Science.gov

Sample records for air gun shots

  1. Experimental effect of shots caused by projectiles fired from air guns with kinetic energy below 17 J.

    PubMed

    Smędra-Kaźmirska, Anna; Barzdo, Maciej; Kędzierski, Maciej; Antoszczyk, Łukasz; Szram, Stefan; Berent, Jarosław

    2013-09-01

    Pursuant to the Polish Weapons and Ammunitions Law (Legal Gazette No 53/1999 item 549 with subsequent amendments), air guns with kinetic energy of the fired projectiles below 17 J are not regarded as weapons. The aim of the study was to assess the potential effect of shots caused by projectiles of various mass and structure fired from air guns with kinetic energy below 17 J on human soft tissues. As a model of soft tissue, we used 20% gelatin blocks. After shooting, we measured the depth of gelatin block penetration by pellets fired from various distances and compared these results with autopsy findings. The results demonstrated that examined pneumatic guns may cause serious injuries, including damage to the pleura, pericardium, liver, spleen, kidneys, femoral artery, and thoracic and abdominal aorta. Experiment shown that gelatin blocks do not reflect fully the properties of the human body. PMID:23919403

  2. Water gun vs air gun: A comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Detrick, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The water gun is a relatively new marine seismic sound source that produces an acoustic signal by an implosive rather than explosive mechanism. A comparison of the source characteristics of two different-sized water guns with those of conventional air guns shows the the water gun signature is cleaner and much shorter than that of a comparable-sized air gun: about 60-100 milliseconds (ms) for an 80-in3. (1.31-liter (I)) water gun compared with several hundred ms for an 80-in3. (1.31-1) air gun. The source spectra of water guns are richer in high frequencies (>200 Hz) than are those of air guns, but they also have less energy than those of air guns at low frequencies. A comparison between water gun and air gun reflection profiles in both shallow (Long Island Sound)-and deep (western Bermuda Rise)-water settings suggests that the water gun offers a good compromise between very high resolution, limited penetration systems (e.g. 3.5-kHz profilers and sparkers) and the large volume air guns and tuned air gun arrays generally used where significant penetration is required. ?? 1984 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  3. Air gun test evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Carleton, J.J. II; Fox, L.; Rudy, C.R.

    1992-01-15

    A mechanical shock testing apparatus is used for testing the response of components subject to large accelerations in hostile environments. The test acceleration is provided by the impact of a bullet against a plate on which the component to be tested is mounted. This report describes a series of experiments that were performed to determine the dependence of the air gun test apparatus performance on incremental changes in the hardware configurations, changes in the pressure used to drive the bullet, and different accelerometers. The effect of variation of these experimental factors on the measured acceleration was determined using a Taguchi screening experimental design. Experimental settings were determined that can be used to operate the tester with a measured output within acceleration specifications.

  4. Air gun pellet: cardiac penetration and peripheral embolization.

    PubMed

    Işık, Onur; Engin, Çağatay; Daylan, Ahmet; Şahutoğlu, Cengiz

    2016-05-01

    Use of high-velocity air guns can to lead to serious injuries. Management options of cardiac pellet gun injuries are based on patient stability, and course and location of the pellet. Presently reported is the case of a boy who was shot with an air gun pellet. Following right ventricular entry, the pellet lodged in the left atrium and embolized to the right iliac and femoral artery. Following pellet localization, right ventricular injury was repaired, and the pellet was removed successfully. PMID:27598599

  5. [Thoracic and abdominal and limb wounds by gun shot].

    PubMed

    Naomi, Akira; Oyamatsu, Yoshinori; Narita, Kunio; Nakayama, Masato

    2015-02-01

    In Japan, we are permitted to own fire arms only for hunting and clay pigeon shooting, but gunshot wound victims have neen rarely seen due to the strict laws against owing guns, and the lack of related crimes. Therefore, surgeons should be familiar with ballistics, practical gunshot wound management, and the possibility of delayed lead poisoning ssociated with bullet residue. A 69-year-old man was brought to our hospital because he was accidentally shot by his companion's shotgun during hunting. On admission, although he had stable vital sign and multiple gunshot wounds on his right forearm and femur, chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) revealed a few of bullets and its flagments on his back, into spleen and pericardium. Following local debridment after removal of the bullets in his right forearm and femur at an emergency room, broken heart muscle and diaphragm were repaired and hematoma in the anterior mediastinum was removed at the operating room. The patient was discharged on the 25th post-operative day and his post-operative course was uneventful. In case of gunshot injuries, in addition to prompt diagnosis and evaluation of organ injuries, careful follow up for possible delayed lead poisoning is important. PMID:25743351

  6. Air gun--a deadly toy?: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kuligod, F S; Jirli, Prasanna S; Kumar, Pradeep

    2006-04-01

    Air guns (air rifles) are used throughout the world as instruments of amusement such as toys in funfairs, for bird hunting and firearms training. In India and in many other countries, this instrument neither comes under the purview of the Arms Act, nor is there is any restriction on the user's age. This enables a person to gain access to this instrument quite easily. Sometimes serious and fatal injuries result when it is used by an ignorant person or by a criminal. There are reports which suggest that these 'toys' can cause painful injuries but only a few cases of death have been reported. There is no literature about the features of injuries that help to establish the range of fire by an air gun. Here we report a case where a boy was accidentally shot to death while watching bird shooting. We attempt to correlate the injury with the range of fire. PMID:16683474

  7. Fatal cranial shot by blank cartridge gun: two suicide cases.

    PubMed

    Buyuk, Yalcin; Cagdir, Sadi; Avsar, Abdullah; Duman, Gokce U; Melez, D Oguzhan; Sahin, Feyzi

    2009-08-01

    Blank firing pistols are generally considered to be harmless and these guns are not accepted as being firearms in most countries. Due to lack of legal regulations these guns are easily purchased by anyone aged over 18 years. Reports of serious injuries and even fatalities due to these guns are increasing in the literature. These guns when modified or even unmodified can cause serious and potentially fatal injuries. Without doing any changes to the barrel, using blank or tear gas cartridges, firing at contact range can cause penetration of gas into the body including bone originated from gun powder. We report two suicide cases shooting themselves at temporal region with a blank cartridge gun at contact range. There was no foreign body on radiological examination and there was no trajectory of a bullet inside the brain. In both cases the wound was at the right temporal region and there was defect at temporal bone. There was circular soot around this bone defect. The injury of the brain tissue was localized at the level of the defect but there was widespread subarachnoidal bleeding. We discussed the potential danger of these guns and stressed the need of legal regulations concerning these guns. PMID:19573850

  8. Effects of Seismic Air Guns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish.

    PubMed

    Popper, Arthur N; Carlson, Thomas J; Gross, Jackson A; Hawkins, Anthony D; Zeddies, David; Powell, Lynwood; Young, John

    2016-01-01

    Pallid sturgeon and paddlefish were placed at different distances from a seismic air gun array to determine the potential effects on mortality and nonauditory body tissues from the sound from a single shot. Fish were held 7 days postexposure and then necropsied. No fish died immediately after sound exposure or over the postexposure period. Statistical analysis of injuries showed no differences between the experimental and control animals in either type or severity of injuries. There was also no difference in injuries between fish exposed closest to the source compared with those exposed furthest from the source. PMID:26611044

  9. [The specificity of injuries inflicted by shots made from remade and self-made guns with silencers].

    PubMed

    Makarov, I Iu

    2005-01-01

    Discussed in the paper is a complex forensic medical evaluation of injuries inflicted by shots made from a variety of hand guns with silencers. An experimental study denoted the specificity of close-distance entry wounds at shots made from remade or self-made guns with silencers; the quantitative and qualitative differential diagnostics was possible in such cases. PMID:15747842

  10. Controlled-Temperature Hot-Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Materials that find applications in wind tunnels first tested in laboratory. Hot-Air Gun differs from commercial units in that flow rate and temperature monitored and controlled. With typical compressed-airsupply pressure of 25 to 38 psi (170 to 260 kPa), flow rate and maximum temperature are 34 stdft3/min (0.96 stdm3/min) and 1,090 degrees F (590 degrees C), respectively. Resembling elaborate but carefully regulated hot-air gun, setup used to apply blasts of air temperatures above 1,500 degrees F (815 degrees C) to test specimens.

  11. Improved multiple-shot gun for use as a combustion stability rating device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop and experimentally evaluate an improved version of a modified machine gun for use as a device for rating the relative combustion stability of various rocket combustors. Following the results of a previous study involving a caliber .30 machine gun, a caliber .50 machine gun was modified in order to extend the charge-size range of the device. Nitrocellulose charge sizes ranging from 1.004 to 9.720 grams were fired at rates up to four shots per second. Shock pressures up to 25,512 kN/sq m were measured near the end of a shortened gun barrel. A minimal resistance type of check valve permitted the gun to fire into pressurized regions; back pressures up to 3448 kN/sq m abs were tested. The final modified assembly was evaluated during combustion stability tests on rocket combustors burning a FLOX-methane propellant combination.

  12. Influence of pellet seating on the external ballistic parameters of spring-piston air guns.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ronald; Schultz, Benno; Frank, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    In firearm examiners' and forensic specialists' casework as well as in air gun proof testing, reliable measurement of the weapon's muzzle velocity is indispensable. While there are standardized and generally accepted procedures for testing the performance of air guns, the method of seating the diabolo pellets deeper into the breech of break barrel spring-piston air guns has not found its way into standardized test procedures. The influence of pellet seating on the external ballistic parameters was investigated using ten different break barrel spring-piston air guns. Test shots were performed with the diabolo pellets seated 2 mm deeper into the breech using a pellet seater. The results were then compared to reference shots with conventionally loaded diabolo pellets. Projectile velocity was measured with a high-precision redundant ballistic speed measurement system. In eight out of ten weapons, the muzzle energy increased significantly when the pellet seater was used. The average increase in kinetic energy was 31 % (range 9-96 %). To conclude, seating the pellet even slightly deeper into the breech of spring-piston air guns might significantly alter the muzzle energy. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that this effect is taken into account when accurate and reliable measurements of air gun muzzle velocity are necessary. PMID:27448569

  13. Air gun injury with deadly aftermath--case report.

    PubMed

    Stankov, Aleksandar; Jakovski, Zlatko; Pavlovski, Goran; Muric, Nedzat; Dwork, Andrew J; Cakar, Zdravko

    2013-01-01

    In Republic of Macedonia the use of air guns is quite widespread. They are used mainly for target practice. They are regulated by the Law of Arms, where they are defined as pneumatic weapons. There is no legal limit on type or quantity of ammunition that one may possess. Our Institute performs at least 90% of the forensic autopsies in Macedonia. In this report we describe the only fatality by pneumatic weapon to come to our attention over the past 10 years. A 6-year-old girl was accidentally wounded by her brother when he and his father were trying a new air gun, a 4.5mm single shot, break barrel, spring piston air rifle manufactured in China under the brand "Westlake". She died within minutes. Autopsy showed cardiac tamponade due to penetration of the aorta. A 0.5g metal projectile, 4.5mm in diameter, with a pointed, conical shape, was recovered from the pericardial sac. PMID:23017978

  14. Nozzle Extension for Safety Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumbrun, H. N.; Croom, Delwin R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    New nozzle-extension design overcomes problems and incorporates original commercial nozzle, retaining intrinsic safety features. Components include extension tube, length of which made to suit application; adaptor fitting, and nozzle adaptor repinned to maintain original safety features. Design moves conical airstream to end of extension to blow machine chips away from operator. Nozzle-extension modification allows safe and efficient operation of machine tools while maintaining integrity of orginial safety-air-gun design.

