Science.gov

Sample records for air guide values

  1. Air quality limit and guide values for sulphur dioxide and suspended particulates - A European community directive.

    PubMed

    Smeets, J

    1982-12-01

    On 15 July, 1980, the Council of Ministers of the European Communities adopted a Council Directive on air quality limit values and guide values for sulphur dioxide and suspended particulates. This directive constitutes the first European legislation on stating air quality standards.The guiding principles underlying this directive are analyzed and the consequences of the directive for Member States, in terms of concrete actions destined to improve the air quality, particularly in highly polluted areas, are indicated. PMID:24264120

  2. Air quality limit and guide values for sulphur dioxide and suspended particulates - A European community directive.

    PubMed

    Smeets, J

    1982-12-01

    On 15 July, 1980, the Council of Ministers of the European Communities adopted a Council Directive on air quality limit values and guide values for sulphur dioxide and suspended particulates. This directive constitutes the first European legislation on stating air quality standards.The guiding principles underlying this directive are analyzed and the consequences of the directive for Member States, in terms of concrete actions destined to improve the air quality, particularly in highly polluted areas, are indicated.

  3. [Indoor air guide values for 2-butanone oxime. Communication from the Ad-hoc Working Group on Indoor Guide Values of the Indoor Air Hygiene Commission and the States' Supreme Health Authorities].

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    The German Working Group on Indoor Guidelines of the Indoor Air Hygiene Committee and of the Supreme State Health Authorities is issuing indoor air guide values to protect public health. No reliable human studies are available for health evaluation of 2-butanone oxime in indoor air. In a well documented chronic inhalation animal study with rats and mice assessed as reliable, degenerative changes in the olfactory epithelium were observed, which led to a dose related increased incidence and severity, especially in mice. Using a benchmark approach the Working Group assessed a BMD10 of 13.8 mg 2-butanone oxime/m(3) for continuous exposure for the endpoint degeneration of the olfactory epithelium. For interspecies differences a reduced factor of 1 was applied due to the same susceptibility of rodents than human for this endpoint. By applying a factor of 10 for interindividual variability, and a factor of 2 to account for the higher respiratory rate of children compared to adults, a health hazard guide value (RW II) of 0.06 mg 2-butanone oxime/m(3) indoor air is obtained. A precautionary guide value of 0.02 mg 2-butanone oxime/m(3) indoor air is recommended.

  4. Valuing Families. Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glashagel, Jerry; Glashagel, Char

    Developed as a resource for family life education, this activity guide can be used to lead experiential learning situations for intergenerational groups by a counselor, in a course, in a family organization like the YMCA, or in the home. The goals of this guide are to increase the self-esteem of each person and to strengthen the family as a human…

  5. [Indoor air guide values for naphthalene and naphthalene-like compounds. Announcement of the German Ad-hoc Working Group on Indoor Guidelines of the Indoor Air Hygiene Committee and of the States' Supreme Health Authorities].

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    The German Ad-hoc Working Group on Indoor Guidelines of the Indoor Air Hygiene Committee and of the States' Supreme Health Authorities is issuing indoor air guide values to protect public health. Naphthalene is a potentially volatile two-ring hydrocarbon with a mothball-like odor. Indoor air contaminations usually originate from tar-containing building products, sometimes from the use of mothballs. In Germany, indoor air concentrations of naphthalene are usually low, near the detection limit (medians of about 0.001 mg/m3, 95th percentiles up to 0.004 mg/m3). Naphthalene-like volatile compounds have been defined to cover methyl- and dimethylnaphthalenes and tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, fluorene and phenanthrene). Though methylnaphthalenes and dimethylnaphthalenes usually show low indoor air concentrations, they have been suspected to add to the mothball-like odor. Tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbons mostly occur below 0.001 mg/m3 of indoor air. Against this background naphthalene is seen to be the key component of this group of substances in indoor air. No valid human data is available with respect to health effects of inhaled naphthalene. Based on animal data cytotoxic-inflammatory lesions in the rat nasal epithelium are regarded as the critical endpoint. In a subchronic inhalation study in rats (Dodd et al., Inhal Toxicol 24:70–79, 2012), minimal effects were observed following an exposure to 5 mg naphthalene/m3. From this study the Ad-hoc Working Group derived a chronic NAEC of 2.5 mg naphthalene/m3. Time scaling was considered by a factor of 5.6 extrapolating from 6 to 24 h and 5 to 7 days, a factor of 2 applied for the use of F344 rats instead of the more sensitive Sprague-Dawley rats. Incorporating an interspecies factor of 1, an intraspecies factor of 10 and a factor of 2 for insufficient data on the toxicity of naphthalene in children resulted in a precautionary value of 0.01 mg naphthalene/m3 and a hazard

  6. Career Guide for Air Pollution Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Lionel V.

    1975-01-01

    This guide to career opportunities in air pollution control includes resource information in this area and provides a listing of colleges and universities offering environmental science programs. The guide was prepared by the S-11 Education and Training Committee of the Air Pollution Control Association. (Author/BT)

  7. Product Guide/1972 [Air Pollution Control Association].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reprinted in this pamphlet is the fifth annual directory of air pollution control products as compiled in the "Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association" for December, 1971. The 16-page guide lists manufacturers of emission control equipment and air pollution instrumentation under product classifications as derived from McGraw-Hill's "Air…

  8. Air Conditioner Charging. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with air conditioning charging. Covered in the module are checking the air conditioning system for leaks, checking and adding refrigerant oil as needed, evacuating the system,…

  9. Measure Guideline: Guide to Attic Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Lstiburek, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information and recommendations for the preparation work necessary prior to adding attic insulation. Even though the purpose of this guide is to save energy, health, safety, and durability should not be compromised by energy efficiency. Accordingly, combustion safety and ventilation for indoor air quality are addressed first. Durability and attic ventilation then follow. Finally, to maximize energy savings, air sealing is completed prior to insulating. The guide is intended for home remodelers, builders, insulation contractors, mechanical contractors, general contractors who have previously done remodeling and homeowners as a guide to the work that needs to be done.

  10. Indoor Air Quality: A Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Indoor air quality is a major concern for educators involved in the development of new school facilities, or the remodeling and maintenance of existing ones. This guide addresses the issue of air quality, the health concerns involved, and procedures for minimizing the impact of pollutants in the school environment. It defines common indoor air…

  11. Measure Guideline: Guide to Attic Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect

    Lstiburek, J.

    2014-09-01

    The Guide to Attic Air Sealing was completed in 2010 and although not in the standard Measure Guideline format, is intended to be a Measure Guideline on Attic Air Sealing. The guide was reviewed during two industry stakeholders meetings held on December 18th, 2009 and January 15th, 2010, and modified based on the comments received. Please do not make comments on the Building America format of this document. The purpose of the Guide to Attic Air Sealing is to provide information and recommendations for the preparation work necessary prior to adding attic insulation. Even though the purpose of this guide is to save energy - health, safety and durability should not be compromised by energy efficiency. Accordingly, combustion safety and ventilation for indoor air quality are addressed first. Durability and attic ventilation then follow. Finally, to maximize energy savings, air sealing is completed prior to insulating. The guide is intended for home remodelers, builders, insulation contractors, mechanical contractors, general contractors who have previously done remodeling and homeowners as a guide to the work that needs to be done.

  12. The Value of Clean Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    How can society place a value on clean air? I present a multi-impact economic valuation framework called the Social Cost of Atmospheric Release (SCAR) that extends the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) used previously for carbon dioxide (CO2) to a broader range of pollutants and impacts. Values consistently incorporate health impacts of air quality along with climate damages. The latter include damages associated with aerosol-induced hydrologic cycle changes that lead to net climate benefits when reducing cooling aerosols. Evaluating a 1% reduction in current global emissions, benefits with a high discount rate are greatest for reductions of co-emitted products of incomplete combustion (PIC), followed by sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and then CO2, ammonia and methane. With a low discount rate, benefits are greatest for CO2 reductions, though the sum of SO2, PIC and methane is substantially larger. These results suggest that efforts to mitigate atmosphere-related environmental damages should target a broad set of emissions including CO2, methane and aerosol/ozone precursors. Illustrative calculations indicate environmental damages are 410-1100 billion yr-1 for current US electricity generation ( 19-46¢ per kWh for coal, 4-24¢ for gas) and 3.80 (-1.80/+2.10) per gallon of gasoline ($4.80 (-3.10/+3.50) per gallon for diesel). These results suggest that total atmosphere-related environmental damages plus generation costs are much greater for coal-fired power than other types of electricity generation, and that damages associated with gasoline vehicles substantially exceed those for electric vehicles.

  13. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    MedlinePlus

    ... is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce your ... human health. Ozone forms when two types of pollutants (VOCs and NOx) react in sunlight. These pollutants ...

  14. Value Added School Review Field Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Value-Added School Review (VSR)" is an analytical model designed to assist schools in identifying and addressing opportunities for school improvement. The model works best when it is focused purposefully on students and the student learning outcomes as defined in the "Guide to Education". It complements the processes described in Alberta…

  15. Teacher's Guide to Indoor Air Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Safety Council, Washington, DC. Environmental Health Center.

    This guide, designed for fourth- through sixth-grade classrooms, contains information teachers will need to teach an educational unit on indoor air quality. It draws on a variety of students' skills, including science, vocabulary, reasoning, math, and basic biology. Each lesson comes with suggested activities that highlight and reinforce what is…

  16. Air Conditioning. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the air conditioning trade as recommended by the successful air conditioner. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a…

  17. The Economic Value of Air Quality Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson-Sumo, Tasha

    bad air quality warning and forecast air quality forecasts. There is a difficulty presented with evaluating the economic utility of the forecasts. All may not comply and even with a low compliance rate of 5% and 72% as the average probability of detection of poor air quality days by the air quality models, we estimate that the forecasting program saves 412 lives or 412 million dollars per year for the region. The totals we found are great or greater than other typical yearly meteorological hazard programs such as tornado or hurricane forecasting and it is clear that the economic value of air quality forecasting in the Baltimore/Washington region is vital.

  18. Rapid guide to hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Beim, H.J.; Spero, J.; Theodore, L.

    1998-12-31

    Concise and easy to use, this book brings together a wealth of hard-to-gather information in one compact pocket guide. It offers--in alphabetical order--detailed profiles of the 189 elements and compounds determined to be hazardous air pollutants by the 1990 Amendments of the Clean Air Act. The profile for each pollutant includes: fundamental identification data (CAS number, molecular formula, formula weight, synonyms); uses (primarily in the manufacture of chemicals and as a component in the manufacturing process); physical properties (such as boiling point, density, vapor pressures, color); chemical properties (such as air/water reactivity, reactivity with skin or metal, flash point, heat of combustion); health risks, including toxic exposure guidelines, toxicity data, and acute and chronic risks; hazard risks (the substance`s potential for accidents, fires, explosions, corrosion, and chemical incompatibility); exposure routes tracking the activities, environment, sources, and occupations that tend to lead to exposure; regulatory status, listing the primary laws and citations of regulated chemicals; and important additional information on symptoms, first aid, firefighting methods, protective equipment, and safe storage.

  19. United States Air Force Child Care Center Infant Care Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Ardyn; And Others

    Intended to guide Air Force infant caregivers in providing high quality group care for infants 6 weeks to 6 months of age, this infant care guide must be used in conjunction with other Air Force regulations on day care, such as AFR 215-1, Volume VI (to be renumbered AFR 215-27). After a brief introductory chapter (Chapter I), Chapter II indicates…

  20. Refrigeration, Heating & Air Conditioning. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe C.; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary refrigeration, heating and air conditioning education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for the development of entry level skills in refrigeration, heating, and air conditioning in the areas of air conditioning knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability,…

  1. Guide to Air Cleaners in the Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Air Duct Cleaning Asthma Health, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Flood Cleanup Home Remodel Indoor airPLUS Mold Radon ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and ...

  2. Aircraft: United States Air Force Child Care Program Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggs, Juanita; Brant, Linda

    General information about United States' aircraft is provided in this program activity guide for teachers and caregivers in Air Force preschools and day care centers. The guide includes basic information for teachers and caregivers, basic understandings, suggested teaching methods and group activities, vocabulary, ideas for interest centers, and…

  3. A Citizen's Guide to Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed as a manual to help citizens participate in air quality control processes. The Clean Air Amendments of 1970 are explained, the first steps in determining a community's air pollution problems are outlined, the basic components of an implementation plan are specified, national and state standards of performance and…

  4. Tesla coil discharges guided by femtosecond laser filaments in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brelet, Yohann; Houard, Aurélien; Arantchouk, Leonid; Forestier, Benjamin; Liu, Yi; Prade, Bernard; Carbonnel, Jérôme; André, Yves-Bernard; Mysyrowicz, André

    2012-04-01

    A Tesla coil generator was designed to produce high voltage pulses oscillating at 100 kHz synchronisable with a nanosecond temporal jitter. Using this compact high voltage generator, we demonstrate reproducible meter long discharges in air at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Triggering and guiding of the discharges are performed in air by femtosecond laser filaments.

  5. Principles of Refrigeration. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with the principles of refrigeration. Covered in the module are defining the term heat, defining the term British Thermal Unit (BTU), defining the term latent heat, listing…

  6. Cultural Differences in Values as Self-Guides.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wing-Yee; Maio, Gregory R; Rees, Kerry J; Kamble, Shanmukh; Mane, Sangeetha

    2016-06-01

    Three studies tested whether individualism-collectivism moderates the extent to which values are endorsed as ideal self-guides and ought self-guides, and the consequences for regulatory focus and emotion. Across Studies 1 and 2, individualists endorsed values that are relatively central to the self as stronger ideals than oughts, whereas collectivists endorsed them as ideals and oughts to a similar degree. Study 2 found that individualists justified central values using reasons that were more promotion focused than prevention focused, whereas collectivists used similar amount of prevention-focused and promotion-focused reasons. In Study 3, individualists felt more dejected after violating a central (vs. peripheral) value and more agitated after violating a peripheral (vs. central) value. Collectivists felt a similar amount of dejection regardless of values centrality and more agitation after violating central (vs. peripheral) values. Overall, culture has important implications for how we regulate values that are central or peripheral to our self-concept. PMID:27460271

  7. Cultural Differences in Values as Self-Guides.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wing-Yee; Maio, Gregory R; Rees, Kerry J; Kamble, Shanmukh; Mane, Sangeetha

    2016-06-01

    Three studies tested whether individualism-collectivism moderates the extent to which values are endorsed as ideal self-guides and ought self-guides, and the consequences for regulatory focus and emotion. Across Studies 1 and 2, individualists endorsed values that are relatively central to the self as stronger ideals than oughts, whereas collectivists endorsed them as ideals and oughts to a similar degree. Study 2 found that individualists justified central values using reasons that were more promotion focused than prevention focused, whereas collectivists used similar amount of prevention-focused and promotion-focused reasons. In Study 3, individualists felt more dejected after violating a central (vs. peripheral) value and more agitated after violating a peripheral (vs. central) value. Collectivists felt a similar amount of dejection regardless of values centrality and more agitation after violating central (vs. peripheral) values. Overall, culture has important implications for how we regulate values that are central or peripheral to our self-concept.

  8. CAM and stack air sampler design guide

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.D.

    1994-05-13

    About 128 air samplers and CAMs presently in service to detect and document potential radioactive release from `H` and `F` area tank farm ventilation stacks are scheduled for replacement and/or upgrade by Projects S-5764, S-2081, S-3603, and S-4516. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S-4516 during 1995 are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system.

  9. Air Quality Index (AQI) -- A Guide to Air Quality and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the AQI value, the greater the level of air pollution and the greater the health concern. For example, ... to 50. Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk. "Moderate" AQI is ...

  10. A Guide on Environmental Values Education. Environmental Education Series 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudto, Michael J.

    A theoretical basis and practical guidelines for developing a wholistic program in environmental values education (EVE) are provided in this guide. Part I approaches EVE from a philosophical perspective and provides information related to the nature of human values and behavior, EVE strategies, and the development of a positive environmental…

  11. Your guide to Medicare value-based care.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-04-01

    What is value-based care? What are the various Medicare quality reporting programs? How are those programs tied to quality? This guide breaks down the what, when, why, and how behind what has become an ever-more confusing web of requirements.

  12. Microwave guiding in air by a cylindrical filament array waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Chateauneuf, M.; Dubois, J.; Payeur, S.; Kieffer, J.-C.

    2008-03-03

    Microwave guiding was demonstrated over 16 cm in air using a large diameter hollow plasma waveguide. The waveguide was generated with the 100 TW femtosecond laser system at the Advanced Laser Light Source facility. A deformable mirror was used to spatially shape the intense laser pulses in order to generate hundreds of filaments judiciously distributed in a cylindrical shape, creating a cylindrical plasma wall that acts as a microwave waveguide. The microwaves were confined for about 10 ns, which corresponds to the free electron plasma wall recombination time. The characteristics of the plasma waveguide and the results of microwave guiding are presented.

  13. Instructional Guide for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. V & TECC Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenk, Lester G.; And Others

    This trade and industrial curriculum guide is intended for use in vocational programs that prepare students to enter the air conditioning/refrigeration field. The introductory section provides a statement of philosophy, objectives, block time schedule, and recommended facilities and equipment. Following the introductory section, eighteen blocks of…

  14. Values identified in different groups of Air Force nurses.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, B G; All, A C; Loving, G L; Nishikawa, H A

    2001-02-01

    Fundamental personal values are reflected in the choices and decisions made in every aspect of our lives. This descriptive study identified values held by a convenience sample of 224 Air Force nurses stationed at four U.S. Air Force medical facilities. Study participants identified seven of eight literature-supported values in the categories "important" or "very important" across the demographic factors of age, gender, educational level, military rank, marital status, and years of Air Force or civilian nursing experience. These seven values were ability utilization, achievement, altruism, autonomy, economic reward, economic security, and personal development. Personnel using this information may ease the transition process to military nursing, facilitate job placement to positions reflecting personally held values, and provide valuable insight for Air Force nurse recruiters who have limited knowledge of the nursing profession. In all, this would promote job satisfaction and Air Force nurse retention. PMID:11272712

  15. Guiding supersonic projectiles using optically generated air density channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Luke A.; Sprangle, Phillip

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the feasibility of using optically generated channels of reduced air density to provide trajectory correction (guiding) for a supersonic projectile. It is shown that the projectile experiences a force perpendicular to its direction of motion as one side of the projectile passes through a channel of reduced air density. A single channel of reduced air density can be generated by the energy deposited from filamentation of an intense laser pulse. We propose changing the laser pulse energy from shot-to-shot to build longer effective channels. Current femtosecond laser systems with multi-millijoule pulses could provide trajectory correction of several meters on 5 km trajectories for sub-kilogram projectiles traveling at Mach 3.

  16. Standard value for the radiation length in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsley, J.

    1985-01-01

    The radiation length in air, was studied. Calculations were finished and give new values for t sub o in atomic oxygen and nitrogen which are entirely free of dependence on the Thomas-Fermi approximate model. With the usual small corrections for atmospheric A and CO2, these give t sub o air = 37.15 g cm/2, in close agreement with a value recommended, but in contrast to t sub o air = 36.66 g cm/2 obtained using the Thomas-Fermi approximation.

  17. A practical guide to value of information analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Edward C F

    2015-02-01

    Value of information analysis is a quantitative method to estimate the return on investment in proposed research projects. It can be used in a number of ways. Funders of research may find it useful to rank projects in terms of the expected return on investment from a variety of competing projects. Alternatively, trialists can use the principles to identify the efficient sample size of a proposed study as an alternative to traditional power calculations, and finally, a value of information analysis can be conducted alongside an economic evaluation as a quantitative adjunct to the 'future research' or 'next steps' section of a study write up. The purpose of this paper is to present a brief introduction to the methods, a step-by-step guide to calculation and a discussion of issues that arise in their application to healthcare decision making. Worked examples are provided in the accompanying online appendices as Microsoft Excel spreadsheets.

  18. Methods of valuing air pollution and estimated monetary values of air pollutants in various U.S. regions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.; Santini, D.J.; Warinner, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Air pollutant emission values are used to determine the social costs of various technologies that cause air pollution and to estimate the benefits of emission control technologies. In this report, the authors present two methods of estimating air pollutant emission values--the damage value method and the control cost method--and review 15 recent studies in which these methods were employed to estimate emission values. The reviewed studies derived emission values for only a limited number of areas; emission value estimates are needed for other US regions. Using the emission values estimated in the reviewed studies, they establish regression relationships between emission values, air pollutant concentrations, and total population exposed, and apply the established relationships to 17 US metropolitan areas to estimate damage-based and control-cost-based emission values for reactive organic gases, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter measuring less than 10 microns, sulfur oxides, and carbon monoxide in these areas. Their estimates show significant variations in emission values across the 17 regions.

  19. The air matters – sleeve air cavity as a marker guiding image-guided helical tomotherapy to target cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Ya-Ting; Chang, Chih-Long; Tai, Hung-Chi; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Liao, Chia-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy has been recommended as standard treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. To validate the main tumor location before each high-precision helical tomotherapy (HT) fraction, the development of a more reliable marker or indicator is of clinical importance to avoid inadequate coverage of the main tumor. Material and methods A 61-year-old woman with cervical cancer, TMN stage cT2b2N1M1, FIGO stage IVB was presented. Extended field external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with concurrent chemotherapy and the interdigitated delivery of intracavitary brachytherapy was performed. Helical tomotherapy equipped with megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT) was used for image-guided radiotherapy. For the insertion of tandem of brachytherapy applicator, a silicone sleeve with a central hollow canal was placed into the endocervical canal with the caudal end stopping at the outer surface of the cervical os, and making contact with the distal boundary of the cervical tumor during the entire brachytherapy course. Results In the remaining EBRT fractions, we found that the air cavity inside the central hollow canal of the sleeve could be clearly identified in daily CBCT images. The radiation oncologists matched the bony markers to adjust the daily setup errors because the megavoltage of the CBCT images could not provide a precise boundary between the soft tissue and the tumor, but the sleeve air cavity, with a clear boundary, could be used as a surrogate and reliable marker to guide the daily setup errors, and to demonstrate the primary tumor location before delivery of each HT fraction. Conclusions The application of the sleeve during the interdigitated course of HT and brachytherapy in this patient provided information for the feasibility of using the sleeve air cavity as a surrogate marker for the localization of the main primary tumor before the daily delivery of image-guided HT. PMID:26985201

  20. Guide values for contaminated sites in Baden-Württemberg.

    PubMed

    von der Trenck, K T; Ruf, J; Flittner, M

    1994-12-01

    The treatment of hazardous sites in Baden-Württemberg is based on three legal documents: the state waste disposal art (LAbfG, 1990), the assessment committee directive (KommissionsVO, 1990), and the guide values directive (UM & SM B-W, 1993). The guide values directive was commonly issued by the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Affairs and the Ministry of the Environment of the state of Baden-Württemberg (UM & SM B-W, 1993) and contains a three-level hierarchy of numerical criteria and rules which serve as both screening levels during the investigation and as remediation objectives. The decision for the appropriate level of remediation is based on feasibility and environmental balance considerations. The levels are ordered as follows: • Level 1 (Background-Values) On principle, all remediations have to be based first on background levels. In the case of lack of feasibility or negative environmental balance for level-1 objectives use-specific requirements are considered next. • Level 2 (Assessment-Values for Worst Case Exposure Conditions) The generic requirements underlying level 2 afford appropriate protection for humans regarding the most sensitive uses of the environment. At least four resources are considered on this level: Ground-water as such and its use, the health of humans on contaminated sites, and soil with respect to growth and quality of plants. Barriers against migration of the contaminants, the effect of dilution, and abandonment of certain uses, etc., are not taken into consideration on level 2. • Level 3 (Site-Specific Requirements) Lack of feasibility or a negative environmental balance of level-2 objectives lead to consideration of site-specific circumstances which may alleviate the requirements. With respect to groundwater, the distinction is again necessary between groundwater as a resource and the use of groundwater. On level 3 the guideline gives rules of how to derive site-specific remediation objectives for groundwater in the

  1. Microwave guiding in air along single femtosecond laser filament

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Yu; Alshershby, Mostafa; Qin Jiang; Hao Zuoqiang; Lin Jingquan

    2013-03-07

    Microwave guiding along single plasma filament generated through the propagation of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses in air has been demonstrated over a distance of about 6.5 cm, corresponding to a microwave signal intensity enhancement of more than 3-fold over free space propagation. The current propagation distance along the fs laser filament is in agreement with the calculations and limited by the relatively high resistance of the single plasma filament. Using a single fs laser filament to channel microwave radiation considerably alleviate requirements to the power of fs laser pulses compared to the case of the circular filaments waveguide. In addition, it can be used as a simple and non-intrusive method to obtain the basic parameters of laser-generated plasma filament.

  2. Future Air Traffic Growth and Schedule Model User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, William M. (Technical Monitor); Smith, Jeremy C.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.

    2004-01-01

    The Future Air Traffic Growth and Schedule Model was developed as an implementation of the Fratar algorithm to project future traffic flow between airports in a system and of then scheduling the additional flights to reflect current passenger time-of-travel preferences. The methodology produces an unconstrained future schedule from a current (or baseline) schedule and the airport operations growth rates. As an example of the use of the model, future schedules are projected for 2010 and 2022 for all flights arriving at, departing from, or flying between all continental United States airports that had commercial scheduled service for May 17, 2002. Inter-continental US traffic and airports are included and the traffic is also grown with the Fratar methodology to account for their arrivals and departures to the continental US airports. Input data sets derived from the Official Airline Guide (OAG) data and FAA Terminal Area Forecast (TAF) are included in the examples of the computer code execution.

  3. Guide to the Evaluation of Educational Experiences in the Armed Services. The 1978 Guide. 1: Air Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC. Office on Educational Credit.

    Postsecondary educational credit recommendations for formal courses offered by the Air Force and the Department of Defense are provided in this first of a three-volume guide. (Other volumes cover courses offered by the Army and by the Coast Guard, Marine Corps, and Navy. See note.) Following brief sections on use of the guide, the formal course…

  4. Air Embolism Detected During Computed Tomography Fluoroscopically Guided Transthoracic Needle Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasawa, Satoshi Hirasawa, Hiromi; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Morita, Hideo; Tsushima, Yoshito; Amanuma, Makoto; Endo, Keigo

    2008-01-15

    Air embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of percutaneous needle biopsy of the lung. We report a case of cerebral air embolism which occurred during computed tomography (CT)-guided needle biopsy. Air entering the aorta is depicted on CT-fluoroscopy images of the procedure.

  5. Parent's Guide to School Indoor Air Quality. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is air pollution, indoors or out. Good indoor air quality (IAQ) contributes to a favorable learning environment for students, protects health, and supports the productivity of school personnel. In schools in poor repair, leaky roofs and crumbling walls have caused additional indoor air quality problems, including contamination with…

  6. Air Traffic Complexity Measurement Environment (ACME): Software User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A user's guide for the Air Traffic Complexity Measurement Environment (ACME) software is presented. The ACME consists of two major components, a complexity analysis tool and user interface. The Complexity Analysis Tool (CAT) analyzes complexity off-line, producing data files which may be examined interactively via the Complexity Data Analysis Tool (CDAT). The Complexity Analysis Tool is composed of three independently executing processes that communicate via PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) and Unix sockets. The Runtime Data Management and Control process (RUNDMC) extracts flight plan and track information from a SAR input file, and sends the information to GARP (Generate Aircraft Routes Process) and CAT (Complexity Analysis Task). GARP in turn generates aircraft trajectories, which are utilized by CAT to calculate sector complexity. CAT writes flight plan, track and complexity data to an output file, which can be examined interactively. The Complexity Data Analysis Tool (CDAT) provides an interactive graphic environment for examining the complexity data produced by the Complexity Analysis Tool (CAT). CDAT can also play back track data extracted from System Analysis Recording (SAR) tapes. The CDAT user interface consists of a primary window, a controls window, and miscellaneous pop-ups. Aircraft track and position data is displayed in the main viewing area of the primary window. The controls window contains miscellaneous control and display items. Complexity data is displayed in pop-up windows. CDAT plays back sector complexity and aircraft track and position data as a function of time. Controls are provided to start and stop playback, adjust the playback rate, and reposition the display to a specified time.

  7. A User Guide for Smoothing Air Traffic Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, Ralph E.; Paielli, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Matlab software was written to provide smoothing of radar tracking data to simulate ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) data in order to test a tactical conflict probe. The probe, called TSAFE (Tactical Separation-Assured Flight Environment), is designed to handle air-traffic conflicts left undetected or unresolved when loss-of-separation is predicted to occur within approximately two minutes. The data stream that is down-linked from an aircraft equipped with an ADS-B system would include accurate GPS-derived position and velocity information at sample rates of 1 Hz. Nation-wide ADS-B equipage (mandated by 2020) should improve surveillance accuracy and TSAFE performance. Currently, position data are provided by Center radar (nominal 12-sec samples) and Terminal radar (nominal 4.8-sec samples). Aircraft ground speed and ground track are estimated using real-time filtering, causing lags up to 60 sec, compromising performance of a tactical resolution tool. Offline smoothing of radar data reduces wild-point errors, provides a sample rate as high as 1 Hz, and yields more accurate and lag-free estimates of ground speed, ground track, and climb rate. Until full ADS-B implementation is available, smoothed radar data should provide reasonable track estimates for testing TSAFE in an ADS-B-like environment. An example illustrates the smoothing of radar data and shows a comparison of smoothed-radar and ADS-B tracking. This document is intended to serve as a guide for using the smoothing software.

  8. Office Building Occupant's Guide to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... building ventilation systems; moisture and humidity; and occupant perceptions and susceptibilities. In addition, there are many other factors that affect comfort or perception of indoor air quality. Controlling indoor air quality ...

  9. Heating, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Vocational Education Curriculum Guide. Industrial and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

    This curriculum guide contains 17 units that provides the basic curriculum components required to develop lesson plans for the heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration curriculum. The guide is not intended to be a complete, self-contained curriculum, but instead provides the teacher with a number of informational items related to the learning…

  10. Environmental Control System Installer/Servicer (Residential Air Conditioning Mechanic). V-TECS Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Calvin F.; Benson, Robert T.

    This guide provides job relevant tasks, performance objectives, performance guides, resources, learning activitites, evaluation standards, and achievement testing in the occupation of environmental control system installer/servicer (residential air conditioning mechanic). It is designed to be used with any chosen teaching method. The course…

  11. Acute Coronary Artery Air Embolism Following CT-Guided Lung Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour, Asem AbdelRaouf, Salah; Qandeel, Monther; Swaidan, Maisa

    2005-01-15

    CT-guided needle biopsy is a common procedure for obtaining a tissue diagnosis and consequently correctly managing patients. This procedure has many potential complications, ranging from simple pneumothorax or self-limiting hemoptysis to life-threatening pulmonary hemorrhage and air embolism. Though the latter is a rare complication of CT-guided needle biopsy, it has attracted a lot of interest. We report a case of right coronary air embolism resulting in myocardial infarction after a CT-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the lung.

  12. Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality. A Series of Classroom Activities for Grades 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Elizabeth W., Ed.

    Many different types of air quality can be studied in middle school science classes using available supplies. This grade 6-8 activity guide was developed to provide opportunities for children to learn about the issue of air quality. Sixteen hands-on activities integrate the issue into middle school science classes. A chart categorizes the…

  13. Open-Air Biowarfare Testing and the Evolution of Values

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The United States and the United Kingdom ended outdoor biological warfare testing in populated areas nearly half a century ago. Yet, the conduct, health effects, and propriety of those tests remain controversial. The varied views reflect the limits of currently available test information and evolving societal values on research involving human subjects. Western political culture has changed since the early days of the American and British testing programs. People have become less reluctant to question authority, and institutional review boards must now pre-approve research involving human subjects. Further, the heightened stringency of laboratory containment has accentuated the safety gap between a confined test space and one without physical boundaries. All this makes it less likely that masses of people would again be unwittingly subjected to secret open-air biological warfare tests. PMID:27564984

  14. Open-Air Biowarfare Testing and the Evolution of Values.

    PubMed

    Cole, Leonard A

    2016-01-01

    The United States and the United Kingdom ended outdoor biological warfare testing in populated areas nearly half a century ago. Yet, the conduct, health effects, and propriety of those tests remain controversial. The varied views reflect the limits of currently available test information and evolving societal values on research involving human subjects. Western political culture has changed since the early days of the American and British testing programs. People have become less reluctant to question authority, and institutional review boards must now pre-approve research involving human subjects. Further, the heightened stringency of laboratory containment has accentuated the safety gap between a confined test space and one without physical boundaries. All this makes it less likely that masses of people would again be unwittingly subjected to secret open-air biological warfare tests. PMID:27564984

  15. [Air Bubble in the Left Ventricle due to Computed Tomography Guided Lung Needle Biopsy].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Eisuke; Yoshida, Kumiko; Yoshiyama, Koichi; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Tanaka, Toshiki; Tao, Hiroyuki; Okabe, Kazunori

    2015-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) guided lung biopsy is a useful examination in diagnosing pulmonary diseases, but the complications such as pneumothorax or pulmonary hemorrhage can not be ignored. Among them, air embolization is a severe complication, although it is infrequently encountered. Forty two-year-old man admitted to our department for the examination of left lung tumor. CT guided lung biopsy was performed. After examination, the patient showed disturbance in cardiac function, which recovered in several minutes. Chest CT revealed air bubble in the left ventricle. After 2-hours head down position followed by bed rest, air bubble is confirmed to be dissappeared by CT.

  16. Reference Guide. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the importance of good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is the backbone of developing an effective Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) program. Poor IAQ can lead to a large variety of health problems and potentially affect comfort, concentration, and staff/student performance. In recognition of tight school budgets, this guidance is designed…

  17. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Heating, Refrigeration, & Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John

    This Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning course is comprised of eleven individualized units: (1) Refrigeration Tools, Materials, and Refrigerant; (2) Basic Heating and Air Conditioning; (3) Sealed System Repairs; (4) Basic Refrigeration Systems; (5) Compression Systems and Compressors; (6) Refrigeration Controls; (7) Electric Circuit…

  18. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Schools and Universities: Overview of Indoor Air Quality Issues, and Preliminary Design Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Buildings International, Inc., Fairfax, VA.

    This guide is intended to help the building design, engineering, and maintenance staff of school buildings maintain a common standard of high indoor air quality (IAQ) and a productive and comfortable workplace for students and staff. The report defines the four basic classifications of indoor environmental pollution, lists the factors impacting…

  19. 75 FR 66125 - Federal Land Managers' Air Quality Related Values Work Group (FLAG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... National Park Service Federal Land Managers' Air Quality Related Values Work Group (FLAG) AGENCY: National...' Air Quality Related Values Work Group (FLAG) was formed (1) to develop a more consistent and objective... their air quality related values (AQRVs); and (2) to provide State permitting authorities and...

