Ambrosia and the pollen-free season. Meteorological elements and air pollutants are clustered in order to define optimum environmental conditions of high patient numbers. ANOVA was then used to determine whether cluster-related mean patient numbers differ significantly. Furthermore, two novel procedures are applied here: factor analysis including a special transformation and a time-varying multivariate linear regression that makes it possible to determine the rank of importance of the influencing variables in respiratory hospital admissions, and also compute the relative importance of the parameters affecting respiratory disorders. Both techniques revealed that Ambrosia pollen is an important variable that influences hospital admissions (an increase of 10 pollen grains m -3 can imply an increase of around 24% in patient numbers). The role of chemical and meteorological parameters is also significant, but their weights vary according to the seasons and the methods. Clearer results are obtained for the pollination season of Ambrosia. Here, a 10 μg m -3 increase in O 3 implies a patient number response from -17% to +11%. Wind speed is a surprisingly important variable, where a 1 m s -1 rise may result in a hospital admission

  19. 2. SOUTH FACE OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) WITH METEOROLOGICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH FACE OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) WITH METEOROLOGICAL DATA ACQUISITION TERMINAL (MDAT) INSIDE BUILDING - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. Influence of road traffic, residential heating and meteorological conditions on PM10 concentrations during air pollution critical episodes.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Crisci, Alfonso; Di Lonardo, Sara; Tartaglia, Mario; Vagnoli, Carolina; Zaldei, Alessandro; Gioli, Beniamino

    2015-12-01

    The importance of road traffic, residential heating and meteorological conditions as major drivers of urban PM10 concentrations during air pollution critical episodes has been assessed in the city of Florence (Italy) during the winter season. The most significant meteorological variables (wind speed and atmospheric stability) explained 80.5-85.5% of PM10 concentrations variance, while a marginal role was played by major emission sources such as residential heating (12.1%) and road traffic (5.7%). The persistence of low wind speeds and unstable atmospheric conditions was the leading factor controlling PM10 during critical episodes. A specific PM10 critical episode was analysed, following a snowstorm that caused a "natural" scenario of 2-day dramatic road traffic abatement (-43%), and a massive (up to +48%) and persistent (8 consecutive days) increase in residential heating use. Even with such a strong variability in local PM10 emissions, the role of meteorological conditions was prominent, revealing that short-term traffic restrictions are insufficient countermeasures to reduce the health impacts and risks of PM10 critical episodes, while efforts should be made to anticipate those measures by linking them with air quality and weather forecasts.

  1. Influence of road traffic, residential heating and meteorological conditions on PM10 concentrations during air pollution critical episodes.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Crisci, Alfonso; Di Lonardo, Sara; Tartaglia, Mario; Vagnoli, Carolina; Zaldei, Alessandro; Gioli, Beniamino

    2015-12-01

    The importance of road traffic, residential heating and meteorological conditions as major drivers of urban PM10 concentrations during air pollution critical episodes has been assessed in the city of Florence (Italy) during the winter season. The most significant meteorological variables (wind speed and atmospheric stability) explained 80.5-85.5% of PM10 concentrations variance, while a marginal role was played by major emission sources such as residential heating (12.1%) and road traffic (5.7%). The persistence of low wind speeds and unstable atmospheric conditions was the leading factor controlling PM10 during critical episodes. A specific PM10 critical episode was analysed, following a snowstorm that caused a "natural" scenario of 2-day dramatic road traffic abatement (-43%), and a massive (up to +48%) and persistent (8 consecutive days) increase in residential heating use. Even with such a strong variability in local PM10 emissions, the role of meteorological conditions was prominent, revealing that short-term traffic restrictions are insufficient countermeasures to reduce the health impacts and risks of PM10 critical episodes, while efforts should be made to anticipate those measures by linking them with air quality and weather forecasts. PMID:26233744

  2. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-04-30

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most of the urban area

  3. Groundwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Source and meteorological influences on air quality (CO, CH4 & CO2) at a Southern Hemisphere urban site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, R. R.; Paton-Walsh, C.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Kubistin, D.; Caldow, C.; Fisher, J. A.; Deutscher, N. M.; Kettlewell, G.; Riggenbach, M.; Macatangay, R.; Krummel, P. B.; Langenfelds, R. L.

    2016-02-01

    Wollongong, Australia is an urban site at the intersection of anthropogenic, biomass burning, biogenic and marine sources of atmospheric trace gases. The location offers a valuable opportunity to study drivers of atmospheric composition in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, a record of surface carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured with an in situ Fourier transform infrared trace gas analyser between April 2011 and August 2014. Clean air was found to arrive at Wollongong in approximately 10% of air masses. Biomass burning influence was evident in the average annual cycle of clean air CO during austral spring. A significant negative short-term trend was found in clean air CO (-1.5 nmol mol-1 a-1), driven by a reduction in northern Australian biomass burning. Significant short-term positive trends in clean air CH4 (5.4 nmol mol-1 a-1) and CO2 (1.9 μmol mol-1 a-1) were consistent with the long-term global average trends. Polluted Wollongong air was investigated using wind-direction/wind-speed clustering, which revealed major influence from local urban and industrial sources from the south. High values of CH4, with anthropogenic ΔCH4/ΔCO2 enhancement ratio signatures, originated from the northwest, in the direction of local coal mining. A pollution climatology was developed for the region using back trajectory analysis and ΔO3/ΔCO enhancement ratios. Ozone production environments in austral spring and summer were associated with anticyclonic meteorology on the east coast of Australia, while ozone depletion environments in autumn and winter were associated with continental transport, or fast moving trajectories from southern latitudes. This implies the need to consider meteorological conditions when developing policies for controlling air quality.

  5. [Air negative charge ion concentration and its relationships with meteorological factors in different ecological functional zones of Hefei City].

    PubMed

    Wei, Chaoling; Wang, Jingtao; Jiang, Yuelin; Zhang, Qingguo

    2006-11-01

    Air negative charge ion concentration (ANCIC) has a close relationship with air quality. The observations on the ANCIC, sunlight intensity, air temperature, and air relative humidity in different ecological functional zones of Hefei City from 2003 to 2004 showed that the diurnal change pattern of ANCIC was of single peak in sightseeing and habitation zones, dual peak in industrial zone, and complicated in commercial zone. Different ecological functional zones had different appearance time of their daily ANCIC extremum. The diurnal fluctuation of ANCIC was in the order of commercial zone > industrial zone > habitation zone and sightseeing zone. The annual change pattern of ANCIC in these zones was similar, being the highest in summer and lowest in winter, and the mean annual ANCIC was 819, 340, 149 and 126 ions x cm(-3), respectively. The most important meteorological factor affecting the ANCIC in Hefei City was air relative humidity, followed by sunlight intensity and air temperature. There was an exponential relationship between ANCIC and air relative humidity.

  6. Relationship between meteorological phenomena and air pollution in an urbanized and industrialized coastal area in northern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gengembre, Cyril; Zhang, Shouwen; Dieudonné, Elsa; Sokolov, Anton; Augustin, Patrick; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    Impacts of global climate evolution are quite uncertain at regional and local scales, especially on air pollution. Air quality is associated with local atmospheric dynamics at a time scale shorter than a few weeks, while the climate change time scale is on the order of fifty years. To infer consequences of climate evolution on air pollution, it is necessary to fill the gap between these different scales. Another challenge is to understand the effect of global warming on the frequency of meteorological phenomena that influence air pollution. In this work, we classified meteorological events related to air pollution during a one-year long field campaign in Dunkirk (northern France). Owing to its coastal location under urban and industrial exposures, the Dunkirk agglomeration is an interesting area for studying gaseous and aerosols pollutants and their relationship with weather events such as sea breezes, fogs, storms and fronts. The air quality in the northern region of France is also greatly influenced by highly populated and industrialized cities along the coast of the North Sea, and by London and Paris agglomerations. During a field campaign, we used simultaneously a three-dimensional sonic anemometer and a weather station network, along with a scanning Doppler Lidar system to analyse the vertical structure of the atmosphere. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor enabled investigating the PM1 behaviour during the studied events. Air contaminants such as NOx (NO and NO2) were also measured by the regional pollution monitoring network ATMO Nord Pas-de-Calais. The events were identified by finding specific criteria from meteorological and turbulent parameters. Over a hundred cases of sea breezes, fog periods, stormy days and atmospheric front passages were investigated. Variations of turbulent parameters (vertical sensible heat flux and momentum flux) give estimations on the transport and the dispersal of pollutants. As the fluxes are weak during fogs, an increase

  7. TEMPORAL FEATURES IN OBSERVED AND SIMULATED METEOROLOGY AND AIR QUALITY OVER THE EASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, temporal scale analysis is applied as a technique to evaluate an annual simulation of meteorology, O3, and PM2.5 and its chemical components over the continental U.S. utilizing two modeling systems. It is illustrated that correlations were ins...

  8. The role of soil air composition for noble gas tracer applications in tropical groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Simon; Jenner, Florian; Aeschbach, Werner; Weissbach, Therese; Peregovich, Bernhard; Machado, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved noble gases (NGs) in groundwater provide a well-established tool for paleo temperature reconstruction. However, reliable noble gas temperature (NGT) determination needs appropriate assumptions or rather an exact knowledge of soil air composition. Deviations of soil air NG partial pressures from atmospheric values have already been found in mid latitudes during summer time as a consequence of subsurface oxygen depletion. This effect depends on ambient temperature and humidity and is thus expected to be especially strong in humid tropical soils, which was not investigated so far. We therefore studied NGs in soil air and shallow groundwater near Santarém (Pará, Brazil) at the end of the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. Soil air data confirms a correlation between NG partial pressures, the sum value of O2+CO2 and soil moisture contents. During the rainy season, we find significant NG enhancements in soil air by up to 7% with respect to the atmosphere. This is twice as much as observed during the dry season. Groundwater samples show neon excess values between 15% and 120%. Nearly all wells show no seasonal variations of excess air, even though the local river level seasonally fluctuates by about 8 m. Assuming atmospheric NG contents in soil air, fitted NGTs underestimate the measured groundwater temperature by about 1-2° C. However, including enhanced soil air NG contents as observed during the rainy season, resulting NGTs are in good agreement with local groundwater temperatures. Our presented data allows for a better understanding of subsurface NG variations. This is essential with regard to NG tracer applications in humid tropical areas, for which reliable paleoclimate data is of major importance for modern climate research.

  9. Applying membrane technology to air stripping effluent for remediation of groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.J.; Erickson, M.D.; Beskid, N.J.

    1993-12-31

    Remediation groundwater contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) requires cost- and technically-effective solutions. This paper reviews the options for VOC removal from remediation air streams, focusing on membrane separation. The basic separation science and technology, results of performance tests, and results of cost studies for membrane separation are presented. Competing technologies are discussed and compared with membrane separation. Membrane separation combined with air stripping will provide an economically and environmentally safe technology for remediation of VOC-contaminated groundwater and, as it matures, may become the preferred method. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. PLAM - a meteorological pollution index for air quality and its applications in fog-haze forecasts in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. Q.; Wang, J. Z.; Gong, S. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, J.; Li, D.; Guo, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Using surface meteorological observation and high-resolution emission data, this paper discusses the application of the PLAM/h index (Parameter Linking Air-quality to Meteorological conditions/haze) in the prediction of large-scale low visibility and fog-haze events. Based on the two-dimensional probability density function diagnosis model for emissions, the study extends the diagnosis and prediction of the meteorological pollution index PLAM to the regional visibility fog-haze intensity. The results show that combining the influence of regular meteorological conditions and emission factors together in the PLAM/h parameterization scheme is very effective in improving the diagnostic identification ability of the fog-haze weather in North China. The determination coefficients for four seasons (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) between PLAM/h and visibility observation are 0.76, 0.80, 0.96, and 0.86, respectively, and all of their significance levels exceed 0.001, showing the ability of PLAM/h to predict the seasonal changes and differences of fog-haze weather in the North China region. The high-value correlation zones are located in Jing-Jin-Ji (Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei), Bohai Bay rim, and southern Hebei-northern Henan, indicating that the PLAM/h index is related to the distribution of frequent heavy fog-haze weather in North China and the distribution of emission high-value zone. Through comparative analysis of the heavy fog-haze events and large-scale clear-weather processes in winter and summer, it is found that PLAM/h index 24 h forecast is highly correlated with the visibility observation. Therefore, the PLAM/h index has good capability in identification, analysis, and forecasting.

  11. Determination and parameterization of some air pollutants as a function of meteorological parameters in Kayseri, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kartal, S; Ozer, U

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, the statistical relations between meteorological parameters and some pollutant ground level concentrations are presented. The daily average sulfur dioxide and smoke values were measured at five stations in Kayseri over 20 months. The model adopted for analysis differed from the power-law form selected by former investigators. Wind speed, degree-day temperature, the percentage of relative humidity, the previous day's pollution concentrations, and the amount of global solar radiation were the variables of multiple regression equations that were derived to calculate pollutant concentrations. The amount of cloud cover, however, had no important effect on the pollutant concentrations. The average variances of these regression equations were found as 84 and 75% for sulfur dioxide and smoke concentrations, respectively. The calculated pollutant concentrations utilizing forecast meteorological parameters reflected that the occurrence of high pollutant concentrations can be predicted.

  12. A study of air-to-ground sound propagation using an instrumented meteorological tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, P. K.; Pappa, R. S.; Keefe, L. R.; Sutherland, L. C.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an exploratory NASA study, leading to a better understanding of the effects of meteorological conditions on the propagation of aircraft noise, are reported. The experimental program utilized a known sound source fixed atop an instrumented meteorological tower. The basic experimental scheme consisted of measuring the amplitude of sound radiated toward the ground along a line of microphones fixed to a tower guy wire. Experimental results show the feasibility of this approach in the acquisition of data indicating the variations encountered in the time-averaged and instantaneous amplitudes of propagated sound. The investigation included a consideration of ground reflections, a comparison of measured attenuations with predicted atmospheric absorption losses, and an evaluation of the amplitude fluctuations of recorded sound pressures.

  13. Spatial and temporal analysis of Air Pollution Index and its timescale-dependent relationship with meteorological factors in Guangzhou, China, 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Qian, Jun; Ou, Chun-Quan; Zhou, Ying-Xue; Guo, Cui; Guo, Yuming

    2014-07-01

    There is an increasing interest in spatial and temporal variation of air pollution and its association with weather conditions. We presented the spatial and temporal variation of Air Pollution Index (API) and examined the associations between API and meteorological factors during 2001-2011 in Guangzhou, China. A Seasonal-Trend Decomposition Procedure Based on Loess (STL) was used to decompose API. Wavelet analyses were performed to examine the relationships between API and several meteorological factors. Air quality has improved since 2005. APIs were highly correlated among five monitoring stations, and there were substantial temporal variations. Timescale-dependent relationships were found between API and a variety of meteorological factors. Temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed were negatively correlated with API, while diurnal temperature range and atmospheric pressure were positively correlated with API in the annual cycle. Our findings should be taken into account when determining air quality forecasts and pollution control measures.

  14. Meteorological and air quality characterization of the Deaf Smith and Swisher County locations in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    The meteorological and air quality characteristics of the Permian Basin locations in Deaf Smith County and Swisher County, Texas, are described using data from eight climatological stations in the vicinity. Meteorological conditions are reasonably represented by these data because of the generally flat terrain over the area and the geographical proximity of the climatological stations to the locations. Information regarding atmospheric transport and dispersion conditions is derived from data for the period 1976 to 1980 provided by the National Weather Service station at Amarillo, Texas. On an annual basis, southerly winds predominate and the average wind speed is 6.1 m/s (13.7 mph). The analysis of dispersion climatology indicates that neutral atmospheric stability also predominates over the year. This, in combination with high average wind speeds, is characteristic of relatively good dispersion conditions in the area. Significant topographic features are far enough away from the locations that their effects on local dispersion conditions are negligible. The closest available air quality data were collected around population centers and may not accurately represent conditions at these rural and undeveloped locations. The area has been declared ''attaining'' for particulate and sulfur dioxide standards and ''cannot be classified as better than ambient standard'' for nitrogen oxides, ozone, and carbon monoxide. 49 references, 5 figures, 18 tables.

  15. Green River air quality model development: meteorological and tracer data, July/August 1982 field study in Brush Valley, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Lee, R.N.; Orgill, M.M.; Zak, B.D.

    1984-06-01

    Meteorological and atmospheric tracer studies were conducted during a 3-week period in July and August of 1982 in the Brush Creek Valley of northwestern Colorado. The objective of the field experiments was to obtain data to evaluate a model, called VALMET, developed at PNL to predict dispersion of air pollutants released from an elevated stack located within a deep mountain valley in the post-sunrise temperature inversion breakup period. Three tracer experiments were conducted in the valley during the 2-week period. In these experiments, sulfur hexafluoride (SF/sub 6/) was released from a height of approximately 100 m, beginning before sunrise and continuing until the nocturnal down-valley winds reversed several hours after sunrise. Dispersion of the sulfur hexafluoride after release was evaluated by measuring SF/sub 6/ concentrations in ambient air samples taken from sampling devices operated within the valley up to about 8 km down valley from the source. An instrumented research aircraft was also used to measure concentrations in and above the valley. Tracer samples were collected using a network of radio-controlled bag sampling stations, two manually operated gas chromatographs, a continuous SF/sub 6/ monitor, and a vertical SF/sub 6/ profiler. In addition, basic meteorological data were collected during the tracer experiments. Frequent profiles of vertical wind and temperature structure were obtained with tethered balloons operated at the release site and at a site 7.7 km down the valley from the release site. 10 references, 63 figures, 50 tables.

  16. Role of meteorology in seasonality of air pollution in megacity Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Guttikunda, Sarath K; Gurjar, Bhola R

    2012-05-01

    The winters in megacity Delhi are harsh, smoggy, foggy, and highly polluted. The pollution levels are approximately two to three times those monitored in the summer months, and the severity is felt not only in the health department but also in the transportation department, with regular delays at airport operations and series of minor and major accidents across the road corridors. The impacts felt across the city are both manmade (due to the fuel burning) and natural (due to the meteorological setting), and it is hard to distinguish their respective proportions. Over the last decade, the city has gained from timely interventions to control pollution, and yet, the pollution levels are as bad as the previous year, especially for the fine particulates, the most harmful of the criteria pollutants, with a daily 2009 average of 80 to 100 μg/m(3). In this paper, the role of meteorology is studied using a Lagrangian model called Atmospheric Transport Modeling System in tracer mode to better understand the seasonality of pollution in Delhi. A clear conclusion is that irrespective of constant emissions over each month, the estimated tracer concentrations are invariably 40% to 80% higher in the winter months (November, December, and January) and 10% to 60% lower in the summer months (May, June, and July), when compared to annual average for that year. Along with monitoring and source apportionment studies, this paper presents a way to communicate complex physical characteristics of atmospheric modeling in simplistic manner and to further elaborate linkages between local meteorology and pollution.

  17. Role of meteorology in seasonality of air pollution in megacity Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Guttikunda, Sarath K; Gurjar, Bhola R

    2012-05-01

    The winters in megacity Delhi are harsh, smoggy, foggy, and highly polluted. The pollution levels are approximately two to three times those monitored in the summer months, and the severity is felt not only in the health department but also in the transportation department, with regular delays at airport operations and series of minor and major accidents across the road corridors. The impacts felt across the city are both manmade (due to the fuel burning) and natural (due to the meteorological setting), and it is hard to distinguish their respective proportions. Over the last decade, the city has gained from timely interventions to control pollution, and yet, the pollution levels are as bad as the previous year, especially for the fine particulates, the most harmful of the criteria pollutants, with a daily 2009 average of 80 to 100 μg/m(3). In this paper, the role of meteorology is studied using a Lagrangian model called Atmospheric Transport Modeling System in tracer mode to better understand the seasonality of pollution in Delhi. A clear conclusion is that irrespective of constant emissions over each month, the estimated tracer concentrations are invariably 40% to 80% higher in the winter months (November, December, and January) and 10% to 60% lower in the summer months (May, June, and July), when compared to annual average for that year. Along with monitoring and source apportionment studies, this paper presents a way to communicate complex physical characteristics of atmospheric modeling in simplistic manner and to further elaborate linkages between local meteorology and pollution. PMID:21713474

  18. Modeling study on the air quality impacts from emission reductions and atypical meteorological conditions during the 2008 Beijing Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jia; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Shuxiao; Liu, Xiaohuan; Cheng, Shuhui; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Yaosheng; Streets, David G.; Jang, Carey; Hao, Jiming; Wang, Wenxing

    2011-04-01

    Understanding of the relative impacts of emission reductions and meteorological variations on air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics has an important policy implication. In this work, detailed process analyses and sensitivity simulations under different emission and meteorology scenarios were conducted using CMAQ and the Process Analysis tool to quantify the air quality benefits from emission reductions and meteorological variations in August 2008. The results indicate that emission-driven changes dominate surface concentration reductions of SO 2, NO 2, VOCs, daily maxima O 3 and PM 2.5 by -11% to -83%. The effect of meteorology-driven changes on species concentrations can be either ways (by -46% to 105%) at different locations. The dominant processes contributing to O 3, PM 2.5, SO 42-, NO 3-, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are identified. Gas-phase chemistry is a major process for O 3 production, and PM processes are dominant sources for PM 2.5 in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The reduced emissions weaken the source contributions of gas-phase chemistry to O 3 and those of PM processes to PM 2.5, with weaker vertical mixing processes and horizontal transport in the PBL. Compared with 2007, 2008 has a higher humidity, lower temperature and more precipitation that benefit O 3 reduction within the PBL, and a weaker vertical mixing that disbenefits reductions of all pollutants concentrations. Stronger process contributions of cloud processes (e.g., below- and in-cloud scavenging, and wet deposition) in 2008 help reduce concentrations of PM 2.5, NO 3-, and SOA, but they (e.g., aqueous-phase chemistry) enhance surface SO 42- concentrations. Smaller process contributions of aerosol processes help reduce the concentrations of SOA and SO 42- but enhance NO 3- and PM 2.5 in lower layers (1-6) due to the evaporation of NO 3-. The ratios of P O /P increase under the controlled simulation, indicating that the emission control actions enforced during the 2008

  19. Mining Environmental Data from a Coupled Modelling System to Examine the Impact of Agricultural Management Practices on Groundwater and Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, V.; Cooter, E. J.; Hayes, B.; Murphy, M. S.; Bash, J. O.

    2014-12-01

    Excess nitrogen (N) resulting from current agricultural management practices can leach into sources of drinking water as nitrate, increasing human health risks of 'blue baby syndrome', hypertension, and some cancers and birth defects. Nitrogen also enters the atmosphere from land surfaces forming air pollution increasing human health risks of pulmonary and cardio-vascular disease. Characterizing and attributing nitrogen from agricultural management practices is difficult due to the complex and inter-related chemical and biological reactions associated with the nitrogen cascade. Coupled physical process-based models, however, present new opportunities to investigate relationships among environmental variables on new scales; particularly because they link emission sources with meteorology and the pollutant concentration ultimately found in the environment. In this study, we applied a coupled meteorology (NOAA-WRF), agricultural (USDA-EPIC) and air quality modelling system (EPA-CMAQ) to examine the impact of nitrogen inputs from corn production on ecosystem and human health and wellbeing. The coupled system accounts for the nitrogen flux between the land surface and air, and the soil surface and groundwater, providing a unique opportunity to examine the effect of management practices such as type and timing of fertilization, tilling and irrigation on both groundwater and air quality across the conterminous US. In conducting the study, we first determined expected relationships based on literature searches and then identified model variables as direct or surrogate variables. We performed extensive and methodical multi-variate regression modelling and variable selection to examine associations between agricultural management practices and environmental condition. We then applied the regression model to predict and contrast pollution levels between two corn production scenarios (Figure 1). Finally, we applied published health functions (e.g., spina bifida and cardio

  20. Comparison of MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature over the Continental USA Meteorological Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ping; Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Thome, Kurtis

    2014-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Impervious Surface Area (ISA) and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the surface-temperature-based urban heat island's (UHIS) signature on LST amplitude over the continental USA and to make comparisons to local air temperatures. Air-temperature-based UHIs (UHIA), calculated using the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) daily air temperatures, are compared with UHIS for urban areas in different biomes during different seasons. NLCD ISA is used to define urban and rural temperatures and to stratify the sampling for LST and air temperatures. We find that the MODIS LST agrees well with observed air temperature during the nighttime, but tends to overestimate it during the daytime, especially during summer and in nonforested areas. The minimum air temperature analyses show that UHIs in forests have an average UHIA of 1 C during the summer. The UHIS, calculated from nighttime LST, has similar magnitude of 1-2 C. By contrast, the LSTs show a midday summer UHIS of 3-4 C for cities in forests, whereas the average summer UHIA calculated from maximum air temperature is close to 0 C. In addition, the LSTs and air temperatures difference between 2006 and 2011 are in agreement, albeit with different magnitude.

  1. Influence of ozone and meteorological parameters on levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehnec, Gordana; Jakovljević, Ivana; Šišović, Anica; Bešlić, Ivan; Vađić, Vladimira

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the PM10 particle fraction were measured together with ozone and meteorological parameters at an urban site (Zagreb, Croatia) over a one-year period. Data were subjected to regression analysis in order to determine the relationship between the measured pollutants and selected meteorological variables. All of the PAHs showed seasonal variations with high concentrations in winter and autumn and very low concentrations during summer and spring. All of the ten PAHs concentrations also correlated well with each other. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the concentrations of PAHs and ozone concentrations and concentrations of PAHs and temperature, as well as a positive correlation between concentrations of PAHs and PM10 mass concentration and relative humidity. Multiple regression analysis showed that concentrations of PM10 and ozone, temperature, relative humidity and pressure accounted for 43-70% of PAHs variability. Concentrations of PM10 and temperature were significant variables for all of the measured PAH's concentrations in all seasons. Ozone concentrations were significant for only some of the PAHs, particularly 6-ring PAHs.

  2. Treatment of contaminated groundwaters with granular activated carbon and air stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, M.H.; Gupta, U.S.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past several years there have been increasing reports of cases of contaminated groundwater. Many cases were caused by leaking from surface impoundments or landfills, or leakage from underground storage tanks. Treatment of groundwater use, discharge or recharge into the aquifer is becoming a major concern. Two widely used treatment techniques are adsorption with granular activated carbon and packed tower air stripping. Granular activated carbon is often applied when organic contaminants need to be removed to nondetectable levels, and should be a part of the process if nonvolatile contaminants are present. Air stripping is capable of 95-99% reduction of volatile contaminants and can be a cost effective treatment technology if nondetectable contaminant levels are not required and air pollution is not a factor. Should off-gas from an air stripper require treatment for removal of organic contaminants, granular activated carbon adsorption can be effectively applied as it was in the water phase. Selection of a groundwater treatment technology depends on factors such as contaminant type, end use of the water and air pollution concern, and each case requires consideration of these factors to arrive at the most cost effective solution.

  3. Traceability of ground based air temperature measurements: a case study on the Meteorological Observatory of Moncalieri (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopardo, Giuseppina; Bertiglia, Fabio; Roggero, Guido; Merlone, Andrea; Mercalli, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Assessing climate change will depend crucially on the robustness of climate data and uncertainties associated with measurements. Measurement uncertainties can only be determined and hence minimized if proper consideration is given to the metrological traceability of the measurement results. The metrological traceability is the property of a measurement to be related to a SI (International System of Units) standard through an unbroken chain of calibrations each contributing to the measurement uncertainty [1]. This work illustrates the three principal steps to guarantee traceability to measurements of air temperature recorded by automatic weather stations: 1. The first step in traceability is related to the primary standards, which are maintained in each country by the National Institute of Metrology (NMI). The internationally agreed reference for the temperature is the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90). The fixed point cells and the transfer instruments, standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRT), are here descried. 2. The second step is the calibration: the temperature sensors are compared directly with primary standards or through secondary standards, according to the target uncertainty and the procedure adopted or required. In this work we illustrate a procedure and a calibration facility manufactured for meteorological purpose by the Italian NMI [2]. The calibration facility is a chamber, with reduced dimensions, transportable for in situ calibrations. 3. Third requirement is the evaluation of the calibration uncertainties. To account in the uncertainty budget for this type B uncertainty, in addition to the usual type A, will allow to obtain more reliable temperature data. (Type A, as defined in the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) [3], is the component of uncertainty determined by means of statistical analysis, and type B by means other than statistical analysis). An application example of a complete traceability

  4. Simulating aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on meteorology and air quality over eastern China under severe haze conditions in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yuxuan; Hao, Jiming

    2015-04-01

    The aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on meteorology and air quality over eastern China under severe winter haze conditions during January 2013 are simulated using the fully coupled on-line Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. Three simulation scenarios including different aerosol configurations are undertaken to distinguish the impact of aerosol radiative (direct and semi-direct) and indirect effects on meteorological variables and air quality. Simulated spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5 are generally consistent with surface observations, with a mean bias of -18.9 μg/m3 (-15.0%) averaged over 71 big cities in China. Comparisons between different scenarios reveal that aerosol radiative effects (direct effect and semi-direct effects) result in reductions of downward shortwave flux at the surface, 2 m temperature, 10 m wind speed and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height by up to 84.0 W/m2, 3.2 oC, 0.8 m/s, and 268 m, respectively. The simulated impact of the aerosol indirect effects is comparatively smaller. Through reducing the PBL height and wind speeds, the aerosol effects lead to increases in surface concentrations of primary pollutants (CO and SO2) and PM2.5. The aerosol feedbacks on secondary pollutants such as surface ozone and PM2.5 mass concentrations show some spatial variations. Surface O3 mixing ratio is reduced by up to 6.9 ppb due to reduced incoming solar radiation and lower temperature. Comparisons of model results with observations show that inclusion of aerosol feedbacks in the model significantly improves model performance in simulating meteorological variables and improves simulations of PM2.5 temporal distributions over the North China Plain, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and Central China. Although the aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on aerosol mass concentrations are subject to uncertainties, this work demonstrates the significance of aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks for real-time air

  5. Simulating aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on meteorology and air quality over eastern China under severe haze conditions in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Wang, Y. X.; Hao, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    The aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on meteorology and air quality over eastern China under severe winter haze conditions during January~2013 are simulated using the fully coupled on-line Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. Three simulation scenarios including different aerosol configurations are undertaken to distinguish the impact of aerosol radiative (direct and semi-direct) and indirect effects on meteorological variables and air quality. Simulated spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5 are generally consistent with surface observations, with a mean bias of -18.9 μg m-3 (-15.0%) averaged over 71 big cities in China. Comparisons between different scenarios reveal that aerosol radiative effects (direct effect and semi-direct effects) result in reductions of downward shortwave flux at the surface, 2 m temperature, 10 m wind speed and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height by up to 84.0 W m-2, 3.2 °C, 0.8 m s-1, and 268 m, respectively. The simulated impact of the aerosol indirect effects is comparatively smaller. Through reducing the PBL height and wind speeds, the aerosol effects lead to increases in surface concentrations of primary pollutants (CO and SO2) and PM2.5. The aerosol feedbacks on secondary pollutants such as surface ozone and PM2.5 mass concentrations show some spatial variations. Surface O3 mixing ratio is reduced by up to 6.9 ppb due to reduced incoming solar radiation and lower temperature. Comparisons of model results with observations show that inclusion of aerosol feedbacks in the model significantly improves model's performances in simulating meteorological variables and improves simulations of PM2.5 temporal distributions over the North China Plain, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and Central China. Although the aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on aerosol mass concentrations are subject to uncertainties, this work demonstrates the significance of aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks for real

  6. Meteorological influences during MLOPEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Carole J.; Merrill, J. T.; Mendonca, B. G.

    1992-06-01

    Meteorological data are presented and discussed for the period May 1 to June 4,1988, in support of the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment (MLOPEX). Isentropic trajectories were computed to determine air mass origins. Meteorological observations at the Mauna Loa Observatory and radiosonde observations from HiIo, Hawaii, are used to analyze local influences on air mass composition.

  7. Development of Gridded Fields of Urban Canopy Parameters for Advanced Urban Meteorological and Air Quality Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban dispersion and air quality simulation models applied at various horizontal scales require different levels of fidelity for specifying the characteristics of the underlying surfaces. As the modeling scales approach the neighborhood level (~1 km horizontal grid spacing), the...

  8. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Icing Sensor Performance During the 2003 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, John J.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Minnis, Patrick; Nguyen, Louis; Delnore, Victor E.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Grainger, C. A.; Delene, D.; Wolff, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) sensor was deployed onboard the University of North Dakota Citation II aircraft in the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) from Nov 19 through December 14, 2003. TAMDAR is designed to measure and report winds, temperature, humidity, turbulence and icing from regional commercial aircraft (Daniels et. al., 2004). TAMDAR icing sensor performance is compared to a) in situ validation data from the Citation II sensor suite, b) Current Icing Potential products developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and available operationally on the NOAA Aviation Weather Center s Aviation Digital Data Server (ADDS) and c) NASA Advanced Satellite Aviation-weather Products (ASAP) cloud microphysical products.

  9. Variability in surface meteorology and air-sea fluxes due to cumulus convective systems observed during CINDY/DYNAMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Satoru; Katsumata, Masaki; Yoneyama, Kunio

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the variability in surface meteorological parameters and air-sea heat fluxes due to cold pools emanating from cumulus convective systems observed over the tropical Indian Ocean in November 2011. In particular, this study focuses on convective systems that are spatially smaller than mesoscale convective systems in a southeasterly trade wind environment. Composite analyses of convectively active periods show an increase in the sensible heat flux by 15-20 W m-2 that is primarily attributed to an increase in the difference between the surface air temperature and sea surface temperature and an increase in the latent heat flux by 30-70 W m-2 due to enhanced surface wind speeds. A succession of convectively active periods leads to a greater influence than those occurring independently. The direction of the surface wind velocity anomaly due to cold pools tends to be close to that of the environmental wind velocity, resulting in an efficient enhancement of wind speed. This study also demonstrates the close relation between cold pool intensities and convective activity. In particular, two measures of cold pool intensity, a minimum surface air temperature and a maximum amount of surface wind speed enhancement, are correlated with each other and with the convective activity around the observation point measured by radar-estimated rainfall and radar echo coverage.

  10. Simulating aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on meteorology and air quality over eastern China under severe haze conditionsin winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Wang, Y.; Hao, J.

    2015-03-01

    The aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on meteorology and air quality over eastern China under severe winter haze conditions in January 2013 are simulated using the fully coupled online Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. Three simulation scenarios including different aerosol configurations are undertaken to distinguish the aerosol's radiative (direct and semi-direct) and indirect effects. Simulated spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5 are generally consistent with surface observations, with a mean bias of -18.9 μg m-3 (-15.0%) averaged over 71 big cities in China. Comparisons between different scenarios reveal that aerosol radiative effects (direct effect and semi-direct effects) result in reductions of downward shortwave flux at the surface, 2 m temperature, 10 m wind speed and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height by up to 84.0 W m-2, 3.2°C, 0.8 m s-1, and 268 m, respectively. The simulated impact of the aerosol indirect effects is comparatively smaller. Through reducing the PBL height and stabilizing lower atmosphere, the aerosol effects lead to increases in surface concentrations of primary pollutants (CO and SO2). Surface O3 mixing ratio is reduced by up to 6.9 ppb (parts per billion) due to reduced incoming solar radiation and lower temperature, while the aerosol feedbacks on PM2.5 mass concentrations show some spatial variations. Comparisons of model results with observations show that inclusion of aerosol feedbacks in the model significantly improves model performance in simulating meteorological variables and improves simulations of PM2.5 temporal distributions over the North China Plain, the Yangtze River delta, the Pearl River delta, and central China. Although the aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks on aerosol mass concentrations are subject to uncertainties, this work demonstrates the significance of aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks for real-time air quality forecasting under haze conditions.

  11. Crossflow air stripping and catalytic oxidation of chlorinated hydrocarbons from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Gavaskar, A.R.; Kim, B.C.; Rosansky, S.H.; Ong, S.K.; Marchand, E.G.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes air stripping of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants from groundwater in a crossflow air stripping tower and destruction of the organic compounds by catalytic oxidation. Crossflow stripping has an advantage over conventional countercurrent stripping. In typical stripping operations, the mass transfer coefficient is insensitive to the velocity of the gas stream. The crossflow stripping tower is a geometry that increases the cross section of gas flow while making minimal disturbances to the liquid flow, allowing high gas-liquid ratios without flooding. By increasing the flow cross section for the gas stream, pressure drop (and thus fan power) can be reduced significantly. A field demonstration of the crossflow column was performed at a contaminated groundwater site. The groundwater was pumped out and sent to two 17-ft-high (5.2-m) towers in a parallel arrangement. One tower was a crossflow air stripper and the other a conventional countercurrent design. The performance of the two was compared. The key organic species targeted was dichloroethane, which has a low Henry`s law constant. Three different baffle configurations were tested in the crossflow tower. The results of this demonstration were used to develop design criteria for crossflow air strippers to be used for destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons. 4 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. In situ treatment of arsenic-contaminated groundwater by air sparging.

    PubMed

    Brunsting, Joseph H; McBean, Edward A

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a major problem in some areas of the world, particularly in West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh where it is caused by reducing conditions in the aquifer. In situ treatment, if it can be proven as operationally feasible, has the potential to capture some advantages over other treatment methods by being fairly simple, not using chemicals, and not necessitating disposal of arsenic-rich wastes. In this study, the potential for in situ treatment by injection of compressed air directly into the aquifer (i.e. air sparging) is assessed. An experimental apparatus was constructed to simulate conditions of arsenic-rich groundwater under anaerobic conditions, and in situ treatment by air sparging was employed. Arsenic (up to 200 μg/L) was removed to a maximum of 79% (at a local point in the apparatus) using a solution with dissolved iron and arsenic only. A static "jar" test revealed arsenic removal by co-precipitation with iron at a molar ratio of approximately 2 (iron/arsenic). This is encouraging since groundwater with relatively high amounts of dissolved iron (as compared to arsenic) therefore has a large theoretical treatment capacity for arsenic. Iron oxidation was significantly retarded at pH values below neutral. In terms of operation, analysis of experimental results shows that periodic air sparging may be feasible.

  13. Linking climate and air quality over Europe: effects of meteorology on PM2.5 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megaritis, A. G.; Fountoukis, C.; Charalampidis, P. E.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S. N.

    2014-09-01

    The effects of various meteorological parameters such as temperature, wind speed, absolute humidity, precipitation and mixing height on PM2.5 concentrations over Europe were examined using a three-dimensional chemical transport model, PMCAMx-2008. Our simulations covered three periods, representative of different seasons (summer, winter, and fall). PM2.5 appears to be more sensitive to temperature changes compared to the other meteorological parameters in all seasons. PM2.5 generally decreases as temperature increases, although the predicted changes vary significantly in space and time, ranging from -700 ng m-3 K-1 (-8% K-1) to 300 ng m-3 K-1 (7% K-1). The predicted decreases of PM2.5 are mainly due to evaporation of ammonium nitrate, while the higher biogenic emissions and the accelerated gas-phase reaction rates increase the production of organic aerosol (OA) and sulfate, having the opposite effect on PM2.5. The predicted responses of PM2.5 to absolute humidity are also quite variable, ranging from -130 ng m-3 %-1 (-1.6% %-1) to 160 ng m-3 %-1 (1.6% %-1) dominated mainly by changes in inorganic PM2.5 species. An increase in absolute humidity favors the partitioning of nitrate to the aerosol phase and increases the average PM2.5 during summer and fall. Decreases in sulfate and sea salt levels govern the average PM2.5 response to humidity during winter. A decrease of wind speed (keeping the emissions constant) increases all PM2.5 species (on average 40 ng m-3 %-1) due to changes in dispersion and dry deposition. The wind speed effects on sea salt emissions are significant for PM2.5 concentrations over water and in coastal areas. Increases in precipitation have a negative effect on PM2.5 (decreases up to 110 ng m-3 %-1) in all periods due to increases in wet deposition of PM2.5 species and their gas precursors. Changes in mixing height have the smallest effects (up to 35 ng m-3 %-1) on PM2.5 . Regarding the relative importance of each of the meteorological

  14. Linking climate and air quality over Europe: effects of meteorology on PM2.5 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megaritis, A. G.; Fountoukis, C.; Charalampidis, P. E.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S. N.

    2014-04-01

    The effects of various meteorological parameters such as temperature, wind speed, absolute humidity, precipitation and mixing height on PM2.5 concentrations over Europe were examined using a three-dimensional chemical transport model, PMCAMx-2008. Our simulations covered three periods, representative of different seasons (summer, winter, and fall). PM2.5 appears to be more sensitive to temperature changes compared to the other meteorological parameters in all seasons. PM2.5 generally decreases as temperature increases, although the predicted changes vary significantly in space and time, ranging from -700 ng m-3 K-1 (-8% K-1) to 300 ng m-3 K-1 (7% K-1). The predicted decreases of PM2.5 are mainly due to evaporation of ammonium nitrate, while the higher biogenic emissions and the accelerated gas-phase reaction rates increase the production of organic aerosol (OA) and sulfate, having the opposite effect on PM2.5. The predicted responses of PM2.5 to absolute humidity are also quite variable, ranging from -130 ng m-3%-1 (-1.6% %-1) to 160 ng m-3 %-1 (1.6% %-1) dominated mainly by changes in inorganic PM2.5 species. An increase in absolute humidity favors the partitioning of nitrate to the aerosol phase and increases the average PM2.5 during summer and fall. Decreases in sulfate and sea salt levels govern the average PM2.5 response to humidity during winter. A decrease of wind speed (keeping constant the emissions) increases all PM2.5 species (on average 40 ng m-3 %-1) due to changes in dispersion and dry deposition. The wind speed effects on sea salt emissions are significant for PM2.5 concentrations over water and in coastal areas. Increases in precipitation have a negative effect on PM2.5 (decreases up to 110 ng m-3 %-1) in all periods due to increases in wet deposition of PM2.5 species and their gas precursors. Changes in mixing height have the smallest effects (up to 35 ng m-3 %-1) on PM2.5. Regarding the relative importance of each of the meteorological parameters

  15. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  16. Examining Air Quality-Meteorology Interactions on Regional to Hemispheric Scales

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides motivation for coupling the atmospheric dynamics and chemistry calculations in air pollution modeling systems, provides an overview of how this coupling is achieved in the WRF-CMAQ 2-way coupled model, presents results from various applications of the m...

  17. Temporal distribution of air quality related to meteorology and road traffic in Madrid.

    PubMed

    Perez-Martinez, Pedro J; Miranda, Regina M

    2015-04-01

    The impact of climatology--air temperature, precipitation and wind speed--and road traffic--volume, vehicle speed and percentage of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs)--on air quality in Madrid was studied by estimating the effect for each explanatory variable using generalized linear regression models controlling for monthly variations, days of week and parameter levels. Every 1 m/s increase in wind speed produced a decrease in PM10 concentrations by 10.3% (95% CI 12.6-8.6) for all weekdays and by 12.4% (95% CI 14.9-9.8) for working days (up to the cut-off of 2.4 m/s). Increases of PM10 concentrations due to air temperature (7.2% (95% CI 6.2-8.3)) and traffic volume (3.3% (95% CI 2.9-3.8)) were observed at every 10 °C and 1 million vehicle-km increases for all weekdays; oppositely, slight decreases of PM10 concentrations due to percentage of HDVs (3.2% (95% CI 2.7-3.7)) and vehicle speed (0.7% (95% CI 0.6-0.8)) were observed at every 1% and 1 km/h increases. Stronger effects of climatology on air quality than traffic parameters were found.

  18. Temporal distribution of air quality related to meteorology and road traffic in Madrid.

    PubMed

    Perez-Martinez, Pedro J; Miranda, Regina M

    2015-04-01

    The impact of climatology--air temperature, precipitation and wind speed--and road traffic--volume, vehicle speed and percentage of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs)--on air quality in Madrid was studied by estimating the effect for each explanatory variable using generalized linear regression models controlling for monthly variations, days of week and parameter levels. Every 1 m/s increase in wind speed produced a decrease in PM10 concentrations by 10.3% (95% CI 12.6-8.6) for all weekdays and by 12.4% (95% CI 14.9-9.8) for working days (up to the cut-off of 2.4 m/s). Increases of PM10 concentrations due to air temperature (7.2% (95% CI 6.2-8.3)) and traffic volume (3.3% (95% CI 2.9-3.8)) were observed at every 10 °C and 1 million vehicle-km increases for all weekdays; oppositely, slight decreases of PM10 concentrations due to percentage of HDVs (3.2% (95% CI 2.7-3.7)) and vehicle speed (0.7% (95% CI 0.6-0.8)) were observed at every 1% and 1 km/h increases. Stronger effects of climatology on air quality than traffic parameters were found. PMID:25827898

  19. Geochemical study of groundwater at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and Kirtland Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) and its contractor, Rust Geotech, support the Kirtland Area Office by assisting Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (Sandia/NM) with remedial action, remedial design, and technical support of its Environmental Restoration Program. To aid in determining groundwater origins and flow paths, the GJPO was tasked to provide interpretation of groundwater geochemical data. The purpose of this investigation was to describe and analyze the groundwater geochemistry of the Sandia/NM Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB). Interpretations of groundwater origins are made by using these data and the results of {open_quotes}mass balance{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}reaction path{close_quote} modeling. Additional maps and plots were compiled to more fully comprehend the geochemical distributions. A more complete set of these data representations are provided in the appendices. Previous interpretations of groundwater-flow paths that were based on well-head, geologic, and geochemical data are presented in various reports and were used as the basis for developing the models presented in this investigation.

  20. Groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater represents the terrestrial subsurface component of the hydrologic cycle. As such, groundwater is generally in motion, moving from elevated areas of recharge to lower areas of discharge. Groundwater usually moves in accordance with Darcy’s law (Dalmont, Paris: Les Fontaines Publiques de la Ville de Dijon, 1856). Groundwater residence times can be under a day in small upland catchments to over a million years in subcontinental-sized desert basins. The broadest definition of groundwater includes water in the unsaturated zone, considered briefly here. Water chemically bound to minerals, as in gypsum (CaSO4 • 2H2O) or hydrated clays, cannot flow in response to gradients in total hydraulic head (pressure head plus elevation head); such water is thus usually excluded from consideration as groundwater. In 1940, M. King Hubbert showed Darcy’s law to be a special case of thermodynamically based potential field equations governing fluid motion, thereby establishing groundwater hydraulics as a rigorous engineering science (Journal of Geology 48, pp. 785–944). The development of computer-enabled numerical methods for solving the field equations with real-world approximating geometries and boundary conditions in the mid-1960s ushered in the era of digital groundwater modeling. An estimated 30 percent of global fresh water is groundwater, compared to 0.3 percent that is surface water, 0.04 percent atmospheric water, and 70 percent that exists as ice, including permafrost (Shiklomanov and Rodda 2004, cited under Groundwater Occurrence). Groundwater thus constitutes the vast majority—over 98 percent—of the unfrozen fresh-water resources of the planet, excluding surface-water reservoirs. Environmental dimensions of groundwater are equally large, receiving attention on multiple disciplinary fronts. Riparian, streambed, and spring-pool habitats can be sensitively dependent on the amount and quality of groundwater inputs that modulate temperature and solutes

  1. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF GROUNDWATER AT AIR FORCE PLANT 4, CARSWELL, TEXAS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT (CD-ROM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 600 Cottonwood trees were planted over a shallow groundwater plume in an attempt to detoxify the tricWoroethylene (TCE) in a groundwater plume at a former Air Force facility. Two planting techniques were used: rooted stock about two years old, and 18 inch cuttings were insta...

  2. On the consistency of the drag between air and water in meteorological, hydrodynamic and wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nieuwkoop, Joana; Baas, Peter; Caires, Sofia; Groeneweg, Jacco

    2015-07-01

    For the design, assessment and flood control of water defences, hydraulic loads in terms of water levels and wave conditions are required and often obtained from numerical models. For these hydraulic loads to be reliable, accurate atmospheric forcing is required. Waves and surges are typically forced by surface stress. However, in most cases, the input for these models consists of 10-m wind velocities that are internally converted to surface stress by applying a particular drag relation. This procedure generally leads to inconsistencies, since the hydrodynamic, wave and atmospheric models often apply different drag relations. By means of a case study, we explored the consequences of this inconsistency in the drag formulation for a North Sea storm wave and surge hindcast. This was done by forcing the hydrodynamic and wave models using both the 10-m wind velocity and the surface stress fields computed by the atmospheric model. Our study results show significant differences between the wave parameter values and water levels computed with surface stress input and 10-m wind velocity input. Our goal is not to assess different drag parameterizations but to raise awareness for this issue and to plea for the use of a consistent drag relation in meteorological and hydrodynamic/wave models. The consistent use of one drag formulation facilitates the identification of problems and the eventual improvement of the drag formulation. Furthermore, we suggest using the so-called pseudo-wind, which is a translation of the surface stress to the 10-m wind speed using a reference drag relation.