  15. [Assessment of accumulation of the shot products on the targets in shooting from a short-barreled gun with a muffler for estimation of shooting distance].

    PubMed

    Demidov, I V; Luzanova, I S; Sonis, M A

    2006-01-01

    A practical expert task--to estimate shot distance and order of shots made in two victims from a gun with muffler--is described as illustration of opportunities of the complex investigation with experimental shots and emission spectral analysis of the targets. Distribution of the shot soot on the targets in shooting from the distance up to 1 m is analyzed. PMID:17191722

  16. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed. PMID:24636233

  17. The Internal Ballistics of an Air Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark

    2011-02-01

    The internal ballistics of a firearm or artillery piece considers the pellet, bullet, or shell motion while it is still inside the barrel. In general, deriving the muzzle speed of a gunpowder firearm from first principles is difficult because powder combustion is fast and it very rapidly raises the temperature of gas (generated by gunpowder deflagration, or burning), which greatly complicates the analysis. A simple case is provided by air guns, for which we can make reasonable approximations that permit a derivation of muzzle speed. It is perhaps surprising that muzzle speed depends upon barrel length (artillerymen debated this dependence for centuries, until it was established experimentally and, later, theoretically ). Here we see that a simple physical analysis, accessible to high school or freshmen undergraduate physics students, not only derives realistic muzzle speed but also shows how it depends upon barrel length.

  18. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons.

    PubMed

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael

    2010-04-01

    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator. PMID:20211450

  19. Patterned imprint mark due to the folded shoulder stock: a possible finding in contact shots from submachine guns.

    PubMed

    Grosse Perdekamp, Markus; Braunwarth, Roland; Pollak, Stefan

    2008-06-10

    The muzzle imprint (barrel mark) is a pressure abrasion typically associated with contact shots. Apart from the contours of the actual muzzle profile, other constructional parts such as the front sight and/or the recoil spring guide of semiautomatic pistols may be imprinted next to the bullet entrance wound. In some types of submachine guns the shoulder stock can be folded forward so that its end partly encircles the muzzle. If such a weapon was in contact with the skin at the instant of discharge, a corresponding contusion mark is to be expected. The imprint configuration may point to the type of weapon and to the way in which the gun had been held when firing the shot. The paper presents the injury pattern in a 36-year-old man who committed suicide with a Scorpion SA Vz 61 submachine gun cal. 7.65mm Browning from former Czechoslovakia. PMID:18262741

  20. Serious air gun injuries in children: update of injury statistics and presentation of five cases.

    PubMed

    Myre, L E; Black, R E

    1987-09-01

    There were over 70,000 injuries to children caused by air guns reported from 1981 to 1984. The majority of these injuries were minor; however, serious injury resulted in eight deaths. Reported injuries include corneal perforation, liver laceration, stomach and intestinal perforation, intracranial bleeding, cardiac perforation, and hemopneumothorax. Primary care physicians must be aware of the potentially serious or lethal nature of air gun injury and educate their patients accordingly. Legislation is also needed to restrict the sale of these guns, or increase the safety of air gun use. We report five cases of potentially life-threatening injury caused by air guns, three of which required emergency laparotomy. PMID:3313302

  1. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue Fang, Jing

    2015-10-15

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  2. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-10-01

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  3. High quality single shot ultrafast MeV electron diffraction from a photocathode radio-frequency gun.

    PubMed

    Fu, Feichao; Liu, Shengguang; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Jianming

    2014-08-01

    A compact ultrafast electron diffractometer, consisting of an s-band 1.6 cell photocathode radio-frequency gun, a multi-function changeable sample chamber, and a sensitive relativistic electron detector, was built at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. High-quality single-shot transmission electron diffraction patterns have been recorded by scattering 2.5 MeV electrons off single crystalline gold and polycrystalline aluminum samples. The high quality diffraction pattern indicates an excellent spatial resolution, with the ratio of the diffraction ring radius over the ring rms width beyond 10. The electron pulse width is estimated to be about 300 fs. The high temporal and spatial resolution may open new opportunities in various areas of sciences. PMID:25173270

  4. High quality single shot ultrafast MeV electron diffraction from a photocathode radio-frequency gun

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Feichao; Liu, Shengguang; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao Zhang, Jie; Cao, Jianming

    2014-08-15

    A compact ultrafast electron diffractometer, consisting of an s-band 1.6 cell photocathode radio-frequency gun, a multi-function changeable sample chamber, and a sensitive relativistic electron detector, was built at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. High-quality single-shot transmission electron diffraction patterns have been recorded by scattering 2.5 MeV electrons off single crystalline gold and polycrystalline aluminum samples. The high quality diffraction pattern indicates an excellent spatial resolution, with the ratio of the diffraction ring radius over the ring rms width beyond 10. The electron pulse width is estimated to be about 300 fs. The high temporal and spatial resolution may open new opportunities in various areas of sciences.

  5. The inner ears of Northern Canadian freshwater fishes following exposure to seismic air gun sounds.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiakun; Mann, David A; Cott, Peter A; Hanna, Bruce W; Popper, Arthur N

    2008-08-01

    An earlier study examined the effects of exposure to seismic air guns on the hearing of three species of fish from the Mackenzie River Delta in Northern Canada [Popper et al. (2005). "Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 3958-3971]. The sound pressure levels to which the fishes were exposed were a mean received level of 205-209 dB re 1 microPa (peak) per shot and an approximate received mean SEL of 176-180 dB re 1 microPa(2) s per shot. In this report, the same animals were examined to determine whether there were effects on the sensory cells of the inner ear as a result of the seismic exposure. No damage was found to the ears of the fishes exposed to seismic sounds despite the fact that two of the species, adult northern pike and lake chub, had shown a temporary threshold shift in hearing studies. PMID:18681621

  6. The inner ears of Northern Canadian freshwater fishes following exposure to seismic air gun sounds

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiakun; Mann, David A.; Cott, Peter A.; Hanna, Bruce W.; Popper, Arthur N.

    2008-01-01

    An earlier study examined the effects of exposure to seismic air guns on the hearing of three species of fish from the Mackenzie River Delta in Northern Canada [Popper et al. (2005). “Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 3958–3971]. The sound pressure levels to which the fishes were exposed were a mean received level of 205–209 dB re 1 μPa (peak) per shot and an approximate received mean SEL of 176–180 dB re 1 μPa2 s per shot. In this report, the same animals were examined to determine whether there were effects on the sensory cells of the inner ear as a result of the seismic exposure. No damage was found to the ears of the fishes exposed to seismic sounds despite the fact that two of the species, adult northern pike and lake chub, had shown a temporary threshold shift in hearing studies. PMID:18681621

  7. Quantifying the uncertainty of geoacoustic parameter estimates for the New Jersey shelf by inverting air gun data.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong-Min; Chapman, N Ross; Badiey, Mohsen

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes geoacoustic inversion of low frequency air gun data acquired during an experiment on the New Jersey shelf. Hybrid optimization and Bayesian inversion techniques based on matched field processing were applied to multiple shots from three air gun data sets recorded by a vertical line array in a long-range shallow water geometry. For the Bayesian inversions, full data error covariance matrix was estimated from a set of consecutive shots that had high temporal coherence and small spatial variation in source position. The effect of different data error information on the geoacoustic parameter uncertainty estimates was investigated by using the full data error covariance matrix, a diagonalized version of the full error covariance, and a diagonal matrix with identical variances. The comparison demonstrated that inversion using the full data error information provided the most reliable parameter uncertainty estimates. The inversions were highly sensitive to the near sea floor geoacoustic parameters, including sediment attenuation, of a simple single-layer geoacoustic model. The estimated parameter values of the model were consistent with depth averaged values (over wavelength scales) of a high resolution geoacoustic model developed from extensive ground truth information. The interpretation of the frequency dependence of the estimated attenuation is also discussed. PMID:17471704

  8. Analysis of the expression protein profiles of lung squamous carcinoma cell using shot-gun proteomics strategy.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yandong; Yang, Shuanying; Tian, Yingxuan; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Bin; Bu, Lina; Huo, Shufen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to globally screen and identify the expression protein profiles of lung squamous carcinoma cell (SqCC) using shot-gun proteomics strategy and to further analyze function of individual proteins by bioinformatics, which may likely result in the identification of new biomarkers and provide helpful clues for pathogenesis, early diagnosis, and progression of lung SqCC. The specific tumor cells were isolated and collected from the tissues of six patients with lung SqCC by laser capture microdissection (LCM). Total proteins from the LCM cells were extracted, digested with trypsin. The sequence information of resulting peptides was acquired by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (TMS). The global protein profiles of lung SqCC cell were identified with BioworksTM software in IPI human protein database. Cellular component, molecular function, and biological process of the all proteins were analyzed using gene ontology (GO). About 720,000 tumor cells were satisfactorily collected from tissues of six patients with lung SqCC by LCM and the homogeneities of cell population were estimated to be over 95% as determined by microscopic visualization. The high resolution profiles including HPLC, full mass spectrum, and tandem mass spectrum were successfully obtained. Database searching of the resulting bimolecular sequence information identified 1982 proteins in all samples. The bioinformatics of these proteins, including amino acids sequence, fraction of coverage, molecular weight, isoelectric point, etc., were analyzed in detail. Among them, the function of most proteins was recognized by using GO. Five candidate proteins, Prohibitin (PHB), Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Heat shock protein27 (HSP27), Annexin A1(ANXA1), and High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), might play an important role in SqCC genesis, progression, recurrence, and metastasis according to relative literatures. We have successfully isolated

  9. LX-04 VIOLENCE MEASUREMENTS- STEVEN TESTS IMPACTED BY PROJECTILES SHOT FROM A HOWITZER GUN

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Switzer, L L; Tarver, C M

    2005-07-18

    Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence.