  20. Building air quality: A guide for building owners and facility managers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The guide was intended to help those individuals responsible for air quality control in buildings to prevent indoor air quality problems from developing and resolving such problems quickly should they develop. Background information and guidance on dealing with indoor air quality problems were provided. Specific topics included: factors which affect indoor air quality; sources of indoor air contaminants; heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; the role of building occupants; effective communication between managers and others involved; developing an indoor air quality (IAQ) profile; managing a building for good IAQ; diagnosing IAQ problems; mitigating IAQ problems, hiring professional assistance to solve an IAQ problem; common IAQ measurements; HVAC systems and IAQ; moisture with resultant mold and mildew conditions; asbestos (1332214); radon (10043922); and resources through which additional information can be obtained. Indoor air quality forms were included which can be modified to meet individual needs.

  1. Effect of guide vanes on the performance of a variable chord self-rectifying air turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govardhan, M.; Dhanasekaran, T. S.

    1998-12-01

    Wells turbine is a self rectifying air flow turbine capable of converting pneumatic power of the periodically reversing air stream in Oscillating Water Column into mechanical energy. One of the principal reasons for the low efficiency of the Wells turbine is its lower tangential force compared to its axial force. Guide vanes before and after the rotor suggest a means to improve the tangential force, hence its efficiency. Experimental investigations are carried out on the Wells turbine with a variable chord (VACR) blade rotor fitted with inlet and outlet guide vanes to understand the aerodynamics especially improvement in efficiency and starting characteristics. Numerical simulation has been made to clarify the unsteady characteristics of the turbine with guide vanes. Studies are done at various flow coefficients covering the entire range of flow coefficients over which the turbine is operable. The efficiency, starting characteristics of the Wells turbine has improved when compared with the turbine without guide vanes.

  2. Personal Value Systems and Career Objectives of Men vis-a-vis Women Air Force Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, Charles W.

    Basic objectives of this research were to compare the personal values and career objectives of Air Force women to Air Force men. The research used a personal values questionnaire to establish which values and objectives were most likely to be translated into behavior. Values and objectives of 307 women officers and a control sample of 323 men were…

  3. Indoor air quality standards of performance applications guide

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, R.J.; Dorgan, C.B.; Dorgan, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the development and application of standards of performance (SOPs) for HVAC and R equipment, plumbing systems, and building envelope systems in relation to maintaining acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ) in buildings. The utilization of the SOP procedure, developed in ASHRAE Research Project 853, will aid in the proper operation of systems and verify that acceptable building IAQ levels are obtained.

  4. Large scale Tesla coil guided discharges initiated by femtosecond laser filamentation in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantchouk, L.; Point, G.; Brelet, Y.; Prade, B.; Carbonnel, J.; André, Y.-B.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Houard, A.

    2014-07-01

    The guiding of meter scale electric discharges produced in air by a Tesla coil is realized in laboratory using a focused terawatt laser pulse undergoing filamentation. The influence of the focus position, the laser arrival time, or the gap length is studied to determine the best conditions for efficient laser guiding. Discharge parameters such as delay, jitter, and resistance are characterized. An increase of the discharge length by a factor 5 has been achieved with the laser filaments, corresponding to a mean breakdown field of 2 kV/cm for a 1.8 m gap length. Consecutive guided discharges at a repetition rate of 10 Hz are also reported.

  5. A new guide for commissioning air handling systems: Using a model functional test

    SciTech Connect

    Haasl, Tudi; Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann; Bourassa, Norman; Gillespie, Ken

    2002-05-01

    Functional tests are a set of detailed instructions for building commissioning that demand extensive HVAC system knowledge to write and perform. Understanding the energy use implications and theory behind the test procedures, estimating the costs and benefits of doing a particular test, implementing the tests correctly, and resolving problems require years of field experience. As part of a large research project now underway, a practical guide is being developed that communicates this knowledge. This paper presents the components and intended use of the Functional Testing Guide and Model Functional Test for Air Handling Systems. A series of model functional tests, starting at the outdoor air intake section and proceeding through the air handling unit, distribution system, and terminal equipment and ending at the exhaust air discharge point, are provided for many commonly installed air handling system configurations. The model functional tests contain advice for tailoring the test procedures to specific system configurations, desirable and undesirable testing outcomes, a calculation appendix, references to other resources, and examples of completed test forms. The guide is an educational resource, with background information that clarifies the principles behind testing configurations and results. The functional tests have been selected from an extensive commissioning test protocol library compiled by Pacific Gas and Electric in 2001. The guide also includes a design guideline for the selection of control and monitoring points and a design intent documentation form.

  6. AirShow 1.0 CFD Software Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, Stanley R., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    AirShow is visualization post-processing software for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Upon reading binary PLOT3D grid and solution files into AirShow, the engineer can quickly see how hundreds of complex 3-D structured blocks are arranged and numbered. Additionally, chosen grid planes can be displayed and colored according to various aerodynamic flow quantities such as Mach number and pressure. The user may interactively rotate and translate the graphical objects using the mouse. The software source code was written in cross-platform Java, C++, and OpenGL, and runs on Unix, Linux, and Windows. The graphical user interface (GUI) was written using Java Swing. Java also provides multiple synchronized threads. The Java Native Interface (JNI) provides a bridge between the Java code and the C++ code where the PLOT3D files are read, the OpenGL graphics are rendered, and numerical calculations are performed. AirShow is easy to learn and simple to use. The source code is available for free from the NASA Technology Transfer and Partnership Office.

  7. Heating and Air Conditioning. Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide Module 9. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hevel, David

    This unit of instruction is one of a series of modules in the Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. The module's format was developed for competency-based teaching and testing. The module contains 11 units, each of which contains the following components: a competency profile, objective sheets, references, notes to the instructor, lesson…

  8. Heating, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Curriculum Guide. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a…

  9. Private and Commercial Pilot: Ligher-Than-Air Airship. Flight Test Guide. (Part 61 Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The flight test guide assists the applicant and his instructor in preparing for the flight test for the Private or Commercial Pilot Certificate with a Lighter-Than-Air Category and Airship Class Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. It contains information and guidance concerning pilot operations, procedures, and…

  10. A Guide to Instruction in the Shooting Sports-Rifles; Air Rifles; Shotguns; Pistols; Hunter Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeyer, Roy K.; And Others

    Prepared for instruction in the use of rifles, air guns, shotguns, pistols, and hunter safety, this guide supplements other materials which are available from the National Rifle Association of America, the National Shooting Sports Foundation, the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, industry, and other sources. The…

  11. VESL for Heating and Air Conditioning: A Competency-based Curriculum Guide. Project OSCAER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Valadez, Jeanne, Ed.; Pankratz, David, Ed.

    This guide is intended for vocational educators developing the vocational English as a second language (VESL) component of a course in heating and air conditioning. The introductory section examines assumptions about second language learning and instruction and VESL classes, local adaptations of the curriculum, and sample VESL lessons. The chapter…

  12. APTI (Air Pollution Training Institute) course 427: combustion evaluation, instructor's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, J.T.; Iachetta, F.A.; Lilleleht, L.U.

    1980-02-01

    This Instructor's Guide is used in conjunction with Course No. 427, 'Combustion Evaluation' as applied to air pollution control situations. The teaching guide was prepared by the EPA Air Pollution Training Institute (APTI) to assist instructors in presenting course No. 427. The guide contains sections on the following topics: combustion fundamentals, fuel properties, combustion system design, pollutant emission calculations, combustion control, gas, oil, and burning, solid waste and wood burning, incineration of wastes, sewage sludge incineration, flame and catalytic incineration, waste gas flares, hazardous waste combustion, NOx control, improved combustion systems. Note: There is also a Student Workbook to be used for homework and in-class problem solving (EPA-450/2-80-064) and a Student Manual for reference and additional subject material (EPA-450/2-80-063).

  13. Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model. Version 2.0; User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etheridge, Melvin; Plugge, Joana; Retina, Nusrat

    1998-01-01

    The Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 (FAM 2.0), is a discrete event simulation model designed to support analysis of alternative concepts in air traffic management and control. FAM 2.0 was developed by the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract. This document provides a guide for using the model in analysis. Those interested in making enhancements or modification to the model should consult the companion document, Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 Technical Description.

  14. Avian Field guide and checklist for Kunsan Air Base, Korea.

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, J. B.; Environmental Assessment

    2005-11-15

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Kunsan Air Base (AB). This on-going survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Kunsan AB, and the 8th Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred sixteen bird species representing 34 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Cultural Property Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Six species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's(KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, only ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected because the Eurasian Spoonbill, Peregrine Falcon, and Eurasian Oystercatcher are listed by both agencies. The primary objective of the avian survey at Kunsan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex C.4.a.(1-4) of the 8th Fighter Wing BASH Plan(8FWOPLAN 91-202). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Kunsan AB throughout the year, and from the survey results determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Kunsan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Kunsan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a and also that are favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  15. Avian survey and field guide for Osan Air Base, Korea.

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, J.

    2006-12-05

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Osan Air Base (AB). This ongoing survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Osan AB, and the 51st Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred ten bird species representing 35 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Natural Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Three species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's (KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected. The primary objective of the avian survey at Osan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex J.14.c of the 51st Fighter BASH Plan 91-212 (51 FW OPLAN 91-212). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Osan AB throughout the year and from the survey results, determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Osan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Osan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a that are also favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  16. Antitrust law and collective physician negotiations with third parties: the relative value guide object lesson.

    PubMed

    Pfizenmayer, R F

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the role of collective physician participation in the third-party reimbursement system. It critiques the Havighurst-Kissam analysis of the antitrust implications of professionally-developed relative value guides and, using lessons derived from the only litigated case on relative value guides, argues that collective physician input into third-party reimbursement plans can be made in a manner which is consistent with the antitrust law as and cost-containment policy objectives. In particular, collective "negotiations" by organized physicians with third parties, unaccompanied by fee agreements among physicians or by actual or threatened physician boycotts, are found to be procompetitive and hence permissible under the rule of reason.

  17. Antitrust law and collective physician negotiations with third parties: the relative value guide object lesson.

    PubMed

    Pfizenmayer, R F

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the role of collective physician participation in the third-party reimbursement system. It critiques the Havighurst-Kissam analysis of the antitrust implications of professionally-developed relative value guides and, using lessons derived from the only litigated case on relative value guides, argues that collective physician input into third-party reimbursement plans can be made in a manner which is consistent with the antitrust law as and cost-containment policy objectives. In particular, collective "negotiations" by organized physicians with third parties, unaccompanied by fee agreements among physicians or by actual or threatened physician boycotts, are found to be procompetitive and hence permissible under the rule of reason. PMID:7108165

  18. Estimation of monetary values of air pollutant emissions in various US areas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.; Santini, D.J.

    1994-08-17

    Two general methods of estimating monetary values of air pollutants are presented in this paper. The damage estimate method directly estimated, air pollutant by simulating air quality, identifying health and other welfare impacts damage values and valuing the identified impacts of air pollution, and valuing the identified impacts. Although the method is theoretically sound, many assumptions are involved in each of its estimation steps, and uncertainty exists in each step. The control cost estimate method estimates the marginal emission control cost, which represents the opportunity cost offset by emission reductions from some given control measures. Studies conducted to estimate emission values in US regions used either the damage estimate method or the control cost estimate method. Taking emission values estimated for some US air basins, this paper establishes regression relationships between emission values and total population and air pollutant concentrations. On the basis of the established relationships, both damage-based and control-cost-based emission values are estimated for 17 major US urban areas.

  19. Scintillation dosimeter arrays using air core light guides: simulation and experiment.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Pourandokht; Suchowerska, Natalka; McKenzie, David R

    2010-06-21

    The performance of a scintillation dosimeter that uses a silvered air core light guide is examined by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and by experiment to determine its suitability for array dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy. The air core light guide avoids the generation of the Cerenkov background that is produced in a conventional optical fibre. MC simulations using a 6 MV photon beam showed that silver thicknesses of less than 1 microm compensated for the effects of the other material components, to give the dosimeter water equivalence within 0.5%. A second dosimeter located adjacent to the primary dosimeter in any direction affected the dose measurement by less than 1.5%, when the centre-to-centre spacing was 1.3 mm or greater. When the dosimeter array is located perpendicular to the beam central axis, with a spacing of 2.5 mm, the calculated deviation from the dose deposited in water was less than 2%. When the dosimeter array is located parallel to the beam central axis with a spacing of 10 mm, the calculated dose readings deviated from water by less than 2.5%. The simulation results were confirmed with experiment for two neighbouring dosimeters and a small densely packed array. No proximity effects were measured within the experimental error of +/-1.5%. These results confirm the dosimetric accuracy of the air core dosimeter design without the need for correction factors. The dosimeter has excellent potential for use in arrays.

  20. "Values that vanish into thin air": nurses' experience of ethical values in their daily work.

    PubMed

    Bentzen, Gro; Harsvik, Anita; Brinchmann, Berit Støre

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how nurses experience ethical values as they are expressed in daily practice in a Norwegian hospital. A growing focus in Western healthcare on effectiveness, production, and retrenchment has an influence on professional nursing standards and nursing values. Lack of resources and subsequent ethically difficult prioritizations imply a strain on nurses. This study is qualitative. Data collection was carried out by conducting 4 focus group interviews. The data was analyzed using content analysis. The results are presented in two main themes: (1) values and reflection are important for the nurses; (2) time pressure and nursing frustrations in daily work. The results demonstrate that nurses believe the ethical values to be of crucial importance for the quality of nursing; however, the ethical values are often repressed in daily practice. This results in feeling of frustration, fatigue, and guilty conscience for the nurses. There is a need for changes in the system which could contribute to the development of a caring culture that would take care of both patients and nurses. In an endeavour to reach this goal, one could apply caritative leadership theory, which is grounded on the caritas motive, human love, and mercy.

  1. Orbitofrontal cortex encodes memories within value-based schemas and represents contexts that guide memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Farovik, Anja; Place, Ryan J; McKenzie, Sam; Porter, Blake; Munro, Catherine E; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2015-05-27

    There are a substantial number of studies showing that the orbitofrontal cortex links events to reward values, whereas the hippocampus links events to the context in which they occur. Here we asked how the orbitofrontal cortex contributes to memory where context determines the reward values associated with events. After rats learned object-reward associations that differed depending on the spatial context in which the objects were presented, neuronal ensembles in orbitofrontal cortex represented distinct value-based schemas, each composed of a systematic organization of the representations of objects in the contexts and positions where they were associated with reward or nonreward. Orbitofrontal ensembles also represent the different spatial contexts that define the mappings of stimuli to actions that lead to reward or nonreward. These findings, combined with observations on complementary memory representation within the hippocampus, suggest mechanisms through which prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus interact in support of context-guided memory.

  2. Orbitofrontal Cortex Encodes Memories within Value-Based Schemas and Represents Contexts That Guide Memory Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Farovik, Anja; Place, Ryan J.; McKenzie, Sam; Porter, Blake; Munro, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    There are a substantial number of studies showing that the orbitofrontal cortex links events to reward values, whereas the hippocampus links events to the context in which they occur. Here we asked how the orbitofrontal cortex contributes to memory where context determines the reward values associated with events. After rats learned object–reward associations that differed depending on the spatial context in which the objects were presented, neuronal ensembles in orbitofrontal cortex represented distinct value-based schemas, each composed of a systematic organization of the representations of objects in the contexts and positions where they were associated with reward or nonreward. Orbitofrontal ensembles also represent the different spatial contexts that define the mappings of stimuli to actions that lead to reward or nonreward. These findings, combined with observations on complementary memory representation within the hippocampus, suggest mechanisms through which prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus interact in support of context-guided memory. PMID:26019346

  3. Autocorrelation structure at rest predicts value correlates of single neurons during reward-guided choice

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Sean E; Wallis, Joni D; Kennerley, Steven W; Hunt, Laurence T

    2016-01-01

    Correlates of value are routinely observed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during reward-guided decision making. In previous work (Hunt et al., 2015), we argued that PFC correlates of chosen value are a consequence of varying rates of a dynamical evidence accumulation process. Yet within PFC, there is substantial variability in chosen value correlates across individual neurons. Here we show that this variability is explained by neurons having different temporal receptive fields of integration, indexed by examining neuronal spike rate autocorrelation structure whilst at rest. We find that neurons with protracted resting temporal receptive fields exhibit stronger chosen value correlates during choice. Within orbitofrontal cortex, these neurons also sustain coding of chosen value from choice through the delivery of reward, providing a potential neural mechanism for maintaining predictions and updating stored values during learning. These findings reveal that within PFC, variability in temporal specialisation across neurons predicts involvement in specific decision-making computations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18937.001 PMID:27705742

  4. Value of MR contrast media in image-guided body interventions.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Maythem; Wilson, Mark

    2012-01-28

    In the past few years, there have been multiple advances in magnetic resonance (MR) instrumentation, in vivo devices, real-time imaging sequences and interventional procedures with new therapies. More recently, interventionists have started to use minimally invasive image-guided procedures and local therapies, which reduce the pain from conventional surgery and increase drug effectiveness, respectively. Local therapy also reduces the systemic dose and eliminates the toxic side effects of some drugs to other organs. The success of MR-guided procedures depends on visualization of the targets in 3D and precise deployment of ablation catheters, local therapies and devices. MR contrast media provide a wealth of tissue contrast and allows 3D and 4D image acquisitions. After the development of fast imaging sequences, the clinical applications of MR contrast media have been substantially expanded to include pre- during- and post-interventions. Prior to intervention, MR contrast media have the potential to localize and delineate pathologic tissues of vital organs, such as the brain, heart, breast, kidney, prostate, liver and uterus. They also offer other options such as labeling therapeutic agents or cells. During intervention, these agents have the capability to map blood vessels and enhance the contrast between the endovascular guidewire/catheters/devices, blood and tissues as well as direct therapies to the target. Furthermore, labeling therapeutic agents or cells aids in visualizing their delivery sites and tracking their tissue distribution. After intervention, MR contrast media have been used for assessing the efficacy of ablation and therapies. It should be noted that most image-guided procedures are under preclinical research and development. It can be concluded that MR contrast media have great value in preclinical and some clinical interventional procedures. Future applications of MR contrast media in image-guided procedures depend on their safety, tolerability

  5. Neurophysiology of Reward-Guided Behavior: Correlates Related to Predictions, Value, Motivation, Errors, Attention, and Action.

    PubMed

    Bissonette, Gregory B; Roesch, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    Many brain areas are activated by the possibility and receipt of reward. Are all of these brain areas reporting the same information about reward? Or are these signals related to other functions that accompany reward-guided learning and decision-making? Through carefully controlled behavioral studies, it has been shown that reward-related activity can represent reward expectations related to future outcomes, errors in those expectations, motivation, and signals related to goal- and habit-driven behaviors. These dissociations have been accomplished by manipulating the predictability of positively and negatively valued events. Here, we review single neuron recordings in behaving animals that have addressed this issue. We describe data showing that several brain areas, including orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and basolateral amygdala signal reward prediction. In addition, anterior cingulate, basolateral amygdala, and dopamine neurons also signal errors in reward prediction, but in different ways. For these areas, we will describe how unexpected manipulations of positive and negative value can dissociate signed from unsigned reward prediction errors. All of these signals feed into striatum to modify signals that motivate behavior in ventral striatum and guide responding via associative encoding in dorsolateral striatum. PMID:26276036

  6. Neurophysiology of Reward-Guided Behavior: Correlates Related to Predictions, Value, Motivation, Errors, Attention, and Action.

    PubMed

    Bissonette, Gregory B; Roesch, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    Many brain areas are activated by the possibility and receipt of reward. Are all of these brain areas reporting the same information about reward? Or are these signals related to other functions that accompany reward-guided learning and decision-making? Through carefully controlled behavioral studies, it has been shown that reward-related activity can represent reward expectations related to future outcomes, errors in those expectations, motivation, and signals related to goal- and habit-driven behaviors. These dissociations have been accomplished by manipulating the predictability of positively and negatively valued events. Here, we review single neuron recordings in behaving animals that have addressed this issue. We describe data showing that several brain areas, including orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and basolateral amygdala signal reward prediction. In addition, anterior cingulate, basolateral amygdala, and dopamine neurons also signal errors in reward prediction, but in different ways. For these areas, we will describe how unexpected manipulations of positive and negative value can dissociate signed from unsigned reward prediction errors. All of these signals feed into striatum to modify signals that motivate behavior in ventral striatum and guide responding via associative encoding in dorsolateral striatum.

  7. Health effects associated with passenger vehicles: monetary values of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Mohamed; Madany, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is regarded as one of the highest priorities in environmental protection in both developed and developing countries. High levels of air pollution have adverse effects on human health that might cause premature death. This study presents the monetary value estimates for the adverse human health effects resulted from ambient air pollution. It aids decision makers to set priorities in the public health relevance of pollution abatement. The main driver of policymaker is the need to reduce the avoidable cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality from pollutant exposures. The monetary valuation involves 2 steps: (i) relate levels of pollutants to mortality and morbidity (concentration-response relationships) and (ii) apply unit economic values. Cost of air pollution associated with passenger vehicles running over a major traffic bridge (6th of October Elevated Highway) is presented as a case study to demonstrate the use of monetary value of air pollution. The study proves that the cost of air pollution is extremely high and should not be overlooked.

  8. The value of frameworks as knowledge translation mechanisms to guide community participation practice in Ontario CHCs.

    PubMed

    Montesanti, Stephanie Rose; Abelson, Julia; Lavis, John N; Dunn, James R

    2015-10-01

    The community participation literature has produced numerous frameworks to guide practice and evaluation of community participation strategies in the health sector. These frameworks are useful starting points for differentiating the approaches for involving people in planning and decision-making for health services, but have been critiqued for being too generic and ignoring that community participation is highly contextual and situational. Health service organizations across Canada and internationally have begun to respond to address this limitation by developing more context-specific community participation frameworks; however, such frameworks do not exist for Ontario Community Health Centres (CHCs)-local primary health care organizations with a mandate to engage marginalized groups in planning and decision-making for health services. We conducted a series of focus groups with staff members from four Ontario CHCs to: (1) examine the factors that would influence their use of a generic framework for community participation with marginalized populations; and (2) improve the "context-specificity" of this framework, to enhance its relevance to CHCs. Participants described the difficulty of organizing the contextual, multi-faceted and situational process of community participation that they experienced with marginalized populations into a single framework, which led them to question the value of using frameworks as a resource for guiding the design, implementation and evaluation of their community participation initiatives. Instead, participants revealed that tacit knowledge, in the form of professional and personal experience and local knowledge of a marginalized population, had a greater influence on guiding participation activities in Ontario CHCs. Our findings suggest that tacit knowledge is an essential feature of community participation practice and requires further exploration regarding its role in the community participation field. PMID:26318211

  9. On the air-entry value of porous media: New insights from measurements, imaging and pore scale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Peter; Hoogland, Frouke; Or, Dani

    2016-04-01

    The air entry value is the capillary pressure associated with the formation of a continuous gas phase, hence marking the onset of unsaturated conditions in a porous medium. Near the air-entry value, transport properties change abruptly hence the importance of reliable determination of this value for modeling processes in the vadose zone. Typically, air entry value is inferred from the soil water characteristics of a porous sample subjected to step-wise increase in applied suction. This procedure is laborious and may require long equilibration times, and is difficult to apply for coarse media. We present an alternative and simpler method to deduce air entry-value from continuous evaporation from an initially saturated porous sample. As water evaporates and menisci form and penetrate the surface, the capillary pressure (measured with a tensiometer at any depth) abruptly changes and marks the macroscopic air entry value. This value remains remarkably constant during evaporation and receding drying front (after accounting for hydrostatic front position). We present experimental results from different porous media confirming that air-entry values deduced from soil water characteristics and evaporation experiments are similar. We employed pore scale imaging and network modeling to confirm that the air-entry value corresponds to the critical path that is needed to form a continuous air phase and its macroscopic value remains stable at a drying front that traverses a uniform porous medium. For layered media, corresponding adjustments in air entry values and air invasion patterns have been predicted and measured.

  10. Reference values for indoor air pollutant concentrations in new, residential buildings in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järnström, H.; Saarela, K.; Kalliokoski, P.; Pasanen, A.-L.

    Eight buildings, representing the present construction practice in Finland, were investigated to create numeric reference data for indoor air quality (IAQ) in new residential buildings. Low-emitting materials according to the "Finnish Classification of Building Materials" were used in all the buildings. The airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, and ammonia concentrations as well as temperature, relative humidity, and the air exchange rate were determined in the newly finished buildings and after 6 and 12 months. Target values for the indoor air concentrations were not generally reached in newly finished buildings. The lowest concentration levels were measured in buildings with mechanical supply and exhaust air systems. Formaldehyde concentrations fulfilled best the target values. The TVOC concentration usually reached the S2/S3-class values within 6 months. However, the ammonia concentration remained above the S3 limit during the whole first year. The concentrations of ammonia and formaldehyde showed seasonal variations, i.e., higher concentrations were measured in summer. The concentrations of individual VOCs generally decreased most strongly during the first 6 months and the final mean concentration levels were generally less than 15 μg m -3. As the occupancy period got longer, the VOCs originating from the construction phase were increasingly replaced by new ones. Reference values based on means and on 95 percentiles are presented to facilitate interpretation of the results of measurements done to ensure that proper construction practices have been applied or to investigate IAQ problems.

  11. Electron densities and energies of a guided argon streamer in argon and air environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, S.; Hofmann, S.; van Veldhuizen, E. M.; Bruggeman, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we report the temporally and spatially resolved electron densities and mean energies of a guided argon streamer in ambient argon and air obtained by Thomson laser scattering. The plasma is driven by a positive monopolar 3.5 kV pulse, with a pulse width of 500 ns and a frequency of 5 kHz which is synchronized with the high repetition rate laser system. This configuration enables us to use the spatial and temporal stability of the guided streamer to accumulate a multitude of laser/plasma shots by a triple grating spectrometer equipped with an ICCD camera and to determine the electron parameters. We found a strong initial ne-overshoot with a maximum of 7 × 1019 m-3 and a mean electron energy of 4.5 eV. This maximum is followed by a fast decay toward the streamer channel. Moreover, a 2D distribution of the electron density is obtained which exhibits a peculiar mushroom-like shape of the streamer head with a diameter significantly larger than that of the emission profile. A correlation of the width of the streamer head with the expected pre-ionization channel is found.

  12. Regression analysis in modeling of air surface temperature and factors affecting its value in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; Jafri, Mohd. Zubir Mat; Lim, Hwee San; Abdullah, Khiruddin

    2012-10-01

    This study encompasses air surface temperature (AST) modeling in the lower atmosphere. Data of four atmosphere pollutant gases (CO, O3, CH4, and H2O) dataset, retrieved from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), from 2003 to 2008 was employed to develop a model to predict AST value in the Malaysian peninsula using the multiple regression method. For the entire period, the pollutants were highly correlated (R=0.821) with predicted AST. Comparisons among five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from AIRS, especially in the southwest monsoon (SWM) season, within 1.3 K, and for in situ data, within 1 to 2 K. The validation results of AST with AST from AIRS showed high correlation coefficient (R=0.845 to 0.918), indicating the model's efficiency and accuracy. Statistical analysis in terms of β showed that H2O (0.565 to 1.746) tended to contribute significantly to high AST values during the northeast monsoon season. Generally, these results clearly indicate the advantage of using the satellite AIRS data and a correlation analysis study to investigate the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases on AST over the Malaysian peninsula. A model was developed that is capable of retrieving the Malaysian peninsulan AST in all weather conditions, with total uncertainties ranging between 1 and 2 K.

  13. Assessing the Value of Enhancing AirNow Data with NASA Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasch, A. N.; Burke, B.; Huang, S.; Dye, T.; Dawes, S. S.; DeWinter, J. L.; Zahn, P. H.; Haderman, M.; Szykman, J.; White, J. E.; Dickerson, P.; van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R.

    2013-12-01

    case studies in the Denver, Atlanta, and Kansas City regions by interviewing people at EPA regional offices, state environmental and public health agencies, local public health authorities, regional planning and non-profit outreach organizations, and universities. The interviews focused on the existing uses of air quality information and the potential value of incorporating NASA satellite-enhanced AirNow data to support and enhance the missions of the organizations interviewed. STI analyzed the economic benefit of using satellite data to fill in gaps in the current air quality monitoring network used to provide information to the public. This presentation will discuss how the findings can be used to improve estimation of the socioeconomic benefits derived from Earth observation science in policy and management decisions.

  14. Historical review on development of environmental quality standards and guideline values for air pollutants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Pham, Thi-Thu-Phuong; Matsuda, Takayuki; Oyama, Tsunehiro; Tanaka, Masayuki; Yu, Hsu-Sheng; Uchiyama, Iwao

    2011-07-01

    Environmental quality standards (EQSs) have been established as desirable levels to be maintained for protection of human health and the conservation of the living environment by Basic Environment Law. EQSs in ambient air had been set for 10 substances (sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and photochemical oxidants (Ox), benzene, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, dioxins and dichloromethane) and guideline values for 7 (acrylonitorile, vinyl chloride monomer, mercury, nickel compounds, 1,3-butadiene, chloroform and 1,2-dichloromethane) in Japan by 2009. EQSs for the classical (or traditional) air pollutants, SO(2), CO, SPM, NO(2) and Ox, were set according to the minimal requirement to protect human health, based on evidence from epidemiological studies conducted before the 1970s. In 1996, the Central Environment Council designated substances which may be hazardous air pollutants and substances requiring priority action, and adopted the concept of risk assessment to set EQSs and guideline values. A life-long risk level (virtually safe dose) of 10(-5) was used to set EQS for benzene, and guideline values for vinyl chloride monomer, nickel compounds, and 1,3-butadiene. EQSs for trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and dichloromethane, and guideline values for acrylonitorile and mercury were set using uncertain factors and lowest observed adverse effect (LOAEL)/no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). The results of animal experiments were utilized to set guideline values for chloroform and 1,2-dichloroethane. The benchmark approach and human equivalent concentration (HEC) were adopted for 1,2-dichloroethane. The history of setting EQSs and guideline values for hazardous air pollutants is one of adopting new concepts into risk assessment.

  15. The 1980 Guide to the Evaluation of Educational Experiences in the Armed Services. [Volume] 1: Air Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Eugene J.; And Others

    For more than 35 years, this Guide has been the standard reference work for recognizing learning acquired in military life. All the courses offered by the Air Force are listed and briefly described. Each course description includes the course title and number: the length of the course, and where and when it was offered; the course objectives; the…

  16. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Heating. Volume II (Second Year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This articulation guide contains 17 units of instruction for the second year of a two-year vocational program designed to prepare the high school graduate to install, maintain, and repair various types of residential and commercial heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration equipment. The units are designed to help the student to expand and…

  17. Recommended Parameter Values for GENII Modeling of Radionuclides in Routine Air and Water Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Arimescu, Carmen; Napier, Bruce A.; Hay, Tristan R.

    2012-11-01

    The GENII v2 code is used to estimate dose to individuals or populations from the release of radioactive materials into air or water. Numerous parameter values are required for input into this code. User-defined parameters cover the spectrum from chemical data, meteorological data, agricultural data, and behavioral data. This document is a summary of parameter values that reflect conditions in the United States. Reasonable regional and age-dependent data is summarized. Data availability and quality varies. The set of parameters described address scenarios for chronic air emissions or chronic releases to public waterways. Considerations for the special tritium and carbon-14 models are briefly addressed. GENIIv2.10.0 is the current software version that this document supports.

  18. Feature reduction using a singular value decomposition for the iterative guided spectral class rejection hybrid classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Rhonda D.; Watson, Layne T.; Wynne, Randolph H.; Blinn, Christine E.

    Feature reduction in a remote sensing dataset is often desirable to decrease the processing time required to perform a classification and improve overall classification accuracy. This paper introduces a feature reduction method based on the singular value decomposition (SVD). This SVD-based feature reduction method reduces the storage and processing requirements of the SVD by utilizing a training dataset. This feature reduction technique was applied to training data from two multitemporal datasets of Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery acquired over a forested area in Virginia, USA and Rondônia, Brazil. Subsequent parallel iterative guided spectral class rejection (pIGSCR) forest/non-forest classifications were performed to determine the quality of the feature reduction. The classifications of the Virginia data were five times faster using SVD-based feature reduction without affecting the classification accuracy. Feature reduction using the SVD was also compared to feature reduction using principal components analysis (PCA). The highest average accuracies for the Virginia dataset (88.34%) and for the Rondônia dataset (93.31%) were achieved using the SVD. The results presented here indicate that SVD-based feature reduction can produce statistically significantly better classifications than PCA.

  19. Diagnostic value of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in various lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ortakoylu, Mediha Gonenc; Iliaz, Sinem; Bahadir, Ayse; Aslan, Asuman; Iliaz, Raim; Ozgul, Mehmet Akif; Urer, Halide Nur

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a new method for the diagnosis and staging of lung disease, and its use is increasing worldwide. It has been used as a means of diagnosing lung cancer in its initial stages, and there are data supporting its use for the diagnosis of benign lung disease. The aim of this study was to share our experience with EBUS-TBNA and discuss its diagnostic value. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the results related to 159 patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA at our pulmonary medicine clinic between 2010 and 2013. We recorded the location and size of lymph nodes seen during EBUS. Lymph nodes that appeared to be affected on EBUS were sampled at least twice. We recorded the diagnostic results of EBUS-TBNA and (for cases in which EBUS-TBNA yielded an inconclusive diagnosis) the final diagnoses after further investigation and follow-up. Results: We evaluated 159 patients, of whom 89 (56%) were male and 70 (44%) were female. The mean age was 54.6 ± 14.2 years among the male patients and 51.9 ± 11.3 years among the female patients. Of the 159 patients evaluated, 115 (84%) were correctly diagnosed by EBUS. The diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA was 83% for benign granulomatous diseases and 77% for malignant diseases. Conclusions: The diagnostic value of EBUS-TBNA is also high for benign pathologies, such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. In patients with mediastinal disorders, the use of EBUS-TBNA should be encouraged, primarily because it markedly reduces the need for mediastinoscopy. PMID:26578131

  20. Improving the reliability of guiding mechanisms in values of sucker-rod well pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Sotnik, V.I.; Rustamov, E.M.; Stepanova, I.S.