  3. Meteorological and air quality forecasting using the WRF-STEM model during the 2008 ARCTAS field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Allura, Alessio; Kulkarni, Sarika; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Finardi, Sandro; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Wei, Chao; Streets, David; Zhang, Qiang; Pierce, Robert B.; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Diskin, Glenn; Wennberg, Paul

    2011-12-01

    In this study, the University of Iowa's Chemical Weather Forecasting System comprising meteorological predictions using the WRF model, and off-line chemical weather predictions using tracer and full chemistry versions of the STEM model, designed to support the flight planning during the ARCTAS 2008 mission is described and evaluated. The system includes tracers representing biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions from different geographical emissions source regions, as well as air mass age indicators. We demonstrate how this forecasting system was used in flight planning and in the interpretation of the experimental data obtained through the case study of the summer mission ARCTAS DC-8 flight executed on July 9 2008 that sampled near the North Pole. The comparison of predicted meteorological variables including temperature, pressure, wind speed and wind direction against the flight observations shows that the WRF model is able to correctly describe the synoptic circulation and cloud coverage in the Arctic region The absolute values of predicted CO match the measured CO closely suggesting that the STEM model is able to capture the variability in observations within the Arctic region. The time-altitude cross sections of source region tagged CO tracers along the flight track helped in identifying biomass burning (from North Asia) and anthropogenic (largely China) as major sources contributing to the observed CO along this flight. The difference between forecast and post analysis biomass burning emissions can lead to significant changes (˜10-50%) in primary CO predictions reflecting the large uncertainty associated with biomass burning estimates and the need to reduce this uncertainty for effective flight planning.

  4. Meteorology drives ambient air quality in a valley: a case of Sukinda chromite mine, one among the ten most polluted areas in the world.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Soumya Ranjan; Pradhan, Rudra Pratap; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Sahu, Sanjat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The ambient air quality (AAQ) assessment was undertaken in Sukinda Valley, the chromite hub of India. The possible correlations of meteorological variables with different air quality parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) were examined. Being the fourth most polluted area in the globe, Sukinda Valley has always been under attention of researchers, for hexavalent chromium contamination of water. The monitoring was carried out from December 2013 through May 2014 at six strategic locations in the residential and commercial areas around the mining cluster of Sukinda Valley considering the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In addition, meteorological parameters viz., temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and rainfall, were also monitored. The air quality data were subjected to a general linear model (GLM) coupled with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for testing the significant difference in the concentration of various parameters among seasons and stations. Further, a two-tailed Pearson's correlation test helped in understanding the influence of meteorological parameters on dispersion of pollutants in the area. All the monitored air quality parameters varied significantly among the monitoring stations suggesting (i) the distance of sampling location to the mine site and other allied activities, (ii) landscape features and topography and (iii) meteorological parameters to be the forcing functions. The area was highly polluted with particulate matters, and in most of the cases, the PM level exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The meteorological parameters seemed to play a major role in the dispersion of pollutants around the mine clusters. The role of wind direction, wind speed and temperature was apparent in dispersion of the particulate matters from their source of generation to the surrounding residential and commercial areas of the mine.

  5. Meteorology drives ambient air quality in a valley: a case of Sukinda chromite mine, one among the ten most polluted areas in the world.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Soumya Ranjan; Pradhan, Rudra Pratap; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Sahu, Sanjat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The ambient air quality (AAQ) assessment was undertaken in Sukinda Valley, the chromite hub of India. The possible correlations of meteorological variables with different air quality parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) were examined. Being the fourth most polluted area in the globe, Sukinda Valley has always been under attention of researchers, for hexavalent chromium contamination of water. The monitoring was carried out from December 2013 through May 2014 at six strategic locations in the residential and commercial areas around the mining cluster of Sukinda Valley considering the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In addition, meteorological parameters viz., temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and rainfall, were also monitored. The air quality data were subjected to a general linear model (GLM) coupled with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for testing the significant difference in the concentration of various parameters among seasons and stations. Further, a two-tailed Pearson's correlation test helped in understanding the influence of meteorological parameters on dispersion of pollutants in the area. All the monitored air quality parameters varied significantly among the monitoring stations suggesting (i) the distance of sampling location to the mine site and other allied activities, (ii) landscape features and topography and (iii) meteorological parameters to be the forcing functions. The area was highly polluted with particulate matters, and in most of the cases, the PM level exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The meteorological parameters seemed to play a major role in the dispersion of pollutants around the mine clusters. The role of wind direction, wind speed and temperature was apparent in dispersion of the particulate matters from their source of generation to the surrounding residential and commercial areas of the mine. PMID:27289470

  6. Air and groundwater pollution in an agricultural region of the Turkish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, Semra G; Oztas, Nur Banu; Erduran, M Soner

    2008-09-01

    Air pollution and groundwater pollution in conjunction with agricultural activity were investigated in Antayla province on the Turkish Mediterranean coast. The air pollution was investigated in terms of gas-phase nitric acid (HNO3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), and particulate matter for a 6-month period in the atmosphere using a "filter pack" system, which was developed and optimized in our laboratory. Ozone was measured by using an automated analyzer. Among all of the gas-phase pollutants, HNO3 had the lowest concentration (0.42 microg x m(-3)) followed by NH3. Agricultural activities seem to be the major source of observed NH3 in the air. The current state of water pollution was investigated in terms of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides around the greenhouses, in which mainly tomato, pepper, and eggplant are cultivated. Water samples were collected from 40 points, 28 of which were wells and 12 of which were surface water. The pesticide concentrations in water samples were determined by means of solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by a gas chromatography (GC)-electron capture detector (ECD)/nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD) system. In general, surface water samples were more polluted by the pesticides than groundwater samples. The most frequently observed pesticides were chlorpyriphos (57%) and aldrin (79%) in groundwater, and chlorpyriphos (75%), aldrin, and endosulfan sulfate (83%) in surface water samples. The highest concentrations were observed for fenamiphos (394.8 ng/L) and aldrin (68.51 ng/L) in groundwater, and dichlorvos (322.2 ng/L) and endosulfan sulfate (89.5 ng/L) in surface water samples. At least one pesticide had a concentration above the health limit in 38% of all the water samples analyzed.

  7. Exchange of Groundwater and Surface-Water Mediated by Permafrost Response to Seasonal and Long Term Air Temperature Variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ge, Shemin; McKenzie, Jeffrey; Voss, Clifford; Wu, Qingbai

    2011-01-01

    Permafrost dynamics impact hydrologic cycle processes by promoting or impeding groundwater and surface water exchange. Under seasonal and decadal air temperature variations, permafrost temperature changes control the exchanges between groundwater and surface water. A coupled heat transport and groundwater flow model, SUTRA, was modified to simulate groundwater flow and heat transport in the subsurface containing permafrost. The northern central Tibet Plateau was used as an example of model application. Modeling results show that in a yearly cycle, groundwater flow occurs in the active layer from May to October. Maximum groundwater discharge to the surface lags the maximum subsurface temperature by two months. Under an increasing air temperature scenario of 3?C per 100 years, over the initial 40-year period, the active layer thickness can increase by three-fold. Annual groundwater discharge to the surface can experience a similar three-fold increase in the same period. An implication of these modeling results is that with increased warming there will be more groundwater flow in the active layer and therefore increased groundwater discharge to rivers. However, this finding only holds if sufficient upgradient water is available to replenish the increased discharge. Otherwise, there will be an overall lowering of the water table in the recharge portion of the catchment.

  8. Exchange of groundwater and surface-water mediated by permafrost response to seasonal and long term air temperature variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ge, S.; McKenzie, J.; Voss, C.; Wu, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Permafrost dynamics impact hydrologic cycle processes by promoting or impeding groundwater and surface water exchange. Under seasonal and decadal air temperature variations, permafrost temperature changes control the exchanges between groundwater and surface water. A coupled heat transport and groundwater flow model, SUTRA, was modified to simulate groundwater flow and heat transport in the subsurface containing permafrost. The northern central Tibet Plateau was used as an example of model application. Modeling results show that in a yearly cycle, groundwater flow occurs in the active layer from May to October. Maximum groundwater discharge to the surface lags the maximum subsurface temperature by two months. Under an increasing air temperature scenario of 3C per 100 years, over the initial 40-year period, the active layer thickness can increase by three-fold. Annual groundwater discharge to the surface can experience a similar three-fold increase in the same period. An implication of these modeling results is that with increased warming there will be more groundwater flow in the active layer and therefore increased groundwater discharge to rivers. However, this finding only holds if sufficient upgradient water is available to replenish the increased discharge. Otherwise, there will be an overall lowering of the water table in the recharge portion of the catchment. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Groundwater level and nitrate concentration trends on Mountain Home Air Force Base, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Marshall L.

    2014-01-01

    Mountain Home Air Force Base in southwestern Idaho draws most of its drinking water from the regional aquifer. The base is located within the State of Idaho's Mountain Home Groundwater Management Area and is adjacent to the State's Cinder Cone Butte Critical Groundwater Area. Both areas were established by the Idaho Department of Water Resources in the early 1980s because of declining water levels in the regional aquifer. The base also is listed by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality as a nitrate priority area. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, began monitoring wells on the base in 1985, and currently monitors 25 wells for water levels and 17 wells for water quality, primarily nutrients. This report provides a summary of water-level and nitrate concentration data collected primarily between 2001 and 2013 and examines trends in those data. A Regional Kendall Test was run to combine results from all wells to determine an overall regional trend in water level. Groundwater levels declined at an average rate of about 1.08 feet per year. Nitrate concentration trends show that 3 wells (18 percent) are increasing in nitrate concentration trend, 3 wells (18 percent) show a decreasing nitrate concentration trend, and 11 wells (64 percent) show no nitrate concentration trend. Six wells (35 percent) currently exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant limit of 10 milligrams per liter for nitrate (nitrite plus nitrate, measured as nitrogen).

  10. AQA - Air Quality model for Austria: comparison of ALADIN and ALARO forecasts with observed meteorological profiles and PM10 predictions with CAMx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirtl, M.; Krüger, B. C.; Kaiser, A.

    2009-09-01

    In AQA, Air Quality model for Austria, the regional weather forecast model ALADIN-Austria of the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) is used in combination with the chemical transport model CAMx (www.camx.com) to conduct forecasts of gaseous and particulate air pollutants over Austria. The forecasts which are done in cooperation with the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences in Vienna (BOKU) are supported by the regional governments since 2005. In the current model version AQA uses the operational meteorological forecasts conducted with ALADIN which has a horizontal resolution of 9.7 km. Since 2008 the higher resolved ALARO is also available at the ZAMG. It has a horizontal resolution of 4.9 km and models the PBL with more vertical layers than ALADIN. ALARO also uses more complex algorithms to calculate precipitation, radiation and TKE. Another advantage of ALARO concerning the chemical modelling with CAMx is that additionally to the higher resolved meteorological forecasts it is possible to use finer emission inventories which are available for Austria. From 2006 to 2007 a SODAR-RASS of the ZAMG was operated in the north-eastern Austrian flat lands (Kittsee). In this study the measured vertical profiles of wind and temperature are compared with the model predictions. The evaluation is conducted for an episode in January 2007 when high PM10 concentrations were measured at the air quality station Kittsee. Analysis of the RASS-temperature-profiles show that during this episode a strong nocturnal inversion developed at the investigated area. The ability of the models ALADIN and ALARO to predict this complex meteorological condition is investigated. Both models are also used as meteorological driver for the chemical dispersion model CAMx and the results of predicted PM10 concentrations are compared to air quality measurements.

  11. Radon data acquisition: An automated system for radon analysis of both ground air and tower air and for the simultaneous logging of meteorological data

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, S.

    1990-10-01

    A system to acquire radon data was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to provide information about the effect of weather conditions on the release of radon gas from soils into air. One of the system criteria that drive other design considerations was the need for operation at remote sites where the availability of 120-volt AC power was problematic. As a consequence, all components were selected or designed to run on +12 and/or {minus}12 volts DC. PC-based laptop computers were used for all data acquisition because of their availability, their low power consumption, and the abundance of software written for this platform. The system is comprised of four major sub-systems that are linked by laptop computers: radon-monitor controller, HANDAR 540 data-capture platform, radon-detection units, and barometric pressure unit. Using this system, we successfully collected data at an LLNL field site during 1990. Data from meteorological sensors and radon-concentration profiles from both air and soil were acquired simultaneously and logged on MS-DOS computers for data reduction at a future time. This document describes the functions, hardware, firmware, and software of this system.

  12. How much spatial detail in meteorological parameters is needed to model air-quality in a city? A case study for the city of Antwerp, Belgium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wouters, Hendrik; De Ridder, Koen; Demuzere, Matthias; van Lipzig, Nicole; Brisson, Erwan; Lauwaet, Dirk; Viaene, Peter; Deutsch, Felix; Veldeman, Nele

    2013-04-01

    There exists a large discrepancy between the rural and urban land cover in terms of soil water, aerodynamical, thermal and radiative characteristics, and anthropogenic heat. This results in urban-scale meteorological features such as the urban heat island, reduced wind speed and the city breeze. Some of these effects have a considerable impact on human health in cities when the nocturnal cooling is reduced during heat waves or when air quality is affected during smog episodes. The question rises what impact does urban climate have on air quality in cities. The Regional climate model COSMO-CLM updated with the urban parameterization (TERRA_MLU) and the air-quality AURORA (VITO NV, Belgium) are used to quantify and understand the interactions between (urban) climate and air quality on different scales. COSMO-CLM is currently cascade-nested inside ECMWF 12.5km analysis up to a horizontal resolution of 1km over Antwerp (Belgium). The urban parameterization TERRA_MLU is implemented in COSMO-CLM using a tile approach in which the urban surface can coexist with the natural area in one grid-cell. The inclusion of anthropogenic heat is based on country-specific data of energy consumption downscaled with population density and urbanization. Meteorological model data from COSMO-CLM is used as forcing for the air-quality model AURORA. Results, in particular the urban heat island effect, are evaluated with urban/rural meteorological measurements in Antwerp, Ghent and Brussels starting from 2012. It is investigated whether air-quality modeling can be improved when forcing AURORA with (urban) microscale meteorological data from COSMO-CLM rather than with coarser meteorological data from ECMWF. Therefore each nesting step of COSMO is subsequently used as input for the air-quality model. In order to set priorities for the improvement of air-quality modelling in the future, the relative importance of orography, urban climate and the impact of uncertainty in pollutent emissions to

  13. Groundwater remediation engineering sparging using acetylene--study on the flow distribution of air.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan-Mei; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Guo-Qiang; Jiang, Bin; Li, Xin-Gang

    2005-01-01

    Air sparging (AS) is an emerging method to remove VOCs from saturated soils and groundwater. Air sparging performance highly depends on the air distribution resulting in the aquifer. In order to study gas flow characterization, a two-dimensional experimental chamber was designed and installed. In addition, the method by using acetylene as the tracer to directly image the gas distribution results of AS process has been put forward. Experiments were performed with different injected gas flow rates. The gas flow patterns were found to depend significantly on the injected gas flow rate, and the characterization of gas flow distributions in porous media was very different from the acetylene tracing study. Lower and higher gas flow rates generally yield more irregular in shape and less effective gas distributions.

  14. Climate-forced air-quality modeling at the urban scale: sensitivity to model resolution, emissions and meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Perrussel, O.; Sanchez, O.; Honore, C.

    2015-07-01

    While previous research helped to identify and prioritize the sources of error in air-quality modeling due to anthropogenic emissions and spatial scale effects, our knowledge is limited on how these uncertainties affect climate-forced air-quality assessments. Using as reference a 10-year model simulation over the greater Paris (France) area at 4 km resolution and anthropogenic emissions from a 1 km resolution bottom-up inventory, through several tests we estimate the sensitivity of modeled ozone and PM2.5 concentrations to different potentially influential factors with a particular interest over the urban areas. These factors include the model horizontal and vertical resolution, the meteorological input from a climate model and its resolution, the use of a top-down emission inventory, the resolution of the emissions input and the post-processing coefficients used to derive the temporal, vertical and chemical split of emissions. We show that urban ozone displays moderate sensitivity to the resolution of emissions (~ 8 %), the post-processing method (6.5 %) and the horizontal resolution of the air-quality model (~ 5 %), while annual PM2.5 levels are particularly sensitive to changes in their primary emissions (~ 32 %) and the resolution of the emission inventory (~ 24 %). The air-quality model horizontal and vertical resolution have little effect on model predictions for the specific study domain. In the case of modeled ozone concentrations, the implementation of refined input data results in a consistent decrease (from 2.5 up to 8.3 %), mainly due to inhibition of the titration rate by nitrogen oxides. Such consistency is not observed for PM2.5. In contrast this consistency is not observed for PM2.5. In addition we use the results of these sensitivities to explain and quantify the discrepancy between a coarse (~ 50 km) and a fine (4 km) resolution simulation over the urban area. We show that the ozone bias of the coarse run (+9 ppb) is reduced by ~ 40 % by adopting

  15. The 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study: analysis of meteorological and air quality data that influence local ozone concentrations.

    PubMed

    MacDonal, C P; Roberts, P T; Main, H H; Dye, T S; Coe, D L; Yarbrough, J

    2001-08-10

    The 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study and subsequent data analyses were implemented to develop an understanding of the chemical and physical processes which lead to high concentrations of ozone in the Paso del Norte study area which includes El Paso County, Texas, Sunland Park, New Mexico, and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. Both the data and data analysis results are being used to support photochemical grid modeling. El Paso County and Sunland Park fail to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone, and neighboring Ciudad Juárez fails to meet the Mexican ambient standard for ozone. This paper summarizes the measurement campaigns of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study and the findings and conclusions that arose from subsequent data analyses. Data analyses showed that high ozone concentrations resulted from a combination of conditions, including high surface temperatures, strong sunlight with few clouds, light surface winds and high concentrations of ozone precursors at ground level in the morning, and slow convective boundary layer (CBL) growth. Synoptic-scale meteorological conditions observed during high ozone episodes included an aloft high-pressure system and aloft warming. Aloft carryover of ozone and ozone precursors did not significantly contribute to high concentrations of ozone at the surface.

  16. Evaluation of short-term tracer fluctuations in groundwater and soil air in a two year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenner, Florian; Mayer, Simon; Aeschbach, Werner; Weissbach, Therese

    2016-04-01

    The application of gas tracers like noble gases (NGs), SF6 or CFCs in groundwater studies such as paleo temperature determination requires a detailed understanding of the dynamics of reactive and inert gases in the soil air with which the infiltrating water equilibrates. Due to microbial gas consumption and production, NG partial pressures in soil air can deviate from atmospheric air, an effect that could bias noble gas temperatures estimates if not taken into account. So far, such an impact on NG contents in groundwater has not been directly demonstrated. We provide the first long-term study of the above mentioned gas tracers and physical parameters in both the saturated and unsaturated soil zone, sampled continuously for more than two years near Mannheim (Germany). NG partial pressures in soil air correlate with soil moisture and the sum value of O2+CO2, with a maximal significant enhancement of 3-6% with respect to atmospheric air during summer time. Observed seasonal fluctuations result in a mass dependent fractionation of NGs in soil air. Concentrations of SF6 and CFCs in soil air are determined by corresponding fluctuations in local atmospheric air, caused by industrial emissions. Arising concentration peaks are damped with increasing soil depth. Shallow groundwater shows short-term NG fluctuations which are smoothed within a few meters below the water table. A correlation between NG contents of soil air and of groundwater is observable during strong recharge events. However, there is no evidence for a permanent influence of seasonal variations of soil air composition on shallow groundwater. Fluctuating NG contents in shallow groundwater are rather determined by variations of soil temperature and water table level. Our data gives evidence for a further temperature driven equilibration of groundwater with entrapped air bubbles within the topmost saturated zone, which permanently occurs even some years after recharge. Local subsurface temperature fluctuations

  17. Simulating the fate and transport of TCE from groundwater to indoor air.

    PubMed

    Yu, Soonyoung; Unger, Andre J A; Parker, Beth

    2009-07-21

    This work provides an exploratory analysis on the relative importance of various factors controlling the fate and transport of volatile organic contaminants (in this case, TCE) from a DNAPL source zone located below the water table and into the indoor air. The analysis is conducted using the multi-phase compositional model CompFlow Bio, with the base scenario problem geometry reminiscent of a field experiment conducted by Rivett [Rivett, M.O., (1995), Soil-gas signatures from volatile chlorinated solvents: Borden field experiments. Groundwater, 33(1), 84-98.] at the Borden aquifer where groundwater was observed to transport a contaminant plume a substantial distance without vertical mass transport of the contaminant across the capillary fringe and into the vadose zone. Results for the base scenario model indicate that the structure of the permeability field was largely responsible for deflecting the groundwater plume upward towards the capillary fringe, permitting aqueous phase diffusion to transport the TCE into the vadose zone. Alternative permeability realizations, generated as part of a Monte Carlo simulation process, at times deflected the groundwater plume downwards causing the extended thickness of the saturated zone to insulate the vadose zone from exposure to the TCE by upward diffusive transport. Comparison of attenuation coefficients calculated using the CompFlow Bio and Johnson and Ettinger [Johnson, P.C. and Ettinger, R.A., (1991), Heuristic model for predicting the intrusion rate of contaminant vapors into buildings. Environmental Science and Technology, 25, 1445-1452.] heuristic model exhibited fortuitous agreement for the base scenario problem geometry, with this agreement diverging for the alternative permeability realizations as well as when parameters such as the foundation slab fracture aperture, the indoor air pressure drop, the capillary fringe thickness, and the infiltration rate were varied over typical ranges. PMID:19525028

  18. A new perspective on the Fukushima releases brought by newly available air concentration observations (Tsuruta et al, 2014) and reliable meteorological fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunier, Olivier; Mathieu, Anne; Sekiyama, Thomas; Kajino, Mizuo; Adachi, Kouji; Bocquet, Marc; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Didier, Damien

    2016-04-01

    In case of nuclear power plant accident, the assessment of the temporal evolution in the amount of radionuclides released (source term) is required to evaluate human health and environment impacts. It is with in mind that IRSN has developed an operational tool based on inverse modeling techniques to evaluate the source term of a radioactive release. If the release amount is sufficiently strong as for the Fukushima accident, dose rate observations are primarily used to assess the source term (Saunier et al. 2013). Secondly, air concentrations measurements can also be used when available. For minor release events, air concentrations measurements are used. Five years after the Fukushima accident, many estimations of the source term based on the use of observations in the environment have been published. There is not yet consensus on the magnitudes on the releases rates, mainly due to the high uncertainties on meteorological fields used to assess the source term. Within the framework of cooperation between IRSN and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) of Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), meteorological fields with higher spatial resolution (3 km) have been used (Sekiyama et al. 2013) to improve the simulation of the atmospheric dispersion from the Fukushima accident. Besides, new dataset of Cs137 atmospheric concentration obtained from the sampling tapes of the Suspended Particle Matter (SPM) monitoring network by the method of Tsuruta et al. (2014) are available. These data are very useful since several plumes, unknown until now, could be identified in addition with the two major plumes on March 15 and March 21. Therefore, the inverse modeling method has been applied to assess a new source term using Tsuruta air concentration measurements, dose rate measurements and meteorological fields provided by MRI. The simulations performed using this new inverted source term help enhance our knowledge about the Fukushima accident. Several releases events are better

  19. Meteorological and environmental aspects of one of the worst national air pollution episodes (January, 2004) in Logan, Cache Valley, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Esmaiel; Davis, Tess; Martin, Randal S.; Silva, Philip J.

    2006-02-01

    Logan, Utah, USA, had the nation's worst air pollution on 15 January, 2004. The high concentration of PM 2.5 (particulates smaller than 2.5 μm in diameter) in the air resulted from geographical, meteorological, and environmental aspects of Cache Valley. A strong inversion (increase of temperature with height) and light precipitation and/or wind were the major causes for trapping pollutants in the air. Other meteorological factors enhancing the inversion were: the prolonged high atmospheric surface pressure, a snow-covered surface which plunged temperatures to as low as - 23.6 °C on January 23rd and high reflection of solar radiation (up to about 80%), which caused less solar radiation absorption during the day throughout the most part of January 2004. Among non-meteorological factors are Cache Valley's small-basin geographical structure which traps air, with no big body of water to help the air circulation (as a result of differential heating and cooling rates for land and water), motor vehicle emissions, and existence of excess ammonia gas as a byproduct of livestock manure and urine. Concentration of PM 2.5 was monitored in downtown Logan. On January 15, 2004, the 24-h, filter-based concentration reached about 132.5 μg per cubic meter of air, an astonishingly high value compared to the values of 65 μg m - 3 and over, indicating a health alert for everyone. These tiny particles in the air have an enormous impact on health, aggravating heart and lung disease, triggering asthma and even death. The causes of this inversion and some suggestions to alleviate the wintertime particle concentration in Cache Valley will be addressed in this article.

  20. The effects of air mass transport, seasonality, and meteorology on pollutant levels at the Iskrba regional background station (1996-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poberžnik, Matevž; Štrumbelj, Erik

    2016-06-01

    Our main goal was to estimate the effects of long-range air transport on pollutant concentrations measured at the Iskrba regional background station (Slovenia). We cluster back-trajectories into categories and simultaneously model the effects of meteorology, seasonality, trends, and air mass trajectory clusters using a Bayesian statistical approach. This simplifies the interpretation of results and allows us to better identify the effects of individual variables, which is important, because pollutant concentrations, meteorology, and trajectories are seasonal and correlated. Similar to related work from other European sites, we find that slow and faster moving trajectories from eastern Europe and the northern part of the Balkan peninsula are associated with higher pollutant levels, while fast-moving trajectories from the Atlantic are associated with lower pollutant concentration. Overall, pollutant concentrations have decreased in the studied period.

  1. Field study of pulsed air sparging for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaomin; Beckmann, Dennis; Fiorenza, Stephanie; Niedermeier, Craig

    2005-09-15

    Recent laboratory-scale studies strongly suggested an advantage to operating air-sparging systems in a pulsed mode; however, little definitive field data existed to support the laboratory-scale observations. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a field-scale pulsed air-sparging system during a short-term pilot test and during long-term system operation. The air-sparging system consisted of 32 sparging points and had been previously operated in a continuous mode for two years before the field study was performed. The field study used instruments with continuous data logging capabilities to monitor the dynamic responses of groundwater and soil vapor parameters to air injection. The optimum pulsing frequency was based on the evidence that the hydrocarbon volatilization and oxygen dissolution rates dramatically dropped after the air-sparging system reached steady state. The short-term pilot test results indicated a substantial increase in hydrocarbon volatilization and biodegradation in pulsed operation. On the basis of the results of the pilottest, the air-sparging system was set to operate in a pulsed mode at an optimum pulsing frequency. Operation parameters were collected 2, 8, and 12 months after the start of the pulsed operation. The long-term monitoring results showed thatthe pulsed operation increased the average hydrocarbon removal rate (kg/day) by a factor of up to 3 as compared to the previous continuous operation. The pulsed air sparging has resulted in higher reduction rates of dissolved benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) than were observed during the continuous operation. Among BTEX, benzene's reduction rate was the highest during the pulsed air-sparging operation. PMID:16201659

  2. Field study of pulsed air sparging for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaomin; Beckmann, Dennis; Fiorenza, Stephanie; Niedermeier, Craig

    2005-09-15

    Recent laboratory-scale studies strongly suggested an advantage to operating air-sparging systems in a pulsed mode; however, little definitive field data existed to support the laboratory-scale observations. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a field-scale pulsed air-sparging system during a short-term pilot test and during long-term system operation. The air-sparging system consisted of 32 sparging points and had been previously operated in a continuous mode for two years before the field study was performed. The field study used instruments with continuous data logging capabilities to monitor the dynamic responses of groundwater and soil vapor parameters to air injection. The optimum pulsing frequency was based on the evidence that the hydrocarbon volatilization and oxygen dissolution rates dramatically dropped after the air-sparging system reached steady state. The short-term pilot test results indicated a substantial increase in hydrocarbon volatilization and biodegradation in pulsed operation. On the basis of the results of the pilottest, the air-sparging system was set to operate in a pulsed mode at an optimum pulsing frequency. Operation parameters were collected 2, 8, and 12 months after the start of the pulsed operation. The long-term monitoring results showed thatthe pulsed operation increased the average hydrocarbon removal rate (kg/day) by a factor of up to 3 as compared to the previous continuous operation. The pulsed air sparging has resulted in higher reduction rates of dissolved benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) than were observed during the continuous operation. Among BTEX, benzene's reduction rate was the highest during the pulsed air-sparging operation.

  3. Natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents at Area 6, Dover Air Force Base: Groundwater biogeochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witt, M.E.; Klecka, G.M.; Lutz, E.J.; Ei, T.A.; Grosso, N.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2002-01-01

    Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has recently emerged as a viable groundwater remediation technology in the United States. Area 6 at Dover Air Force Base (Dover, DE) was chosen as a test site to examine the potential for MNA of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater and aquifer sediments. A "lines of evidence" approach was used to document the occurrence of natural attenuation. Chlorinated hydrocarbon and biogeochemical data were used to develop a site-specific conceptual model where both anaerobic and aerobic biological processes are responsible for the destruction of PCE, TCE, and daughter metabolites. An examination of groundwater biogeochemical data showed a region of depleted dissolved oxygen with elevated dissolved methane and hydrogen concentrations. Reductive dechlorination likely dominated in the anaerobic portion of the aquifer where PCE and TCE levels were observed to decrease with a simultaneous increase in cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), ethene, and dissolved chloride. Near the anaerobic/aerobic interface, concentrations of cis-DCE and VC decreased to below detection limits, presumably due to aerobic biotransformation processes. Therefore, the contaminant and daughter product plumes present at the site appear to have been naturally attenuated by a combination of active anaerobic and aerobic biotransformation processes. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of ground-water flow by particle tracking, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, W.L.; Sheets, R.A.; Schalk, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) began a Basewide Monitoring Program (BMP) in 1992. The purpose of the BMP was to establish a long-term ground-water and surface- water sampling network in order to (1) characterize current ground-water and surface-water quality; (2) describe water-quality changes as water enters, flows across, and exits Base boundaries; (3) conduct statistical analyses of water quality; and (4) estimate the effect of WPAFB on regional water quality. As part of the BMP, the USGS conducted ground-water particle-tracking analyses based on a ground-water-flow model produced during a previous USGS study. This report briefly describes the previous USGS study, the inherent assumptions of particle-tracking analyses, and information on the regional ground-water-flow field as inferred from particle pathlines. Pathlines for particles placed at the Base boundary and particles placed within identified Installation Restoration Program sites are described.

  5. An analysis of trichloroethylene movement in groundwater at castle Air Force Base, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avon, L.; Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A trichloroethylene (TCE) plume has been identified in the groundwater under a U.S. Air Force Base in the Central Valley of California. An areal, two-dimensional numerical solute transport model indicates that the movement of TCE due to advection, dispersion, and linear sorption is simulated over a 25-year historic period. The model is used in several ways: (1) to estimate the extent of the plume; (2) to confirm the likely sources of contamination as suggested by a soil organic vapor survey of the site; and (3) to make predictions about future movement of the plume. Despite the noisy and incomplete data set, the model reproduces the general trends in contamination at a number of observation wells. The analysis indicates that soil organic vapor monitoring is an effective tool for identifying contaminant source locations. Leaky sewer pipes and underground tanks are the indicated pathways for TCE to have entered the groundwater system. The chemical mass balance indicates that a total of about 100 gallons of TCE - a relatively small amount of organic solvent - has created the observed groundwater plume. ?? 1989.

  6. Natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents at Area 6, Dover Air Force Base: groundwater biogeochemistry.

    PubMed

    Witt, Michael E; Klecka, Gary M; Lutz, Edward J; Ei, Tom A; Grosso, Nancy R; Chapelle, Francis H

    2002-07-01

    Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has recently emerged as a viable groundwater remediation technology in the United States. Area 6 at Dover Air Force Base (Dover, DE) was chosen as a test site to examine the potential for MNA of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater and aquifer sediments. A "lines of evidence" approach was used to document the occurrence of natural attenuation. Chlorinated hydrocarbon and biogeochemical data were used to develop a site-specific conceptual model where both anaerobic and aerobic biological processes are responsible for the destruction of PCE, TCE, and daughter metabolites. An examination of groundwater biogeochemical data showed a region of depleted dissolved oxygen with elevated dissolved methane and hydrogen concentrations. Reductive dechlorination likely dominated in the anaerobic portion of the aquifer where PCE and TCE levels were observed to decrease with a simultaneous increase in cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), ethene, and dissolved chloride. Near the anaerobic/ aerobic interface, concentrations of cis-DCE and VC decreased to below detection limits, presumably due to aerobic biotransformation processes. Therefore, the contaminant and daughter product plumes present at the site appear to have been naturally atteuated by a combination of active anaerobic and aerobic biotransformation processes.

  7. Hydrogeologic framework and ground-water resources at Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardinell, A.P.; Howe, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    A preliminary hydrogeologic framework of the Seymour Johnson Air Force Base was constructed from published data, available well data, and reports from Air Base files, City of Goldsboro and Wayne County records, and North Carolina Geological Survey files. Borehole geophysical logs were run in selected wells; and the surficial, Black Creek, and upper Cape Fear aquifers were mapped. Results indicate that the surficial aquifer appears to have the greatest lateral variability of clay units and aquifer material of the three aquifers. A surficial aquifer water-level surface map, constructed from selected monitoring wells screened exclusively in the surficial aquifer, indicates the general direction of ground-water movement in this mostly unconfined aquifer is toward the Neuse River and Stoney Creek. However, water-level gradient data from a few sites in the surficial aquifer did not reflect this trend, and there are insufficient hydrologic and hydrogeologic data to determine the cause of these few anamalous measurements. The Black Creek aquifer underlies the surficial aquifer and is believed to underlie most of Wayne County, including the Air Base where the aquifer and overlying confining unit are estimated from well log data to be as much as 100 feet thick. The Black Creek confining unit ranges in thickness from less than 8 feet to more than 20 feet. There are currently no accessible wells screened exclusively in the Black Creek aquifer from which to measure water levels. The upper Cape Fear aquifer and confining unit are generally found at depths greater than 80 feet below land surface at the Air Base, and are estimated to be as much as 70 feet thick. Hydrologic and hydrogeologic data are insufficient to determine localized surficial aquifer hydrogeology, ground-water movement at several sites, or hydraulic head differences between the three aquifers.

  8. Relationships between stratospheric clear air turbulence and synoptic meteorological parameters over the western United States between 12-20 km altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, J. R.; Clark, T. L.; Possiel, N. C.

    1975-01-01

    Procedures for forecasting clear air turbulence in the stratosphere over the western United States from rawinsonde data are described and results presented. Approaches taken to relate meteorological parameters to regions of turbulence and nonturbulence encountered by the XB-70 during 46 flights at altitudes between 12-20 km include: empirical probabilities, discriminant function analysis, and mountainwave theory. Results from these techniques were combined into a procedure to forecast regions of clear air turbulence with an accuracy of 70-80 percent. A computer program was developed to provide an objective forecast directly from the rawinsonde sounding data.

  9. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinaman, Kurt C.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    Dover Air Force Base in Kent County, Delaware, has many contaminated sites that are in active remediation. To assist in this remediation, a steady-state model of ground-water flow was developed to aid in understanding the hydrology of the system, and for use as a ground-watermanagement tool. This report describes the hydrology on which the model is based, a description of the model itself, and some applications of the model.Dover Air Force Base is underlain by unconsolidated sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The primary units that were investigated include the upper Calvert Formation and the overlying Columbia Formation. The uppermost sand unit in the Calvert Formation at Dover Air Force Base is the Frederica aquifer, which is the deepest unit investigated in this report. A confining unit of clayey silt in the upper Calvert Formation separates the Frederica aquifer from the lower surficial aquifer, which is the basal Columbia Formation. North and northwest of Dover Air Force Base, the Frederica aquifer subcrops beneath the Columbia Formation and the upper Calvert Formation confining unit is absent. The Calvert Formation dips to the southeast. The Columbia Formation consists predominately of sands, silts, and gravels, although in places there are clay layers that separate the surficial aquifer into an upper and lower surficial aquifer. The areal extent of these clay layers has been mapped by use of gamma logs. Long-term hydrographs reveal substantial changes in both seasonal and annual ground-water recharge. These variations in recharge are related to temporal changes in evaporation, transpiration, and precipitation. The hydrographs show areas where extensive silts and clays are present in the surficial aquifer. In these areas, the vertical gradient between water levels in wells screened above and below the clays can be as large as several feet, and local ground-water highs typically form during normal recharge conditions. When drought conditions persist

  10. Influence of the meteorological parameters on CFCs and SF6 concentration in the air of Krakow, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielewski, Jarosław; Najman, Joanna; Śliwka, Ireneusz; Bartyzel, Jakub; Rosiek, Janusz

    2013-04-01

    key words: gas chromatography, trace gases, CFCs and SF6 measurements in urban area. Halogenated compounds (chlorofluorocarbons-CFCs), both natural and industrial, so-called freons, currently exist as trace gases in the entire human environment. The CFCs cause ozone depletion in the stratosphere. Moreover CFCs and SF6 take part in intensification of the greenhouse effect. The decisions of the Vienna Convention (1985) and of the Montreal Protocol (1987) limited the world production level of CFCs in the year 1989 at least 35% after 2004, 90% after 2015 and total reduction after year 2030. On account of international agreements, the measurements of CFCs and SF6 in air were started. Measurement "clean" stations were situated at places outside of urban areas influence and gathered on world program - AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment). One of these stations is Mace Head (Ireland, 53o N, 10o W), which participates in AGAGE since 1987 [1] and in European InGOS (Integrated non-CO2 Greenhouse gas Observing System) program since 2011. Similar research is also conducted in Central Europe, in urban area of Krakow (Poland, 50o N, 19o E) since 1997. The work discusses results from 15 years of concentration measurements (in the years 1997-2012) of selected halocarbons and SF6 in Krakow. To obtain concentrations of measured compounds the mathematical procedure has been used, where concentrations were calculated using a five points Lagrange's interpolation method. Using temporary measurement data were determined daily arithmetic means and their standard deviations. Based on these data, efficiency of Montreal Protocol legislation, implemented in Poland (The Journal of Laws No. 52) could be assessed [2]. Additionally cut-off filtration method was used to estimate trend of the base line of individual air pollutant. Rejected exceedances of base lines were corelated with meteorological characteristics of Krakow region to evaluate possible sources of pollution. The

  11. Influence of grid resolution and meteorological forcing on simulated European air quality: A sensitivity study with the modeling system COSMO-MUSCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolke, Ralf; Schröder, Wolfram; Schrödner, Roland; Renner, Eberhard

    2012-06-01

    Model evaluation studies are essential for determining model performance as well as assessing model deficiencies, and are the focus of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). The chemistry-transport model system COSMO-MUSCAT participates in this initiative. In this paper the robustness and variability of the model results against changes in the model setup are analyzed. Special focus is given to the formation of secondary particulate matter and the ability to reproduce unusually high levels of PM10 in Central Europe caused by long-range transported smoke of fires in western Russia. Seven different model configurations are investigated in this study. The COSMO-MUSCAT results are evaluated in comparison with ground-based measurements in Central Europe. The analysis is performed for two selected periods in April/May 2006 and October 2006 which are characterized by elevated concentrations of PM. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the results is studied against the used grid resolution and the meteorological forcing. Here, COSMO-MUSCAT is applied with different horizontal grid sizes and, alternatively, forced by reanalysis data with finer resolution. The use of finer grid resolutions in COSMO-MUSCAT has direct consequences on the meteorological forcing as well as on the calculated emission and deposition rates. The presented results suggest a large impact of the meteorological effects on the PM concentrations. The more accurate spatial appointment of the emissions and deposition fluxes seems to be of little consequence compared to the meteorological forcing.

  12. Motivational Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Describes an introductory meteorology course for nonacademic high school students. The course is made hands-on by the use of an educational software program offered by Accu-Weather. The program contains a meteorology database and instructional modules. (PR)

  13. Identifying housing and meteorological conditions influencing residential air exchange rates in the DEARS and RIOPA studies: development of distributions for human exposure modeling.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Kristin; Burke, Janet; Smith, Luther; Williams, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate prediction of residential air exchange rate (AER) is important for estimating human exposures in the residential microenvironment, as AER drives the infiltration of outdoor-generated air pollutants indoors. AER differences among homes may result from a number of factors, including housing characteristics and meteorological conditions. Residential AER data collected in the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) and the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study were analyzed to determine whether the influence of a number of housing and meteorological conditions on AER were consistent across four cities in different regions of the United States (Detroit MI, Elizabeth NJ, Houston TX, Los Angeles, CA). Influential factors were identified and used as binning variables for deriving final AER distributions for the use in exposure modeling. In addition, both between-home and within-home variance in AER in DEARS were quantified with the goal of identifying reasonable AER resampling frequencies for use in longitudinal exposure modeling efforts. The results of this analysis indicate that residential AER is depended on ambient temperature, the presence (or not) of central air conditioning, and the age of the home. Furthermore, between-home variability in AER accounted for the majority (67%) of the total variance in AER for Detroit homes, indicating lower within-home variability. These findings are compared with other previously published AER distributions, and the implications for exposure modeling are discussed.

  14. Threat of allergenic airborne grass pollen in Szczecin, NW Poland: the dynamics of pollen seasons, effect of meteorological variables and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Puc, Małgorzata

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics of Poaceae pollen season, in particularly that of the Secale genus, in Szczecin (western Poland) 2004-2008 was analysed to establish a relationship between the meteorological variables, air pollution and the pollen count of the taxa studied. Consecutive phases during the pollen season were defined for each taxon (1, 2.5, 5, 25, 50, 75, 95, 97.5, 99% of annual total), and duration of the season was determined using the 98% method. On the basis of this analysis, the temporary differences in the dynamics of the seasons were most evident for Secale in 2005 and 2006 with the longest main pollen season (90% total pollen). The pollen season of Poaceae started the earliest in 2007, when thermal conditions were the most favourable. Correlation analysis with meteorological factors demonstrated that the relative humidity, mean and maximum air temperature, and rainfall were the factors influencing the average daily pollen concentrations in the atmosphere; also, the presence of air pollutants such as ozone, PM(10) and SO(2) was statistically related to the pollen count in the air. However, multiple regression models explained little part of the total variance. Atmospheric pollution induces aggravation of symptoms of grass pollen allergy.

  15. Ground-water conditions at Beale Air Force Base and vicinity, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Ground-water conditions were studied in a 168-square-mile area between the Sierra Nevada and the Feather River in Yuba County, Calif. The area is in the eastern part of the Sacramento Valley and includes most of Beale Air Force Base. Source, occurrence, movement, and chemical quality of the ground water were evaluated. Ground water occurs in sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Tertiary and Quaternary age. The base of the freshwater is in the undifferentiated sedimentary rocks of Oligocene and Eocene age, that contain water of high dissolved-solids concentration. The ground water occurs under unconfined and partly confined conditions. At Beale Air Force Base it is at times partly confined. Recharge is principally from the rivers. Pumpage in the study area was estimated to be 129,000 acre-feet in 1975. In the 1960's, water levels in most parts of the study area declined less rapidly than in earlier years or became fairly stable. In the 1970's, water levels at Beale Air Force Base declined only slightly. Spacing of wells on the base and rates of pumping are such that excessive pumping interference is avoided. Water quality at the base and throughout the study area is generally good. Dissolved-solids concentrations are 700 to 900 milligrams per liter in the undifferentiated sedimentary rocks beneath the base well field. (USGS)

  16. Ground-water data, 1969-77, Vandenberg Air Force Base area, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    The water supply for Vandenberg Air Force Base is obtained from wells in the Lompoc Plain, San Antonio Valley, and Lompoc Terrace groundwater basins. Metered pumpage during the period 1969-77 from the Lompoc Plain decreased from a high of 3,670 acre-feet in 1969 to a low of 2,441 acre-feet in 1977, while pumpage from the San Antonio Valley increased from a low of 1 ,020 acre-feet in 1969 to a high of 1,829 acre-feet in 1977. Pumpage from the Lompoc Terrace has remained relatively constant and was 187 acre-feet in 1977. In the Barka Slough area of the San Antonio Valley, water levels in four shallow wells declined during 1976 and 1977. Water levels in observation wells in the two aquifers of the Lompoc Terrace ground-water basin fluctuated during the period, but show no long term trends. Chemical analyses or field determinations of temperature and specific conductance were made of 219 water samples collected from 53 wells. In the Lompoc Plain the dissolved-solids concentration in all water samples was more than 625 milligrams per liter, and in most was more than 1,000 milligrams per liter. The manganese concentration in analyzed samples equaled or exceeded the recommended limit of 50 micrograms per liter for public water supplies. Dissolved-solids concentrations increased with time in water samples from two wells east of the Air Force Base in San Antonio Valley. In the base well-field area, concentrations of dissolved solids ranged from 290 to 566 milligrams per liter. Eight analyses show manganese at or above the recommended limit of 50 milligrams per liter. In the Lompoc Terrace area dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 470 to 824 milligrams per liter. Five new supply wells, nine observation wells, and two exploratory/observation wells were drilled on the base during the period 1972-77. (USGS)

  17. Space Shuttle interactive meteorological data system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. T.; Fox, R. J.; Benson, J. M.; Rueden, J. P.; Oehlkers, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Although focused toward the operational meteorological support review and definition of an operational meteorological interactive data display systems (MIDDS) requirements for the Space Meteorology Support Group at NASA/Johnson Space Center, the total operational meteorological support requirements and a systems concept for the MIDDS network integration of NASA and Air Force elements to support the National Space Transportation System are also addressed.

  18. Relative impact of emissions controls and meteorology on air pollution mitigation associated with the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqin; Zhang, Yang; Schauer, James Jay; de Foy, Benjamin; Guo, Bo; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2016-11-15

    The Beijing government and its surrounding provinces implemented a series of measures to ensure haze-free skies during the 22(nd) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference (November 10(th)-11(th), 2014). These measures included restrictions on traffic, construction, and industrial activity. Twelve hour measurements of the concentration and composition of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were performed for 5 consecutive months near the APEC conference site before (September 11(th)-November 2(nd), 2014), during (November 3(rd)-12(th), 2014) and after (November 13(th), 2014-January 31(st), 2015). The measurements are used in a positive matrix factorization model to determine the contributions from seven sources of PM2.5: secondary aerosols, traffic exhaust, industrial emission, road dust, soil dust, biomass burning and residual oil combustion. The source apportionment results are integrated with backward trajectory analysis using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) meteorological simulations, which determine the relative influence of new regulation and meteorology upon improved air quality during the APEC conference. Data show that controls are very effective, but meteorology must be taken into account to determine the actual influence of the controls on pollution reduction. The industry source control is the most effective for reducing concentrations, followed by secondary aerosol and biomass controls, while the least effective control is for the residual oil combustion source. The largest reductions in concentrations occur when air mass transport is from the west-northwest (Ulanqab). Secondary aerosol and traffic exhaust reductions are most significant for air mass transport from the north-northwest (Xilingele League) origin, and least significant for northeast transport (Chifeng via Tangshan conditions). The largest reductions of soil dust, biomass burning, and industrial source are distinctly seen for Ulanqab conditions and least distinct for

  19. Relative impact of emissions controls and meteorology on air pollution mitigation associated with the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqin; Zhang, Yang; Schauer, James Jay; de Foy, Benjamin; Guo, Bo; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2016-11-15

    The Beijing government and its surrounding provinces implemented a series of measures to ensure haze-free skies during the 22(nd) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference (November 10(th)-11(th), 2014). These measures included restrictions on traffic, construction, and industrial activity. Twelve hour measurements of the concentration and composition of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were performed for 5 consecutive months near the APEC conference site before (September 11(th)-November 2(nd), 2014), during (November 3(rd)-12(th), 2014) and after (November 13(th), 2014-January 31(st), 2015). The measurements are used in a positive matrix factorization model to determine the contributions from seven sources of PM2.5: secondary aerosols, traffic exhaust, industrial emission, road dust, soil dust, biomass burning and residual oil combustion. The source apportionment results are integrated with backward trajectory analysis using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) meteorological simulations, which determine the relative influence of new regulation and meteorology upon improved air quality during the APEC conference. Data show that controls are very effective, but meteorology must be taken into account to determine the actual influence of the controls on pollution reduction. The industry source control is the most effective for reducing concentrations, followed by secondary aerosol and biomass controls, while the least effective control is for the residual oil combustion source. The largest reductions in concentrations occur when air mass transport is from the west-northwest (Ulanqab). Secondary aerosol and traffic exhaust reductions are most significant for air mass transport from the north-northwest (Xilingele League) origin, and least significant for northeast transport (Chifeng via Tangshan conditions). The largest reductions of soil dust, biomass burning, and industrial source are distinctly seen for Ulanqab conditions and least distinct for

  20. Linking Meteorology, Air Quality Models and Observations to Characterize Human Exposures in Support of the Environmental Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies are critical in establishing the association between exposure to air pollutants and adverse health effects. Results of epidemiologic studies are used by U.S. EPA in developing air quality standards to protect the public from the health effects of air polluta...