  10. Fluorescence imaging of microbe-containing particles shot from a two-stage Light-gas gun into an aerogel.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yuko; Sugino, Tomohiro; Tabata, Makoto; Okudaira, Kyoko; Imai, Eichi; Yano, Hajime; Hasegawa, Sunao; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yabuta, Hikaru; Kobayashi, Kensei; Kawai, Hideyuki; Mita, Hajime; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2014-02-01

    We have proposed an experiment (the Tanpopo mission) to capture microbes on the Japan Experimental Module of the International Space Station. An ultra low-density silica aerogel will be exposed to space for more than 1 year. After retrieving the aerogel, particle tracks and particles found in it will be visualized by fluorescence microscopy after staining it with a DNA-specific fluorescence dye. In preparation for this study, we simulated particle trapping in an aerogel so that methods could be developed to visualize the particles and their tracks. During the Tanpopo mission, particles that have an orbital velocity of ~8 km/s are expected to collide with the aerogel. To simulate these collisions, we shot Deinococcus radiodurans-containing Lucentite particles into the aerogel from a two-stage light-gas gun (acceleration 4.2 km/s). The shapes of the captured particles, and their tracks and entrance holes were recorded with a microscope/camera system for further analysis. The size distribution of the captured particles was smaller than the original distribution, suggesting that the particles had fragmented. We were able to distinguish between microbial DNA and inorganic compounds after staining the aerogel with the DNA-specific fluorescence dye SYBR green I as the fluorescence of the stained DNA and the autofluorescence of the inorganic particles decay at different rates. The developed methods are suitable to determine if microbes exist at the International Space Station altitude. PMID:25086872

  11. Shot-gun proteomic analysis of mitochondrial D-loop DNA binding proteins: identification of mitochondrial histones.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yon-Sik; Hoon Jeong, Jae; Min, Hye-Ki; Jung, Hee-Jung; Hwang, Daehee; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim Pak, Youngmi

    2011-05-01

    Transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are regulated by nuclear DNA-encoded proteins that are targeted into mitochondria. A decrease in mtDNA copy number results in mitochondrial dysfunction, which may lead to insulin resistance and metabolic syndromes. We analyzed mitochondrial proteins that physically bind to human mitochondrial D-loop DNA using a shot-gun proteomics approach following protein enrichment by D-loop DNA-linked affinity chromatography. A total of 152 D-loop DNA binding proteins were identified by peptide sequencing using ultra high pressure capillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Bioinformatic analysis showed that 68 were mitochondrial proteins, 96 were DNA/RNA/protein binding proteins and 114 proteins might form a complex via protein-protein interactions. Histone family members of H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, were detected in abundance among them. In particular, histones H2A and H2B were present in the mitochondrial membrane as integral membrane proteins and not bound directly to mtDNA inside the organelle. Histones H1.2, H3 and H4 were associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. Silencing of H2AX expression inhibited mitochondrial protein transport. Our data suggests that many mitochondrial proteins may reside in multiple subcellular compartments like H2AX and exert multiple functions. PMID:21359316

  12. Impact of air gun noise on the behaviour of marine fish and squid.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, J L; McCauley, R D

    2012-05-01

    In this study various species of captive marine fish and one species of squid were exposed to the noise from a single air gun. Six trials were conducted off the coast of Western Australia with each trial using a different noise exposure regime. Noise levels received by the animals ranged between 120 and 184 dB re 1 μPa(2).s (SEL). Behavioural observations of the fish and squid were made before, during and after air gun noise exposure. Results indicate that as air gun noise levels increase, fish respond by moving to the bottom of the water column and swimming faster in more tightly cohesive groups. Significant increases in alarm responses were observed in fish and squid to air gun noise exceeding 147-151 dB re 1 μPa SEL. An increase in the occurrence of alarm responses was also observed as noise level increased. PMID:22385754

  13. Country made scare gun vs. air gun--a comparative study of terminal ballistics using gelatine blocks.

    PubMed

    Hallikeri, Vinay R; Gouda, Hareesh S; Kadagoudar, Shivanand A

    2012-01-10

    Country made scare gun also called as bandook in the vernacular language designed with an intention of scaring away the menacing animals is not only unique and effective but also potentially lethal and has found wide spread usage in the rural parts of India. Here an attempt has been made to study the characteristic features such as physical dimensions, mechanism of action of this weapon and to compare its penetrating ability with that of air gun, whose potential lethality is a well-documented fact, using the ballistic gelatine blocks at various ranges. It is hoped that keeping the existence of such firearms in mind by the forensic experts might help to solve the unexplained and bizarre firearm injuries encountered in day to day practice. PMID:21839595

  14. Successful Capture, Extraction and Identification of Hypervelocity CM2 Meteorite Fragments Shot by Light-Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snead, C.; Westphal, A. J.; Dominguez, G.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Here we report the successful capture, extraction and identification of two fragments of a CM2 meteorite (ALH83100) into lowdensity aerogel. The shot was carried out at the AVGR at NASAARC. A mixture of powdered ALH83100 and borosilicate glass microspheres was shot at 4.55.0 km/sec into 50 mg cm silicate aerogel.

  15. Auditory Effects of Multiple Impulses from a Seismic Air Gun on Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Schlundt, Carolyn E; Finneran, James J; Branstetter, Brian K; Trickey, Jennifer S; Bowman, Victoria; Jenkins, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Auditory thresholds were measured in three bottlenose dolphins before and after exposure to ten impulses from a seismic air gun. Thresholds were measured using behavioral and electrophysiological methods to determine the amount of temporary threshold shift induced. The results suggest that the potential for seismic surveys using air guns to cause auditory effects on dolphins may be lower than previously predicted; however, two of the three dolphins exhibited "anticipatory" behavioral changes at the highest exposure condition that suggested they were attempting to mitigate the effects of the exposures. PMID:26611059

  16. Settlement Reached in Air Gun Use in Ocean-based Seismic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The U.S. National Science Foundation and the Center for Biological Diversity have settled a lawsuit brought against NSF that had threatened to scuttle the use of air gun arrays for use in NSF-sponsored seismic and geological studies at sea. The parties agreed to a 14 April dismissal of the suit. The CBD, an environmental organization based in Idyllwild, California, brought the suit in the U.S. District Court in San Francisco out of concern that the use of the air gun arrays may harm some marine mammals. CBD also claimed that NSF was not in compliance with several U.S. federal environmental regulations.

  17. Penetrated sigmoid colon by air gun pellet could be life threatening: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Krasniqi, Avdyl S.; Hamza, Astrit R.; Zejnullahu, Valon A.; Sada, Fatos E.; Bicaj, Besnik X.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Air and paintball guns have been in existence for over 400 year. Although serious injury or death can result from the use of such guns, previous literature has not mentioned the issue of the penetration of the sigmoid colon by an air gun pellet. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a rare case of a 44-year-old Caucasian woman referred to abdominal surgery after an accidental small wound had occurred in the lower left abdominal quadrant that was caused by an air gun pellet. The blood and biochemical analyses were normal but the CT scan revealed the presence of a foreign body – an air gun pellet in the left iliac region of the abdomen. Clinically, during the initial 24 h significant changes were not noticed. After 42 h, however, pain and local tenderness in the lower left abdominal quadrant was expressed. A laparotomy revealed a retained pellet in the wall of the sigmoid colon and a small leak with colonic content with consecutive local peritonitis also occurred. The foreign body was removed and the opening edges in the colon were excised and closed with the primary suture. DISCUSSION The hollow organs of the digestive tract, albeit very rarely penetrated by an air gun pellet, do not typically show all signs of an acute abdomen in the early posttraumatic phase. Such injuries can lead to a pronounced infection, which may cause septic shock if not appropriately treated. CONCLUSION For correct diagnosis, a careful approach and several daily clinical observations are required. PMID:25437671

  18. Airgun shot wound to the orbit with retention of pellet. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Daszkiewicz, Paweł; Dziedzic, Dariusz; Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Shot wounds become a growing clinical concern in the civilian setting, due to increasing popularity of air guns among minors. We present a pediatric case of a shot wound to the orbit with sparing of the eyeball and retention of airgun pellet in the retrobulbar space. The pellet was removed 3 months after injury via lateral orbitotomy. Pathophysiology and ballistics of shot wounds are briefly reviewed and current views on the management strategy of shot wounds with retained projectile are discussed. PMID:27591065

  19. [CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICORESISTANCE OF MICROFLORA IN A COMBAT (THE GUN-SHOT ANO THE MINE-EXPLOSION) WOUNDS OF THE EXTREMITIES].