    1984-09-01

    This article reports on research conducted at the Azerbaijan Scientific-Research and Projects Institute for Petroleum to develop new types of valve-guiding mechanisms for sucker-rod well pumps which have high resistance to hydroabrasive and corrosive/mechanical wear and the required strength for the given load conditions. A new type of ball valve with an elastic guiding mechanism was developed for NSV1-32 and NSV1-43 sucker-rod well pumps. The new type of guiding mechanism can be made by modern high-production techniques of cold stamping which considerably reduces technological expenses compared to investment casting. Comparative tests were conducted with guiding mechanisms of elastic and rigid types (cups made for standard valves and cups of similar design with thicker ribs). The results of field tests of sucker-rod well pumps with elastic guiding mechanisms showed that they have high operating strength and wear resistance.

  1. Limiting of microjoule femtosecond pulses in air-guided modes of a hollow photonic-crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Konorov, S.O.; Serebryannikov, E.E.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D.A.; Bugar, I.; Chorvat, D. Jr.; Chorvat, D.; Bloemer, M.J.; Scalora, M.; Miles, R.B.; Zheltikov, A.M.

    2004-08-01

    Self-phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening of laser pulses in air-guided modes of hollow photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs) is shown to allow the creation of fiber-optic limiters for high-intensity ultrashort laser pulses. The performance of PCF limiters is analyzed in terms of elementary theory of self-phase modulation. Experiments performed with 100 fs microjoule pulses of 800 nm Ti:sapphire laser radiation demonstrate the potential of hollow PCFs as limiters for 10 MW ultrashort laser pulses and show the possibility to switch the limiting level of output radiation energy by guiding femtosecond pulses in different PCF modes.

  2. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  3. Valuing air quality impacts using stated choice analysis: trading off visibility against morbidity effects.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Luis Ignacio; De La Maza, Cristóbal; Cifuentes, Luis Abdón; Gómez, Jorge

    2014-12-15

    Direct valuation of air quality has as a drawback; that estimated willingness to pay figures cannot be apportioned to the several environmental goods affected by air quality, such as mortality and morbidity effects, visibility, outdoor recreation, among others. To address this issue, we implemented a survey in Santiago de Chile to identify component values of confounded environmental services by means of a choice experiment. We designed a survey where two environmental goods, a morbidity health endpoint and improved visibility, had to be jointly traded off against each other and against money in a unified framework. The health endpoint is a respiratory illness that results in an emergency room visit with a probability of hospitalization being required for appropriate treatment. Visibility is described as an aesthetic effect related to the number of days per year of high visibility. Modeling comprises both a logit model with covariates and a mixed-logit model. The results suggest that the health endpoint midpoint value is in a range from USD 2,800 to USD 13,000, mainly depending on the model and age stratum. The mid point value of an extra day of high visibility per year ranges from USD 281,000 to USD 379,000. PMID:25199601

  4. Valuing air quality impacts using stated choice analysis: trading off visibility against morbidity effects.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Luis Ignacio; De La Maza, Cristóbal; Cifuentes, Luis Abdón; Gómez, Jorge

    2014-12-15

    Direct valuation of air quality has as a drawback; that estimated willingness to pay figures cannot be apportioned to the several environmental goods affected by air quality, such as mortality and morbidity effects, visibility, outdoor recreation, among others. To address this issue, we implemented a survey in Santiago de Chile to identify component values of confounded environmental services by means of a choice experiment. We designed a survey where two environmental goods, a morbidity health endpoint and improved visibility, had to be jointly traded off against each other and against money in a unified framework. The health endpoint is a respiratory illness that results in an emergency room visit with a probability of hospitalization being required for appropriate treatment. Visibility is described as an aesthetic effect related to the number of days per year of high visibility. Modeling comprises both a logit model with covariates and a mixed-logit model. The results suggest that the health endpoint midpoint value is in a range from USD 2,800 to USD 13,000, mainly depending on the model and age stratum. The mid point value of an extra day of high visibility per year ranges from USD 281,000 to USD 379,000.

  5. An approach for defect visualization and identification in composite plate structures using air-coupled guided ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Rabi Sankar; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2015-03-01

    Composite materials are today widely used in engineering applications because of superior strength-weight ratios offered by them as well as high structural performance and corrosion resistance. However defects such as fibre breakage, matrix cracking, de-bonding and delaminations in composites impact their structural integrity and reliability negatively and NDE techniques to rapidly identify such defects are valuable. Ultrasonic guided waves have over the years emerged as attractive tools for scanning of large structures and recently they have been considered for rapid inspection of plate and pipe installations. Air-coupled ultrasound for generation of Lamb waves is particularly attractive for composite applications in view of the non-contact inspection offered, as well as the possibilities for rapid mechanized scanning. In this paper we present damage identification and visualisation approaches for quasi-isotropic composite plate structures, based on air-coupled plate guided ultrasonic (Lamb) waves. In the implementation demonstrated, an 8-layered quasi-isotropic [0/+45/-45/90]s glass fibre reinforced plastics (GFRP) composite plate is interrogated using air-coupled pitch-catch guided ultrasound. Propagation of Lamb waves in the laminates and their interaction with delaminations of different sizes at various locations along the structure are studied using 3D finite element (FE) analysis. The visualization approach is validated using experiments, leading to quantitative predictions of defect parameters such as sizing, location and depth. The approach is also extended for the inspection of complex composite structural features such as I- and T-sections.

  6. The effects of aircraft noise at Williams Air Force Base Auxiliary Field on residential property values

    SciTech Connect

    Morey, M.J.

    1990-11-01

    This report considers the environmental consequences of moving the flight training operations of the US Air Force's 82nd Flying Training Wing from the auxiliary airfield, Coolidge-Florence Municipal Airport (CFMA), to a more remote location in Pinal County, Arizona. It examines how actual noise from touch-and-go flights of T-37 aircraft and perceived (anticipated) noise affect the market value of residential property near CFMA. Noise, measured by a noise index, is correlated with market values through a regression analysis applied to a hedonic price model of the Coolidge-Florence housing market. Prices and characteristics of 42 residential properties sold in 1987 and 1988 were used to estimate a perceived noise effect. The report finds that the coefficient on the measure of perceived noise, based on the noise exposure forecast (NEF) index, is statistically insignificant, even though the sign and value are consistent with those estimated in other studies. It concludes that current flights do not have a significant effect on residential property values, partially because there is no housing near CFMA. This and larger studies indicate that flight operations at a new auxiliary airfield would not affect property values if runways were at least 12,000 feet away from housing. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Environmental Education, A Teacher's Guide with Inquiry and Value Seeking Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Julianna M.

    This guide is written to focus attention on both the cognitive and affective aspects of environmental education. Its format provides four levels of development: primary, intermediate, junior high, and senior high school grades, with the first two subdivided into three categories each. Performance objectives, teaching-learning inquiries, and…

  8. Value of Artisanal Simulators to Train Veterinary Students in Performing Invasive Ultrasound-Guided Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hage, Maria Cristina F. N. S.; Massaferro, Ana Beatriz; Lopes, Érika Rondon; Beraldo, Carolina Mariano; Daniel, Jéssika

    2016-01-01

    Pericardial effusion can lead to cardiac tamponade, which endangers an animal's life. Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis is used to remove abnormal liquid; however, it requires technical expertise. In veterinary medical education, the opportunity to teach this procedure to save lives during emergencies is rare; therefore, simulators are…

  9. Clean Air Now, Teacher's Guide: Political Issues. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Lazarus, Stuart

    This teacher's guide to unit four of the second-semester "Comparing Political Experiences" course provides specific objectives and instructional procedures for each of five activities which focus on the smog problem in Riverside, California. In addition, the guide provides instructions for coordinating the use of the student text, audiovisual…

  10. Superfund guide: Clean Air Act hazardous air pollutants added to the list of CERCLA hazardous substances. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The fact sheet identifies the 52 CAA hazardous air pollutants that have been added to the list of CERCLA hazardous substances and that are now subject to CERCLA requirements; describes the reporting requirements and exemptions under CERCLA; and examines reporting exemptions in relation to releases of ethylene glycol.

  11. Defect detection performance of the UCSD non-contact air-coupled ultrasonic guided wave inspection of rails prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Stefano; Nguyen, Thompson V.; Sternini, Simone; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Fateh, Mahmood; Wilson, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under a Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development (R&D) grant, is developing a system for high-speed and non-contact rail defect detection. A prototype using an ultrasonic air-coupled guided wave signal generation and air-coupled signal detection, paired with a real-time statistical analysis algorithm, has been realized. This system requires a specialized filtering approach based on electrical impedance matching due to the inherently poor signal-to-noise ratio of air-coupled ultrasonic measurements in rail steel. Various aspects of the prototype have been designed with the aid of numerical analyses. In particular, simulations of ultrasonic guided wave propagation in rails have been performed using a Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA) algorithm. The system's operating parameters were selected based on Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, which provide a quantitative manner to evaluate different detection performances based on the trade-off between detection rate and false positive rate. The prototype based on this technology was tested in October 2014 at the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) in Pueblo, Colorado, and again in November 2015 after incorporating changes based on lessons learned. Results from the 2015 field test are discussed in this paper.

  12. Combustion of hydrogen-air jets in local chemical equilibrium: A guide to the CHARNAL computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalding, D. B.; Launder, B. E.; Morse, A. P.; Maples, G.

    1974-01-01

    A guide to a computer program, written in FORTRAN 4, for predicting the flow properties of turbulent mixing with combustion of a circular jet of hydrogen into a co-flowing stream of air is presented. The program, which is based upon the Imperial College group's PASSA series, solves differential equations for diffusion and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy and also of the R.M.S. fluctuation of hydrogen concentration. The effective turbulent viscosity for use in the shear stress equation is computed. Chemical equilibrium is assumed throughout the flow.

  13. Topography Analysis and Visualization Software Supports a Guided Comparative Planetology Education Exhibit at the Smithsonian's Air and Space Museum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roark, J. H.; Masuoka, C. M.; Frey, H. V.; Keller, J.; Williams, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Planetary Geodynamics Laboratory (http://geodynamics.gsfc.nasa.gov) of NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center designed, produced and recently delivered a "museum-friendly" version of GRIDVIEW, a grid visualization and analysis application, to the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum where it will be used in a guided comparative planetology education exhibit. The software was designed to enable museum visitors to interact with the same Earth and Mars topographic data and tools typically used by planetary scientists, and experience the thrill of discovery while learning about the geologic differences between Earth and Mars.

  14. Leading from the heart: caring, love, peace, and values guiding leadership.

    PubMed

    Turkel, Marian C

    2014-04-01

    Contemporary transformational leadership focuses on authentic leadership styles, relational caring, meaningful recognition, creativity, building trust, relationships, participative decision making, dialogue with time for reflection, and innovation. The purpose of this paper is to illuminate how concepts from the unitary transformative paradigm and caring science can be integrated within nursing leadership practice, to invite nurse leaders to make these concepts explicit in their own transformational leadership journey, and to offer ways of reframing traditional organizational language. Practice exemplars are presented to highlight how tenets from caring theory are guiding the practice of nursing leadership.

  15. Leading from the heart: caring, love, peace, and values guiding leadership.

    PubMed

    Turkel, Marian C

    2014-04-01

    Contemporary transformational leadership focuses on authentic leadership styles, relational caring, meaningful recognition, creativity, building trust, relationships, participative decision making, dialogue with time for reflection, and innovation. The purpose of this paper is to illuminate how concepts from the unitary transformative paradigm and caring science can be integrated within nursing leadership practice, to invite nurse leaders to make these concepts explicit in their own transformational leadership journey, and to offer ways of reframing traditional organizational language. Practice exemplars are presented to highlight how tenets from caring theory are guiding the practice of nursing leadership. PMID:24740954

  16. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM, VERSION 4.0 - VOLUME 1: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...

  17. Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agle, Elizabeth; Galbraith, Susan

    The past two decades have witnessed increased concerns over the health and comfort of indoor air quality (IAQ), but little indoor air-related information has been targeted at building owners and facility managers of public and commercial buildings. This manual, specifically created for such a population, provides guidance on preventing,…

  18. The Role of Teacher Training Institutions in Guiding the Acquisition of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenker, Joseph; Creange, Renee

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how changing family structures make values education and the development of strong parent-school partnerships imperative. Examines the teacher education program at New York's Bank Street College of Education and its efforts to create a school environment honoring human dignity and values education intended to provide a model for…

  19. Energy Value Housing Award Guide: How to Build and Profit with Energy Efficiency in New Home Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, J. L.

    2001-06-01

    As concern over the environment grows, builders have the potential to fulfill a market niche by building homes that use fewer resources and have lower environmental impact than conventional construction. Builders can increase their marketability and customer satisfaction and, at the same time, reduce the environmental impact of their homes. However, it takes dedication to build environmentally sound homes along with a solid marketing approach to ensure that customers recognize the added value of energy and resource efficiency. This guide is intended for builders seeking suggestions on how to improve energy and resource efficiency in their new homes. It is a compilation of ideas and concepts for designing, building, and marketing energy- and resource-efficient homes based on the experience of recipients of the national Energy Value Housing Award (EVHA).

  20. Evidence for subjective values guiding posture and movement coordination in a free-endpoint whole-body reaching task.

    PubMed

    Hilt, P M; Berret, B; Papaxanthis, C; Stapley, P J; Pozzo, T

    2016-01-01

    When moving, humans must overcome intrinsic (body centered) and extrinsic (target-related) redundancy, requiring decisions when selecting one motor solution among several potential ones. During classical reaching studies the position of a salient target determines where the participant should reach, constraining the associated motor decisions. We aimed at investigating implicit variables guiding action selection when faced with the complexity of human-environment interaction. Subjects had to perform whole body reaching movements towards a uniform surface. We observed little variation in the self-chosen motor strategy across repeated trials while movements were variable across subjects being on a continuum from a pure 'knee flexion' associated with a downward center of mass (CoM) displacement to an 'ankle dorsi-flexion' associated with an upward CoM displacement. Two optimality criteria replicated these two strategies: a mix between mechanical energy expenditure and joint smoothness and a minimization of the amount of torques. Our results illustrate the presence of idiosyncratic values guiding posture and movement coordination that can be combined in a flexible manner as a function of context and subject. A first value accounts for the reach efficiency of the movement at the price of selecting possibly unstable postures. The other predicts stable dynamic equilibrium but requires larger energy expenditure and jerk. PMID:27053508

  1. Evidence for subjective values guiding posture and movement coordination in a free-endpoint whole-body reaching task

    PubMed Central

    Hilt, P. M.; Berret, B.; Papaxanthis, C.; Stapley, P. J.; Pozzo, T.

    2016-01-01

    When moving, humans must overcome intrinsic (body centered) and extrinsic (target-related) redundancy, requiring decisions when selecting one motor solution among several potential ones. During classical reaching studies the position of a salient target determines where the participant should reach, constraining the associated motor decisions. We aimed at investigating implicit variables guiding action selection when faced with the complexity of human-environment interaction. Subjects had to perform whole body reaching movements towards a uniform surface. We observed little variation in the self-chosen motor strategy across repeated trials while movements were variable across subjects being on a continuum from a pure ‘knee flexion’ associated with a downward center of mass (CoM) displacement to an ‘ankle dorsi-flexion’ associated with an upward CoM displacement. Two optimality criteria replicated these two strategies: a mix between mechanical energy expenditure and joint smoothness and a minimization of the amount of torques. Our results illustrate the presence of idiosyncratic values guiding posture and movement coordination that can be combined in a flexible manner as a function of context and subject. A first value accounts for the reach efficiency of the movement at the price of selecting possibly unstable postures. The other predicts stable dynamic equilibrium but requires larger energy expenditure and jerk. PMID:27053508

  2. The potential value of integrated natriuretic peptide and echo-guided heart failure management.

    PubMed

    Scali, Maria Chiara; Simioniuc, Anca; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Marzilli, Mario

    2014-07-18

    There is increasing interest in guiding Heart Failure (HF) therapy with Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) or N-terminal prohormone of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP), with the goal of lowering concentrations of these markers (and maintaining their suppression) as part of the therapeutic approach in HF. However, recent European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and American Heart Association/ American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) guidelines did not recommend biomarker-guided therapy in the management of HF patients. This has likely to do with the conceptual, methodological, and practical limitations of the Natriuretic Peptides (NP)-based approach, including biological variability, slow time-course, poor specificity, cost and venipuncture, as well as to the lack of conclusive scientific evidence after 15 years of intensive scientific work and industry investment in the field. An increase in NP can be associated with accumulation of extra-vascular lung water, which is a sign of impending acute heart failure. If this is the case, an higher dose of loop diuretics will improve symptoms. However, if no lung congestion is present, diuretics will show no benefit and even harm. It is only a combined clinical, bio-humoral (for instance with evaluation of renal function) and echocardiographic assessment which may unmask the pathophysiological (and possibly therapeutic) heterogeneity underlying the same clinical and NP picture. Increase in B-lines will trigger increase of loop diuretics (or dialysis); the marked increase in mitral insufficiency (at baseline or during exercise) will lead to increase in vasodilators and to consider mitral valve repair; the presence of substantial inotropic reserve during stress will give a substantially higher chance of benefit to beta-blocker or Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT). To each patient its own therapy, not with a "blind date" with symptoms and NP and carpet bombing with drugs, but with an open-eye targeted approach on the

  3. Statistical tests, P values, confidence intervals, and power: a guide to misinterpretations.

    PubMed

    Greenland, Sander; Senn, Stephen J; Rothman, Kenneth J; Carlin, John B; Poole, Charles; Goodman, Steven N; Altman, Douglas G

    2016-04-01

    Misinterpretation and abuse of statistical tests, confidence intervals, and statistical power have been decried for decades, yet remain rampant. A key problem is that there are no interpretations of these concepts that are at once simple, intuitive, correct, and foolproof. Instead, correct use and interpretation of these statistics requires an attention to detail which seems to tax the patience of working scientists. This high cognitive demand has led to an epidemic of shortcut definitions and interpretations that are simply wrong, sometimes disastrously so-and yet these misinterpretations dominate much of the scientific literature. In light of this problem, we provide definitions and a discussion of basic statistics that are more general and critical than typically found in traditional introductory expositions. Our goal is to provide a resource for instructors, researchers, and consumers of statistics whose knowledge of statistical theory and technique may be limited but who wish to avoid and spot misinterpretations. We emphasize how violation of often unstated analysis protocols (such as selecting analyses for presentation based on the P values they produce) can lead to small P values even if the declared test hypothesis is correct, and can lead to large P values even if that hypothesis is incorrect. We then provide an explanatory list of 25 misinterpretations of P values, confidence intervals, and power. We conclude with guidelines for improving statistical interpretation and reporting. PMID:27209009

  4. MELSAR: a mesoscale air quality model for complex terrain. Volume 1. Overview, technical description and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1985-04-01

    This final report is submitted as part of the Green River Ambient Model Assessment (GRAMA) program conducted at the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Environmental Protection Agency. The GRAMA program has, as its ultimate goal, the development of validated air quality models that can be applied to the complex terrain of the Green River Formation of western Colorado, eastern Utah, and southern Wyoming. The Green River Formation is a geologic formation containing large reserves of oil shale, coal, and other natural resources. Development of these resources may lead to a degradation of the air quality of the region. Air quality models are needed immediately for planning and regulatory purposes to assess the magnitude of these regional impacts. This report documents one of the models being developed for this purpose within GRAMA - specifically a model to predict short averaging time (less than or equal to 24 h) pollutant concentrations resulting from the mesoscale transport of pollutant releases from multiple sources. MELSAR has not undergone any rigorous operational testing, sensitivity analyses, or validation studies. Testing and evaluation of the model are needed to gain a measure of confidence in the model's performance. This report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 contains the model overview, technical description, and user's guide, and Volume 2 contains the Appendices which include listings of the FORTRAN code. 51 refs., 31 figs., 35 tabs.

  5. Detection of defect parameters using nonlinear air-coupled emission by ultrasonic guided waves at contact acoustic nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Delrue, Steven; Van Den Abeele, Koen

    2015-12-01

    Interaction of ultrasonic guided waves with kissing bonds (closed delaminations and incipient surface breaking cracks) gives rise to nonlinear features at the defect location. This causes higher harmonic frequency ultrasonic radiation into the ambient air, often referred to as Nonlinear Air-Coupled Emission (NACE), which may serve as a nonlinear tag to detect the defects. This paper summarizes the results of a numerical implementation and simulation study of NACE. The developed model combines a 3D time domain model for the nonlinear Lamb wave propagation in delaminated samples with a spectral solution for the nonlinear air-coupled emission. A parametric study is conducted to illustrate the potential of detecting defect location, size and shape by studying the NACE acoustic radiation patterns in different orientation planes. The simulation results prove that there is a good determination potential for the defect parameters, especially when the radiated frequency matches one of the resonance frequencies of the delaminated layer, leading to a Local Defect Resonance (LDR). PMID:26208725

  6. CT-Guided Transthoracic Core Biopsy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Diagnostic Value of the Histopathological Findings in the Specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Hozumi Ibukuro, Kenji; Tsukiyama, Toshitaka; Ishii, Rei

    2004-09-15

    We evaluated the value of CT-guided transthoracic core biopsy for the diagnosis of mycobacterial pulmonary nodules. The 30 subjects in this study had pulmonary nodules that had been either diagnosed histopathologically as tuberculosis or were suspected as tuberculosis based on a specimen obtained by CT-guided transthoracic core biopsy. The histopathological findings, the existence of acid-fast bacilli in the biopsy specimens, and the clinical course of the patients after the biopsy were reviewed retrospectively. Two of the three histological findings for tuberculosis that included epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells and caseous necrosis were observed in 21 of the nodules which were therefore diagnosed as histological tuberculosis. Six of these 21 nodules were positive for acid-fast bacilli, confirming the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Thirteen of the 21 nodules did not contain acid-fast bacilli but decreased in size in response to antituberculous treatment and were therefore diagnosed as clinical tuberculosis. Seven nodules with only caseous necrosis were diagnosed as suspected tuberculosis, with a final diagnosis of tuberculosis being made in 4 of the nodules and a diagnosis of old tuberculosis in 2 nodules. Two nodules with only multinucleated giant cells were diagnosed as suspected tuberculosis with 1 of these nodules being diagnosed finally as tuberculosis and the other nodule as a nonspecific granuloma. When any two of the three following histopathological findings - epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells or caseous necrosis - are observed in a specimen obtained by CT-guided transthoracic core biopsy, the diagnosis of tuberculosis can be established without the detection of acid-fast bacilli or Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  7. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM VERSION 5.0 - VOLUME 1: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three volume report and two diskettes document the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), developed for the U.S. EPA to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an eq...

  8. Getting Down to Business: Air Conditioning and Heating Service, Module 36. [Student Guide]. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Barbara

    This module on owning and operating an air conditioning and heating service is one of 36 in a series on entrepreneurship. The introduction tells the student what topics will be covered and suggests other modules to read in related occupations. Each unit includes student goals, a case study, and a discussion of the unit subject matter. Learning…

  9. Efficacious insect and disease control with laser-guided air-assisted sprayer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficacy of a newly developed air-assisted variable-rate sprayer was investigated for the control of arthropod pests and plant diseases in six commercial fields. The sprayer was integrated with a high-speed laser scanning sensor, a custom-designed signal processing program, an automatic flow control...

  10. Engineering Evaluation of X/Q Values Consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.145

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Steven B.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Lowry, Peter P.

    2010-02-01

    A goal for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) is to demonstrate compliance with regulatory dose limits bases on an exclusion area boundary and emergency planning zones boundaries set nominally to 400 meters. This paper presents the development of the atmospheric dispersion (X/Q) estimates for use in calculating doses at this distance and evaluating the resultant X/Q for an 800 meter receptor against X/Q values submitted to the NRC for review as part of Design Control Documentation (DCD) in support of future combined licensing (COL) Applications.

  11. Pachymetry-guided intrastromal air injection ("pachy-bubble") for deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Ramon C; Ghanem, Marcielle A

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate an innovative technique for intrastromal air injection to achieve deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) with bare Descemet membrane (DM). Thirty-four eyes with anterior corneal pathology, including 27 with keratoconus, underwent DALK. After 400 μm trephination with a suction trephine, ultrasound pachymetry was performed 0.8 mm internally from the trephination groove in the 11 to 1 o'clock position. In this area, a 2-mm incision was created, parallel to the groove, with a micrometer diamond knife calibrated to 90% depth of the thinnest measurement. A cannula was inserted through the incision and 0.5 mL of air was injected to dissect the DM from the stroma. After peripheral paracentesis, anterior keratectomy was carried out to bare the DM. A 0.25-mm oversized graft was sutured in place. Overall, 94.1% of eyes achieved DALK. Bare DM was achieved in 30 eyes, and a pre-DM dissection was performed in 2 eyes. Air injection was successful in detaching the DM (achieving the big bubble) in 88.2% of the eyes. In keratoconus eyes, the rate was 88.9%. All cases but one required a single air injection to achieve DM detachment. Microperforations occurred in 5 cases: 3 during manual layer-by-layer dissection after air injection failed to detach the DM, 1 during removal of the residual stroma after big-bubble formation, and 1 during the diamond knife incision. Two cases (5.9%) were converted to penetrating keratoplasty because of macroperforations. The technique was reproducible, safe, and highly effective in promoting DALK with bare DM. PMID:22367050

  12. Diagnostic value of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy in patients with salivary gland masses.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, J; Ridder, G J

    2012-04-01

    The salivary glands are unique in the diversity and complexity of their pathologies. Because fine needle aspiration cytology and frozen section are associated with major diagnostic difficulties, the authors analyzed the use of core needle biopsy (CNB) for the histologic assessment of salivary gland lesions. A systematic observational clinicopathologic quality assessment study was performed over 81 months including 161 CNB procedures in 76 patients with salivary gland pathologies. Adequate samples containing the target tissue were obtained in 73 patients. These samples revealed malignant disease in 45 (62%) patients, benign disease in 26 (36%) patients, and were inconclusive in 2 (3%) patients. Follow-up uncovered no false-positive or false-negative results. On the basis of secondary histologic and clinical follow-up, the statistical parameters were calculated as follows: sensitivity 94%; specificity 100%; accuracy 96%; positive predictive value 100%; negative predictive value 90%. The advantages and potential limitations of CNB in patients with salivary gland masses are discussed. CNB is a reliable biopsy technique for the assessment of salivary gland pathologies, although limitations remain for the subclassification of some neoplastic lesions. The authors recommend CNB as the biopsy technique of choice for a selection of indications.

  13. Valuing the health benefits of improving indoor air quality in residences.

    PubMed

    Chau, C K; Hui, W K; Tse, M S

    2008-05-01

    Unlike commercial premises, the indoor air quality of residences is more dynamic, uncontrolled, and prone to human behavioral changes. In consequence, measuring the health benefit gains derived from improving indoor air quality in residences is more complicated. To overcome this, a human thermal comfort model was first integrated with indoor microenvironment models, and subsequently linked with appropriate concentration-response and economic data for estimating the economic benefit gains derived from improving indoor air quality in residences for an adult and an elderly person. In this study, the development of the model is illustrated by using a typical residential apartment locating at the worst air quality neighborhood in Hong Kong and the daily weather profiles between 2002 and 2006. Three types of personal intervention measures were examined in the study: (i) using air cleaner in residence, (ii) changing time spent in residence, and (iii) relocating to a better air quality neighborhood. Our results revealed that employing air cleaners with windows closed in residence throughout the entire year was the most beneficial measure as it could provide the greatest annual health benefit gains. It would give a maximum of HK$2072 in 5-year cumulative benefit gain for an adult and HK$1700 for an elderly person. Employing air cleaners with windows closed in only cool season (October through March) could give the highest marginal return per dollar spent. The benefit gains would become smaller when windows were opened to a greater extent. By contrast, relocating to a better air quality neighborhood and changing the time spent in residence did not appeal to be beneficial intervention measures.

  14. Input guide for computer programs to generate thermodynamic data for air and Freon CF4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tevepaugh, J. A.; Penny, M. M.; Baker, L. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    FORTRAN computer programs were developed to calculate the thermodynamic properties of Freon 14 and air for isentropic expansion from given plenum conditions. Thermodynamic properties for air are calculated with equations derived from the Beattie-Bridgeman nonstandard equation of state and, for Freon 14, with equations derived from the Redlich-Quang nonstandard equation of state. These two gases are used in scale model testing of model rocket nozzle flow fields which requires simulation of the prototype plume shape with a cold flow test approach. Utility of the computer programs for use in analytical prediction of flow fields is enhanced by arranging card or tape output of the data in a format compatible with a method-of-characteristics computer program.

  15. Improved Performance of an Air Cooled Condenser (ACC) Using SPX Wind Guide Technology at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Mortensen

    2010-12-31

    This project added a new airflow enhancement technology to an existing ACC cooling process at a selected coal power plant. Airflow parameters and efficiency improvement for the main plant cooling process using the applied technology were determined and compared with the capabilities of existing systems. The project required significant planning and pre-test execution in order to reach the required Air Cooled Condenser system configuration for evaluation. A host Power Plant ACC system had to be identified, agreement finalized, and addition of the SPX ACC Wind Guide Technology completed on that site. Design of the modification, along with procurement, fabrication, instrumentation, and installation of the new airflow enhancement technology were executed. Baseline and post-modification cooling system data was collected and evaluated. The improvement of ACC thermal performance after SPX wind guide installation was clear. Testing of the improvement indicates there is a 5% improvement in heat transfer coefficient in high wind conditions and 1% improvement at low wind speed. The benefit increased with increasing wind speed. This project was completed on schedule and within budget.

  16. Reference dosimetry at the Australian Synchrotron's imaging and medical beamline using free-air ionization chamber measurements and theoretical predictions of air kerma rate and half value layer

    SciTech Connect

    Crosbie, Jeffrey C.; Rogers, Peter A. W.; Stevenson, Andrew W.; Hall, Christopher J.; Lye, Jessica E.; Nordstroem, Terese; Midgley, Stewart M.; Lewis, Robert A.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Novel, preclinical radiotherapy modalities are being developed at synchrotrons around the world, most notably stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy and microbeam radiotherapy at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. The imaging and medical beamline (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron has recently become available for preclinical radiotherapy and imaging research with clinical trials, a distinct possibility in the coming years. The aim of this present study was to accurately characterize the synchrotron-generated x-ray beam for the purposes of air kerma-based absolute dosimetry. Methods: The authors used a theoretical model of the energy spectrum from the wiggler source and validated this model by comparing the transmission through copper absorbers (0.1-3.0 mm) against real measurements conducted at the beamline. The authors used a low energy free air ionization chamber (LEFAC) from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency and a commercially available free air chamber (ADC-105) for the measurements. The dimensions of these two chambers are different from one another requiring careful consideration of correction factors. Results: Measured and calculated half value layer (HVL) and air kerma rates differed by less than 3% for the LEFAC when the ion chamber readings were corrected for electron energy loss and ion recombination. The agreement between measured and predicted air kerma rates was less satisfactory for the ADC-105 chamber, however. The LEFAC and ADC measurements produced a first half value layer of 0.405 {+-} 0.015 and 0.412 {+-} 0.016 mm Cu, respectively, compared to the theoretical prediction of 0.427 {+-} 0.012 mm Cu. The theoretical model based upon a spectrum calculator derived a mean beam energy of 61.4 keV with a first half value layer of approximately 30 mm in water. Conclusions: The authors showed in this study their ability to verify the predicted air kerma rate and x-ray attenuation

  17. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Heating (Environmental Control System Installer/Servicer). Edition I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This articulation guide contains 17 units of instruction for the first year of a two-year vocational program designed to prepare the high school graduate to install, maintain, and repair various types of residential and commercial heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration equipment. The units are to introduce the student to fundamental theories…

  18. T & I--Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Heating--Heating Units. Kit No. 87. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Mike

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on air conditioning, refrigeration, and heating units are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational…

  19. The 1998 Guide to the Evaluation of Educational Experiences in the Armed Services. 3: Air Force, Coast Guard, Department of Defense, Marine Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    This guide is the standard reference work for recognizing learning acquired by military personnel for conversion to academic credit in degree work at colleges and universities. This volume contains recommendations for formal courses offered by the Air Force, the Coast Guard, the Marine Corps, and the Department of Defense in 1990 and later years.…

  20. GUIDE TO CALCULATING TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS IN OCCUPATIONAL AIR SAMPLING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.; Hadlock, D.; Thompson, M.; Farfan, E.

    2013-11-12

    This report will present hand calculations for transport efficiency based on aspiration efficiency and particle deposition losses. Because the hand calculations become long and tedious, especially for lognormal distributions of aerosols, an R script (R 2011) will be provided for each element examined. Calculations are provided for the most common elements in a remote air sampling system, including a thin-walled probe in ambient air, straight tubing, bends and a sample housing. One popular alternative approach would be to put such calculations in a spreadsheet, a thorough version of which is shared by Paul Baron via the Aerocalc spreadsheet (Baron 2012). To provide greater transparency and to avoid common spreadsheet vulnerabilities to errors (Burns 2012), this report uses R. The particle size is based on the concept of activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The AMAD is a particle size in an aerosol where fifty percent of the activity in the aerosol is associated with particles of aerodynamic diameter greater than the AMAD. This concept allows for the simplification of transport efficiency calculations where all particles are treated as spheres with the density of water (1g cm-3). In reality, particle densities depend on the actual material involved. Particle geometries can be very complicated. Dynamic shape factors are provided by Hinds (Hinds 1999). Some example factors are: 1.00 for a sphere, 1.08 for a cube, 1.68 for a long cylinder (10 times as long as it is wide), 1.05 to 1.11 for bituminous coal, 1.57 for sand and 1.88 for talc. Revision 1 is made to correct an error in the original version of this report. The particle distributions are based on activity weighting of particles rather than based on the number of particles of each size. Therefore, the mass correction made in the original version is removed from the text and the calculations. Results affected by the change are updated.

  1. Ensemble Forecasting of Return Flow over the Gulf of Mexico: Value of the Single Upper Air Obseration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. M.; Lakshmivarahan, S.; Hu, J.; Weiss, S.

    2014-12-01

    Abstract A case study of return flow over the Gulf of Mexico has been conducted with the intention of determining the value of a single upper-air observation. This case study makes use of a set of upper-air observations collected by the U. S. Coast Guard ship Salvia that followed the trajectory of return-flow air parcels—essentially collecting observations in a Lagrangian frame of reference. A mixed layer model is used to make an ensemble forecast during the outflow phase of the phenomenon—that period when surface-driven buoyancy is the dynamical mechanism that transports moisture and heat into the atmospheric boundary layer. With this low-order nonlinear model, the contributions to forecast uncertainty that stem from initial conditions, boundary conditions, and physical/empirical parameters can be determined separately. These uncertainties serve as input to a three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) data assimilation scheme. Results indicate that the uncertainty in initial conditions dominates the full complement of uncertainties. An experiment is conducted to evaluate the value of a single set of upper-air observations over the Gulf (at a point near the onset of return flow). It is clear from this experiment that observations near the initial onset point significantly improves the forecast of mixing ratio and offers hope for improvement in operational forecasting with a modest increase in resources.