  1. Outdoor air pollution, meteorological conditions and indoor factors in dwellings in relation to sick building syndrome (SBS) among adults in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chan; Deng, Qihong; Li, Yuguo; Sundell, Jan; Norbäck, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Indoor environment is associated with the sick building syndrome (SBS), but little is known about the contribution of outdoor air pollution and meteorological conditions to SBS. We studied associations between outdoor air pollution, meteorological parameters and selected indoor exposure and building characteristics at home and weekly SBS symptoms in a standardized questionnaire study among 3485 randomly selected adults in China. Outdoor factors included particulate matters with diameter <10μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), outdoor temperature (T), relative air humidity (RH), and wind speed (WS) during last three months. Multiple logistic regression was applied calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Asthma or allergic rhinitis (atopy) was associated with all types of SBS symptoms except fatigue. Indoor factors played a major role in SBS symptoms. Mold/dampness on the floor/ceiling was associated with fatigue OR=1.60 (1.11-2.30) and headache OR=1.80 (1.07-3.04). Moldy odor was associated with fatigue OR=1.59 (1.07-2.37) and dermal symptoms OR=1.91 (1.21-3.02). Window pane condensation in winter was associated with fatigue OR=1.73 (1.30-2.31) and throat symptoms OR=1.53 (1.01-2.31). Damp bed clothing was related with throat symptom OR=1.62 (1.09-2.40). Home redecoration was associated with fatigue OR=1.49 (1.07-2.06). Frequent window opening was associated with less nose symptoms OR=0.54 (0.36-0.82) and mechanical ventilation in the bathroom reduced dermal symptoms OR=0.66 (0.44-0.99). Females were more susceptible to redecoration and window pane condensation than men. No associations with SBS were observed for outdoor air pollutants or meteorological parameters in the final models combining indoor and outdoor factors, although SO2, T, and RH were associated with some SBS symptoms (fatigue, eyes and nose symptoms) in the separate outdoor models. In conclusion, indoor mold/dampness, air pollution from redecoration

  2. Outdoor air pollution, meteorological conditions and indoor factors in dwellings in relation to sick building syndrome (SBS) among adults in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chan; Deng, Qihong; Li, Yuguo; Sundell, Jan; Norbäck, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Indoor environment is associated with the sick building syndrome (SBS), but little is known about the contribution of outdoor air pollution and meteorological conditions to SBS. We studied associations between outdoor air pollution, meteorological parameters and selected indoor exposure and building characteristics at home and weekly SBS symptoms in a standardized questionnaire study among 3485 randomly selected adults in China. Outdoor factors included particulate matters with diameter <10μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), outdoor temperature (T), relative air humidity (RH), and wind speed (WS) during last three months. Multiple logistic regression was applied calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Asthma or allergic rhinitis (atopy) was associated with all types of SBS symptoms except fatigue. Indoor factors played a major role in SBS symptoms. Mold/dampness on the floor/ceiling was associated with fatigue OR=1.60 (1.11-2.30) and headache OR=1.80 (1.07-3.04). Moldy odor was associated with fatigue OR=1.59 (1.07-2.37) and dermal symptoms OR=1.91 (1.21-3.02). Window pane condensation in winter was associated with fatigue OR=1.73 (1.30-2.31) and throat symptoms OR=1.53 (1.01-2.31). Damp bed clothing was related with throat symptom OR=1.62 (1.09-2.40). Home redecoration was associated with fatigue OR=1.49 (1.07-2.06). Frequent window opening was associated with less nose symptoms OR=0.54 (0.36-0.82) and mechanical ventilation in the bathroom reduced dermal symptoms OR=0.66 (0.44-0.99). Females were more susceptible to redecoration and window pane condensation than men. No associations with SBS were observed for outdoor air pollutants or meteorological parameters in the final models combining indoor and outdoor factors, although SO2, T, and RH were associated with some SBS symptoms (fatigue, eyes and nose symptoms) in the separate outdoor models. In conclusion, indoor mold/dampness, air pollution from redecoration

  3. The measurement of carbon monoxide and methane in the national capital air quality control region. II - Meteorological conditions and chromatographic and spectrometric results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamontagne, R. A.; Swinnerton, J. W.; Wilkniss, P. E.; Bressan, D. J.; Lebel, P. J.; Goldstein, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    The meteorological conditions during this program consisted of a stagnant high pressure system which was subsequently replaced by southward moving Canadian air. This change in air masses produced distinct changes in the ambient CO concentrations. Ground level concentrations decreased from an average of 1.3 ppm at the beginning of the experiment to 0.2 ppm at the end. Vertical profiles obtained during the experiment showed decreases in the CO concentrations with altitude. Agreement of gas chromatography data for CO and CH4 by NASA and NRL was within 5% for the concentrations encountered. Results from NASA's Infrared Fourier Spectrometer agreed with the gas chromatographic results both in trends and concentrations of CO and CH4 observed with the passing frontal system.

  4. Geochemical Assessment of Groundwater in the Peri-urban Environment of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, A.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater pollution is a major concern in peri-urban environments. Thus, water quality is being investigated at several domestic wells in Brandsen, 70 km south of Buenos Aires, Argentina. To present, about 20 water sources were sampled in orchards and small farms of the area. There is limited data about the wells construction, although collected information suggests that groundwater is derived from the superficial sandy loams of the Pampean Aquifer. Samples were analysed for major inorganic elements using ion chromatography and ICP-MS. Titration was used to estimate alkalinity. Physical characteristics (EC, pH, temperature) were measured on site. Results show that groundwater pH ranges from 6.5 to 7.8, with a specific conductance of 180 to 255 mS/m. A peak of 360 mS/m in one horticultural parcel is associated to local NO3- concentrations up to 140 mg/L. This value exceeds the maximum recommendations set by the WHO (50 mg/L). Considering that fertilizer inputs in that property are negligible, the high levels of NO3- might be attributed to effluents from a neighbour septic tank. An increase in NO3- (>150mg/L) was also detected in two conventional farms. This increase correlates to elevated SO42- concentrations (>300 mg/L) suggesting thus, fertilizers percolation into the saturated zone. The leaching of these fluids might be exacerbated by irrigation during new planting, and accumulations of fertilizer-solids in the root zones from previous seasons. Chloride concentrations average ~90 mg/L and would not pose a threat to health at the moment. Its main origin would be related to connate waters in the loam matrix, although some anthropogenic inputs might occur in the previously described farms. In general, the rest of the analysed elements fall within acceptable levels for drinking purposes as well. Nevertheless, further work is still necessary to better define the fate of the potential harmful elements and assess seasonal variations in water quality.

  5. Assessment of ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, 1982-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    Study of ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, defined the movement and distribution of volatile organic compounds in the glacial sand and gravel aquifer at known sites of contamination, and has defined new plumes at two other sites. The Arrow Street purge system, installed in 1982 to remove contaminants from the Building 43 plume, has lowered concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater in the central part of the most contaminated area from a range of 1,000 to 2,000 microg/L to about 200 microg/L. TCE is not escaping off-Base from this area. In the southern part of the Base a plume containing principally TCE and dichloroethylene (DCE) has been delineated along Mission Drive. Maximum concentrations observed were 3,290 microg/L of TCE and 1,480 microg/L of DCE. Hydrologically suitable sites for purge wells were identified in the southern part of the plume using a new ground-water flow model of the Base. A benzene plume near the bulk-fuel storage area has shifted to a more northerly direction under influence of the Arrow Street purge system. Sites initially identified for purging the benzene plume have been repositioned because of the change in contaminant movement. JP-4 fuel was found to be accumulating in wells near the bulk-fuel storage area, largely in response to seasonal fluctuations in the water-table. It is thought to originate from a spill that occurred several years ago. In general, concentrations found in water do not differ greatly from those observed in 1981. Since 1981, concentrations of TCE have decreased significantly in the Alert Apron plume. Near the origin of the plume, the concentration of TCE has decreased from 1,000 microg/L in 1980 to 50 microg/L in 1984. Water from Van Etten Lake near the termination of the plume had only a trace of TCE at one site. Benzene detected in water from well AF2 seems to originate near the former site of buried fuel tanks west of the operational apron. During periods of normal

  6. A joint modelling exercise designed to assess the respective impact of emission changes and meteorological variability on the observed air quality trends in major urban hotspots.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colette, Augustin; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Dangiola, Ariela; D'Isidoro, Massimo; Gauss, Michael; Granier, Claire; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Jakobs, Hermann; Kanakidou, Maria; Khokhar, Fahim; Law, Kathy; Maurizi, Alberto; Meleux, Frederik; Memmesheimer, Michael; Nyiri, Agnes; Rouil, Laurence; Stordal, Frode; Tampieri, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    With the growth of urban agglomerations, assessing the drivers of variability of air quality in and around the main anthropogenic emission hotspots has become a major societal concern as well as a scientific challenge. These drivers include emission changes and meteorological variability; both of them can be investigated by means of numerical modelling of trends over the past few years. A collaborative effort has been developed in the framework of the CityZen European project to address this question. Several chemistry and transport models (CTMs) are deployed in this activity: four regional models (BOLCHEM, CHIMERE, EMEP and EURAD) and three global models (CTM2, MOZART, and TM4). The period from 1998 to 2007 has been selected for the historic reconstruction. The focus for the present preliminary presentation is Europe. A consistent set of emissions is used by all partners (EMEP for the European domain and IPCC-AR5 beyond) while a variety of meteorological forcing is used to gain robustness in the ensemble spread amongst models. The results of this experiment will be investigated to address the following questions: - Is the envelope of models able to reproduce the observed trends of the key chemical constituents? - How the variability amongst models changes in time and space and what does it tell us about the processes driving the observed trends? - Did chemical regimes and aerosol formation processes changed in selected hotspots? Answering the above questions will contribute to fulfil the ultimate goal of the present study: distinguishing the respective contribution of meteorological variability and emissions changes on air quality trends in major anthropogenic emissions hotspots.

  7. Influences of ambient air PM₂.₅ concentration and meteorological condition on the indoor PM₂.₅ concentrations in a residential apartment in Beijing using a new approach.

    PubMed

    Han, Yang; Qi, Meng; Chen, Yilin; Shen, Huizhong; Liu, Jing; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2015-10-01

    PM2.5 concentrations in a typical residential apartment in Beijing and immediately outside of the building were measured simultaneously during heating and non-heating periods. The objective was to quantitatively explore the relationship between indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations. A statistical method for predicting indoor PM2.5 concentrations was proposed. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations were strongly affected by meteorological conditions, especially wind directions. A bimodal distribution was identified during the heating season due to the frequent and rapid transition between severe pollution events and clean days. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were significantly correlated with outdoor PM2.5 concentrations but with 1-2 h delay, and the differences can be explained by ambient meteorological features, such as temperature, humidity, and wind direction. These results indicate the potential to incorporate indoor exposure features to the regional air quality model framework and to more accurately estimate the epidemiological relationship between human mortality and air pollution exposure.

  8. Analysis of ground-water data for selected wells near Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1950-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water-level, ground-water-withdrawal, and ground- water-quality data were evaluated for trends. Holloman Air Force Base is located in the west-central part of Otero County, New Mexico. Ground-water-data analyses include assembly and inspection of U.S. Geological Survey and Holloman Air Force Base data, including ground-water-level data for public-supply and observation wells and withdrawal and water-quality data for public-supply wells in the area. Well Douglas 4 shows a statistically significant decreasing trend in water levels for 1972-86 and a statistically significant increasing trend in water levels for 1986-90. Water levels in wells San Andres 5 and San Andres 6 show statistically significant decreasing trends for 1972-93 and 1981-89, respectively. A mixture of statistically significant increasing trends, statistically significant decreasing trends, and lack of statistically significant trends over periods ranging from the early 1970's to the early 1990's are indicated for the Boles wells and wells near the Boles wells. Well Boles 5 shows a statistically significant increasing trend in water levels for 1981-90. Well Boles 5 and well 17S.09E.25.343 show no statistically significant trends in water levels for 1990-93 and 1988-93, respectively. For 1986-93, well Frenchy 1 shows a statistically significant decreasing trend in water levels. Ground-water withdrawal from the San Andres and Douglas wells regularly exceeded estimated ground-water recharge from San Andres Canyon for 1963-87. For 1951-57 and 1960-86, ground-water withdrawal from the Boles wells regularly exceeded total estimated ground-water recharge from Mule, Arrow, and Lead Canyons. Ground-water withdrawal from the San Andres and Douglas wells and from the Boles wells nearly equaled estimated ground- water recharge for 1989-93 and 1986-93, respectively. For 1987- 93, ground-water withdrawal from the Escondido well regularly exceeded estimated ground-water recharge from Escondido Canyon, and

  9. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at Arnold Air Force Base, Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugh, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force at Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB), in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee, is investigating ground-water contamination in selected areas of the base. This report documents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the regional hydrogeology of the AAFB area. Three aquifers within the Highland Rim aquifer system, the shallow aquifer, the Manchester aquifer, and the Fort Payne aquifer, have been identified in the study area. Of these, the Manchester aquifer is the primary source of water for domestic use. Drilling and water- quality data indicate that the Chattanooga Shale is an effective confining unit, isolating the Highland Rim aquifer system from the deeper, upper Central Basin aquifer system. A regional ground-water divide, approximately coinciding with the Duck River-Elk River drainage divide, underlies AAFB and runs from southwest to northeast. The general direction of most ground-water flow is to the north- west or to the northwest or to the southeast from the divide towards tributary streams that drain the area. Recharge estimates range from 4 to 11 inches per year. Digital computer modeling was used to simulate and provide a better understanding of the ground-water flow system. The model indicates that most of the ground-water flow occurs in the shallow and Manchester aquifers. The model was most sensitive to increases in hydraulic conductivity and changes in recharge rates. Particle-tracking analysis from selected sites of ground-water contamination indicates a potential for contami- nants to be transported beyond the boundary of AAFB.

  10. Comprehensive evaluation of multi-year real-time air quality forecasting using an online-coupled meteorology-chemistry model over southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Hong, Chaopeng; Yahya, Khairunnisa; Li, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2016-08-01

    An online-coupled meteorology-chemistry model, WRF/Chem-MADRID, has been deployed for real time air quality forecast (RT-AQF) in southeastern U.S. since 2009. A comprehensive evaluation of multi-year RT-AQF shows overall good performance for temperature and relative humidity at 2-m (T2, RH2), downward surface shortwave radiation (SWDOWN) and longwave radiation (LWDOWN), and cloud fraction (CF), ozone (O3) and fine particles (PM2.5) at surface, tropospheric ozone residuals (TOR) in O3 seasons (May-September), and column NO2 in winters (December-February). Moderate-to-large biases exist in wind speed at 10-m (WS10), precipitation (Precip), cloud optical depth (COT), ammonium (NH4+), sulfate (SO42-), and nitrate (NO3-) from the IMPROVE and SEARCH networks, organic carbon (OC) at IMPROVE, and elemental carbon (EC) and OC at SEARCH, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and column carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and formaldehyde (HCHO) in both O3 and winter seasons, column nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in O3 seasons, and TOR in winters. These biases indicate uncertainties in the boundary layer and cloud process treatments (e.g., surface roughness, microphysics cumulus parameterization), emissions (e.g., O3 and PM precursors, biogenic, mobile, and wildfire emissions), upper boundary conditions for all major gases and PM2.5 species, and chemistry and aerosol treatments (e.g., winter photochemistry, aerosol thermodynamics). The model shows overall good skills in reproducing the observed multi-year trends and inter-seasonal variability in meteorological and radiative variables such as T2, WS10, Precip, SWDOWN, and LWDOWN, and relatively well in reproducing the observed trends in surface O3 and PM2.5, but relatively poor in reproducing the observed column abundances of CO, NO2, SO2, HCHO, TOR, and AOD. The sensitivity simulations using satellite-constrained boundary conditions for O3 and CO show substantial improvement for both spatial distribution and domain-mean performance

  11. Survey of hazardous organic compounds in the groundwater, air and wastewater effluents near the Tehran automobile industry.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Mahdi; Nadafi, Kazem; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Nasseri, Simin; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Rastkari, Noushin

    2013-02-01

    Potential of wastewater treatment in car industry and groundwater contamination by volatile organic compounds include perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE) and dichloromethane (DCM) near car industry was conducted in this study. Samples were collected in September through December 2011 from automobile industry. Head-space Gas chromatography with FID detector is used for analysis. Mean PCE levels in groundwater ranged from 0 to 63.56 μg L(-1) with maximum level of 89.1 μg L(-1). Mean TCE from 0 to 76.63 μg L(-1) with maximum level of 112 μg L(-1). Due to the data obtained from pre treatment of car staining site and conventional wastewater treatment in car factory, the most of TCE, PCE and DCM removed by pre aeration. Therefor this materials entry from liquid phase to air phase and by precipitation leak out to the groundwater. As a consequence these pollutants have a many negative health effect on the workers by air and groundwater.

  12. Removal of volatile organic compounds from groundwater using a rotary air stripper

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P. ); Wilson, J.H.; Counce, R.M.; Villiers-Fisher, J.F.; Jennings, H.L. . Chemical Technology Div.); Lucero, A.J.; Reed, G.D. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Ashworth, R.A.; Elliott, M.G. )

    1992-02-01

    In this paper, the performance of a centrifugal vapor-liquid contactor is evaluated for air stripping of jet fuel components from ground water. Hydraulic test data indicated that the Sherwood flooding correlation, which has been proposed for use in designing centrifugal vapor-liquid contactors, overestimates the rotational speeds at which flooding occurs. A concept of the area of a transfer unit (ATU) was introduced in the mass-transfer tests to account for the change in fluid loading with the radius of the packing torus. A new correlation based on the specific surface area of the packing for predicting ATU described the experimental data with a fair degree of accuracy. The power consumed in rotating the packing torus was found to depend mainly on the liquid flow, outer rotor radius, and rotational speed. Previous claims in the literature that the centrifugal vapor-liquid contactor is resistant to fouling because of high shear forces were not found to be valid for groundwater with high iron content.

  13. Using radon-222 as indicator for the evaluation of the efficiency of groundwater remediation by in situ air sparging.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Michael; Schmidt, Axel; Müller, Kai; Weiss, Holger

    2011-02-01

    A common approach for remediation of groundwater contamination with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is contaminant stripping by means of in situ air sparging (IAS). For VOC stripping, pressurized air is injected into the contaminated groundwater volume, followed by the extraction of the contaminant-loaded exhaust gas from the vadose soil zone and its immediate on-site treatment. Progress assessment of such remediation measure necessitates information (i) on the spatial range of the IAS influence and (ii) on temporal variations of the IAS efficiency. In the present study it was shown that the naturally occurring noble gas radon can be used as suitable environmental tracer for achieving the related spatial and temporal information. Due to the distinct water/air partitioning behaviour of radon and due to its straightforward on-site detectability, the radon distribution pattern in the groundwater can be used as appropriate measure for assessing the progression of an IAS measure as a function of space and time. The presented paper discusses both the theoretical background of the approach and the results of an IAS treatment accomplished at a VOC contaminated site lasting six months, during which radon was applied as efficiency indicator.

  14. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    A three-dimensional modular model (MODFLOW) was used to simulate groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in order to assess the correctness of the conceptual model of the hydrogeological system. Simulated heads satisfactorily match observed heads in the regional water-table aquifer. Model results indicate that: (1) groundwater recharge is not uniform throughout the region but is best represented by three recharge rates, decreasing downgradient, similar to the distribution of soils and geomorphological characteristics; and (2) evapotranspiration rates are larger than previous estimates, which were made by using the Thornthwaite-Mather method. Evapotranspiration rates estimated by MODFLOW agree with results of independent studies of the region. Model results closely match historical surface-flow records, thereby suggesting that the model description of the aquifer-river relationship is correct. Résumé Un modèle modulaire tridimensionnel (MODFLOW) a été utilisé pour simuler les écoulements souterrains dans le bassin de la rivière Azul (Province de Buenos Aires, Argentine), dans le but d'évaluer la justesse du modèle conceptuel du système hydrogéologique. La piézométrie simulée s'ajuste de façon satisfaisante à celle observée pour l'ensemble de la nappe. Les résultats du modèle indiquent que: (1) la recharge de la nappe n'est pas uniforme sur toute la région, mais qu'elle est mieux approchée par trois valeurs différentes, décroissant vers l'aval-gradient, en suivant la même distribution que les sols et les caractéristiques géomorphologiques et (2) l'évapotranspiration est nettement plus importante que prévu initialement à partir de la méthode de Thornthwaite-Mather. Les valeurs d'évapotranspiration fournies par MODFLOW concordent bien avec les résultats d'autres études portant sur la région. Les résultats du modèle reproduisent convenablement les chroniques de débit des écoulements de surface

  15. Assessment of ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, 1982-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    Continued study of ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, defined the movement and distribution of volatile organic compounds in the glacial sand and gravel aquifer at known sites of contamination, and has defined new plumes at two other sites. The Arrow Street purge system, installed in 1982 to remove contaminants from the Building 43 plume, has lowered concentrations of trichloroethylene in ground water in the central part of the most contaminated area from a range of 1,000 to 2,000 micrograms per liter to about 200 micrograms per liter. Trichloroethylene is not escaping off-Base from this area. In the southern part of the Base a plume containing principally trichloroethylene and dichloroethylene has been delineated along Mission Drive. Maximum concentrations observed were 5,290 micrograms per liter of trichloroethylene and 1,480 micrograms per liter of dichloroethylene. Hydrologically suitable sites for purge wells are identified in the southern part of the plume using a new ground-water flow model of the Base. A benzene plume near the bulk-fuel storage area, delineated in earlier work, lias shifted to a more northerly direction under influence of the Arrow Street purge system. Sites initially identified for purging the benzene plume have been repositioned because of the change in contaminant movement. JP-4 fuel was found to be accumulating in wells near the bulk-fuel storage area, largely in response to seasonal fluctuations in the water table. It is thought to originate from a spill that occurred several years ago. A more thorough definition of contaminants in the northern landfill area has permitted a determination of the most hydrologically suitable sites for purge wells. In general, Concentrations found in water do not differ greatly from those observed in 1981. Since 1981, concentrations of trichloroethylene have decreased significantly in the Alert Apron plume. Near the origin of the plume, the concentration of trichloroethylene

  16. Meteorology Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity to learn about meteorology and weather using the internet. Discusses the National Weather Service (NWS) internet site www.weather.gov. Students examine maximum and minimum daily temperatures, wind speed, and direction. (SAH)

  17. Determination of the origin of groundwater nitrate at an air weapons range using the dual isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Savard, Martine M; Martel, Richard; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2008-06-01

    Nitrate is one of the most common contaminants in shallow groundwater, and many sources may contribute to the nitrate load within an aquifer. Groundwater nitrate plumes have been detected at several ammunition production sites. However, the presence of multiple potential sources and the lack of existing isotopic data concerning explosive degradation-induced nitrate constitute a limitation when it comes to linking both types of contaminants. On military training ranges, high nitrate concentrations in groundwater were reported for the first time as part of the hydrogeological characterization of the Cold Lake Air Weapons Range (CLAWR), Alberta, Canada. Explosives degradation is thought to be the main source of nitrate contamination at CLAWR, as no other major source is present. Isotopic analyses of N and O in nitrate were performed on groundwater samples from the unconfined and confined aquifers; the dual isotopic analysis approach was used in order to increase the chances of identifying the source of nitrate. The isotopic ratios for the groundwater samples with low nitrate concentration suggested a natural origin with a strong contribution of anthropogenic atmospheric NOx. For the samples with nitrate concentration above the expected background level the isotopic ratios did not correspond to any source documented in the literature. Dissolved RDX samples were degraded in the laboratory and results showed that all reproduced degradation processes released nitrate with a strong fractionation. Laboratory isotopic values for RDX-derived NO(3)(-) produced a trend of high delta(18)O-low delta(15)N to low delta(18)O-high delta(15)N, and groundwater samples with nitrate concentrations above the expected background level appeared along this trend. Our results thus point toward a characteristic field of isotopic ratios for nitrate being derived from the degradation of RDX.

  18. Effect of increasing urban albedo on meteorology and air quality of Montreal (Canada) - Episodic simulation of heat wave in 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchaei, Ali G.; Akbari, Hashem; Tessum, Christopher W.

    2016-05-01

    Increasing albedo is an effective strategy to mitigate urban air temperature in different climates. Using reflective urban surfaces decreases the air temperature, which potentially reduces the rate of generation of smog. However, for implementing the albedo enhancement, complicated interactions between air, moisture, aerosols, and other gaseous contaminant in the atmosphere should be considered. We used WRF-CHEM to investigate the effect of increasing albedo in Montreal, Canada, during a heat wave period (July 10th through July 12th, 2005) on air quality and urban climate. The reflectivity of roofs, walls, and roads are increased from 0.2 to 0.65, 0.6, and 0.45, respectively. Air temperature at 2-m elevation is decreased during all hours in the simulation period and the maximum reduction is about 1 °C on each day (Tmax is reduced by about 0.7 °C) The concentration of two regulated pollutants -ozone (O3) and fine particulate matters (PM2.5) - is calculated at a height of 5-m above the ground. The maximum decrease in 8-h averaged ozone concentration is about 3% (∼0.2 ppbv). 24-h averaged PM2.5 concentration decreases by 1.8 μg/m3. This relatively small change in concentration of pollutants is related to the decrease in planetary boundary layer height caused by increasing the albedo. Additionally, the combined effect of decreased solar heat gain by building surfaces and decreased air temperature reduces the energy consumption of HVAC systems by 2% (∼0.1 W/m2), which exacerbates the positive effect of the albedo enhancement on the air quality.

  19. The influence of meteorological conditions and anthropogenic activities on the seasonal fluctuations of BTEX in the urban air of the Hanseatic city of Gdansk, Poland.

    PubMed

    Marć, Mariusz; Bielawska, Michalina; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek; Zabiegała, Bożena

    2015-08-01

    The results of studies conducted in Gdansk in the period from January to December 2013 and focused on the determination of BTEX in the atmospheric air are presented. At the stage of the isolation and/or enrichment of analytes from the gaseous medium, a passive sampling technique-Radiello® diffusive passive samplers, was applied. The time-weighted average annual concentration of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes determined in the monitored area was as follows: 0.66 ± 0.32, 1.63 ± 0.94, 0.67 ± 0.61, and 2.9 ± 2.7 μg/m(3). As a result of the research, the potential emission sources of BTEX, which activity has a significant impact on the concentration of these compounds in the atmosphere in the Gdansk area, were identified. A comparison of the accuracy and precision of the results of benzene concentrations in the atmosphere obtained by the BTEX automatic analyzer and passive techniques was performed. Moreover, a significant influence of meteorological conditions, such as air temperature, intensity of solar radiation, velocity and direction of wind, humidity, and rainfall on the benzene content in ambient air was shown. Additionally, in order to determine the conditions in the area covered by the monitoring, information about atmospheric stability and the height of the mixing layer was presented. PMID:25869437

  20. Risk assessment for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality due to air pollution and synoptic meteorology in 10 Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Vanos, Jennifer K; Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Sabit

    2014-02-01

    Synoptic weather and ambient air quality synergistically influence human health. We report the relative risk of mortality from all non-accidental, respiratory-, and cardiovascular-related causes, associated with exposure to four air pollutants, by weather type and season, in 10 major Canadian cities for 1981 through 1999. We conducted this multi-city time-series study using Poisson generalized linear models stratified by season and each of six distinctive synoptic weather types. Statistically significant relationships of mortality due to short-term exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone were found, with significant modifications of risk by weather type, season, and mortality cause. In total, 61% of the respiratory-related mortality relative risk estimates were significantly higher than for cardiovascular-related mortality. The combined effect of weather and air pollution is greatest when tropical-type weather is present in the spring or summer.

  1. Determination of releaes from a fugitive or diffuse source using downwind air-monitoring and site-specific meteorological data

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Kovacic, J.; Deola, R.

    1996-12-31

    In order to demonstrate compliance with annual radiological dose limits, air-dispersion modeling is often performed. Many air-dispersion models calculate the effects of radionuclide releases. These models do not determine the actual release; they rely on either measured release data from the source or an estimate of the source release based on process knowledge. The EPA provides clear guidance for the determination of annual radionuclide releases from point sources (i.e. facility stacks and vents). However, clear guidance for the determination of radionuclide releases from diffuse or fugitive sources is not available.

  2. Second international conference on air-sea interaction and on meteorology and oceanography of the coastal zone

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This conference was held September 22--27, 1994 in Lisbon, Portugal. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on air-sea interactions. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  3. Seasonal changes in ground-water quality and ground-water levels and directions of ground-water movement in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho, including Mountain Home Air Force Base, 1990-1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.; Jones, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    The study area is located in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho, and includes the Mountain Home Air Force Base located approximately 10 mi southwest of the city of Mountain Home. Chemical analyzes have been made periodically since the late 1940's on water samples from supply wells on the Air Force Base. These analyses indicate increases in specific conductance and in concentrations of nitrogen compounds, chloride, and sulfate. The purposes of this report, which was prepared in cooperation with the Department of the Air Force, are to describe the seasonal changes in water quality and water levels and to depict the directions of ground-water movement in the regional aquifer system and perched-water zones. Although data presented in this report are from both the regional ground-water system and perched-water zones, the focus is on the regional system. A previous study by the U.S. Geological Survey (Parliman and Young, 1990) describes the areal changes in water quality and water levels during the fall of 1989. During March, July, and October 1990, 141 wells were inventoried and depth to water was measured. Continuous water-level recorders were installed on 5 of the wells and monthly measurements of depth to water were made in 17 of the wells during March 1990 through February 1991. Water samples from 33 wells and 1 spring were collected during the spring and fall of 1990 for chemical analyses. Samples also were collected monthly from 11 of those wells during April to September 1990 (table 1). Selected well-construction and water-use data and measurements of depth to water for 141 wells are given in table 2 (separated sheets in envelope). Directions of ground-water movement and selected hydrographs showing seasonal fluctuations of water levels in the regional ground-water system and perched-water zones are shown on sheet 2. Changes in water levels in the regional ground-water system during March to October 1990 are shown on sheet 2.

  4. Removing a small quantity of THT from gas storage groundwater through air stripping and gas-phase carbon adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Girod, J.F.; Leclerc, J.P.; Muhr, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with the response to a case of contaminated groundwater located in France. The natural gas is stored during summer in porous underground rocks. When energy requirements increase (particularly in winter), gas is drawn off, but water is also pumped during this operation. The water has a strong characteristic odour of the TetraHydroThiophene (THT), which has been used by Gaz de France as an additive in order to detect gas leakages because of its strong odour. Unfortunately, the presence of THT in medium other than natural gas can be responsible for safety problems. Gas stripping combined with adsorption on granular activated carbon was chosen to obtain removal of THT from the groundwater. The gas to water ratio for stripping column is higher than usual and the gas used for stripping was recycled in order to prevent air pollution. Carbon consumption is approximately 3 tons a year. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air: a focus on the effect of meteorology.

    PubMed

    Giakoumi, A; Maggos, Th; Michopoulos, J; Helmis, C; Vasilakos, Ch

    2009-05-01

    PM(2.5) and VOCs (benzene, toluene, m-p-o-xylenes) concentrations were measured in an urban and a suburban site in Athens, Greece, during the period between April and November 2004. This period, which is considered to be the warmer period in Greece, is characterized by the development of sea-breeze over the Attica Basin. Additionally strong Northern, North-eastern winds called "The Etesians", predominate during the summer months (July-August), acting positively to the dispersion of pollutants. In this campaign, 24 days with sea-breeze development were observed, 15 days with northern winds, 6 days with southern winds while the rest of the days presented no specific wind profile. Maximum concentrations of PM(2.5), VOCs and nitrogen oxides, were detected during the days with sea-breeze, while minimum concentrations during the days with northern winds. Ozone was the only pollutant that appeared to have higher concentrations in the background site and not in the city centre, where benzene presented strong negative correlation with ozone, indicating the photochemical reaction of hydrocarbons that lead to the ozone formation. The BTX ratios were similar for both sites and wind profiles, indicating common sources for those pollutants. T/B ratio ranged in low levels, between 3-5 for site A and 2-5 for site B, suggesting vehicles emissions as the main sources of volatile compounds. Finally, the strong correlations of PM(2.5) and benzene concentrations, between the two sampling sites, indicate that both the city centre and the background site, are affected by the same sources, under common meteorological conditions (sea-breeze, northern winds).

  6. Modeling of the anthropogenic heat flux and its effect on regional meteorology and air quality over the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Min; Liao, Jingbiao; Wang, Tijian; Zhu, Kuanguang; Zhuang, Bingliang; Han, Yong; Li, Mengmeng; Li, Shu

    2016-05-01

    Anthropogenic heat (AH) emissions from human activities caused by urbanization can affect the city environment. Based on the energy consumption and the gridded demographic data, the spatial distribution of AH emission over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is estimated. Meanwhile, a new method for the AH parameterization is developed in the WRF/Chem model, which incorporates the gridded AH emission data with the seasonal and diurnal variations into the simulations. By running this upgraded WRF/Chem for 2 typical months in 2010, the impacts of AH on the meteorology and air quality over the YRD region are studied. The results show that the AH fluxes over the YRD have been growing in recent decades. In 2010, the annual-mean values of AH over Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang are 14.46, 2.61 and 1.63 W m-2, respectively, with the high value of 113.5 W m-2 occurring in the urban areas of Shanghai. These AH emissions can significantly change the urban heat island and urban-breeze circulations in the cities of the YRD region. In Shanghai, 2 m air temperature increases by 1.6 °C in January and 1.4 °C in July, the PBLH (planetary boundary layer height) rises up by 140 m in January and 160 m in July, and 10 m wind speed is enhanced by 0.7 m s-1 in January and 0.5 m s-1 in July, with a higher increment at night. The enhanced vertical movement can transport more moisture to higher levels, which causes the decrease in water vapor at ground level and the increase in the upper PBL (planetary boundary layer), and thereby induces the accumulative precipitation to increase by 15-30 % over the megacities in July. The adding of AH can impact the spatial and vertical distributions of the simulated pollutants as well. The concentrations of primary air pollutants decrease near the surface and increase at the upper levels, due mainly to the increases in PBLH, surface wind speed and upward air vertical movement. But surface O3 concentrations increase in the urban areas, with maximum

  7. Groundwater quality and occurrence and distribution of selected constituents in the Aquia and Upper Patapsco aquifers, Naval Air Station Patuxent River, St. Mary's County, Maryland, July 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Campo, Kimberly W.; Baker, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    The Naval Air Station Patuxent River in southern Maryland has continued to expand in the first decade of the 21st century, contributing to rapid population growth in the surrounding area. The increase in population has caused State and County water managers and others to be concerned about the impact of population growth on the quantity and quality of groundwater supplies. The U.S. Geological Survey has been investigating the groundwater resources of the air station since 1998. As part of that ongoing investigation, groundwater was sampled in 2008 in six wells in the Aquia aquifer and two wells in the Upper Patapsco aquifer in the vicinity of Naval Air Station Patuxent River and Webster Outlying Field. Groundwater samples were analyzed for basic chemistry (field parameters, major ions, and nutrients) as well as several water-quality issues of concern including the occurrence of arsenic and tungsten, and saltwater intrusion. The results of the 2008 groundwater-quality sampling indicate that the overall quality of groundwater in the Aquia aquifer has not changed since 1943; data are too limited to determine if groundwater quality has changed in the Upper Patapsco aquifer. At one well in the Aquia aquifer, the arsenic concentration exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard for drinking water. Arsenic was not detected in samples from the Upper Patapsco aquifer. Tungsten concentrations were detected at low concentrations near the laboratory reporting level in all eight samples. There was no evidence of saltwater intrusion in any of the wells.

  8. Treatment of Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater Using Highly-Selective, Regenerable Anion-Exchange Resins at Edwards Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, B.

    2003-05-30

    Selective ion exchange is one of the most effective treatment technologies for removing low levels of perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) from contaminated water because of its high efficiency without adverse impacts on the water quality caused by adding or removing any chemicals or nutrients. This report summarizes both the laboratory and a field pilot-scale studies to determine the ability and efficiency of the bifunctional synthetic resins to remove ClO{sub 4}{sup -} from the contaminated groundwater at the Edwards Air Force Base in California. Regeneration of the resins after groundwater treatment was also evaluated using the FeCl{sub 3}-HCl regeneration technique recently developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. On the basis of this study, the bifunctional resin, D-3696 was found to be highly selective toward ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and performed much better than one of the best commercial nitrate-selective resins (Purolite A-520E) and more than an order of magnitude better than the Purolite A-500 resin (with a relatively low selectivity). At an influent concentration of {approx} 450 {micro}g/L ClO{sub 4}{sup -} in groundwater, the bifunctional resin bed treated {approx} 40,000 empty bed volumes of groundwater before a significant breakthrough of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} occurred. The presence of relatively high concentrations of chloride and sulfate in site groundwater did not appear to affect the ability of the bifunctional resin to remove ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. However, the presence of high iron or iron oxyhydroxides and/or biomass in groundwater caused a significant fouling of the resin beds and greatly influenced the effectiveness in regenerating the resins sorbed with ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. Under such circumstances, a prefilter ({approx} 0.5-1 {micro}m) was found to be necessary to remove these particulates and to reduce the risk of fouling of the resin beds. Without significant fouling, the resin bed could be effectively regenerated by the FeCl{sub 3} displacement technique

  9. Urban air quality simulation in a high-rise building area using a CFD model coupled with mesoscale meteorological and chemistry-transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Baik, Jong-Jin; Ryu, Young-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    An integrated urban air quality modeling system is established by coupling a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model with mesoscale meteorological and chemistry-transport models. The mesoscale models used are the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model and the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model, which provide the initial and time-dependent boundary conditions for the CFD model. For the consistency of chemical processes in the CFD and CMAQ models, the same chemical mechanism used in the CMAQ model is implemented in the CFD model. Urban air quality simulations are performed from 0900 to 1800 LT on 3 June 2010 in a high-rise building area of Seoul, Republic of Korea, where mobile emission sources are concentrated. The NO2 and O3 concentrations in the CFD simulation are evaluated with data measured at a roadside air quality monitoring station, showing better agreements than those in the CMAQ simulation. The NO2 and O3 concentration fields exhibit high spatial variabilities in the high-rise building area. The spatial variabilities near the surfaces are strongly associated with the heterogeneity of mobile emission on roads, whereas the spatial variabilities near the top of high-rise buildings are strongly associated with the heterogeneity of building geometry. The average NO2 and O3 concentrations (46 and 30 ppb, respectively, at z = 30 m) near the surfaces are considerably different from the NO2 and O3 concentrations in the CMAQ simulation (17 and 44 ppb, respectively, at z = 30 m), implying the insufficient urban surface representation in the CMAQ simulation. The heterogeneity of building geometry is found to enhance the vertical pollutant transport, whereas the heterogeneity of mobile emission is found to confine emitted pollutants near the surfaces. When the vertical mixing is efficient, the O3 concentration decreases in substantial vertical ranges with the same amount of NOx emission. The integrated urban air quality modeling system realistically

  10. A quantitative determination of air-water heat fluxes in Hermit Lake, New Hampshire under varying meteorological conditions, time of day, and time of year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyper, Nicholas D.

    An extensive heat flux study is performed at Hermit Lake, New Hampshire from May 26, 2010 till November 7, 2010 to determine the effects of the five individual heat fluxes on Hermit Lake and the surrounding amphibian community. Hermit Lake was chosen due to the relatively long meteorological observations record within the White Mountains of New Hampshire, a new lakeside meteorological station, and ongoing phenology studies of the surrounding eco-system. Utilizing meteorological data from the lakeside weather station and moored water temperature sensors, the incident (Qi), blackbody ( Qbnet ), latent (Qe), sensible (Q s), and net (Qn) heat fluxes are calculated. The incident heat flux is the dominate term in the net flux, accounting for 93% of the variance found in Qn and producing a heat gain of ˜ 19x108 J m-2 throughout the period of study. This large gain produces a net gain of heat in the lake until October 1, 2010, where gains by Qi are offset by the large combined losses of Qbnet , Qs, and Qe thereby producing a gradual decline of heat within the lake. The latent and blackbody heat fluxes produce the largest losses of heat in the net heat flux with a total losses of ˜ -8x108 J m-2 and ˜ -7x108 J m-2, respectively. The sensible heat flux is negligible, producing a total minimal loss of ˜ -1x108 J m-2. Overall the net heat produces a net gain of heat of 2x108 J m-2 throughout the study period. Frog calls indicative of breeding are recorded from May 26, 2010 until August 16, 2010. The spring peeper, American toad, and green frog each produced enough actively calling days to be compared to air temperature, surface water temperature, and wind speed data, as well as data from the five heat fluxes. Linear regression analysis reveals that certain water temperature thresholds affect the calling activities of the spring peeper and green frog, while higher wind speeds have a dramatic effect on the calling activities of both the green frog and American toad. All three

  11. Modelling deposition and air concentration of reduced nitrogen in Poland and sensitivity to variability in annual meteorology.

    PubMed

    Kryza, Maciej; Dore, Anthony J; Błaś, Marek; Sobik, Mieczysław

    2011-04-01

    The relative contribution of reduced nitrogen to acid and eutrophic deposition in Europe has increased recently as a result of European policies which have been successful in reducing SO(2) and NO(x) emissions but have had smaller impacts on ammonia (NH(3)) emissions. In this paper the Fine Resolution Atmospheric Multi-pollutant Exchange (FRAME) model was used to calculate the spatial patterns of annual average ammonia and ammonium (NH(4)(+)) air concentrations and reduced nitrogen (NH(x)) dry and wet deposition with a 5 km × 5 km grid for years 2002-2005. The modelled air concentrations of NH(3) and dry deposition of NH(x) show similar spatial patterns for all years considered. The largest year to year changes were found for wet deposition, which vary considerably with precipitation amount. The FRAME modelled air concentrations and wet deposition are in reasonable agreement with available measurements (Pearson's correlation coefficients above 0.6 for years 2002-2005), and with spatial patterns of concentrations and deposition of NH(x) reported with the EMEP results, but show larger spatial gradients. The error statistics show that the FRAME model results are in better agreement with measurements if compared with EMEP estimates. The differences in deposition budgets calculated with FRAME and EMEP do not exceed 17% for wet and 6% for dry deposition, with FRAME estimates higher than for EMEP wet deposition for modelled period and lower or equal for dry deposition. The FRAME estimates of wet deposition budget are lower than the measurement-based values reported by the Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection of Poland, with the differences by approximately 3%. Up to 93% of dry and 53% of wet deposition of NH(x) in Poland originates from national sources. Over the western part of Poland and mountainous areas in the south, transboundary transport can contribute over 80% of total (dry + wet) NH(x) deposition. The spatial pattern of the relative contribution of

  12. Model simulation of meteorology and air quality during the summer PUMA intensive measurement campaign in the UK West Midlands conurbation.

    PubMed

    Baggott, Sarah; Cai, Xiaoming; McGregor, Glenn; Harrison, Roy M

    2006-05-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and Urban Airshed Model (UAM IV) have been implemented for prediction of air pollutant concentrations within the West Midlands conurbation of the United Kingdom. The modelling results for wind speed, direction and temperature are in reasonable agreement with observations for two stations, one in a rural area and the other in an urban area. Predictions of surface temperature are generally good for both stations, but the results suggest that the quality of temperature prediction is sensitive to whether cloud cover is reproduced reliably by the model. Wind direction is captured very well by the model, while wind speed is generally overestimated. The air pollution climate of the UK West Midlands is very different to those for which the UAM model was primarily developed, and the methods used to overcome these limitations are described. The model shows a tendency towards under-prediction of primary pollutant (NOx and CO) concentrations, but with suitable attention to boundary conditions and vertical profiles gives fairly good predictions of ozone concentrations. Hourly updating of chemical concentration boundary conditions yields the best results, with input of vertical profiles desirable. The model seriously underpredicts NO2/NO ratios within the urban area and this appears to relate to inadequate production of peroxy radicals. Overall, the chemical reactivity predicted by the model appears to fall well below that occurring in the atmosphere.

  13. Model simulation of meteorology and air quality during the summer PUMA intensive measurement campaign in the UK West Midlands conurbation.

    PubMed

    Baggott, Sarah; Cai, Xiaoming; McGregor, Glenn; Harrison, Roy M

    2006-05-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and Urban Airshed Model (UAM IV) have been implemented for prediction of air pollutant concentrations within the West Midlands conurbation of the United Kingdom. The modelling results for wind speed, direction and temperature are in reasonable agreement with observations for two stations, one in a rural area and the other in an urban area. Predictions of surface temperature are generally good for both stations, but the results suggest that the quality of temperature prediction is sensitive to whether cloud cover is reproduced reliably by the model. Wind direction is captured very well by the model, while wind speed is generally overestimated. The air pollution climate of the UK West Midlands is very different to those for which the UAM model was primarily developed, and the methods used to overcome these limitations are described. The model shows a tendency towards under-prediction of primary pollutant (NOx and CO) concentrations, but with suitable attention to boundary conditions and vertical profiles gives fairly good predictions of ozone concentrations. Hourly updating of chemical concentration boundary conditions yields the best results, with input of vertical profiles desirable. The model seriously underpredicts NO2/NO ratios within the urban area and this appears to relate to inadequate production of peroxy radicals. Overall, the chemical reactivity predicted by the model appears to fall well below that occurring in the atmosphere. PMID:16266739

  14. Relationship of extinction coefficient, air pollution, and meteorological parameters in an urban area during 2007 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Sabetghadam, Samaneh; Ahmadi-Givi, Farhang

    2014-01-01

    Light extinction, which is the extent of attenuation of light signal for every distance traveled by light in the absence of special weather conditions (e.g., fog and rain), can be expressed as the sum of scattering and absorption effects of aerosols. In this paper, diurnal and seasonal variations of the extinction coefficient are investigated for the urban areas of Tehran from 2007 to 2009. Cases of visibility impairment that were concurrent with reports of fog, mist, precipitation, or relative humidity above 90% are filtered. The mean value and standard deviation of daily extinction are 0.49 and 0.39 km(-1), respectively. The average is much higher than that in many other large cities in the world, indicating the rather poor air quality over Tehran. The extinction coefficient shows obvious diurnal variations in each season, with a peak in the morning that is more pronounced in the wintertime. Also, there is a very slight increasing trend in the annual variations of atmospheric extinction coefficient, which suggests that air quality has regressed since 2007. The horizontal extinction coefficient decreased from January to July in each year and then increased between July and December, with the maximum value in the winter. Diurnal variation of extinction is often associated with small values for low relative humidity (RH), but increases significantly at higher RH. Annual correlation analysis shows that there is a positive correlation between the extinction coefficient and RH, CO, PM10, SO2, and NO2 concentration, while negative correlation exists between the extinction and T, WS, and O3, implying their unfavorable impact on extinction variation. The extinction budget was derived from multiple regression equations using the regression coefficients. On average, 44% of the extinction is from suspended particles, 3% is from air molecules, about 5% is from NO2 absorption, 0.35% is from RH, and approximately 48% is unaccounted for, which may represent errors in the data as

  15. Modelling aerosol-cloud-meteorology interaction: A case study with a fully coupled air quality model (GEM-MACH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W.; Makar, P. A.; Zhang, J.; Milbrandt, J.; Gravel, S.; Hayden, K. L.; Macdonald, A. M.; Leaitch, W. R.