    PubMed

    Kondratyuk, V M

    2016-04-01

    Abstract Results of bacteriological investigations of a gun-shot and a mine-explosion woundings of the extremities were analyzed in Military-Medical Clinical Centres (MMCC) of Kyiv, Lviv and Vinnytsya. Spectrum of the allotted microorganisms and profile of their antibioticoresistance were disclosed. The patterns of resistance were determined in accordance to offering of international experts of European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Dominating microflora in a Chief MMCC (Kyiv) and MMCC of a Western Region (Lviv) were various species of the Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa families, while in MMCC of a Central Region (Vinnytsya)--a gramm-negative non-fermentative bacilli of the Acinetobacter genus and Pseudomonas genus. The majority (79.5%) of isolates were characterized by polyresistance for antibiotics. Maximal quantity of strains with a widened spectrum of resistance was revealed in 2 - 3 weeks after a wounding--in 71.4 and 96.9% accordingly. PMID:27434956

  20. 3D Tomographic Imaging of the Crustal Velocity Structure beneath the Marmara Sea using Air-gun and Earthquake Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarancioglu, Adil; Kocaoglu, Argun H.; Ozalaybey, Serdar

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the local seismicity and obtain a detailed three-dimensional crustal velocity structure beneath the Marmara Sea in an area surrounding the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) by tomographic inversion using both controlled-source (air-gun) and earthquake data. The tomographic inversion is carried out by using the local earthquake tomography code SIMUL2000. Two sets of seismological data, collected in 2006 (EOSMARMARA experiment) and 2001 (SEISMARMARA experiment), are re-processed and used in this study. A total of 441 high quality earthquakes and 452 air-gun shots recorded by a total of 53 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) are selected for the simultaneous inversion for velocity and hypocentral parameters. The OBS location and time-drift errors are identified from air-gun shot records by a grid search method and required corrections are made on the travel time data. The initial (reference) velocity model and earthquake locations required for the three dimensional tomographic inversion are derived from the one-dimensional velocity model obtained by using the VELEST algorithm in which a subset of earthquakes are selected such that phase readings were made by at least five stations and maximum azimuthal gap was 180o. The inversion results are checked for initial model dependence and the effect of damping factor. The reliability of the results is also evaluated in terms of derivative-weighted-sum, resolution-diagonal-elements values and checkerboard tests. The hypocenter locations of the local earthquakes have been remarkably improved by the three-dimensional velocity model obtained from the tomographic inversion. The three-dimensional velocity model shows that the Tekirdag, Central and Cinarcik Basins are characterized generally by lower Vp (3.0 - 3.5 km/s) values and most of the earthquakes across these regions are located at the depths of 10 to 17 km, about 5 km deeper than those obtained from the one-dimensional reference

  1. Development of a Model to Assess Masking Potential for Marine Mammals by the Use of Air Guns in Antarctic Waters.

    PubMed

    Wittekind, Dietrich; Tougaard, Jakob; Stilz, Peter; Dähne, Michael; Clark, Christopher W; Lucke, Klaus; von Benda-Beckmann, Sander; Ainslie, Michael A; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the long-range effects of air gun array noise on marine mammal communication ranges in the Southern Ocean. Air gun impulses are subject to significant distortion during propagation, potentially resulting in a quasi-continuous sound. Propagation modeling to estimate the received waveform was conducted. A leaky integrator was used as a hearing model to assess communication masking in three species due to intermittent/continuous air gun sounds. Air gun noise is most probably changing from impulse to continuous noise between 1,000 and 2,000 km from the source, leading to a reduced communication range for, e.g., blue and fin whales up to 2,000 km from the source. PMID:26611093

  2. Use of a seismic air gun to reduce survival of nonnative lake trout embryos: A tool for conservation?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, B.S.; Dux, A.M.; Quist, M.C.; Guy, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    The detrimental impacts of nonnative lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the western USA have prompted natural resource management agencies in several states to implement lake trout suppression programs. Currently, these programs rely on mechanical removal methods (i.e., gill nets, trap nets, and angling) to capture subadult and adult lake trout. We conducted a study to explore the potential for using high-intensity sound from a relatively small (655.5 cm3 [40 in3]) seismic air gun to reduce survival of lake trout embryos. Lake trout embryos at multiple stages of development were exposed to a single discharge of the seismic air gun at two depths (5 and 15 m) and at two distances from the air gun (0.1 and 2.7 m). Control groups for each developmental stage, distance, and depth were treated identically except that the air gun was not discharged. Mortality in lake trout embryos treated at 0.1 m from the air gun was 100% at 74 daily temperature units in degrees Celsius (TU°C) at both depths. Median mortality in lake trout embryos treated at 0.1 m from the air gun at 207 TU°C (93%) and 267 °C (78%) appeared to be higher than that of controls (49% and 48%, respectively) at 15-m depth. Among the four lake trout developmental stages, exposure to the air gun at 0.1 m resulted in acute mortality up to 60% greater than that of controls. Mortality at a distance of 2.7 m did not appear to differ from that of controls at any developmental stage or at either depth. Our results indicate that seismic air guns have potential as an alternative tool for controlling nonnative lake trout, but further investigation is warranted.

  3. Extensive Air Showers: from the muonic smoking guns to the hadronic backbone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazon, L.

    2013-06-01

    Extensive Air Showers are complex macroscopic objects initiated by single ultra-high energy particles. They are the result of millions of high energy reactions in the atmosphere and can be described as the superposition of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades. The hadronic cascade is the air shower backbone, and it is mainly made of pions. Decays of neutral pions initiate electromagnetic cascades, while the decays of charged pions produce muons which leave the hadronic core and travel many kilometers almost unaffected. Muons are smoking guns of the hadronic cascade: the energy, transverse momentum, spatial distribution and depth of production are key to reconstruct the history of the air shower. In this work, we overview the phenomenology of muons on the air shower and its relation to the hadronic cascade. We briefly review the experimental efforts to analyze muons within air showers and discuss possible paths to use this information.

  4. First assessment of effects of air-gun seismic shooting on marine resources in the central Adriatic sea

    SciTech Connect

    La Bella, G.; Cannata, S.; Froglia, C.

    1996-11-01

    A series of investigations were carried out to test the effects of air-gun seismic shooting on main fishery resources of the Adriatic Sea during summer 1995. The energy source used for the trial was formed by one air-gun array made up by two sub-arrays consisting in 8 air-guns each developing a total volume of c.a. 2500 i{sup 3} at 2000 psi with an amplitude of 60 bar/m. The interval between two was of 25 s. The intensity was of 210 dB re 1 mPa-m/Hz. Acoustical and spectral analysis were performed simultaneously in the surveyed areas to correlate fishery and behavior observations with sound pattern of the energization. Main results were: (1) Analysis of trawl catch data evidenced no significant changes before and after the air-gun seismic profiling. (2) Echosurvey relative estimate of pelagic biomass, performed simultaneously to trawling operations, failed to evidence any significant change in the pelagic biomass subsequent to the seismic shooting. (3) Small differences were observed in the trammel net catch composition, but one single set of pre-post fishing operations could be done in the study period. (4) Similar density estimate were obtained from dredge surveys performed by an hydraulic dredger before and after air-gun seismic profiling over a clam bed in 14 in depth. (5) Video recording of captive fish, kept into cages moored on the sea bottom at 12 in depth, evidenced a Behavioral response to the approach of the sound source; but no lethal event was recorded on captive sea-bass immediately after the seismic shooting. (6) Biochemical and histological analysis were performed to verify if it is to be related to the captive condition or is somewhat consequent to the air-gun energization. These results confirm that no relevant effects are induced on fishery resources by seismic air-gun shooting.

  5. MODE IDENTIFICATION OF AN ARCH DAM BY A DYNAMIC AIR-GUN TEST.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Hsi-Ping; Fedock, Joseph J.; Fletcher, Jon B.

    1986-01-01

    Thirteen natural frequencies of a concrete arch dam (Monticello Dam near Sacramento, California) have been identified by using a dynamic testing method which employs an air gun firing in the reservoir as the excitation source. These vibrations modes are determined from the peak responses in the Fourier amplitude spectra of the free-vibration data recorded at three crest locations using three-component geophones. Comparisons of the first five natural frequencies with results obtained by forced vibration tests using rotating mass shakers show good agreement. The next eight higher-frequency modes, not previously identified, are determined from data of the present tests.

  6. The simulation of far-field wavelets using frequency-domain air-gun array near-field wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jian-Guo; Deng, Yong; Tong, Xin-Xin

    2013-12-01

    Air-gun arrays are used in marine-seismic exploration. Far-field wavelets in subsurface media represent the stacking of single air-gun ideal wavelets. We derived single air-gun ideal wavelets using near-field wavelets recorded from near-field geophones and then synthesized them into far-field wavelets. This is critical for processing wavelets in marineseismic exploration. For this purpose, several algorithms are currently used to decompose and synthesize wavelets in the time domain. If the traveltime of single air-gun wavelets is not an integral multiple of the sampling interval, the complex and error-prone resampling of the seismic signals using the time-domain method is necessary. Based on the relation between the frequency-domain phase and the time-domain time delay, we propose a method that first transforms the real near-field wavelet to the frequency domain via Fourier transforms; then, it decomposes it and composes the wavelet spectrum in the frequency domain, and then back transforms it to the time domain. Thus, the resampling problem is avoided and single air-gun wavelets and far-field wavelets can be reliably derived. The effect of ghost reflections is also considered, while decomposing the wavelet and removing the ghost reflections. Modeling and real data processing were used to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  7. A piloted simulation investigation of yaw dynamics requirements for turreted gun use in low-level helicopter air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Morris, Patrick M.; Williams, Jeffrey N.

    1988-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation study was conducted to investigate the handling qualities requirements for helicopter air-to-air combat using turreted guns in the near-terrain environment. The study used a version of the helicopter air combat system developed at NASA Ames Research Center for one-on-one air combat. The study focused on the potential trade-off between gun angular movement capability and required yaw axis response. Experimental variables included yaw axis response frequency and damping and the size of the gun-movement envelope. A helmet position and sighting system was used for pilot control of gun aim. Approximately 340 simulated air combat engagements were evaluated by pilots from the Army and industry. Results from the experiment indicate that a highly-damped, high frequency yaw response was desired for Level I handling qualities. Pilot preference for those characteristics became more pronounced as gun turret movement was restricted; however, a stable, slow-reacting platform could be used with a large turret envelope. Most pilots preferred to engage with the opponent near the own-ship centerline. Turret elevation restriction affected the engagement more than azimuth restrictions.

  8. Quantitative measures of air-gun pulses recorded on sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) using acoustic tags during controlled exposure experiments.

    PubMed

    Madsen, P T; Johnson, M; Miller, P J O; Aguilar Soto, N; Lynch, J; Tyack, P

    2006-10-01

    The widespread use of powerful, low-frequency air-gun pulses for seismic seabed exploration has raised concern about their potential negative effects on marine wildlife. Here, we quantify the sound exposure levels recorded on acoustic tags attached to eight sperm whales at ranges between 1.4 and 12.6 km from controlled air-gun array sources operated in the Gulf of Mexico. Due to multipath propagation, the animals were exposed to multiple sound pulses during each firing of the array with received levels of analyzed pulses falling between 131-167 dB re. 1 microPa (pp) [111-147 dB re. 1 microPa (rms) and 100-135 dB re. 1 microPa2 s] after compensation for hearing sensitivity using the M-weighting. Received levels varied widely with range and depth of the exposed animal precluding reliable estimation of exposure zones based on simple geometric spreading laws. When whales were close to the surface, the first arrivals of air-gun pulses contained most energy between 0.3 and 3 kHz, a frequency range well beyond the normal frequencies of interest in seismic exploration. Therefore air-gun arrays can generate significant sound energy at frequencies many octaves higher than the frequencies of interest for seismic exploration, which increases concern of the potential impact on odontocetes with poor low frequency hearing. PMID:17069331

  9. [COMPLEX OF THE TREATMENT MEASURES IN A SYSTEM OF THE MEDICAL CARE DELIVERY TO WOUNDED PERSONS WITH THE GUN-SHOT AND MINE-EXPLOSIVE INJURIES OF THE FOOT].