  2. ABCASH plotting program users guide

    SciTech Connect

    Troyer, G.L.

    1995-04-25

    The Automated Bar Coding of Air Samples at Hanford (ABCASH) system provides an integrated data collection, sample tracking, and data reporting system for radioactive particulate air filter samples. The ABCASH plotting program provides a graphical trend report for ABCASH of the performance of air sample results. This document provides an operational guide for using the program. Based on sample location identifier and date range, a trend chart of the available data is generated. The trend chart shows radiological activity versus time. General indications of directional trend of the concentrations in air over time may be discerned. Comparison limit set point values are also shown as derived from the ABCASH data base.

  3. Water, Air, Fire, and Earth--A Developmental Study in Portugal of Environmental Conceptions and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; Lourenco, Orlando

    This study contributes to an emerging body of research on the development of the human relationship with nature. One hundred and twenty participants from four grade levels (fifth, eighth, eleventh, and college) were interviewed about their environmental conceptions and values. Results showed that participants valued many aspects of nature and…

  4. Demonstrating the Operational Value of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Retrieved Profiles in the Pre-Convective Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, Danielle M.; Zavodsky, T.; Jedloved, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) is a collaborative partnership between NASA and operational forecasting partners, including a number of National Weather Service offices. SPoRT provides real-time NASA products and capabilities to its partners to address specific operational forecast challenges. One operational forecast challenge is forecasting convective weather in data-void regions such as large bodies of water (e.g. Gulf of Mexico). To address this forecast challenge, SPoRT produces a twice-daily three-dimensional analysis that blends a model first-guess from the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model with retrieved profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) -- a hyperspectral sounding instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite that provides temperature and moisture profiles of the atmosphere. AIRS profiles are unique in that they give a three dimensional view of the atmosphere that is not available through the current rawinsonde network. AIRS has two overpass swaths across North America each day, one valid in the 0700-0900 UTC timeframe and the other in the 1900-2100 UTC timeframe. This is helpful because the rawinsonde network only has data from 0000 UTC and 1200 UTC at specific land-based locations. Comparing the AIRS analysis product with control analyses that include no AIRS data demonstrates the value of the retrieved profiles to situational awareness for the pre-convective (and convective) environment. In an attempt to verify that the AIRS analysis was a good representation of the vertical structure of the atmosphere, both the AIRS and control analyses are compared to a Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) analysis used by operational forecasters. Using guidance from operational forecasters, convective available potential energy (CAPE) was determined to be a vital variable in making convective forecasts and is used herein to demonstrate the utility of the AIRS profiles in changing the vertical

  5. Aircraft disinsection: A guide for military and civilian air carriers; Desinsectisation des aeronefs: Un guide a l`intention des responsables des transports aeriens civils et militaires

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.A

    1996-05-01

    To prevent risks to air crews health, aircraft safety, and industry, Canada`s Department of National Defense (DND) has recently reviewed the potential problems associated with aircraft disinsection. Various directives for air crew, maintenance personnel and preventative medicine technicians to follow have been developed and updated periodically. This aircraft disinsection review is part of the latest effort to revise DND`s administrative orders on aircraft disinsection and could be a model for other military and civilian air carriers.

  6. Surface Air Temperature - Long-Term Anomaly Series and Absolute Values (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    Of all the possible domains of the Earth's surface, surface air temperature has the longest records extending back at some European locations to the late-17th century. Since that time coverage has expanded to encompass most of the world since the 1950s onwards. It is this domain that provides our long-term record of change providing the yardstick against which we define both cooler and warmer and cooling and warming periods during the last 300 years. Assembling all the recorded data is beset with an array of problems: the reasons for collecting the data during this long period have been many and varied and instruments, exposures, observation times and methods of calculating averages have regularly changed. Even today, there is not a WMO-defined method of calculating the daily and monthly average with countries allowed to use whatever method they deem appropriate. The talk will discuss the history, the problems and the methods that have been used to overcome them. As we move to more automated measurements and dynamical approaches to interpolation (Reanalyses) the talk will conclude with a number of recommendations.

  7. Calculation Package: Derivation of Facility-Specific Derived Air Concentration (DAC) Values in Support of Spallation Neutron Source Operations

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, David A

    2009-12-01

    Derived air concentration (DAC) values for 175 radionuclides* produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), but not listed in Appendix A of 10 CFR 835 (01/01/2009 version), are presented. The proposed DAC values, ranging between 1 E-07 {micro}Ci/mL and 2 E-03 {micro}Ci/mL, were calculated in accordance with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and are intended to support an exemption request seeking regulatory relief from the 10 CFR 835, Appendix A, requirement to apply restrictive DACs of 2E-13 {micro}Ci/mL and 4E-11 {micro}Ci/mL and for non-listed alpha and non-alpha-emitting radionuclides, respectively.

  8. Electric utility value determination for wind energy. Volume II. A user's guide. [WTP code; WEIBUL code; ROSEN code; ULMOD code; FINAM code

    SciTech Connect

    Percival, David; Harper, James

    1981-02-01

    This report describes a method for determining the value of wind energy systems to electric utilities. It is performed by a package of computer models available from SERI that can be used with most utility planning models. The final output of these models gives a financial value ($/kW) of the wind energy system under consideration in the specific utility system. This volume, the second of two volumes, is a user's guide for the computer programs available from SERI. The first volume describes the value determination methodology and gives detailed discussion on each step of the computer modeling.

  9. Diffusion Weighted MR Imaging to Evaluate Treatment Results after Volumetric MR-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound of Uterine Fibroids: Influence of Different B-values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voogt, M. J.; Keserci, B.; Kim, Y. S.; Rhim, H.; Lim, H. K.; Mougenot, C.; Kohler, M. O.; van den Bosch, M. A.; Vincken, K. L.; Bartels, L. W.

    2011-09-01

    We have assessed the feasibility of using diffusion weighted MR imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping using different b-value combinations to evaluate treatment results after volumetric magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) for uterine fibroids. Pre-treatment, directly post-treatment and 1 month follow-up DW images were obtained using b-values 0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 s/mm2. ADC maps were constructed for quantitative analysis of ablation results. Four different combinations of b-values were used to calculate the ADC. Directly after treatment ADC values decreased. Low b-values (0 and 200 s/mm2) resulted in the best contrast between non-perfused and perfused tissue. One month after treatment the average ADC was increased, now showing the best contrast on the high b-value ADC maps.

  10. Improving the prediction accuracy of residue solvent accessibility and real-value backbone torsion angles of proteins by guided-learning through a two-layer neural network.

    PubMed

    Faraggi, Eshel; Xue, Bin; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2009-03-01

    This article attempts to increase the prediction accuracy of residue solvent accessibility and real-value backbone torsion angles of proteins through improved learning. Most methods developed for improving the backpropagation algorithm of artificial neural networks are limited to small neural networks. Here, we introduce a guided-learning method suitable for networks of any size. The method employs a part of the weights for guiding and the other part for training and optimization. We demonstrate this technique by predicting residue solvent accessibility and real-value backbone torsion angles of proteins. In this application, the guiding factor is designed to satisfy the intuitive condition that for most residues, the contribution of a residue to the structural properties of another residue is smaller for greater separation in the protein-sequence distance between the two residues. We show that the guided-learning method makes a 2-4% reduction in 10-fold cross-validated mean absolute errors (MAE) for predicting residue solvent accessibility and backbone torsion angles, regardless of the size of database, the number of hidden layers and the size of input windows. This together with introduction of two-layer neural network with a bipolar activation function leads to a new method that has a MAE of 0.11 for residue solvent accessibility, 36 degrees for psi, and 22 degrees for phi. The method is available as a Real-SPINE 3.0 server in http://sparks.informatics.iupui.edu.

  11. The Maintenance of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Systems and Indoor Air Quality in Schools: A Guide for School Facility Managers. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    To help maintain good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools, guidance for the development and implementation of an effective program for maintenance and operation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are discussed. Frequently, a building's occupants will complain about IAQ when the temperature or humidity are at uncomfortable…

  12. Limiting values of radionuclide intake and air concentration and dose conversion factors for inhalation, submersion, and ingestion: Federal guidance report No. 11

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Wolbarst, A.B.; Richardson, A.C.B.

    1988-09-01

    Radiation protection programs for workers are based, in the United States, on a hierarchy of limitations stemming from Federal guidance approved by the President. This guidance, which consists of principles, policies, and numerical primary guides, is used by Federal agencies as the basis for developing and implementing their own regulatory standards. The primary guides are usually expressed in terms of limiting doses to workers. The protection of workers against taking radioactive materials into the body, however, is accomplished largely through the use of regulations based on derived guides expressed in terms of quantities or concentrations of radionuclides. The values of these derived guides are chosen so as to assure that workers in work environments that conform to them are unlikely to receive radiation doses that exceed the primary guides. The purpose of the present report is to set forth derived guides that are consistent with current Federal radiation protection guidance. They are intended to serve as the basis for regulations setting upper bounds on the inhalation and ingestion of, and submersion in, radioactive materials in the workplace. The report also includes tables of exposure-to-dose conversion factors, for general use in assessing average individual committed doses in any population that is adequately characterized by Reference Man. 38 refs.

  13. Future trend of extreme value distributions of wintertime surface air temperatures over Korea and the associated physical changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Yul; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Cho, Chun-Ho

    2013-11-01

    Daily winter temperatures in Korea have been analyzed via CSEOF analysis. Then, each PC time series was detrended and was fitted to an AR (autoregressive) model. Based on the identified AR model, an artificial time series of arbitrary length can be generated by using an arbitrary white-noise time series. In this way, one hundred new sets of PC time series were generated over the period of 1973-2058. Then, the trend for each PC time series was added back to the artificial PC time series extending the trend until 2058. Ultimately, artificial daily winter temperatures in Korea have been constructed by using the artificial PC time series and the original loading vectors derived from the observational data. The 100 new data sets have been investigated in order to understand the winter temperature variability 50 years into the future. Regression analysis in CSEOF space shows that temperature increase in Korea is associated with increased 850-hPa air temperature over most of the Asian domain (97°-153°E × 22°-73°N) and increased 850-hPa geopotential height in the southern part of the domain. As a result, southerly and southeasterly wind anomalies develop carrying positive temperature anomalies northward and northwestward. Both the 200-hPa air temperature and geopotential height changes indicate that there will be fairly significant northward shift of the jet stream in future. The standard deviation of the 200-hPa potential vorticity increases implying that shortwave trough and henceforth baroclinic instability will increase in future. Finally, GEV (Generalized Extreme Value) distribution and GPD (Generalized Pareto distribution) distribution have been compared between the observational records and the future records of the same length. The extreme value distributions based on the synthetic datasets show that warm extreme events will be more extreme in future and cold extreme events, on the other hand, will be less extreme. This study provides an estimate of future

  14. Control-value theory: using achievement emotions to improve understanding of motivation, learning, and performance in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 64.

    PubMed

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this AMEE Guide, we consider the emergent theoretical and empirical work on human emotion and how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. In the Guide, we define emotion, in general, and achievement emotions, more specifically. We describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun 2006), and we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal antecedents, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance. Next, we review the empirical support for control-value theory from non-medical fields and suggest several important implications for educational practice. In this section, we highlight the importance of designing learning environments that foster a high degree of control and value for students. Finally, we end with a discussion of the need for more research on achievement emotions in medical education, and we propose several key research questions we believe will facilitate our understanding of achievement emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  15. Sci—Thur PM: Imaging — 03: A novel Čerenkov detector based on air-spaced light guiding taper for megavoltage x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Teymurazyan, A; Rowlands, J A; Pang, G

    2014-08-15

    Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs) have been used in radiation therapy and are still needed on linear accelerators (Linacs) equipped with kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV-CBCT) or MRI systems. Recently a new concept of a high quantum efficiency (QE) Čerenkov Portal Imaging Device (CPID) for MV x-ray imaging in radiation therapy was introduced. It relies on Čerenkov effect for x-ray detection. The proposed design consisted of a matrix of optical fibres aligned with the incident x-rays and coupled to an active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) for image readout. A weakness of such design is that too few Čerenkov light photons reach the AMFPI for each incident x-ray and an AMFPI with an avalanche gain is required. In this work we propose to replace the optical fibers in the CPID with light guides without a cladding layer that are suspended in air. The air between the light guides takes on the role of the cladding layer found in a regular optical fiber. Since air has a significantly lower refractive index, a much superior light collection efficiency is achieved. Our Monte Carlo studies have shown that the modified new CPID has a QE more than an order of magnitude greater than that of current clinical systems and yet a spatial resolution similar to that of current flat-panel based EPIDs. Furthermore it has been demonstrated that the new CPID does not require an avalanche gain in the AMFPI and is quantum noise limited at dose levels corresponding to a single Linac pulse.

  16. Influenceable and Avoidable Risk Factors for Systemic Air Embolism due to Percutaneous CT-Guided Lung Biopsy: Patient Positioning and Coaxial Biopsy Technique—Case Report, Systematic Literature Review, and a Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Following the first case of a systemic air embolism due to percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy in our clinic we analysed the literature regarding this matter in view of influenceable or avoidable risk factors. A systematic review of literature reporting cases of systemic air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy was performed to find out whether prone positioning might be a risk factor regarding this issue. In addition, a technical note concerning coaxial biopsy practice is presented. Prone position seems to have relevance for the development and/or clinical manifestation of air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy and should be considered a risk factor, at least as far as lesions in the lower parts of the lung are concerned. Biopsies of small or cavitary lesions in coaxial technique should be performed using a hemostatic valve. PMID:25431666

  17. Influenceable and Avoidable Risk Factors for Systemic Air Embolism due to Percutaneous CT-Guided Lung Biopsy: Patient Positioning and Coaxial Biopsy Technique-Case Report, Systematic Literature Review, and a Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Rott, Gernot; Boecker, Frieder

    2014-01-01

    Following the first case of a systemic air embolism due to percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy in our clinic we analysed the literature regarding this matter in view of influenceable or avoidable risk factors. A systematic review of literature reporting cases of systemic air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy was performed to find out whether prone positioning might be a risk factor regarding this issue. In addition, a technical note concerning coaxial biopsy practice is presented. Prone position seems to have relevance for the development and/or clinical manifestation of air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy and should be considered a risk factor, at least as far as lesions in the lower parts of the lung are concerned. Biopsies of small or cavitary lesions in coaxial technique should be performed using a hemostatic valve. PMID:25431666

  18. How to Use Value-Added Analysis to Improve Student Learning: A Field Guide for School and District Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kate; Peters, Mary; Thomas, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Value-added analysis is the most robust, statistically significant method available for helping educators quantify student progress over time. This powerful tool also reveals tangible strategies for improving instruction. Built around the work of Battelle for Kids, this book provides a field-tested continuous improvement model for using…

  19. Application of utility theory to the valuing of air pollution-related health effects: Three proposed pilot studies on subjective judgments of asthma. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.C.

    1991-04-01

    Utility under uncertainty is a field of decision theory that has received increasing attention in the field of health. The report reviews its uses during the past decade and suggests its possible use in national air quality standard setting procedures. It is common practice in standard setting to assess the likelihood of air pollution effects on sensitive populations. One such poplation, asthmatics, is selected in the report and the relationship between air pollution and asthma is reviewed. In addition, three possible pilot studies are suggested which use aspects of utility under uncertainty theory to elicit values concerning asthma health effects. The results of such studies would provide the US EPA with information for their ambient air quality standard setting and increase the awareness of the possible uses of utility theory in such applications.

  20. Ultrasoft pseudopotentials and Hubbard U values for rare-earth elements (Re=La-Lu) guided by HSE06 calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topsakal, Mehmet; Umemoto, Koichiro; Wentzcovitch, Renata

    2014-03-01

    The lanthanide series of the periodic table comprises fifteen members ranging from La to Lu - the rare-earth (Re) elements. They exhibit unique (and mostly unexplored) chemical properties depending on the fillings of 4f-orbitals. Due to strong electronic correlation, 4f valence electrons are incorrectly described by standard DFT functionals. In order to cope with these inefficiencies, the DFT+U method is often employed where Hubbard-type U is introduced into the standard DFT. Another approach is to use hybrid functionals. Both improve the treatment of strongly correlated electrons. However, DFT+U suffers from ambiguity of U while hybrid functionals suffer from extremely demanding computational costs. Here we provide Vanderbilt type ultrasoft pseudopotentials for Re elements with suggested U values allowing efficient plane-wave calculations. Hubbard U values are determined according to HSE06 calculations on Re-nitrides (ReN). Generated pseudopotentials were further tested on some Re-cobaltite (Re-CoO3) perovskites. Alternative pseudopotentials with f-electrons kept frozen in the core of pseudopotential are also provided and possible outcomes are addressed. We believe that these new pseudopotentials with suggested U values will allow further studies on rare-earth materials.

  1. Value of Combined PET/CT for Radiation Planning in CT-Guided Percutaneous Interstitial High-Dose-Rate Single-Fraction Brachytherapy for Colorectal Liver Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Ingo G.; Wust, Peter; Ruehl, Ricarda

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the additional value of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) for clinical target volume definition in the planning of computed tomography (CT)-guided interstitial brachytherapy for liver metastases. Patients and Methods: A total of 19 patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer treated in 25 sessions were included in the present study. All patients had undergone fluorodeoxyglucose-PET for patient evaluation before interstitial CT-guided brachytherapy. A contrast-enhanced CT scan of the upper abdomen was obtained for radiation planning. The clinical target volume (CTV) was defined by a radiation oncologist and radiologist. After registration of the CT scan with the PET data set, the target volume was defined again using the fusion images. Results: PET revealed one additional liver lesion that was not visible on CT. The median CT-CTV (defined using CT and magnetic resonance imaging) was 68 cm{sup 3} (range 4-260). The PET/CT-CTV (median, 78 cm{sup 3}; range, 4-273) was significantly larger, with a median gain of 24.5% (interquartile range, 2.1-71.5%; p = .022). An increased CTV was observed in 15 cases and a decrease in 6; in 4 cases, the CT-CTV and PET/CT-CTV were equal. Incomplete dose coverage of PET/CT-CTVs was indicative of early local progression (p = .004); however, CT-based radiation plans did not show significant differences in the local control rates when stratified by dose coverage. Conclusion: Retrospective implementation of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET for CTV specification for CT-guided brachytherapy for colorectal liver metastases revealed a significant change in the CTVs. Additional PET-positive tumor regions with incomplete dose coverage could explain unexpected early local progression.

  2. Air-guided photonic-crystal-fiber pulse-compression delivery of multimegawatt femtosecond laser output for nonlinear-optical imaging and neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanin, Aleksandr A.; Fedotov, Il'ya V.; Sidorov-Biryukov, Dmitrii A.; Doronina-Amitonova, Lyubov V.; Ivashkina, Olga I.; Zots, Marina A.; Sun, Chi-Kuang; Ömer Ilday, F.; Fedotov, Andrei B.; Anokhin, Konstantin V.; Zheltikov, Aleksei M.

    2012-03-01

    Large-core hollow photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs) are shown to enable a fiber-format air-guided delivery of ultrashort infrared laser pulses for neurosurgery and nonlinear-optical imaging. With an appropriate dispersion precompensation, an anomalously dispersive 15-μm-core hollow PCF compresses 510-fs, 1070-nm light pulses to a pulse width of about 110 fs, providing a peak power in excess of 5 MW. The compressed PCF output is employed to induce a local photodisruption of corpus callosum tissues in mouse brain and is used to generate the third harmonic in brain tissues, which is captured by the PCF and delivered to a detector through the PCF cladding.

  3. Utility of endobronchial ultrasound-guided-fine-needle aspiration and additional value of cell block in the diagnosis of mediastinal granulomatous lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Shaesta Naseem; Raddaoui, Emad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration is a minimally invasive technique for diagnosis of mediastinal lesions. Although most studies have reported the utility of EBUS-FNA in malignancy, its use has been extended to the benign conditions as well. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic yield and cytologic accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration (EBUS-FNA) in cases of clinically and radiologically suspected granulomatous diseases. Patients and Method: From May 2010 to April 2015, 43 of 115 patients who underwent EBUS-FNA at one center for radiologically and clinically suspicious granulomatous lesions, and with no definite histological diagnosis, were included in this retrospective study. Results: When the histological diagnosis was taken as the gold standard, the sensitivity of EBUS-FNA was 85% and specificity was 100% with the positive predictive value of 100. The combined diagnostic sensitivity of EBUS-FNA and transbronchial lung biopsy was 100%. In 4 cases, cell block provided an exclusive morphological diagnosis of sarcoidosis which was noncontributory by EBUS-FNA. Conclusion: Our study supports the use of EBUS-FNA, by virtue of being a safe, minimally invasive, and an outpatient procedure, in the diagnosis of granulomatous mediastinal lymphadenopathy, thereby obviating more invasive testing in a significant number of patients. Also, cell block provides additional data in the diagnosis in these benign mediastinal diseases. PMID:26445590

  4. The value of basic research insights into atrial fibrillation mechanisms as a guide to therapeutic innovation: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Heijman, Jordi; Algalarrondo, Vincent; Voigt, Niels; Melka, Jonathan; Wehrens, Xander H T; Dobrev, Dobromir; Nattel, Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an extremely common clinical problem associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Current antiarrhythmic options include pharmacological, ablation, and surgical therapies, and have significantly improved clinical outcomes. However, their efficacy remains suboptimal, and their use is limited by a variety of potentially serious adverse effects. There is a clear need for improved therapeutic options. Several decades of research have substantially expanded our understanding of the basic mechanisms of AF. Ectopic firing and re-entrant activity have been identified as the predominant mechanisms for arrhythmia initiation and maintenance. However, it has become clear that the clinical factors predisposing to AF and the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved are extremely complex. Moreover, all AF-promoting and maintaining mechanisms are dynamically regulated and subject to remodelling caused by both AF and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the initial presentation and clinical progression of AF patients are enormously heterogeneous. An understanding of arrhythmia mechanisms is widely assumed to be the basis of therapeutic innovation, but while this assumption seems self-evident, we are not aware of any papers that have critically examined the practical contributions of basic research into AF mechanisms to arrhythmia management. Here, we review recent insights into the basic mechanisms of AF, critically analyse the role of basic research insights in the development of presently used anti-AF therapeutic options and assess the potential value of contemporary experimental discoveries for future therapeutic innovation. Finally, we highlight some of the important challenges to the translation of basic science findings to clinical application.

  5. Airmail to Airlines. A Teacher's Guide. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelke, Lynn-Steven

    This guide helps teachers and students gain knowledge about the "Air Transportation" gallery at the National Air and Space Museum (Washington, DC). The guide is divided into six sections: (1) "The 'Air Transportation' Gallery"; (2) "How to Use This Guide"; (3) "Activity 1: Take Off: An Air Travel Matching Guide"; (4) "Activity 2: Design Your Own…

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of a quantum noise limited Čerenkov detector based on air-spaced light guiding taper for megavoltage x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Teymurazyan, A.; Rowlands, J. A.; Pang, G.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs) have been widely used in radiation therapy and are still needed on linear accelerators (Linacs) equipped with kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV-CBCT) or MRI systems. Our aim is to develop a new high quantum efficiency (QE) Čerenkov Portal Imaging Device (CPID) that is quantum noise limited at dose levels corresponding to a single Linac pulse. Methods: Recently a new concept of CPID for MV x-ray imaging in radiation therapy was introduced. It relies on Čerenkov effect for x-ray detection. The proposed design consisted of a matrix of optical fibers aligned with the incident x-rays and coupled to an active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) for image readout. A weakness of such design is that too few Čerenkov light photons reach the AMFPI for each incident x-ray and an AMFPI with an avalanche gain is required in order to overcome the readout noise for portal imaging application. In this work the authors propose to replace the optical fibers in the CPID with light guides without a cladding layer that are suspended in air. The air between the light guides takes on the role of the cladding layer found in a regular optical fiber. Since air has a significantly lower refractive index (∼1 versus 1.38 in a typical cladding layer), a much superior light collection efficiency is achieved. Results: A Monte Carlo simulation of the new design has been conducted to investigate its feasibility. Detector quantities such as quantum efficiency (QE), spatial resolution (MTF), and frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency (DQE) have been evaluated. The detector signal and the quantum noise have been compared to the readout noise. Conclusions: Our studies show that the modified new CPID has a QE and DQE more than an order of magnitude greater than that of current clinical systems and yet a spatial resolution similar to that of current low-QE flat-panel based EPIDs. Furthermore it was demonstrated that the new CPID does not require an

  7. Quantitative Discomanometry: Correlation of Intradiscal Pressure Values to Pain Reduction in Patients With Intervertebral Disc Herniation Treated With Percutaneous, Minimally Invasive, Image-Guided Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Filippiadis, Dimitrios K. Mazioti, A. Papakonstantinou, O. Brountzos, E.; Gouliamos, A.; Kelekis, N. Kelekis, A.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To illustrate quantitative discomanometry's (QD) diagnostic efficacy and predictive value in discogenic-pain evaluation in a prospective study correlating intradiscal pressure values with pain reduction after percutaneous image-guided technique (i.e., percutaneous decompression, PD). Materials and Methods: During the last 3 years, 36 patients [21 male and 15 female (mean age 36 {+-} 5.8 years)] with intervertebral disc hernia underwent QD before PD. Under absolute sterilization and fluoroscopy, a mixture of contrast medium and normal saline (3:1 ratio) was injected. A discmonitor performed a constant rate injection and recorded pressure and volume values, thus producing the relative pressure-volume curve. PD was then performed. Pain reduction and improved mobility were recorded at 3, 12, and 24 months after PD using clinical evaluation and a numeric visual scale (NVS; 0 to 10 units). Results: Mean pain values of 7.5 {+-} 1.9 (range 4 to 8) NVS units were recorded before PD; these decreased to 2.9 {+-} 2.44 at 3 months, 1.0 {+-} 1.9 at 12 months, and 1.0 {+-} 1.9 NVS units at 24 months after PD. Recorded correlations (pressure, volume, significant pain-reduction values) with bilateral statistical significance included a maximum injected volume of 2.4 ml (p = 0.045), P{sub o} < 14 psi [initial pressure required to inject 0.1 ml of the mixture inside the disc (p = 0.05)], P{sub max} {<=} 65 psi [greatest pressure value on the curve (p = 0.018)], and P{sub max} - P{sub o} {<=} 47 psi (p = 0.038). Patients meeting these pressure or volume cut-off points, either independently or as a total, had significant pain reduction (>4 NVS units) after PD. No complications were noted. Conclusions: QD is an efficient technique that may have predictive value for discogenic pain evaluation. It might serve as a useful tool for patient selection for intervertebral disc therapies.

  8. VERIFICATION OF INDICATED SKIN ENTRANCE AIR KERMA FOR CARDIAC X-RAY-GUIDED INTERVENTION USING GAFCHROMIC FILM.

    PubMed

    Nilsson Althén, J; Sandborg, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to verify the indicated maximum entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) using a GE Innova IGS 520 imaging system during cardiac interventional procedures. Gafchromic XR RV3 films were used for the patient measurements to monitor the maximum ESAK. The films were scanned and calibrated to measure maximum ESAK. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were used to measure the backscatter factor from an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. The measured backscatter factor, 1.53, was in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations but higher than the one used by the imaging system, 1.20. The median of the ratio between indicated maximum ESAK and measured maximum ESAK was 0.68. In this work, the indicated maximum ESAK by the imaging system's dose map model underestimates the measured maximum ESAK by 32 %. The threshold ESAK for follow-up procedures for patient with skin dose in excess of 2 Gy will be reduced to 1.4 Gy. PMID:26541185

  9. Reference air kerma and kerma-area product as estimators of peak skin dose for fluoroscopically guided interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Deukwoo; Little, Mark P.; Miller, Donald L.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To determine more accurate regression formulas for estimating peak skin dose (PSD) from reference air kerma (RAK) or kerma-area product (KAP). Methods: After grouping of the data from 21 procedures into 13 clinically similar groups, assessments were made of optimal clustering using the Bayesian information criterion to obtain the optimal linear regressions of (log-transformed) PSD vs RAK, PSD vs KAP, and PSD vs RAK and KAP. Results: Three clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs RAK, seven clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs KAP, and six clusters of clinical groups were optimal in regression of PSD vs RAK and KAP. Prediction of PSD using both RAK and KAP is significantly better than prediction of PSD with either RAK or KAP alone. The regression of PSD vs RAK provided better predictions of PSD than the regression of PSD vs KAP. The partial-pooling (clustered) method yields smaller mean squared errors compared with the complete-pooling method.Conclusion: PSD distributions for interventional radiology procedures are log-normal. Estimates of PSD derived from RAK and KAP jointly are most accurate, followed closely by estimates derived from RAK alone. Estimates of PSD derived from KAP alone are the least accurate. Using a stochastic search approach, it is possible to cluster together certain dissimilar types of procedures to minimize the total error sum of squares.

  10. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Vision-Guided Flight Stability and Autonomy for Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ettinger, Scott M.; Nechyba, Michael C.; Ifju, Peter G.; Wazak, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made recently towards design building and test-flying remotely piloted Micro Air Vehicle's (MAVs). We seek to complement this progress in overcoming the aerodynamic obstacles to.flight at very small scales with a vision stability and autonomy system. The developed system based on a robust horizon detection algorithm which we discuss in greater detail in a companion paper. In this paper, we first motivate the use of computer vision for MAV autonomy arguing that given current sensor technology, vision may he the only practical approach to the problem. We then briefly review our statistical vision-based horizon detection algorithm, which has been demonstrated at 30Hz with over 99.9% correct horizon identification. Next we develop robust schemes for the detection of extreme MAV attitudes, where no horizon is visible, and for the detection of horizon estimation errors, due to external factors such as video transmission noise. Finally, we discuss our feed-back controller for self-stabilized flight, and report results on vision autonomous flights of duration exceeding ten minutes.

  11. An integrated evaluation of thirteen modelling solutions for the generation of hourly values of air relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bregaglio, Simone; Donatelli, Marcello; Confalonieri, Roberto; Acutis, Marco; Orlandini, Simone

    2010-11-01

    The availability of hourly air relative humidity (HARH) data is a key requirement for the estimation of epidemic dynamics of plant fungal pathogens, in particular for the simulation of both the germination of the spores and the infection process. Most of the existing epidemic forecasting models require these data as input directly or indirectly, in the latter case for the estimation of leaf wetness duration. In many cases, HARH must be generated because it is not available in historical series and when there is the need to simulate epidemics either on a wide scale or with different climate scenarios. Thirteen modelling solutions (MS) for the generation of this variable were evaluated, with different input requirements and alternative approaches, on a large dataset including several sites and years. A composite indicator was developed using fuzzy logic to compare and to evaluate the performances of the models. The indicator consists of four modules: Accuracy, Correlation, Pattern and Robustness. Results showed that when available, daily maximum and minimum air relative humidity data substantially improved the estimation of HARH. When such data are not available, the choice of the MS is crucial, given the difference in predicting skills obtained during the analysis, which allowed a clear detection of the best performing MS. This study represents the first step of the creation of a robust modelling chain coupling the MS for the generation of HARH and disease forecasting models, including the systematic validation of each step of the simulation.

  12. Diagnostic value of endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for accessible lung cancer lesions after non-diagnostic conventional techniques: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung cancer diagnosis is usually achieved through a set of bronchoscopic techniques or computed tomography guided-transthoracic needle aspiration (CT-TTNA). However these procedures have a variable diagnostic yield and some patients remain without a definite diagnosis despite being submitted to an extensive workup. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and cost of linear endobronchial (EBUS) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine needle aspiration (FNA), performed with one echoendoscope, for the diagnosis of suspicious lung cancer lesions after failure of conventional procedures. Methods One hundred and twenty three patients with an undiagnosed but suspected malignant lung lesion (paratracheal, parabronchial, paraesophageal) or with a peripheral lesion and positron emission tomography positive mediastinal lymph nodes who had undergone at least one diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy or CT-TTNA attempt were submitted to EBUS and EUS-FNA. Patients with endobronchial lesions were excluded. Results Of the 123 patients, 88 had a pulmonary nodule/mass and 35 were selected based on mediastinal PET positive lymph nodes. Two patients were excluded because an endobronchial mass was detected at the time of the procedure. The target lesion could be visualized in 121 cases and FNA was performed in 118 cases. A definitive diagnosis was obtained in 106 cases (87.6%). Eighty-eight patients (72.7%) had non-small cell lung cancer, 15 (12.4%) had small cell lung cancer and metastatic disease was found in 3 patients (2.5%). The remaining 15 negative cases were subsequently diagnosed by surgical procedures. Twelve patients (9.9%) had a malignant tumor and in 3 (2.5%) a benign lesion was found. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of EBUS and EUS-FNA to diagnose malignancy were 89.8%, 100%, 100% and 20.0% respectively. The diagnostic accuracy was 90.1% in a population with 97.5% prevalence of cancer. The ultrasonographic

  13. Ventilation best practices guide

    SciTech Connect

    Dorgan, C.B.; Dorgan, C.E.

    1996-07-01

    The intent of this Guide is to provide utility marketing and engineering personnel with information on how to identify indoor air quality (IAQ) problems, the current standards relating to IAQ and examples of what typically causes IAQ problems in commercial buildings. The Guide is written assuming that the reader has limited knowledge of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and that they are new to the IAQ arena. Also included in the Guide is a discussion of new electric technologies which are energy efficient and maintain a high level of IAQ.

  14. The added value of a visible channel to a geostationary thermal infrared instrument to monitor ozone for air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hache, E.; Attié, J.-L.; Tourneur, C.; Ricaud, P.; Coret, L.; Lahoz, W. A.; El Amraoui, L.; Josse, B.; Hamer, P.; Warner, J.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Höpfner, M.; Spurr, R.; Natraj, V.; Kulawik, S.; Eldering, A.; Orphal, J.