    2015-08-01

    A fully coupled on-line air quality forecast model, GEM-MACH, was used to study aerosol-cloud interactions for a case of an urban-industrial plume impacting stratocumulus. The aerosol effect on the cloud microphysics was achieved by the use of parameterization of cloud droplet nucleation predicted from the on-line size- and composition-resolved aerosols and coupled with a double-moment cloud microphysics parameterization. The model simulations with and without the on-line aerosol effect on cloud microphysics were compared and evaluated against in-situ aerosol and cloud observations from ICARTT 2004. Inclusion of the on-line aerosol interaction with cloud resulted in an increase in modelled cloud amount and cloud liquid water content (LWC) due to increased cloud droplet number concentration (Nd), a decrease in cloud droplet size and a reduction in warm precipitation. The modelled LWC and Nd agreed more closely with the observations when the on-line aerosol was allowed to affect the cloud than when aerosol effects on cloud were not explicitly simulated. The increased cloud amount due to the aerosol effects reduced the modelled downward shortwave radiative flux and air temperature at the surface, contributing to a decrease in ozone over the region of enhanced cloud and an increase in particle sulphate from an increased capacity for aqueous-phase production. Aerosol activation is shown to have a significant influence on the cloud microphysics and cloud processing of trace gases and aerosols. The importance of reasonable parameterization of cloud updraft speed is demonstrated.

  16. Aerosol properties and meteorological conditions in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, during the resuspension of volcanic ash from the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graciela Ulke, Ana; Torres Brizuela, Marcela M.; Raga, Graciela B.; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2016-09-01

    The eruption in June 2011 of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Complex in Chile impacted air traffic around the Southern Hemisphere for several months after the initial ash emissions. The ash deposited in vast areas of the Patagonian Steppe was subjected to the strong wind conditions prevalent during the austral winter and spring experiencing resuspension over various regions of Argentina. In this study we analyze the meteorological conditions that led to the episode of volcanic ash resuspension which impacted the city of Buenos Aires and resulted in the closure of the two main airports in Buenos Aires area (Ezeiza and Aeroparque) on 16 October 2011. A relevant result is that resuspended material (volcanic ash plus dust) imprints a distinguishable feature within the atmospheric thermodynamic vertical profiles. The thermodynamic soundings show the signature of "pulses of drying" in layers associated with the presence of hygroscopic ash in the atmosphere that has already been reported in similar episodes after volcanic eruptions in other parts of the world. This particular footprint can be used to detect the probable existence of volcanic ash layers. This study also illustrates the utility of ceilometers to detect not only cloud base at airports but also volcanic ash plumes at the boundary layer and up to 7 km altitude. Aerosol properties measured in the city during the resuspension episode indicate the presence of enhanced concentrations of aerosol particles in the boundary layer along with spectral signatures in the measurements at the Buenos Aires AERONET site typical of ash plus dust advected towards the city. The mandatory aviation reports from the National Weather Service about airborne and deposited volcanic ash at the airport near the measurement site (Aeroparque) correlate in time with the enhanced concentrations. The presence of the resuspended material was detected by the CALIOP lidar overpassing the region. Since the dynamics of ash resuspension and

  17. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J. (Editor); Schnapf, A.; Diesen, B. C., III; Martin, P. S.; Schwalb, A.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of the meteorological satellite programs that have been evolving from 1958 to the present, and plans for the future meteorological and environmental satellite systems that are scheduled to be placed into service in the early 1980's are reviewed. The development of the TIROS family of weather satellites, including TIROS, ESSA, ITOS/NOAA, and the present TIROS-N (the third generation operational system) is summarized. The contribution of the Nimbus and ATS technology satellites to the development of the operational-orbiting and geostationary satellites is discussed. Included are descriptions of both the TIROS-N and the DMSP payloads currently under development to assure a continued and orderly growth of these systems into the 1980's.

  18. Comparing three vegetation monoterpene emission models to measured gas concentrations with a model of meteorology, air chemistry and chemical transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolander, S.; He, Q.; Mogensen, D.; Zhou, L.; Bäck, J.; Ruuskanen, T.; Noe, S.; Guenther, A.; Aaltonen, H.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, M.

    2013-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are essential in atmospheric chemistry because of their chemical reactions that produce and destroy tropospheric ozone, their effects on aerosol formation and growth, and their potential influence on global warming. As one of the important BVOC groups, monoterpenes have been a focus of scientific attention in atmospheric research. Detailed regional measurements and model estimates are needed to study emission potential and the monoterpene budget on a global scale. Since the use of empirical measurements for upscaling is limited by many physical and biological factors such as genetic variation, temperature and light, water availability, seasonal changes, and environmental stresses, comprehensive inventories over larger areas are difficult to obtain. We applied the boundary layer-chemistry-transport model SOSA to investigate Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) monoterpene emissions in a boreal coniferous forest at the SMEAR II site, Southern Finland. SOSA was applied to simulate monoterpene emissions with three different emission modules: the semi-empirical G95, MEGAN 2.04 with improved descriptions of temperature and light responses and including also carbonyl emissions, and a process-based model SIM-BIM. For the first time, the emission models included seasonal and diurnal variations in both quantity and chemical species of emitted monoterpenes, based on parameterizations obtained from field measurements. Results indicate that modelling and observations agreed reasonably well, and that the model can be used for investigating regional air chemistry questions related to monoterpenes. The predominant modelled monoterpene concentrations, α-pinene and Δ3-carene, are consistent with observations.

  19. Treatment of MTBE by air stripping, carbon adsorption, and advanced oxidation: technical and economic comparison for five groundwaters.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, J; Adams, C; Kekobad, J

    2004-01-01

    An investigation was made of the treatability of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in five groundwaters with highly varied water quality characteristics. Air stripping, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption, and the O(3)/H(2)O(2) and UV/H(2)O(2) advanced oxidation processes were compared in a mobile water treatment pilot plant under a variety of process conditions. Air stripping was shown to have the lower unit treatment costs for higher flowrates (i.e., 3800L/min), although relatively tall towers were required for greater treatment requirements. At low flowrates (i.e., 38L/min), advanced oxidation provided the lowest treatment costs for four of five waters (but was ineffective for a high chemical oxygen demand water). Both the O(3)/H(2)O(2) and UV/H(2)O(2) processes were more efficient at pH 7 versus 9 due in part to increased scavenging at higher pH. GAC was examined using rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCT). GAC was effective at most conditions, although it was also the most costly alternative for most waters. The results of this study can help to provide specific guidance into process selection for treating MTBE in contaminated groundwaters.

  20. Assessment of the impact of the meteorological meso-scale circulation on air quality in arid subtropical region.

    PubMed

    Charabi, Yassine; Al-Bulooshi, Ali; Al-Yahyai, Sultan

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, COSMO numerical weather prediction model is used to simulate land-sea breeze circulation in the north coast of Oman and to analyze the variability of the PBL depth. Typical summer day 1st August 2009 and winter day 1st January 2009 were simulated and verified by surface observations. The COSMO model was initialized using the German global model which runs as 40 km resolution and 40 vertical layers. The simulations show differences in the onset, strength, and inland penetration of the sea breeze. The high sea-land thermal contrast in the summer season induces earlier onset and progression of the sea breeze with larger horizontal and vertical extents. The summer and winter inland penetration is simulated around 150 and 65 km, respectively. The PBL depth was defined from the verticals profiles of the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE). The simulated PBL height varied at 1,600 m in summer and 700 m in the winter case. These results are in general in good agreement with the simulations of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Data Assimilation System (NCEP-GDAS) model. The dispersive ability of the atmosphere was tested through the vertical mixing coefficient (VMC) generated by NCEP-GDAS simulations. The VMC during the summer simulated case is approximately four times larger than the respective one during the winter case. Consequently, during the advection of winter sea breeze, a shallow dome less than 100 m is shaped and forms an obstacle to the air-pollutant dispersion.

  1. Comparing three vegetation monoterpene emission models to measured gas concentrations with a model of meteorology, air chemistry and chemical transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolander, S.; He, Q.; Mogensen, D.; Zhou, L.; Bäck, J.; Ruuskanen, T.; Noe, S.; Guenther, A.; Aaltonen, H.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, M.

    2014-10-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are essential in atmospheric chemistry because of their chemical reactions that produce and destroy tropospheric ozone, their effects on aerosol formation and growth, and their potential influence on global warming. As one of the important BVOC groups, monoterpenes have been a focus of scientific attention in atmospheric research. Detailed regional measurements and model estimates are needed to study emission potential and the monoterpene budget on a global scale. Since the use of empirical measurements for upscaling is limited by many physical and biological factors, such as genetic variation, temperature and light, water availability, seasonal changes, and environmental stresses, comprehensive inventories over larger areas are difficult to obtain. We applied the boundary-layer-chemistry-transport model SOSA (model to Simulate the concentrations of Organic vapours and Sulphuric Acid) to investigate Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) monoterpene emissions in a boreal coniferous forest at the SMEAR (Station for Measuring forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) II site, southern Finland. SOSA was applied to simulate monoterpene emissions with three different emission modules: the semiempirical G95, MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) 2.04 with improved descriptions of temperature and light responses and including also carbonyl emissions, and a process-based model SIM-BIM (Seasonal Isoprenoid synthase Model - Biochemical Isoprenoid biosynthesis Model). For the first time, the emission models included seasonal and diurnal variations in both quantity and chemical species of emitted monoterpenes, based on parameterizations obtained from field measurements. Results indicate that modelling and observations agreed reasonably well and that the model can be used for investigating regional air chemistry questions related to monoterpenes. The predominant modelled monoterpene concentrations, α-pinene and Δ3-carene

  2. Remote Sensing of Urban Thermal Landscape Characteristics and Their Affects on Local and Regional Meteorology and Air Quality: An Overview of NASA EOS-IDS Project Atlanta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    As an entity, the city is a manifestation of human "management" of the land. The act of city-building, however, drastically alters the biophysical environment, which ultimately, impacts local and regional land-atmosphere energy exchange processes. Because of the complexity of both the urban landscape and the attendant energy fluxes that result from urbanization, remote sensing offers the only real way to synoptically quantify these processes. One of the more important land-atmosphere fluxes that occurs over cities relates to the way that thermal energy is partitioned across the heterogeneous urban landscape. The individual land cover and surface material types that comprise the city, such as pavements and buildings, each have their own thermal energy regimes. As the collective urban landscape, the individual thermal energy responses from specific surfaces come together to form the urban heat island phenomena, which prevails as a dome of elevated air temperatures over cities. Although the urban heat island has been known to exist for well over 150 years, it is not understood how differences in thermal energy responses for land covers across the city interact to produce this phenomenon, or how the variability in thermal energy responses from different surface types drive its development. Additionally, it can be hypothesized that as cities grow in size through time, so do their urban heat islands. The interrelationships between urban sprawl and the respective growth of the urban heat island, however, have not been investigated. Moreover, little is known of the consequential effects of urban growth, land cover change, and the urban heat island as they impact local and regional meteorology and air quality.

  3. Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: Temperature and Air quality): A Study of how the Urban Landscape Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G.; Lo, C. P.; Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan; Taha, Haider; Bornstein, Robert D.; Gillies, Robert R.; Gallo, Kevin P.

    1998-01-01

    It is our intent through this investigation to help facilitate measures that can be Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: applied to mitigate climatological or air quality Temperature and Air-quality) is a NASA Earth degradation, or to design alternate measures to sustain Observing System (EOS) Interdisciplinary Science or improve the overall urban environment in the future. investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta. The primary objectives for this research effort are: 1) To In the last half of the 20th century, Atlanta, investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta Georgia has risen as the premier commercial, urban growth, land cover change, and the development industrial, and transportation urban area of the of the urban heat island phenomenon through time at southeastern United States. The rapid growth of the nested spatial scales from local to regional; 2) To Atlanta area, particularly within the last 25 years, has investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta made Atlanta one of the fastest growing metropolitan urban growth and land cover change on air quality areas in the United States. The population of the through time at nested spatial scales from local to Atlanta metropolitan area increased 27% between 1970 regional; and 3) To model the overall effects of urban and 1980, and 33% between 1980-1990 (Research development on surface energy budget characteristics Atlanta, Inc., 1993). Concomitant with this high rate of across the Atlanta urban landscape through time at population growth, has been an explosive growth in nested spatial scales from local to regional. Our key retail, industrial, commercial, and transportation goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how services within the Atlanta region. This has resulted in land cover changes associated with urbanization in the tremendous land cover change dynamics within the Atlanta area, principally in transforming

  4. Seasonal, anthropogenic, air mass, and meteorological influences on the atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs): Evidence for the importance of diffuse combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.G.M.; Green, N.J.L.; Lohmann, R.; Jones, K.C.

    1999-09-01

    Sampling programs were undertaken to establish air polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) concentrations at a semirural site on the northwest coast of England in autumn and summer and to investigate factors causing their variability. Changing source inputs, meteorological parameters, air masses, and the impact of a festival when it is customary to light fireworks and bonfires were investigated. Various lines of evidence from the study point to diffuse, combustion-related sources being a major influence on ambient air concentrations. Higher PCDD/F concentrations were generally associated with air masses that had originated and moved over land, particularly during periods of low ambient temperature. Low concentrations were associated with air masses that had arrived from the Atlantic Ocean/Irish Sea to the west of the sampling site and had little or no contact with urban/industrialized areas. Concentrations in the autumn months were 2 to 10 times higher than those found in the summer.

  5. Ground-water hydrology and simulation of ground-water flow at Operable Unit 3 and surrounding region, U.S. Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The Naval Air Station, Jacksonville (herein referred to as the Station), occupies 3,800 acres adjacent to the St. Johns River in Duval County, Florida. Operable Unit 3 (OU3) occupies 134 acres on the eastern side of the Station and has been used for industrial and commercial purposes since World War II. Ground water contaminated by chlorinated organic compounds has been detected in the surficial aquifer at OU3. The U.S. Navy and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a cooperative hydrologic study to evaluate the potential for ground water discharge to the neighboring St. Johns River. A ground-water flow model, previously developed for the area, was recalibrated for use in this study. At the Station, the surficial aquifer is exposed at land surface and forms the uppermost permeable unit. The aquifer ranges in thickness from 30 to 100 feet and consists of unconsolidated silty sands interbedded with local beds of clay. The low-permeability clays of the Hawthorn Group form the base of the aquifer. The USGS previously conducted a ground-water investigation at the Station that included the development and calibration of a 1-layer regional ground-water flow model. For this investigation, the regional model was recalibrated using additional data collected after the original calibration. The recalibrated model was then used to establish the boundaries for a smaller subregional model roughly centered on OU3. Within the subregional model, the surficial aquifer is composed of distinct upper and intermediate layers. The upper layer extends from land surface to a depth of approximately 15 feet below sea level; the intermediate layer extends from the upper layer down to the top of the Hawthorn Group. In the northern and central parts of OU3, the upper and intermediate layers are separated by a low-permeability clay layer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities in the upper layer, determined from aquifer tests, range from 0.19 to 3.8 feet per day. The horizontal hydraulic

  6. Air stripping of volatile organic compounds from groundwater: An evaluation of a centrifugal vapor-liquid contractor

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of a centrifugal vapor-liquid contactor equipped with high specific surface area packing (>2,000 m{sup 2}/m{sup 3}) was evaluated for air stripping of jet fuel components from groundwater. Hydraulic test data indicated that the Sherwood flooding correlation which has been proposed for use in designing centrifugal vapor-liquid contactors overestimates the rotational speeds at which flooding occurs. For the mass transfer performance, a concept of area of a transfer unit (ATU) was introduced to account for the change in fluid loading with radius of the packing torus. The ATU was found to be a strong function of the specific surface area of the packing and to a lesser extent a function of rotor speed and liquid flow rate. A correlation based on the specific surface area of the packing is proposed for predicting the ATU. A simple empirical model is also proposed for determining the power consumed in turning the packing torus at various operating conditions. Previous claims in the literature that centrifugal vapor-liquid contactor is resistant to fouling because of high shear force were found not to be valid for groundwater with high iron content.

  7. CITE 3 meteorological highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipham, Mark C.; Bachmeier, A. Scott; Anderson, Bruce E.

    1993-01-01

    Meteorological highlights from the third NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (GTE/CITE 3) are presented. During August and September 1989, research flights were conducted from Wallops Island, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil, and included airborne sampling of air masses over adjacent regions of the Atlantic Ocean. Isentropic backward trajectory calculations, wind vector/streamline fields, rawinsonde data, and GOES and METEOSAT satellite imagery are utilized to examine the meteorological conditions for each flight and to determine the transport paths of the sampled air masses. Some aspects of the chemical signatures of the sampled air are also discussed. During the series of flights based at Wallops Island, Virginia, the flow into the experiment area was governed primarily by the position of the North Atlantic subtropical anticyclone. The large-scale tropospheric circulation switched from primarily a marine flow during flights 1-4, to a predominantly offshore mid-latitude continental flow during flights 5-10. During these later flights, the regional influences of large eastern U.S. cities along with vertical mixing by typical summertime convective activity strongly influenced the chemical characteristics of the sampled air. During the series of flights based at Natal, Brazil, the dominant synoptic feature was the South Atlantic subtropical anticyclone which generally transported air across the tropical Atlantic toward eastern Brazil. Pronounced subsidence and a well-defined trade wind inversion often characterized the lower and middle troposphere over the Natal region. Some high-altitude recirculation of air from South America was observed, as was cross-equatorial transport which had come from northern Africa. Biomass burning plumes were observed on segments of all of the flights, the source region being the central and southern savannah regions of Africa.

  8. Meteorology (Temperature)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    ... daily earth temperature minimum and maximum.   Frost Days (days) The number of days for which the temperature falls below 0 degrees Celsius.   Dew/Frost Point Temperature (° C) Temperature at which air is saturated ...

  9. Air sparging/high vacuum extraction to remove chlorinated solvents in groundwater and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Gilliat, M.D.

    1998-11-01

    An air sparging and high vacuum extraction was installed as an alternative to a containment pump and treat system to reduce the long-term remediation schedule. The site is located at the DOE Mound facility in Miamisburg, Ohio, just south of Dayton. The air sparging system consists of 23 wells interspersed between 17 soil vapor extraction wells. The SVE system has extracted about 1,500 lbs of VOCs in five months. The air sparging system operated for about 6 weeks before shutdown due to suspected biochemical fouling. Technical data are presented on the operating characteristics of the system.

  10. Singapore Haze in June 2013: Consequences of Land-Use Change, Fires, and Anomalous Meteorology for Air Quality in Equatorial Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koplitz, S.; Mickley, L. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Kim, P. S.; DeFries, R. S.; Marlier, M. E.; Schwartz, J.; Buonocore, J.; Myers, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    warm anomalies (+2 C°) in the East. These conditions appear to provide an important meteorological pathway by which land-use change fires in Indonesia may affect the health of large populations. Our work suggests that this pathway should be taken into account in the development of strategies to curb fire-related air pollution and health effects in Indonesia.

  11. 1. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) SOUTH FACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MOBILE SERVICE TOWER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., Jr.; Crawford, Winifred; Short, David; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the second quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (January - March 2008). Projects described are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, (3) Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida. Phase III, (4) Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), (5) Impact of Local Sensors, (6) Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement and (7) WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base.

  13. Use of combined air sparging and soil vacuum extraction (AS/SVE) and groundwater recovery and treatment as remedial alternatives for dissolved DNAPL recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sturdivant, R. Jr.; Fulton, G.A. Jr.; Bains, F.E.

    1995-10-01

    Corrective action has been implemented to address a dissolved dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) plume in the vicinity of a former waste impoundment at the Paxon Polymer Company facility, located north of Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Assessment activities focused on the characterization of the geologic and hydrologic properties of the sediments underlying the area of investigation and the impact of the dissolved DNAPL plume to the soils and groundwater. Geologic characterization revealed that the facility is underlain by Quaternary age sediments consisting of mixtures of fine-grained sands, silt, and clay. Two hydrologic units were identified within the shallow sediments which are referred to as the Upper Permeable Zone and Second Permeable Zone. The investigation focused on the impacted soils and groundwater of the Upper and Second Permeable Zones. The Upper and Second Permeable Zones were characterized hydrologically to determine the most applicable remedial alternative for addressing the dissolved DNAPL plume. Pilot tests consisting of soil vacuum extraction (SVE), combined air sparging with SVE (AS/SVE), and groundwater recovery were performed. Evaluation of these remedial technology alternatives resulted in the selection of the combined AS/SVE system alternative for the Upper Permeable Zone and the groundwater recovery alternative for the Second Permeable Zone. Recovered off-gas from the combined AS/SVE treatment system from the Upper Permeable Zone is treated through use of a granular activated carbon unit, while recovered groundwater form the Second Permeable Zone is treated by use of a low-profile air stripper.

  14. Community perspectives on the risk of indoor air pollution arising from contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill E; Kramer, Amanda J; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-05-01

    The migration of volatile contaminants into overlying buildings, known as vapor intrusion, is a health concern for people living above contaminated groundwater. As public health and environmental agencies develop protocols to evaluate vapor intrusion exposure, little attention has been paid to the experiences and opinions of communities likely to be affected by vapor intrusion. Using a community-driven research approach and qualitative interviews, we explored community perspectives on the vapor intrusion pathway and the perceived impact on community health and well-being among neighbors living atop a large, shallow-chlorinated solvent plume in San Antonio, TX. Most participants associated vapor intrusion with health risks, expressing concern about the unavoidable and uncontrollable nature of their exposure. Few were satisfied with the responsiveness of public officials. Above all, participants wanted more accurate, transparent information and additional independent scientific investigations.

  15. Community perspectives on the risk of indoor air pollution arising from contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill E; Kramer, Amanda J; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-05-01

    The migration of volatile contaminants into overlying buildings, known as vapor intrusion, is a health concern for people living above contaminated groundwater. As public health and environmental agencies develop protocols to evaluate vapor intrusion exposure, little attention has been paid to the experiences and opinions of communities likely to be affected by vapor intrusion. Using a community-driven research approach and qualitative interviews, we explored community perspectives on the vapor intrusion pathway and the perceived impact on community health and well-being among neighbors living atop a large, shallow-chlorinated solvent plume in San Antonio, TX. Most participants associated vapor intrusion with health risks, expressing concern about the unavoidable and uncontrollable nature of their exposure. Few were satisfied with the responsiveness of public officials. Above all, participants wanted more accurate, transparent information and additional independent scientific investigations. PMID:25815742

  16. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    Meteor-2 (second generation meteorological satellite) and an experimental satellite on which instruments are being tested and modified for the requirements of hydrometeorology and a determination of natural resources are presently operational in the U.S.S.R. Television devices with a 1-10 km terrain image resolution operating in the visible and infrared region are used to determine the space system, velocity and direction of cloud movements and provide information about the snow and ice cover, cyclones, storms, vortices in the atmosphere, and velocity and direction of wind. Images with a 50-1000 m resolution make possible geological and hydrological surveys, an evaluation of the state of vegetation and crops, detection of forest fires, determination of pollution of the atmosphere and sea and determination of optimal fishing regions in the ocean. Measurement of the intensity of atmospheric radiation in narrow infrared regions and very high frequencies allows remote evaluation of the temperature and humidity distribution in the vertical cross section of the Earth's atmosphere.

  17. Evaluation of air sparging and vadose zone aeration for remediation of iron and manganese-impacted groundwater at a closed municipal landfill.

    PubMed

    Pleasant, Saraya; O'Donnell, Amanda; Powell, Jon; Jain, Pradeep; Townsend, Timothy

    2014-07-01

    High concentrations of iron (Fe(II)) and manganese (Mn(II)) reductively dissolved from soil minerals have been detected in groundwater monitoring wells near many municipal solid waste landfills. Air sparging and vadose zone aeration (VZA) were evaluated as remedial approaches at a closed, unlined municipal solid waste landfill in Florida, USA. The goal of aeration was to oxidize Fe and Mn to their respective immobile forms. VZA and shallow air sparging using a partially submerged well screen were employed with limited success (Phase 1); decreases in dissolved iron were observed in three of nine monitoring wells during shallow air sparging and in two of 17 wells at VZA locations. During Phase 2, where deeper air sparging was employed, dissolved iron levels decreased in a significantly greater number of monitoring wells surrounding injection points, however no radial pattern was observed. Additionally, in wells affected positively by air sparging (mean total iron (FeTOT) <4.2mg/L, after commencement of air sparging), rising manganese concentrations were observed, indicating that the redox potential of the groundwater moved from an iron-reducing to a manganese-reducing environment. The mean FeTOT concentration observed in affected monitoring wells throughout the study was 1.40 mg/L compared to a background of 15.38 mg/L, while the mean Mn concentration was 0.60 mg/L compared to a background level of 0.27 mg/L. Reference wells located beyond the influence of air sparging areas showed little variation in FeTOT and Mn, indicating the observed effects were the result of air injection activities at study locations and not a natural phenomenon. Air sparging was found effective in intercepting plumes of dissolved Fe surrounding municipal landfills, but the effect on dissolved Mn was contrary to the desired outcome of decreased Mn groundwater concentrations.

  18. Aviation meteorology: Today and the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, B. W.

    1978-01-01

    A representative of the Air Weather Service, USAF addressed the workshop and gave an assessment of the present state of aviation meteorology and a prognosis of the future. Three categories of meteorological support to aviation systems are considered and discussed; (1) terminal weather; (2) the winds for flight planning; and (3) en route flight hazards.

  19. Meteorological needs of the aviation community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luers, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the important meteorological needs of the aviation community and to recommend research in those areas judged most beneficial. The study was valuable in that it provided a comprehensive list of suspected meteorological deficiencies and ideas for research programs relative to these deficiencies. The list and ideas were generated from contacts with various pilots, air traffic controllers, and meteorologists.

  20. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The AMU Team began four new tasks in this quarter: (1) began work to improve the AMU-developed tool that provides the launch weather officers information on peak wind speeds that helps them assess their launch commit criteria; (2) began updating lightning climatologies for airfields around central Florida. These climatologies help National Weather Service and Air Force forecasters determine the probability of lightning occurrence at these sites; (3) began a study for the 30th Weather Squadron at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California to determine if precursors can be found in weather observations to help the forecasters determine when they will get strong wind gusts in their northern towers; and (4) began work to update the AMU-developed severe weather tool with more data and possibly improve its performance using a new statistical technique. Include is a section of summaries and detail reporting on the quarterly tasks: (1) Peak Wind Tool for user Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (LCC), Phase IV, (2) Situational Lightning climatologies for Central Florida, Phase V, (3) Vandenberg AFB North Base Wind Study and (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS).

  1. Titan Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Titan’s methane clouds have received much attention since they were first discovered spectroscopically (Griffith et al. 1998). Titan's seasons evolve slowly, and there is growing evidence of a seasonal response in the regions of methane cloud formation (e.g. Rodriguez et al. 2009). A complete, three-dimensional view of Titan’s clouds is possible through the determination of cloud-top heights from Cassini images (e.g., Ádámkovics et al. 2010). Even though Titan’s surface is warmed by very little sunlight, we now know Titan’s methane clouds are convective, evolving through tens of kilometers of altitude on timescales of hours to days with dynamics similar to clouds that appear on Earth (Porco et al. 2005). Cassini ISS has also shown evidence of rain storms on Titan that produce surface accumulation of methane (Turtle et al. 2009). Most recently, Cassini has revealed a 1000-km-scale, arrow-shaped cloud at the equator followed by changes that appear to be evidence of surface precipitation (Turtle et al. 2011b). Individual convective towers simulated with high fidelity indicate that surface convergence of methane humidity and dynamic lifting are required to trigger deep, precipitating convection (e.g. Barth & Rafkin 2010). The global expanses of these cloud outbursts, the evidence for surface precipitation, and the requirement of dynamic convergence and lifting at the surface to trigger deep convection motivate an analysis of storm formation in the context of Titan’s global circulation. I will review our current understanding of Titan’s methane meteorology using Cassini and ground-based observations and, in particular, global circulation model simulations of Titan’s methane cycle. When compared with cloud observations, our simulations indicate an essential role for planetary-scale atmospheric waves in organizing convective storms on large scales (Mitchell et al. 2011). I will end with predictions of Titan’s weather during the upcoming northern

  2. LANL Meteorology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewart, Jean Marie

    2015-02-09

    The goal of the Meteorology Program is to provide all routine meteorology measurements for LANL operational requirements. This report discusses the program, its routine operations, and other services.

  3. Association of monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during 1999-2004 with meteorological variables and seasons.

    PubMed

    Alexander, P

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to study associations between monthly averages of meteorological variables and monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public ambulance emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during the years 1999-2004. Throughout this time period no changes were made in the classification codes of the illnesses. Heart disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiopulmonary arrest, angina pectoris, psychiatric diseases, stroke, transient ischemic attack, syncope and the total number of calls were analyzed against 11 weather variables and the four seasons. All illnesses exhibited some seasonal behavior, except cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris. The largest frequencies of illnesses that exhibited some association with the meteorological variables used to occur in winter, except the psychiatric cases. Heart failure, stroke, psychiatric diseases and the total number of calls showed significant correlations with the 11 meteorological variables considered, and the largest indices (absolute values above 0.6) were found for the former two pathologies. On the other side, cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris revealed no significant correlations and nearly null indices. Variables associated with temperature were the meteorological proxies with the largest correlations against diseases. Pressure and humidity mostly exhibited positive correlations, which is the opposite of variables related to temperature. Contrary to all other diseases, psychiatric pathologies showed a clear predominance of positive correlations. Finally, the association degree of the medical dataset with recurrent patterns was further evaluated through Fourier analysis, to assess the presence of statistically significant behavior. In the Northern Hemisphere high morbidity and mortality rates in December are usually assigned to diverse factors in relation to the holidays, but such an effect is not observed in the present analysis. There seems to be no clearly preferred

  4. Association of monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during 1999-2004 with meteorological variables and seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to study associations between monthly averages of meteorological variables and monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public ambulance emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during the years 1999-2004. Throughout this time period no changes were made in the classification codes of the illnesses. Heart disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiopulmonary arrest, angina pectoris, psychiatric diseases, stroke, transient ischemic attack, syncope and the total number of calls were analyzed against 11 weather variables and the four seasons. All illnesses exhibited some seasonal behavior, except cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris. The largest frequencies of illnesses that exhibited some association with the meteorological variables used to occur in winter, except the psychiatric cases. Heart failure, stroke, psychiatric diseases and the total number of calls showed significant correlations with the 11 meteorological variables considered, and the largest indices (absolute values above 0.6) were found for the former two pathologies. On the other side, cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris revealed no significant correlations and nearly null indices. Variables associated with temperature were the meteorological proxies with the largest correlations against diseases. Pressure and humidity mostly exhibited positive correlations, which is the opposite of variables related to temperature. Contrary to all other diseases, psychiatric pathologies showed a clear predominance of positive correlations. Finally, the association degree of the medical dataset with recurrent patterns was further evaluated through Fourier analysis, to assess the presence of statistically significant behavior. In the Northern Hemisphere high morbidity and mortality rates in December are usually assigned to diverse factors in relation to the holidays, but such an effect is not observed in the present analysis. There seems to be no clearly preferred

  5. Association of monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during 1999-2004 with meteorological variables and seasons.

    PubMed

    Alexander, P

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to study associations between monthly averages of meteorological variables and monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public ambulance emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during the years 1999-2004. Throughout this time period no changes were made in the classification codes of the illnesses. Heart disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiopulmonary arrest, angina pectoris, psychiatric diseases, stroke, transient ischemic attack, syncope and the total number of calls were analyzed against 11 weather variables and the four seasons. All illnesses exhibited some seasonal behavior, except cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris. The largest frequencies of illnesses that exhibited some association with the meteorological variables used to occur in winter, except the psychiatric cases. Heart failure, stroke, psychiatric diseases and the total number of calls showed significant correlations with the 11 meteorological variables considered, and the largest indices (absolute values above 0.6) were found for the former two pathologies. On the other side, cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris revealed no significant correlations and nearly null indices. Variables associated with temperature were the meteorological proxies with the largest correlations against diseases. Pressure and humidity mostly exhibited positive correlations, which is the opposite of variables related to temperature. Contrary to all other diseases, psychiatric pathologies showed a clear predominance of positive correlations. Finally, the association degree of the medical dataset with recurrent patterns was further evaluated through Fourier analysis, to assess the presence of statistically significant behavior. In the Northern Hemisphere high morbidity and mortality rates in December are usually assigned to diverse factors in relation to the holidays, but such an effect is not observed in the present analysis. There seems to be no clearly preferred

  6. Influence of synoptic meteorological conditions on urban air quality -A study over Hyderabad, India using satellite data and ground based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani Sharma, Anu; Kharol, Shailesh Kumar; Kvs, Badarinath

    out using Kipp Zonen pyranometer model CMP 11. The collocated measurements provide bet-ter understanding of the changes in aerosol properties and their influence on ground reaching solar radiation associated with changes in synoptic meteorological conditions over the study site. Considerable variations in aerosol properties and ground-reaching solar irradiance due to changes in wind velocity and direction associated with the low pressure system formed over southeast BoB were observed. Terra/Aqua-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer AOD550 variations showed trends matching with ground observations. The nighttime AOD values showed a 60% decrease on December 5, 2008, corresponding to the low pressure system located nearer to the measurement site in Hyderabad. The global solar irradiance showed an 6% increase on December 4, 2008, during low pressure over BoB due to reduction in columnar aerosol loading compared to a normal period. Nighttime Light Detection and Ranging observa-tions suggested considerable reduction in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) loading under the influence of low pressure system. Results of the study have implications for monitoring urban air quality as synoptic weather systems are capable of modifying the atmospheric PM loading. In the climate change scenario increased occurrence of low pressure systems over the region was anticipated, and this will have impact on the differential loading of atmospheric pollutants over the region. Keywords: Aerosol optical depth, LIDAR, solar irradiance, PM2.5, UVery, Low pressure system

  7. Surface Meteorological Instruments for TWP (SMET) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2009-01-01

    The TWP Surface Meteorology station (SMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute statistics of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure and rainfall amount.

  8. Screening for volatile organic compounds in soil and groundwater by use of a portable gas chromatograph during field investigations at an Air Force installation in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parnell, James M.

    1995-01-01

    The use of the portable gas chromatograph for screening of soil and water samples in the field was part of the drilling program for the installation of monitoring wells for a basewide ground-water monitoring program at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Selected soil and ground-water samples were screened in the field for volatile organic compounds to determine if contamination was present, to define the vertical and lateral extent of contamination, and to aid in the placement of the well screens for optimal interception of contaminants. This report describes the screening methods, sample-collection, quality-assurance/quality-control methods, and data-interpretation procedures necessary for screening of soil and ground-water samples in the field during the water resources investigations.

  9. Meteorological Modes of Variability for Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Air Quality in the United States: Implications for PM2.5 Sensitivity to Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    We applied a multiple linear regression model to understand the relationships of PM2.5 with meteorological variables in the contiguous US and from there to infer the sensitivity of PM2.5 to climate change. We used 2004-2008 PM2.5 observations fro...

  10. Evaluation of rotary air stripping for removal of volatile organics from groundwater. Final report, 1 March 1985-1 September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, C.; Treichler, D.; Armstrong, J.

    1987-02-01

    Rotary air stripping was researched and developed to remove volatile organic contaminants from groundwater. The Traverse Group, Inc, Ann Arbor MI, was contracted under a joint funding venture by the US Coast Guard and the US Air Force to evaluate feasibility of using rotary air stripping to treat water contaminated with benzene, toluene, xylenes, trichloroethylene, 1,2,dichloroethane, and tetrachloroethylene. A site of groundwater contamination at the US Coast Guard Station, Traverse City MI provided a readily available source of contaminated water for this work. A prototype rotary air stripper (RAS), manufactured specifically for this project, was installed onsite in Traverse City MI. The RAS (consisting of a packed-bed 1.7 feet in diameter by 1.2 feet thick) was evaluated over a range of contaminant concentrations (63 to 19,000 ppb), liquid flow rates (50 to 120 gpm), air-to-water ratios (10:1 to 170:1 vol/vol), and rotor speeds (365 to 875 rpms). The effect of each parameter on removal efficiency was analyzed. Generally, removal efficiencies in excess of 99 percent were achieved for all contaminants (except 1,2-DCE) at an air-to-water ratio and rotor speed of 30:1 vol/vol and 435 rpms, respectively.

  11. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  12. Soil- and groundwater-quality data for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C, Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, David A.; Rowe, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Ellsworth Air Force Base is an Air Combat Command located approximately 10 miles northeast of Rapid City, South Dakota. Ellsworth Air Force Base occupies about 6,000 acres within Meade and Pennington Counties, and includes runways, airfield operations, industrial areas, housing, and recreational facilities. Fuels Area C within Ellsworth Air Force Base is a fuels storage area that is used to support the mission of the base. In fall of 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, Ellsworth Air Force Base, to estimate groundwater-flow direction, select locations for permanent monitoring wells, and install and sample monitoring wells for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C. Nine monitoring wells were installed for the study within Fuels Area C during November 4–7, 2014. Soil core samples were collected during installation of eight of the monitoring wells and analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene,m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. Groundwater samples were collected from seven of the nine wells (two of the monitoring wells did not contain enough water to sample or were dry) during November 19–21, 2014, and analyzed for select physical properties, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene, m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. This report describes the nine monitoring well locations and presents the soil- and groundwater-quality data collected in 2014 for this study.

  13. Comparing risk assessment at the site and community scales via Monte Carlo simulations with a new coupled groundwater-vapour-indoor air model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumford, K. G.; Mustafa, N. A.; Gerhard, J.

    2012-12-01

    At many former industrial sites, nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination presents a significant limitation to site closure and brownfield redevelopment. Achieving site closure means soil and/or groundwater remediation to a level at which the associated risk is reduced to an acceptable level. In some jurisdictions, this risk is evaluated at the site boundary even if the critical risk receptors are located in the surrounding community; the consequence may be a site left untreated because the remediation target is technically or economically impractical. The goal of this study was to explore the implications of assessing risk at the site boundary versus in the community and the factors that affect the differences between the two. Because the controlling risk pathway for many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is the contamination of indoor air, risk assessment at the community scale requires simulation tools that can predict the transport of dissolved VOCs in groundwater followed by vapour intrusion into residential houses. Existing tools and research had focused on vapour intrusion only in the near vicinity of the source (i.e., scale of meters) and primarily at steady s tate. Therefore, this work developed a novel numerical simulator that coupled an established groundwater flow and contaminant transport model to a state-of-the-art vapor intrusion model, which enables the prediction of indoor air concentrations in response to an evolving groundwater plume at the community (i.e., kilometre) scale. In the first phase of this work, the extent of source zone remediation required to achieve regulatory compliance at the site boundary was compared to the extent required to achieve compliance at receptors in the community. The sensitivity of this difference to physicochemical properties of the contaminant and whether compliance was based on groundwater or indoor air risk receptors was evaluated. In the second phase of this work, the influence of heterogeneity on the

  14. Ground-water hydrology and water quality of the southern high plains aquifer, Melrose Air Force Range, Cannon Air Force Base, Curry and Roosevelt Counties, New Mexico, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.; Falk, Sarah E.

    2004-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Geological Survey characterized the ground-water hydrology and water quality at Melrose Air Force Range in east-central New Mexico. The purpose of the study was to provide baseline data to Cannon Air Force Base resource managers to make informed decisions concerning actions that may affect the ground-water system. Five periods of water-level measurements and four periods of water-quality sample collection were completed at Melrose Air Force Range during 2002 and 2003. The water-level measurements and water-quality samples were collected from a 29-well monitoring network that included wells in the Impact Area and leased lands of Melrose Air Force Range managed by Cannon Air Force Base personnel. The purpose of this report is to provide a broad overview of ground-water flow and ground-water quality in the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Ogallala Formation at Melrose Air Force Range. Results of the ground-water characterization of the Southern High Plains aquifer indicated a local flow system in the unconfined aquifer flowing northeastward from a topographic high, the Mesa (located in the southwestern part of the Range), toward a regional flow system in the unconfined aquifer that flows southeastward through the Portales Valley. Ground water was less than 55 years old across the Range; ground water was younger (less than 25 years) near the Mesa and ephemeral channels and older (25 years to 55 years) in the Portales Valley. Results of water-quality analysis indicated three areas of different water types: near the Mesa and ephemeral channels, in the Impact Area of the Range, and in the Portales Valley. Within the Southern High Plains aquifer, a sodium/chloride-dominated ground water was found in the center of the Impact Area of the Range with water-quality characteristics similar to ground water from the underlying Chinle Formation. This sodium/chloride-dominated ground water of the unconfined aquifer in the Impact

  15. Software For Processing Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, Mary L.

    1992-01-01

    GEMPAK general meterological software includes programs to analyze and display surface, upper-air, or gridded data, including outputs of mathematical models. Includes capabilities to derive meteorological parameters to perform vertical interpolations to different coordinate systems, and to compute extensive set of gridded diagnostic quantities. Graphics/transformation subsystem, GEMPLT, provides capability to display output in variety of map projections or overlaid on satellite imagery. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  16. Meteorological satellite accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J.; Arking, A.; Bandeen, W. R.; Shenk, W. E.; Wexler, R.

    1974-01-01

    The various types of meteorological satellites are enumerated. Vertical sounding, parameter extraction technique, and both macroscale and mesoscale meteorological phenomena are discussed. The heat budget of the earth-atmosphere system is considered, along with ocean surface and hydrology.

  17. How To...Activities in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmer, Donald N.; Sagness, Richard L.

    This series of experiments seeks to provide laboratory exercises which demonstrate concepts in Earth Science, particularly meteorology. Materials used in the experiments are easily obtainable. Examples of experiments include: (1) making a thermometer; (2) air/space relationship; (3) weight of air; (4) barometers; (5) particulates; (6) evaporation;…

  18. Identifying Housing and Meteorological Conditions Influencing Residential Air Exchange Rates in the DEARS and RIOPA Studies: Development of Distributions for Human Exposure Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appropriate prediction of residential air exchange rate (AER) is important for estimating human exposures in the residential microenvironment, as AER drives the infiltration of outdoor-generated air pollutants indoors. AER differences among homes may result from a number of fact...

  19. Climate change and the meteorological drivers of PM air pollution: Understanding U.S. particulate matter concentrations in a changing climate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a serious public health issue for the United States. While there is a growing body of evidence that climate change will partially counter the effectiveness of future precursor emission reductions to reduce ozone (O3) air pollution, the lin...

  20. Comparative analysis of meteorological performance of coupled chemistry-meteorology models in the context of AQMEII phase 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution simulations critically depend on the quality of the underlying meteorology. In phase 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII-2), thirteen modeling groups from Europe and four groups from North America operating eight different regional...

  1. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic characterisation of groundwater in a sand-dune phreatic aquifer on the northeastern coast of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carretero, Silvina C; Dapeña, Cristina; Kruse, Eduardo E

    2013-01-01

    This contribution presents the hydrochemical and isotopic characterisation of the phreatic aquifer located in the Partido de la Costa, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. In the sand-dune barrier geomorphological environment, groundwater is mainly a low-salinity Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-type, being in general suitable for drinking, whereas in the continental plain (silty clay sediments), groundwater is a Na-Cl type with high salinity and unsuitable for human consumption. The general isotopic composition of the area ranges from-6.8 to-4.3 ‰ for δ(18)O and from-39 to-21 ‰ for δ(2)H, showing that rainwater rapidly infiltrates into the sandy substrate and reaches the water table almost without significant modification in its isotopic composition. These analyses, combined with other chemical parameters, made it possible to corroborate that in the eastern area of the phreatic aquifer, there is no contamination from marine salt water.

  2. BOREAS AES READAC Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected and processed data related to surface atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from one READAC meteorology station in Hudson Bay, Saskatchewan. Parameters include day, time, type of report, sky condition, visibility, mean sea level pressure, temperature, dewpoint, wind, altimeter, opacity, minimum and maximum visibility, station pressure, minimum and maximum air temperature, a wind group, precipitation, and precipitation in the last hour. The data were collected non-continuously from 24-May-1994 to 20-Sep-1994. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  3. Meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data for 1986 through 1991 from two small basins in central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, P.W.; Oliver, T.A.

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is investigating the volcanic tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for their suitability as storage sites for nuclear waste. Two small basins, measuring less than 2 square miles, were studied to determine the volume of precipitation available for recharge to the ground water. The semiarid 3 Springs Basin is located to the east of Kawich Peak in the Kawich Range east of Tonopah, Nevada. Stewart Basin is a subalpine drainage basin north of Arc Dome in the Toiyabe Range north of Tonopah, Nevada. This publication presents the meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data collected during the study. Meteorological data collected include air temperature, soil temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Stream-discharge data were collected from the surface-water outlet of each basin. Water-quality data are chemical analyses of water samples collected from surface- and ground-water sources. Data were collected throughout the two basins. Each basin has a meteorological station located in the lower and upper reaches of the basin. Hydrologic records include stream-discharge and water-quality data from the lower meteorological site and water-quality data from springs within the basins. Meteorological data are available from the lower sites from the winter of 1986 through the fall of 1991. Periods of data collection were shorter for additional sites in the basin.

  4. Martian Meteorological Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorontsov, V.; Pichkhadze, K.; Polyakov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Martian meteorological lander (MML) is dedicated for landing onto the Mars surface with the purpose to carry on the monitoring of Mars atmosphere condition at a landing point during one Martian year. MML is supposed to become the basic element of a global net of meteorological mini stations and will permit to observe the dynamics of Martian atmosphere parameters changes during a long time duration. The main scientific tasks of MML are as follows: -study of vertical structure of Mars atmosphere during MML descending; -meteorological observations on Mars surface during one Martian year. One of the essential factor influencing to the lander design is descent trajectory design. During the preliminary phase of development five (5) options of MML were considered. In our opinion, these variants provide the accomplishment of the above-mentioned tasks with a high effectiveness. Joined into the first group, variants with parachute system and with Inflatable Air Brakes+Inflatable Airbag are similar in arranging of pre-landing braking stage and completely analogous in landing by means of airbags. The usage of additional Inflatable Braking Unit (IBU) in the second variant does not affect the procedure of braking - decreasing of velocity by the moment of touching the surface due to decreasing of ballistic parameter Px. A distinctive feature of MML development variants of other three concepts is the presence of Inflatable Braking Unit (IBU) in their configurations (IBU is rigidly joined with landing module up to the moment of its touching the surface). Besides, in variant with the tore-shaped IBU it acts as a shock- absorbing unit. In two options, Inflatable Braking Shock-Absorbing Unit (IBSAU) (or IBU) releases the surface module after its landing at the moment of IBSAU (or IBU) elastic recoil. Variants of this concept are equal in terms of mass (approximately 15 kg). For variants of concepts with IBU the landing velocity is up to50-70 m/s. Stations of last three options are

  5. Review Of Low-Flow Bladder Pump And High-Volume Air Piston Pump Groundwater Sampling Systems At Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S. S.; Bailey, G. A.; Jackson, T. O.