    PubMed

    Korohl, S O

    2015-11-01

    Complex of the treatment measures, conducted in 302 wounded persons, suffering the gun-shot and mine-explosive injuries of the foot in 2014 - 2015 yrs, was analyzed. Primary surgical processing of the wound was conducted in all injured persons, secondary surgical processing--in 64.6%, the foot bones osteosynthesis--in 13.9%, primary immobilization, using improvised tire--in 77.8%, secondary immobilization, using the plaster splint--in 48.1%, llizarov's spokes--in 35.2%, Ilizarov's apparatus--in 18.5%, the rods apparatuses of external fixation--in 16.7%. For improvement of functioning of a modern system for the treatment-evacuation provision it is necessary, to reduce the quantity of levels of the medical help provision maximally. PMID:26939433

  10. Investigating the Link Between Gun Possession and Gun Assault

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Therese S.; Culhane, Dennis P.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the possible relationship between being shot in an assault and possession of a gun at the time. Methods. We enrolled 677 case participants that had been shot in an assault and 684 population-based control participants within Philadelphia, PA, from 2003 to 2006. We adjusted odds ratios for confounding variables. Results. After adjustment, individuals in possession of a gun were 4.46 (P < .05) times more likely to be shot in an assault than those not in possession. Among gun assaults where the victim had at least some chance to resist, this adjusted odds ratio increased to 5.45 (P < .05). Conclusions. On average, guns did not protect those who possessed them from being shot in an assault. Although successful defensive gun uses occur each year, the probability of success may be low for civilian gun users in urban areas. Such users should reconsider their possession of guns or, at least, understand that regular possession necessitates careful safety countermeasures. PMID:19762675

  11. Homemade Firearm Suicide With Dumbbell Pipe Triggering by an Air-Compressed Gun: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Le Garff, Erwan; Delannoy, Yann; Mesli, Vadim; Berthezene, Jean Marie; Morbidelli, Philippe; Hédouin, Valéry

    2015-12-01

    Firearm suicides are frequent and well described in the forensic literature, particularly in Europe and the United States. However, the use of homemade and improvised firearms is less well described. The present case reports a suicide with an original improvised gun created using an air-compressed pellet gun and a dumbbell pipe. The aims of this study were to describe the scene, the external examination of the corpse, the body scan, and the autopsy; to understand the mechanism of death; and to compare the results with a review of the forensic literature to highlight the epidemiology of homemade firearm use, the tools used for homemade and improvised firearms in suicides versus homicides, and the manners in which homemade firearms are used (homicide or suicide, particularly in complex suicide cases). PMID:26375571

  12. [Suicide with home-made gun].

    PubMed

    Safr, M; Hejna, P; Zátopková, L

    2009-04-01

    Three cases of suicide by single bullet injury to head by home-made guns with immediate incapacitation are reported in following article. Zip gun (home-made gun) is a improvised firearm, usually a handgun. Home-made guns are almost always single-shot, as the improvised construction sometimes makes them weak enough to be destroyed by the act of firing. Zip guns are mostly smoothbore. Zip gun injuries, although unique today, represent a special category of missile injury with atypical low velocity terminal ballistics. PMID:19534397

  13. Gun Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Biology and the particular gun culture of the United States come together to explain the persistent and powerful attraction of American boys to both real guns and toy guns. The 1990s saw adults begin to conflate "the gun problem" with "the boy problem," sparking attempts (largely failed) to banish toy guns from homes and…

  14. Seismic air gun exposure during early-stage embryonic development does not negatively affect spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii larvae (Decapoda: Palinuridae).

    PubMed

    Day, Ryan D; McCauley, Robert D; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Semmens, Jayson M

    2016-01-01

    Marine seismic surveys are used to explore for sub-seafloor oil and gas deposits. These surveys are conducted using air guns, which release compressed air to create intense sound impulses, which are repeated around every 8-12 seconds and can travel large distances in the water column. Considering the ubiquitous worldwide distribution of seismic surveys, the potential impact of exposure on marine invertebrates is poorly understood. In this study, egg-bearing female spiny lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) were exposed to signals from three air gun configurations, all of which exceeded sound exposure levels (SEL) of 185 dB re 1 μPa(2) · s. Lobsters were maintained until their eggs hatched and the larvae were then counted for fecundity, assessed for abnormal morphology using measurements of larval length and width, tested for larval competency using an established activity test and measured for energy content. Overall there were no differences in the quantity or quality of hatched larvae, indicating that the condition and development of spiny lobster embryos were not adversely affected by air gun exposure. These results suggest that embryonic spiny lobster are resilient to air gun signals and highlight the caution necessary in extrapolating results from the laboratory to real world scenarios or across life history stages. PMID:26947006

  15. Seismic air gun exposure during early-stage embryonic development does not negatively affect spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii larvae (Decapoda:Palinuridae)

    PubMed Central

    Day, Ryan D.; McCauley, Robert D.; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P.; Semmens, Jayson M.

    2016-01-01

    Marine seismic surveys are used to explore for sub-seafloor oil and gas deposits. These surveys are conducted using air guns, which release compressed air to create intense sound impulses, which are repeated around every 8–12 seconds and can travel large distances in the water column. Considering the ubiquitous worldwide distribution of seismic surveys, the potential impact of exposure on marine invertebrates is poorly understood. In this study, egg-bearing female spiny lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) were exposed to signals from three air gun configurations, all of which exceeded sound exposure levels (SEL) of 185 dB re 1 μPa2·s. Lobsters were maintained until their eggs hatched and the larvae were then counted for fecundity, assessed for abnormal morphology using measurements of larval length and width, tested for larval competency using an established activity test and measured for energy content. Overall there were no differences in the quantity or quality of hatched larvae, indicating that the condition and development of spiny lobster embryos were not adversely affected by air gun exposure. These results suggest that embryonic spiny lobster are resilient to air gun signals and highlight the caution necessary in extrapolating results from the laboratory to real world scenarios or across life history stages. PMID:26947006

  16. Environment and air pollution like gun and bullet for low-income countries: war for better health and wealth.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang; Azam, Muhammad; Islam, Talat; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries. PMID:26493298

  17. Guns in the home: risky business.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Douglas J

    2003-05-01

    One in three U.S. households contains at least one firearm. Gun owners cite two main reasons for having a gun: hunting and self-protection. A majority of handgun owners believe that they are protecting their homes and families against violent assaults. But in a country where the majority of homicides and suicides involve a gun, it is reasonable to question whether access to a gun increases or decreases the risk of violent death. This Issue Brief describes case-control studies that investigate links between gun availability and gun death, and supports earlier findings that people with guns in their homes appear to increase their risk of being shot fatally (intentionally or unintentionally) or taking their own life with a gun. PMID:12828174

  18. Shot through the heart-firepower and potential lethality of air weapons.

    PubMed

    Bakovic, Marija; Petrovecki, Vedrana; Strinovic, Davor; Mayer, Davor

    2014-11-01

    Although certain air weapons attain muzzle velocities comparable to some firearms, their successful use for committing suicide is rarely seen. Herein, we report a case of a young female died shortly after urgent admission to the hospital with penetrating gunshot wound to the chest. The autopsy revealed perforation of the pericardium and two perforative defects to the right heart ventricle. Injury was inflicted by a 0.177 caliber pellet, fired from an air rifle found near her body. Investigation ruled the death as suicide. The used air rifle fired the pellet with the energy density of 1.9 J/mm(2) , substantially above the threshold for inflicting injury. The pellet penetrated through two layers of cotton fabric and several layers of tissue to inflict fatal injury to the heart. In addition, we provide an insight into the wounding potential of air weapons, which illustrates the need for greater caution in handling those devices. PMID:24846815

  19. The Hydraulic Mechanism in the Orbital Blowout Fracture Because of a High-Pressure Air Gun Injury.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok Joo; Chung, Eui Han

    2015-10-01

    There are 2 predominant mechanisms that are used to explain the pathogenesis of orbital blowout fracture; these include hydraulic and buckling mechanisms. Still, however, its pathophysiology remains uncertain. To date, studies in this series have been conducted using dry skulls, cadavers, or animals. But few clinical studies have been conducted to examine whether the hydraulic mechanism is involved in the occurrence of pure orbital blowout fracture. The authors experienced a case of a 52-year-old man who had a pure medial blowout fracture after sustaining an eye injury because of a high-pressure air gun. Our case suggests that surgeons should be aware of the possibility that the hydraulic mechanism might be involved in the blowout fracture in patients presenting with complications, such as limitation of eye movement, diplopia, and enophthalmos. PMID:26468824

  20. Magnetic Ignition of Pulsed Gas Discharges in Air of Low Pressure in a Coaxial Plasma Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, Karlheinz; Norwood, Joseph, Jr.

    1961-01-01

    The effect of an axial magnetic field on the breakdown voltage of a coaxial system of electrodes has been investigated by earlier workers. For low values of gas pressure times electrode spacing, the breakdown voltage is decreased by the application of the magnetic field. The electron cyclotron radius now assumes the role held by the mean free path in nonmagnetic discharges and the breakdown voltage becomes a function of the magnetic flux density. In this paper the dependence of the formative time lag as a function of the magnetic flux density is established and the feasibility of using a magnetic field for igniting high-voltage, high-current discharges is shown through theory and experiment. With a 36 microfarad capacitor bank charged to 48,000 volts, a peak current of 1.3 x 10( exp 6) amperes in a coaxial type of plasma gun was achieved with a current rise time of only 2 microseconds.

  1. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Rabern, Donald A.; Valdiviez, Robert

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  2. Gas gun dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark

    2013-09-01

    The mechanics and thermodynamics of one- and two-stage gas guns are developed. Very high projectile muzzle speed can be obtained by the two-stage version. The physics of simple gas guns, such as air rifles, is accessible to undergraduates and the same level of presentation is used here to understand more complex designs. Numerical solutions to the equations of motion are shown, along with insightful analytic approximations.