    2014-02-01

    Ozone is a tropospheric pollutant and plays a key role in determining the air quality that affects human wellbeing. In this study, we compare the capability of two hypothetical grating spectrometers onboard a geostationary (GEO) satellite to sense ozone in the lowermost troposphere (surface and the 0-1 km column). We consider one week during the Northern Hemisphere summer simulated by a chemical transport model, and use the two GEO instrument configurations to measure ozone concentration (1) in the thermal infrared (GEO TIR) and (2) in the thermal infrared and the visible (GEO TIR+VIS). These configurations are compared against each other, and also against an ozone reference state and a priori ozone information. In a first approximation, we assume clear sky conditions neglecting the influence of aerosols and clouds. A number of statistical tests are used to assess the performance of the two GEO configurations. We consider land and sea pixels and whether differences between the two in the performance are significant. Results show that the GEO TIR+VIS configuration provides a better representation of the ozone field both for surface ozone and the 0-1 km ozone column during the daytime especially over land.

  15. The added value of a visible channel to a geostationary thermal infrared instrument to monitor ozone for air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hache, E.; Attié, J.-L.; Tourneur, C.; Ricaud, P.; Coret, L.; Lahoz, W. A.; El Amraoui, L.; Josse, B.; Hamer, P.; Warner, J.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Höpfner, M.; Spurr, R.; Natraj, V.; Kulawik, S.; Eldering, A.; Orphal, J.

    2014-07-01

    Ozone is a tropospheric pollutant and plays a key role in determining the air quality that affects human wellbeing. In this study, we compare the capability of two hypothetical grating spectrometers onboard a geostationary (GEO) satellite to sense ozone in the lowermost troposphere (surface and the 0-1 km column). We consider 1 week during the Northern Hemisphere summer simulated by a chemical transport model, and use the two GEO instrument configurations to measure ozone concentration (1) in the thermal infrared (GEO TIR) and (2) in the thermal infrared and the visible (GEO TIR+VIS). These configurations are compared against each other, and also against an ozone reference state and a priori ozone information. In a first approximation, we assume clear sky conditions neglecting the influence of aerosols and clouds. A number of statistical tests are used to assess the performance of the two GEO configurations. We consider land and sea pixels and whether differences between the two in the performance are significant. Results show that the GEO TIR+VIS configuration provides a better representation of the ozone field both for surface ozone and the 0-1 km ozone column during the daytime especially over land.

  16. ZOOMsci Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Meredith

    This activity guide is based on the Public Broadcasting System's (PBS) program "ZOOM." It is designed for educators with activities that are categorized into three themes: (1) Things That Go, which includes "Air" which explores air pressure, "Rubber Bands" which discovers the potential energy of rubber bands, "Baking Soda and Vinegar" which…

  17. Trapping the Pasture Odorscape Using Open-Air Solid-Phase Micro Extraction, a Tool to Assess Grassland Value.

    PubMed

    Cornu, Agnès; Farruggia, Anne; Leppik, Ene; Pinier, Centina; Fournier, Florence; Genoud, David; Frérot, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Besides supporting cattle feeding, grasslands are home to a diversity of plants and insects that interact with each other by emitting volatile compounds. The aim of this work was to develop a method to determine permanent grassland odorscape and relate it to flower-visiting insects. Two grasslands were chosen for their contrasting levels of botanical diversity, resulting from differing grazing managements. Measurements were made over two periods of three consecutive days at the beginning of grazing, and just after the cows had left the plots. Volatile compounds were trapped using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers exposed eight hours a day in three exclosures per plot, and then analyzed by gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Insects were trapped using pan traps and a net, sorted and counted. The open air SPME method yielded volatile compound profiles that were richer than maize field profiles, comprising the common green leaf volatiles (GLV) and more specific ones. Differences between the odorscapes of the two grasslands were found, but they were not as marked as expected from their botanical composition. By contrast, there were sharp differences between the two periods, resulting from the combined effects of changes in weather conditions, plant phenological stage and grazing progress. Several correlations between insect counts and volatile compounds were found. Although their correlation coefficients were low, some of them were confirmed when tested by Spearman rank correlation, and could be logically explained. This method of grassland odorscape deserves to be developed because it can provide information on many aspects of grassland function and on the stresses that grassland plants undergo.

  18. Trapping the Pasture Odorscape Using Open-Air Solid-Phase Micro Extraction, a Tool to Assess Grassland Value

    PubMed Central

    Cornu, Agnès; Farruggia, Anne; Leppik, Ene; Pinier, Centina; Fournier, Florence; Genoud, David; Frérot, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Besides supporting cattle feeding, grasslands are home to a diversity of plants and insects that interact with each other by emitting volatile compounds. The aim of this work was to develop a method to determine permanent grassland odorscape and relate it to flower-visiting insects. Two grasslands were chosen for their contrasting levels of botanical diversity, resulting from differing grazing managements. Measurements were made over two periods of three consecutive days at the beginning of grazing, and just after the cows had left the plots. Volatile compounds were trapped using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers exposed eight hours a day in three exclosures per plot, and then analyzed by gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Insects were trapped using pan traps and a net, sorted and counted. The open air SPME method yielded volatile compound profiles that were richer than maize field profiles, comprising the common green leaf volatiles (GLV) and more specific ones. Differences between the odorscapes of the two grasslands were found, but they were not as marked as expected from their botanical composition. By contrast, there were sharp differences between the two periods, resulting from the combined effects of changes in weather conditions, plant phenological stage and grazing progress. Several correlations between insect counts and volatile compounds were found. Although their correlation coefficients were low, some of them were confirmed when tested by Spearman rank correlation, and could be logically explained. This method of grassland odorscape deserves to be developed because it can provide information on many aspects of grassland function and on the stresses that grassland plants undergo. PMID:26536369

  19. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R.

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  20. A process for selecting ecological indicators for application in monitoring impacts to Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs) from atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Section 160 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) calls for measures be taken {open_quotes}to preserve, protect, and enhance air quality in national parks, national wilderness areas, national monuments, national seashores, and other areas of special national or regional natural, recreational, scenic, or historic value.{close_quotes} Pursuant to this, stringent requirement have been established for {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} areas, which include most National Parks and Wilderness Areas. Federal Land Managers (FLMs) are charged with the task of carrying out these requirements through the identification of air quality related values (AQRVs) that are potentially at risk from atmospheric pollutants. This is a complex task, the success of which is dependent on the gathering of information on a wide variety of factors that contribute to the potential for impacting resources in Class I areas. Further complicating the issue is the diversity of ecological systems found in Class I areas. There is a critical need for the development of monitoring programs to assess the status of AQRVs in Class I areas with respect to impacts caused by atmospheric pollutants. These monitoring programs must be based on the measurement of a carefully selected suite of key physical, chemical, and biological parameters that serve as indicators of the status of the ecosystems found in Class I areas. Such programs must be both scientifically-based and cost-effective, and must provide the data necessary for FLMs to make objective, defensible decisions. This document summarizes a method for developing AQRV monitoring programs in Class I areas.

  1. [Guide values for heart rate and blood pressure with reference to 20, 40, 60 und 80% of maximum exertion considering age, sex and body mass in non-trained individuals].

    PubMed

    Strasser, Barbara; Schwarz, Joachim; Haber, Paul; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2011-12-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate reliable guide values for heart rate (HF) and blood pressure (RR) with reference to defined sub maximum exertion considering age, gender and body mass. One hundred and eighteen healthy but non-trained subjects (38 women, 80 men) were included in the study. For interpretation, finally facts of 28 women and 59 men were used. We found gender differences for HF and RR. Further, we noted significant correlations between HF and age as well as between RR and body mass at all exercise levels. We established formulas for gender-specific calculation of reliable guide values for HF and RR on sub maximum exercise levels. PMID:21870141

  2. A comparison of food-based recommendations and nutrient values of three food guides: USDA's MyPyramid, NHLBI's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan, and Harvard's Healthy Eating Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare food-based recommendations and nutrient values of three food guides: the US Department of Agriculture's MyPyramid; the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan, and Harvard University's Healthy Eating Pyramid. Estimates of nutrient values associated with following each of the food guides at the 2,000-calorie level were made using a composite approach. This approach calculates population-weighted nutrient composites for each food group and subgroup, assuming average choices within food groups. Nutrient estimates were compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes and other goals and limits. Recommendations were similar regarding almost all food groups for both the type and amount of foods. Primary differences were seen in the types of vegetables and protein sources recommended and the amount of dairy products and total oil recommended. Overall nutrient values were also similar for most nutrients, except vitamin A, vitamin E, and calcium. These food guides were derived from different types of nutrition research, yet they share consistent messages: eat more fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains; eat less added sugar and saturated fat; and emphasize plant oils.

  3. Magnitude and value of electric vehicle emissions reductions for six driving cycles in four US cities with varying air quality problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Santini, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    The emissions of logically competing mid-1990 gasoline vehicles (GVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are estimated as if the vehicles were driven in the same pattern of driving. Six different driving cycles are evaluated, ranging in speed from 7 to 49 miles per hour (mph). These steps are repeated using specifics of fuel composition, electric power mix, and environmental conditions applicable to Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, and New York in the month of July. The year 2000 emissions differences for each of four regulated pollutants - HC, CO, NO{sub x,} SO{sub x} - are estimated. CO{sub 2} emissions are also estimated. With use of EVs, HC and CO emissions are consistently lowered by 98% or more. CO{sub 2} emissions reductions are uniformly large at low speed, but variable at high speed. It is found that initially introduced EVs could achieve 100% emission reductions in Chicago by using off-peak power from nuclear power plants for EV electricity generation. Emissions reductions occur for all combinations in Los Angeles, and for most combinations in New York, excepting SO{sub x}. NO{sub x} emissions are reduced in all four cities. An ``avoided cost`` value for each regulated pollutant is estimated for each of the cities. The values for each city depend on severity of air quality violations. It is estimated that the emissions reduction value of EVs driven an average of one and one half hours per day in Los Angeles ranges from $1050 to $3,900; $590 to $2100 in New York; $270 to $1200 in Chicago, and $330 to $1250 in Denver (1989$). Assuming a range of about 100 miles in congested conditions with speeds of 10 mph or less, the estimates range from $3600 to $13300 for Los Angeles; $2004 to $7200 for New York; $930 to $2930 for Chicago; and $1120 to $4290 for Denver. Low estimates are obtained using EPA`s draft Mobile5 model for GV emissions, high values by using California`s EMFAC7EP-SCF1 model. The dollar value benefit estimates include no economic value.

  4. Magnitude and value of electric vehicle emissions reductions for six driving cycles in four US cities with varying air quality problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q. ); Santini, D.L. )

    1992-01-01

    The emissions of logically competing mid-1990 gasoline vehicles (GVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are estimated as if the vehicles were driven in the same pattern of driving. Six different driving cycles are evaluated, ranging in speed from 7 to 49 miles per hour (mph). These steps are repeated using specifics of fuel composition, electric power mix, and environmental conditions applicable to Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, and New York in the month of July. The year 2000 emissions differences for each of four regulated pollutants - HC, CO, NO[sub x,] SO[sub x] - are estimated. CO[sub 2] emissions are also estimated. With use of EVs, HC and CO emissions are consistently lowered by 98% or more. CO[sub 2] emissions reductions are uniformly large at low speed, but variable at high speed. It is found that initially introduced EVs could achieve 100% emission reductions in Chicago by using off-peak power from nuclear power plants for EV electricity generation. Emissions reductions occur for all combinations in Los Angeles, and for most combinations in New York, excepting SO[sub x]. NO[sub x] emissions are reduced in all four cities. An avoided cost'' value for each regulated pollutant is estimated for each of the cities. The values for each city depend on severity of air quality violations. It is estimated that the emissions reduction value of EVs driven an average of one and one half hours per day in Los Angeles ranges from $1050 to $3,900; $590 to $2100 in New York; $270 to $1200 in Chicago, and $330 to $1250 in Denver (1989$). Assuming a range of about 100 miles in congested conditions with speeds of 10 mph or less, the estimates range from $3600 to $13300 for Los Angeles; $2004 to $7200 for New York; $930 to $2930 for Chicago; and $1120 to $4290 for Denver. Low estimates are obtained using EPA's draft Mobile5 model for GV emissions, high values by using California's EMFAC7EP-SCF1 model. The dollar value benefit estimates include no economic value.

  5. The effect of free air carbon dioxide enrichment and nitrogen fertilisation on the chemical composition and nutritional value of wheat and barley grain.

    PubMed

    Wroblewitz, Stefanie; Hüther, Liane; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wätzig, Hermann; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-08-01

    A rising atmospheric CO2 concentration might influence the nutrient composition of feedstuffs and consequently the nutritional value for livestock. The present study investigates the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the chemical composition and nutritional value of winter wheat cv. "Batis" and winter barley cv. "Theresa". Both cereals were grown at two different atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ambient CO2 [AMBI]: 380 ppm and enriched CO2 [free air carbon dioxide enrichment, FACE]: 550 ppm) for two growing seasons. The influence of two different nitrogen (N) fertilisation levels (adequate N supply [N100] and nearly 50% of adequate N supply [N50]) were studied as well. A significant effect was observed for the crude protein content, which declined at FACE condition in a range of 8-16 g kg(-1) in wheat and of 10-20 g kg(-1) in barley. A reduced N fertilisation level resulted in a strong reduction of crude protein concentration in both cereal species. In wheat, a decrease in N supply significantly enhanced the concentration of starch and crude fibre. In barley, only the concentration of fructose increased under FACE condition and reduced N fertilisation. The FACE did not have major effects on the concentrations of minerals, while the influence of N fertilisation was different for both cereals. Whereas no effects could be observed for barley, a reduced N supply caused a significant reduction in concentrations of zinc, manganese and iron in wheat. Furthermore, an undirected effect of atmospheric CO2 and N fertilisation levels were found for the amino acid concentrations. Based on these results, future scenarios of climate change would have an impact on the nutritional value of cereal grains.

  6. Successful Demolition of Historic Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Facilities: Managing the Process to Maximize Recycle Value to Fund Demolition

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.; Hambro, L.; Hooper, K.

    2008-07-01

    This paper will present the history of the Atlas 36 and Titan 40 Space Launch Complexes (SLC), the facility assessment process, demolition planning, recycle methodology, and actual facility demolition that resulted in a 40% reduction in baseline cost. These two SLC launched hundreds of payloads into space from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS), Florida. The Atlas-Centaur family of rockets could lift small- to medium-size satellites designed for communications, weather, or military use, placing them with near pinpoint accuracy into their intended orbits. The larger Titan family was relied upon for heavier lifting needs, including launching military satellites as well as interplanetary probes. But despite their efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the Titan rockets, as well as earlier generation Atlas models, were retired in 2005. Concerns about potential environmental health hazards from PCBs and lead-based paint chipping off the facilities also contributed to the Air Force's decision in 2005 to dismantle and demolish the Atlas and Titan missile-launching systems. Lockheed Martin secured the complex following the final launch, removed equipment and turned over the site to the Air Force for decommissioning and demolition (D and D). AMEC was retained by the Air Force to perform demolition planning and facility D and D in 2004. AMEC began with a review of historical information, interviews with past operations personnel, and 100% facility assessment of over 100 structures. There where numerous support buildings that due to their age contained asbestos containing material (ACM), PCB-impacted material, and universal material that had to be identified and removed prior to demolition. Environmental testing had revealed that the 36B mobile support tower (MST) exceeded the TSCA standard for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) paint (<50 ppm), as did the high bay sections of the Titan Vertical Integration Building (VIB). Thus, while most of the steel structures could be

  7. Employee guide to respiratory protection

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    This employee guide discusses use of respiratory protective equipment for particulates, gases, vapors, supplied air, and self-contained breathing apparatus. It also covers equipment selection medical factors, fitting criteria; care; and employee responsibilities. (PSB)

  8. Mathematics Curriculum Guide, Section G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victoria Education Dept. (Australia).

    This guide is a continuation of the series of guides starting with SE 012 723. The entire course is ungraded, but the material referred to in this guide would probably be covered in grade five or six. The concept of place value is studied more deeply using Dienes' Multiple Attribute Blocks, and used in the further development of formal algorithms.…

  9. [Diagnostic and therapeutic value of laparoscopic needle biopsies of persistent para-uterine cysts: absence of recurrences and consecutive pregnancies. In view of ultrasonography-guided biopsies].

    PubMed

    Mintz, M

    1994-11-01

    In the presence of a persistent para-uterine cyst, the actual tendency is to operate by laparotomy or most frequently by laparoscopic surgery. This leads to ablation of 20% of the so called "Functional cysts". A 30 years experience of laparoscopic puncture of 745 persistent para-uterine cysts, among which 321 were preserved and controlled, shows that 69% of them, of various origin or nature do not recur, whereas many pregnancies happen to come at short notice: 59% of 117 patients who wished to be pregnant had 73 known living children. Young, nulliparous or sterile patients, could at a first step, under strict conditions, get the benefit of a sonographic-guided diagnostic and therapeutic puncture, avoiding a useless endoscopy or ablation.

  10. Value of real-time transesophageal 3-dimensional echocardiography in guiding ablation of isthmus-dependent atrial flutter and pulmonary vein isolation.

    PubMed

    Faletra, Francesco F; Regoli, François; Acena, Marta; Auricchio, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, both the range of indications and the efficacy and safety of interventional electrophysiology has improved considerably. This progress is attributed to both the accumulating experience of electrophysiologists and the advances in technological tools facilitating the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Real-time 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT 3D TEE) has emerged as a new imaging tool in the clinical arena. Its ability to image in "real time" cardiac structures "en face" and the almost entire length of intracardiac catheters has made this technique a promising imaging tool to guide percutaneous catheter-based procedures. More recently it has been used in monitoring ablation procedures. In this review, the advantages and current limitations of RT 3D TEE during ablation of cavotricuspid isthmus-dependent atrial flutter and pulmonary vein isolation are described.

  11. Basic Pneumatics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessehaye, Michael

    This instructor's guide is designed for use by industrial vocational teachers in teaching a course on basic pneumatics. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: an introduction to pneumatics (including the operation of a service station hoist); fundamentals and physical laws; air compressors (positive displacement compressors;…

  12. Conservation Awareness Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Rosa County Board of Public Instruction, Milton, FL.

    Recommendations for incorporating conservation education into the K-5 curriculum comprise this teacher's guide. Examined are eight natural resources: air, energy, forests and plant life, human resources, minerals, soil, water, and wildlife. Each of these topics is considered in two ways: (1) a chart depicts concepts basic to understanding the…

  13. Value of radial probe endobronchial ultrasound-guided localization of solitary pulmonary nodules with the combination of ultrathin bronchoscopy and methylene blue prior to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chun-Hua; Yu, Li-Ke; Cao, Lan; Yang, Rusong; Yan, Jun; Liu, Zheng-Cheng; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical value of radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (RP-EBUS)-guided localization of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) with the combination of ultrathin bronchoscopy and methylene blue prior to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). An ultrathin bronchoscope was used to localize the lesions under RP-EBUS guidance in 48 patients (18 men and 30 women; age range, 41–72 years; mean age, 54 years), who subsequently underwent VATS resection. The lesion size, distance from the parietal pleura, localization time and complications were evaluated. The RP-EBUS-guided localization success rate was 72.9%. The lesion size ± standard deviation was 12.8±4.2 mm and the mean distance from the parietal pleura was 11.2±9.7 mm. The mean localization time was 15.7±8.3 min. The major complication of RP-EBUS-guided localization was asymptomatic hemorrhage in 4 patients (8.3%). The VATS resection success rate was 95.8%. In terms of pathological type, the 48 lesions included atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (n=4), adenocarcinoma in situ (n=5), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (n=7), adenocarcinoma (n=18), squamous cell carcinoma (n=1), inflammation (n=6), hamartoma (n=4) and tuberculosis (n=3). Therefore, RP-EBUS-guided localization with the combination of an ultrathin bronchoscope and methylene blue prior to VATS resection is a promising technique for SPNs, it plays an important role in the accurate localization of SPNs and it is an effective and safe technique to assist VATS resection of such nodules. PMID:27446564

  14. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  15. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  16. Air-Conditioning Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as…

  17. Clinical value of pre-transplant minimal residual disease in childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia: the results of the French minimal residual disease-guided protocol.

    PubMed

    Gandemer, Virginie; Pochon, Cécile; Oger, Emmanuel; Dalle, Jean-Hugues H; Michel, Gérard; Schmitt, Claudine; de Berranger, Eva; Galambrun, Claire; Cavé, Hélène; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Grardel, Nathalie; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Margueritte, Geneviève; Méchinaud, Françoise; Rorhlich, Pierre; Lutz, Patrick; Demeocq, François; Schneider, Pascale; Plantaz, Dominique; Poirée, Marilyne; Bordigoni, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) is a major predictive factor of the cure rate of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Haematopoietic cell transplantation is a treatment option for patients at high risk of relapse. Between 2005 and 2008, we conducted a prospective study evaluating the feasibility and efficacy of the reduction of immunosuppressive medication shortly after a non-ex vivo T depleted myeloablative transplantation. Immunoglobulin (Ig)H/T-cell receptor MRD 30 d before transplant could be obtained in 122 of the 133 cases of high-risk paediatric ALL enrolled. There were no significant demographic differences except remission status (first or second complete remission) between the 95 children with MRD <10(-3) and the 27 with MRD ≥10(-3) . Multivariate analysis identified sex match and MRD as being significantly associated with 5-year survival. MRD ≥10(-3) compromised the 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse (43·6 vs. 16·7%). Complete remission status and stem cell source did not modify the relationship between MRD and prognosis. Thus, pre-transplant MRD is still a major predictor of outcome for ALL. The MRD-guided strategy resulted in survival for 72·3% of patients with MRD<10(-3) and 40·4% of those with MRD ≥10(-3).

  18. Small Businesses Save Big: A Guide to Help SBA Lenders Understand and Communicate the Value of Energy Efficiency Investments (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides guidelines for SBA lenders to understand the value of financing energy efficiency investments.

  19. Decision Guide for Roof Slope Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    This decision guide has been written for personnel who are responsible for the design, construction, and replacement of Air Force roofs. It provides the necessary information and analytical tools for making prudent and cost-effective decisions regarding the amount of slope to provide in various roofing situations. Because the expertise and experience of the decision makers will vary, the guide contains both basic slope-related concepts as well as more sophisticated technical data. This breadth of information enables the less experienced user to develop an understanding of roof slope issues before applying the more sophisticated analytical tools, while the experienced user can proceed directly to the technical sections. Although much of this guide is devoted to the analysis of costs, it is not a cost-estimating document. It does, however, provide the reader with the relative costs of a variety of roof slope options; and it shows how to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of different options. The selection of the proper roof slope coupled with good roof design, a quality installation, periodic inspection, and appropriate maintenance and repair will achieve the Air Force's objective of obtaining the best possible roofing value for its buildings.

  20. Is ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of adequate value in detecting breast cancer patients with three or more positive axillary lymph nodes?

    PubMed

    Kramer, G M; Leenders, M W H; Schijf, L J; Go, H L S; van der Ploeg, T; van den Tol, M P; Schreurs, W H

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of the sonographically most suspicious axillary lymph node (US/FNAC) to select early breast cancer patients with three or more tumour-positive axillary lymph nodes. Between 2004 and 2014, a total of 2130 patients with histologically proven early breast cancer were evaluated and treated in the Noordwest Clinics Alkmaar. US/FNAC was performed preoperatively in all these patients. We analysed the results of US/FNAC retrospectively. Pathological axillary node status (sentinel node biopsy and/or axillary lymph node dissection) was used as reference standard. A total of 634 (29.8 %) of 2130 patients had axillary lymph node metastases on final histology. 248 node positive patients (11.6 %) had three or more positive lymph nodes. The accuracy of US/FNAC to detect three or more positive lymph nodes was 89.8 %, sensitivity was 44.8 %, specificity was 95.7 %, PPV was 58.1 %, and NPV was 92.9 %. This study shows a more than adequate accuracy of preoperative US/FNAC to detect three or more positive lymph nodes (89.8 %). However, when US/FNAC was chosen as the only axillary staging method, 6.4 % of all patients (false negative group) would have been undertreated and 3.8 % of all patients (false positive group) would have been overtreated according to the ACOSOG Z0011 criteria. PMID:26995283

  1. Neutron guide

    DOEpatents

    Greene, Geoffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    A neutron guide in which lengths of cylindrical glass tubing have rectangular glass plates properly dimensioned to allow insertion into the cylindrical glass tubing so that a sealed geometrically precise polygonal cross-section is formed in the cylindrical glass tubing. The neutron guide provides easier alignment between adjacent sections than do the neutron guides of the prior art.

  2. Rod guide

    SciTech Connect

    Sable, D.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a rod guide assembly for a sucker rod longitudinally reciprocably movable in a well flow conductor comprising: a pair of longitudinally spaced upper and lower stops rigidly secured to a sucker rod; and a guide body movably mounted on the rod between the stops. The stops being spaced from each other a distance slightly greater than the length of the guide body, the upper stop engaging the guide body to move the guide body downwardly with the rod after an initial short downward movement of the rod after initiation of each downward movement of the rod and the lower stop engaging the guide body to move the second guide body upwardly with the rod after initial short upward movement of the rod after initiation of each upward movement of the rod during the longitudinal reciprocatory movement of the rod in a well flow conductor.

  3. Commentary: The Value of Patient Benefit: Consideration of Framing Contingencies to Guide the Ethical Use of DBS-a Case Analysis.

    PubMed

    Giordano, James

    2016-10-01

    Here we have a case in which (1) the outcome(s) for the patient do not comport with the projected-or initially defined-outcomes of the research study, and (2) these outcomes represent cognitive and behavioral effects that are positively interpreted by the patient, but not by the patient's immediate family. The 6Cs approach, which frames the technique or technology-and its effects-within defined considerations of domains and dimensions, can be used as part of a multistep approach to addressing issues arising from the use of neurotechnology. 1 The approach recommends that the medical team consider the following domains and dimensions when engaging neuroethical analyses: • The capacities and limitations of current neuroscience and technology (neuroS/T), and the capacity of the patient • The consequences incurred by neuroS/T on recipients, families, and society in the short, intermediate, and long term • The character of the recipient (e.g., patterns of cognition, emotion, and behavior) affected by neuroS/T • The continuity of research and clinical care • The contexts of need and value that influence the use or nonuse of neuroS/T • Consent through provision of the most information possible 2. PMID:27634728

  4. Buyers guide 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The fifth edition of the American Gas annual guide to gas industry products and services is organized alphabetically and by category. A partial listing of categories would include: air compressors, pipe anchors, blasting equipment, boilers, cathodic protection equipment, coatings, consulting services, environmental impact assessments, filters, heat exchangers, leak detectors, meter reading services, natural gas vehicle equipment, pigs, pipes, pressure vessels, valves, and welding equipment. Name, address, phone number, and specialties are listed for each vendor.

  5. Added value of stress related gene inductions in HepG2 cells as effect measurement in monitoring of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobels, Ingrid; Vanparys, Caroline; Van den Heuvel, Rosette; Vercauteren, Jordy; Blust, Ronny

    2012-08-01

    In this study we studied the effects of particulate matter samples (PM) through gene expression analysis in a routine air quality monitoring campaign by the Flemish Environment Agency (VMM, Belgium). We selected a human hepatoma (HepG2) multiple endpoint reporter assay for targeted stress related endpoint screening. Organic extracts of air samples (total suspended particles, TSP) were collected during one year in an industrial, urban and background location in Flanders, Belgium. Simultaneously, meteorological conditions (temperature, wind speed and precipitation) and particulate matter size ≤ 10 μM (PM10), organic (OC), elemental (EC) and total (TC) carbon were monitored and air samples were collected for chemical analysis (11 PAHs). Correlations between the induction of the different stress genes and the chemical pollutants were analysed. Exposure of HepG2 cells to daily air equivalents (20 m3) of organic TSP extracts revealed the dominant induction of the xenobiotic response element (Xre) and phase I (Cyp1A1) and phase II (GstYa) biotransformation enzymes. Additional effects were the induction of c-Fos, a proto-oncogen and Gadd45, a marker for cell cycle disturbance and responsive to genotoxic compounds. Inductions of other relevant pathways, such as sequestration of heavy metals, retinoids response, protein misfolding and increased cAMP levels were measured occasionally. A significant correlation was found between the genes Cyp1A1 (a typical marker for presence of PAHs and dioxin like compounds), c-Fos, Gadd45, (responsive to DNA damaging compounds) and the amount of PM10 and elemental carbon (EC) whereas no correlation was found between these genes and total PAHs content. This may suggest that the observed induction of Cyp1A1 and DNA damage related genes was provoked (partially) by other particle bound compounds (e.g. pesticides, PCBs, brominated flame retardants, dioxins, …), than PAHs. The contribution of particle bound compounds, other than PAHs might

  6. CO2 concentrations and delta13C (CO2) values in monthly sets of air samples from downtown Parma and the Parma and Taro river valleys, Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

    PubMed

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enricomaria

    2006-09-01

    Monthly sets of discrete air samples were collected from September 2004 to June 2005 in the town of Parma, along North-South and East-West runs (8 plus 8 samples), using four-litre Pyrex flasks. The CO2 concentrations and delta13C values were determined on these samples with the aim of evaluating quantitatively the contribution of domestic heating to the winter atmospheric CO2 pollution in downtown Parma by comparing autumn and spring atmospheric values with winter values. After separation of CO2 from the other air gases in the laboratory, the CO2 concentrations were calculated from the intensity of the 12C16O2+ ion beam in the mass spectrometer, after calibration with artificial air samples whose CO2 concentration was very carefully determined by the Monte Cimone Observatory (Sestola, Modena, Italy). The reproducibility of these measurements was of approximately +/-0.4 % and, consequently, the most probable error is not higher than+/-2-3 ppmv and does not affect the magnitude of the gradients between different samples. The standard deviation of delta13C measurements ranges from+/-0.02 to +/-0.04 per thousand (1sigma). The results suggest that the contribution of domestic heating to atmospheric CO2 pollution is almost negligible in the case of ground level atmosphere, where the main CO2 pollution is essentially related to the heavy car traffic. This is probably because of the fact that the gases from the domestic heating systems are discharged tens of metres above ground level at a relatively high temperature so that they rise quickly to the upper atmospheric layers and are then displaced by air masses dynamics. Monthly sets of discrete air samples were also collected from October 2004 to June 2005 along North-South runs from the town of Parma to the Apennine ridge following the Parma and the Taro river valleys (8 samples and 7 samples per set, respectively) and measured using the same technique. The aim of this study was the comparison between the town samples

  7. Guided Imagery in Career Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William C.; Eddy, John

    1982-01-01

    Suggests guided imagery can stimulate clients to become more aware of the role of personal values, attitudes, and beliefs in career decision making. Presents guidelines, examples, and implications to enable rehabilitation counselors to use guided imagery exercises in career counseling. (Author)

  8. Are δ13C values of n-alkanes affected by atmospheric CO2 concentrations? Results from a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandquist, D. R.; Williams, D. G.; Shuman, B. N.; Kim, S.; Chen, J.; Macdonald, C.

    2015-12-01

    Compound-specific carbon isotope (δ13C) analyses of leaf waxes (i.e., n-alkanes) can be linked to large-scale shifts in vegetation, such as dominant taxa, functional types, life-forms and photosynthetic pathways that are usually coupled with environmental changes in climate. However using these δ13C values to interpret finer-scale ecosystem properties, including climate attributes such as CO2 concentrations, is difficult owing to uncertainty in the magnitude of internal biosynthetic fractionations that determine the δ13C of waxes relative to that of bulk leaf material. We investigated the composition, abundance and δ13C of n-alkanes in the aboveground biomass of a C4 grass and a C3 grass exposed to experimentally controlled CO2 at ambient [490ppm] and elevated [630ppm] levels within natural grassland in Wyoming. The δ13C values of bulk tissues were predictably different based on the C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways, but the difference between bulk tissue and n-alkanes (ɛlipid), for both C29 and C31, was consistently greater in the C4 grass. The magnitudes of these ɛlipid values were large (- 7‰ to -15‰) relative to those found in most other studies. CO2 concentration of the growing environment also had a significant effect on n-alkane δ13C values, with consistently higher values of ~ 2‰ under elevated CO2 found in both species and in both a wet and a dry year. These results underscore the importance of recognizing potential abiotic effects on leaf wax δ13C values, in addition to the biotic drivers their variation, when interpreting climate from leaf-wax biomarkers of terrestrial ecosystems.

  9. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  10. Preliminary Investigation of Molybdenum Disulfide-air-mist Lubrication for Roller Bearings Operating to DN Values of 1 x 10(exp 6) and Ball Bearings Operating to Temperatures of 1000 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E F; Nemeth, Z N; Anderson, W J

    1951-01-01

    The effectiveness of molybdenum disulfide MoS2 as a bearing lubricant was determined at high temperature and at high speeds. A 1-inch-bore ball bearing operated at temperatures to 1000 F, a speed of 1725 rpm, and a thrust load of 20 pounds when lubricated only with MoS2-air mist. A 75-millimeter-bore cageless roller bearing, provided with a MoS2-syrup coating before operation, operated at DN values to 1 x 10(exp 6) with a load of 368 pounds.

  11. A User's Guide for the Fabulous Abacus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausrath, Alan R.

    A guide for using an abacus is accompanied by a heavy-duty paper abacus. The guide includes instruction in how to represent numbers on an abacus as well as in place value, addition, carrying, subtraction, and borrowing. Diagrams are used throughout the guide and a brief English-Spanish vocabulary list specific to the use of the abacus is included.…

  12. The Healthy School Environmental Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., Long Island City.

    This guide informs parents, advocates, and school personnel about existing laws and resources available to ensure that every school in New York is an environmentally safe and healthy school. The guide reveals how to recognize air quality and other environmental problems and who to contact when adverse conditions are discovered. It examines…

  13. Transportation Systems. Curriculum Guide for Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastain, Gary K.

    This curriculum guide for a 1-semester or 1-year course in transportation provides activities that show and explain many of the occupations, devices, and systems that are related to transportation on land, water, air, and space. The guide contains competencies (task lists), student competency records, and management sheets. Management sheets,…

  14. Solar Energy Installers Curriculum Guides. Book II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gene C.

    This second volume of a comprehensive curriculum guide for the heating-ventilation-air conditioning-refrigeration-solar student is designed to assist high school area vocational centers or community college instructors in the implementation and operation of comfort training programs. The guide is comprised of ten units of instruction within three…

  15. Solar Energy Installers Curriculum Guides. Book I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gene C.

    This first volume of a comprehensive curriculum guide for the heating-ventilation-air conditioning-refrigeration-solar student is designed to assist high school area vocational centers or community college instructors in the implementation and operation of comfort training programs. Following an introductory section, the guide provides job…

  16. Making the Case for School-to-Careers and Vocational Education. A Practical Guide to Demonstrating the Value of School-to-Careers Preparation for All Students and Debunking Outdated Stereotypes and False Assumptions...Plus Step-by-Step Instructions for Planning Promotional Campaigns and Events To Create Public Support in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Alexandria, VA.