    2003-02-25

    Since 1996, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) has run both a portable high-volume air-piston pump system and a dedicated, low-flow bladder pump system to collect groundwater samples. The groundwater contaminants of concern at SNL/NM are nitrate and the volatile organic compounds trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloethene (PCE). Regulatory acceptance is more common for the high-volume air piston pump system, especially for programs like SNL/NM's, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes logistical and analytical results of the groundwater sampling systems used at SNL/NM. With two modifications to the off-the-shelf low-flow bladder pump, SNL/NM consistently operates the dedicated low-flow system at depths greater than 450 feet below ground surface. As such, the low-flow sampling system requires fewer personnel, less time and materials, and generates less purge and decontamination water than does the high-volume system. However, the bladder pump cannot work in wells with less than 4 feet of water. A review of turbidity and laboratory analytical results for TCE, PCE, and chromium (Cr) from six wells highlight the affect or lack of affects the sampling systems have on groundwater samples. In the PVC wells, turbidity typically remained < 5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) regardless of the sampling system. In the wells with a stainless steel screen, turbidity typically remained < 5 NTU only with the low-flow system. When the high-volume system was used, the turbidity and Cr concentration typically increased an order of magnitude. TCE concentrations at two wells did not appear to be sensitive to the sampling method used. However, PCE and TCE concentrations dropped an order of magnitude when the high-volume system was used at two other wells. This paper recommends that SNL/NM collaborate with other facilities with similar groundwater depths, continue to pursue regulatory approval for using

  6. Review of low-flow bladder pump and high-volume air piston pump groundwater sampling systems at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Sue S.; Jackson, Timmie Okchumpulla (Weston Solutions, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Bailey, Glenn A.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1996, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) has run both a portable high-volume air-piston pump system and a dedicated, low-flow bladder pump system to collect groundwater samples. The groundwater contaminants of concern at SNL/NM are nitrate and the volatile organic compounds trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloethene (PCE). Regulatory acceptance is more common for the high-volume air piston pump system, especially for programs like SNL/NM's, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes logistical and analytical results of the groundwater sampling systems used at SNL/NM. With two modifications to the off-the-shelf low-flow bladder pump, SNL/NM consistently operates the dedicated low-flow system at depths greater than 450 feet below ground surface. As such, the low-flow sampling system requires fewer personnel, less time and materials, and generates less purge and decontamination water than does the high-volume system. However, the bladder pump cannot work in wells with less than 4 feet of water. A review of turbidity and laboratory analytical results for TCE, PCE, and chromium (Cr) from six wells highlight the affect or lack of affects the sampling systems have on groundwater samples. In the PVC wells, turbidity typically remained < 5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) regardless of the sampling system. In the wells with a stainless steel screen, turbidity typically remained < 5 NTU only with the low-flow system. When the high-volume system was used, the turbidity and Cr concentration typically increased an order of magnitude. TCE concentrations at two wells did not appear to be sensitive to the sampling method used. However, PCE and TCE concentrations dropped an order of magnitude when the high-volume system was used at two other wells. This paper recommends that SNL/NM collaborate with other facilities with similar groundwater depths, continue to pursue regulatory approval for using

  7. Procedures for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to characterize potential health risk from trichloroethylene contaminated groundwater at Beale Air Force Base in California

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T; Daniels, J I; Hall, L C

    1999-09-01

    This study was designed to accomplish two objectives. The first was to provide to the US Air Force and the regulatory community quantitative procedures that they might want to consider using for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to better characterize potential health risk. Such methods could be used at sites where populations may now or in the future be faced with using groundwater contaminated with low concentrations of the chemical trichloroethylene (TCE). The second was to illustrate and explain the application of these procedures with respect to available data for TCE in ground water beneath an inactive landfill site that is undergoing remediation at Beale Air Force Base in California. The results from this illustration provide more detail than the more traditional conservative deterministic, screening-level calculations of risk, also computed for purposes of comparison. Application of the procedures described in this report can lead to more reasonable and equitable risk-acceptability criteria for potentially exposed populations at specific sites.

  8. Measurements of HFC-134a and HCFC-22 in groundwater and unsaturated-zone air: implications for HFCs and HCFCs as dating tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haase, Karl B.; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, L. Niel; Casile, Gerolamo; Sanford, Ward E.

    2014-01-01

    A new analytical method using gas chromatography with an atomic emission detector (GC–AED) was developed for measurement of ambient concentrations of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) in soil, air, and groundwater, with the goal of determining their utility as groundwater age tracers. The analytical detection limits of HCFC-22 (difluorochloromethane, CHClF2) and HFC-134a (1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, C2H2F4) in 1 L groundwater samples are 4.3 × 10− 1 and 2.1 × 10− 1 pmol kg− 1, respectively, corresponding to equilibrium gas-phase mixing ratios of approximately 5–6 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). Under optimal conditions, post-1960 (HCFC-22) and post-1995 (HFC-134a) recharge could be identified using these tracers in stable, unmixed groundwater samples. Ambient concentrations of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a were measured in 50 groundwater samples from 27 locations in northern and western parts of Virginia, Tennessee, and North Carolina (USA), and 3 unsaturated-zone profiles were collected in northern Virginia. Mixing ratios of both HCFC-22 and HFC-134a decrease with depth in unsaturated-zone gas profiles with an accompanying increase in CO2 and loss of O2. Apparently, ambient concentrations of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a are readily consumed by methanotrophic bacteria under aerobic conditions in the unsaturated zone. The results of this study indicate that soils are a sink for these two greenhouse gases. These observations contradict the previously reported results from microcosm experiments that found that degradation was limited above-ambient HFC-134a. The groundwater HFC and HCFC concentrations were compared with concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Nearly all samples had measured HCFC-22 or HFC-134a that were below concentrations predicted by the CFCs and SF6, with many samples showing a complete loss of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a. This study indicates that HCFC-22 and HFC-134

  9. Analytical results from ground-water sampling using a direct-push technique at the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, June-July 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guertal, William R.; Stewart, Marie; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; McHale, Timthoy J.

    2004-01-01

    A joint study by the Dover National Test Site and the U.S. Geological Survey was conducted from June 27 through July 18, 2001 to determine the spatial distribution of the gasoline oxygenate additive methyl tert-butyl ether and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer underlying the Dover National Test Site at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. The study was conducted to support a planned enhanced bio-remediation demonstration and to assist the Dover National Test Site in identifying possible locations for future methyl tert-butyl ether remediation demonstrations. This report presents the analytical results from ground-water samples collected during the direct-push ground-water sampling study. A direct-push drill rig was used to quickly collect 115 ground-water samples over a large area at varying depths. The ground-water samples and associated quality-control samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds and methyl tert-butyl ether by the Dover National Test Site analytical laboratory. Volatile organic compounds were above the method reporting limits in 59 of the 115 ground-water samples. The concentrations ranged from below detection limits to maximum values of 12.4 micrograms per liter of cis-1,2-dichloroethene, 1.14 micrograms per liter of trichloroethene, 2.65 micrograms per liter of tetrachloroethene, 1,070 micrograms per liter of methyl tert-butyl ether, 4.36 micrograms per liter of benzene, and 1.8 micrograms per liter of toluene. Vinyl chloride, ethylbenzene, p,m-xylene, and o-xylene were not detected in any of the samples collected during this investigation. Methyl tert-butyl ether was detected in 47 of the 115 ground-water samples. The highest methyl tert-butyl ether concentrations were found in the surficial aquifer from -4.6 to 6.4 feet mean sea level, however, methyl tert-butyl ether was detected as deep as -9.5 feet mean sea level. Increased methane concentrations and decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations were found in

  10. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, H.A. Jr.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  11. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 13: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y., Ed.

    Twelve papers were translated from Russian: Automation of Information Processing Involved in Experimental Studies of Atmospheric Diffusion, Micrometeorological Characteristics of Atmospheric Pollution Conditions, Study of theInfluence of Irregularities of the Earth's Surface on the Air Flow Characteristics in a Wind Tunnel, Use of Parameters of…

  12. A Comparison between 2010 and 2006 Air Quality and Meteorological Conditions, andEmissions and Boundary Conditions used in Simulations of the AQMEII-2 North American Domain

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several participants in Phase 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII-2) who are applying coupled models to the North American domain are comparing model results for two years: 2006 and 2010. While a key difference of interest between these two yea...

  13. Temporal changes of 7Be, 137Cs and 210Pb activity concentrations in surface air at Monaco and their correlation with meteorological parameters.

    PubMed

    Pham, Mai K; Betti, Maria; Nies, Hartmut; Povinec, Pavel P

    2011-11-01

    Results of analysis of (7)Be, (137)Cs and (210)Pb on aerosol filters carried out from 1998 to 2010 in Monaco show that a weak correlation between activity concentrations of these radionuclides in the atmosphere and meteorological parameters has been found for (7)Be and temperature (r = 0.50), (210)Pb and temperature and humidity (r = 0.43 and 0.41, respectively), and (137)Cs and precipitation (r = 0.51). The minimum and maximum (7)Be activity concentrations were observed during 2000 and 2009, corresponding with the maximum and minimum solar activity, respectively. The maximum (137)Cs activity concentration found in May-June 1998 was due to the accident at Algeciras in Spain. The deposition velocities of (7)Be, (137)Cs and (210)Pb depended on the precipitation rate, and attained maximum values during dry seasons. The investigated radionuclides may be used as atmospheric tracers, especially in long-term periods.

  14. Simulation of ground-water flow and application to the design of a contaminant removal system, Loring Air Force Base, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starn, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    The fractured-bedrock aquifer underlying the former Fire Training Area at Loring Air Force Base, Maine, has been contaminated with petroleum products as a result of fire training activities. A numerical model of the ground-water-flow system near the Fire Training Area was developed to provide information for the design and operation of a contaminant removal system. The goals of the simulation modeling were to (1) determine the maximum pumping rate that could be sustained, giventhe constraint that water levels not rise above a specified altitude, and (2) determine the effect of seasonal variation in recharge on the ability of a transient pumping scenario to capture contaminants. A steady-state simulation model of ground-water flow was used to determine the optimal pumping rate at the site. The optimal pumping rate was 8,570 ft3/d (44 gal/min). Monthly recharge rates wereestimated for use in a transient simulation model. During a typical year, most recharge probably occurs during two periods-one during snowmelt in early spring and another, possibly less significant period, during the late fall. The transient response of the water table to 8.5 inches of recharge in April, 2 inches of recharge in October, and 0.25 inches of recharge per month for each remaining month wassimulated. Fluctuations in ground-water levels caused by simulated seasonal variation of recharge would have minimal effect on the operation of thecontaminant removal system because the system is not pumped when recharge is lowest, ground-water velocities are lowest, and ground-water flow past the trench is minimal.

  15. Meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data for water year 1992 from two basins in Central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, P.W.; Oliver, T.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, is studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential repository for high level nuclear waste. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Project, the analog recharge study is providing data for the evaluation of recharge to the Yucca Mountain ground-water system given a cooler and wetter climate than currently exists. The current and climatic conditions are favorable to the isolation of radioactive waste. Because waste isolation from the accessible environment for 10,000 years is necessary, climatic change and the potential for increased ground-water recharge need to be considered as part of the characterization of the potential repository. Therefore, two small basins, measuring less than 2 square miles, were studied to determine the volume of precipitation available for recharge to ground water. The semiarid 3-Springs Basin is located to the east of Kawich Peak in the Kawich Range east of Tonopah, Nevada. Stewart Basin is a subalpine drainage basin north of Arc Dome in the Toiyabe Range north of Tonopah, Nevada. The purpose of this publication is to make available the meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data collected during the study. Meteorological data collected include air temperature, soil temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Stream-discharge data were collected from the surface-water outlet of each basin. Water-quality data are chemical analyses of water samples collected from surface- and ground-water sources. Each basin has a meteorological station located in the lower and upper reaches of the basin. Hydrologic records include stream-discharge and water-quality data from the lower meteorological site and water-quality data from springs within the basins.

  16. Fungal spore concentrations in indoor and outdoor air in university libraries, and their variations in response to changes in meteorological variables.

    PubMed

    Flores, María Elena Báez; Medina, Pável Gaxiola; Camacho, Sylvia Páz Díaz; de Jesús Uribe Beltrán, Magdalena; De la Cruz Otero, María del Carmen; Ramírez, Ignacio Osuna; Hernández, Martín Ernesto Tiznado

    2014-08-01

    The fungal spore concentration (FSC) in the air poses a risk for human health. This work studied the FSC in university libraries and how it is affected by environmental factors. A total of 347 samples were obtained using a Microbio MB2(®) Aerosol Sampler. The wind speed (WS), cross wind (CW), temperature (T), relative humidity (HR), barometric pressure (BP) and dew point (DP) were recorded using a Kestrel(®) 4500 weather station. The median indoor/outdoor FSC was 360/1230 CFU m(-3). FSC correlated inversely with BP, HR and DP; and positively with WS and CW; whereas T showed negative or positive correlation with FSC, depending on the region or sampling time. Eleven fungal genera were found and the dominant isolates were identified as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamarii and Aspergillus oryzae. All fungi identified are known to be allergenic. It was concluded that environmental variables can influence the air FSC in different ways.

  17. Sensitivity of Urban Airshed Model (UAM-IV) calculated air pollutant concentrations to the vertical diffusion parameterization during convective meteorological situations

    SciTech Connect

    Nowacki, P.; Samson, P.J.; Sillman, S.

    1996-10-01

    It is shown that Urban Airshed Model (UAM-IV) calculated air pollutant concentrations during photochemical smog episodes in Atlanta, Georgia, depend strongly on the numerical parameterization of the daytime vertical diffusivity. Results found suggest that vertical mixing is overestimated by the UAM-IV during unstable daytime conditions, as calculated vertical diffusivity values exceed measured and comparable literature values. Although deviations between measured and UAM-IV calculated air pollutant concentrations may only in part be due the UAM-IV diffusivity parameterization, results indicate the large error potential in vertical diffusivity parameterization. Easily implemented enhancements to UAM-IV algorithms are proposed, thus improving UAM-IV modeling performance during unstable stratification. 38 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Ground-Water Hydrology and Water Quality of the Southern High Plains Aquifer, Cannon Air Force Base, Curry County, New Mexico, 1994-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Falk, Sarah E.; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.; Blanchard, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Geological Survey has collected hydrologic data about the Southern High Plains aquifer at Cannon Air Force Base in east-central New Mexico since 1994. Under the guidance of the State of New Mexico, ground-water quality of the aquifer has been analyzed as part of annual monitoring at regulated sites at the base. This report provides a summary and interpretation of all available hydrologic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey for Cannon Air Force Base environmental managers for the regulated sites of Landfill 5 and the Sewage Lagoons between 1994 and 2005. Cannon Air Force Base is in the Southern High Plains physiographic region, and saturated deposits of the Ogallala Formation underlying the base are within the western boundary of the Southern High Plains aquifer. The general direction of ground-water flow in the Southern High Plains aquifer at Cannon Air Force Base is from northwest to southeast. In 1962, ground water predominantly flowed northwest to southeast with minimal change in direction. Ground-water altitudes declined from 1962 to 1997, and a pronounced water-level recession (area of receding water level) developed northwest of the base, altering flow direction in this area. The recession northwest of the base and the subsequent change in direction of ground-water flow are indicative of local ground-water withdrawals upgradient from Cannon Air Force Base. Historical water levels in wells within a 3-mile radius of Cannon Air Force Base declined in 52 of 56 wells for various periods of record between 1962 and 2004. Forty-three of the wells indicated strong linear decreases with time, and the largest decline was 91.80 feet, an average annual decline of about 2.13 feet per year. Water levels in monitoring wells at Cannon Air Force Base reflected the regional decline; water levels declined for all wells with periods of record greater than 1 year, and the decreases were strongly linear. From 1994 to 2005

  19. 4. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL TOWER; SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL TOWER; SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. Quality Assurance Guidance for the Collection of Meteorological Data Using Passive Radiometers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document augments the February 2000 guidance entitled Meteorological Monitoring Guidance for Regulatory Modeling Applications and the March 2008 guidance entitled Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution Measurement Systems Volume IV: Meteorological Measurements Version ...

  1. Meteorological and operational aspects of 46 clear air turbulence sampling missions with an instrument B-57B aircraft. Volume 1: Program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. E.; Champine, R. A.; Ehernberger, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of 46 clear air turbulence (CAT) probing missions conducted with an extensively instrumented B-57B aircraft are summarized. Turbulence samples were obtained under diverse conditions including mountain waves, jet streams, upper level fronts and troughs, and low altitude mechanical and thermal turbulence. CAT was encouraged on 20 flights comprising 77 data runs. In all, approximately 4335 km were flown in light turbulence, 1415 km in moderate turbulence, and 255 km in severe turbulence during the program. The flight planning, operations, and turbulence forecasting aspects conducted with the B-57B aircraft are presented.

  2. Compendium of Training Facilities for Meteorology and Operational Hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Information is provided on training courses available in about 96 countries in applied meteorology (including agrometeorology, air pollution meteorology, cloud physics, weather modification, and satellite meteorology) and hydrology. The location is given as well as the nature and language of instruction. Course duration, starting dates, entrance qualifications, and tuition fees are listed. A condensed syllabus is provided. Information on accomodation, and the number of students admitted to the courses is included.

  3. A miniature robotic plane meteorological sounding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shuqing; Chen, Hongbin; Wang, Gai; Pan, Yi; Li, Qiang

    2004-12-01

    This article presents a miniature robotic plane meteorological sounding system (RPMSS), which consists of three major subsystems: a miniature robotic plane, an air-borne meteorological sounding and flight control system, and a ground-based system. Take-off and landing of the miniature aircraft are guided by radio control, and the flight of the robotic plane along a pre-designed trajectory is automatically piloted by an onboard navigation system. The observed meteorological data as well as all flight information are sent back in real time to the ground, then displayed and recorded by the ground-based computer. The ground-based subsystem can also transmit instructions to the air-borne control subsystem. Good system performance has been demonstrated by more than 300 hours of flight for atmospheric sounding.

  4. THE ATMOSPHERIC MODEL EVALUATION (AMET): METEOROLOGY MODULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Atmospheric Model Evaluation Tool (AMET), composed of meteorological and air quality components, is being developed to examine the error and uncertainty in the model simulations. AMET matches observations with the corresponding model-estimated values in space and time, and the...

  5. Assessment of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at sites FT03, LF13, and WP14/LF15, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality, aquifer-sediment, and hydro-logic data were used to assess the effectiveness of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at Fire Training Area Three, the Rubble Area Landfill, the Liquid Waste Disposal Landfill, and the Receiver Station Landfill in the East Management Unit of Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. These sites, which are contaminated with chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons, are under-going long-term monitoring to determine if natural attenuation continues to sufficiently reduce contaminant concentrations to meet regulatory requirements. This report is the first assessment of the effectiveness of natural attenuation at these sites since long-term monitoring began in 1999, and follows a preliminary investigation done in 1995?96. This assessment was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force.Since 1995?96, additional information has been collected and used in the current assessment. The conclusions in this report are based primarily on ground-water samples collected from January through March 2000. Previous analytical results from selected wells, available geologic and geo-physical well logs, and newly acquired information such as sediment organic-carbon measurements, hydraulic-conductivity measurements determined from slug tests on wells in the natural attenuation study area, and water-level measurements from surficial-aquifer wells also were used in this assessment. This information was used to: (1) calculate retardation factors and estimate contaminant migration velocities, (2) improve estimates of ground-water flow directions and inferred contaminant migration pathways, (3) better define the areal extent of contamination and the proximity of contaminants to discharge areas and the Base boundary, (4) develop a better under-standing of the vertical variability of contaminant concentrations and redox conditions, (5) evaluate the effects of temporal changes on concentrations in the plumes and

  6. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow and Optimization of Withdrawals from Aquifers at the Naval Air Station Patuxent River, St. Mary's County, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Fleck, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Potentiometric surfaces in the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, and Upper Patapsco aquifers have declined from 1950 through 2000 throughout southern Maryland. In the vicinity of Lexington Park, Maryland, the potentiometric surface in the Aquia aquifer in 2000 was as much as 170 feet below sea level, approximately 150 feet lower than estimated pre-pumping levels before 1940. At the present rate, the water levels will have declined to the regulatory allowable maximum of 80 percent of available drawdown in the Aquia aquifer by about 2050. The effect of the withdrawals from these aquifers by the Naval Air Station Patuxent River and surrounding users on the declining potentiometric surface has raised concern for future availability of ground water. Growth at Naval Air Station Patuxent River may increase withdrawals, resulting in further drawdown. A ground-water-flow model, combined with optimization modeling, was used to develop withdrawal scenarios that minimize the effects (drawdown) of hypothetical future withdrawals. A three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system in the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, and Upper Patapsco aquifers beneath the Naval Air Station Patuxent River. Transient and steady-state conditions were simulated to give water-resource managers additional tools to manage the ground-water resources. The transient simulation, representing 1900 through 2002, showed that the magnitude of withdrawal has increased over that time, causing ground-water flow to change direction in some areas. The steady-state simulation was linked to an optimization model to determine optimal solutions to hypothetical water-management scenarios. Two optimization scenarios were evaluated. The first scenario was designed to determine the optimal pumping rates for wells screened in the Aquia aquifer within three supply groups to meet a 25-percent increase in withdrawal demands, while minimizing the drawdown at a control

  7. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Thomas, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Chromic Acid Pit site is an inactive waste disposal site that is regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The 2.2-cubic-yard cement-lined pit was operated from 1980 to 1983 by a contractor to the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss. The pit, located on the Fort Bliss military reservation, in El Paso, Texas, was used for disposal and evaporation of chromic acid waste generated from chrome plating operations. The site was certified closed in 1989 and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission issued Permit Number HW-50296 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Number TX4213720101), which approved and implemented post-closure care for the Chromic Acid Pit site. In accordance with an approved post-closure plan, the U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Army in evaluating hydrogeologic conditions and ground- water quality at the site. One upgradient and two downgradient ground-water monitoring wells were installed adjacent to the chromic acid pit by a private contractor. Quarterly ground-water sampling of these wells by the U.S. Geological Survey began in December 1993. The Chromic Acid Pit site is situated in the Hueco Bolson intermontane valley. The Hueco Bolson is a primary source of ground water in the El Paso area. City of El Paso and U.S. Army water-supply wells are located on all sides of the study area and are completed 600 to more than 1,200 feet below land surface. The ground-water level in the area of the Chromic Acid Pit site has declined about 25 feet from 1982 to 1993. Depth to water at the Chromic Acid Pit site in September 1994 was about 284 feet below land surface; ground-water flow is to the southeast. Ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells at the Chromic Acid Pit site contained dissolved-solids concentrations of 442 to 564 milligrams per liter. Nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 2.7 milligrams per liter; nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen

  8. Probabilistic approach to estimating indoor air concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds from contaminated groundwater: a case study in San Antonio, Texas.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill E; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes a probabilistic model, based on the Johnson-Ettinger algorithm, developed to characterize the current and historic exposure to tricholorethylene (TCE) and tetrachlorethylene (PCE) in indoor air from plumes of groundwater contamination emanating from the former Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. We estimate indoor air concentration, house by house, in 30 101 homes and compare the estimated concentrations with measured values in a small subset of homes. We also compare two versions of the Johnson-Ettinger model: one used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and another based on an alternative parametrization. The modeled mean predicted PCE concentration historically exceeded PCE screening levels (0.41 ug/m(3)) in 5.5% of houses, and the 95th percentile of the predicted concentration exceeded screening levels in 85.3% of houses. For TCE, the mean concentration exceeded the screening level (0.25 ug/m(3)) in 49% of homes, and the 95th percentile of the predicted concentration exceeded the screening level in 99% of homes. The EPA model predicts slightly lower indoor concentrations than the alternative parametrization. Comparison with measured samples suggests both models, with the inputs selected, underestimate indoor concentrations and that the 95th percentiles of the predicted concentrations are closer to measured concentrations than predicted mean values.

  9. Well-construction, water-level, geophysical, and water-quality data for ground-water monitoring wells for Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.; Robinson, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-five wells were installed at 39 sites in the Arnold Air Force Base area in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. The wells were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. Well depths ranged from 11 to 384 feet. Water-quality samples were collected from 60 wells and analyzed for common inorganic ions, trace metals, and volatile organic compounds. The median dissolved-solids concentrations were 60 milligrams per liter in the shallow aquifer, 48 million gallons per liter in the Manchester aquifer, 1,235 milligrams per liter in the Fort Payne aquifer, and 1,712 milligrams per liter in the upper Central Basin aquifer. Caliper, temperature, natural gamma, electric, neutron porosity, gamma-gamma density, and acoustic velocity borehole-geophysical logs were obtained for the six deep wells completed below the Chattanooga Shale. Petrographic and modal analysis were performed on rock samples from each deep well. These six deep wells provide the first information in the study area on hydraulic head and water quality from below the Chattanooga Shale.

  10. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  11. Variations in optical properties of aerosols on monsoon seasonal change and estimation of aerosol optical depth using ground-based meteorological and air quality data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, F.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.; Yoon, T. L.; Holben, B.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the optical properties of aerosols in Penang, Malaysia were analyzed for four monsoonal seasons (northeast monsoon, pre-monsoon, southwest monsoon, and post-monsoon) based on data from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) from February 2012 to November 2013. The aerosol distribution patterns in Penang for each monsoonal period were quantitatively identified according to the scattering plots of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) against the Angstrom exponent. A modified algorithm based on the prototype model of Tan et al. (2014a) was proposed to predict the AOD data. Ground-based measurements (i.e., visibility and air pollutant index) were used in the model as predictor data to retrieve the missing AOD data from AERONET because of frequent cloud formation in the equatorial region. The model coefficients were determined through multiple regression analysis using selected data set from in situ data. The predicted AOD of the model was generated based on the coefficients and compared against the measured data through standard statistical tests. The predicted AOD in the proposed model yielded a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.68. The corresponding percent mean relative error was less than 0.33% compared with the real data. The results revealed that the proposed model efficiently predicted the AOD data. Validation tests were performed on the model against selected LIDAR data and yielded good correspondence. The predicted AOD can beneficially monitor short- and long-term AOD and provide supplementary information in atmospheric corrections.

  12. Laboratory investigations of cascade crossflow packed towers for air stripping of volatile organics from ground-water. Final report, 21 Apr 86-24 Aug 89

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.; Valsaraj, K.T.; Thibodeaus, L.J.

    1990-12-01

    This report evaluates the effectiveness of a cascade crossflow air stripper for the removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from simulated groundwater. Experimental tests were conducted on four VOCs-methylene chloride, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane and carbon tetrachloride - on both a 6-inch internal diameter laboratory scale column and a 12-inch internal diameter pilot-scale column. The additional variable, alpha, which is the ratio of gas to liquid flow areas was investigated. Experimental data on stripping efficiencies were used to obtain mass transfer coefficients in crossflow operation. These mass transfer coefficients were compared with literature correlations obtained for conventional countercurrent operation, but modified appropriately for crossflow. For liquid phase controlled chemicals, the modified Onda's correlation satisfactorily predicted the crossflow mass transfer coefficient.

  13. Hydrologic, water-quality, and meteorologic data for Newberry Volcano and vicinity, Deschutes County, Oregon, 1991-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crumrine, Milo D.; Morgan, David S.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a compilation of hydrologic, water- quality, and meteorologic data collected in the vicinity of Newberry Volcano near Bend, Oregon. These data were collected, in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration, the U.S. Forest Service, and the Bureau of Land Management, to provide baseline data for identifying and assessing the effects of proposed geothermal development in the vicinity of Newberry Volcano. Types of data collected include ground-water levels, lake levels, streamflow, water quality, and meteorologic measurements. Sites that were monitored include: (1) two thermal wells in the caldera, (2) several nonthermal wells in the caldera, (3) four wells outside of the caldera, (4) Paulina Creek, (5) Paulina and East Lakes, (6) hot springs that discharge into Paulina and East Lakes, and (7) meteorologic conditions near Paulina Lake. Data are presented for the period summer 1991 through fall 1993. Water-quality data collected include concentrations of common anions and cations, nutrients, trace elements, radiochemicals, and isotopes. Meteorologic data collected include wind velocity, air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and precipitation.

  14. Lasting Impressions in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes activities integrating science and art education in which students examine slides of impressionist paintings or photographs of meteorological phenomena to determine the weather conditions depicted and to make and defend weather predictions. Includes a reproducible worksheet. (MDH)

  15. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  16. Climate and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations.

  17. Monsoonal variations in aerosol optical properties and estimation of aerosol optical depth using ground-based meteorological and air quality data in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, F.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.; Yoon, T. L.; Holben, B.

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining continuous aerosol-optical-depth (AOD) measurements is a difficult task due to the cloud-cover problem. With the main motivation of overcoming this problem, an AOD-predicting model is proposed. In this study, the optical properties of aerosols in Penang, Malaysia were analyzed for four monsoonal seasons (northeast monsoon, pre-monsoon, southwest monsoon, and post-monsoon) based on data from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) from February 2012 to November 2013. The aerosol distribution patterns in Penang for each monsoonal period were quantitatively identified according to the scattering plots of the Ångström exponent against the AOD. A new empirical algorithm was proposed to predict the AOD data. Ground-based measurements (i.e., visibility and air pollutant index) were used in the model as predictor data to retrieve the missing AOD data from AERONET due to frequent cloud formation in the equatorial region. The model coefficients were determined through multiple regression analysis using selected data set from in situ data. The calibrated model coefficients have a coefficient of determination, R2, of 0.72. The predicted AOD of the model was generated based on these calibrated coefficients and compared against the measured data through standard statistical tests, yielding a R2 of 0.68 as validation accuracy. The error in weighted mean absolute percentage error (wMAPE) was less than 0.40% compared with the real data. The results revealed that the proposed model efficiently predicted the AOD data. Performance of our model was compared against selected LIDAR data to yield good correspondence. The predicted AOD can enhance measured short- and long-term AOD and provide supplementary information for climatological studies and monitoring aerosol variation.

  18. Meteorology for public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špoler Čanić, Kornelija; Rasol, Dubravka; Milković, Janja

    2013-04-01

    The Meteorological and Hydrological Service in Croatia (MHSC) is, as a public service, open to and concentrated on public. The organization of visits to the MHSC for groups started in 1986. The GLOBE program in Croatia started in 1995 and after that interest for the group tours at the MHSC has increased. The majority of visitors are school and kindergarten children, students and groups of teachers. For each group tour we try to prepare the content that is suitable for the age and interest of a group. Majority of groups prefer to visit the meteorological station where they can see meteorological instruments and learn how they work. It is organized as a little workshop, where visitors can ask questions and discuss with a guide not only about the meteorological measurements but also about weather and climate phenomena they are interested in. Undoubtedly the highlight of a visit is the forecaster's room where visitors can talk to the forecasters (whom they can also see giving a weather forecast on the national TV station) and learn how weather forecasts are made. Sometimes we offer to visitors to make some meteorological experiments but that is still not in a regular program of the group tours due to the lack of performing space. Therefore we give them the instructions for making instruments and simulations of meteorological phenomena from household items. Visits guides are meteorologists with profound experience in the popularization of science.

  19. Ground-Water Levels and Water-Quality Data for Wells in the Crumpton Creek Area near Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee, November 2001 to January 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Shannon D.

    2003-01-01

    From November 2001 to January 2002, a study of the ground-water resources in the Crumpton Creek area of Middle Tennessee was conducted to determine whether volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB) have affected local private water supplies and to advance understanding of the ground-water-flow system in this area. VOC samples were collected from private wells that were not included in previous sampling efforts conducted in the Crumpton Creek area near AAFB. Ground-water-flow directions were investigated by measuring water levels in wells and constructing a potentiometric-surface map of the Manchester aquifer in the study area. Data were collected from a total of 68 private wells, 82 monitoring wells, and 1 cave during the period of study. Ground-water levels were determined for 42 of the private wells and for all 82 monitoring wells. Of the 82 monitoring wells, 81 withdraw water from the Manchester aquifer and 1 well withdraws water from the overlying shallow aquifer. The Manchester aquifer wells range in depth from 20 to 150 feet. Water-level altitudes for the Manchester aquifer ranged from 956 to 1,064 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929. Water levels ranged from approximately 6 feet above land surface to 94 feet below land surface. Water-quality samples were collected from all 68 private wells, 8 of the monitoring wells, and the 1 cave. Of the 55 VOCs analyzed, 42 were not detected. Thirteen VOCs were detected; however, only tetrachloroethylene (PCE), methylene chloride, and toluene were detected at concentrations equal to or above reporting levels for the analytical method used. PCE was detected in water samples from 15 private wells and was the only VOC that exceeded drinking water maximum contaminant levels for public water systems. PCE concentrations in samples from five of the wells were below the reporting level and ranged from estimated concentrations of 0.46 to 0.80 microgram per liter (?g/L). Samples from 10

  20. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, 1987-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eimers, J.L.; Daniel, C. C.; Coble, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Geophysical and lithologic well-log data from 30 wells and chloride data, and water-level data from oil-test wells, supply wells, and observation wells were evaluated to define the hydrogeologic framework at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina. Elements of the hydrogeologic framework important to this study include six aquifers and their respective confining units. In descending order, these aquifers are the surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River, upper and lower Castle Hayne, and Beaufort. The upper and lower Castle Hayne and Beaufort aquifers and related confining units are relatively continuous throughout the study area. The surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River, and upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers contain freshwater. The upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers serve as the Air Station?s principal supply of freshwater. However, the lower Castle Hayne aquifer contains brackish water near its base and there is potential for upward movement of this water to supply wells completed in this aquifer. The potential for brackish-water encroachment is greatest if wells are screened too deep in the lower Castle Hayne aquifer or if pumping rates are too high. Lateral movement of brackish water into aquifers incised by estuarine streams is also possible if ground-water flow gradients toward these bodies are reversed by pumping. The potential for the reversed movement of water from the surficial aquifer downward to the water-supply aquifer is greatest in areas where clay confining units are missing. These missing clay units could indicate the presence of a paleochannel of the Neuse River. A quasi three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model was constructed and calibrated to simulate conditions at and in the vicinity of the Air Station for the period of 1987-90. Comparisons of 94 observed and computed heads were made, and the average difference between them is -0.2 feet with a root mean square error of 5.7 feet. An analysis was made to

  1. Computer programs for producing single-event aircraft noise data for specific engine power and meteorological conditions for use with USAF (United States Air Force) community noise model (NOISEMAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohlman, H. T.

    1983-04-01

    The Air Force community noise prediction model (NOISEMAP) is used to describe the aircraft noise exposure around airbases and thereby aid airbase planners to minimize exposure and prevent community encroachment which could limit mission effectiveness of the installation. This report documents two computer programs (OMEGA 10 and OMEGA 11) which were developed to prepare aircraft flight and ground runup noise data for input to NOISEMAP. OMEGA 10 is for flight operations and OMEGA 11 is for aircraft ground runups. All routines in each program are documented at a level useful to a programmer working with the code or a reader interested in a general overview of what happens within a specific subroutine. Both programs input normalized, reference aircraft noise data; i.e., data at a standard reference distance from the aircraft, for several fixed engine power settings, a reference airspeed and standard day meteorological conditions. Both programs operate on these normalized, reference data in accordance with user-defined, non-reference conditions to derive single-event noise data for 22 distances (200 to 25,000 feet) in a variety of physical and psycho-acoustic metrics. These outputs are in formats ready for input to NOISEMAP.

  2. Meteorological and Environmental Inputs to Aviation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Dennis W. (Editor); Frost, Walter (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Reports on aviation meteorology, most of them informal, are presented by representatives of the National Weather Service, the Bracknell (England) Meteorological Office, the NOAA Wave Propagation Lab., the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center, and the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. Additional presentations are included on aircraft/lidar turbulence comparison, lightning detection and locating systems, objective detection and forecasting of clear air turbulence, comparative verification between the Generalized Exponential Markov (GEM) Model and official aviation terminal forecasts, the evaluation of the Prototype Regional Observation and Forecast System (PROFS) mesoscale weather products, and the FAA/MIT Lincoln Lab. Doppler Weather Radar Program.

  3. Mining Information form a Coupled Air Quality Model to Examine the Impacts of Agricultural Management Practices on Air and Groundwater Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attributing nitrogen (N) in the environment to emissions from agricultural management practices is difficult because of the complex and inter-related chemical and biological reactions associated with N and its cascading effects across land, air and water. Such analyses are criti...

  4. Project ATLANTA (Atlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality): Use of Remote Sensing and Modeling to Analyze How Urban Land Use Change Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use ANalysis: Temperature and Air-quality) which is an investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area since the early 1970's has impacted the region's climate and air quality. The primary objectives for this research effort are: (1) To investigate and model the relationships between land cover change in the Atlanta metropolitan, and the development of the urban heat island phenomenon through time; (2) To investigate and model the temporal relationships between Atlanta urban growth and land cover change on air quality; and (3) To model the overall effects of urban development on surface energy budget characteristics across the Atlanta urban landscape through time. Our key goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization in the Atlanta area, principally in transforming forest lands to urban land covers through time, has, and will, effect local and regional climate, surface energy flux, and air quality characteristics. Allied with this goal is the prospect that the results from this research can be applied by urban planners, environmental managers and other decision-makers, for determining how urbanization has impacted the climate and overall environment of the Atlanta area. Multiscaled remote sensing data, particularly high resolution thermal infrared data, are integral to this study for the analysis of thermal energy fluxes across the Atlanta urban landscape.

  5. Results of soil, ground-water, surface-water, and streambed-sediment sampling at Air Force Plane 85, Columbus, Ohio, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parnell, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, prepared the Surface- and Ground- Water Monitoring Work Plan for Air Force Plant 85 (AFP 85 or Plant), Columbus, Ohio, under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program to characterize any ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination that may exist at AFP 85. The USGS began the study in November 1996. The Plant was divided into nine sampling areas, which included some previously investi gated study sites. The investigation activities included the collection and presentation of data taken during drilling and water-quality sampling. Data collection focused on the saturated and unsatur ated zones and surface water. Twenty-three soil borings were completed. Ten monitoring wells (six existing wells and four newly constructed monitoring wells) were selected for water-quality sam pling. Surface-water and streambed-sediment sampling locations were chosen to monitor flow onto and off of the Plant. Seven sites were sampled for both surface-water and streambed-sediment quality. This report presents data on the selected inorganic and organic constituents in soil, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments at AFP 85. The methods of data collection and anal ysis also are included. Knowledge of the geologic and hydrologic setting could aid Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, and its governing regulatory agencies in future remediation studies.

  6. Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2008-03-01

    The Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) mostly uses conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute, 30-minute, and 1440-minute (daily) averages of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), barometric pressure, and precipitation at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) climate research site. The SMOSs are not calibrated as systems. The sensors and the data logger (which includes the analog-to-digital converter, or A/D) are calibrated separately. All systems are installed using components that have a current calibration. SMOSs have not been installed at extended facilities located within about 10 km of existing surface meteorological stations, such as those of the Oklahoma Mesonet. The Surface Meteorological Observation Systems are used to create climatology for each particular location, and to verify the output of numerical weather forecast and other model output. They are also used to “ground-truth” other remote sensing equipment.

  7. Co-occurrence of 1,4-dioxane with trichloroethylene in chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes at US Air Force installations: Fact or fiction.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard H; Anderson, Janet K; Bower, Paul A

    2012-10-01

    Increasing regulatory attention to 1,4-dioxane has prompted the United States Air Force (USAF) to evaluate potential environmental liabilities, primarily associated with legacy contamination, at an enterprise scale. Although accurately quantifying environmental liability is operationally difficult given limited historic environmental monitoring data, 1,4-dioxane is a known constituent (i.e., stabilizer) of chlorinated solvents, in particular 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA). Evidence regarding the co-occurrence of 1,4-dioxane and trichloroethylene (TCE), however, has been heavily debated. In fact, the prevailing opinion is that 1,4-dioxane was not a constituent of past TCE formulations and, therefore, these 2 contaminants would not likely co-occur in the same groundwater plume. Because historic handling, storage, and disposal practices of chlorinated solvents have resulted in widespread groundwater contamination at USAF installations, significant potential exists for unidentified 1,4-dioxane contamination. Therefore, the objective of this investigation is to determine the extent to which 1,4-dioxane co-occurs with TCE compared to TCA, and if these chemicals are co-contaminants, whether or not there is significant correlation using available monitoring data. To accomplish these objectives, the USAF Environmental Restoration Program Information Management System (ERPIMS) was queried for all relevant records for groundwater monitoring wells (GMWs) with 1,4-dioxane, TCA, and TCE, on which both categorical and quantitative analyses were carried out. Overall, ERPIMS contained 5788 GMWs from 49 installations with records for 1,4-dioxane, TCE, and TCA analytes. 1,4-Dioxane was observed in 17.4% of the GMWs with detections for TCE and/or TCA, which accounted for 93.7% of all 1,4-dioxane detections, verifying that 1,4-dioxane is seldom found independent of chlorinated solvent contamination. Surprisingly, 64.4% of all 1,4-dioxane detections were associated with TCE independently

  8. Jesuits' Contribution to Meteorology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udías, Agustín

    1996-10-01

    Starting in the middle of the nineteenth century, as part of their scientific tradition, Jesuits founded a considerable number of meteorological observatories throughout the world. In many countries, Jesuits established and maintained the first meteorological stations during the period from 1860 to 1950. The Jesuits' most important contribution to atmospheric science was their pioneer work related to the study and forecast of tropical hurricanes. That research was carried out at observatories of Belén (Cuba), Manila (Philippines), and Zikawei (China). B. Viñes, M. Decheyrens, J. Aigué, and C.E. Deppermann stood out in this movement.

  9. Transport and Meteorological Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Legg, Marion J.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this work are twofold. First, to provide real-time meteorological satellite guidance to airborne field missions for NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program, the Global Tropospheric Experiment, and the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project. Extensive meteorological satellite datasets were provided for use by the mission scientist and by the science team. These same data were then archived for postdeployment data analysis by the science team. Second, to provide scientific analysis of the data from the airborne field missions supported. The results of these analyses were made public through peer-reviewed publications.

  10. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  11. Little meteorological workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poler Čanić, K. Å.; Rasol, D.

    2010-09-01

    Little meteorological workshop (LMW) is a project the main goal of which is promotion and popularisation of meteorology in Croatia. The project has been taking place at the Science Festival in Zagreb since 2007 where the audience includes the general public. Since 2009 the project has been introduced as an extracurricular school activity in some primary schools where the main audience are children and teachers. Here, the methods used in the LMWs will be presented. Furthermore, the evaluation results of the LMWs that were held in schools will be shown.

  12. Simulation of ground-water flow and potential contaminant transport at Area 6 Landfill, Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Island County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simonds, F. William

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite-difference steady-state ground-water flow model was developed to simulate hydraulic conditions at the Area 6 Landfill, Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, near Oak Harbor, Washington. Remediation efforts were started in 1995 in an attempt to contain trichloroethene and other contaminants in the ground water. The model was developed as a tool to test the effectiveness of the pump-and-treat remediation efforts as well as alternative remediation strategies. The model utilized stratigraphic data from approximately 76 Navy and 19 private wells to define the geometry of the shallow, intermediate, and deep aquifers and the intervening confining layers. Initial aquifer parameters and recharge estimates from aquifer tests and published remedial investigation reports were used in the model and then adjusted until simulated water levels closely matched observed water-level data collected prior to the onset of remediation in 1995. The calibrated model was then modified to depict the remedial pump-and-treat system, in which contaminated ground water is extracted, treated, and returned to the ground surface for infiltration. The water levels simulated by the modified model were compared with observed water levels for the 1998 calendar year, during which time the pump-and-treat system was in nearly continuous operation and the ground-water system had equilibrated to steady-state conditions. Although artificial boundaries were used in the model, the choice of model boundary conditions was simulation in the area of primary concern surrounding the western contaminant plume and extraction wells. Particle tracking results indicate that the model can effectively simulate the advective transport of contaminants from the source area to the pumping wells and thus be used to test alternative remedial pumping strategies.

  13. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  14. Ground-water levels and water-quality data for wells in the Spring Creek area near Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee, April and May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Shannon D.; Aycock, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB) occupies about 40,000 acres in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. Numerous site-specific ground-water contamination investigations have been conducted at designated solid waste management units (SWMU?s) at AAFB. Several synthetic volatile organic compounds (VOC?s), primarily chlorinated solvents, have been identified in groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells near SWMU 8 in the Spring Creek area. During April and May 2000, a study of the groundwater resources in the Spring Creek area was conducted to determine if VOC?s from AAFB have affected local private water supplies and to advance understanding of the ground-water-flow system in this area. The study focused on sampling private wells located within the Spring Creek area that are used as a source of drinking water. Ground-water-flow directions were determined by measuring water levels in wells and constructing a potentiometric-surface map of the Manchester aquifer in the study area. Data were collected from a total of 35 private wells and 22 monitoring wells during the period of study. Depths to ground water were determined for 22 of the private wells and all 22 of the monitoring wells. The wells ranged in depth from 21 to 105 feet. Water-level altitudes ranged from 930 to 1,062 feet above sea level. Depths to water ranged from 8 to 83 feet below land surface. Water-quality samples were collected from 29 private wells which draw water from either gravel zones in the upper part of the Manchester aquifer, fractured bedrock in the lower part of the Manchester aquifer, or a combination of these two zones. Concentrations of 50 of the 55 VOC?s analyzed for were less than method detection limits. Chloroform, acetone, chloromethane, 2-butanone, and tetrachloroethylene were detected in concentrations exceeding the method detection limits. Only chloroform and acetone were detected in concentrations equal to or exceeding reporting limits. Chloroform was detected in a sample

  15. Identification of the influencing factors on groundwater drought in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater drought is a specific type of drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of response different climatic and manmade factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in a drought prone region in Bangladesh to understand the forcing mechanisms. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. The influence of land use patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land use. The result shows that drought intensity is more severe during the dry season (November to April) compared to the rainy season (May to October). The evapotranspiration and rainfall deficit has a significant effect on meteorological drought which has a direct relation with groundwater drought. Urbanization results in a decrease of groundwater recharge which increases groundwater drought severity. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation and recurrent meteorological droughts are the main causes of groundwater drought in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management. More detailed studies on climate change and land use change effects on groundwater drought are recommended. Keywords: Groundwater drought, SPI & RDI, Spatially distributed groundwater recharge, Irrigation, Bangladesh

  16. General aviation's meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, D.

    1985-01-01

    Communication of weather theory and information about weather service products to pilots in an accurate and comprehensible manner is essential to flying safety in general. Probably no one needs weather knowledge more than the people who fly through it. The specific subject of this overview is General Aviation's Meteorological Requirements.

  17. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  18. Meteorology: Project Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Sean; Ford, Brent A.

    This document on meteorology is one of a four-volume series of Project Earth Science that includes exemplary hands-on science and reading materials for use in the classroom. This book is divided into three sections: activities, readings, and appendix. The activities are constructed around three basic concept divisions. First, students investigate…

  19. Full-scale testing and early production results from horizontal air sparging and soil vapor extraction wells remediating jet fuel in soil and groundwater at JFK International Airport, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, R.J.; Bianco, P.; Kirshner, M.; Pressly, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    Jet fuel contaminated soil and groundwater contaminated at the International Arrivals Building (IAB) of the JFK International Airport in Jamaica, New York, are being remediated using soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air sparging (AS). The areal extent of the contaminated soil is estimated to be 70 acres and the volume of contaminated groundwater is estimated to be 2.3 million gallons. The remediation uses approximately 13,000 feet of horizontal SVE (HSVE) wells and 7,000 feet of horizontal AS (HAS) wells. The design of the HSVE and HAS wells was based on a pilot study followed by a full-scale test. In addition to the horizontal wells, 28 vertical AS wells and 15 vertical SVE wells are used. Three areas are being remediated, thus, three separate treatment systems have been installed. The SVE and AS wells are operated continuously while groundwater will be intermittently extracted at each HAS well, treated by liquid phase activated carbon and discharged into stormwater collection sewerage. Vapors extracted by the SVE wells are treated by vapor phase activated carbon and discharged into ambient air. The duration of the remediation is anticipated to be between two and three years before soil and groundwater are remediated to New York State cleanup criteria for the site. Based on the monitoring data for the first two months of operation, approximately 14,600 lbs. of vapor phase VOCs have been extracted. Analyses show that the majority of the VOCs are branched alkanes, branched alkenes, cyclohexane and methylated cyclohexanes.

  20. Improved meteorology from an updated WRF/CMAQ modeling system with MODIS vegetation and albedo

    EPA Science Inventory

    Realistic vegetation characteristics and phenology from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products improve the simulation for the meteorology and air quality modeling system WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting model and Community Multiscale Air Qual...

  1. Progress in the impact of polluted meteorological conditions on the incidence of asthma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It has been revealed by many studies that air pollution is one of the important inducements of asthma exacerbations. In addition, meteorological conditions such as high atmospheric pressure, low temperature, low humidity and large diurnal amplitude can directly induce asthma. Meanwhile, meteorological conditions play an important role in the diffusion, dilution and accumulation of air pollution. This article reviewed research progress in the impact of polluted meteorological conditions on the incidence of asthma. PMID:26904253

  2. Applications of Groundwater Helium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Hilton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Helium abundance and isotope variations have widespread application in groundwater-related studies. This stems from the inert nature of this noble gas and the fact that its two isotopes ? helium-3 and helium-4 ? have distinct origins and vary widely in different terrestrial reservoirs. These attributes allow He concentrations and 3He/4He isotope ratios to be used to recognize and quantify the influence of a number of potential contributors to the total He budget of a groundwater sample. These are atmospheric components, such as air-equilibrated and air-entrained He, as well as terrigenic components, including in situ (aquifer) He, deep crustal and/or mantle He and tritiogenic 3He. Each of these components can be exploited to reveal information on a number of topics, from groundwater chronology, through degassing of the Earth?s crust to the role of faults in the transfer of mantle-derived volatiles to the surface. In this review, we present a guide to how groundwater He is collected from aquifer systems and quantitatively measured in the laboratory. We then illustrate the approach of resolving the measured He characteristics into its component structures using assumptions of endmember compositions. This is followed by a discussion of the application of groundwater He to the types of topics mentioned above using case studies from aquifers in California and Australia. Finally, we present possible future research directions involving dissolved He in groundwater.