  3. Gun Safety

    MedlinePlus

    Many U.S. households have guns, but they can cause harm if not handled properly. Here are some things you can do to keep yourself and ... safe: Teach children that they shouldn't touch guns and that if they see a gun, to ...

  4. Borehole-explosion and air-gun data acquired in the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), southern California: description of the survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Elizabeth J.; Fuis, Gary S.; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Kell, Annie M.; Kent, Graham; Driscoll, Neal W.; Goldman, Mark; Reusch, Angela M.; Han, Liang; Sickler, Robert R.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Criley, Coyn J.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Skinner, Steven M.; Slayday-Criley, Coye J.; Murphy, Janice M.; Jensen, Edward G.; McClearn, Robert; Ferguson, Alex J.; Butcher, Lesley A.; Gardner, Max A.; Emmons, Iain; Loughran, Caleb L.; Svitek, Joseph R.; Bastien, Patrick C.; Cotton, Joseph A.; Croker, David S.; Harding, Alistair J.; Babcock, Jeffrey M.; Harder, Steven H.; Rosa, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    detailed images we need for earthquake hazard assessment. Air gun bursts, generated in the Salton Sea along extensions of our onshore seismic lines, also were utilized as sound-wave sources. Temporary deployments of portable land seismometers, as well as ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs) on the floor of the Salton Sea, recorded the energy from the land shots and air gun bursts. SSIP is similar to the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiments of 1994 and 1999 (LARSE I and II, respectively; Murphy and others, 1996; Fuis and others, 2001). The LARSE surveys demonstrated that the USGS and collaborators can safely and effectively conduct seismic imaging surveys in urban and nonurban areas, on lands owned and/or managed by many different types of agencies and entities. Information was produced that could not have been obtained any other way, and this information was key to changing the leading ideas about earthquake hazards at that time in the Los Angeles region. These surveys produced no significant environmental impact or damage to structures, and they did not trigger earthquakes.

  5. 21. Interior, view of shot corridor looking from the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Interior, view of shot corridor looking from the south to illustrate struyctural failure and a 15" shift - Fort Point, Gun Emplacement Number 1, 25 Wentworth Road, New Castle, Rockingham County, NH

  6. Air gun impactor--a novel model of graded white matter spinal cord injury in rodents.

    PubMed

    Marcol, Wiesław; Slusarczyk, Wojciech; Gzik, Marek; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Bobrowski, Michał; Grynkiewicz-Bylina, Beata; Rosicka, Paulina; Kalita, Katarzyna; Węglarz, Władysław; Barski, Jarosław J; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Labuzek, Krzysztof; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2012-10-01

    Understanding mechanisms of spinal cord injury and repair requires a reliable experimental model. We have developed a new device that produces a partial damage of spinal cord white matter by means of a precisely adjusted stream of air applied under high pressure. This procedure is less invasive than standard contusion or compression models and does not require surgical removal of vertebral bones. We investigated the effects of spinal cord injury made with our device in 29 adult rats, applying different experimental parameters. The rats were divided into three groups in respect to the applied force of the blast wave. Functional outcome and histopathological effects of the injury were analyzed during 12-week follow-up. The lesions were also examined by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The weakest stimulus produced transient hindlimb paresis with no cyst visible in spinal cord MRI scans, whereas the strongest was associated with permanent neurological deficit accompanied by pathological changes resembling posttraumatic syringomyelia. Obtained data revealed that our apparatus provided a spinal cord injury animal model with structural changes very similar to that present in patients after moderate spinal cord trauma. PMID:22711195

  7. [Forensic medical characteristics of Glock 19 pistol-shot wounds].

    PubMed

    Musin, E Kh; Lepik, D; Viali, M

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study was made of gun-shot wounds inflicted by shots from a modern stub-barrelled pistol 9mm Glock 19. The study has ascertain characteristics differentiating injuries inflicted by shots from this pistol: specific recoil injury, specific topography, intensity and distribution of begrime, gunpowder and metal particles and relevant lesions. It was found that depth of penetration under the skin depends both on shooting distance and the position of the particle from the inlet. PMID:16509203

  8. Reduction of Gun Erosion and Correlation of Gun Erosion Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, Dave; Wercinski, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Gun barrel erosion is serious problem with two-stage light gas guns. Excessive barrel erosion can lead to poor or failed launches and frequent barrel changes, with the corresponding down time. Also, excessive barrel erosion can limit the maximum velocity obtainable by loading down the hydrogen working gas with eroded barrel material. Guided by a CFD code, the operating conditions of the Ames 0.5-inch gun were modified to reduce barrel erosion. The changes implemented included: (1) reduction in the piston mass, powder mass and hydrogen fill pressure; and (2) reduction in pump tube volume, while maintaining hydrogen mass. The latter change was found, in particular, to greatly reduce barrel erosion. For muzzle velocity ranges of 6.1 - 6.9 km/sec, the barrel erosion was reduced by a factor of 10. Even for the higher muzzle velocity range of 7.0 - 8.2 km/sec, the barrel erosion was reduced by a factor of 4. Gun erosion data from the Ames 0.5-inch, 1.0-inch, and 1.5-inch guns operated over a wide variety of launch conditions was examined and it was found that this data could be correlated using four different parameters: normalized powder charge energy, normalized hydrogen energy density, normalized pump tube volume and barrel diameter. The development of the correlation and the steps used to collapse the experimental data are presented. Over a certain parameter range in the correlation developed, the barrel erosion per shot is found to increase very rapidly. The correlation should prove useful in the selection of gun operating conditions and the design of new guns. Representative shapes of eroded gun barrels are also presented.

  9. Nail Gun Induced Open Head Injury: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun Ho; Kim, Young; Park, Sung Choon; Ha, Young Soo; Lee, Kyu Chang

    2014-10-01

    Increasing use of the nail gun has led to higher injury rates from the use of tools with sequential actuation. Nail gun injury can occur to various parts of the body. Very deep penetration in the brain can have fatal results. A 46-year-old male fired shots from a nail gun into his brain in a suicide attempt. This case demonstrated successful surgical management of the resultant open head injury. PMID:27169051

  10. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  11. Gun control, gun ownership, and suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1988-01-01

    The relationship of the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States was explored. Gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was found to be the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. Regions with a higher extent of gun ownership had higher rates of suicide and homicide by firearms. PMID:3262246

  12. [Experimental effect of a shot caused by 4.5 mm cartridges fired from a Norica Dragon air-rifle and a Walther PPK/S air-pistol].

    PubMed

    Smedra-Kaźmirska, Anna; Barzdo, Maciej; Kedzierski, Maciej; Szram, Stefan; Berent, Jarosław

    2010-01-01

    In Poland, according to the Weapons and Ammunition Act" an air weapon which has kinetic energy of fired projectiles below 17 J does not require registration and can be bought even on the Internet. Sport and recreational shooting with this weapon does not have to be performed in a special shooting-range, but can be carried on in an open terrain providing "particular caution" is exercised. In this study we presented experimental effects of shooting pneumatic weapons (Norica Dragon air-rifle and Walther PPK/S air-pistol) which had kinetic energy of fired projectiles below 17 J. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of shooting the above weapons at human soft tissues and thin bones of the temple region to empirically evaluate the degree of danger to health and life, which such shots can produce. We used 20% gelatine blocks at 10 degrees C, which were the model of human soft tissues, and fresh calf scapulas, which served as the models of the temporal bone of the human cranium. Before the experiment, we had evaluated the weight of all the projectiles and their initial velocity using a chronograph. By these measures, we calculated the kinetic energy of the fired missiles. After shooting, we estimated if projectiles of different shapes shot from air weapons characterized by different kinetic energy and from different distances penetrated the gelatine blocks and if the said missiles perforated the bones. We also measured the depth of missiles penetration in the gelatine blocks. PMID:21520526

  13. [The composition and characteristics of the spread of the shot products from a gas-barrel weapon].

    PubMed

    Isakov, V D; Babakhanian, R V; Kuznetsov, Iu D; Sigalov, F A

    1998-01-01

    Chemical composition and diffusion of additional factors of a shot from barrel gun supplied with a standard chemical cartridge are studied. Experimental shots from gas pistols of three designs were made. During shots from gas barrel guns the victim is exposed to additional factors characteristic of both fire arms and gas barrel guns, namely, fragments of plastic cartridge container and pads, magnesium particles, and lacquer powder. The characteristics of the short range zone for gas barrel guns correspond to those of short barrel fire arms. PMID:9567673

  14. FEATURE 1, SMALL GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 1, SMALL GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Small Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  15. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  16. FEATURE C. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH REMNANT OF MOUNT, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE C. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH REMNANT OF MOUNT, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Machine Gun Positions, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 6. INTERIOR DETAIL OF GUN MOUNT ON TERRACE, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR DETAIL OF GUN MOUNT ON TERRACE, LOOKING EAST (1992). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building 22, Armament Laboratory & Gun Range, On flightline between Tenth & Eleventh Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  18. FEATURE A. CONCRETE ANTIAIRCRAFT GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTHNORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE A. CONCRETE ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Anti-Aircraft Gun Position, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  19. FEATURE 1, SMALL GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH, (with scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 1, SMALL GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH, (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Small Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  20. FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Machine Gun Positions, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  1. FEATURE A. CONCRETE ANTIAIRCRAFT GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE A. CONCRETE ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH - NORTHEAST (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Anti-Aircraft Gun Position, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  2. FEATURE A. CONCRETE ANTIAIRCRAFT GUN POSITION, SHOWING CORAL RUBBLE BERM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE A. CONCRETE ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUN POSITION, SHOWING CORAL RUBBLE BERM, VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Anti-Aircraft Gun Position, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  3. FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING NORTHWEST (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Machine Gun Positions, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  5. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-11-03

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun is described that includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  6. Optimization of a two stage light gas gun. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rynearson, R. J.; Rand, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Performance characteristics of the Texas A&M University light gas gun are presented along with a review of basic gun theory and popular prediction methods. A computer routine based on the simple isentropic compression method is discussed. Results from over 60 test shots are given which demonstrate an increase in gun muzzle velocity from 9.100 ft/sec. to 19,000 ft/sec. The data gathered indicated the Texas A&M light gas gun more closely resembles an isentropic compression gun rather than a shock compression gun.