    This document is a practical guide to demonstrating the value of school-to-careers preparation for all students and to debunking outdated stereotypes and false assumptions surrounding school-to-careers and vocational education programs. Part 1 explains the importance of political and policy advocacy in public education and outlines strategies for…

  17. Building Air Quality. Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Indoor Air Div.

    Building managers and owners often confront competing demands to reduce operating costs and increase revenues that can siphon funds and resources from other building management concerns such as indoor air quality (IAQ). This resource booklet, designed for use with the "Building Air Quality Guide," provides building owners and managers with an…

  18. NOVA Spring 1999 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, Luann; Ransick, Kristina; Recio, Belinda

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the spring of 1999. Programs include: (1) "Surviving AIDS"; (2) "Secrets of Making Money"; (3) "Escape!: Fire"; (4) "Escape!: Car Crash"; (5) "Volcanoes of the Deep"; and (6) "Odyssey of Life: Part 1. The Ultimate Journey". It provides activity…

  19. NOVA Fall 1999 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Wayne; Karlan, James W.; Ransick, Kristina; Rosene, Dale; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements five programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the fall of 1999. Programs include: (1) "Fall of the Leaning Tower"; (2) "Everest: The Mystery of Mallory and Irvine"; (3) "Time Travel, Decoding Nazi Secrets"; (3) "Voyage of Doom"; and (5) "Barely Breathing". It provides activity set-ups related…

  20. CURRICULUM GUIDE IN CONSERVATION EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HERRINGTON, EUGENE H.; ROBBINS, LARRY

    THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE PRESENTS CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES AS AN INTEGRATED NATURAL SCIENCE STUDY. NATURAL RESOURCES ARE SEEN AS BEING INORGANIC (MINERALS, AIR, WATER, AND SOIL) OR ORGANIC (PLANT, ANIMAL, AND HUMAN). THESE RESOURCES ARE PRESENTED AS SUGGESTED CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES DESIGNED FOR THE PRIMARY, INTERMEDIATE, AND JUNIOR HIGH…

  1. NOVA Spring 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, Luann; Gregoire, Tanya; Ransick, Kristina; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the spring of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lost on Everest"; (2) "Lost Tribes of Israel"; (3) "Crocodiles"; (4) "Lost at Sea: The Search for Longitude"; (5) "Global Warming"; and (6) "Secrets of Lost Empires". It provides activity set-ups related to…

  2. NOVA Fall 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransick, Kristina; Rosene, Dale; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the fall of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lincoln's Secret Weapon"; (2) "Hitler's Lost Sub"; (3) "Runaway Universe"; (4) "Garden of Eden"; (5) "Dying to Be Thin"; and (6) "Japan's Secret Garden". It provides activity set-ups related to the programs…

  3. USAFE Child Care Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaklos, Linda R.

    Composed of 19 chapters, this training guide for child caregivers in the United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE) offers information about various activity centers, the caregiver role and relationships, characteristics of children, caregiver responsibilities, and games. Each chapter consists of an outline of basic information concerning each…

  4. STMVOC User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Falta, R.W.; Pruess, K.

    1991-06-01

    This report contains instructions for using the STMVOC numerical simulator. This code, which was developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is an extension of the TOUGH geothermal code for use in problems involving subsurface contamination by nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). The code is used for modeling the nonisothermal transport of air, water, and an organic chemical in three fluid phases. A discussion of the physical processes included in the simulator is given along with a brief outline of the mathematical formulation. A detailed guide to preparing the STMVOC input file with several illustrative examples is provided. 22 refs., 27 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  6. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI.

  7. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  8. Medication Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quit Smoking Benefits of Quitting Health Effects of Smoking Secondhand Smoke Withdrawal Ways to Quit QuitGuide Pregnancy & Motherhood Pregnancy & Motherhood Before Your Baby is Born From Birth to 2 Years Quitting for Two SmokefreeMom Healthy Kids Parenting & ... Weight Management Weight Management ...

  9. Homebuyer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindt, Roger P.; Harris, Jack

    Designed to assist prospective buyers in making such important decisions as whether to buy a new or older home and within what price range, the guide provides information on the purchase process. Discussion of the purchase process covers the life-cycle costs (recurring homeownership costs that must be met every month); selection of a home;…

  10. Freestyle Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    This booklet serves as an introduction to the concept of Freestyle, a career awareness project designed to encourage nine- to twelve-year-olds to freely explore their interests, develop their skills, and choose their career paths. The booklet includes an explanation of the Freestyle project, goals, and components (t.v. programs, project guide,…

  11. Teachers Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsky, Ronald B.; Schnitger, Ronald L.

    This guide provides teachers with copies of the materials given to students participating in the oceanography program of the Orange County Floating Laboratory Program and provides information concerning colleges and universities offering courses in oceanography and marine science, source of films, and sources of publications concerning the Navy's…

  12. Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Education Teacher's Guide, [Grades] 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This guide is one in a series of four resource guides specifically designed for those interested in aviation education. Activities and lessons that can be used in a variety of content areas and grade levels are featured. Grades 4-6 are the focus of this guide, which is organized under the broad topics of properties of air, lighter than air flight,…

  13. Guided wave attenuation in pipes buried in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael JS

    2015-03-01

    Long-range ultrasonic guided wave testing of pipelines is used routinely for detection of corrosion defects in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipelines that are buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised compared to those achieved for pipelines above ground because of the attenuation of the guided wave, due to energy leaking into the embedding soil. The attenuation characteristics of guided wave propagation in a pipe buried in sand are investigated using a full scale experimental rig. The apparatus consists of an 8"-diameter, 6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters in a rectangular container filled with sand and fitted with an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Measurements of the attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes over a range of sand conditions, including loose, compacted, water saturated and drained, are presented. Attenuation values are found to be in the range of 1-5.5 dB/m. The application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation. The attenuation decreases in the fully water-saturated sand, while it increases in drained sand to values comparable with those obtained for the compacted sand. The attenuation behavior of the torsional guided wave mode is found not to be captured by a uniform soil model; comparison with predictions obtained with the Disperse software suggest that this is likely to be due to a layer of sand adhering to the surface of the pipe.

  14. Best Practices Guide for Energy-Efficient Data Center Design: Revised March 2011 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-03-01

    This guide provides an overview of best practices for energy-efficient data center design which spans the categories of Information Technology (IT) systems and their environmental conditions, data center air management, cooling and electrical systems, on-site generation, and heat recovery. IT system energy efficiency and environmental conditions are presented first because measures taken in these areas have a cascading effect of secondary energy savings for the mechanical and electrical systems. This guide concludes with a section on metrics and benchmarking values by which a data center and its systems energy efficiency can be evaluated. No design guide can offer 'the most energy-efficient' data center design but the guidelines that follow offer suggestions that provide efficiency benefits for a wide variety of data center scenarios.

  15. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  16. Air permeability and trapped-air content in two soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, D.A.; Rubin, J.

    1989-01-01

    To improve understanding of hysteretic air permeability relations, a need exists for data on the water content dependence of air permeability, matric pressure, and air trapping (especially for wetting-drying cycles). To obtain these data, a special instrument was designed. The instrument is a combination of a gas permeameter (for air permeability determination), a suction plate apparatus (for retentivity curve determination), and an air pycnometer (for trapped-air-volume determination). This design allowed values of air permeability, matric pressure, and air trapping to be codetermined, i.e., determined at the same values of water content using the same sample and the same inflow-outflow boundaries. Such data were obtained for two nonswelling soils. -from Authors

  17. Terminal area air traffic control simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    To study the impact of advanced aeronautical technologies on operations to and from terminal airports, a computer model of air traffic movements was developed. The advantages of fast-time simulation are discussed, and the arrival scheduling and flight simulation are described. A New York area study, user's guide, and programmer's guide are included.

  18. Advanced air distribution: improving health and comfort while reducing energy use.

    PubMed

    Melikov, A K

    2016-02-01

    Indoor environment affects the health, comfort, and performance of building occupants. The energy used for heating, cooling, ventilating, and air conditioning of buildings is substantial. Ventilation based on total volume air distribution in spaces is not always an efficient way to provide high-quality indoor environments at the same time as low-energy consumption. Advanced air distribution, designed to supply clean air where, when, and as much as needed, makes it possible to efficiently achieve thermal comfort, control exposure to contaminants, provide high-quality air for breathing and minimizing the risk of airborne cross-infection while reducing energy use. This study justifies the need for improving the present air distribution design in occupied spaces, and in general the need for a paradigm shift from the design of collective environments to the design of individually controlled environments. The focus is on advanced air distribution in spaces, its guiding principles and its advantages and disadvantages. Examples of advanced air distribution solutions in spaces for different use, such as offices, hospital rooms, vehicle compartments, are presented. The potential of advanced air distribution, and individually controlled macro-environment in general, for achieving shared values, that is, improved health, comfort, and performance, energy saving, reduction of healthcare costs and improved well-being is demonstrated. Performance criteria are defined and further research in the field is outlined.

  19. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Attic Air Sealing Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored Guide to Attic Air Sealing by Building America research partner Building Science Corporation, which provides best practices for attic air sealing. The guide has had 21,000 views and 13,000 downloads since it was posted.

  20. NARSTO SOS99NASH G-1 AIR CHEMISTRY DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO SOS99NASH G-1 AIR CHEMISTRY DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... Carbon Monoxide Ultraviolet Radiation Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric Temperature Dew Point Upper Level Winds ... Data Guide Documents:  SOS99Nash G-1 Air Guide Related Data:  Southern Oxidants Study ...

  1. Evaluation of microbiological air quality and of microclimate in university classrooms.

    PubMed

    Grisoli, Pietro; Rodolfi, Marinella; Chiara, Tiziana; Zonta, Laura Attinia; Dacarro, Cesare

    2012-07-01

    The proliferation of air-diffused microorganisms inside public buildings such as schools, hospitals, and universities, is often indicated as a possible health risk. In this research, we have illustrated the results of an investigation realized to determine the health of the air in some university classrooms, both from a microbiological and a microclimatic viewpoint, during the normal didactic activity of direct lessons. The results obtained have been expressed by means of contamination indices, already used in previous works. Very little contamination was recorded in the different phases of air treatment, which underlines the efficiency of the system and of the maintenance protocols. The Global Index of Microbial Contamination (GIMC per cubic meter) showed a value greater than the mean during the heating period (290), while the highest values (95th percentile 1,138.45) were recorded in the period using air conditioning. The index of mesophilic bacterial contamination, though it did not show any significant differences in the various modes of air treatment, showed a mean value (1.34) and the 95th percentile value (4.14), which was greater in the air-conditioning phase. Finally, the mean value of the amplification index underlined a decrease in the microbial contamination in comparison to the outside, while showing situations of increased microbial amplification during the period of simple ventilation (95th percentile 4.27). The 95th percentile values found for GICM in the three sampling periods, however, permitted us to identify the value of GIMC per cubic meter equal to 1,000 as a guide to provide a means of self-monitoring the quality of the air inside the classrooms. From a microclimatic viewpoint, two periods of the year manifested discomfort situations: during the heating phase (winter) and during the simple ventilation phase (spring). The results obtained indicate, therefore, a need to intervene on the environmental parameters, not being able, in this

  2. The KIND Workshop Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirch, Willow Ann

    The National Association for Humane and Environmental Education (NAHEE) produces this workshop guide which offers a scripted workshop with handouts for elementary educators interested in sharing curriculum-based activities dedicated to helping young people develop values of kindness and respect toward people, animals, and the Earth. This guide…

  3. Teacher's Guide: Social Studies, 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.

    This teacher's guide, part of a sequential K-12 series, provides objectives and activities for social studies students in grade 7. Five major sections focus on learning, inquiry, and discussion skills, concepts, and values and moral reasoning. Learning skills stress listening, speaking, viewing, reading, writing, map, and statistical abilities.…

  4. Teacher's Guide: Social Studies, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.

    This teacher's guide, part of a sequential K-12 series, provides objectives and activities for social studies students in grade 6. Five major sections focus on learning, inquiry, and discussion skills, concepts, and values and moral reasoning. Learning skills stress listening, speaking, viewing, reading, writing, map, and statistical abilities.…

  5. Teacher's Guide: Social Studies, 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.

    This teacher's guide, part of a K-12 sequential series, provides objectives and activities for students in grade 4. Five major sections focus on learning, inquiry, and discussion skills, concepts, and values and moral reasoning. Learning skills stress listening, speaking, viewing, reading, writing, map, and statistical abilities. Students role…

  6. Teacher's Guide: Social Studies, 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.

    This teacher's guide, part of a sequential K-12 series, provides objectives and activities for social studies students in grade 9. Five major sections focus on learning, inquiry, and discussion skills, concepts, and values and moral reasoning. Learning skills stress listening, speaking, viewing, reading, writing, map, and statistical abilities.…

  7. Teacher's Guide: Social Studies, 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.

    Part of a K-12 sequential series, this teacher's guide presents objectives and activities for social studies students in grade 3. Five major sections concentrate on learning, inquiry, and discussion skills, concepts, and values and moral reasoning. Learning skills stress listening, speaking, viewing, reading, writing, map, and statistical…

  8. World Religions: A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilzer, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    This curriculum guide is for a semester length elective course on the world's major religions designed to be used at the 10th grade level in the Newtown Public Schools, Newton, Connecticut. It reviews each religion's origins, historical developments, sacred literature, beliefs, values, and practices while emphasizing the impact of religion on…

  9. Flight testing air-to-air missiles for flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutschinski, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    The philosophy of the design of air-to-air missiles and hence of flight testing them for flutter differs from that of manned aircraft. Primary emphasis is put on analytical and laboratory evaluation of missile susceptibility to aeroelastic and aero-servo-elastic instabilities and uses flight testing for confirmation of the absence of such instabilities. Flight testing for flutter is accomplished by using specially instrumented programmed missiles, air or ground launched with a booster to reach the extreme flight conditions of tactical use, or by using guided missiles with telemetered performance data. The instrumentation and testing techniques are discussed along with the success of recent flight tests.

  10. The 1990 Guide to the Evaluation of Educational Experiences in the Armed Services. (1) Army Courses. (2) Army MOS's. (3) Navy. (4) Air Force, Coast Guard, Department of Defense, Marine Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    This four-part guide describes how service members can receive college credits for their military training and experience. Each volume provides instructions for finding and using exhibits and recommendations, as well as information on awarding credit for extrainstitutional learning, transfer and award of credit, and a model policy on awarding such…

  11. COATING ALTERNATIVES GUIDE (CAGE) USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guide provides instructions for using the Coating Alternatives GuidE (CAGE) software program, version 1.0. It assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating an IBM-compatible personal computer (PC) under the Microsoft disk operating system (MS-DOS). CAGE...

  12. Air sampling in the workplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R.; Wiblin, C.M.; McGuire, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC`s Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ``Air sampling in the Workplace.`` That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC`s regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed.

  13. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. PMID:25461063

  14. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  15. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  16. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Kurz, Heiko G.; Bergé, Luc; Skupin, Stefan; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled to the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which has been paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions in the picosecond regime are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. In focused propagation geometry, a unique feature of picosecond filamentation is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for many applications including laser-guided electrical breakdown of air, channeling microwave beams and air lasing.

  17. Project Earth, A Curriculum Guide, Kindergarten-Primary-Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Arnold R., Ed.

    This conservation curriculum guide contains units on the air, water, soil, plants, and animals. The guide is organized by grade levels--kindergarten, primary, intermediate. Objectives and concepts are listed and suggested activities are complete with a statement of procedure and necessary materials. A resource appendix includes books, films, and…

  18. Student Guide for Documenting Experiential Learning: Travel Agency Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coastline Community Coll., Fountain Valley, CA.

    Coastline Community College has developed a series of guides to assist adults who wish to obtain college credit or advanced standing in evaluating and verifying their non-college learning experiences. This guide lists the competency requirements of four courses within the Travel Agency Operation program: Domestic Air Transportation; International…

  19. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides, November 1-30, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of November, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics covered by the guides include: the Bosnia peace talks, hot-air balloons, salt…

  20. An Educational Guide for Planning an Improved Human Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohuth, Barbara J.; Marsh, Boyd T.

    This guide contains a curriculum featuring learnings and activities concerning environmental health of the home, neighborhood and city. There are six main sections to this guide: (1) Resources - containing sections on solid wastes, sound, radiation, air, water, shelter, and chemicals; (2) Environment - containing sections on positive and negative…

  1. Exploring Careers in Transportation: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Herbert; O'Brien, Ralph D.

    One of 11 guides intended for use at the junior high school level of career exploration, the primary focus of the teacher's guide is on the many occupational opportunities within the transportation cluster. Four occupational clusters are treated: (1) land transportation, (2) water transportation, (3) air and space transportation, and (4)…

  2. Crisis: Urban Education. Viewer's Guide to the PBS Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thirteen WNET, New York, NY.

    This guide provides a description of "Crisis: Urban Education," a series of four half-hour documentaries, aired on public television stations and produced by Thirteen-WNET, that explore the human side of the educational crisis. The series described in this guide presents the latest thinking of school reform experts, and highlights bold and…

  3. The Environment Film Review. A Critical Guide to Ecology Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment Information Center, New York, NY.

    Critical reviews of more than 600 environmental films selected from a field of several thousand are contained in this reference guide. Designed to provide a comprehensive selection of films covering all aspects of environmental affairs, from air pollution to wildlife, the guide is primarily user-oriented. It consists of two parts: a Review…

  4. Your Environment: A Guide for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee.

    This environmental guide for students contains stories on air pollution, water pollution, wetlands, groundwater, solid and hazardous waste, and coastal areas. It includes a section on how students can help Florida's environment. A reference section with contact names and addresses for Florida's governmental and citizen organizations is also…

  5. Climate Control. Secondary School Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPlantis, Ernest P.

    This course guide is oriented toward developing skills in air conditioning and refrigeration installation and service. Although primarily designed as a 2-year program for high school students at the junior and senior levels, it is equally acceptable for the post high school student as an occupational training program, or as a refresher course for…

  6. REACH. Teacher's Guide, Volume III. Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, James Lee; And Others

    Designed for use with individualized instructional units (CE 026 345-347, CE 026 349-351) in the electromechanical cluster, this third volume of the postsecondary teacher's guide presents the task analysis which was used in the development of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air Conditioning, Heating) curriculum. The major blocks of…

  7. Solar Energy Installers Curriculum Guides. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gene C.

    A project was conducted to develop solar energy installers curriculum guides for use in high school vocational centers and community colleges. Project activities included researching job competencies for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning industry and determining through interviews and manufacturers' literature what additional…

  8. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. November 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These guides, designed to accompany the daily Cable News Network (CNN) Newsroom broadcasts for November 1-30, 1999, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, links to relevant World Wide Web sites, and a list of related news terms. Top stories include: EgyptAir Flight 990 crash, Oslo summit, India cyclone,…

  9. "The Rosa Parks Story": Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onish, Liane B.

    On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, refused to give up her seat to a white man on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and she was arrested. On that day, Rosa Parks became the mother of the modern civil rights movement. This study guide may be used as a companion to "The Rosa Parks Story" video which aired on CBS television…

  10. Patient doses from fluoroscopically guided cardiac procedures in pediatrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, L. C.; Vano, E.; Gutierrez, F.; Rodriguez, C.; Gilarranz, R.; Manzanas, M. J.

    2007-08-01

    Infants and children are a higher risk population for radiation cancer induction compared to adults. Although some values on pediatric patient doses for cardiac procedures have been reported, data to determine reference levels are scarce, especially when compared to those available for adults in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The aim of this study is to make a new contribution to the scarce published data in pediatric cardiac procedures and help in the determination of future dose reference levels. This paper presents a set of patient dose values, in terms of air kerma area product (KAP) and entrance surface air kerma (ESAK), measured in a pediatric cardiac catheterization laboratory equipped with a biplane x-ray system with dynamic flat panel detectors. Cardiologists were properly trained in radiation protection. The study includes 137 patients aged between 10 days and 16 years who underwent diagnostic catheterizations or therapeutic procedures. Demographic data and technical details of the procedures were also gathered. The x-ray system was submitted to a quality control programme, including the calibration of the transmission ionization chamber. The age distribution of the patients was 47 for <1 year; 52 for 1-<5 years; 25 for 5-<10 years and 13 for 10-<16 years. Median values of KAP were 1.9, 2.9, 4.5 and 15.4 Gy cm2 respectively for the four age bands. These KAP values increase by a factor of 8 when moving through the four age bands. The probability of a fatal cancer per fluoroscopically guided cardiac procedure is about 0.07%. Median values of ESAK for the four age bands were 46, 50, 56 and 163 mGy, which lie far below the threshold for deterministic effects on the skin. These dose values are lower than those published in previous papers.

  11. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  12. Valuing the Environment, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public Schools, Charlotte, NC.

    This guide was developed for use in grades K-6 as an enrichment program based on clarifying values. The program, designed by teachers, aims to develop in the student a greater awareness and understanding of the community, themselves, and the earth. The program includes a number of environmental encounters. Topical themes lead teachers and students…

  13. Image guided versus palpation guided core needle biopsy of palpable breast masses: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Smriti; Kumari, Swati; Srivastava, Anurag; Thulkar, Sanjay; Mathur, Sandeep; Veedu, Prasad Thotton

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Biopsy of palpable breast masses can be performed manually by palpation guidance or under imaging guidance. Based on retrospective studies, image guided biopsy is considered more accurate than palpation guided breast biopsy; however, these techniques have not been compared prospectively. We conducted this prospective study to verify the superiority and determine the size of beneficial effect of image guided biopsy over palpation guided biopsy. Methods: Over a period of 18 months, 36 patients each with palpable breast masses were randomized into palpation guided and image guided breast biopsy arms. Ultrasound was used for image guidance in 33 patients and mammographic (stereotactic) guidance in three patients. All biopsies were performed using 14 gauge automated core biopsy needles. Inconclusive, suspicious or imaging-histologic discordant biopsies were repeated. Results: Malignancy was found in 30 of 36 women in palpation guided biopsy arm and 27 of 36 women in image guided biopsy arm. Palpation guided biopsy had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 46.7, 100, 100, 27.3 per cent, respectively, for diagnosing breast cancer. Nineteen of 36 women (52.8%) required repeat biopsy because of inadequate samples (7 of 19), suspicious findings (2 of 19) or imaging-histologic discordance (10 of 19). On repeat biopsy, malignancy was found in all cases of imaging-histologic discordance. Image guided biopsy had 96.3 per cent sensitivity and 100 per cent specificity. There was no case of inadequate sample or imaging-histologic discordance with image guided biopsy. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in palpable breast masses, image guided biopsy was superior to palpation guided biopsy in terms of sensitivity, false negative rate and repeat biopsy rates. PMID:27488003

  14. The mysterious atmosphere of the Earth. ATLAS: Instruction guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This teacher's guide presents lesson plans addressing various aspects of atmospheric physics and chemistry; the interactions between land, air, and sea; air pollution; and the mechanisms of climate change. The science concepts in this guide have been designed to complement the middle school curriculum. However, many activities can be used with younger or older students.

  15. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  16. Career Preparation in Environmental Protection: A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, David; Scott, Tressa

    This curriculum guide in environmental protection is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes three occupational subgroups: water treatment, wastewater treatment, and air pollution control. It is meant as an aid to all who…

  17. Telescope Guiding with a HyViSI H2RG Used in Guide Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, Lance M.; Figerb, Donald F.; Hanold, Brandon J.; Kahn, Steven M.; Gilmore, D.Kirk; /SLAC

    2010-06-04

    We report on long exposure results obtained with a Teledyne HyViSI H2RG detector operating in guide mode. The sensor simultaneously obtained nearly seeing-limited data while also guiding the Kitt Peak 2.1 m telescope. Results from unguided and guided operation are presented and used to place lower limits on flux/fluence values for accurate centroid measurements. We also report on significant noise reduction obtained in recent laboratory measurements that should further improve guiding capability with higher magnitude stars.

  18. Museums, the Public, and Public Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Though adopting a Public Value orientation to guide museum planning and positioning has advantages, its implementation, particularly with regard to the role of the public, is complex. Here, the terrain of Public Value is emergent, fluid and contested. This paper examines various views of the role of the public in Public Value including that of…

  19. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  20. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  1. Guide to Understanding Lymphedema

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet, Nutrition and Exercise Expressive Writing Guided Imagery Hypnosis Massage Therapy Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Yoga and ... Diet, Nutrition and Exercise Expressive Writing Guided Imagery Hypnosis Massage Therapy Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Yoga and ...

  2. Managerial Accounting. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plachta, Leonard E.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial accounting. The study guide is intended for use by students in conjuction with a separate textbook, Horngren's "Accounting for Management Control: An Introduction," and a workbook, Curry's "Student Guide to Accounting for Management…

  3. ESL VI Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flander, Leonard

    This curriculum guide for English as a Second Language (ESL) Level VI is the sixth of six in a Guam Community College ESL project series. The other five guides, a companion teacher's guide and pre- and post-tests are available separately (see note). The entire project centers around the Peabody Kits P, Level P, Level 1, Level 2, Level 3, and the…

  4. 76 FR 82323 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ....'' This guide applies to the design, inspection, and testing of air filtration and iodine adsorption units... the design, inspection, and testing of air filtration and iodine adsorption units of...

  5. LOADED WAVE GUIDES FOR LINEAR ACCELERATORS

    DOEpatents

    Walkinshaw, W.; Mullett, L.B.

    1959-12-01

    A periodically loaded waveguide having substantially coaxially arranged elements which provide an axial field for the acceleration of electrons is described. Radiofrequency energy will flow in the space between the inner wall of an outer guide and the peripheries of equally spaced irises or washes arranged coaxially with each other and with the outer guide, where the loading due to the geometry of the irises is such as to reduce the phase velocity of the r-f energy flowing in the guide from a value greater than that of light to the velocity of light or less.

  6. Engine Performance (Section C: Emission Control Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Larry

    This engine performance (emission control systems) module is one of a series of competency-based modules in the Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Topics of this module's five units are: positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) and evaporative emission control systems; exhaust gas recirculation (EGR); air injection and catalytic converters;…

  7. Evaluation of workplace air monitoring locations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Cicotte, G.R.; Lynch, T.P. ); Aldrich, L.K. )

    1991-10-01

    Current federal guidance on occupational radiation protection recognizes the importance of conducting air flow studies to assist in the placement of air sampling and monitoring equipment. In support of this, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has provided technical assistance to Westinghouse Hanford Company for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of air sampling and monitoring locations at selected Hanford facilities. Qualitative air flow studies were performed using smoke aerosols to visually determine air movement. Three examples are provided of how air flow studies results, along with information on the purpose of the air sample being collected, were used as a guide in placing the air samplers and monitors. Preparatory steps in conducting an air flow study should include: (1) identifying type of work performed in the work area including any actual or potential release points; (2) determining the amounts of radioactive material available for release and its chemical and physical form; (3) obtaining accurate work area descriptions and diagrams; (4) identifying the location of existing air samplers and monitors; (5) documenting physical and ventilation configurations; (6) notifying appropriate staff of the test; and (7) obtaining necessary equipment and supplies. The primary steps in conducting an air flow study are measurements of air velocities in the work area, release of the smoke aerosol at selected locations in the work area and the observation of air flow patterns, and finally evaluation and documentation of the results. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  9. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

  10. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying value-based decision-making: from core values to economic value

    PubMed Central

    Brosch, Tobias; Sander, David

    2013-01-01

    Value plays a central role in practically every aspect of human life that requires a decision: whether we choose between different consumer goods, whether we decide which person we marry or which political candidate gets our vote, we choose the option that has more value to us. Over the last decade, neuroeconomic research has mapped the neural substrates of economic value, revealing that activation in brain regions such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), ventral striatum or posterior cingulate cortex reflects how much an individual values an option and which of several options he/she will choose. However, while great progress has been made exploring the mechanisms underlying concrete decisions, neuroeconomic research has been less concerned with the questions of why people value what they value, and why different people value different things. Social psychologists and sociologists have long been interested in core values, motivational constructs that are intrinsically linked to the self-schema and are used to guide actions and decisions across different situations and different time points. Core value may thus be an important determinant of individual differences in economic value computation and decision-making. Based on a review of recent neuroimaging studies investigating the neural representation of core values and their interactions with neural systems representing economic value, we outline a common framework that integrates the core value concept and neuroeconomic research on value-based decision-making. PMID:23898252

  11. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  12. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  13. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  14. Urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Air pollution and the risk of potential health effects are not sufficiently convincing reasons for people to stop driving their cars, according to a study by the Population Reference Bureau (PRB) released on November 18.While sufficient levels of suspended particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and lead can present health concerns, the study found that many people surveyed for the study were not convinced of the clear linkage between air pollution and health.

  15. Air conditioning and refrigeration engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Kreith, F.

    1999-12-01

    This book supplies the basics of design, from selecting the optimum system and equipment to preparing the drawings and specifications. It discusses the four phases of preparing a project: gathering information, developing alternatives, evaluating alternatives, and selling the best solution. In addition, the author breaks down the responsibilities of the engineer design documents, computer aided design, and government codes and standards. It provides you with an easy reference to all aspects of the topic. This resource addresses the most current areas of interest, such as computer aided design and drafting, desiccant air conditioning and energy conservation. It is a thorough and convenient guide to air conditioning and refrigeration engineering. Contents include: introduction; psychrometrics; air-conditioning processes and cycles; refrigerants and refrigeration cycles; outdoor design conditions and indoor design criteria; load calculations; air handling units and packaged units; refrigeration components and evaporative coolers; water systems; heating systems; refrigeration systems; thermal storage system; air system basics; absorption systems; air-conditioning systems and selection; and desiccant dehumidification and air-conditioning.

  16. Clean Air for Anchorage and Fairbanks: Curriculum for Grades 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South East Regional Resource Center, Juneau, AK.

    Through the 10 lessons in this guide, elementary school students can be introduced to the characteristics of air, methods of air pollution control, air movement, and the health effects of polluted air. A directory of field trip sites and a list of teacher resources is included. Contained in each lesson plan are a materials list, general…

  17. Low-noise fan exit guide vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Parrott, Tony L. (Inventor); Heidelberg, Laurence J. (Inventor); Envia, Edmane (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Low-noise fan exit guide vanes are disclosed. According to the present invention a fan exit guide vane has an outer shell substantially shaped as an airfoil and defining an interior cavity. A porous portion of the outer shell allows communication between the fluctuations in the air passing over the guide vane and the interior cavity. At least one acoustically resonant chamber is located within the interior cavity. The resonant chamber is in communication with the porous portion of the outer perimeter. The resonant chamber is configured to reduce the noise generated at a predetermined frequency. In various preferred embodiments, there is a plurality of acoustically resonant chambers located within the interior cavity. The resonant chambers can be separated by one or more partitions within the interior cavity. In these embodiments, the resonant chambers can be configured to reduce the noise generated over a range of predetermined frequencies.

  18. DIELECTRIC-LOADED WAVE-GUIDES

    DOEpatents

    Robertson-Shersby-Harvie, R.B.; Mullett, L.B.

    1957-04-23

    This patent presents a particular arrangement for delectric loading of a wave-guide carrying an electromagnetic wave in the E or TM mode of at least the second order, to reduce the power dissipated as the result of conduction loss in the wave-guide walls. To achieve this desirabie result, the effective dielectric constants in the radial direction of adjacent coaxial tubular regions bounded approximateiy by successive nodai surfaces within the electromagnetic field are of two different values alternating in the radial direction, the intermost and outermost regions being of the lower value, and the dielectric constants between nodes are uniform.

  19. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  20. Being of Value: Intentionally Fostering and Documenting Public Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierking, Lynn D.

    2010-01-01

    The discussion of public value is in the air among museums and other cultural institutions as they strive to achieve strategic impact "for and with" their "communities," rather than merely operational impact "for themselves." At the most basic level, it is about ensuring that their work is fully and meaningfully connected to the fabric and true…

  1. Relativistic Guiding Center Equations

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gobbin, M.

    2014-10-01

    In toroidal fusion devices it is relatively easy that electrons achieve relativistic velocities, so to simulate runaway electrons and other high energy phenomena a nonrelativistic guiding center formalism is not sufficient. Relativistic guiding center equations including flute mode time dependent field perturbations are derived. The same variables as used in a previous nonrelativistic guiding center code are adopted, so that a straightforward modifications of those equations can produce a relativistic version.

  2. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information.

  3. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending.

  4. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  5. Precision guided antiaircraft munition

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1987-01-01

    A small diameter, 20 mm to 50 mm, guided projectile is used in antiaircraft defense. A pulsing laser designator illuminates the target aircraft. Energy reflected from the aircraft is received by the guided projectile. The guided projectile is fired from a standard weapon but the spining caused by the riflings are removed before active tracking and guidance occurs. The received energy is focused by immersion optics onto a bridge cell. AC coupling and gating removes background and allows steering signals to move extended vanes by means of piezoelectric actuators in the rear of the guided projectile.

  6. [Quality guide in nephrology and dialysis].

    PubMed

    Manno, C; Palmieri, V; Virgilio, M; Palasciano, G; Schena, F P

    2004-01-01

    The Quality Guide, a strategic tool for any nephrologist wishing to initiate a quality policy in his own renal unit, describes to the organisation of total quality management. This article gives a short description of a Quality Guide in Nephrology and Dialysis. According to ISO 9004:2000 Norms, the Quality Guide can be subdivided into four sections: Managerial Accountability, Resource Management; Implementation of Services; Analysis, Evaluation and Continuous Quality Improvement. The quality cycle begins by identifying the customers, who added to the resources constitute the input that will be transformed by the service into output (results). By measuring customer satisfaction the results will be evaluated and analyzed to allow continuous improvement of the service. In conclusion, the drafting of the Guide by all staff members involved has a twofold value: it organizes the quality management within the renal unit and certifies the quality level guaranteed to the customer. PMID:15285006

  7. [Quality guide in nephrology and dialysis].

    PubMed

    Manno, C; Palmieri, V; Virgilio, M; Palasciano, G; Schena, F P

    2004-01-01

    The Quality Guide, a strategic tool for any nephrologist wishing to initiate a quality policy in his own renal unit, describes to the organisation of total quality management. This article gives a short description of a Quality Guide in Nephrology and Dialysis. According to ISO 9004:2000 Norms, the Quality Guide can be subdivided into four sections: Managerial Accountability, Resource Management; Implementation of Services; Analysis, Evaluation and Continuous Quality Improvement. The quality cycle begins by identifying the customers, who added to the resources constitute the input that will be transformed by the service into output (results). By measuring customer satisfaction the results will be evaluated and analyzed to allow continuous improvement of the service. In conclusion, the drafting of the Guide by all staff members involved has a twofold value: it organizes the quality management within the renal unit and certifies the quality level guaranteed to the customer.