  3. Survey: National Meteorological Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The National Meteorological Center (NMC) is comprised of three operational divisions (Development, Automation, and Forecast) and an Administrative Division. The Development Division develops and implements mathematical models for forecasting the weather. The Automation Division provides the software and processing services to accommodate the models used in daily forecasts. The Forecasting Division applies a combination of numerical and manual techniques to produce analyses and prognoses up to 120 hr into the future. This guidance material is combined with severe storm information from the National Hurricane Center and the National Severe Storms Forecasting Center to develop locally tailored forecasts by the Weather Service Forecast Offices and, in turn, by the local Weather Service Offices. A very general flow of this information is shown. A more detailed illustration of data flow into, within, and from the NMC is given. The interrelations are depicted between the various meteorological organizations and activities.

  4. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Lambert, Winifred; Wheeler, Mark; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the second quarter of Fiscal Year 2007 (January - March 2007). Tasks reported on are: Obiective Lightning Probability Tool, Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida, Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool in AWIPS, Volume Averaqed Heiqht lnteq rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Tower Data Skew-t Tool, and Weather Research and Forecastini (WRF) Model Sensitivity Study

  5. Groundwater pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, J.L.

    1984-05-03

    Chlorinated organic compounds (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1, 1, 1 trichloroethane) were discovered in the groundwater beneath the reactor fuel and target fabrication area at the Savannah River Plant in June 1981 during routine RCRA monitoring. Principal sources and contaminant location were identified along with air stripping as the remedial action technology. A pilot air stripping column with one recovery well was installed to evaluate air stripping and a 50 gpm production unit with two recovery wells was installed to expedite contaminant recovery. A 400 gpm air stripping column and eleven recovery wells are in the design stage and will be operational in the first quarter of 1985.

  6. Women in Meteorology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  7. Hot spot formation of chloroform in forest soils caused pollution of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Ole S.; Albers, Christian N.; Laier, Troels; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    High concentration of chloroform in groundwater is usually attributed to anthropogenic input, but we have found that the groundwater beneath some pristine areas contained chloroform from 1 - 10 µg/L. Groundwater containing chloroform that exceeds 1 µg/L could not be used for drinking water according to Danish regulations. The strict demands on groundwater quality may have to be taken into account when decisions are made regarding the change of land use in order to protect major recharge areas from pollution with nitrate and pesticides resulting from high-yield agriculture production. The terrestrial environment and especially hot spots in forest soils seem to be important contributors to apparent pollution of groundwater with chloroform. We performed a field study to investigate concentration and fluxes of chloroform to the groundwater from in four coniferous forests in order to increase knowledge on the hot spot formation and fate of natural chloroform. We investigated four stations over a period of several years in order to measure the net-formation of chloroform. Field measurements soil air concentrations of chloroform were monitored in five soil profiles down to the groundwater table. Meteorological data were recorded at all stations In the hotspots up to 120 ppbv was found in soil air under the spruce forest, to be compared to an ambient atmospheric concentration of 0.02 ppbv. The concentration of chloroform in soil air showed seasonal variation with a maximum in August-September. The chloroform concentration decreased with depth in all profiles during the summer half-year to about 20 % of concentration in the production layer. However, the concentration is still high enough to give an equilibrium concentration in the upper groundwater of 1-10 µg/L. Stable carbon isotopic analyses of chloroform from the uppermost groundwater in different parts of the forests and from soil water showed values from δ13C = -13 ‰ to -27 ‰, corresponding to the ratio in

  8. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.; Moninger, William R.; Mamrosh, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) project, giving some history on the project, various applications of the atmospheric data, and future ideas and plans. As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, the TAMDAR project developed a small low-cost sensor that collects useful meteorological data and makes them available in near real time to improve weather forecasts. This activity has been a joint effort with FAA, NOAA, universities, and industry. A tri-agency team collaborated by developing a concept of operations, determining the sensor specifications, and evaluating sensor performance as reported by Moosakhanian et. al. (2006). Under contract with Georgia Tech Research Institute, NASA worked with AirDat of Raleigh, NC to develop the sensor. The sensor is capable of measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and icing. It can compute pressure altitude, indicated and true air speed, ice accretion rate, wind speed and direction, peak and average turbulence, and eddy dissipation rate. The overall development process, sensor capabilities, and performance based on ground and flight tests is reported by Daniels (2002), Daniels et. al. (2004) and by Tsoucalas et. al. (2006). An in-service evaluation of the sensor was performed called the Great Lakes Fleet Experiment (GLFE), first reported by Moninger et. al. (2004) and Mamrosh et. al. (2005). In this experiment, a Mesaba Airlines fleet was equipped to collect meteorological data over the Great Lakes region during normal revenue-producing flights.

  9. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, M.; Ross, J. D.; Solomon, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6microb level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Ross, J. D.; Soloman, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6 micro b level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer.

  11. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    During 1990, we have continued our meteorological and hydrologic data collection in support of our process-oriented research. The six years of data collected to data is unique in its scope and continuity in a North Hemisphere Arctic setting. This valuable data base has allowed us to further our understanding of the interconnections and interactions between the atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere. The increased understanding of the heat and mass transfer processes has allowed us to increase our model-oriented research efforts.

  12. Monitoring groundwater drought with GRACE data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Getirana, A.; Zaitchik, B. F.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater drought is a distinct class of drought, not a sub-class of meteorological, agricultural and hydrological drought and has profound impacts on natural environments and societies. Due to a deficiency of in situ measurements, we developed a groundwater drought indicator using groundwater change estimates derived by assimilating GRACE derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomalies into the NASA Catchment land surface model. Data assimilation enables spatial and temporal downscaling of coarse GRACE TWS observations (monthly and ~150,000 km2 effective spatial resolution) and extrapolation to near-real time. In this talk, we will present our latest progress on using GRACE satellite data for groundwater drought monitoring in the U.S. and globally. Characteristics of this groundwater drought indicator will be discussed, including its relationship with other types of drought and how they are influenced by model physics and climate conditions. Results are evaluated using in situ groundwater observations.

  13. Meteorological data for four sites at surface-disruption features in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1985--1986

    SciTech Connect

    Carman, R.L.

    1994-12-01

    Surface-disruption features, or craters, resulting from underground nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site may increase the potential for ground-water recharge in an area that would normally produce little, if any, recharge. This report presents selected meteorological data resulting from a study of two surface-disruption features during May 1985 through June 1986. The data were collected at four adjacent sites in Yucca Flat, about 56 kilometers north of Mercury, Nevada. Three sites (one in each of two craters and one at an undisturbed site at the original land surface) were instrumented to collect meteorological data for calculating bare-soil evaporation. These data include (1) long-wave radiation, (2) short-wave radiation, (3) net radiation, (4) air temperature, and (5) soil surface temperature. Meteorological data also were collected at a weather station at an undisturbed site near the study craters. Data collected at this site include (1) air temperature, (2) relative humidity, (3) wind velocity, and (4) wind direction.

  14. Meteorological data for four sites at surface-disruption features in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1985-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carman, Rita L.

    1994-01-01

    Surface-disruption features, or craters, resulting from underground nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site may increase the potential for ground-water recharge in an area that would normally produce little, if any, recharge. This report presents selected meteorological data resulting from a study of two surface-disruption features during May 1985 through June 1986. The data were collected at four adjacent sites in Yucca Flat, about 56 kilometers north of Mercury, Nevada. Three sites (one in each of two craters and one at an undisturbed site at the original land surface) were instrumented to collect meteorological data for calculating bare-soil evaporation. These data include (1) long-wave radiation, (2) short-wave radiation, (3) net radiation, (4) air temperae, and (5) soil surface temperature. Meteorological data also were collected at a weather station at an undisturbed site near the study craters. Data collected at this site include (1) air temperature, (2) relative humidity, (3) wind velocity, and (4) wind direction.

  15. Predicting the impact of future land-use and climate change on the groundwater system, Kleine Nete basin, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadore, E.; Dams, J.; Batelaan, O.; van Daele, T.

    2009-04-01

    Climate changes including global warming and changing air circulation patterns, along with anthropogenic land-cover/use changes are expected to significantly influence both surface and subsurface hydrology in the near future. To be able to plan mitigating or adaptive actions, there is a strong need to study the individual as well as the combined impact of climate and land-use changes on the river, groundwater and wetland system on regional and local scale. Wetlands are particularly sensitive to modifications in water conditions; therefore this study focuses on modeling the impact of climate and land-use changes on the groundwater system and how this will further affect the distribution of most highly valued vegetation types. The regional study area, the Kleine Nete basin, comprises 580 km2 and is located 65 km north-east of Brussels. Within the basin, the 5.4 km2 sized groundwater dependent nature reserve "Olensbroek" serves as local study area. Initially, the "current" condition of the groundwater system has been determined; meteorological and land-use data for the period 1960-1990 has been used as input in a transient fully distributed physically-based hydrological model, WetSpa, to calculate with a daily time step the two weekly groundwater recharge. These values have been used as input for a transient MODFLOW model of the basin to simulate the groundwater level, flow, drainage and to derive other ecohydrological relevant parameters as mean lowest and highest groundwater level in every location of the basin. Future meteorological conditions have been obtained from a joint collaboration between the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium, K.U. Leuven Hydraulics Laboratory and the Royal Meteorological Institute of the Netherlands. All scenarios are based on the hierarchy of Global Climate Model (GCM) output, high resolution nested Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations, and empirical/statistical downscaling using local observations. Choosing the change in

  16. Comparison of 1997 and 2015 El-Nino on Meteorological and Atmospheric Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Lindsey; Singh, Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the impact of dramatic 1997-1998 and 2015-2016 El-Nino on meteorological and atmospheric parameters globally using satellite and ground observations. We have considered meteorological parameters (rainfall, air temperature, surface pressure, winds, water vapor) and atmospheric parameters (air temperature, total ozone column). Our detailed analysis shows pronounced changes in some of meteorological and atmospheric parameters in different parts of the world at different time. Further, we have carried out comparison of some of the various meteorological and atmospheric parameters associated with El-Nino of 1997-1998 and 20015-2016, detrimental impact of 2015-2016 El-Nino is observed.

  17. Phantosmia as a meteorological forecaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, S. R.; Hirsch, A. R.

    2013-09-01

    In normosmics, olfactory ability has been found to vary with ambient humidity, barometric pressure, and season. While hallucinated sensations of phantom pain associated with changes in weather have been described, a linkage to chemosensory hallucinations has heretofore not been reported. A 64-year-old white male with Parkinson's disease presents with 5 years of phantosmia of a smoky burnt wood which changed to onion-gas and then to a noxious skunk-onion excrement odor. Absent upon waking it increases over the day and persists for hours. When severe, there appears a phantom taste with the same qualities as the odor. It is exacerbated by factors that manipulate intranasal pressure, such as coughing. When eating or sniffing, the actual flavors replace the phantosmia. Since onset, he noted the intensity and frequency of the phantosmia forecasted the weather. Two to 3 h before a storm, the phantosmia intensifies from a level 0 to a 7-10, which persists through the entire thunderstorm. Twenty years prior, he reported the ability to forecast the weather, based on pain in a torn meniscus, which vanished after surgical repair. Extensive olfactory testing demonstrates underlying hyposmia. Possible mechanisms for such chemosensory-meteorological linkage includes: air pressure induced synesthesia, disinhibition of spontaneous olfactory discharge, exacerbation of ectopic discharge, affect mediated somatic sensory amplification, and misattribution error with expectation and recall bias. This is the first reported case of weather-induced exacerbation of phantosmia. Further investigation of the connection between chemosensory complaints and ambient weather is warranted.

  18. Antarctic Meteorology and Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. C.; Turner, J.

    1997-07-01

    This book is a comprehensive survey of the climatology and meteorology of Antarctica. The first section of the book reviews the methods by which we can observe the Antarctic atmosphere and presents a synthesis of climatological measurements. In the second section, the authors consider the processes that maintain the observed climate, from large-scale atmospheric circulation to small-scale processes. The final section reviews our current knowledge of the variability of Antarctic climate and the possible effects of "greenhouse" warming. The authors stress links among the Antarctic atmosphere, other elements of the Antarctic climate system (oceans, sea ice and ice sheets), and the global climate system. This volume will be of greatest interest to meteorologists and climatologists with a specialized interest in Antarctica, but it will also appeal to researchers in Antarctic glaciology, oceanography and biology. Graduates and undergraduates studying physical geography, and the earth, atmospheric and environmental sciences will find much useful background material in the book.

  19. Bracknell Meteorological Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Colin R.

    1988-01-01

    The Bracknell (U.K.) Meteorological Office runs a global weather model twice a day, providing the following data: surface and radiosonde; aircraft reports; and satellite soundings and wind. A human forecast is made every six hours. The model runs on a 150 km grid with 15 levels, and takes about four minutes on a Cyber-205. The standard output from the global products are wind, temperature, height, tropopause, and maximum wind. Various experiments have been conducted to see if short-range forecasters could improve on the upper-wind forecasts over the numerical model; the numerical model remains of paramount importance. Small-scale models are being run in the U.S. and the U.K. A fine-mesh model covers Europe and the Atlantic. A mesoscale model is under development. A great deal of verification work is done to see how good the models are.

  20. The meteorology of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Conrath, Barney J.

    1992-01-01

    Current knowledge of Titan's meteorology is reviewed, including diagnostic inferences of the large scale wind field and prognostic studies of thermal and momentum balances. Titan's winds were largely inferred from temperature maps whose spatial coverage is incomplete. The inferred winds are cyclostrophic, approximately 75 m/s in the upper stratosphere. The direction of the winds is ambiguous from the temperature data, but arguments based on the spin up of a planetary atmosphere from an initial state of rest strongly suggest that Titan's winds blow predominantly in the direction of the planetary rotation. Stratospheric temperatures exhibit a north-south asymmetry, suggesting that seasonal variations are controlled by a dynamical inertia associated with the need to transport angular momentum as well as heat. A consideration of the global angular momentum balance indicates that the zonally averaged winds near the surface are approximately 0.3 m/s.

  1. Meteorology as an infratechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. A.; Smith, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    From an economists perspective, meteorology is an underpinning or infratechnology in the sense that in general it does not of its own accord lead to actual products. Its value added comes from the application of its results to the activities of other forms of economic and technological activity. This contribution discusses both the potential applications of meteorology as an ininfratechnology, and quantifying its socio-economic impact. Large economic and social benefits are both likely in theory and can be identified in practice. Case studies of particular weather dependent industries or particular episodes are suggested, based on the methodology developed by NIST to analyze the social impact of technological innovation in US industries (see www.nist.gov/director/planning/strategicplanning.htm ). Infratechnologies can provide economic benefits in the support of markets. Incomplete information is a major cause of market failure because it inhibits the proper design of contracts. The performance of markets in general can be influenced by strategies adopted by different firms within a market to regulate the performance of others especially suppliers or purchasers. This contribution will focus on benefits to society from mechanisms which enhance and enforce mitigating actions. When the market mechanism fails, who might social benefits be gained, for example, by widening the scope of authorities to ensure that those who could have taken mitigating action, given prior warning, cover the costs. This goes beyond the design and implementation of civil responses to severe weather warnings to include the design of legislative recourse in the event of negligence given prior knowledge, or the modification of insurance contracts. The aim here, for example, would be to avoid the loss of an oil tanker in heavy seas at a location where a high probability of heavy seas had been forecast for some time.

  2. Maize transpiration in response to meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimešová, Jana; Stŕedová, Hana; Stŕeda, Tomáš

    2013-09-01

    Differences in transpiration of maize (Zea mays L.) plants in four soil moisture regimes were quantified in a pot experiment. The transpiration was measured by the "Stem Heat Balance" method. The dependence of transpiration on air temperature, air humidity, global solar radiation, soil moisture, wind speed and leaf surface temperature were quantified. Significant relationships among transpiration, global radiation and air temperature (in the first vegetation period in the drought non-stressed variant, r = 0.881**, r = 0.934**) were found. Conclusive dependence of transpiration on leaf temperature (r = 0.820**) and wind speed (r = 0.710**) was found. Transpiration was significantly influenced by soil moisture (r = 0.395**, r = 0.528**) under moderate and severe drought stress. The dependence of transpiration on meteorological factors decreased with increasing deficiency of water. Correlation between transpiration and plant dry matter weight (r = 0.997**), plant height (r = 0.973**) and weight of corn cob (r = 0.987**) was found. The results of instrumental measuring of field crops transpiration under diverse moisture conditions at a concurrent monitoring of the meteorological elements spectra are rather unique. These results will be utilized in the effort to make calculations of the evapotranspiration in computing models more accurate.

  3. Micro-meteorology monitoring system over Nakdong river in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    changbum, Cho; jae-young, Byon; rang, Kim kyu; byoung-cheol, Choi

    2014-05-01

    National Institute of Meteorological Research established micro-meteorology monitoring system at the Nakdong River of South Korea since 2010 in order to study the micro-meteorological impact due to nationwide major river development project. A total of 37 automatic weather stations are in operation at areas near the dams which were constructed as part of this project. The weather stations mainly measure air temperature, humidity, and wind, with some of the stations measuring radiation and heat fluxes. More than half of the stations are installed on agricultural areas and the rest are installed in an industrial area. The data collected from the stations are used to observe the micrometeorological system and used as an input to numerical models, which compose a meteorological environment impact assessment tool.

  4. Radon, CO2 and CH4 as environmental tracers in groundwater/surface water interaction studies - comparative theoretical evaluation of the gas specific water/air phase transfer kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, M.; Paschke, A.

    2015-05-01

    The applicability of radon as environmental tracer in groundwater/surface water interaction studies has been documented in a considerable number of publications. In some of these reports it has also been suggested to validate the radon based results by using CO2 and CH4 as supplementary tracers. The on-site measurement of the three gaseous parameters relies on their extraction from the water followed by the measurement of their concentration by means of mobile gas-in-air detectors. Since most related practical applications require the recording of time series, a continuous extraction of the gases from (e.g.) a permanently pumped water stream is necessary. A precondition for the sound combined interpretation of the resulting time series is that the individual temporal responses of the extracted gas-in-air concentrations to instantaneously changing gas-in-water concentrations are either identical or in reproducible relation to each other. The aim of our theoretical study was the comparison of the extraction behavior of the three gaseous solutes with focus on the individual temporal responses to changing gas-in-water concentrations considering in particular the gas specific water/air phase transfer kinetics. We could show that the overall mass transfer coefficients of radon, CO2 and CH4 result in a virtually similar temporal response to aqueous concentration changes, thus confirming the straightforward combined measurement/utilization of the dissolved gases as environmental tracers in groundwater/surface water interaction studies.

  5. Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite Data Seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A seminar was organized by NASA to acquaint the meteorological community with data now available, and data scheduled to be available in the future, from geosynchronous meteorological satellites. The twenty-four papers were presented in three half-day sessions in addition to tours of the Image Display and LANDSAT Processing Facilities during the afternoon of the second day.

  6. Radiocommunications for meteorological satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    A general overview is presented of the spectrum utilization and frequency requirements of present and planned meteorological satellite programs. The sensors, and TIROS operational systems are discussed along with the Nimbus and Synchronous Meteorological Satellites. STORMSAT, SEASAT, and the Spacelab are briefly described.

  7. ARM mobile facility surface meteorology (MET) handbook.

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, M. T.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-04-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility Surface Meteorology station (MET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-min statistics of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), barometric pressure, and rainrate. Additional sensors may be added to or removed from the base set of sensors depending upon the deployment location, climate regime, or programmatic needs. In addition, sensor types may change depending upon the climate regime of the deployment. These changes/additions are noted in Section 3.

  8. Meteorology impact on ATC system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    The impact of meteorology on air traffic control (ATC) system design for designs, and for cost benefit evaluations is discussed. The myriad of choices for implementation is a problem of great magnitude, given the economic climate of today. Cost versus benefit requires greater emphasis. Expanding and improving weather data acquisition, increasing the speed of weather data transmission and automating those actions that lend themselves to standardization for automated data processing are outlined. Three programs are mentioned: (1) automated weather observations, (2) weather radar and improvements to the national airspace system as related to the handling of weather data; and (3) products.

  9. A Visualization Tool for Meteorological Data

    1999-09-28

    Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) have been buit to visualize surface and upper-meteorology data for any global location and time of interest. The user selects a domain (geographic location and bounding range) and time of interest using the Gui, and a file containing coded observations is accessed and decoded. two styles of the GUI have been built, depending on whether surface or upper air visualization is desired. The former indicates weather conditions near the earth''s surface,more » while the latter illustrates a vertical profile of atmospheric conditions.« less

  10. Photochemical urban airshed modeling using diagnostic and dynamic meteorological fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godowitch, J. M.; Vukovich, J. M.

    1994-06-01

    Spatial pollutant patterns and peak concentrations are strongly influenced by meteorological parameters. Therefore, accurate hourly, gridded meteorological data sets are crucial inputs for photochemical modeling. An effort has been underway to apply both diagnostic and dynamic meteorological models in order to generate inputs needed in photochemical grid model simulations. The model being employed is a modified version of the Urban Airshed Model (UAM), which was designed to accept input files generated from both meteorological approaches. The diagnostic meteorological model (UAMMET) relies on routine or intensive measurements to generate hourly 3-D gridded fields of winds, temperatures, vertical eddy diffusivities, photolytic rates, and hourly spatially-varying fields of mixing height and deposition velocities. The diagnostic wind model (DWM) is a key module used generate 3-D wind fields. A dynamic mesoscale meteorological model (a numerical hydrostatic code equipped with a four-dimensional data assimilation technique) generates a gridded meteorological output file, which is post-processed through an interface program to create UAM-compatible wind and mixing height files. In this effort, both meteorological models were exercised in two different urban domains situated next to water bodies and with significant terrain features (i.e., greater metropolitan NYC and LA basin). Results of simulations with the modified UAM model were evaluated in order to investigate the impact on modeled ozone patterns and peak concentrations using inputs from these two meteorological approaches. A historical high ozone day in the NYC domain was simulated which exhibited a strong large scale flow pattern conducive to interurban transport along the northeastern coast. The evaluation results revealed absolute errors were comparable (about 22%) among the simulations, however, higher peak ozone was obtained using dynamically generated wind fields. Results from simulations of an ozone episode

  11. Evaluation of groundwater droughts in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Johannes Christoph; Birk, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Droughts are abnormally dry periods that affect various aspects of human life on earth, ranging from negative impacts on agriculture or industry, to being the cause for conflict and loss of human life. The changing climate reinforces the importance of investigations into this phenomenon. Various methods to analyze and classify droughts have been developed. These include drought indices such as the Standard Precipitation Index SPI, the Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI or the Crop Moisture Index CMI. These and other indices consider meteorological parameters and/or their effects on soil moisture. A depletion of soil moisture triggered by low precipitation and high evapotranspiration may also cause reduced groundwater recharge and thus decreasing groundwater levels and reduced groundwater flow to springs, streams, and wetlands. However, the existing indices were generally not designed to address such drought effects on groundwater. Thus, a Standardized Groundwater level Index has recently been proposed by Bloomfied and Marchant (2013). Yet, to our knowledge, this approach has only been applied to consolidated aquifers in the UK. This work analyzes time series of groundwater levels from various, mostly unconsolidated aquifers in Austria in order to characterize the effects of droughts on aquifers in different hydrogeologic and climatic settings as well as under different usage scenarios. In particular, comparisons are made between the water rich Alpine parts of Austria, and the dryer parts situated in the East. The time series of groundwater levels are compared to other data, such as meteorological time series and written weather records about generally accepted phenomena, such as the 2003 European drought and heat wave. Thus, valuable insight is gained into the propagation of meteorological droughts through the soil and the aquifer in different types of hydrogeologic and climatic settings, which provides a prerequisite for the assessment of the aquifers' drought

  12. Four-planet meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    All planets with atmospheres have common characteristics which are helpful in understanding weather and climate on earth. Of the terrestrial planets, Mars displays the most earth-like characteristics. The feedback mechanism of the Martian Great Dust Storms may control climate on a global scale and shows some parallels to the water cycle on the earth. Venus, on the other hand, has atmosphere motions and characteristics far different from those of earth but appears to be valuable for comparative meteorology and it seems to be a simple weather machine due to absence of axial tilt. A completely gaseous Jupiter also can help because its atmosphere, driven by internal heat, flows round-and-round, showing the same general patterns for years at a time. Results of studying extraterrestrial atmospheres are most important for understanding earth's multi-year weather cycles such as the droughts in the American West every 22 years or effects of the Little Ice Age (1450-1915) on agriculture in the North Hemisphere.

  13. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    To date, five years of hydrologic and meteorologic data have been collected at Imnavait Creek near Toolik Lake, Alaska. This is the most complete set of field data of this type collected in the Arctic of North America. These data have been used in process-oriented research to increase our understanding of atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere interactions. Basically, we are monitoring heat and mass transfer between various spheres to quantify rates. These could be rates of mass movement such as hillslope flow or rates of heat transfer for active layer thawing or combined heat and mass processes such as evapotranspiration. We have utilized a conceptual model to predict hydrologic processes. To test the success of this model, we are comparing our predicted rates of runoff and snowmelt to measured valves. We have also used a surface energy model to simulate active layer temperatures. The final step in this modeling effort to date was to predict what impact climatic warming would have on active layer thicknesses and how this will influence the hydrology of our research watershed by examining several streambeds.

  14. Meteorological support for space operations: Review and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The current meteorological support provided to NASA by NOAA, Air Weather Service, and other contractors is reviewed and suggestions are offered for its improvement. These recommendations include improvement in NASA's internal management organizational structure that would accommodate continued improvement in operational weather support, installation of new observing systems, improvement in analysis and forecasting procedures, and the establishment of an Applied Research and Forecasting Facility.

  15. Meteorological satellites: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Past developments, accomplishments and future potential of meteorological satellites are discussed. Meteorological satellite design is described in detail. Space platforms and their meteorological applications are discussed. User needs are also discussed.

  16. Groundwater Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Sean A.

    A good introductory groundwater textbook must strike a delicate balance in presenting the basics of the physical, chemical, geological, mathematical, and engineering aspects of the groundwater field without being too lengthy or overly detailed. Charles Fitts states that his motivation for writing Groundwater Science was to be able to “…teach concepts and quantitative analyses with a clear, lean, but thorough book.” He has succeeded in striking this balance of having just the right amount of information, and has met his goals of producing a concise book that can be used to teach the concepts and analyses necessary for the study of groundwater.Overall, Groundwater Science would serve well as the text for an introductory groundwater course at the college senior or first-year graduate level. The author and the publisher have made excellent use of two-color, gray and blue-scale images throughout the book. The graphics are crisp and explanatory. Data sets needed to work some of the problems in the book are available as text files from its Web site (http://www.academicpress.com/groundwater). I found these files to be complete and easy to understand. The references are up to date and point the reader to additional information across a wide range of groundwater issues, and also provide a number of examples to illustrate different points made in the book.

  17. Phantosmia as a meteorological forecaster.

    PubMed

    Aiello, S R; Hirsch, A R

    2013-09-01

    In normosmics, olfactory ability has been found to vary with ambient humidity, barometric pressure, and season. While hallucinated sensations of phantom pain associated with changes in weather have been described, a linkage to chemosensory hallucinations has heretofore not been reported. A 64-year-old white male with Parkinson's disease presents with 5 years of phantosmia of a smoky burnt wood which changed to onion-gas and then to a noxious skunk-onion excrement odor. Absent upon waking it increases over the day and persists for hours. When severe, there appears a phantom taste with the same qualities as the odor. It is exacerbated by factors that manipulate intranasal pressure, such as coughing. When eating or sniffing, the actual flavors replace the phantosmia. Since onset, he noted the intensity and frequency of the phantosmia forecasted the weather. Two to 3 h before a storm, the phantosmia intensifies from a level 0 to a 7-10, which persists through the entire thunderstorm. Twenty years prior, he reported the ability to forecast the weather, based on pain in a torn meniscus, which vanished after surgical repair. Extensive olfactory testing demonstrates underlying hyposmia. Possible mechanisms for such chemosensory-meteorological linkage includes: air pressure induced synesthesia, disinhibition of spontaneous olfactory discharge, exacerbation of ectopic discharge, affect mediated somatic sensory amplification, and misattribution error with expectation and recall bias. This is the first reported case of weather-induced exacerbation of phantosmia. Further investigation of the connection between chemosensory complaints and ambient weather is warranted. PMID:23456373

  18. Phantosmia as a meteorological forecaster.

    PubMed

    Aiello, S R; Hirsch, A R

    2013-09-01

    In normosmics, olfactory ability has been found to vary with ambient humidity, barometric pressure, and season. While hallucinated sensations of phantom pain associated with changes in weather have been described, a linkage to chemosensory hallucinations has heretofore not been reported. A 64-year-old white male with Parkinson's disease presents with 5 years of phantosmia of a smoky burnt wood which changed to onion-gas and then to a noxious skunk-onion excrement odor. Absent upon waking it increases over the day and persists for hours. When severe, there appears a phantom taste with the same qualities as the odor. It is exacerbated by factors that manipulate intranasal pressure, such as coughing. When eating or sniffing, the actual flavors replace the phantosmia. Since onset, he noted the intensity and frequency of the phantosmia forecasted the weather. Two to 3 h before a storm, the phantosmia intensifies from a level 0 to a 7-10, which persists through the entire thunderstorm. Twenty years prior, he reported the ability to forecast the weather, based on pain in a torn meniscus, which vanished after surgical repair. Extensive olfactory testing demonstrates underlying hyposmia. Possible mechanisms for such chemosensory-meteorological linkage includes: air pressure induced synesthesia, disinhibition of spontaneous olfactory discharge, exacerbation of ectopic discharge, affect mediated somatic sensory amplification, and misattribution error with expectation and recall bias. This is the first reported case of weather-induced exacerbation of phantosmia. Further investigation of the connection between chemosensory complaints and ambient weather is warranted.

  19. EFFECTS OF METEOROLOGY ON THE TRANSPORT OF DISPERSION OF EMISSIONS FROM THE WTC RECOVERY SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since September 11, 2001, the EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has applied its meteorological measurements and modeling to support WTC recovery projects. The local meteorology is a key factor in both the diurnal and day-to-day changes in the ambient air concent...

  20. Meteorology, Emissions, and Grid Resolution: Effects on Discrete and Probabilistic Model Performance

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we analyze the impacts of perturbations in meteorology and emissions and variations in grid resolution on air quality forecast simulations. The meteorological perturbations con-sidered in this study introduce a typical variability of ~1°C, 250 - 500 m, 1 m/s, and 1...

  1. Air - water temperature relationships in the trout streams of southeastern Minnesota’s carbonate - sandstone landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krider, Lori A.; Magner, Joseph A.; Perry, Jim; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Ferrington, Leonard C.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonate-sandstone geology in southeastern Minnesota creates a heterogeneous landscape of springs, seeps, and sinkholes that supply groundwater into streams. Air temperatures are effective predictors of water temperature in surface-water dominated streams. However, no published work investigates the relationship between air and water temperatures in groundwater-fed streams (GWFS) across watersheds. We used simple linear regressions to examine weekly air-water temperature relationships for 40 GWFS in southeastern Minnesota. A 40-stream, composite linear regression model has a slope of 0.38, an intercept of 6.63, and R2 of 0.83. The regression models for GWFS have lower slopes and higher intercepts in comparison to surface-water dominated streams. Regression models for streams with high R2 values offer promise for use as predictive tools for future climate conditions. Climate change is expected to alter the thermal regime of groundwater-fed systems, but will do so at a slower rate than surface-water dominated systems. A regression model of intercept vs. slope can be used to identify streams for which water temperatures are more meteorologically than groundwater controlled, and thus more vulnerable to climate change. Such relationships can be used to guide restoration vs. management strategies to protect trout streams.

  2. Regional Analysis of Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling analysis of runoff and ground-water recharge for the arid and semiarid southwestern United States was performed to investigate the interactions of climate and other controlling factors and to place the eight study-site investigations into a regional context. A distributed-parameter water-balance model (the Basin Characterization Model, or BCM) was used in the analysis. Data requirements of the BCM included digital representations of topography, soils, geology, and vegetation, together with monthly time-series of precipitation and air-temperature data. Time-series of potential evapotranspiration were generated by using a submodel for solar radiation, taking into account topographic shading, cloudiness, and vegetation density. Snowpack accumulation and melting were modeled using precipitation and air-temperature data. Amounts of water available for runoff and ground-water recharge were calculated on the basis of water-budget considerations by using measured- and generated-meteorologic time series together with estimates of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of subsoil geologic units. Calculations were made on a computational grid with a horizontal resolution of about 270 meters for the entire 1,033,840 square-kilometer study area. The modeling analysis was composed of 194 basins, including the eight basins containing ground-water recharge-site investigations. For each grid cell, the BCM computed monthly values of potential evapotranspiration, soil-water storage, in-place ground-water recharge, and runoff (potential stream flow). A fixed percentage of runoff was assumed to become recharge beneath channels operating at a finer resolution than the computational grid of the BCM. Monthly precipitation and temperature data from 1941 to 2004 were used to explore climatic variability in runoff and ground-water recharge. The selected approach provided a framework for classifying study-site basins with respect to climate and dominant recharge

  3. Viking-1 meteorological measurements - First impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, S. L.; Henry, R. M.; Leovy, C. B.; Tillman, J. E.; Ryan, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation is given of in situ meteorological measurements made by Viking 1 on Mars. The data reported show that: (1) the atmosphere has approximate volume mixing ratios of 1.5% argon, 3% nitrogen, and 95% carbon dioxide; (2) the diurnal temperature range is large and regular, with a sunrise minimum of about 188 K and a midafternoon maximum near 244 K; (3) air and ground temperatures coincide quite closely during the night, but ground temperature exceeds air temperature near midday by as much as 25 C; (4) the winds exhibit a marked diurnal cycle; and (5) a large diurnal pressure variation with an afternoon minimum and an early-morning maximum parallels the wind pattern. The variations are explained in terms of familiar meteorological processes. It is suggested that latent heat is unlikely to play an important role on Mars because no evidence has been observed for traveling synoptic-scale disturbances such as those that occur in the terrestrial tropics.

  4. Ground-water quality, water year 1995, and statistical analysis of ground-water-quality data, water years 1994-95, at the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Roybal, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    The Chromic Acid Pit site is an inactive waste disposal site that is regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The 2.2-cubic-yard cement-lined pit was operated from 1980 to 1983 by a contractor to the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss. The pit, located on the Fort Bliss military reservation in El Paso, Texas, was used for disposal and evaporation of chromic acid waste generated from chrome plating operations. The site was closed in 1989, and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission issued permit number HW-50296 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency number TX4213720101), which approved and implemented post-closure care for the Chromic Acid Pit site. In accordance with an approved post-closure plan, the U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Army in monitoring and evaluating ground-water quality at the site. One upgradient ground-water monitoring well (MW1) and two downgradient ground-water monitoring wells (MW2 and MW3), installed adjacent to the chromic acid pit, are monitored on a quarterly basis. Ground-water sampling of these wells by the U.S. Geological Survey began in December 1993. The ground-water level, measured in a production well located approximately 1,700 feet southeast of the Chromic Acid Pit site, has declined about 29.43 feet from 1982 to 1995. Depth to water at the Chromic Acid Pit site in September 1995 was 284.2 to 286.5 feet below land surface; ground-water flow at the water table is assumed to be toward the southeast. Ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells at the Chromic Acid Pit site during water year 1995 contained dissolved- solids concentrations of 481 to 516 milligrams per liter. Total chromium concentrations detected above the laboratory reporting limit ranged from 0.0061 to 0.030 milligram per liter; dissolved chromium concentrations ranged from 0.0040 to 0.010 milligram per liter. Nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 2.8 milligrams per

  5. Focusing on Improving Automated Meteorological Observations from Ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Shawn R.

    2004-08-01

    The High-Resolution Marine Meteorology (HRMM) community is working to improve the quality of, and access to, surface marine meteorological and oceanographic data collected in situ by automated instrumentation on ships and moored platforms. The purpose of the Second High-Resolution Marine Meteorology Workshop, hosted by The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Climate Observation (OCO), last April, was to discuss implementation of the recommendations from the Workshop on High-Resolution Marine Meteorology held in Tallahassee, Florida on 3-5 March 2003 (for details, see http://www.coaps.fsu.edu/RVSMDC/marine_workshop/Workshop.html ). Shipboard automated meteorological and oceanographic systems (SAMOSs) are an essential component of a sustained ocean observing system. SAMOSs provide platform navigation, surface meteorology, and near-surface ocean data that are ideal benchmarks for new satellite sensors (e.g., WindSat, future National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) sensors) and global ocean-atmosphere models. SAMOS sampling is adequate to provide accurate estimates of the variability on scales (from subdiurnal) needed for satellite calibration and validation. Sampling rates also are ideal for estimating turbulent air-sea heat, momentum, and moisture fluxes that are critical for climate research and can be used to help understand sources of bias and uncertainty in global model flux fields. SAMOS observations from oceanographic research vessels (R/Vs) are of particular importance since these vessels frequently operate in areas far outside the normal merchant shipping lanes.

  6. A new challenge for meteorological measurements: The "MeteoMet" project - Metrology for meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlone, A.; Lopardo, G.; Antonsen, I.; Bell, S.; Benyon, R.; Boese, N.; del Campo, D.; Dobre, M.; Drnovšek, J.; Elkatmis, A.; Georgin, E.; Grudniewicz, E.; Heinonen, M.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Johansson, J.; Klason, P.; Knorova, R.; Melvad, C.; Merrison, J.; Migała, K.; de Podesta, M.; Saathoff, H.; Smorgon, D.; Sparasci, F.; Strnad, R.; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Vuillermoz, E.

    2013-09-01

    Climate change and its consequences require immediate actions in order to safeguard the environment and economy in Europe and in the rest of world. Aiming to enhance data reliability and reduce uncertainties in climate observations, a joint research project called "MeteoMet - Metrology for Meteorology" started in October 2011 coordinated by the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM). The project is focused on the traceability of measurements involved in climate change: surface and upper air measurements of temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, solar irradiance and reciprocal influences between measurands. This project will provide the first definition at the European level of validated climate parameters with associated uncertainty budgets and novel criteria for interpretation of historical data series. The big challenge is the propagation of a metrological measurement perspective to meteorological observations. When such an approach will be adopted the requirement of reliable data and robust datasets over wide scales and long terms could be better met.

  7. Well-construction, water-level, and water-quality data for ground-water monitoring wells for the J4 hydrogeologic study, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugh, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Between December 1993 and March 1994, 27 wells were installed at 12 sites near the J4 test cell at Arnold Engineering Development Center in Coffee County, Tennessee. The wells ranged from 28 to 289 feet deep and were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. This information will be used to help understand the effects of dewatering operations at the J4 test cell on the local ground-water-flow system. The J4 test cell, extending approximately 250 feet below land surface, is used in the testing of rocket motors. Ground water must be pumped continuously from around the test cell to keep it structurally intact. The amount of water discharged from the J4 test cell was monitored to estimate the average rate of ground-water withdrawal at the J4 test cell. Ground- water levels were monitored continuously at 14 wells for 12 months. Water-quality samples were collected from 26 of the new wells, 9 existing wells, and the ground-water discharge from the J4 test cell. All samples were analyzed for common inorganic ions, trace metals, and volatile organic compounds.

  8. Meteorological influences on nitrogen dynamics of a coastal onsite wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, M A; Humphrey, C P; Deal, N E; Lindbo, D L; Zarate-Bermudez, M A

    2014-11-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) can contribute nitrogen (N) to coastal waters. In coastal areas with shallow groundwater, OWTS are likely affected by meteorological events. However, the meteorological influences on temporal variability of N exports from OWTS are not well documented. Hydrogeological characterization and seasonal monitoring of wastewater and groundwater quality were conducted at a residence adjacent to the Pamlico River Estuary, North Carolina, during a 2-yr field study (October 2009-2011). Rainfall was elevated during the first study year, relative to the annual mean. In the second year, drought was followed by extreme precipitation from Hurricane Irene. Recent meteorological conditions influenced N speciation and concentrations in groundwater. Groundwater total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) beneath the OWTS drainfield was dominated by nitrate during the drought; during wetter periods, ammonium and organic N were common. Effective precipitation (precipitation [P] minus evapotranspiration [ET]) affected OWTS TDN exports because of its influence on groundwater recharge and discharge. Groundwater nitrate-N concentrations beneath the drainfield were typically higher than 10 mg/L when total biweekly precipitation was less than evapotranspiration (precipitation deficit: P < ET). Overall, groundwater TDN concentrations were elevated above background concentrations at distances >15 m downgradient of the drainfield. Although OWTS nitrate inputs caused elevated groundwater nitrate concentrations between the drainfield and the estuary, the majority of nitrate was attenuated via denitrification between the OWTS and 48 m to the estuary. However, DON originating from the OWTS was mobile and contributed to elevated TDN concentrations along the groundwater flowpath to the estuary. PMID:25602204

  9. Meteorological Influences on Nitrogen Dynamics of a Coastal Onsite Wastewater Treatment System

    PubMed Central

    O’Driscoll, M.A.; Humphrey, C. P.; Deal, N.E.; Lindbo, D.L.; Zarate-Bermudez, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) can contribute nitrogen (N) to coastal waters. In coastal areas with shallow groundwater, OWTS are likely affected by meteorological events. However, the meteorological influences on temporal variability of N exports from OWTS are not well documented. Hydrogeological characterization and seasonal monitoring of wastewater and groundwater quality were conducted at a residence adjacent to the Pamlico River Estuary, North Carolina during a two-year field study (October 2009–2011). Rainfall was elevated during the first study year, relative to the annual mean. In the second year, drought was followed by extreme precipitation from Hurricane Irene. Recent meteorological conditions influenced N speciation and concentrations in groundwater. Groundwater total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) beneath the OWTS drainfield was dominated by nitrate during the drought; during wetter periods ammonium and organic N were common. Effective precipitation (P-ET) affected OWTS TDN exports because of its influence on groundwater recharge and discharge. Groundwater nitrate-N concentrations beneath the drainfield were typically higher than 10 mg/l when total bi-weekly precipitation was less than evapotranspiration (precipitation deficit: Pgroundwater TDN concentrations were elevated above background concentrations at distances >15 m downgradient of the drainfield. Although OWTS nitrate inputs caused elevated groundwater nitrate concentrations between the drainfield and the estuary, the majority of nitrate was attenuated via denitrification between the OWTS and 48 m to the estuary. However, DON originating from the OWTS was mobile and contributed to elevated TDN concentrations along the groundwater flowpath to the estuary. PMID:25602204

  10. Mathematics and Meteorology: Perfect Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomeli, Cynthia L.

    1991-01-01

    The integration of science and mathematics in the middle school using the topic of meteorology is discussed. Seven selected activities for this approach are suggested. Lists of materials and resources for use in this teaching approach are appended. (CW)

  11. Meteorological measurements from satellite platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suomi, V. E.

    1972-01-01

    Quantitative exploitation of meteorological data from geosynchronous satellites is starting to move from the laboratory to operational practice. Investigations of the data applications portion of the total meteorological satellite system include: (1) tropospheric wind shear and the related severe storm circulations; (2) kinematic properties of the tropical atmosphere as derived from cloud motion vectors; (3) application of a geostationary satellite rake system to measurements of rainfall; and (4) pointing error analysis of geosynchronous satellites.

  12. BOREAS Derived Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Twine, Tracy; Rinker, Donald; Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    In 1995, the BOREAS science teams identified the need for a continuous surface meteorological and radiation data set to support flux and surface process modeling efforts. This data set contains actual, substituted, and interpolated 15-minute meteorological and radiation data compiled from several surface measurements sites over the BOREAS SSA and NSA. Temporally, the data cover 01-Jan-1994 to 31-Dec-1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A LAND-SURFACE MODEL PART I: APPLICATION IN A MESOSCALE METEOROLOGY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Parameterization of land-surface processes and consideration of surface inhomogeneities are very important to mesoscale meteorological modeling applications, especially those that provide information for air quality modeling. To provide crucial, reliable information on the diurn...

  14. URBAN MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS FOR MESOSCALE METEOROLOGICAL AND DISPERSION MODELING APPLICATIONS: CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Representing urban terrain characteristics in mesoscale meteorological and dispersion models is critical to produce accurate predictions of wind flow and temperature fields, air quality, and contaminant transport. A key component of the urban terrain representation is the charac...

  15. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at NSA Handbook - January 2006

    SciTech Connect

    MT Ritsche

    2006-01-30

    The Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk (METTWR2H) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to measure wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point and humidity mounted on a 10-m tower. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data from sensors at or near the base of the tower. In addition, a Chilled Mirror Hygrometer is located at 1 m for comparison purposes. Temperature and relative humidity probes are mounted at 2 m and 5 m on the tower. For more information, see the Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk Handbook.

  16. Introduction of Micro-meteorology Monitoring System for Test-bed Region in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, C.; Byon, J.; Kahng, K.; Park, Y.; Jung, H.

    2013-12-01

    Changbum Cho, Jae-Young Byon, Keumah Kahng, Young-San Park, and Hyun-Sook Jung National Institute of Meteorological Research, Korea Meteorological Administration, Korea National Institute of Meteorological Research established micro-meteorology monitoring system at the Nakdong River of South Korea since 2010 in order to study the micro-meteorological impact due to nationwide major river development project. A total of 37 automatic weather stations are in operation at areas near the dams which were constructed as part of this project. The weather stations mainly measure air temperature, humidity, and wind, with some of the stations measuring radiation and heat fluxes. More than half of the stations are installed on agricultural areas and the rest are installed in an industrial area. The data collected from the stations are used to observe the micrometeorological system and used as an input to numerical models, which compose a meteorological environment impact assessment tool.

  17. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This Quarter's Highlights incllude: completion of the second phase of verifying the performance of the MesoNAM weather model at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). (1) The data was delivered to the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and the final report was distributed (2) Staff completed modifying and updating lightning c1imatologies for KSC/CCAFS and other airfields around central Florida. We delivered the tool to the National Weather Service in Melbourne and 45 WS and distributed the final report (3) Staff completed modifying the AMU peak wind tool by analyzing wind tower data to determine peak wind behavior during times of onshore and offshore flow. This was delivered the to the 45 WS and distributed the final report.

  18. A new microtelesensor chip for meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Manges, W.W.; Smith, S.F.; Britton, C.L.

    1997-03-04

    A new technology exploiting commercial, micro-sensors developed for atomic force microscopy offers breakthrough capability in high accuracy wireless sensors for meteorological measurements. Historically sensors used in air-borne and buoy-based platforms required compromises in performance to achieve the low-weight and low power requirements of the mobile platforms. Recent innovations in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) provided opportunities to reduce size, weight, and power requirements but each sensor required a specially fabricated device with inherent calibration, repeatability, and traceability problems. This new approach allows identical sensors to be fabricated on the same semiconductor substrate as the conditioning electronics and the telemetry components. Exploiting semiconductor fabrication technology offers the potential to reduce fabrication costs to a few dollars per component. Sensing humidity, temperature and pressure have been demonstrated with plans for meteorological deployment scheduled for later in 1997. Cost, reliability, size, power consumption, and accuracy are key factors in the deployment of advanced meteorological sensor arrays. ORNL is actively integrating the sensing technologies, electronic processing, and telemetry that build a family of sensors with multiple-input capabilities. One of the key elements in ORNL`s sensor technology is coated microcantilever arrays, which form a powerful universal platform for multiple physical and chemical measurements. Telemetry is also being developed to add robust spread-spectrum data transmission capabilities to the necessary signal processing electronics. In collaboration with the NOAA Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Lab, a chip-level temperature/humidity module with onboard telemetry is slated for demonstration later in 1997. Future additions would include sensors for atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, turbulence measurement, and radiometry.

  19. Estimating annual groundwater recharge coefficient for karst aquifers of the southern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; De Vita, P.