  7. Simple light gas guns for hypervelocity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, S.K.; Haselton, H.H.; Milora, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Two-stage light guns are used extensively in hypervelocity research. The applications of this technology include impact studies and special materials development. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed two-stage guns that accelerate small projectiles (4-mm nominal diameter) to velocities of up to {approx}5 km/s. These guns are relatively small and simple (thus, easy to operate), allowing a significant number of test shots to be carried out and data accumulated in a short time. Materials that have been used for projectiles include plastics, frozen isotopes of hydrogen, and lithium hydride. One gun has been used to demonstrate repetitive operation at a rate of 0.7 Hz; and, with a few design improvements, it appears capable of performing at firing frequencies of 1--2 Hz. A schematic of ORNL two-stage device is shown below. Unlike most such devices, no rupture disks are used. Instead, a fast valve (high-flow type) initiates the acceleration process in the first stage. Projectiles can be loaded into the gun breech via the slide mechanism; this action has been automated which allows repetitive firing. Alternatively, the device is equipped with pipe gun'' apparatus in which gas can be frozen in situ in the gun barrel to form the projectile. This equipment operates with high reliability and is well suited for small-scale testing at high velocity. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Spot-Welding Gun Is Easy To Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Nguyen, Francis H.

    1991-01-01

    Electrical-resistance spot-welding gun designed to produce more welds per unit time by decreasing technician's effort and fatigue. Vacuum cups on frame secure welding gun to workpiece while compressed air drives welding tip against workpiece to make spot resistance weld. When weld completed, vacuum in frame cups released so frame and gun moved to position of next spot weld.

  9. Improved DC Gun Insulator

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Neubauer, K.B. Beard, R. Sah, C. Hernandez-Garcia, G. Neil

    2009-05-01

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron light sources and free electron lasers require accelerating structures that support electric fields of 10-100 MV/m, especially at the start of the accelerator chain where ceramic insulators are used for very high gradient DC guns. These insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic, creating a buildup of charge and causing eventual puncture. A novel ceramic manufacturing process is proposed. It will incorporate bulk resistivity in the region where it is needed to bleed off accumulated charge caused by highly energetic electrons. This process will be optimized to provide an appropriate gradient in bulk resistivity from the vacuum side to the air side of the HV standoff ceramic cylinder. A computer model will be used to determine the optimum cylinder dimensions and required resistivity gradient for an example RF gun application. A ceramic material example with resistivity gradient appropriate for use as a DC gun insulator will be fabricated by glazing using doping compounds and tested.

  10. ION GUN

    DOEpatents

    Dandl, R.A.

    1961-10-24

    An ion gun is described for the production of an electrically neutral ionized plasma. The ion gun comprises an anode and a cathode mounted in concentric relationship with a narrow annulus between. The facing surfaces of the rear portions of the anode and cathode are recessed to form an annular manifold. Positioned within this manifold is an annular intermediate electrode aligned with the an nulus between the anode and cathode. Gas is fed to the manifold and an arc discharge is established between the anode and cathode. The gas is then withdrawn from the manifold through the annulus between the anode and cathode by a pressure differential. The gas is then ionized by the arc discharge across the annulus. The ionized gas is withdrawn from the annulus by the combined effects of the pressure differential and a collimating magnetic field. In a 3000 gauss magnetic field, an arc voltage of 1800 volts, and an arc current of 0.2 amp, a plasma of about 3 x 10/sup 11/ particles/cc is obtained. (AEC)

  11. ELECTRON GUN

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  12. Gun ownership and social gun culture.

    PubMed

    Kalesan, Bindu; Villarreal, Marcos D; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2016-06-01

    We assessed gun ownership rates in 2013 across the USA and the association between exposure to a social gun culture and gun ownership. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 4000 US adults, from 50 states and District of Columbia, aged >18 years to assess gun ownership and social gun culture performed in October 2013. State-level firearm policy information was obtained from the Brady Law Center and Injury Prevention and Control Center. One-third of Americans reported owning a gun, ranging from 5.2% in Delaware to 61.7% in Alaska. Gun ownership was 2.25-times greater among those reporting social gun culture (PR=2.25, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.52) than those who did not. In conclusion, we found strong association between social gun culture and gun ownership. Gun cultures may need to be considered for public health strategies that aim to change gun ownership in the USA. PMID:26124073

  13. Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utter, Glenn H.

    This reference volume provides information on gun control and gun rights, including resources on the debate surrounding the Second Amendment and individuals and organizations focused on gun issues, along with statutes, court cases, events, and publications surrounding this current topic. Highlighted are the important organizations and their…

  14. The Gun Dispute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the debate over gun ownership and gun control in the United States, focusing on the historic place of guns in U.S. society. The current national mood is more receptive than ever to restricting and regulating adolescent access to guns in light of recent school shootings. (SLD)

  15. Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

  16. African-American adults' perceptions of guns and violence.

    PubMed Central

    Price, J. H.; Kandakai, T. L.; Casler, S.; Everett, S.; Smith, D.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined African-American adults' perceptions of guns and violence. Through a mall intercept type study, 347 adults, ages 20 to 75, responded to a 54-item questionnaire. One third of the respondents claimed they owned one or more types of guns, three fourths had personally known someone who had been shot, more than one third had actually seen someone shot, and one third had a gun pulled on them. While the vast majority (84%) believed guns are too easy to obtain, the majority (62%) also believed that having a gun at home would help protect them. There were no significant differences in perceptions of guns based on age, gender, level of education, or socioeconomic status. The results of this study tend to substantiate the concern and fear of personal harm that African Americans have to contend with on a regular basis. The results also suggest the need for some form of educational intervention and gun safety training in order to help reduce the risk of death and injury among African Americans. PMID:8078079

  17. Babies and shots

    MedlinePlus

    ... article discusses how to ease the pain of shots for babies. ... Parents often wonder how to make shots less painful for their babies. Nearly all immunizations (also called vaccinations) need to be given into the muscle or under the skin ...

  18. Allergy Shots (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shots Help Allergy shots help the body build immunity to specific allergens, thus eventually preventing or lessening ... the immune system to safely adjust and build immunity to the allergens. This is called the buildup ...

  19. Get Important Shots

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Plan Keep a Record The Basics The Basics: Overview Adults need to get shots (vaccines) just like kids do. ... Previous section Overview 2 of 5 sections The Basics: Other Shots Do I need any other shots to help me stay healthy? ...

  20. Babies and shots

    MedlinePlus

    ... next one less scary. Some doctors use a pain-relieving spray or cream before giving the shot. WHEN THE SHOT IS BEING GIVEN Put pressure on the area before the shot is given. Stay calm and do not let the child see if ...

  1. Birth Control Shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a year after they stop getting the birth control shot. However, the shot does not cause permanent loss of fertility and most women can get pregnant once they stop getting the shot. previous continue Who Uses It? Every method of birth control should be considered in light of what works ...

  2. Guns and Violence. Current Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Henny H., Ed.

    This book focuses on gun violence and gun control, presenting both sides of arguments about firearms ownership and gun control. Each of five chapters poses a question about gun control and provides answers for both sides of the question. The following essays are included: (1) "Gun Violence Is Becoming an Epidemic" (Bob Herbert); (2) "Gun Violence…

  3. [Detection of antimony topography using diffuse-contact method on the skin targets of bio-manikins after shooting with Makarov gun from short distance].

    PubMed

    Luzanova, I S; Demidov, I V; Sonis, M A; Shigeev, C V

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined sedimentation of stibium in the area of experimental skin entry holes generated by Makarov gun shots from different distances. Regularities of allocation of stibium subject to the distance of the shot were determined. Practical recommendations for expert conclusion about the distance of the shot were given on the grounds of the results of the study. PMID:18159753

  4. Gun Safety (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... guns are featured in many television shows, video games, computer games, and movies, it's important to know that real ... only happen on TV, in movies, or video games. A real gun is never a toy, and ...

  5. Gun carrying and drug selling among young incarcerated men and women.

    PubMed

    Kacanek, Deborah; Hemenway, David

    2006-03-01

    This paper examines the relationship between illegal drug economy involvement, gun-related victimization, and recent gun carrying among young men and women incarcerated in a state prison in the United States. Interviews were conducted with 18- to 25-year old incarcerated men (n = 135) and women (n = 69) between July 1999 and October 2000. Forty-five percent of men and 16% of women reported carrying a gun in the year prior to incarceration. Respondents who sold crack cocaine or other drugs were more likely to have carried guns than those not selling drugs. However, hard drug use was not associated with gun carrying among men. All ten women who carried guns had used hard drugs. Sixty-seven percent of men and 28% of women had been shot at. Respondents who sold crack cocaine were at elevated risk of being shot at. Among men, selling crack (OR = 10.2, 95% CI = 2.5, 42.1) and ever being shot at (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.7, 12.2), were associated with carrying guns. These findings provide further evidence of a link between crack selling (but not necessarily drug using) and gun carrying. PMID:16736375

  6. Gun Carrying and Drug Selling Among Young Incarcerated Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Hemenway, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between illegal drug economy involvement, gun-related victimization, and recent gun carrying among young men and women incarcerated in a state prison in the United States. Interviews were conducted with 18- to 25-year old incarcerated men (n = 135) and women (n = 69) between July 1999 and October 2000. Forty-five percent of men and 16% of women reported carrying a gun in the year prior to incarceration. Respondents who sold crack cocaine or other drugs were more likely to have carried guns than those not selling drugs. However, hard drug use was not associated with gun carrying among men. All ten women who carried guns had used hard drugs. Sixty-seven percent of men and 28% of women had been shot at. Respondents who sold crack cocaine were at elevated risk of being shot at. Among men, selling crack (OR = 10.2, 95% CI = 2.5, 42.1) and ever being shot at (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.7, 12.2), were associated with carrying guns. These findings provide further evidence of a link between crack selling (but not necessarily drug using) and gun carrying. PMID:16736375

  7. Survey of SRF guns

    SciTech Connect

    Belomestnykh, S.

    2011-07-25

    Developing Superconducting RF (SRF) electron guns is an active field with several laboratories working on different gun designs. While the first guns were based on elliptic cavity geometries, Quarter Wave Resonator (QWR) option is gaining popularity. QWRs are especially well suited for producing beams with high charge per bunch. In this talk we will describe recent progress in developing both types of SRF guns. SRF guns made excellent progress in the last two years. Several guns generated beams and one, at HZDR, injected beam into an accelerator. By accomplishing this, HZDR/ELBE gun demonstrated feasibility of the SRF gun concept with a normal-conducting Cs{sub 2}Te cathode. The cathode demonstrated very good performance with the lifetime of {approx}1 year. However, for high average current/high bunch charge operation CsK{sub 2}Sb is preferred as it needs green lasers, unlike UV laser for the Cs{sub 2}Te, which makes it easier to build laser/optics systems. Other high QE photocathodes are being developed for SRF guns, most notably diamond-amplified photocathode. Several QWR guns are under development with one producing beam already. They are very promising for high bunch charge operation. The field is very active and we should expect more good results soon.