  8. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  9. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  10. The secret of guided missile re-entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingzhong; An, Sehua

    1986-06-01

    The history and development of reentry vehicles especially as related to guided missiles is studied. The development of fiber reinforced composites to avoid the combustion of reentry vehicle heads is described. The ionization of molecules caused by high temperature friction with the air during high speed reeentry is briefly described. Reentry remote sensing as an important basis for developing configuration and predicting accuracy of point of impact of the guided missile is also discussed.

  11. Fuel tank air pocket removal device

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N. II.

    1991-10-08

    This paper describes a device for the removal of air pockets from filled underground fuel storage tanks. It comprises: a hollow rigid guide column of sufficient length to extend through a fuel inlet opening of the storage tank to the bottom thereof; a rotatable assembly affixed to the lower end of the column and containing guide means for facilitating the passage of a hose from the guide column to the most distant point of the walls of the storage tank; a hose slidably mounted within and extendable from and retractable into the guide column and having means for maintaining the air hose in a plane essentially parallel to the bottom of the storage tank; a first end of a tubular means connected to a first end of the hose, the tubular means comprising flotation means, the flotation means causing a second end of the tubular means to contact the air pocket; and means on a second end of the hose for extending and retracting the hose through the guide column so as to reach any point within the storage tank.

  12. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  13. Science: Grade 7. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  14. Science: Grade 8. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  15. Science: Grade 9. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  16. Science: Grade 5. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  17. Science: Grade 3. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  18. Science: Grade 6. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  19. Designing Forced-Air HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-31

    This guide explains proper calculation of heating and cooling design loads for homes.used to calculated for the home using the protocols set forth in the latest edition of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s (ACCA) Manual J (currently the 8th edition), ASHRAE 2009 Handbook of Fundamentals, or an equivalent computation procedure.

  20. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Book III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckes, William; Fulkerson, Dan

    Designed to present theory as a functional aspect, this air conditioning and refrigeration curriculum guide is comprised of nine units of instruction. Unit titles include (1) Job Orientation, (2) Applying for a Job, (3) Customer Relations, (4) Business Management, (5) Psychometrics, (6) Residential Heat Loss and Heat Gain, (7) Duct Design and…

  1. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wantiez, Gary W.

    Designed to provide students with the basic skills for an occupation in air conditioning and refrigeration, this curriculum guide includes seven major areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction. These areas and their respective units are titled as follows: Orientation (history and development, and job opportunities), Safety…

  2. Air Transport and Travel Industry Training Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Training Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Seeing its role as one of stimulating, guiding, and coordinating training activities rather than providing central training facilities, three programs have been developed by the Air Transport and Travel Industry Training Board: (1) an occupational program, (2) a company program, and (3) an industry program. (MW)

  3. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wantiez, Gary W.

    This curriculum guide (book II), along with book I, is designed to provide students with the basic skills for an occupation in air conditioning and refrigeration. Six major areas are included, each consisting of one or more units of instruction. These areas and their respective units are titled as follows: Electricity (fundamentals of electricity,…

  4. Manufacturing Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    This guide provides the basic foundation to develop a one-semester course based on the cluster concept, manufacturing technology. One of a set of six guides for an industrial arts curriculum at the junior high school level, it suggests activities that allow students (1) to become familiar with and use some of the tools, materials, and processes…

  5. Katimavik Participant Information Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OPCAN, Montreal (Quebec).

    The guide provides prospective participants with an overview of Katimavik, a 9-month community volunteer service and learning program for 17- to 21-year-olds sponsored since 1977 by the Canadian Government. The guide describes the application process and computerized random selection procedures; work projects, which may range from building…

  6. User's Guide for SKETCH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgley, David R., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A user's guide for the computer program SKETCH is presented on this disk. SKETCH solves a popular problem in computer graphics-the removal of hidden lines from images of solid objects. Examples and illustrations are included in the guide. Also included is the SKETCH program, so a user can incorporate the information into a particular software system.

  7. Vocational Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrenfurth, Michael J.; Elias, John E.

    This guide provides local vocational administrators (LVAs) with information and guidelines to plan vocational programs for their school, district, or community college. The first four chapters outline a four-step planning process. They guide the LVA through (1) establishment of vocational education's place within the community's educational…

  8. Business Management Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This course guide is designed for teaching about the U.S. business system. Students are introduced to management functions and the background knowledge/skills necessary to be a successful manager. The guide contains 10 competency goals: (1) nature of U.S. business; (2) environment of business; (3) types of business ownership; (4) management…

  9. Volunteeer's Reference Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Julie; And Others

    For Postpartum Education for Parents (PEP) volunteers, this reference guide provides background information about the common concerns of parents. Extensively reviewed for accuracy and content by pediatricians, psychologists, obstetricians, nurses, and childbirth educators, the guide contains a summary discussion of the postpartum infant and…

  10. Medical Assisting Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rose

    Eight student learning guides are provided for a medical assisting program at the secondary, postsecondary, or adult level. Each learning guide is composed of these component parts: a title page that states the task, purpose, program and task numbers, estimated time, and prerequisites; an optional learning contract that includes terminal…

  11. Drafting Lab Management Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This manual was developed to guide drafting instructors and vocational supervisors in sequencing laboratory instruction and controlling the flow of work for a 2-year machine trades training program. The first part of the guide provides information on program management (program description, safety concerns, academic issues, implementation…

  12. Measurement Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College and Career Readiness and Success Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This discussion guide is part of a larger practice guide designed to help state education agencies (SEAs) define measurement goals, select college and career readiness measures and indicators designed to support those goals, and use the data gathered with those measures and indicators to make informed decisions about college and career readiness…

  13. Women's History Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthsdotter, Mary, Ed.; Eisenberg, Bonnie, Ed.

    This curriculum guide is designed to facilitate teachers' first efforts to introduce information about women in U.S. history. The guide promotes a multicultural awareness of women's history beginning with the Native Americans and proceeding to current issues of diversity. Activities are divided for grades 1-6 and 7-12 but may be adapted as…

  14. Livestock. Student Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 25 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 25 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in livestock production. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-4 enabling objectives. For each enabling objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps (outline…

  15. Ecological Investigations, Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington City Board of Education, NC.

    Activities which stress ecological concepts make up the major portion of this curriculum guide. Designed as a 12 week mini-course for students in grades eight and nine, the guide first presents the course schedule, including time requirements, lists the ecological concepts to be studied, and correlates the concepts with the activities. Following…

  16. Irrigation Systems. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by licensed irrigators who wish to teach others how to design and install residential and commercial irrigation systems. The materials included in the guide have been developed under the assumption that the instructors who use it have little or no formal training as teachers. The first section presents detailed…

  17. Irrigation Systems. Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by individuals preparing for a career in commercial and residential irrigation. The materials included are geared toward students who have had some experience in the irrigation business; they are intended to be presented in 10 six-hour sessions. The first two sections deal with using this guide and preparing for the…

  18. Public Relations Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH.

    This guide was especially designed for home economists and includes 50 pages of practical ideas and examples on how to set public relations objectives, determine target audiences, work with the media, write releases' and prepare for broadcast interviews. The guide includes definitions of basic terms used in public relations, establishes guidelines…

  19. Consumer Mathematics Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    This guide for high school consumer mathematics (one in a set of curriculum guides developed by Louisiana statewide mathematics curriculum committees) contains a course outline, performance objectives, and coordinated activities designed to teach skills that students will need as citizens and consumers. Background on the development,…

  20. Personal Finance Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Education, Salem.

    The guide was developed to aid teachers in planning and developing programs in personal finance education which will prepare students to function as intelligent consumers. Three case studies illustrating common consumer problems are followed by the body of the guide, focusing on five major topics and incorporating economic, social, and physical…

  1. Medical Assisting Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a medical assisting program. The program guide is designed to relate primarily to the development of those skills needed by individuals in the medical assisting field, such as medical law and ethics, typing,…

  2. Radiologic Technology Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a radiologic technology program. The guide contains four major sections. The General Information section contains an introduction giving an overview and defining purpose and objectives; a program description,…

  3. Native Americans: Subject Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanni, Mimmo; Etter, Patricia A.

    This annotated subject guide lists reference material that deals with Native Americans and is available in the Arizona State University Libraries. Entries were published 1933-98, but mostly in the 1980s-90s. The guide is not comprehensive, but rather a selective list of resources useful for researching a topic in a variety of fields. The guide…

  4. Geology 12. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This publication, developed by the Ministry of Education, Province of British Columbia, Canada, is a teaching guide for the Geology 12 course. The course is intended to provide secondary school students with the background and desire to investigate their earth, its materials and its processes. The guide consists of the following four sections: (1)…

  5. Primary Art Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton Unified School District 373, KS.

    GRADES OR AGES: Primary Grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Art. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide begins with a list of topics for art expression. The main body of the guide contains 15 color-coded sections on the following subjects: 1) mobiles and folded paper; 2) collage and photo montage; 3) square paper and mosaics; 4) wax paper and…

  6. Hospitality Services. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This guide, which was developed as part of Texas' home economics education program, is intended to assist teachers of a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The first 40% of the approximately 600-page guide consists of strategies for teaching each of 29 essential…

  7. Nutrition Activities Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…

  8. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS LABORATORY GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR AN 80-HOUR COURSE IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY FOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES TRAINING TO BECOME BEGINNING RADIOGRAPHERS. IT IS USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH TWO OTHER VOLUMES--(1) INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE, AND (2) INUDSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY MANUAL. THE PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF REPRESENTATIVES…

  9. Library Automation Style Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  10. Marketing Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide a common core of competencies from which to design an effective secondary marketing education program. Introductory materials include a definition of marketing education, objectives, outline of instructional content, and questions and answers regarding the curriculum guide. These practical materials are…

  11. Recycling Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallowell, Anne; And Others

    This study guide was designed to help teachers and students understand the problems surrounding solid wastes. It includes an overview of solid waste and recycling, a glossary, suggested activities and a list of resource publications, audiovisual materials and organizations. There are 19 activity suggestions included in this guide designed for use…

  12. Instructional Guide for Cosmetology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    Intended as a tool for cosmetology teachers in Virginia public and private schools, the document is an instructional guide which offers 12 units of study, arranged in a three year course. Materials covered help prepare students for licensure in the State of Virginia and the guide is designed to cover the 1,500 hours required to be spent in the…

  13. Curriculum Guide for Metals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Education, Salem. Div. of Community Colleges and Career Education.

    Developed through a cooperative effort by industry and education, this curriculum guide outlines the basic skills and knowledge necessary for entry-level competencies in the broad field of metals, or for entrance into an apprenticeship, post-high school, or university program. This guide is one of several developed for Oregon's new approach to…

  14. Oregon Trail Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The road to the U.S. West, known as the Oregon Trail, had its first real traffic in 1843 when a group of about 1000 people left Independence, Missouri and traveled west. This teacher's guide contains short descriptions of the main landmarks and stopping points that were significant along the northwest portion of the Oregon Trail. The guide is…

  15. Conquistadors. Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Susan Booth

    This teaching guide is comprised of four interdisciplinary units dealing with the expeditions of conquistadors in the New World: (1) "Cortes and the Aztecs: Different Views of the World"; (2) "Pizarro and the Incas: The 'What Ifs?' of History"; (3) "Orellana and the Amazon: Human and Environmental Issues"; and (4) "Teaching Guide for Cabeza de…

  16. Spanish Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicklund, Jacqueline

    This guide delineates the scope and sequence of Spanish instruction in both junior and senior high schools indicating instructional goals in terms of behavioral objectives. Following a review of the Bloomington, Minnesota, school of philosophy and a discussion of the design of the foreign language behavioral objectives in the guide, the manual…

  17. Educator's Guide to Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This teaching guide was designed to implement eight teaching units based on specific events or periods in history. The learning packet was developed to give educators and students a view of the parallel growth of our country and its business and industry. The guide presents: (1) an overview of each of the teaching units; (2) guidelines for using…

  18. Soviet Arts Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

    This extensive curriculum guide was written in conjunction with the San Diego Arts Festival of Soviet Arts in 1989. It aimed to provide teachers with insights and ideas about arts in the Soviet Union before, during, and after the Arts Festival. A curriculum model is presented at the beginning of the guide to illustrate how the lessons were…

  19. Guided Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Guided learning (questioning, diagrams/analogies, modeling, coaching) was studied through critical incident interviews in five workplaces. Participation in everyday work activities was the most effective contributor to workplace learning. Organizational readiness and the efficacy of guided learning in resolving novel tasks were also important. (SK)

  20. Latin Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Agnes; Stevens, Patrick

    This guide delineates the scope and sequence of Latin instruction in levels 1-3 in terms of behavioral objectives. Following a review of the Bloomington, Minnesota, school philosophy and a discussion of the design of foreign language behavioral objectives on which the guide is based, the manual discusses expected terminal behavior in the level 1…

  1. GEOMETRY, TENTATIVE GUIDES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLIER, KATHERINE M.

    PRESENTED IS A FUSED COURSE IN PLANE, SOLID, AND COORDINATE GEOMETRY. ELEMENTARY SET THEORY, LOGIC, AND THE PRINCIPLE OF SEPARATION PROVIDE UNIFYING THREADS THROUGHOUT THE TEXT. THE TWO CURRICULUM GUIDES HAVE BEEN PREPARED FOR USE WITH TWO DIFFERENT TEXTS. EITHER CURRICULUM GUIDE MAY BE USED DEPENDING UPON THE CHOICE OF THE TEACHER AND THE NEEDS…

  2. First Business Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC. Office of Business Development.

    This guide offers first-time business persons information as well as administrative and operational techniques for one-person business enterprises that have low initial start-up costs and low operational and overhead costs. These one-person businesses can be home based or have site locations outside the home. Included in this guide is a list of…

  3. Welding. Student Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 23 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 23 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in welding. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-4 enabling objectives. For each enabling objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps (outline of student…

  4. Understanding Math - Teachers Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyks, Hollis W.; Austin, Robert J.

    The teacher's guide for the remedial text-workbook "Understanding Math" discusses instruction of the deaf student. An answer key for workbooks 1 and 2, a section with masters for transparencies to be used for games and activities and for teaching fractions, and two patterns for making geometric solids are included in the guide. For workbooks 1 and…

  5. Curriculum Guide Construction Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Ken

    As part of a model construction cluster curriculum development project, this guide was developed and implemented in the Beaverton (Oregon) School District. The curriculum guide contains 16 units covering the following topics: introduction to construction jobs; safety and first aid; blueprint readings; basic mathematics; site work; framing; roofing…

  6. Vocational Carpentry Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    The carpentry curriculum guide was developed as a basic guide to be used by instructors in formulating their own courses of study. The material is designed for use in vocational carpentry classes at grade levels 10, 11, and 12. Planned as a two-year sequence, it incorporates 1080 class hours of instruction and emphasizes light or residential type…

  7. Traffic Safety Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    This guide, intended for administrators, curriculum developers, and teachers, provides outlines and suggestions for strategies and materials needed to achieve the goals and objectives of the safety education program. The guide covers the following topics: a broad examination of the highway system; the responsibilities highway users have toward…

  8. Agriculture, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This agriculture guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. Environmental problems are present in every community where agriculture education is offered, and therefore many agriculture teachers have included some…

  9. BONES, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE WITH THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT ON "BONES.""BONES" HAS BEEN TAUGHT IN THE FOURTH GRADE AND REQUIRES FROM 10 TO 25 LESSONS, DEPENDING ON THE NUMBER OF ACTIVITIES USED. THE GUIDE DOES NOT PROVIDE DETAILED INSTRUCTION FOR CONDUCTING CLASSES, BUT RATHER SOME POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES, AND LEAVES THE DAY-TO-DAY…

  10. Electrostatically Guided Rydberg Positronium.

    PubMed

    Deller, A; Alonso, A M; Cooper, B S; Hogan, S D; Cassidy, D B

    2016-08-12

    We report experiments in which positronium (Ps) atoms were guided using inhomogeneous electric fields. Ps atoms in Rydberg-Stark states with principal quantum number n=10 and electric dipole moments up to 610 D were prepared via two-color two-photon optical excitation in the presence of a 670  V cm^{-1} electric field. The Ps atoms were created at the entrance of a 0.4 m long electrostatic quadrupole guide, and were detected at the end of the guide via annihilation gamma radiation. When the lasers were tuned to excite low-field-seeking Stark states, a fivefold increase in the number of atoms reaching the end of the guide was observed, whereas no signal was detected when high-field-seeking states were produced. The data are consistent with the calculated geometrical guide acceptance. PMID:27563960

  11. Electrostatically Guided Rydberg Positronium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deller, A.; Alonso, A. M.; Cooper, B. S.; Hogan, S. D.; Cassidy, D. B.

    2016-08-01

    We report experiments in which positronium (Ps) atoms were guided using inhomogeneous electric fields. Ps atoms in Rydberg-Stark states with principal quantum number n =10 and electric dipole moments up to 610 D were prepared via two-color two-photon optical excitation in the presence of a 670 V cm-1 electric field. The Ps atoms were created at the entrance of a 0.4 m long electrostatic quadrupole guide, and were detected at the end of the guide via annihilation gamma radiation. When the lasers were tuned to excite low-field-seeking Stark states, a fivefold increase in the number of atoms reaching the end of the guide was observed, whereas no signal was detected when high-field-seeking states were produced. The data are consistent with the calculated geometrical guide acceptance.

  12. Electrician's Helper. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, Danny

    This guide is designed to assist teacher-coordinators supervising cooperative education programs for electrician's helpers in helping students complete a set of individualized, competency-based training activities dealing with electricity and electrical circuits and equipment. The first part of the manual includes a progress chart, a study guide…

  13. Plumber's Helper. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traylor, Charles R.

    This individualized, competency-based study guide is designed to assist teacher-coordinators supervising cooperative education programs for plumber's helpers in providing students with general information for immediate reinforcement on the job and developing an understanding of the job prior to employment. A progress chart is provided to allow the…

  14. VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN SPANISH AND ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KRIPPNER, STANLEY

    A VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH IS PRESENTED. THE VALUE OF THE GUIDE RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTIONS THAT THE LEARNING OF SIMILAR WORDS IN BOTH LANGUAGES COULD CHANGE SPANISH-SPEAKING AMERICAN PUPILS' NEGATIVE ATTITUDE ABOUT ENGLISH AS WELL AS INCREASE THEIR VOCABULARY. WORDS IN THE "VELAZQUEZ SPANISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY" OF…

  15. Decisions for Living: A Guide for Personal Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, W. R., Ed.

    The guide aims to prepare students for the transition from school to earning a living and has three purposes: relevance, reference, and record keeping. The guide includes discussions and sample forms, ranging in length from 2 to 26 pages on: personal information (20 pages); individual values (5 pages); finding a job (2 pages); letters of…

  16. A Guide to the Study and Use of Military History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup, John E., Jr.; Coakley, Robert W.

    This study guide on military history is intended for use with the young officer just entering upon a military career. There are four major sections to the guide. Part one discusses the scope and value of military history, presents a perspective on military history, and examines essentials of a study program. The study of military history has both…

  17. Energy Efficiency for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.; Lay, Gary, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning. The following topics are examined: how energy conservation pays, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning,…

  18. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in eight different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: residential installer, domestic refrigeration technician, air conditioning and…

  19. Assessing value representation in animals.

    PubMed

    San-Galli, Aurore; Bouret, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Among all factors modulating our motivation to perform a given action, the ability to represent its outcome is clearly the most determining. Representation of outcomes, rewards in particular, and how they guide behavior, have sparked much research. Both practically and theoretically, understanding the relationship between the representation of outcome value and the organization of goal directed behavior implies that these two processes can be assessed independently. Most of animal studies essentially used instrumental actions as a proxy for the expected goal-value. The purpose of this article is to consider alternative measures of expected outcome value in animals, which are critical to understand the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms relating the representation of the expected outcome to the organization of the behavior oriented towards its obtention. This would be critical in the field of decision making or social interactions, where the value of multiple items must often be compared and/or shared among individuals to determine the course of actions. PMID:25092260

  20. Assessing value representation in animals.

    PubMed

    San-Galli, Aurore; Bouret, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Among all factors modulating our motivation to perform a given action, the ability to represent its outcome is clearly the most determining. Representation of outcomes, rewards in particular, and how they guide behavior, have sparked much research. Both practically and theoretically, understanding the relationship between the representation of outcome value and the organization of goal directed behavior implies that these two processes can be assessed independently. Most of animal studies essentially used instrumental actions as a proxy for the expected goal-value. The purpose of this article is to consider alternative measures of expected outcome value in animals, which are critical to understand the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms relating the representation of the expected outcome to the organization of the behavior oriented towards its obtention. This would be critical in the field of decision making or social interactions, where the value of multiple items must often be compared and/or shared among individuals to determine the course of actions.

  1. Improving Initial Assessment: Guide to Good Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knasel, Eddy; Meed, John; Rossetti, Anna; Read, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    This guide is aimed at anyone in work-based training who is responsible for learners during their first few weeks. Readers will (1) understand the value and purpose of initial assessment in key skills and Skills for Life; (2) become familiar with a range of techniques for the initial assessment; (3) plan an initial assessment system that is…

  2. Dr. Penny. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Della

    This unit, which contains a teacher's guide and student materials, is designed for students with limited acquaintance with money (Grades K-1). Activities reinforce the basic concept of recognizing a penny, counting pennies, and associating monetary value with pennies from one to ten cents. These activities include listening to a taped read-along…

  3. Health Education Instructional Guide (K-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This health education guide for the elementary grades focuses on students' acquiring information on growth and development, interacting with people and ideas, and decision making. The program enables students to acquire accurate health information and gain experiences contributing to attitudes, values, and responsible health practices. Each…

  4. Guide to the Seattle Archives Branch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Richard, Comp.

    The guide presents an overview of the textual and microfilmed records located at the Seattle Branch of the National Archives of the United States. Established in 1969, the Seattle Archives Branch is one of 11 branches which preserve and make available for research those U.S. Government records of permanent value created and maintained by Federal…

  5. Long Island Sound Curricular Resource Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Diana, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Long Island Sound is an estuary of national significance and provides important economic, recreational, and aesthetic value to the citizens of Connecticut and New York. Investigations have been conducted regarding living marine resources and nutrient loading. However, Long Island Sound is often overlooked as an educational resource. This guide is…

  6. 1996 Buyer`s Guide

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Buyer`s Guide consists of two sections: a list of vendors by category and an alphabetical list of vendors. The type of equipment and services include: air compressors, air conditioning, gas analysis, pipe anchors, anodes, gas appliances, augers, backhoes, pipe bending machines, billing systems, bits, blasting equipment, gas boilers, boring equipment, gas burners, calorimeters, well casings, cathodic protection equipment and surveys, coating machines, coatings, cogeneration equipment, gas heaters, communications equipment, compactors, compressor stations, computer software, flow computers, portable computers, connectors, consulting services, control equipment, cooling systems, corrosion control systems, couplings, cranes, cutting tools, data acquisition systems, dehydration equipment, gas detectors, drilling machines, engine controls and monitors, engineering services, diesel engines, gas engines, excavators, filters, financial services, fireplace equipment, pipe fittings, flanges, flowmeters, food services, fork lifts, gas furnaces, gas exploration, gas marketing services, gas processing, gas production, gas storage, gas transmission, electric generators, heat exchangers, heating systems, hydrostatic testing services, information systems, instruments, insulation, insurance, expansion joints, leak detectors, legal services, lightning protection, lubricants, meter reading services, meter sets, gas meters, NGV equipment, nondestructive test equipment, odorants, offshore drilling, pigs, pipes, pipe maintenance services, pressure relief valves, pressure vessels, pumps, recording equipment, regulators, risers, safety equipment, gas scrubbers, sealants, security systems, separators, SCADA equipment, survey instruments, tanks, telemetering equipment, tractors, training, trenching equipment, gas turbines, underwater tools, valve actuators, valves, vibration analyzers, gas water heaters, weld inspection, welding equipment, and wires and cables.

  7. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  8. Guide for SDEC Set up

    SciTech Connect

    Bibby, R; Guthrie, E

    2009-01-30

    The instrument has four collection vials that must be filled with ethylene glycol before operation. Each of the four vials should be labeled 1 through 4 and the empty weights recorded. Fill each vial with 80 mL of ethylene glycol and record the weight again. In order for the instrument to operate properly, the collection vials should always have less than 160 mL of total liquid in them. After completing a sample run, remove the collection vials, use a transfer pipette to remove any liquid that might still be on the air paddler, wipe off any condensation from the exterior of the collection vial and record weight. From the instrument, record the ending volume and the time of operation. The solution mixed in the scintillation vial will be 2 ml of a 95% to 50% ethylene glycol to water mixture. To determine the efficiency of counting at all of these concentrations, a series of vials should be set up that consist of 18 ml of Ultima Gold LLT cocktail mixed with standard, regular deionized water and ethylene glycol. The efficiency curve should be counted in the 'Low Level' count mode with the Luminescence Correction ON and the Color Quench Correction ON. Once the tSIE values are determined, chart the cpm against the tSIE numbers and find the best fit for the data. The resulting equation is to be used to converting tSIE values from the collection vials to efficiency. To determine the background cpm value of the ethylene glycol, count a 2 ml sample of ethylene glycol with 18 ml of Ultima Gold for 100 minutes. To determine the total activity of the sample, take two 2 ml aliquots of sample from the first vial and place in separate scintillation vials. Record the weight of each aliquot. Determine the percentage of total sample each aliquot represents by dividing the aliquot weight by the total solution weight from the vial. Also, determine the percentage of ethylene glycol in the sample by dividing the initial solution weight by the final solution weight and multiplying by 100

  9. Teaching American Indian History: An Interdisciplinary Approach. (A Curriculum Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vantine, Larry

    Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach, anthropological and historical, this curriculum guide provides activities and instructional objectives which are "value-oriented". Emphasis is on Indian values, their cultural relativity, and their comparison with Euro-American concepts. An inventory of the values held by both groups allows the student to…

  10. EERE Peer Review Guide

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    The primary purpose of this guide is to provide managers and staff guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE RD3 and supporting business administration programs, both retrospective and prospective.

  11. Operator Certification Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Water Works Association, Denver, CO.

    This study guide contains typical questions and answers that all levels of water treatment plant operators might expect to find on a certification examination. The manual covers the basic sciences, treatment techniques, testing procedures, and federal legislation. (Author/SB)

  12. Guided Inquiry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, J. B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Advocates the use of discovery or guided inquiry experiments for developing critical thinking in problem solving. Provides a stepwise method for creating inquiry experiments and provides an example by comparing the two methods for a freezing point experiment. (JM)

  13. The Saturn Educator Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, C. A.; Throop, H. B.

    1998-09-01

    NASA's Cassini Mission to Saturn is the most ambitious deep space mission ever. Its 4-year scientific tour of Saturn, its majestic rings, and its 18 presently known moons will reveal new beauty, richness and insights on behalf of all humankind. This presentation introduces the inquiry-based lessons from the innovative Saturn Educator Guide, appropriate for grades 5-8. The Guide is the product of a collaborative venture among teachers, scientists, engineers, and education researchers. The Guide offers opportunities to explore Saturn as a system, and the Cassini robotic spacecraft as an extension of human senses. There are also unique lessons on the history of science, science as a human endeavor, and science in social and personal perspectives. The Guide highlights the interconnections between Saturn and other areas of human endeavor (art, language, history and mythology). This distinctive blend will enable a grander diversity of learners to share and benefit from the excitement of Cassini mission discoveries.

  14. Low turbulence rod guide

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, E.L.

    1992-05-26

    This patent describes an improved sucker rod guide for fixedly engaging around a sucker rod at a selected location along the length of the rod. It comprises a substantially cylindrical polymeric body having a longitudinal axis, a terminal end substantially continually tapered to the rod, a radially-inward surface and a radially outward surface, the radially inward surface of the body adjacent to and in tripping engagement with the rod when the rod guide is fixedly engaged around the rod; and a plurality of substantially continuous, longitudinal vanes carried by the body, a vane having a selected length and width, and longitudinally disposed along the radially outward surface of the guide body, extending radially away from the guide body and having a radially outside wear surface.

  15. EPA QUICK REFERENCE GUIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Quick Reference Guides are compilations of information on chemical and biological terrorist agents. The information is presented in consistent format and includes agent characteristics, release scenarios, health and safety data, real-time field detection, effect levels, samp...

  16. Guide to Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-11

    This guide examines new methods of enclosure designs that provide high thermal performance and long-term durability but also take opportunities to reduce material use, simplify or integrate systems and details, and potentially reduce overall initial costs of construction.

  17. [Effect of air humidity on traditional Chinese medicine extract of spray drying process and prediction of its powder stability].

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Xie, Yin; Zheng, Long-jin; Liu, Wei; Rao, Xiao-yong; Luo, Xiao-jian

    2015-02-01

    In order to solve the adhesion and the softening problems of traditional Chinese medicine extract during spray drying, a new method of adding dehumidified air into spray drying process was proposed, and the storage stability conditions of extract powder could be predicted. Kouyanqing extract was taken as model drug to investigate on the wet air (RH = 70%) and dry air conditions of spray drying. Under the dry air condition, the influence of the spray drying result with different air compression ratio and the spray-dried powder properties (extract powder recovery rate, adhesion percentage, water content, angle of repose, compression ratio, particle size and distribution) with 100, 110, 120, 130, 140 °C inlet temperature were studied. The hygroscopic investigation and Tg value with different moisture content of ideal powder were determined. The water activity-equilibrium moisture content (aw-EMC) and the equilibrium moisture content-Tg (EMC-Tg) relationships were fitted by GAB equation and Gordon-Taylor model respectively, and the state diagram of kouyanqing powder was obtained to guide the rational storage conditions. The study found that in the condition of dry air, the extract powder water content decreased with the increase of air compression ratio and the spray drying effect with air compression ratio of 100% was the best performance; in the condition of wet air, the extract powder with high water content and low yield, and the value were 4.26% and 16.73 °C, while, in the dry air condition the values were 2.43% and 24.86 °C with the same other instru- ment parameters. From the analysis of kouyanqing powder state diagram, in order to keep the stability, the critical water content of 3.42% and the critical water content of 0.188. As the water decreased Tg value of extract powder is the major problem of causing adhesion and softening during spray drying, it is meaningful to aid dehumidified air during the process. PMID:26084164

  18. The Science Manager's Guide to Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Kristi M.; Peffers, Melissa S.; Ruegg, Rosalie T.; Vallario, Robert W.

    2001-09-24

    This guide takes the science manager through the steps of planning, implementing, validating, communicating, and using case studies. It outlines the major methods of analysis, describing their relative merits and applicability while providing relevant examples and sources of additional information. Well-designed case studies can provide a combination of rich qualitative and quantitative information, offering valuable insights into the nature, outputs, and longer-term impacts of the research. An objective, systematic, and credible approach to the evaluation of U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science programs adds value to the research process and is the subject of this guide.

  19. Wind Energy Teachers Guide

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-01-01

    This guide, created by the American Wind Association, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, is a learning tool about wind energy targeted toward grades K-12. The guide provides teacher information, ideas for sparking children's and students' interest, suggestions for activities to undertake in and outside the classroom, and research tools for both teachers and students. Also included is an additional resources section.

  20. VOLTTRON: User Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Akyol, Bora A.; Tenney, Nathan D.; Haack, Jereme N.; Monson, Kyle E.; Carpenter, Brandon J.

    2014-04-24

    This document is a user guide for the deployment of the Transactional Network platform and agent/application development within the VOLTTRON. The intent of this user guide is to provide a description of the functionality of the Transactional Network Platform. This document describes how to deploy the platform, including installation, use, guidance, and limitations. It also describes how additional features can be added to enhance its current functionality.

  1. Guide for a typewriter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubois, R. D.; Pinson, G. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to accessories for typewriters, and more particularly to an improved guide for use in aligning a sheet of paper preparatory to an application of typed indicia to selected spaces. The device includes an aligning plate pivotally mounted on a line guide having formed therein a plurality of aligned apertures. The plate is so positioned that an aperture is positioned immediately above a target area for a type slug so that a slug will imprint a character in selected spaces.

  2. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This security guide of the Department of Energy covers contractor and subcontractor access to DOE and Mound facilities. The topics of the security guide include responsibilities, physical barriers, personnel identification system, personnel and vehicular access controls, classified document control, protecting classified matter in use, storing classified matter repository combinations, violations, security education clearance terminations, security infractions, classified information nondisclosure agreement, personnel security clearances, visitor control, travel to communist-controlled or sensitive countries, shipment security, and surreptitious listening devices.

  3. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  4. Control system design guide

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  5. Radiological design guide

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.A.

    1994-08-16

    The purpose of this design guide is to provide radiological safety requirements, standards, and information necessary for designing facilities that will operate without unacceptable risk to personnel, the public, or the environment as required by the US Department of Energy (DOE). This design guide, together with WHC-CM-4-29, Nuclear Criticality Safety, WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis, and WHC-CM-7-5, Environmental Compliance, covers the radiation safety design requirements at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This design guide applies to the design of all new facilities. The WHC organization with line responsibility for design shall determine to what extent this design guide shall apply to the modifications to existing facilities. In making this determination, consideration shall include a cost versus benefit study. Specifically, facilities that store, handle, or process radioactive materials will be covered. This design guide replaces WHC-CM-4-9 and is designated a living document. This design guide is intended for design purposes only. Design criteria are different from operational criteria and often more stringent. Criteria that might be acceptable for operations might not be adequate for design.

  6. Use of DAC-Hours for Radiation Work Permit Suspension Guides and Validation of Respiratory Equipment Selection at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hadlock, D.J.