    2014-02-01

    To assess the mean annual groundwater recharge of the karst aquifers in the southern Apennines (Italy), the estimation of the mean annual groundwater recharge coefficient (AGRC) was conducted by means of an integrated approach based on hydrogeological, hydrological, geomorphological, land use and soil cover analyses. Starting from the hydrological budget equation, the coefficient was conceived as the ratio between the net groundwater outflow and the precipitation minus actual evapotranspiration (P - ETR) for a karst aquifer. A large part of the southern Apennines, which is covered by a meteorological network containing 40 principal karst aquifers, was studied. Using precipitation and air temperature time series gathered through monitoring stations operating in the period 1926-2012, the mean annual P - ETR was estimated, and its distribution was modelled at a regional scale by considering the orographic barrier and rain shadow effects of the Apennine chain, as well as the altitudinal control. Four sample karst aquifers with available long spring discharge time series were identified for estimating the AGRC. The resulting values were correlated with other parameters that control groundwater recharge, such as the extension of outcropping karst rocks, morphological settings, land use and covering soil type. A multiple linear regression between the AGRC, lithology and the summit plateau and endorheic areas was found. This empirical model was used to assess the AGRC and mean annual groundwater recharge in other regional karst aquifers. The coefficient was calculated as ranging between 50 and 79%, thus being comparable with other similar estimations carried out for karst aquifers of European and Mediterranean countries. The mean annual groundwater recharge for karst aquifers of the southern Apennines was assessed by these characterizations and validated by a comparison with available groundwater outflow measurements. These results represent a deeper understanding of an

  20. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David; Barrett, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Develop climatologies of gridded CG lightning densities and frequencies of occurrence for the Melbourne, FL National Weather Service (NWS MLB) county warning area. These grids are used to create a first-guess field for the lightning threat index map that is available on the NWS MLB NASA KSCIKT website. Forecasters previously created this map from scratch. Having the climatologies as a background field will increase consistency between forecasters and decrease their workload. Delivered all files containing the lightning climatologies, the data, and the code used to create the climatologies to NWS MLB. Completed and distributed a final memorandum describing how the climatologies were created. All the files were installed on the NWS MLB computer system, and then the code was compiled and tested to ensure that it worked properly on their operating system. The climatologies and their descriptions are posted on the NWS MLB website. Forecasting Low-Level Convergent Bands Under Southeast Flow Provide guidance to operational personnel that will help improve their forecasts of cloud bands under large-scale southeast flow. When these bands occur, they can lead to cloud, rain, and thunderstorm occurrences that adversely affect launch, landing, and ground operations at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (KSC/CCAFS). Completed the first draft of the final report. The conclusions from this task indicated low-level wind speed and direction, low-level high pressure ridge position, east coast sea breeze front activity and upper-level jet streak position have the greatest influence on convergent band formation and movement during southeasterly flow.

  1. Meteorological parameters and severity of acute pulmonary embolism episodes.

    PubMed

    Staśkiewicz, Grzegorz; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta; Przegaliński, Jerzy; Maciejewski, Marcin; Pachowicz, Marcin; Drop, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Frequency of acute pulmonary embolism episodes has been previously shown to correlate significantly with meteorological factors in the period preceding their occurrence. The purpose of the study was to analyze the relation of meteorological factors and the severity of acute pulmonary embolism, expressed by the CT-based pulmonary obstruction score. A retrospective analysis of medical data of 182 consecutive patients with acute pulmonary embolism diagnosed with CT pulmonary angiography was performed. Severity of pulmonary obstruction was assessed by analysis of CT pulmonary angiography examinations, and defined with pulmonary obstruction score by Qanadli et al. The study group was divided into low (L group, 95 patients) and high PE severity (H group, 87 patients), with a cutoff value of 50% of maximum pulmonary obstruction score. Meteorological data collected for the relevant time period were: air temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, visibility, wind speed and precipitation. No significant differences in seasonal distribution of pulmonary embolism episodes were observed. Episodes of more severe pulmonary embolism were preceded by periods of lower atmospheric pressure (1,016.35 hPA for group H, vs. 1,016.35 hPa for group L, p = 0.022). No significant relations between other meteorological factors and severity of PE were observed. The reported finding shows the need of further research on the nature of meteorological factors influence on the course of pulmonary embolism, which should be analyzed not ony regarding the frequency, but also severity of PE episodes.

  2. Design of extensible meteorological data acquisition system based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yin-hua; Zhang, Hui-jun; Li, Xiao-hui

    2015-02-01

    In order to compensate the tropospheric refraction error generated in the process of satellite navigation and positioning. Temperature, humidity and air pressure had to be used in concerned models to calculate the value of this error. While FPGA XC6SLX16 was used as the core processor, the integrated silicon pressure sensor MPX4115A and digital temperature-humidity sensor SHT75 are used as the basic meteorological parameter detection devices. The core processer was used to control the real-time sampling of ADC AD7608 and to acquire the serial output data of SHT75. The data was stored in the BRAM of XC6SLX16 and used to generate standard meteorological parameters in NEMA format. The whole design was based on Altium hardware platform and ISE software platform. The system was described in the VHDL language and schematic diagram to realize the correct detection of temperature, humidity, air pressure. The 8-channel synchronous sampling characteristics of AD7608 and programmable external resources of FPGA laid the foundation for the increasing of analog or digital meteorological element signal. The designed meteorological data acquisition system featured low cost, high performance, multiple expansions.

  3. The ClearfLo project - Understanding London's meteorology and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, Stephen; Bohnenstengel, Sylvia

    2014-05-01

    ClearfLo is a large multi-institutional project funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). ClearfLo established integrated measurements of meteorology, gaseous and particulate composition/loading of London's (UK) urban atmosphere in 2011 and 2012 to understand the processes underlying poor air quality. A new and unique long-term measurement infrastructure was established in London at street level, urban background and elevated sites and contrasted against rural locations to determine the urban increment in meteorology and pollution. This approach enables understanding the seasonal variations in the meteorology and composition together with the controlling processes. In addition two intensive observation periods (IOPs) provide more detail in winter 2012 and during the Olympics in summer 2012 focusing upon the vertical structure and evolution of the urban boundary layer, chemical controls on nitrogen dioxide and ozone production, in particular the role of volatile organic compounds, and processes controlling the evolution, size, distribution and composition of particulate matter. In this talk we present early analysis of the meteorology and air quality measurements within ClearfLo. In particular we show measurements that indicate the dominant regimes of London's boundary layer.

  4. Effects of meteorological conditions on spore plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, M.; Levetin, E.

    2002-05-01

    Fungal spores are an ever-present component of the atmosphere, and have long been known to trigger asthma and hay fever symptoms in sensitive individuals. The atmosphere around Tulsa has been monitored for airborne spores and pollen with Burkard spore traps at several sampling stations. This study involved the examination of the hourly spore concentrations on days that had average daily concentrations near 50,000 spores/m3 or greater. Hourly concentrations of Cladosporium, Alternaria, Epicoccum, Curvularia, Pithomyces, Drechslera, smut spores, ascospores, basidiospores, other, and total spores were determined on 4 days at three sites and then correlated with hourly meteorological data including temperature, rainfall, wind speed, dew point, air pressure, and wind direction. On each of these days there was a spore plume, a phenomenon in which spore concentrations increased dramatically over a very short period of time. Spore plumes generally occurred near midday, and concentrations were seen to increase from lows around 20,000 total spores/m3 to highs over 170,000 total spores/m3 in 2 h. Multiple regression analysis of the data indicated that increases in temperature, dew point, and air pressure correlated with the increase in spore concentrations, but no single weather variable predicted the appearance of a spore plume. The proper combination of changes in these meteorological parameters that result in a spore plume may be due to the changing weather conditions associated with thunderstorms, as on 3 of the 4 days when spore plumes occurred there were thunderstorms later that evening. The occurrence of spore plumes may have clinical significance, because other studies have shown that sensitization to certain spore types can occur during exposure to high spore concentrations.

  5. Estimating annual effective infiltration coefficient and groundwater recharge for karst aquifers of the southern Apennines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; De Vita, P.

    2013-08-01

    To assess the mean annual groundwater recharge of the karst aquifers in southern Apennines (Italy), the estimation of the mean annual effective infiltration coefficient (AEIC) was conducted by means of an integrated approach based on hydrogeological, hydrological, geomorphological, land use and soil cover analyses. We studied a large part of the southern Apennines that is covered by a meteorological network and containing 40 principal karst aquifers. Using precipitation and air temperature time series gathered through monitoring stations operating in the period 1926-2012, the annual effective precipitation (AEP) was estimated, and its distribution was modelled, by considering the orographic barrier and rain shadow effects of the Apennines chain, as well as the altitudinal control. Four sample karst aquifers with available long spring discharge time series were identified for estimating the AEIC by means of the hydrological budget equation. The resulting AEIC values were correlated with other parameters that control groundwater recharge, such as the extension of outcropping karst-rock, morphological settings, land use and covering soil type. A simple correlation relationship between AEIC, lithology and the summit flat and endorheic areas was found. This empirical model has been used to estimate AEIC and mean annual groundwater recharge in other regional karst aquifers. The estimated AEIC values ranged between 48% and 78%, thus matching intervals estimated for other karst aquifers in European and Mediterranean countries. These results represent a deeper understanding of an aspect of groundwater hydrology in karst aquifers which is fundamental for the formulation of appropriate management models of groundwater resources, also taking into account mitigation strategies for climate change impacts. Finally, the proposed hydrological characterisations are also perceived as useful for the assessment of mean annual runoff over carbonate mountains, which is another important

  6. Design and Operation of a Borehole Straddle Packer for Ground-Water Sampling and Hydraulic Testing of Discrete Intervals at U.S. Air Force Plant 6, Marietta, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holloway, Owen G.; Waddell, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    A borehole straddle packer was developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey to characterize the vertical distribution of contaminants, head, and hydraulic properties in open-borehole wells as part of an ongoing investigation of ground-water contamination at U.S. Air Force Plant 6 (AFP6) in Marietta, Georgia. To better understand contaminant fate and transport in a crystalline bedrock setting and to support remedial activities at AFP6, numerous wells have been constructed that include long open-hole intervals in the crystalline bedrock. These wells can include several discontinuities that produce water, which may contain contaminants. Because of the complexity of ground-water flow and contaminant movement in the crystalline bedrock, it is important to characterize the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics of discrete intervals in these wells. The straddle packer facilitates ground-water sampling and hydraulic testing of discrete intervals, and delivery of fluids including tracer suites and remedial agents into these discontinuities. The straddle packer consists of two inflatable packers, a dual-pump system, a pressure-sensing system, and an aqueous injection system. Tests were conducted to assess the accuracy of the pressure-sensing systems, and water samples were collected for analysis of volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentrations. Pressure-transducer readings matched computed water-column height, with a coefficient of determination of greater than 0.99. The straddle packer incorporates both an air-driven piston pump and a variable-frequency, electronic, submersible pump. Only slight differences were observed between VOC concentrations in samples collected using the two different types of sampling pumps during two sampling events in July and August 2005. A test conducted to assess the effect of stagnation on VOC concentrations in water trapped in the system's pump-tubing reel showed that concentrations were not affected. A comparison was conducted

  7. Economic benefits of meteorological services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freebairn, John W.; Zillman, John W.

    2002-03-01

    There is an increasing need for more rigorous and more broadly based determination of the economic value of meteorological services as an aid to decision-making on the appropriate level of funding to be committed to their provision at the national level. This paper develops an overall framework for assessment of the economic value of meteorological services based on the recognition that most national meteorological infrastructure and services possess the non rival properties of public goods. Given this overall framework for determination of both total and marginal benefits, four main methodologies appropriate for use in valuation studies - market prices, normative or prescriptive decision-making models, descriptive behavioural response studies and contingent valuation studies - are outlined and their strengths and limitations described. Notwithstanding the methodological limitations and the need for a much more comprehensive set of studies for the various application sectors, it is clear that the actual and potential benefits to individuals, firms, industry sectors and national economies from state-of-the-art meteorological and related services are substantial and that, at this stage, they are inadequately recognised and insufficiently exploited in many countries.

  8. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  9. A primary study on finding hot groundwater using infrared remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Y.; Wu, Q.

    Hot groundwater is a kind of valuable natural resources to be explored utilized. Shanxi Province, located in the eastern Loess Plateau of China, is rich in geothermal resources, most of which was found in irrigation well drilling or geological survey. Basic study is weak. Now new developed Remote Sensing technique provides geothermal study with an advanced way. Air-RS information of thermal infrared and dada from thermal channel of Meteorological Landset AVHRR has been used widely. A thermal infrared channel (TM6) was installed in the U. S. second Landset, Its resolving power of space is as high as 120 m, 10 times more t an one ofh AVHRR. A Landset earth recourses launched by China and Brazil (CBERS-1) in 1999, including a spectrum of thermal infrared. It is paid a great interested and attention to survey geothermal resources using thermal infrared. This article is a brief introduction of finding hot groundwater with on the bases of differences of thermal radiation of objects reflected by thermal infrared in the Landset, and treated with HIS colors changes. This study provides an advanced way widely used to exploit hot groundwater and to promote the development of tourism and geothermal medical in China.

  10. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  11. An Overview of the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Francis; Bauman, William; Lambert, Winifred; Short, David; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2007-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) acts as a bridge between research and operations by transitioning technology to improve weather support to the Shuttle and American space program. It is a NASA entity operated under a tri-agency agreement by NASA, the US Air Force, and the National Weather Service (NWS). The AMU contract is managed by NASA, operated by ENSCO, Inc. personnel, and is collocated with Range Weather Operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The AMU is tasked by its customers in the 45th Weather Squadron, Spaceflight Meteorology Group, and the NWS in Melbourne, FL with projects whose results help improve the weather forecast for launch, landing, and ground operations. This presentation describes the history behind the formation of the AMU, its working relationships and goals, how it is tasked by its customers, and examples of completed tasks.

  12. Groundwater Screen

    1993-11-09

    GWSCREEN was developed for assessment of the groundwater pathway from leaching of radioactive and non radioactive substances from surface or buried sources and release to percolation ponds. The code calculates the limiting soil concentration or effluent release concentration such that, after leaching and transport to the aquifer, regulatory contaminant levels in groundwater are not exceeded. The code uses a mass conservation approach to model three processes: Contaminant release from a source volume, contaminant transport inmore » the unsaturated zone, and contaminant transport in the saturated zone. The source model considers the sorptive properties and solubility of the contaminant. Transport in the unsaturated zone is described by a plug flow model. Transport in the saturated zone is calculated with a semi-analytical solution to the advection dispersion equation in groundwater. Concentration as a function of time at a user specified receptor point and maximum concentration averaged over the exposure interval are also calculated. In addition, the code calculates transport and impacts of radioactive progeny. Input to GWSCREEN is through one, free format ASCII file. This code was designed for assessment and screening of the groundwater pathway when field data is limited. It was not intended to be a predictive tool.« less

  13. Ecosystem and human health impacts from increased corn production: vulnerability assessment of exposure to high nitrate concentrations in groundwater and blue baby syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, V.; Cooter, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requires oil refiners to reach a target of 15 billion gallons of corn-based ethanol by 2022. However, there are concerns that the broad-scale use of corn as a source of ethanol may lead to unintended economic and environmental consequences. This study applies the geophysical relationships captured with linked meteorological, air quality and agriculture models to examine the impact of corn production before enactment of the RFS in 2002 and at the height of the RFS targets in 2022. In particular, we investigate the probability of high-levels of nitrate in groundwater resulting from increased corn production and then relate this vulnerability to the potential for infants to acquire Methemoglobinemia, or 'Blue Baby Syndrome'. Blue Baby Syndrome (BBS) is a potentially fatal condition that occurs when the hemoglobin (Fe2+) in an infant's red blood cells is oxidized to methemoglobin (Fe3+), preventing the uptake of oxygen from the baby's blood. Exposure to high levels of nitrate in groundwater occur near the intersection of areas where surface water can more readily leach into shallow aquifers, wells are the main source of drinking water, and high nitrogen inputs exist. We use a coupled meteorological, agricultural and air quality model to identify areas vulnerable to increased nitrate contamination and associated risk to acquiring BBS. We first verify the relationship between predictive variables (e.g., nitrogen deposition and fertilization rates, landcover, soils and aquifer type) and nitrate groundwater levels by applying a regression model to over 800 nitrate measurements taken from wells located throughout the US (Figure 1). We then apply the regression coefficients to the coupled model output to identify areas that are at an increased risk for high nitrate groundwater levels in 2022. Finally, we examine the potential change in risk for acquiring BBS resulting from increased corn production by applying an Oral Reference Dose (Rf

  14. [Meteorology and the human body: two hundred years of history].

    PubMed

    Forrai, Judit

    2010-07-01

    Modern meteorology was started in the 18th century, with the establishment of observer networks through countries. Since then, temperature, pressure and purity of air, quantity of powder have been measured and the effects of changes on the human body have been studied. New theories have been set relating to the atmospheric properties of microorganisms. Changes of pathogens in the context of climatic changes have been also studied.

  15. Meteorological radar services: a brief discussion and a solution in practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaides, K. A.

    2014-08-01

    The Department of Meteorology is the organization designated by the Civil Aviation Department and by the National Supervisory Authority of the Republic of Cyprus, as an air navigation service provider, based on the regulations of the Single European Sky. Department of Meteorology holds and maintains also an ISO: 9001/2008, Quality System, for the provision of meteorological and climatological services to aeronautic and maritime community, but also to the general public. In order to fulfill its obligations the Department of Meteorology customs the rather dense meteorological stations network, with long historical data series, installed and maintained by the Department, in parallel with modelling and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), along with training and gaining of expertise. Among the available instruments in the community of meteorologists is the meteorological radar, a basic tool for the needs of very short/short range forecasting (nowcasting). The Department of Meteorology installed in the mid 90's a C-band radar over «Throni» location and expanded its horizons in nowcasting, aviation safety and warnings issuance. The radar has undergone several upgrades but today technology has over passed its rather old technology. At the present the Department of Meteorology is in the process of buying Meteorological Radar Services as a result of a public procurement procedure. Two networked X-band meteorological radar will be installed (the project now is in the phase of infrastructure establishment while the hardware is in the process of assemble), and maintained from Space Hellas (the contractor) for a 13 years' time period. The present article must be faced as a review article of the efforts of the Department of Meteorology to support its weather forecasters with data from meteorological radar.

  16. Groundwater treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzazieh, N.

    1996-12-01

    When considering technologies for the common pump-and-treat scenario, identifying and characterizing the contaminant source area are the keys to successful operation. Under this scenario, groundwater is extracted from the subsurface, treated in an above-ground system, and returned to an aquifer or discharged to a publicly owned treatment works or surface water. Such a system also may contain a plume, or fixed concentration of contaminants. A sound hydrogeological assessment of the site and the contaminant plume provides a good estimate of cleanup time and of progress as treatment proceeds. In situ alternatives also can be considered for groundwater remediation. The combination of in situ and pump-and-treat technologies may result in considerable savings under some site conditions. Before evaluating technologies, an engineer needs to identify the organic and inorganic constituents at a site and study how effectively they can be treated by the proposed technologies. Such an evaluation should consider each technology`s capacity to handle maximum contaminant concentrations at the required maximum pumping rates. The three groundwater treatment technologies discussed here are carbon adsorption, air stripping, and biological treatment.

  17. Observed Trends in Subtropical Stratocumulus and Associated Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chellappan, S.; Norris, J. R.; Myers, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of low-level cloud feedbacks to climate sensitivity motivates an investigation of how low-level cloud amount, liquid water path, and related meteorological conditions have changed in recent decades in subtropical stratocumulus regions. Using a satellite cloud dataset corrected for inhomogeneities, we find that during 1984-2009 low-level cloud amount significantly increased over the northeast and southeast Pacific, significantly decreased over the northeast Atlantic, and weakly increased over the southeast Atlantic and southeast Indian oceans. During 1988-2012, liquid water path decreased over the northeast Pacific, significantly increased over the southeast Pacific and northeast and southeast Atlantic, and weakly increased over the southeast Indian oceans. Examination of meteorological parameters from four re-analyses indicates that positive trends in low-level cloud amount are associated with decreasing trends in sea surface temperature and increasing trends in inversion strength, subsidence and cold-air advection, and vice-versa. Relationships between liquid water path and meteorological conditions are weaker, but increasing trends in liquid water path are associated with increasing trends in sea surface temperature and decreasing trends in inversion strength, subsidence, and cold-air advection, and vice-versa. A multi-linear regression model based on these four meteorological variables well captures the sign and to certain extent magnitude of observed cloud amount trends in almost all stratocumulus regions, but a similarly constructed model largely fails to reproduce the observed liquid water path trends. Differing signs of cloud trends and differing contributions from meteorological parameters between regions suggest that observed changes in subtropical stratocumulus since the 1980s are primarily due to natural variability rather than a systematic response to climate change.

  18. Technology and Meteorology. An Action Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Raymond F.

    Meteorology, the science of weather and weather conditions, has traditionally been taught via textbook and rote demonstration. This study was intended to determine to what degree utilizing technology in the study of meteorology improves students' attitudes towards science and to measure to what extent technology in meteorology increases…

  19. Syllabi for Instruction in Agricultural Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, G. D. B.; And Others

    A working group of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology has prepared this report to fill a need for detailed syllabi for instruction in agricultural meteorology required by different levels of personnel. Agrometeorological personnel are classified in three categories: (1) professional meteorological personnel (graduates with basic training…

  20. Temperature-compensated meteorological barometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.

    2000-04-01

    Meteorological measurements of surface pressure to better than 1 mbar are routinely required in surface pressures of typically 1000 mbar, and detecting small pressure changes is important for forecasting. An inexpensive pressure sensor provides the basis of a barometer suitable for such general meteorological use. Signal-conditioning circuitry has been added to allow typical surface sea-level pressure variations to be resolved to 0.1 mbar using a ±5 V 12-bit analog to digital system. The sensor excitation voltage is shown to track the sensor's temperature closely, and this is extracted to provide a temperature-compensation signal. When combined with a nonlinearity correction system and a digital display, this gives a portable barometer capable of reading to ±0.5 mbar (over the range of 930-1020 mbar) for temperatures between 0 and 25 °C. The final display reading includes the temperature compensation by using a panel meter in ratio mode.

  1. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Third Quarter FY-08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Dreher, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (April - June 2008). Tasks reported on are: Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS Phase II, Completion of the Edward Air Force Base (EAFB) Statistical Guidance Wind Tool, Volume Averaged Height Integ rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Impact of Local Sensors, Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement, VAHIRR Cost Benefit Analysis, and WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base

  2. Metrology for meteorology and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlone, Andrea; Bellagarda, Simone; Bertiglia, Fabio; Coppa, Graziano; Lopardo, Giuseppina; Roggero, Guido; Sanna, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    For a few years now, a fruitful collaboration has been growing between the metrology and meteorology communities. The main need expressed by top level Institutions was for the availability of robust data for environmental and meteorological studies and for the benefit of the present and future generations of climatologists. This was translated by the metrology community into two key objectives centred on traceability and uncertainty. Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) are continuously recorded by a multitude of different sensors on satellites, balloon radiosondes, aircraft, surface weather stations, buoys, and deep sea devices; all of them working in different operating environments and affected by different influence quantities. This complex system, as a whole, requires dedicated calibration techniques and methods to guarantee fully documented traceability and measurements uncertainty evaluation, thus ensuring complete comparability of measurement results. The inclusion of measurement uncertainty in historical and future data series represents a fundamental step towards greater public confidence in evaluations of climate change. EURAMET, the European association of national institute of metrology is funding several joint research projects on those topics and is launching a task group of experts, formed by both metrologists and members of environmental, meteorological Institutions and climatologists. One of those projects, "MeteoMet" (www.meteomet.org), started in 2011 and re-funded in 2014, stands out since it hits both targets: improve the traceability of an increasing number of ECVs and promote the involvement of stakeholders in support of their needs. This mission leads to a novel vision: a permanent cooperation between metrology and meteorology based on new and existing institutions and infrastructures.

  3. Air-water flow in subsurface systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A.; Mishra, P.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater traces its roots to tackle challenges of safe and reliable drinking water and food production. When the groundwater level rises, air pressure in the unsaturated Vadose zone increases, forcing air to escape from the ground surface. Abnormally high and low subsurface air pressure can be generated when the groundwater system, rainfall, and sea level fluctuation are favorably combined [Jiao and Li, 2004]. Through this process, contamination in the form of volatile gases may diffuse from the ground surface into residential areas, or possibly move into groundwater from industrial waste sites. It is therefore crucial to understand the combined effects of air-water flow in groundwater system. Here we investigate theoretically and experimentally the effects of air and water flow in groundwater system.

  4. Groundwater Under Vertisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtzman, D.; Baram, S.; Dahan, O.

    2015-12-01

    Vertisols are cracking clayey soils that: i) usually form in alluvial lowlands where normally, groundwater pools into aquifers; ii) have different types of voids (due to cracking) which make flow and transport of water and gas complex, and iii) are regarded as fertile soils in many areas. The combination of these characteristics results in the unique soil-aquifer phenomena that are highlighted and summarized in this review work. The following four vertisols-aquifer topics will be discussed: 1) Soil cracks as preferential pathways for water and contaminants - Lysimeter to basin-scale observations show the significance of cracks as preferential flow paths in vertisols that bypass matrix blocks in the unsaturated zone. Fresh recharge and groundwater contamination from these fluxes will be reviewed; 2) Soil cracks as deep evaporators and unsaturated-zone salinity - Deep soil samples under uncultivated vertisols in semiarid regions reveal a dry (immobile), saline matrix, partly due to enhanced evaporation through soil cracks. Observations of this phenomenon will be compared and the mechanism of evapoconcentration due to air flow in the cracks is discussed; 3) Impact of cultivation on flushing of the unsaturated zone and aquifer salinization - Land-use change of vertisols from native land to cropland promotes greater fluxes through the saline unsaturated-zone matrix, eventually flushing salts to the aquifer. Different degrees of salt flushing will be presented as well as aquifer salinization on different scales, and a comparison is made with aquifers under other soils; 4) Relatively little nitrate contamination in aquifers under vertisols - A number of observations show that aquifers under cultivated vertisols are somewhat resistant to groundwater contamination by nitrate (the major agriculturally related groundwater problem). Denitrification is probably the main mechanism supporting this resistance, whereas a certain degree of anion-exchange capacity may have a

  5. Evaluation of meteorological and epidemiological characteristics of fatal pulmonary embolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törő, Klára; Pongrácz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit; Váradi-T, Aletta; Marcsa, Boglárka; Szilágyi, Brigitta; Lovas, Attila; Dunay, György; Sótonyi, Péter

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors among epidemiological factors and meteorological conditions in connection with fatal pulmonary embolism. Information was collected from forensic autopsy records in sudden unexpected death cases where pulmonary embolism was the exact cause of death between 2001 and 2010 in Budapest. Meteorological parameters were detected during the investigated period. Gender, age, manner of death, cause of death, place of death, post-mortem pathomorphological changes and daily meteorological conditions (i.e. daily mean temperature and atmospheric pressure) were examined. We detected that the number of registered pulmonary embolism (No 467, 211 male) follows power law in time regardless of the manner of death. We first described that the number of registered fatal pulmonary embolism up to the nth day can be expressed as Y( n) = α ṡ n β where Y denotes the number of fatal pulmonary embolisms up to the nth day and α > 0 and β > 1 are model parameters. We found that there is a definite link between the cold temperature and the increasing incidence of fatal pulmonary embolism. Cold temperature and the change of air pressure appear to be predisposing factors for fatal pulmonary embolism. Meteorological parameters should have provided additional information about the predisposing factors of thromboembolism.

  6. Glossary of Terms Frequently Used in Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huschke, Ralph E., Ed.

    Compiled in this glossary are 275 terms related to air pollution and meteorology. Definitions are designed to be understandable by the non-scientist yet sufficiently technical to satisfy professional requirements. Many terms are extracted from the "Glossary of Meteorology" published by the American Meteorological Society. (BL)

  7. Groundwater Resources Evolution in Degrading Permafrost Environments: A Small Catchment-Scale Study in Northern Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molson, John; Lemieux, Jean-Michel; Fortier, Richard; Therrien, Rene; Ouellet, Michel; Barth, Johannes; van Geldern, Robert; Cochand, Marion; Sottas, Jonathan; Murray, Renaud; Banville, David

    2015-04-01

    A two square kilometre catchment in a discontinuous permafrost zone near the Inuit community of Umiujaq on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay in Northern Quebec, Canada, is being investigated to determine the impact of permafrost degradation on groundwater resources. The catchment, which became deglaciated about 7500 years ago, lies in a valley which includes about 30-40 m of glacial-fluvial and marine Quaternary sediments. Permafrost mounds at the site extend from a few meters below ground surface to depths of about 10-30 m. Instrumentation has been installed to measure groundwater levels and temperature, as well as groundwater and surface water geochemistry, isotope signatures (including δ18O and 3H) and stream flow. Preliminary groundwater isotope data reflect depleted δ18O signals that differ from expected values for local groundwater, possibly representing permafrost thaw. In addition, stable water isotopes indicate evaporation from shallow thermokarst lakes. Meteorological conditions including air temperatures, precipitation and snowpack are also being monitored. Near-surface geophysical surveys using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization tomography (IPT), georadar and seismic refraction tomography have been carried out to characterize the catchment and to build a 3D geological site model. A numerical model of coupled groundwater flow and heat transport, including thermal advection, conduction, freeze-thaw and latent heat, is being developed for the site to help develop the conceptual model and to assess future impacts of permafrost degradation due to climate warming. The model (Heatflow/3D) includes nonlinear functions for the temperature-dependent unfrozen moisture content and relative permeability, and has been tested against analytical solutions and using benchmarks developed by the INTERFROST modelling consortium. A conceptual 2D vertical-plane model including several permafrost mounds along a 1 km section shows dynamic seasonal

  8. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Reuder, Joachim; La Cour-Harbo, Anders; Thomsen, Carsten; Bange, Jens; Buschmann, Marco

    2010-05-01

    This poster describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. During a week of flying a lighter-than-air vehicle, two small electrically powered aeroplanes and a larger helicopter at the Risø test station at Høvsøre, we will compare wind speed measurements with fixed mast and LIDAR measurements, investigate optimal flight patterns for each measurement task, and measure other interesting meteorological features like the air-sea boundary in the vicinity of the wind farm. In order to prepare the measurement campaign, a workshop is held, soliciting input from various communities. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. While the wake structure behind single wind turbines onshore is fairly well understood, there are different problems offshore, thought to be due mainly to the low turbulence. Good measurements of the wake and wake structure are not easy to come by, as the use of a met mast is static and expensive, while the use of remote sensing instruments either needs significant access to the turbine to mount an instrument, or is complicated to use on a ship due to the ship's own movement. In any case, a good LIDAR or SODAR will cost many tens of thousands of euros. Another current problem in wind energy is the coming generation of wind turbines in the 10-12 MW class, with tip heights of over 200 m. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics - all that is known is that the boundary layer description we used so far is not valid any more. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used as either an extension of current high masts or to build a network of very high ‘masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In comparison to a multitude of high masts, UAVs could be quite cost-effective. In order to test

  9. Modeling METREX Tracer Releases Using High-Resolution WRF Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegarty, J. D.; Draxler, R. R.; Nehrkorn, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Metropolitan Tracer Experiment (METREX) was conducted throughout 1984 over the Washington DC area and consisted of hundreds of passive tracer releases with air samples collected at many downwind locations. The experiment included intensive 4-hour tracer releases conducted once per month starting in April of 1984. We simulate several of these intensive releases that had good air sampling coverage using the HYSPLIT Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by meteorological fields generated by WRF on grids as fine as 1 km and utilizing an urban canopy model (UCM) to parameterize the bulk impacts of buildings within the DC urban airshed. Results indicate that 1 km meteorology generated with the UCM dramatically improve the dispersion simulation compared to those using coarser meteorological inputs generated without the UCM for the November 8th intensive release. This improvement is due to better representation of the vertical mixing at night in WRF. However, for other cases the impact of resolution and the UCM is not as significant as the dispersion was influenced by other factors. We also investigate the sensitivity of the dispersion calculations to the topographic wind speed correction available in WRF 3.6 and several WRF planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterizations.

  10. Applied Meteorology Unit - Operational Contributions to Spaceport Canaveral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III; Roeder, William P.; Lafosse, Richard A.; Sharp, David W.; Merceret, Francis J.

    2004-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development, evaluation and transition services to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the National Space Program. It is established under a Memorandum of Understanding among NASA, the Air Force and the National .Weather Service (NWS). The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by ENSCO, Inc. through a competitively awarded NASA contract. The primary customers are the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL; the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX; and the NWS office in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB). This paper will briefly review the AMU's history and describe the three processes through which its work is assigned. Since its inception in 1991 the AMU has completed 72 projects, all of which are listed at the end of this paper. At least one project that highlights each of the three tasking processes will be briefly reviewed. Some of the projects that have been especially beneficial to the space program will also be discussed in more detail, as will projects that developed significant new techniques or science in applied meteorology.

  11. Examining the Role of Meteorological Conditions and Throughfall Drop Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, S.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Nanko, K.

    2015-12-01

    The partitioning of incident precipitation by a forest canopy into throughfall and stemflow varies as a function of meteorological conditions, tree species, leaf morphology and surface roughness, among other factors. Nanko et al (2015) examined the throughfall drop size signature of precipitation events relative to changes in leaf canopy state of deciduous forests. However, little work has been done to quantify the influence of meteorological variables (air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall intensity and duration) on drop size among discrete rain events. To quantify individual throughfall drops, a laser disdrometer gauge was deployed below an observed drip point under a Liriodendron tulipifera L. (yellow poplar) tree, in northeastern Maryland, USA. Based on events > 5mm rainfall, more than 850,000 individual throughfall droplets have been analyzed from precipitation occurring between September 2013 and October 2014. Building on previous work, which has examined the substantial influence of canopy state over the drop size spectra, this work focuses on the impact of inter-event variability in meteorological conditions and their differential effects on maximum drop size and throughfall depth received. Preliminary statistical analyses indicate that wind speed, wind direction, and air temperature are the primary factors governing throughfall drop size distributions. Since these factors do not consistently influence throughfall drop size distributions in the same manner, further in-depth analyses will attempt to uncover the dynamic interplay among these mutually interacting factors. Results from this study are expected to increase our understanding of the rhythms and mechanisms of throughfall hotspot appearance and disappearance.

  12. Website for popularization of meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špoler Čanić, K.; Rasol, D.

    2012-04-01

    Little meteorological workshop (LMW) is an educational project that has started in 2007 at the Science Festival in Zagreb, Croatia. In 2009 began a new phase of the project which was introduction of the LMW as an extracurricular school activity for pupils. To reach more users the authors of the LMW published a booklet of experiments which were conducted at the workshops in schools. Furthermore, a website (www.malameteo.com) that shows how to make those experiments was developed. The website has some more educational information as well. Here, the content of the website will be presented.

  13. Meteorological conditions of the Danube flood in year 1895

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Marian; Gera, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The flood in year 1895 belongs to the highest floods on the Danube River and its tributaries. The aim of this contribution is to clarify meteorological causes of this flood. Analysis is based on air temperature and precipitation measurements of some meteorological stations from the Central and southeastern Europe and data from NOAA 20th Century Reanalysis of daily composites. Moreover we bring knowledge gained by studies of materials regarding the historical flood on the Danube River and its tributaries in 1895 as reflected in local contemporary press (Preßburger Zeitung and Wiener Zeitung) in the period from late February till the end of April 1895. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under Contract No. APVV-0303-11 and No. APVV-0015-10.

  14. Applications of ISES for meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Try, Paul D.

    1990-01-01

    The results are summarized from an initial assessment of the potential real-time meteorological requirements for the data from Eos systems. Eos research scientists associated with facility instruments, investigator instruments, and interdisciplinary groups with data related to meteorological support were contacted, along with those from the normal operational user and technique development groups. Two types of activities indicated the greatest need for real-time Eos data: technology transfer groups (e.g., NOAA's Forecasting System Laboratory and the DOD development laboratories), and field testing groups with airborne operations. A special concern was expressed by several non-U.S. participants who desire a direct downlink to be sure of rapid receipt of the data for their area of interest. Several potential experiments or demonstrations are recommended for ISES which include support for hurricane/typhoon forecasting, space shuttle reentry, severe weather forecasting (using microphysical cloud classification techniques), field testing, and quick reaction of instrumented aircraft to measure such events as polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic eruptions.

  15. Radiation chemical effects in experiments to study the reaction of glass in an environment of gamma-irradiated air, groundwater, and tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1986-05-02

    The results of experiments performed by John K. Bates et al. on the reaction of nuclear waste glass with a gamma-irradiated 90{sup 0}C aqueous solution were analyzed using theory developed from past research in radiation chemistry. The aqueous solution they used is similar to what would be expected in a water-saturated environment in a nuclear waste repository in tuff. The purpose of our study was to develop an understanding of the radiation-chemical processes that occurred in the Bates et al. experiments so the results could be applied to the design and performance analysis of a proposed repository in unsaturated tuff in Nevada. For the Bates et al. experiments at the highest dose (269 Mrad), which originally contained about 16 ml of "equilibrated" water taken from Nevada Test Site Well J-13 and 5.4 ml of air, we predicted that water decomposition to H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} would produce a pressure increase of at least 1.0 MPa at 20{sup 0}C. We also predicted that nitrogen fixation from the air would occur, producing an increase of 1.6 x 10{sup -4} M in total fixed nitrogen concentration in solution. In addition, an equimolar production of H{sup +} would occur, which would be buffered by the HCO{sub 3}{sup -} in the water. The fixed nitrogen in solution was predicted to be present as NO{sub 2}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} with the ratio influenced by the presence of materials catalytic to the decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. We found reasonable agreement between our predictions and the observations of Bates et al., where comparisons were possible. We apply the results to the proposed Nevada repository to the degree possible, given the different expected conditions.

  16. Advances in Coupling Environmental Models: Land, Atmosphere and Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Haitjema, H.; Coats, C. J.; McHenry, J. N.; Trayanov, A.; Pan, F.; Keel, B.

    2001-05-01

    The ability to simulate complex land-atmosphere interactions with high spatial resolution might be required for (i) adequate simulation of certain weakly forced mesoscale episodes, (ii) assimilation of remotely-sensed land surface states; and (iii) detailed simulation of biogeochemical transport processes in multiple media (air, land, and water). We will present results from the application of a novel approach to the coupling of a catchment-scale hydrologically based land surface model (TOPLATS) with a non-hydrostatic mesoscale meteorological model (MM5). The coupled modeling system takes advantage of (i) hydrological similarity, (ii) efficient and parallel communication and I/O, including a NetCDF-based I/O API with PVM extensions, and (iii) sparse-matrix based aggregation and disaggregation techniques to simulate the land-atmosphere system. Application to field sites in Oklahoma and North Carolina shows that by modifying the land surface model and its coupling design to take advantage of similarities in hydrological behavior, the land surface model can be applied with computational performance approaching that of a much simpler model while retaining the complex soil-vegetation-topographical details of the original fully distributed model. One important aspect of this design is that the land surface model retains the notion of the fundamental hydrologic unit-the watershed-and operates on a grid that is independent of the mesoscale model grid. Further, the model communication and I/O design allows for complete flexibility in the coupling configuration, such that coupling might be loose (1-way), intermediate (1.5-way, as in the Land Data Assimilation System project), or full (2-way). The above approach has been recently extended to support coupling of the land surface model with a saturated groundwater flow model. Conceptual issues related to an efficient coupling design for both grid-based and analytic element groundwater models will be discussed.

  17. BOREAS HYD-3 Subcanopy Meteorological Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Janet P.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Davis, Robert E.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-3 team collected several data sets related to the hydrology of forested areas. This data set includes measurements of wind speed and direction; air temperature; relative humidity; and canopy, trunk, and snow surface temperatures within three forest types. The data were collected in the southern study area/Old Jack Pine (SSA-OJP) (1994), and SSA-OBS (Old Black Spruce), and SSA-OA (Old Aspen) (1996). Measurements were taken for three days in 1994 and four days at each site in 1996. These measurements were intended to be short term to allow the relationship between subcanopy measurements and those collected above the forest canopy to be determined. The subcanopy estimates of wind speed were used in a snow melt model to help predict the timing of snow ablation. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The subcanopy meteorological measurement data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  18. Proceedings of the International Meteorological Satellite Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    International Meteorological Satellite Workshop, November 13-22, 1961, presented the results of the meteorological satellite program of the United States and the possibilities for the future, so that-- the weather services of other nations may acquire a working knowledge of meteorological satellite data for assistance in their future analysis programs both in research and in daily synoptic application and guidance in their national observational support efforts; the world meteorological community may become more familiar with the TIROS program.; and the present activity may be put in proper perspective relative to future operational programs.

  19. Bringing meteorology ``alive`` through the use of immersion-based learning activities that emphasize role playing and problem solving

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Estes, J.C.; Andrews, G.L.

    1993-07-01

    Current research and emerging standards in teaching and learning say that students learning best when information is presented in a meaningful context and when the students are involved in things they care about. At the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), science education programs have been developed that incorporate these concepts. To help students and teachers understand the process of ``doing`` science, we provide immersion-based programs in such technical areas as meteorology, marine sciences, wetland ecology, groundwater hydrology, robotics, lasers materials science, biology, and archaeology. This paper focuses on a meteorology program the authors developed in recent years to support this immersion experience approach. We will discuss how we link meteorology with other subject matter, how we show the relevance of meteorology to real-world problems, and how we immerse student`s and teachers in activities that help them understand how scientists uncover knowledge and solve problems.

  20. Prediction Models are Basis for Rational Air Quality Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Anders; Bach, Wilfrid

    1973-01-01

    An air quality control scheme employing meteorological diffusion, time averaging and frequency, and cost-benefit models is discussed. The methods outlined provide a constant feedback system for air quality control. Flow charts and maps are included. (BL)

  1. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid (NF) is selected to simulated the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid (OF) is selected to create an aerobic environment with anaerobic pockets. NF is injected periodically while OF is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. NF stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is acceptable. NF can be methane and OF be air, for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially TCE and tetrachloroethylene.

  2. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, Terry C.; Fliermans, Carl B.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodicially forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene.

  3. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1995-01-24

    An apparatus and method are described for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants. An oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth. Withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene. 3 figures.

  4. California Groundwater Units

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Tyler D.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The California Groundwater Units dataset classifies and delineates areas within the State of California into one of three groundwater-based polygon units: (1) those areas previously defined as alluvial groundwater basins or subbasins, (2) highland areas that are adjacent to and topographically upgradient of groundwater basins, and (3) highland areas not associated with a groundwater basin, only a hydrogeologic province. In total, 938 Groundwater Units are represented. The Groundwater Units dataset relates existing groundwater basins with their newly delineated highland areas which can be used in subsequent hydrologic studies. The methods used to delineate groundwater-basin-associated highland areas are similar to those used to delineate a contributing area (such as for a lake or water body); the difference is that highland areas are constrained to the immediately surrounding upslope (upstream) area. Upslope basins have their own delineated highland. A geoprocessing tool was created to facilitate delineation of highland areas for groundwater basins and subbasins and is available for download.

  5. 1998 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-06-02

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. The Interim Action T-1 Air Stripper System began operation on September 16, 1996. A comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. The Interim Action is meeting its objectives and is capable of continuing to do so until the final groundwater remedial action is in place.

  6. Infrasonic emissions from local meteorological events: A summary of data taken throughout 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Records of infrasonic signals, propagating through the Earth's atmosphere in the frequency band 2 to 16 Hz, were gathered on a three microphone array at Langley Research Center throughout the year 1984. Digital processing of these records fulfilled three functions: time delay estimation, based on an adaptive filter; source location, determined from the time delay estimates; and source identification, based on spectral analysis. Meteorological support was provided by significant meteorological advisories, lightning locator plots, and daily reports from the Air Weather Service. The infrasonic data are organized into four characteristic signatures, one of which is believed to contain emissions from local meteorological sources. This class of signature prevailed only on those days when major global meteorological events appeared in or near to eastern United States. Eleven case histories are examined. Practical application of the infrasonic array in a low level wing shear alert system is discussed.

  7. A new detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis: Assessing the important meteorological factors affecting API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chen-Hua

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the unique contribution of meteorological factors to the air pollution index (API), a new method, the detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis (DSPCCA), is proposed. Based on both a detrended cross-correlation analysis and a DFA-based multivariate-linear-regression (DMLR), this method is improved by including a semipartial correlation technique, which is used to indicate the unique contribution of an explanatory variable to multiple correlation coefficients. The advantages of this method in handling nonstationary time series are illustrated by numerical tests. To further demonstrate the utility of this method in environmental systems, new evidence of the primary contribution of meteorological factors to API is provided through DMLR. Results show that the most important meteorological factors affecting API are wind speed and diurnal temperature range, and the explanatory ability of meteorological factors to API gradually strengthens with increasing time scales. The results suggest that DSPCCA is a useful method for addressing environmental systems.

  8. Comparative influences of airborne pollutants and meteorological parameters on atmospheric visibility and turbidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Chih-Chung; Yeh, Hui-Hsuan

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate how atmospheric air pollutants and meteorological conditions affect atmospheric visibility and turbidity. Meteorological parameter and anthropogenic air pollutant values were recorded during 2004 and 2005 at the Wuchi weather station and the Sha-lu environmental quality database station at the Taichung Harbor near the Taiwan Strait. Local weather conditions (temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation) and airborne pollutant (PM 10, SO 2, NO 2, CO and O 3) concentrations were used to analyze the relative effects of atmospheric air pollutants and meteorological conditions on atmospheric visibility and turbidity. Based on the analytic results, air pollutant concentrations significantly influence visibility and atmospheric turbidity. Wind speed is an important meteorological parameter that affects atmospheric turbidity parameters at the same atmospheric air pollutant concentrations throughout the periods of observation. At wind speeds of greater than 7 m/s, the turbidity factor β Vis is below 0.3 and visibility is greater than 6.5 km. Under very turbid conditions, β Vis > 0.4, the wind velocity is below 5 m/s, regardless of the atmospheric pollutant concentration. When visibility is ≥ 11 km, the PM 10 concentration is predicted to be below 150 μg/m 3 and the atmosphere is regarded as clear. Under very turbid conditions, the PM 10 concentration exceeds 250 μg/m 3.

  9. Teaching a Course on Meteorological Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred

    A meteorological instruments course that provided undergraduate geography students the opportunity to use and/or observe meteorological equipment while also preparing for possible internships with the National Weather Service is evaluated and suggestions for improving it in the future are offered. The paper first provides a general course…

  10. ARM Mobile Facility Surface Meteorology Handbook - October 2008

    SciTech Connect

    MT Ritsche

    2008-10-30

    The ARM Mobile Facility Surface Meteorology station (AMF MET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute statistics of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, and rain-rate. Additional sensors may be added to or removed from the base set of sensors depending upon the deployment location, climate regime or programmatic needs. Additionally, sensor types may change depending upon the climate regime of the deployment. These changes/additions are noted in the Deployment Locations and History section.

  11. Operational problems experienced by single pilots in instrument meteorological conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weislogel, S.

    1981-01-01

    The development and implementation of a search strategy to extract pertinent reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System-2 (ASRS-2) database are described. For any particular occurence to be pertinent to the study, it must have satisfied the following conditions: the aircraft must be of the type usually flown by a single pilot; operation on an IFR flight plan in instrument meteorological conditions; pilot experienced an operational problem. The occurances consist of reports by the pilot about his own performance, by the pilot about the system performance, or by an air traffic controller about a pilot's performance.

  12. Effects of meteorological factors on defensive behaviour of honey bees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southwick, E. E.; Moritz, R. F. A.

    1987-09-01

    The defensive behaviour of honey bee colonies ( Apis mellifera L.) was quantitated in the field throughout a three month season by the use of a standardized test in which numbers of stings in a leather target were counted after single colonies were opened and exposed to alarm pheromone. The main results show how the defensive behaviour of honey bees is highly dependent on weather factors. Eliminating genetic variance, the following meteorological variables account for 92.4% of the variation in defensive behaviour: air temperature, solar radiation intensity, wind velocity, relative humidity, and barometric pressure.

  13. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Sensor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.

    2002-01-01

    In response to recommendations from the National Aviation Weather Program Council, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working with industry to develop an electronic pilot reporting capability for small aircraft. This paper describes the Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) sensor development effort. NASA is working with industry to develop a sensor capable of measuring temperature, relative humidity, magnetic heading, pressure, icing, and average turbulence energy dissipation. Users of the data include National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) forecast modelers, air traffic controllers, flight service stations, airline operation centers, and pilots. Preliminary results from flight tests are presented.

  14. BOREAS TE-5 Surface Meteorological and Radiation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Ehleriinger, Jim; Brooks, J. Renee; Flanagan, Larry

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-5 team collected measurements in the NSA and SSA on gas exchange, gas composition, and tree growth. Measurements of meteorological data, including air and soil temperature, RH, and PPFD, were 30-minute intervals during the 1994 IFCs at various sites in the BOREAS NSA and SSA. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  15. Wintertime meteorology of the Grand Canyon region

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    The Grand Canyon region of the American Southwest is an interesting region meteorologically, but because of its isolated location, the lack of major population centers in the region, and the high cost of meteorological field experiments, it has historically received little observational attention. In recent years, however, attention has been directed to episodes of visibility degradation in many of the US National parks, and two recent field studies focused on this visibility problem have greatly increased the meteorological data available for the Grand Canyon region. The most recent and comprehensive of these studies is the Navajo Generating Station Winter Visibility Study of 1989--90. This study investigated the sources of visibility degradation in Grand Canyon National Park and the meteorological mechanisms leading to low visibility episodes. In this paper we present analyses of this rich data set to gain a better understanding of the key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand Canyon region.