    2003-10-30

    Historically, the Savannah River Site, like many Department of Energy sites, has used some multiple of the expected Derived Air Concentration (DAC) of a radionuclide as a suspension guide for Radiological Work Permits (RWP) or validation of selected respiratory protection equipment. The term DAC expresses the concentration of a radionuclide in air, typically in mCi/cc. Even though the term DAC is derived from an intake of radioactivity (Annual Limit on Intake) that would result in defined estimated dose to a worker, knowing only the DAC value does not allow a worker's potential dose to be determined. Recently, the Savannah Rive Site has converted to the use of DAC-hours for RWP suspension guides and respiratory equipment validation. The term DAC-hr takes into account not only the concentration of the radionuclide in air (DAC) but also the time the individual was exposed allowing an estimate of a worker's dose to be determined. The conversion to DAC-hrs resulted in four benefits to the radiation protection program without increasing the risk to workers; (1) consistency with the constant air monitor (CAM) alarm setpoint protocol; (2) consistency with Internal Dosimetry terminology; (3) an a priori determination of the potential risk to a worker; and (4) reduced complexity/error in field calculations. This paper outlines the justification for the conversion to DAC-hrs, the protocols used for field and count room calculations, and the implementation process utilized at the Savannah River Site

  7. Keytag It: An Exploration of a Creative and Customizable Research Guide Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseberry, Martha; Peacemaker, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    The research guide is a common tool librarians use to communicate with and instruct their audiences. Despite their prevalence and value to users, research guides remain underused. There are many examples of efforts encouraging guide use, but few studies have measured the effectiveness of that promotion. Academic Outreach librarians at Virginia…

  8. Tornadoes: Nature's Most Violent Storms. A Preparedness Guide Including Safety Information for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

    This preparedness guide explains and describes tornadoes, and includes safety information for schools. A tornado is defined as a violently rotating column of air extending from a thunderstorm to the ground. The guide explains the cause of tornadoes, provides diagrams of how they form, describes variations of tornadoes, and classifies tornadoes by…

  9. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 14 - HVAC. A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Hand, James R.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-08-01

    This guide, which is part of a series of Best Practices guides produced by DOE’s Building America program, describes ways homeowners can reduce their energy costs and improve the comfort, health, and safety of their homes by upgrading their heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment.

  10. Environmental assessment and management (TEAM) guide. Louisiana supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Rouke, C.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental assessments help determine compliance with current environmental regulations. The U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, Defense Logistics Agency, and Corps of Engineers (Civil Works) have adopted environmental compliance programs that identify compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Since 1984, the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL), in cooperation with numerous Department of Defense (DoD) components, have developed environmental compliance assessment checklist manuals. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide was developed for use by all DoD Components. Currently there are five participating DoD Components: the Air Force, Air National Guard, Army, Civil Works, and Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). These agencies have agreed to share the development and maintenance of this Guide. The Guide combines Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) and management practices (MPs) into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and the specific operations or items to review. TEAM Guide is supplemented by DoD component-specific manuals detailing DoD component regulations and policies. The Louisiana Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the TEAM Guide, using existing Louisiana state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices.

  11. Environment assessment and management (team) guide - Mississippi supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Rourke, C.; Twait, S.

    1995-03-01

    Environmental assessments help determine compliance with current environmental regulations. The U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, Defense Logistics Agency, and Corps of Engineers (Civil Works) have adopted environmental compliance programs that identify compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since 1984, the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL), in cooperation with numerous Department of Defense (DOD) components, has developed environmental compliance assessment checklist manuals. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide was developed for use by all DOD Components. Currently there are five participating DOD Components: the Air Force, Air National Guard, Army, Civil Works, and Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). These agencies have agreed to share the development and maintenance of this Guide. The Guide combines Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) and management practices (MPs) into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and the specific operations or items to review. TEAM Guide is supplemented by DOD component-specific manuals detailing DOD component regulations and policies. The Mississippi Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the TEAM Guide, using existing Mississippi state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices.

  12. Environmental assessment and management (TEAM) guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, D.K.; Schell, D.J.

    1994-11-01

    Environmental assessments help determine compliance with current environmental regulations. The U.S. Air Force, U. S. Army, Defense Logistic Agency, and Crops of Engineers (Civil Works) have programs that identify compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Since 1984, the U. S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL), in cooperation with Department of Defense (DOD) components, has developed environmental compliance assessment checklist manuals. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide was developed for use by all DOD components. Currently there are several participating components: the Air Force, Air Force National Guard, Army, Army National Guard, Army Reserves, Civil Works, and the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). These agencies have agreed to share the development and maintenance of this guide. This guide combines Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) and management practices (MPs) into checklists that show legal requirements and the specific operations or items to review. The TEAM Guide is supplemented by DOD component-specific manuals detailing regulations and policies. The TEAM Guide is an update, revision, and replacement of the current U.S. ECAMP, U.S. ECAS, and DLA compliance assessment checklist manuals and will be continually updated with new compliance laws and regulations.

  13. The environmental assessment and management (TEAM) guide, Idaho supplement

    SciTech Connect

    O`Rouke, C.

    1998-04-01

    Environmental assessments help determine compliance with current environmental regulations. The US Air Force, US Army, Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), and Corps of Engineers (Civil Works) have adopted environmental compliance programs that identify compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Since 1984, the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories, in cooperation with numerous Department of Defense (DOD) components, has developed environmental compliance assessment checklist manuals. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide was developed for use by all DOD components. Currently there are five participating DOD components: the Air Force, Air National Guard, Army, Civil Works, and DLA. These agencies have agreed to share the development and maintenance of this Guide. The Guide combines Code of Federal Regulations and management practices into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and the specific operations or items to review. TEAM Guide is supplemented by DOD component-specific manuals detailing DOD component regulations and policies. The Idaho Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the TEAM Guide, using existing Idaho state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices.

  14. Marketing and Society. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Robert S.; Blake, Rowland S.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course entitled "Marketing and Society." The study guide is intended for use by students in conjunction with a related textbook, a workbook, a review guide, and a series of instructional tape casettes. The study guide contains a brief introductory section…

  15. DAB user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trosin, J.

    1985-01-01

    Use of the Display AButments (DAB) which plots PAN AIR geometries is presented. The DAB program creates hidden line displays of PAN AIR geometries and labels specified geometry components, such as abutments, networks, and network edges. It is used to alleviate the very time consuming and error prone abutment list checking phase of developing a valid PAN AIR geometry, and therefore represents a valuable tool for debugging complex PAN AIR geometry definitions. DAB is written in FORTRAN 77 and runs on a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 11/780 under VMS. It utilizes a special color version of the SKETCH hidden line analysis routine.

  16. Military Career Guide: Employment and Training Opportunities in the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Military Entrance Processing Command (DOD), North Chicago, IL.

    This copiously illustrated guide is a single reference source for the diverse employment and training opportunities in the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. It is divided into two major sections. The first section contains descriptions of 134 enlisted military occupations and provides information regarding the aptitudes needed…

  17. Best Practices Guide for Energy-Efficient Data Center Design

    SciTech Connect

    O. VanGeet: NREL

    2010-02-24

    This guide provides an overview of best practices for energy-efficient data center design which spans the categories of Information Technology (IT) systems and their environmental conditions, data center air management, cooling and electrical systems, on-site generation, and heat recovery.

  18. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. February 1-28, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner Educational Services, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of February, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics include: United States lobbies for support for possible air strike against Iraq,…

  19. Guide to Special Information in Scientific and Engineering Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary Elizabeth

    This annotated bibliography lists 203 special features or special issues of science and technology periodicals with emphasis on compilations of information that appear in periodicals on a regular basis. Subjects covered in the guide include aeronautics, air-conditioning and refrigeration engineering, astronomy, automobiles, biology, botany,…

  20. SOUTH CAROLINA SCHOOL FACILITIES PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCELVEEN, W. POWERS

    THIS GUIDE PRESENTS A SET OF REGULATIONS FOR PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTING PUBLIC SCHOOL BUILDINGS. THE AREAS COVERED ARE--(1) DRAWING REQUIREMENTS, (2) POLICIES GOVERNING SCHOOL SITES, MINIMUM FACILITIES, AND SPACE ALLOWANCE, (3) DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS RELATING TO HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING, AND VENTILATION, (4) ELECTRICAL, INCLUDING…

  1. Clean-air video will interest MDs who treat patients with allergies, respiratory problems.

    PubMed

    Rafuse, J

    1996-03-15

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation wants physicians to help raise public awareness abut the importance of indoor air quality to health. Physicians across Canada are being sent a colourful poster that calls attention to indoor air pollution and ways to make a home healthier, included are order forms for the Clean Air Guide and a companion video, This Clean House. PMID:8634972

  2. 77 FR 59023 - Preoperational Testing of Instrument and Control Air Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... COMMISSION Preoperational Testing of Instrument and Control Air Systems AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Control Air Systems.'' This regulatory guide is being revised to address new issues that have been raised since RG 1.68.3 was first issued. These include vibration testing of instrument and control air...

  3. Arkansas Solar Retrofit Guide. Greenhouses, Air Heaters and Water Heaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skiles, Albert; Rose, Mary Jo

    Solar retrofits are devices of structures designed to be attached to existing buildings to augment their existing heating sources with solar energy. An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is the subject of this report. Following an introduction (section 1), section 2 focuses on…

  4. Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division of Federal Occupational Health Office of Environmental Hygiene, Region III, Room 1310 3535 Market St., Philadelphia, ... NW Washington, DC 20405 Tennesee Valley Authority Industrial Hygiene Branch Multipurpose Building (1-B) Muscle Shoals, AL ...

  5. Risk Assessment for Toxic Air Pollutants: A Citizen's Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the source(s). Engineers use either monitors or computer models to estimate the amount of pollutant released ... measure how much of the pollutant is present. Computer models use mathematical equations that represent the processes ...

  6. Exploration of Values: Israeli Teachers' Professional Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Yael

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore Israeli teachers' professional ethics and values using the Facet Theory (Guttman in Psychmetrika 33:469-506, 1968). Since Israel does not have a teachers' code of ethics, such exploration can be a basis for constructing one. The study is mainly exploratory, and the main hypotheses that guided the study…

  7. A Short Take on Shared Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Margaret B.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an excerpt from the author's address to Schoolcraft College (Michigan). Speaks about the importance of guiding students and ourselves to examine ethical choices. Asserts that personal core values--such as truth, fairness, love, responsibility, and respect for diversity--should be nurtured and that they help determine whether a legally…

  8. Using Values to Identify Program Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest, Laverne B.

    1973-01-01

    Seven value-type catergories which can be used in guiding a programing situation analysis are social-psychological, economic, physiological and health, socio-political, education, environment and natural resources, and ecological relationships. These categories are related to seven basic questions in a matrix model to determine program needs. (MS)

  9. Science, Technology, & Human Values. Issue No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelanski, Vivien B., Ed.; La Follette, Marcel C., Ed.

    This issue contains articles on the recombinant DNA controversy, the ethical principles of scientific institutions, and the effect of disaster novels on public opinion and technology assessment, as well as a guide to funding for science, technology and values projects, and a bibliography on professional ethics. In addition, 14 pages of news items…

  10. Value Priorities of Human Resource Development Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Reid; Chen, Hsin-Chih

    2005-01-01

    This descriptive exploratory study sought to assess the values priorities of individuals and groups across various HRD occupational specialties. Findings showed that, in general, respondents felt the most important guides to the practice of HRD should be those emphasizing performance-related outcomes. However, results also showed meaningful…

  11. Commonalities in Values among Mental Health Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consoli, Andres J.; Williams, Laurie M.

    1999-01-01

    Mental-health counselors (N=161) from Buenos Aires, Argentina, who ascribed to distinct theoretical orientations were surveyed with regard to their personal and mental-health values. This study provides further empirical input on what the values commonalities are even among counselors who profess distinct theoretical orientations and have a…

  12. Reviews Book: At Home: A Short History of Private Life Book: The Story of Mathematics Book: Time Travel: A Writer's Guide to the Real Science of Plausible Time Travel Equipment: Rotational Inertial Wands DVD: Planets Book: The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning Equipment: Scale with Dial Equipment: Infrared Thermometers Book: 300 Science and History Projects Book: The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air Equipment: Red Tide Spectrometer Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND The Story of Mathematics Book shows the link between maths and physics Time Travel: A Writer's Guide to the Real Science of Plausible Time Travel Book explains how to write good time-travelling science fiction Rotational Inertial Wands Wands can help explore the theory of inertia Infrared Thermometers Kit measures temperature differences Red Tide Spectrometer Spectrometer gives colour spectra WORTH A LOOK At Home: A Short History of Private Life Bryson explores the history of home life The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning Book wades into the science/religion debate Scale with Dial Cheap scales can be turned into Newton measuring scales 300 Science History Projects Fun science projects for kids to enjoy The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air Text looks at fascinating optical effects HANDLE WITH CARE Planets DVD takes a trip through the solar system WEB WATCH Websites offer representations of nuclear chain reactions

  13. A Guide to Two Cultures American...[and] a Guide to Two Cultures Indochinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Security Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC. Office of Family Assistance.

    Written for the Indochinese adult immigrant and the American sponsor, friend, or teacher, the document describes the cultures both in English and Vietnamese. The first part is a guide to the American culture. It explains American characteristics that may seem puzzling to a foreigner: the value placed on achievement and hard work, the highly…

  14. The role of Aire in clonal selection.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Ruth T; Anderson, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    In his clonal selection theory, Frank Macfarlane Burnet predicted that autoreactive lymphocytes are deleted to prevent autoimmunity. This and other principles of lymphocyte behavior outlined by Burnet guided many studies that lead to our current understanding of thymic selection. Thus, when the genetic mutation responsible for autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 was mapped to the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, and Aire was found to be highly expressed in thymic epithelium, studying the role of Aire in negative selection made sense in the context of modern models of thymic selection. We now know Aire is a transcription factor required for the expression of many tissue-specific antigens (TSAs) in the thymus. In the absence of functional Aire, human patients and mice develop multi-organ autoimmune disease because of a defect in thymic negative selection. In addition to its role in the thymus, recent work in our lab suggests that extrathymic Aire-expressing cells have an important role in the clonal deletion of autoreactive CD8+ T cells. In this review, we summarize the latest studies on thymic and peripheral Aire-expressing cells, as well as other TSA-expressing stromal cell populations in peripheral lymphoid organs. We also discuss theoretical differences in thymic and peripheral Aire function that warrant further studies.

  15. Sucker rod guide

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.J.; Starks, J.A.

    1989-08-22

    This patent describes a sucker rod guide for mounting on a sucker rod and spacing the sucker rod from the tubing in an oil well. The guide comprising a generally cylindrically-shaped, extruded, ultra-high density polyethylene body having a substantially smooth outside surface; a longitudinal bore provided centrally of the body. The bore having a smaller diameter than the diameter of the sucker rod; a plurality of grooves provided in circumferential relationship in the bore; and a tapered slot extending longitudinally through the body from the outside surface to the bore. The tapered slot further comprising a slot mouth located at the outside surface and a slot throat spaced from the slot mouth. The slot throat lying adjacent to the sucker rod bore and wherein the slot throat is wider than the slot mouth for mounting the sucker rod guide on the sucker rod.

  16. Materials Performance buyers guide

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The MP Buyers Guide is an exclusive directory of manufacturers, suppliers, and consultants providing products and services for the prevention and control of corrosion. The Guide is divided into three primary directories: Company Directory, Product Directory, and Trade Name Directory. The Guide also contains a NACE Resource Directory. The index of products and services provides an extensive index of manufacturers, suppliers, and consultants, listed according to specific product categories. The index of suppliers, manufacturers, and consultants contains a detailed alphabetical list of more than 900 manufacturers, suppliers, and consultants providing products and services for corrosion prevention and control. Included are each company`s name, address, contact name, phone number, fax number, email address, branch offices, and a brief description of their products and services. The index of product names is an alphabetical listing of product trade names cross-referenced to the manufacturer, supplier, or consultant.

  17. The Value System--A False Prophet for Intercultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holladay, Howard P.

    The author questions the applicability of a value-system-contrast approach to intercultural communication. His two main reservations involve the deprivation and validity of value sets themselves and the potential dangers encounterable in using values as a guide to intercultural communication. Firstly, the non-scientific methods employed in…

  18. Synthetic guide star generation

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Page, Ralph H.; Ebbers, Christopher A.; Beach, Raymond J.

    2004-03-09

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  19. Synthetic guide star generation

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  20. Manifold tool guide

    DOEpatents

    Djordjevic, A.

    1982-07-08

    A tool guide that makes possible the insertion of cleaning and/or inspection tools into a manifold pipe that will dislocate and extract the accumulated sediment in such manifold pipes. The tool guide basically comprises a right angled tube (or other angled tube as required) which can be inserted in a large tube and locked into a radially extending cross pipe by adjustable spacer rods and a spring-loaded cone, whereby appropriate cleaning tools can be inserted into to cross pipe for cleaning, inspection, etc.

  1. Manifold tool guide

    DOEpatents

    Djordjevic, A.

    1983-12-27

    A tool guide is described that makes possible the insertion of cleaning and/or inspection tools into a manifold pipe that will dislocate and extract the accumulated sediment in such manifold pipes. The tool guide basically comprises a right angled tube (or other angled tube as required) which can be inserted in a large tube and locked into a radially extending cross pipe by adjustable spacer rods and a spring-loaded cone, whereby appropriate cleaning tools can be inserted into the cross pipe for cleaning, inspection, etc. 3 figs.

  2. Manifold tool guide

    DOEpatents

    Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    1983-12-27

    A tool guide that makes possible the insertion of cleaning and/or inspection tools into a manifold pipe that will dislocate and extract the accumulated sediment in such manifold pipes. The tool guide basically comprises a right angled tube (or other angled tube as required) which can be inserted in a large tube and locked into a radially extending cross pipe by adjustable spacer rods and a spring-loaded cone, whereby appropriate cleaning tools can be inserted into to cross pipe for cleaning, inspection, etc.

  3. Seismic Safety Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Eagling, D.G.

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls.

  4. Physical modeling of air flow during air sparging remediation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liming; Wu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yan; Meegoda, Jay N; Gao, Shengyan

    2010-05-15

    Air sparging (AS) is one of the most efficient techniques for remediating saturated soils and groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds. A series of physical modeling tests for different sizes of porous media under varied injection pressure were conducted to investigate the effect of particle size and air injection pressure on size and shape of the zone of influence (ZOI). The test results show that ZOI can be expressed by two components: the horizontal expansion due to pneumatic fracture or preferential intrusion around the injection point and the angle of ZOI which is the angle between the vertical line and the boundary of ZOI. There exists a limited angle of ZOI for each type of porous media. The measured minimum and maximum air injection pressures in 1g tests are compared with corresponding theoretical values, and it is found that the measured minimum injection pressure is slightly lower than the theoretical value, while the measured maximum injection pressure is much higher than the theoretical maximum injection pressure. Centrifugal test results confirmed nonapplicability of theoretical maximum injection pressure to air sparging design. All of the above provide valuable information for design and theoretical modeling of air sparging for groundwater remediation.

  5. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    SciTech Connect

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  6. Air Pollution Potential from Electroplating Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Philip

    Measurements were made of emission rates from electroplating operations considered to have maximum air pollution potential. Sampling was performed at McClellan and additional data from a previous survey at Hill Air Force Base was used. Values obtained were extremely low. Based on existing Federal standards, no collectors are specifically required…

  7. Guided ionization waves: Theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X.; Naidis, G. V.; Laroussi, M.; Ostrikov, K.

    2014-07-01

    This review focuses on one of the fundamental phenomena that occur upon application of sufficiently strong electric fields to gases, namely the formation and propagation of ionization waves-streamers. The dynamics of streamers is controlled by strongly nonlinear coupling, in localized streamer tip regions, between enhanced (due to charge separation) electric field and ionization and transport of charged species in the enhanced field. Streamers appear in nature (as initial stages of sparks and lightning, as huge structures-sprites above thunderclouds), and are also found in numerous technological applications of electrical discharges. Here we discuss the fundamental physics of the guided streamer-like structures-plasma bullets which are produced in cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jets. Plasma bullets are guided ionization waves moving in a thin column of a jet of plasma forming gases (e.g., He or Ar) expanding into ambient air. In contrast to streamers in a free (unbounded) space that propagate in a stochastic manner and often branch, guided ionization waves are repetitive and highly-reproducible and propagate along the same path-the jet axis. This property of guided streamers, in comparison with streamers in a free space, enables many advanced time-resolved experimental studies of ionization waves with nanosecond precision. In particular, experimental studies on manipulation of streamers by external electric fields and streamer interactions are critically examined. This review also introduces the basic theories and recent advances on the experimental and computational studies of guided streamers, in particular related to the propagation dynamics of ionization waves and the various parameters of relevance to plasma streamers. This knowledge is very useful to optimize the efficacy of applications of plasma streamer discharges in various fields ranging from health care and medicine to materials science and nanotechnology.

  8. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  9. Air quality risk assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This article provides (1) a synthesis of the literature on the linkages between air pollution and human health, (2) an overview of quality management approaches in Canada, the United States, and the European Union (EU), and (3) future directions for air quality research. Numerous studies examining short-term effects of air pollution show significant associations between ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) and other air pollutants and increases in premature mortality and hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. Several well-designed epidemiological studies confirmed the adverse long-term effects of PM on both mortality and morbidity. Epidemiological studies also document significant associations between ozone (O3), sulfur (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and adverse health outcomes; however, the effects of gaseous pollutants are less well documented. Subpopulations that are more susceptible to air pollution include children, the elderly, those with cardiorespiratory disease, and socioeconomically deprived individuals. Canada-wide standards for ambient air concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 were set in 2000, providing air quality targets to be achieved by 2010. In the United States, the Clean Air Act provides the framework for the establishment and review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants and the establishment of emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants. The 1996 European Union's enactment of the Framework Directive for Air Quality established the process for setting Europe-wide limit values for a series of pollutants. The Clean Air for Europe program was established by the European Union to review existing limit values, emission ceilings, and abatement protocols, as set out in the current legislation. These initiatives serve as the legislative framework for air quality management in North America and Europe.

  10. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  11. Citizen's Guide to Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This guide provides suggestions on pest control and safety rules for pesticide use at home. Pest prevention may be possible by modification of pest habitat: removal of food and water sources, removal or destruction of pest shelter and breeding sites, and good horticultural practices that reduce plant stress. Nonchemical alternatives to pesticides…

  12. HAPPIER: Health Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    Based on findings of Project HAPPIER surveys and intended as a resource for health care providers and educators who serve the migrant community, this guide describes over 375 instructional materials in the areas of dental health, disease control, fitness, health promotion, human growth and development, hypertension, maternal and child care, mental…

  13. Barbering Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide presents the barbering program for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard curriculum sequence and lists of courses.…

  14. Moving? A Relocation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rackliffe, Gary; Pearson, Nancy

    This guide answers questions for high school graduates moving away from home for the first time. The question and answer format begins with reasons for moving and offers ways of finding information about a new town before leaving, meeting people, and fighting homesickness and indecision. Practical advice is presented on money management and…

  15. Solar Curriculum Guides, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seward County Community Coll., Liberal, KS.

    This document contains an outline for a curriculum to train solar energy technicians in community colleges. The guide contains eight courses, each of which is divided into one to five modules. Modules, in turn, are divided into units, and units contain student handouts appropriate to the material. The following eight courses are included in this…

  16. GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN ELEMENTARY…

  17. Elementary Science Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    This guide for elementary teachers provides information on getting ideas into action, designing and implementing the right situation, ways in which to evaluate science process activities with students, and seven sample units. The units cover using the senses, magnets, forces, weather forecasting, classification of living things, and the physical…

  18. Appliance Servicing Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide presents the standard appliance servicing technician curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard…

  19. Destination: Poland. Video Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchalski, Shirley; Legowski, Margaret

    This video guide was developed for teachers and students participating in the Peace Corps World Wise Schools program. The primary purpose of the study/video series is to enhance each class's correspondence with its Peace Corps Volunteer and help students gain a greater understanding of regions and cultures different from their own. The specific…

  20. Evolution. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bershad, Carol

    This teacher's guide was developed to assist teachers in the use of multimedia resources for the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) program, "Evolution." Each unit uses an inquiry-based approach to meet the National Science Education Standards. Units include: (1) "What is the Nature of Science?"; (2) "Who Was Charles Darwin?"; (3) "What is the…

  1. Ecology, Elementary Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Iva Helen

    In an effort to provide background information and encourage incorporation of ecological understandings into the curriculum, this teacher's guide has been devised for fourth and fifth grade teachers. It utilizes an activity-oriented approach to discovery and inquiry, outlining behavioral objectives, learning activities, teaching suggestions, and…

  2. K-12 Art Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furney, Trudy; And Others

    The development of students in various art fields is the focus of this K-12 art curriculum guide. The philosophy of the art program and the roles of administrator, teacher, and parent are outlined. The underlying school community relationships, and the objective, goals, and purposes of art education are described. Phases of child development in…

  3. Sampling. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco State Univ., CA.

    This document is the fourth of seven units developed by the Math Network Curriculum Project. Each unit, designed to be a 2-week module, is a teacher's guide which includes detailed directions along with the courseware and software needed. Teacher intervention in the non-computer activities that begin each unit is required, and the consistent use…

  4. SPACES. A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    InterAmerica Research Associates, Rosslyn, VA.

    A variety of in-class assignments are included in this guide designed to accompany SPACES, a series of six, half-hour television programs designed to introduce students in the fourth through eighth grades to people and careers in science and technology. Targeted toward Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American minority children, the series…

  5. Accounting & Computing Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avani, Nathan T.; And Others

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching a competency-based accounting and computing course that is designed to prepare students for employability in the following occupational areas: inventory control clerk, invoice clerk, payroll clerk, traffic clerk, general ledger bookkeeper, accounting clerk, account information clerk,…

  6. Masonry Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This masonry program guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a masonry program. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification;…

  7. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  8. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  9. LATIN--COURSE GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KENNEDY, DORA F.; AND OTHERS

    SECONDARY SCHOOL LATIN TEACHERS IN PRINCE GEORGE'S COUNTY, MARYLAND, COLLABORATED WITH THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE SUPERVISOR IN DEVELOPING THIS LATIN COURSE GUIDE DESIGNED TO ESTABLISH CLEARER PROGRAM OBJECTIVES, TO PRESENT BASIC CURRICULUM GUIDELINES FOR THREE LEVELS OF INSTRUCTION, AND TO ACT AS A SOURCE BOOK OF MATERIALS AND ACTIVITIES FOR PROGRAM…

  10. SOCMATICAS Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Laurence

    Instructions for use of Socmaticas, a bilingual (Spanish-English), multicultural, multidisciplinary sports learning program are given in this teacher's guide. The program is based on the use of World Soccer team rosters (which include lists of players' names, ages, heights, weights, etc.) to teach English as a second language or Spanish. Students…

  11. Diffusion Strategy Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, James R.; Sanders, John R.

    A methodology is presented for planning and managing the spread of educational innovations. The first portion of the guide develops a theoretical framework for diffusion which summarizes and capitalizes on the latest marketing and on the latest marketing and diffusion research findings. Major stages in the diffusion paradigm discussed include…

  12. ADHD: A Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Rosalyn A.

    This paper provides a brief historical outline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), its definition, its behavioral characteristics, and a guide to creating successful learning environments for these students. Diagnostic criteria for ADHD are listed and discussed, and incidence figures of 3 to 5 percent of all school-age children are…

  13. Beginner's guide to SPICE

    SciTech Connect

    Geisik, C.; Schilling, L.

    1988-07-01

    This work is intended to help a beginner learn the fundamentals of the circuit simulation program SPICE using a series of increasingly complex examples. These examples take the beginner from the most elementary circuits on up to an operational amplifier model. This work serves as a supplement to the existing SPICE documentation SPICE User's Guide. 13 figs.

  14. Management. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutnyak, Dana

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year management programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

  15. Plants Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brynildson, Inga

    This study quide is intended to provide students with information about the types and functions of plants, along with some individual learning activities. The guide contains sections about: (1) the contributions of plants to life on earth and the benefits they afford to humanity; (2) the processes of photosynthesis and respiration; (3) the flow of…

  16. Mathematics Guide, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portales Public Schools, NM.

    This curriculum guide provides aid in organizing and planning for the mathematical needs of the individual classroom. It is recommended that: (1) each teacher study the entire curriculum to become familiar with the concepts that interlock and blend all the grades together, and (2) all students with average ability master 70% of the skills. The…

  17. Visible Traces. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASIA Society, New York, NY.

    This teacher's guide is based on the exhibition, "Visible Traces: Rare Books and Special Collections from the National Library of China," a collaborative effort of the Queens Borough Public Library and the National Library of China; it links rare treasures from the National Library of China to curriculum standards. The following themes are…

  18. GLOBE Program Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    The GLOBE Program is a worldwide, hands-on educational program for elementary and secondary school students. GLOBE aims to increase student achievement in mathematics and science, awareness towards the environment, and improve science process skills through network technology. This teacher's guide provides an overview of the GLOBE program and…

  19. Health Occupations Cluster Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Intended to assist the vocational teacher in designing and implementing a cluster program in health occupations, this guide suggests ideas for teaching the specific knowledge and skills that qualify students for entry-level employment in the health occupations field. The knowledge and skills are applicable to 12 occupations: dental assistant;…

  20. Migrant Education Administrative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Compensatory Education.

    Relating specifically to the North Carolina migrant education program's administrative responsibilities, this guide is designed to aid administrators in program management, monitoring project activities, project evaluation, self-assessment, determining needs for training and staff development, site-visit preparation, policy development, and…

  1. Communities, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Science Curriculum Improvement Study.

    The Science Curriculum Improvement Study has developed this teacher's guide to "Communities," the fifth part of a six unit life science curriculum sequence. The six basic units, emphasizing organism-environment interactions, are organisms, life cycles, populations, environments, communities, and ecosystems, and make use of scientific and…

  2. Training Guide: Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan Page, Ltd., London (England).

    This British guide is designed for training officers, employers, teachers, lecturers in architecture and related professional subjects, and others concerned with training and education in the construction industry. Chapter topics are: (1) the training picture (largely dealing with program planning and financial policy under the Construction…

  3. Training Guide: Road Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan Page, Ltd., London (England).

    The third in a series of guides to British industrial training, this publication begins with a survey of training issues and tasks confronting the Road Transport Industry Training Board (RTITB). This is followed by information on RTITB policies and provisions; RTITB members, officers, and committees; apprenticeships and other training schemes;…

  4. Comp Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsberg, Sara J.; And Others

    This curriculum guide describes and gives procedures for implementing the Comp Curriculum, which is composed of objectives categorized by age (birth to 5) and domains of developmental tasks (communication, self care, motor and problem solving), for handicapped and nonhandicapped children. (The objectives themselves are listed in a separate…

  5. Cosmetology. Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Michael D.; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to offer guidelines along with supporting resources and teaching ideas from which the local secondary instructor can extract a cosmetology curriculum that meets local needs. Following an outline of the philosophy and goals underlying state and local vocational education programs in Georgia, the purpose and…

  6. Acronyms & Resource Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This guide includes the following: higher education and related associations; advocacy organizations and coalitions of interest to research universities; explanations of acronyms and terms commonly used in the university community; web links to government resources and agencies; Executive and Legislative Branch offices; and key federal…

  7. Fire Science Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Education, Salem.

    This curriculum guide, developed in cooperation with the State Advisory Committee on Fireman Training for Post-High School Preparatory Programs, summarizes the need for formal training programs in fire protection and offers guidelines for their establishment. It is also a practical handbook for the planning of fire protection curriculums and…

  8. Employer Recruitment & Orientation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs for the Future, Boston, MA.

    Work-based learning is a competency-based experience that integrates classroom instruction with structured work site experiences. Its purpose is to allow students to gain occupational and employable skills while applying and advancing their academic abilities. This guide contains strategies and resources to help educators involve the business…

  9. Jackdaws Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Judith E.; Carey, Helen H.

    This teacher's guide describes "Jackdaws"--materials that emphasize the use of primary and secondary sources in the teaching of history. A typical Jackdaws kit contains reproductions of primary and secondary source materials; broadsheets, which present detailed background information on the subject matter of the kit; and notes on the documents.…

  10. Dental Assisting Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard dental assisting curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level dental assistants, and includes job skills in the technical areas of preventive dentistry; four-handed dentistry; chairside assisting with emphasis in diagnostics,…

  11. Hydrodynamic blade guide

    DOEpatents

    Blaedel, Kenneth L.; Davis, Pete J.; Landram, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    A saw having a self-pumped hydrodynamic blade guide or bearing for retaining the saw blade in a centered position in the saw kerf (width of cut made by the saw). The hydrodynamic blade guide or bearing utilizes pockets or grooves incorporated into the sides of the blade. The saw kerf in the workpiece provides the guide or bearing stator surface. Both sides of the blade entrain cutting fluid as the blade enters the kerf in the workpiece, and the trapped fluid provides pressure between the blade and the workpiece as an inverse function of the gap between the blade surface and the workpiece surface. If the blade wanders from the center of the kerf, then one gap will increase and one gap will decrease and the consequent pressure difference between the two sides of the blade will cause the blade to re-center itself in the kerf. Saws using the hydrodynamic blade guide or bearing have particular application in slicing slabs from boules of single crystal materials, for example, as well as for cutting other difficult to saw materials such as ceramics, glass, and brittle composite materials.

  12. Russian Resource Materials Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Viveca

    This guide provides the teacher of Russian with helpful background material and activities on the geography of the Soviet Union and the history of Russia as well as its customs, traditions, literary selections, songs, foods, and festivals. In addition to these topics, the introductory chapter outlines a philosophy for teaching and learning Russian…

  13. Automotive Technology Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Idaho state curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction in automotive technology. The document begins with a list of all tasks covered by the curriculum, a short course outline, and a curriculum framework that explains major content, laboratory activities, and intended outcomes.…

  14. Health Careers Film Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower Education.

    This document, which represents a survey of the entire health career film field, was designed to provide information for people interested in a health career. The guide indicates that a major criteria for film selection was recency; however, some older films that give a fairly accurate image of a profession were included, with some emphasis given…

  15. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  16. Educators' Placement Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Phylis O.

    This guide answers some of the questions involved in obtaining employment in education and provides help in locating positions. The 11 sections are 1) trends in education staffing, including supply and demand, shortage areas, and special needs; 2) basic certification requirements, and the individual to contact in each state; 3) advice for…

  17. Personal Finance Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This guide is intended to assist curriculum planners and classroom teachers in designing and implementing personal finance instruction to meet a variety of student needs, interests, and abilities. It is organized under five concept areas: employment and income, money management, credit, purchase of goods and services, and rights and…

  18. Destination: Paraguay. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Roxanne

    This guide offers a closer look at Paraguay as a landlocked republic in the heart of South America. The activities emphasize the interaction between the people and their land and pertain to three academic levels. Activities for grades 3-5 include: (1) "Packing for Paraguay"; (2) "Where in the World Are We Going and How in the World Will We Get…

  19. Forestry. A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Ed

    The curriculum guide was developed to prepare high school students for positions as forestry aides or for enrollment in higher education forestry programs. It provides a basic core of instruction in forestry in 20 instructional units grouped according to six areas: Orientation, Related Information, Forest Measurements, Forest Ecology and…

  20. Pharmacy Technician Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Ray R.

    This Idaho state curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction designed to prepare entry-level pharmacy technicians or help already employed pharmacy technicians retain their jobs or advance in their field. Following a list of tasks and an introduction, the bulk of the document consists…