  16. Synoptic and meteorological drivers of extreme ozone concentrations over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, N.; Sillmann, J.; Schnell, J. L.; Rust, H. W.; Butler, T.

    2016-02-01

    The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8 h average values are investigated, along with drivers of the extreme high percentiles and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on extreme values, as represented by the 95th percentile. The relative importance of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most important predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an important role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its extreme values, especially during warmer months.

  17. Synoptic and meteorological drivers of extreme ozone concentrations over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Noelia Felipe; Sillmann, Jana; Schnell, Jordan L.; Rust, Henning W.; Butler, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8-hour average values are investigated, along with drivers of the extreme high percentiles and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on extreme values, as represented by the 95th percentile. The relative importance of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most important predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over Southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over Central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an important role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its extreme values, especially during warmer months.

  18. An objective meteorological classification scheme designed to elucidate ozone`s dependence on meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, B.K.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper was to utilize a two-stage clustering approach as part of an objective meteorological classification scheme designed to elucidate ozone`s (O{sub 3}) dependence on meteorology. When applied to ten years (1981-1990) of meteorological data for Birmingham, Alabama, the classification scheme identified seven statistically distinct meteorological regimes. Because of the critical impact meteorological conditions have on the formation, transport and deposition of ozone, the seven homogenous meterological clusters exhibited significantly different concentrations characteristics.

  19. European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization III: Ground Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Antonia M.; Vázquez Ramió, Héctor; Vernin, Jean; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Jiménez Fuensalida, Jesús; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; García Lambas, Diego; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, Mohamed; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

    2014-04-01

    Both meteorology and optical conditions are crucial for selecting the best site to host extremely large telescopes such as the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and the European project (E-ELT). For the E-ELT, a year-long meteorological campaign was performed at our two reference sites, the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) and Cerro Ventarrones (very close to the VLT site at Paranal), and at other sites also considered as alternatives to the reference sites: Aklim, Macón, and Izaña (Observatorio del Teide; OT). In this article, we present a statistical analysis of the ground meteorological properties recorded at these sites, making use of automatic weather stations (AWSs) equipped with standard meteorological sensors providing the air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed, and wind direction, using standard procedures across all sites. Meteorology offers but one discriminant in the complicated question of where to site such a major facility as the E-ELT (other factors being seeing, local geology, the economics of the logistics, etc.), both for determining the feasibility of telescope and instrumentation design and construction and for determining the useful observing time. However, the final decision of where to locate a major telescope depends in part on all these—and other—considerations and not on any one criterion alone. In summary, for 90% of the nighttime, the wind speed is lower than 18 m s-1, the telescope operational limit at all the sites except Macón. For this reason, Macón was discarded in the final site selection as, for 25% of the time, the wind speed is greater than 17 m s-1. The smallest nighttime temperature gradient is at ORM, whereas the lowest mean relative humidity value is reached at the Ventarrones site. Izaña was discarded in the site selection study from the very beginning due to lack of funding to install further site-testing equipement (e.g., Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor-Differential Image

  20. EFFECT OF GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES ON INDIGENOUS MICROFLORA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with the Interagency DNAPL Consortium, completed an independent evaluation of microbial responses to ground-water remediation technology demonstrations at Launch Pad 34 at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Brevard Count...

  1. Superior Ambulance Call Out Rate Forecasting Using Meteorological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, M. A.; Thornes, J. E.; Bloss, W.; Pope, F.

    2015-12-01

    Ambulances are an integral part of a country's infrastructure ensuring its citizens and visitors are kept healthy. The impact of weather, climate and climate change on ambulance services around the world has received increasing attention in recent years but most studies have been area specific and there is a need to establish basic relationships between ambulance data (both response and illness data) and meteorological parameters. In this presentation, the effects of temperature and relative humidity on ambulance call out rates for different medical categories will be investigated. We use call out data obtained from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) and meteorological data from a central London meteorological station. A time-series analysis was utilized to understand the relation between temperature, relative humidity, air pollutants and different call out categories. There are statistically significant relationships between mean temperature and ambulance callout rate for most of the categories investigated. Most categories show a negative dependence on temperature, i.e. call outs increase with decreasing temperature but some categories showed a positive dependence such as alcohol related call outs. Relative humidity is significant for some categories but in general is much less important than temperature. Significant time lag effects were observed for most of the categories related to infectious illnesses, which are transferrable through human contact. These findings support the opinion that ambulance attendance callouts records are an effective and well-timed source of data and can be used for health early warning systems. Furthermore the presented results can much improve our understanding of the relationships between meteorological conditions and human health thereby allowing for better prediction of ambulance use through the application of long and short-term weather forecasts.

  2. Compression of spectral meteorological imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miettinen, Kristo

    1993-01-01

    Data compression is essential to current low-earth-orbit spectral sensors with global coverage, e.g., meteorological sensors. Such sensors routinely produce in excess of 30 Gb of data per orbit (over 4 Mb/s for about 110 min) while typically limited to less than 10 Gb of downlink capacity per orbit (15 minutes at 10 Mb/s). Astro-Space Division develops spaceborne compression systems for compression ratios from as little as three to as much as twenty-to-one for high-fidelity reconstructions. Current hardware production and development at Astro-Space Division focuses on discrete cosine transform (DCT) systems implemented with the GE PFFT chip, a 32x32 2D-DCT engine. Spectral relations in the data are exploited through block mean extraction followed by orthonormal transformation. The transformation produces blocks with spatial correlation that are suitable for further compression with any block-oriented spatial compression system, e.g., Astro-Space Division's Laplacian modeler and analytic encoder of DCT coefficients.

  3. Observed groundwater temperature response to recent climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menberg, K.; Blum, P.; Kurylyk, B. L.; Bayer, P.

    2014-11-01

    Climate change is known to have a considerable influence on many components of the hydrological cycle. Yet, the implications for groundwater temperature, as an important driver for groundwater quality, thermal use and storage, are not yet comprehensively understood. Furthermore, few studies have examined the implications of climate-change-induced groundwater temperature rise for groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Here, we examine the coupling of atmospheric and groundwater warming by employing stochastic and deterministic models. Firstly, several decades of temperature time series are statistically analyzed with regard to climate regime shifts (CRSs) in the long-term mean. The observed increases in shallow groundwater temperatures can be associated with preceding positive shifts in regional surface air temperatures, which are in turn linked to global air temperature changes. The temperature data are also analyzed with an analytical solution to the conduction-advection heat transfer equation to investigate how subsurface heat transfer processes control the propagation of the surface temperature signals into the subsurface. In three of the four monitoring wells, the predicted groundwater temperature increases driven by the regime shifts at the surface boundary condition generally concur with the observed groundwater temperature trends. Due to complex interactions at the ground surface and the heat capacity of the unsaturated zone, the thermal signals from distinct changes in air temperature are damped and delayed in the subsurface, causing a more gradual increase in groundwater temperatures. These signals can have a significant impact on large-scale groundwater temperatures in shallow and economically important aquifers. These findings demonstrate that shallow groundwater temperatures have responded rapidly to recent climate change and thus provide insight into the vulnerability of aquifers and groundwater-dependent ecosystems to future climate change.

  4. INTRODUCTION OF URBAN CANOPY PARAMETERIZATION INTO MM5 TO SIMULATE URBAN METEOROLOGY AT NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since most of the primary atmospheric pollutants are emitted inside the roughness sub-layer (RSL) and consequently the first chemical reactions and dispersion occur in this layer, it is necessary to generate detailed meteorological fields inside the RSL to perform air quality m...

  5. SIMULATION OF SULFATE AEROSOL IN EAST ASIA USING MODELS-3/CMAQ WITH RAMS METEOROLOGICAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study attempts to address a few challenges in utilizing the flexibility of the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. We apply the CMAQ system with the meteorological data provided by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and to a...

  6. High resolution meteorological modellingof the Inn Valley atmosphere, Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schicker, I.; Arnold, D.; Seibert, P.

    2009-09-01

    Orography and local meteorology play a major role in Alpine valleys, as they are linked with valley and slope wind systems, stagnation and recirculation, temperature inversions and turbulence. Thus, they have a strong influence of transport and dilution of pollutants in the valley, affecting human health, and sound propagation. Shallow stable layers at the valley floor and low wind speed conditions, especially in autumn and winter, trap pollutants and thus cause unfavourable dispersion conditions , possibly leading to exceedances of air pollution limits. Moreover, under certain synoptic conditions such as persistent high-pressure systems inversion conditions prevail for days. Emissions may accumulate in the valley from day to day and thus critical levels of pollutants may be reached. With the current computer capabilities, numerical meteorological models and particle dispersion models are powerful tools to investigate such situations and their impact on emission-side measures. However, alpine valleys and other complex topographical areas require very high resolutions to ensure accurate representation of the physical processes. Typically, the highest resolutions used nowadays in episodic simulations with models such as, e.g., RAMS, WRF, or MM5, are around 1 km. This still smooths the orography, cutting the peaks and raising the valley bottoms. In this work a comparison of the simulation of the valley atmosphere with two meteorological models, MM5 and WRF, with high horizontal (0.6 km to 0.2 km) and vertical resolutions (35 to 39 half-s levels) is carried out for selected scenarios in which levels of pollutants exceeded air pollution limits. For a better representation of the orography SRTM 3" topography data is used in MM5 for resolutions below 1 km (~ resolution of SRTM 30" data), WRF will be tested only with SRTM 30" due to computational time constraints. The evolution of the valley atmosphere is studied using different PBL schemes available in the models as well

  7. Studies on metocean and meteorological environmental parameters in the East China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, S.; Pan, Z.

    1993-12-31

    Based on data in the East China Sea (ECS) from buoy, ship report, Chinese Typhoon Year Book (CTYB) and numerical model results, the metocean and meteorological environmental parameters under normal condition are shown in tables and figures. The parameters include wind, wave, current, air pressure, air temperature, water vapor pressure and three layers of water temperature in the ECS. Wind and wave persistent analysis is also given.

  8. An interactive meteorological display and analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, M. L.; Petersen, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The GEMPAK system, a general meteorological software package being developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center to support mesoscale meteorological research programs, is described. The primary purpose of the system is to provide analysis support and data integration techniques for conventional and satellite derived data sets. Current capabilities of the system range from data listing and editing to interactive objective analysis procedures and coordinate transformations. Output graphics use a graphics subroutine package designed to support meteorological plotting functions. A flexible diagnostics package is currently under development.

  9. Meteorological data analysis using MapReduce.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Sheng, V S; Wen, XueZhi; Pan, Wubin

    2014-01-01

    In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means) based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability.

  10. BOREAS AFM-6 Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) collected surface meteorological data from 21 May to 20 Sep 1994 near the Southern Study Area-Old Jack Pine (SSA-OJP) tower site. The data are in tabular ASCII files. The surface meteorological data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  11. Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component

    SciTech Connect

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.

    2007-10-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) Meteorological Component. The Meteorological Component includes four surface meteorological stations, miniSODAR, laptop computers, and communications equipment. This report describes the equipment that is used, explains the operation of the network, and gives instructions for setting up the Component and replacing defective parts. A detailed description of operation and use of the individual sensors, including the data loggers is not covered in the current document, and the interested reader should refer to the manufacturer’s documentation.

  12. BOREAS AES MARSII Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected several data sets related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from six MARSII meteorology stations in the BOREAS region in Canada. Parameters include site, time, temperature, dewpoint, visibility, wind speed, wind gust, wind direction, two cloud groups, precipitation, and station pressure. Temporally, the data cover the period of May to September 1994. Geo-graphically, the stations are spread across the provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  13. TROPICAL METEOROLOGY & Climate: Hadley Circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jian; Vecchi, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-30

    The Hadley circulation, a prominent circulation feature characterized by rising air near the Equator and sinking air in the subtropics, defines the position of dry subtropical areas and is a fundamental regulator of the earth’s energy and momentum budgets. The character of the Hadley circulation, and its related precipitation regimes, exhibits variation and change in response to both climate variability and radiative forcing changes. The strength and position of the Hadley circulation change from year to year paced by El Niño and La Niña events. Over the last few decades of the twentieth century, the Hadley cell has expanded poleward in both hemispheres, with changes in atmospheric composition (including stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increases) thought to have contributed to its expansion. This article introduces the basic phenomenology and driving mechanism of the Hadley circulation and discusses its variations under both natural and anthropogenic climate forcings.

  14. Stereoscopic observations from meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Mack, R.; Negri, A.

    The capability of making stereoscopic observations of clouds from meteorological satellites is a new basic analysis tool with a broad spectrum of applications. Stereoscopic observations from satellites were first made using the early vidicon tube weather satellites (e.g., Ondrejka and Conover [1]). However, the only high quality meteorological stereoscopy from low orbit has been done from Apollo and Skylab, (e.g., Shenk et al. [2] and Black [3], [4]). Stereoscopy from geosynchronous satellites was proposed by Shenk [5] and Bristor and Pichel [6] in 1974 which allowed Minzner et al. [7] to demonstrate the first quantitative cloud height analysis. In 1978 Bryson [8] and desJardins [9] independently developed digital processing techniques to remap stereo images which made possible precision height measurement and spectacular display of stereograms (Hasler et al. [10], and Hasler [11]). In 1980 the Japanese Geosynchronous Satellite (GMS) and the U.S. GOES-West satellite were synchronized to obtain stereo over the central Pacific as described by Fujita and Dodge [12] and in this paper. Recently the authors have remapped images from a Low Earth Orbiter (LEO) to the coordinate system of a Geosynchronous Earth Orbiter (GEO) and obtained stereoscopic cloud height measurements which promise to have quality comparable to previous all GEO stereo. It has also been determined that the north-south imaging scan rate of some GEOs can be slowed or reversed. Therefore the feasibility of obtaining stereoscopic observations world wide from combinations of operational GEO and LEO satellites has been demonstrated. Stereoscopy from satellites has many advantages over infrared techniques for the observation of cloud structure because it depends only on basic geometric relationships. Digital remapping of GEO and LEO satellite images is imperative for precision stereo height measurement and high quality displays because of the curvature of the earth and the large angular separation of the

  15. Meteorological Annual Report for 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.H.

    1998-12-17

    An analysis of meteorological data collected at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1997 shows that overall weather conditions for the year were relatively cool and wet. The average temperature for 1997 was 63.7 degree F which is about 1 degree F below the annual average for the 30-year period 1968-97. June 1997 had the lowest average temperature of any June in the 34 years for which temperature records are available at SRS ; moreover, the average temperature for the summer months (June, July, and August) was the third lowest for any summer on record. Conversely, the average temperature for March 1997 was the highest for any March in the 34-year record. Temperature extremes for 1997 ranged from a minimum of 18.6 degree F on January 18 to a maximum of 99.1 degree F on August 15.Wet weather during the last three months of the year was due to the development of a strong El Nino event (NOAA, 1998). Total rainfall for December 1997, 10.19 inches, was the highest for a December in the 46 year period of record for precipitation. Monthly rainfall was above average each month except March, May, and August. The greatest 24-hour rainfall during the year was 2.82 inches on December 24. Daily rainfall in excess of 2 inches occurred on April 28, June 28, and September 25. No snow was recorded.The annual average wind speed at the Central Climatology meteorology tower near N Area was 5.8 mph which is very nearly equal to the average wind speed at that station for the 7-year period 1991-97. The 1997 data also showed a slightly higher frequency of west to northwest winds and a slightly lower frequency of northeast winds than was observed in the 5-year period 1992-96. A winter storm which developed over the Mid-Atlantic States March 30-31 produced the most notable period of sustained strong winds. Daily and 15-minute average wind speeds of 15.3 miles per hour (mph) and 25.1 mph, respectively, were recorded at Central Climatology.Monthly average relative humidity for the year was lowest

  16. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  17. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  18. Observed Low Ozone Events in Coastal Antarctica - The Critical Role of Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. E.; Wolff, E. W.; Anderson, P. S.; Turner, J.; Rankin, A. M.

    2004-12-01

    Episodic loss of tropospheric ozone has been observed in both polar regions. The destruction of ozone appears to be associated with halogen chemistry, generally accepted as being driven by bromine released from sea ice surfaces. Since March 2003, measurements of surface ozone have been made at the British Antarctic Survey Clean Air Sector Laboratory (CASLab) at Halley station in coastal Antarctica. Detailed measurements of boundary layer meteorology as well as standard meteorology are also measured at the CASLab. Combining the data allows us to probe the role of meteorology in these "low ozone events". Low ozone events are observed at Halley on numerous occasions during Antarctic spring; on occasions the development of the event and its recovery are strongly associated with the build-up and decline of a stable boundary layer; on occasions, extremely rapid loss of ozone is observed (loss of 20ppbv in 3 minutes on one occasion) which are associated with larger scale transport. We report here on the events recorded during spring 2003, and show the critical influence of meteorology. The association suggests that the role of meteorology must be considered when striving to understand the mechanisms controlling observed low ozone events, and hence extremely good meteorology will need to be included in any modeling calculations trying to reproduce observed events.

  19. Meteorological variables to aid forecasting deep slab avalanches on persistent weak layers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marienthal, Alex; Hendrikx, Jordy; Birkeland, Karl; Irvine, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Deep slab avalanches are particularly challenging to forecast. These avalanches are difficult to trigger, yet when they release they tend to propagate far and can result in large and destructive avalanches. We utilized a 44-year record of avalanche control and meteorological data from Bridger Bowl ski area in southwest Montana to test the usefulness of meteorological variables for predicting seasons and days with deep slab avalanches. We defined deep slab avalanches as those that failed on persistent weak layers deeper than 0.9 m, and that occurred after February 1st. Previous studies often used meteorological variables from days prior to avalanches, but we also considered meteorological variables over the early months of the season. We used classification trees and random forests for our analyses. Our results showed seasons with either dry or wet deep slabs on persistent weak layers typically had less precipitation from November through January than seasons without deep slabs on persistent weak layers. Days with deep slab avalanches on persistent weak layers often had warmer minimum 24-hour air temperatures, and more precipitation over the prior seven days, than days without deep slabs on persistent weak layers. Days with deep wet slab avalanches on persistent weak layers were typically preceded by three days of above freezing air temperatures. Seasonal and daily meteorological variables were found useful to aid forecasting dry and wet deep slab avalanches on persistent weak layers, and should be used in combination with continuous observation of the snowpack and avalanche activity.

  20. Experiences with groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses developments in combating groundwater contamination. The papers include: Regulation of Groundwater; Utility Experiences Related to Existing and Proposed Drinking Water Regulations; Point-of-Use Treatment Technology to Control Organic and Inorganic Contamination; Hazardous Waste Disposal Practices and Groundwater Contamination; Reverse Osmosis Treatment to Control Inorganic and Volatile Organic Contamination; The Dilemma of New Wells Versus Treatment; Characteristics and Handling of Wastes From Groundwater Treatment Systems; and Removing Solvents to Restore Drinking Water at Darien, Connecticut.

  1. Future of groundwater modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, Christian D.; Panday, Sorab

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing need to better manage water resources, the future of groundwater modeling is bright and exciting. However, while the past can be described and the present is known, the future of groundwater modeling, just like a groundwater model result, is highly uncertain and any prediction is probably not going to be entirely representative. Thus we acknowledge this as we present our vision of where groundwater modeling may be headed.

  2. Comments on satellite meteorology from geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1982-01-01

    Examples of the use of geostationary satellites in meteorology are given. Studies of the rate of change of cumulus clouds and cloud systems and wind parameter determination from cloud motions are reviewed. Computer processed imagery products are also discussed.

  3. ISS Update: Spaceflight Meteorology Group, Part 2

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks to Frank Brody, chief of the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center, about SMG support for the upcoming landing of the Expedition 31 ...

  4. CloudSat and CALIPSO Help Meteorology

    NASA Video Gallery

    The study of meteorology presents significant challenges to scientists. One of the most challenging aspects is the inherent complexity of weather coupled with its high rate of change. In the case o...

  5. ISS Update: Spaceflight Meteorology Group, Part 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks to Frank Brody, chief of the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center, about SMG support for the upcoming landing of the Expedition 31 ...

  6. Interim report on the meteorological database

    SciTech Connect

    Stage, S.A.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is estimating radiation doses that individuals may have received from operations at Hanford from 1944 to the present. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) directs the project, which is being conducted by the Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The goals of HEDR, as approved by the TSP, include dose estimates and determination of confidence ranges for these estimates. This letter report describes the current status of the meteorological database. The report defines the meteorological data available for use in climate model calculations, describes the data collection procedures and the preparation and control of the meteorological database. This report also provides an initial assessment of the data quality. The available meteorological data are adequate for atmospheric calculations. Initial checks of the data indicate the data entry accuracy meets the data quality objectives.

  7. 1997 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1998-04-01

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health {ampersand} Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX Area. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a `capture zone` that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater.

  8. 76 FR 54462 - Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... network in support of a newly revised National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for 1-hour NO 2 (75 FR... or topography, meteorology, population exposure and other factors in determining where a...

  9. Meteorological Monitoring And Warning Computer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Dianic, Allan V.; Moore, Lien N.

    1996-01-01

    Meteorological monitoring system (MMS) computer network tracks weather conditions and issues warnings when weather hazards are about to occur. Receives data from such meteorological instruments as wind sensors on towers and lightning detectors, and compares data with weather restrictions specified for outdoor activities. If weather violates restriction, network generates audible and visible alarms to alert people involved in activity. Also displays weather and toxic diffusion data and disseminates weather forecasts, advisories, and warnings to workstations.

  10. Evaluating Adult Groundwater Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerakis, Argyrios

    1998-01-01

    One-day groundwater education workshops held to educate soil conservation personnel were assessed for effect on participant knowledge using a quasiexperimental design. Participants were tested on their groundwater knowledge and attitude toward groundwater conservation before and after the training. Participant scores improved significantly in only…

  11. Groundwater balance estimation and sustainability in the Sandıklı Basin (Afyonkarahisar/Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksever, Fatma; Davraz, Ayşen; Karaguzel, Remzi

    2015-06-01

    The Sandıklı (Afyonkarahisar) Basin is located in the southwest of Turkey and is a semi-closed basin. Groundwater is widely used for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes in the basin. The mismanagement of groundwater resources in the basin causes negative effects including depletion of the aquifer storage and groundwater level decline. To assure sustainability of the basin, determination of groundwater budget is necessary. In this study, the water-table fluctuation (WTF) and the meteorological water budget (MWB) methods were used to estimate groundwater budget in the Sandıklı basin (Turkey). Conceptual hydrogeological model of the basin was used for understanding the relation between budget parameters. The groundwater potential of the basin calculated with MWB method as 42.10 × 106 m3/year. In addition, it is also calculated with simplified WTF method as 38.48 × 106 m3/year.

  12. Using meteorological ensembles for atmospheric dispersion modelling of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Périllat, Raphaël; Korsakissok, Irène; Mallet, Vivien; Mathieu, Anne; Sekiyama, Thomas; Didier, Damien; Kajino, Mizuo; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Adachi, Kouji

    2016-04-01

    Dispersion models are used in response to an accidental release of radionuclides of the atmosphere, to infer mitigation actions, and complement field measurements for the assessment of short and long term environmental and sanitary impacts. However, the predictions of these models are subject to important uncertainties, especially due to input data, such as meteorological fields or source term. This is still the case more than four years after the Fukushima disaster (Korsakissok et al., 2012, Girard et al., 2014). In the framework of the SAKURA project, an MRI-IRSN collaboration, a meteorological ensemble of 20 members designed by MRI (Sekiyama et al. 2013) was used with IRSN's atmospheric dispersion models. Another ensemble, retrieved from ECMWF and comprising 50 members, was also used for comparison. The MRI ensemble is 3-hour assimilated, with a 3-kilometers resolution, designed to reduce the meteorological uncertainty in the Fukushima case. The ECMWF is a 24-hour forecast with a coarser grid, representative of the uncertainty of the data available in a crisis context. First, it was necessary to assess the quality of the ensembles for our purpose, to ensure that their spread was representative of the uncertainty of meteorological fields. Using meteorological observations allowed characterizing the ensembles' spread, with tools such as Talagrand diagrams. Then, the uncertainty was propagated through atmospheric dispersion models. The underlying question is whether the output spread is larger than the input spread, that is, whether small uncertainties in meteorological fields can produce large differences in atmospheric dispersion results. Here again, the use of field observations was crucial, in order to characterize the spread of the ensemble of atmospheric dispersion simulations. In the case of the Fukushima accident, gamma dose rates, air activities and deposition data were available. Based on these data, selection criteria for the ensemble members were

  13. Meteorological database for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, M.G.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.

    1996-04-01

    A meteorological database has been developed to aid in the prediction of indoor radon concentrations in the United States. The database contains predicted typical monthly meteorological statistics at the county level derived from hourly meteorological data from 208 (234 for precipitation) geographically distinct monitoring stations. Interpolation and extrapolation techniques were used to predict statistics for counties not containing a meteorological monitoring site. The LBNL database includes statistics for meteorological variables including dry-bulb temperature, dew-point temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, hours of precipitation, precipitation, and derived infiltration degree-days. The database consists of individual files of derived statistics for each weather variable and is potentially useful for indoor radon modeling as well as for other purposes. Each file contains data values for all 12 months and an aggregation of the 12 months up to a yearly statistic for all county centroids. A test was conducted to assess the quality of interpolated values. Examples showing the use of the database for mapping infiltration degree-days and an application of the database to a statistical correlation analysis attempting to find meteorological factors influencing indoor radon levels in the United States is discussed.

  14. Meteorological analysis models, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langland, R. A.; Stark, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    As part of the SEASAT program, two sets of analysis programs were developed. One set of programs produce 63 x 63 horizontal mesh analyses on a polar stereographic grid. The other set produces 187 x 187 third mesh analyses. The parameters analyzed include sea surface temperature, sea level pressure and twelve levels of upper air temperature, height and wind analyses. Both sets use operational data provided by a weather bureau. The analysis output is used to initialize the primitive equation forecast models also included.

  15. Understanding and predicting changing use of groundwater with climate and other uncertainties: a Bayesian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, F. A. F.; Keir, G.; McIntyre, N.; Bulovic, N.

    2015-12-01

    Most groundwater supply bores in Australia do not have flow metering equipment and so regional groundwater abstraction rates are not well known. Past estimates of unmetered abstraction for regional numerical groundwater modelling typically have not attempted to quantify the uncertainty inherent in the estimation process in detail. In particular, the spatial properties of errors in the estimates are almost always neglected. Here, we apply Bayesian spatial models to estimate these abstractions at a regional scale, using the state-of-the-art computationally inexpensive approaches of integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) and stochastic partial differential equations (SPDE). We examine a case study in the Condamine Alluvium aquifer in southern Queensland, Australia; even in this comparatively data-rich area with extensive groundwater abstraction for agricultural irrigation, approximately 80% of bores do not have reliable metered flow records. Additionally, the metering data in this area are characterised by complicated statistical features, such as zero-valued observations, non-normality, and non-stationarity. While this precludes the use of many classical spatial estimation techniques, such as kriging, our model (using the R-INLA package) is able to accommodate these features. We use a joint model to predict both probability and magnitude of abstraction from bores in space and time, and examine the effect of a range of high-resolution gridded meteorological covariates upon the predictive ability of the model. Deviance Information Criterion (DIC) scores are used to assess a range of potential models, which reward good model fit while penalising excessive model complexity. We conclude that maximum air temperature (as a reasonably effective surrogate for evapotranspiration) is the most significant single predictor of abstraction rate; and that a significant spatial effect exists (represented by the SPDE approximation of a Gaussian random field with a Mat

  16. Meteorological factors for PM10 concentration levels in Northern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santurtún, Ana; Mínguez, Roberto; Villar-Fernández, Alejandro; González Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Zarrabeitia, María Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is made up of a mixture of solid and aqueous species which enter the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural pathways. The levels and composition of ambient air PM depend on the climatology and on the geography (topography, soil cover, proximity to arid zones or to the coast) of a given region. Spain has particular difficulties in achieving compliance with the limit values established by the European Union (based on recommendations from the World Health Organization) for particulate matter on the order of 10 micrometers of diameter or less (PM10), but not only antropogenical emissions are responsible for this: some studies show that PM10 concentrations originating from these kinds of sources are similar to what is found in other European countries, while some of the geographical features of the Iberian Peninsula (such as African mineral dust intrusion, soil aridity or rainfall) are proven to be a factor for higher PM concentrations. This work aims to describe PM10 concentration levels in Cantabria (Northern Spain) and their relationship with the following meteorological variables: rainfall, solar radiation, temperature, barometric pressure and wind speed. Data consists of daily series obtained from hourly data records for the 2000-2010 period, of PM10 concentrations from 4 different urban-background stations, and daily series of the meteorological variables provided by Spanish National Meteorology Agency. The method used for establishing the relationships between these variables consists of several steps: i) fitting a non-stationary probability density function for each variable accounting for long-term trends, seasonality during the year and possible seasonality during the week to distinguish between work and weekend days, ii) using the marginal distribution function obtained, transform the time series of historical values of each variable into a normalized Gaussian time series. This step allows using consistently time series

  17. Historical groundwater trends in northern New England and relations with streamflow and climatic variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Hodgkins, Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    Water-level trends spanning 20, 30, 40, and 50 years were tested using month-end groundwater levels in 26, 12, 10, and 3 wells in northern New England (Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont), respectively. Groundwater levels for 77 wells were used in interannual correlations with meteorological and hydrologic variables related to groundwater. Trends in the contemporary groundwater record (20 and 30 years) indicate increases (rises) or no substantial change in groundwater levels in all months for most wells throughout northern New England. The highest percentage of increasing 20-year trends was in February through March, May through August, and October through November. Forty-year trend results were mixed, whereas 50-year trends indicated increasing groundwater levels. Whereas most monthly groundwater levels correlate strongly with the previous month's level, monthly levels also correlate strongly with monthly streamflows in the same month; correlations of levels with monthly precipitation are less frequent and weaker than those with streamflow. Groundwater levels in May through August correlate strongly with annual (water year) streamflow. Correlations of groundwater levels with streamflow data and the relative richness of 50- to 100-year historical streamflow data suggest useful proxies for quantifying historical groundwater levels in light of the relatively short and fragmented groundwater data records presently available.

  18. Low maintenance hydrocarbon soil & groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Seabolt, L.K. Jr.; Ryckman, M.D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper illustrates practical methods to control remedial system life cycle costs for pump and treat and biovent systems through the use of low maintenance treatment systems. Cost control factors will be illustrated through the presentation of three case histories: a groundwater free product recovery system at an Air Force P.O.L. (Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricant) storage area, a free product recovery and bioventing system at a beverage fleet distribution facility, and a free product recovery and ventilation system at a publication facility.

  19. A year-round study on functional relationships of airborne fungi with meteorological factors.

    PubMed

    Li, D W; Kendrick, B

    1995-11-01

    Air sampling was conducted in Waterloo, Canada throughout 1992. Functional relationships between aeromycota and meteorological factors were analysed. The meteorological factors were, in descending order of importance: mean temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean wind speed, relative humidity (RH), rain, maximum wind speed and snow. The most important airborne fungal propagules in descending order were total fungal spores, unidentified Ascomycetes, Cladosporium, Coprinus, unidentified Basidiomycetes, Alternaria and unidentified fungi. Most airborne fungal taxa and highly significant relationship with temperature, but Aspergillus/Penicillium, hyphal fragments were positively associated with wind speed. In comparison with other airborne fungal taxa, Leptosphaeria and unidentified Ascomycetes were more closely correlated with rain and RH during the growing season.

  20. Lack of evidence for meteorological effects on infradian dynamics of testosterone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celec, Peter; Smreková, Lucia; Ostatníková, Daniela; Čabajová, Zlata; Hodosy, Július; Kúdela, Matúš

    2009-09-01

    Climatic factors are known to influence the endocrine system. Previous studies have shown that circannual seasonal variations of testosterone might be partly explained by changes in air temperature. Whether infradian variations are affected by meteorological factors is unknown. To analyze possible effects of meteorological parameters on infradian variations of salivary testosterone levels in both sexes, daily salivary testosterone levels were measured during 1 month in 14 men and 17 women. A correlation analysis between hormonal levels and selected meteorological parameters was performed. The results indicate that high testosterone levels are loosely associated with cold, sunny and dry weather in both sexes. However, only the correlations between testosterone and air temperature (men) and actual cloudiness (women) were statistically significant ( p < 0,05). Although some correlations reached the level of statistical significance, the effects of selected meteorological parameters on salivary testosterone levels remain unclear. Further longer-term studies concentrating on air temperature, cloudiness and average relative humidity in relation to the sex hormone axis are needed.

  1. Analysis of groundwater flow in mountainous, headwater catchments with permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Sarah G.; Ge, Shemin; Liang, Sihai

    2015-12-01

    Headwater catchments have a direct impact on the water resources of downstream lowland regions as they supply freshwater in the form of surface runoff and discharging groundwater. Often, these mountainous catchments contain expansive permafrost that may alter the natural topographically controlled groundwater flow system. As permafrost could degrade with climate change, it is imperative to understand the effect of permafrost on groundwater flow in headwater catchments. This study characterizes groundwater flow in mountainous headwater catchments and evaluates the effect of permafrost in the context of climate change on groundwater movement using a three-dimensional, finite element, hydrogeologic model. The model is applied to a representative headwater catchment on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. Results from the model simulations indicate that groundwater contributes significantly to streams in the form of baseflow and the majority of groundwater flow is from the shallow aquifer above the permafrost, disrupting the typical topographically controlled flow pattern observed in most permafrost-free headwater catchments. Under a warming scenario where mean annual surface temperature is increased by 2°C, reducing the areal extent of permafrost in the catchment, groundwater contribution to streamflow may increase three-fold. These findings suggest that, in headwater catchments, permafrost has a large influence on groundwater flow and stream discharge. Increased annual air temperatures may increase groundwater discharge to streams, which has implications for ecosystem health and the long-term availability of water resources to downstream regions.

  2. Impact of climate change on groundwater resources in Southern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reszler, C.; Harum, T.; Poltnig, W.; Saccon, P.; Reichl, P.; Ruch, C.; Kopeinig, C.; Freundl, G.; Schlamberger, J.; Zessar, H.; Suette, G.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater is the most important source for drinking water in Austria. In some parts of Southern Austria water resources already are very vulnerable to unfavourable climate conditions. This paper summarizes case studies of estimating the impact of climate change on groundwater recharge and groundwater flow in Southern Austria in the frame of the ETC-Alpine Space project ALP-WATER-SCARCE. In several pilot regions a distributed hydrological model was set up to simulate groundwater recharge and groundwater flow for a period of 10 to 30 years. The pilot sites range from mountainous catchments with steep hillslopes to Alpine valleys and flatlands with pore aquifers. In the model period comprehensive land data and meteorological data were used, and the models were calibrated to available stream gauge data. Additional low flow monitoring in the frame of the project also allowed for a more detailed regional analysis in some catchments. The simulations were firstly used to extend runoff and groundwater recharge depths on an annual basis up to 200 years into the past by regression analysis with long time meteorological parameters (HISTALP). The historical view shows that groundwater flow and recharge in most of the pilot regions decreased since the beginning of the 20th century, which is mainly the effect of climate change. Changes of land use are of minor relevance in most of the regions. Second, by the calibrated model scenarios were simulated to quantify the impact of a possible future change in the climatic conditions on water resources. The scenarios were generated by altering the model input by a "Delta-Change", under consideration of the historical development. These scenarios can be interpreted as "what if"-scenarios to quantify the sensitivity of the hydrological systems on these climatic variables. The results are compared with actual and projected water uses as a basis for regional water resources management.

  3. Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John

    2009-05-01

    A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76°C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68°C in the summer and 61°C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10°C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses.

  4. Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions.

    PubMed

    Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John

    2009-05-01

    A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76 degrees C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68 degrees C in the summer and 61 degrees C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10 degrees C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses. PMID:19234721

  5. Short and long-term impacts of different groundwater regimes on water balance components of shallow groundwater sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Ottfried; Fahle, Marcus; Kaiser, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water management of shallow groundwater table sites is often the subject of discussions between different interest groups. In many cases these sites have a protection status but at the same time they are important for agricultural land use. The most controversial subject is the manipulation of the water tables which is done by a complex system of streams, ditches and weirs. The target water levels that the interest groups aim for differ in height and in time. The groups present different arguments to justify their targets. However, knowledge about the effects of the different water levels on the water budget components is still limited but it is of great importance to find compromises in water resources management that are satisfying for the different groups involved. We used groundwater lysimeters to investigate the impact of different water level regimes on the water balance. The lysimeters are installed directly within a typical shallow water table site. In contrast to common groundwater lysimeters they can use the inflow and outflow to the lysimeter to control the lower boundary condition. Compared to standard groundwater lysimeters, this enables the simulation of additional groundwater management options and results in a more natural behavior of the groundwater level and the water balance components in the lysimeter. Our results show that the groundwater regimes have different effects on the water balance components, both in the short-term and the long-term. Evapotranspiration (ET) increases with higher water levels but only if the vegetation is adapted to these conditions. The abrupt increase of the groundwater level resulted in lower ET values in the first year. After the transition of the vegetation to more wetland typical species in the following years the variants with the highest water levels had always the highest ET. It is a typical long-term effect of the groundwater regime. In the short-term the meteorological conditions have the largest impact on

  6. Meteorological waves (by Ocean Color Scanner Data)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evdoshenko, M. A.

    2014-10-01

    Data of normalized water leaving radiance at a wavelength 859 nm Lwn(859) of 250-m spatial resolution obtained from Moderate Ocean Color Scanners (MODIS) installed on Aqua and Terra satellites were used to study meteorological waves. These waves are caused by atmospheric internal gravity waves at the expense of a change of atmospheric pressure impacting the sea surface and bringing a change in its level; they are observable everywhere in the ocean. Examples of meteorological waves were considered for the eastern part of the Black Sea, where they appeared as stripes of alternate brightness on Lwn(859) images. It is shown that meteorological waves at one and the same place can be totally generated by atmospheric waves spreading at different heights of the lower troposphere. The 3D characteristics of meteorological waves were evaluated including the direction of wave propagation, crest length reaching more than one hundred kilometers, wavelength of several tens centimeters, and wave amplitude of several tens of centimeters. For conditions of intermittent cloudiness, imposition in a difference mode of the level L1b radiance image with the signature of atmospheric waves in a cloud and of the level L2 water leaving the radiance image with the signature of meteorological waves enabled us to examine the phase structure of waves and to reveal the existence of resonance.

  7. BOREAS AFM-07 SRC Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Heather; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Young, Kim; Wittrock, Virginia; Shewchuck, Stan; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC) collected surface meteorological and radiation data from December 1993 until December 1996. The data set comprises Suite A (meteorological and energy balance measurements) and Suite B (diffuse solar and longwave measurements) components. Suite A measurements were taken at each of ten sites, and Suite B measurements were made at five of the Suite A sites. The data cover an approximate area of 500 km (North-South) by 1000 km (East-West) (a large portion of northern Manitoba and northern Saskatchewan). The measurement network was designed to provide researchers with a sufficient record of near-surface meteorological and radiation measurements. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and were collected by Aircraft Flux and Meteorology (AFM)-7. The surface meteorological and radiation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  8. National Verification System of National Meteorological Center , China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinyan; Wei, Qing; Qi, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Product Quality Verification Division for official weather forecasting of China was founded in April, 2011. It is affiliated to Forecast System Laboratory (FSL), National Meteorological Center (NMC), China. There are three employees in this department. I'm one of the employees and I am in charge of Product Quality Verification Division in NMC, China. After five years of construction, an integrated realtime National Verification System of NMC, China has been established. At present, its primary roles include: 1) to verify official weather forecasting quality of NMC, China; 2) to verify the official city weather forecasting quality of Provincial Meteorological Bureau; 3) to evaluate forecasting quality for each forecasters in NMC, China. To verify official weather forecasting quality of NMC, China, we have developed : • Grid QPF Verification module ( including upascale) • Grid temperature, humidity and wind forecast verification module • Severe convective weather forecast verification module • Typhoon forecast verification module • Disaster forecast verification • Disaster warning verification module • Medium and extend period forecast verification module • Objective elements forecast verification module • Ensemble precipitation probabilistic forecast verification module To verify the official city weather forecasting quality of Provincial Meteorological Bureau, we have developed : • City elements forecast verification module • Public heavy rain forecast verification module • City air quality forecast verification module. To evaluate forecasting quality for each forecasters in NMC, China, we have developed : • Off-duty forecaster QPF practice evaluation module • QPF evaluation module for forecasters • Severe convective weather forecast evaluation module • Typhoon track forecast evaluation module for forecasters • Disaster warning evaluation module for forecasters • Medium and extend period forecast evaluation module The further

  9. Climatological summary of wind and temperature data for the Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Network

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Schwartz, M.N.; Burk, K.W.; Kasper, R.B.; Ligotke, M.W.; Perrault, P.J.

    1990-09-01

    This document presents climatological summaries of wind and temperature data collected at the twenty-five monitoring stations operated by the Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Network. The climatological analyses presented here involve hourly averaged wind data collected over an 8-year period beginning in 1982 (fewer wind data are available for the several monitoring stations that began full-time operation after 1982) and hourly averaged air temperature data collected over 2-year period beginning in mid-1988. The tables and figures presented in this document illustrate the spatial and temporal variation of meteorological parameters across the Hanford Site and the surrounding areas. This information is useful for emergency response applications, routine meteorological forecasting, planning and scheduling operations, facility design, and environmental impact studies.

  10. Reconstructing the prevailing meteorological and optical environment during the time of the Titanic disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Sukanta; Nunalee, Christopher G.; He, Ping; Fiorino, Steven T.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we reconstruct the meteorological and optical environment during the time of Titanic's disaster utilizing a state-of-the-art meteorological model, a ray-tracing code, and a unique public-domain dataset called the Twentieth Century Global Reanalysis. With high fidelity, our simulation captured the occurrence of an unusually high Arctic pressure system over the disaster site with calm wind. It also reproduced the movement of a polar cold front through the region bringing a rapid drop in air temperature. The simulated results also suggest that unusual meteorological conditions persisted several hours prior to the Titanic disaster which contributed to super-refraction and intermittent optical turbulence. However, according to the simulations, such anomalous conditions were not present at the time of the collision of Titanic with an iceberg.

  11. Air stripping. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of air stripping techniques to water treatment, including groundwater decontamination and wastewater purification. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water treatment processes are discussed. Cleanup of the organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. The primary applications of air stripping are in groundwater and soil cleanup. (Contains a minimum of 71 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Use of Surfactants to Decrease Air-Water Interfacial Tension During Sparging (OKC, OK)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging is a remediation procedure of injecting air into polluted ground water. The primary intention of air sparging is to promote biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater passing through the treatment sector. Sparging treatment efficiency dep...

  13. Use of Surfactants to Decrease Air-Water Interfacial Tension During Sparging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging is a remediation procedure of injecting air into polluted ground water. The primary intention of air sparging is to promote biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater passing through the treatment sector. Sparging treatment efficiency dep...

  14. Halon-1301, a new Groundwater Age Tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to direction and time scale of groundwater flow and recharge and to assess contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and limitations of each tracer method when applied alone. There is a need for additional, complementary groundwater age tracers. We recently discovered that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate [Beyer et al, 2014]. Halon-1301 can be determined along with SF6, SF5CF3 and CFC-12 in groundwater using a gas chromatography setup with attached electron capture detector developed by Busenberg and Plummer [2008]. Halon-1301 has not been assessed in groundwater. This study assesses the behaviour of Halon-1301 in water and its suitability as a groundwater age tracer. We determined Halon-1301 in 17 groundwater and various modern (river) waters sites located in 3 different groundwater systems in the Wellington Region, New Zealand. These waters have been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6 with mean residence times ranging from 0.5 to over 100 years. The waters range from oxic to anoxic and some show evidence of CFC contamination or degradation. This allows us to assess the different properties affecting the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer, such as its conservativeness in water and local contamination potential. The samples are analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6simultaneously, which allows identification of issues commonly faced when using gaseous tracers such as contamination with modern air during sampling. Overall we found in the assessed groundwater samples Halon-1301 is a feasible new groundwater tracer. No sample indicated significantly elevated

  15. Artificial stereo presentation of meteorological data fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Desjardins, M.; Negri, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The innate capability to perceive three-dimensional stereo imagery has been exploited to present multidimensional meteorological data fields. Variations on an artificial stereo technique first discussed by Pichel et al. (1973) are used to display single and multispectral images in a vivid and easily assimilated manner. Examples of visible/infrared artificial stereo are given for Hurricane Allen and for severe thunderstorms on 10 April 1979. Three-dimensional output from a mesoscale model also is presented. The images may be viewed through the glasses inserted in the February 1981 issue of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, with the red lens over the right eye. The images have been produced on the interactive Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System (AOIPS) at Goddard Space Flight Center. Stereo presentation is an important aid in understanding meteorological phenomena for operational weather forecasting, research case studies, and model simulations.

  16. Student Activities in Meteorology (SAM), June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, B.L.; Passarelli, E.

    1994-06-01

    In an effort to inspire student interest in science and technology, scientists from the Forecast Systems Laboratory, a laboratory within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Environmental Research Laboratories, and classroom teachers from the Boulder Valley School District collaborated to produce a series of classroom science activities on meteorology and atmospheric science. We call this series 'Student Activities in Meteorology,' or SAM. The goal is to provide activities that are interesting to students, and at the same time convenient and easy to use for teachers. The activity topics chosen are to incorporate trend setting scientific research and cutting edge technology. Several of the activities focus on the meteorological concerns of the Denver metropolitan area because many of NOAA's research labs are located in Boulder, where much of the research and testing for the region is performed. We believe that these activities are versatile and can be easily integrated into current science, environmental studies, health, social studies, and math curricula.

  17. BOREAS AES Campbell Scientific Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barrie; Knapp. David E. (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected data related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from 14 automated meteorology stations located across the BOREAS region. Included in this data are parameters of date, time, mean sea level pressure, station pressure, temperature, dew point, wind speed, resultant wind speed, resultant wind direction, peak wind, precipitation, maximum temperature in the last hour, minimum temperature in the last hour, pressure tendency, liquid precipitation in the last hour, relative humidity, precipitation from a weighing gauge, and snow depth. Temporally, the data cover the period of August 1993 to December 1996. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  18. Modern meteorological computing resources - The Maryland experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Meteorology at the University of Maryland is developing one of the first computer systems in meteorology to take advantage of the new networked computer architecture that has been made possible by recent advances in computer and communication technology. Elements of the department's system include scientific workstations, local mainframe computers, remote mainframe computers, local-area networks,'long-haul' computer-to-computer communications, and 'receive-only' communications. Some background is provided, together with highlights of some lessons that were learned in carrying out the design. In agreement with work in the Unidata Project, this work shows that the networked computer architecture discussed here presents a new style of resources for solving problems that arise in meteorological research and education.

  19. Meteorological analysis for Fenton Hill, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; Wilson, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    Three years of meteorological data have been collected at the Fenton Hill site to establish a local climatic baseline, transport and diffusion climatology, and an initial site for an eventual Valles Caldera meteorological network. Tower-based wind and temperature data at 15 m above ground were supplemented during 1979 with precipitation, humidity and pressure measurements, and a limited program of upper winds. Preliminary analysis of the data has been made to identify major topographic and meteorological driving forces affecting the local climatic variations on diurnal and seasonal time scales. The site is quite high and exposed enough tht external influences such as gradient wind flow and thunderstorms tend to dominate over purely local driving forces in determining climate. Locally generated wind circulations are identifiable at night but tend to be weak and sporadic. The presence of topographic obstacles on the 10- to 100-km scale is observed in the winds.

  20. Meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report, which focuses on the meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines (turbines with a rated output exceeding 100 kW), has four main goals. The first is to outline the elements of a siting strategy that will identify the most favorable wind energy sites in a region and that will provide sufficient wind data to make responsible economic evaluations of the site wind resource possible. The second is to critique and summarize siting techniques that were studied in the Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program. The third goal is to educate utility technical personnel, engineering consultants, and meteorological consultants (who may have not yet undertaken wind energy consulting) on meteorological phenomena relevant to wind turbine siting in order to enhance dialogues between these groups. The fourth goal is to minimize the chances of failure of early siting programs due to insufficient understanding of wind behavior.