  8. Women and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Many gun manufacturers market guns to women claiming a gun can provide protection. Statistics provided in this fact sheet indicate gun ownership may provide a false sense of security that can be fatal, since the greatest threat to a woman comes from the people and guns within her own home. Contrary to "typical" scenarios created by advertisers,…

  9. Interior of southeast gun chamber (labeled "Gun Turret No. Two), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of southeast gun chamber (labeled "Gun Turret No. Two), showing gun mounting pad, wall rings, small niche, and opening to outside - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Battery Adair, Princeton Place, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  11. Carbon nanotube electron gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  12. Science Curriculum: Shot-Gun or Rifle Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Arthur DeW.; Hatton, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    Stating that the shotgun approach to the science curriculum which has evolved for general education purposes is inappropriate for occupational programs, the authors report on research to evaluate the science curriculum for relevance to skills needed in various occupations. (MF)

  13. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, ARMCO HUT (FEATURE 4) IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, ARMCO HUT (FEATURE 4) IN BACKGROUND, VIEW FACING NORTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 14. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), LOOKING EAST AT SOUTHWEST END OF BUILDING. HVAC EQUIPMENT LOCATED OUTDOORS IN FOREGROUND. DUCTS CONDUCT HOT OR COLD AIR INDOORS. ROUND PIPES ARE INSULATED STEAM LINES. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY, IN BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  15. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Shot-put kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, R.

    2005-11-01

    The problem of the optimum throw in the shot-put discipline is analysed by relaxing the assumption that the height H, from which the athlete releases the shot, does not depend on the angle θ which the arm of the putter makes with the horizontal axis. In this context, the kinematics of the shot-put is studied and results are compared with the traditional analysis, which considers the height H, the angle θ and the modulus V0 of the initial velocity of the metal sphere as independent parameters.

  17. Remotely controlled spray gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  18. Modeling internal ballistics of gas combustion guns.

    PubMed

    Schorge, Volker; Grossjohann, Rico; Schönekess, Holger C; Herbst, Jörg; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Potato guns are popular homemade guns which work on the principle of gas combustion. They are usually constructed for recreational rather than criminal purposes. Yet some serious injuries and fatalities due to these guns are reported. As information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion-powered guns is scarce, it is the aim of this work to provide an experimental model of the internal ballistics of these devices and to investigate their basic physical parameters. A gas combustion gun was constructed with a steel tube as the main component. Gas/air mixtures of acetylene, hydrogen, and ethylene were used as propellants for discharging a 46-mm caliber test projectile. Gas pressure in the combustion chamber was captured with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Projectile velocity was measured with a ballistic speed measurement system. The maximum gas pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the time parameters of the pressure curve, and the velocity and path of the projectile through the barrel as a function of time were determined according to the pressure-time curve. The maximum gas pressure was measured to be between 1.4 bar (ethylene) and 4.5 bar (acetylene). The highest maximum rate of pressure rise was determined for hydrogen at (dp/dt)max = 607 bar/s. The muzzle energy was calculated to be between 67 J (ethylene) and 204 J (acetylene). To conclude, this work provides basic information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion guns. The risk of injury to the operator or bystanders is high, because accidental explosions of the gun due to the high-pressure rise during combustion of the gas/air mixture may occur. PMID:26239103

  19. Shots for Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Aging Shots For Safety Flu Pneumococcal Disease Tetanus and Diphtheria Shingles Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Side ... may need a second one to stay protected. Tetanus and Diphtheria Tetanus (sometimes called lockjaw) is caused ...

  20. Miniature paint-spray gun for recessed areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanasse, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature spray gun regulates paints and other liquids to spray at close range, facilitating spraying of remote or recessed areas. Individual valves for regulating air pressure and paint maximizes atomization for low pressure spraying.

  1. Relationships among balance, visual search, and lacrosse-shot accuracy.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Darrin W; Richard, Leon A; Verre, Arlene B; Myers, Jay

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine variables that may contribute to shot accuracy in women's college lacrosse. A convenience sample of 15 healthy women's National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III College lacrosse players aged 18-23 (mean+/-SD, 20.27+/-1.67) participated in the study. Four experimental variables were examined: balance, visual search, hand grip strength, and shoulder joint position sense. Balance was measured by the Biodex Stability System (BSS), and visual search was measured by the Trail-Making Test Part A (TMTA) and Trail-Making Test Part B (TMTB). Hand-grip strength was measured by a standard hand dynamometer, and shoulder joint position sense was measured using a modified inclinometer. All measures were taken in an indoor setting. These experimental variables were then compared with lacrosse-shot error that was measured indoors using a high-speed video camera recorder and a specialized L-shaped apparatus. A Stalker radar gun measured lacrosse-shot velocity. The mean lacrosse-shot error was 15.17 cm with a mean lacrosse-shot velocity of 17.14 m.s (38.35 mph). Lower scores on the BSS level 8 eyes open (BSS L8 E/O) test and TMTB were positively related to less lacrosse-shot error (r=0.760, p=0.011) and (r=0.519, p=0.048), respectively. Relations were not significant between lacrosse-shot error and grip strength (r=0.191, p = 0.496), lacrosse-shot error and BSS level 8 eyes closed (BSS L8 E/C) (r=0.501, p=0.102), lacrosse-shot error and BSS level 4 eyes open (BSS L4 E/O) (r=0.313, p=0.378), lacrosse-shot error and BSS level 4 eyes closed (BSS L4 E/C) (r=-0.029, p=0.936) lacrosse-shot error and shoulder joint position sense (r=-0.509, p=0.055) and between lacrosse-shot error and TMTA (r=0.375, p=0.168). The results reveal that greater levels of shot accuracy may be related to greater levels of visual search and balance ability in women college lacrosse athletes. PMID:20508452

  2. Rarefaction wave gun propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathe, Eric Lee

    A new species of gun propulsion that dramatically reduces recoil momentum imparted to the gun is presented. First conceived by the author on 18 March 1999, the propulsion concept is explained, a methodology for the design of a reasonable apparatus for experimental validation using NATO standard 35mm TP anti-aircraft ammunition is developed, and the experimental results are presented. The firing results are juxtaposed by a simple interior ballistic model to place the experimental findings into a context within which they may better be understood. Rarefaction wave gun (RAVEN) propulsion is an original contribution to the field of armament engineering. No precedent is known, and no experimental results of such a gun have been published until now. Recoil reduction in excess of 50% was experimentally achieved without measured loss in projectile velocity. RAVEN achieves recoil reduction by means of a delayed venting of the breech of the gun chamber that directs the high enthalpy propellant gases through an expansion nozzle to generate forward thrust that abates the rearward momentum applied to the gun prior to venting. The novel feature of RAVEN, relative to prior recoilless rifles, is that sufficiently delayed venting results in a rarefaction wave that follows the projectile though the bore without catching it. Thus, the projectile exits the muzzle without any compromise to its propulsion performance relative to guns that maintain a sealed chamber.

  3. 1. CONTEXT SHOT LOOKING NORTHWEST, WITH BUILDING 8250 (ARCH HANGAR) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXT SHOT LOOKING NORTHWEST, WITH BUILDING 8250 (ARCH HANGAR) IN BACKGROUND. - Loring Air Force Base, Double Cantilever Hangar, East of Arizona Road, west of southern portion of Taxiway J, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  4. Comparison of a laboratory and a production coating spray gun with respect to scale-up.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Ronny; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory spray gun and a production spray gun were investigated in a scale-up study. Two Schlick spray guns, which are equipped with a new antibearding cap, were used in this study. The influence of the atomization air pressure, spray gun-to tablet bed distance, polymer solution viscosity, and spray rate were analyzed in a statistical design of experiments. The 2 spray guns were compared with respect to the spray width and height, droplet size, droplet velocity, and spray density. The droplet size, velocity, and spray density were measured with a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer. A successful scale-up of the atomization is accomplished if similar droplet sizes, droplet velocities, and spray densities are achieved in the production scale as in the laboratory scale. This study gives basic information for the scale-up of the settings from the laboratory spray gun to the production spray gun. Both spray guns are highly comparable with respect to the droplet size and velocity. The scale-up of the droplet size should be performed by an adjustment of the atomization air pressure. The scale-up of the droplet velocity should be performed by an adjustment of the spray gun to tablet bed distance. The presented statistical model and surface plots are convenient and powerful tools for scaling up the spray settings if the spray gun is changed from laboratory spray gun to the production spray gun. PMID:17408226

  5. Repetitive, small-bore two-stage light gas gun

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Gouge, M.J.; Milora, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    A repetitive two-stage light gas gun for high-speed pellet injection has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In general, applications of the two-stage light gas gun have been limited to only single shots, with a finite time (at least minutes) needed for recovery and preparation for the next shot. The new device overcomes problems associated with repetitive operation, including rapidly evacuating the propellant gases, reloading the gun breech with a new projectile, returning the piston to its initial position, and refilling the first- and second-stage gas volumes to the appropriate pressure levels. In addition, some components are subjected to and must survive severe operating conditions, which include rapid cycling to high pressures and temperatures (up to thousands of bars and thousands of kelvins) and significant mechanical shocks. Small plastic projectiles (4-mm nominal size) and helium gas have been used in the prototype device, which was equipped with a 1-m-long pump tube and a 1-m-long gun barrel, to demonstrate repetitive operation (up to 1 Hz) at relatively high pellet velocities (up to 3000 m/s). The equipment is described, and experimental results are presented. 124 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. A Dedicated Facility to Perform Powder and Light Gas Gun Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakraysek, A. J.; Sutherland, G. T.; Sandusky, H. D.

    1999-06-01

    A new building has been constructed to house various powder, single and two-stage gas guns at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head. Guns previously located at the Naval Research Laboratory and the former White Oak Site of the Naval Surface Warfare Center have been relocated. Most of the guns are mounted on movable pedestals to allow them to be shot into various chambers. These chambers are a concrete blast chamber, a target chamber/catch tank for flyer plate experiments, and a target chamber outfitted for terminal ballistics measurements. This paper will discuss the capabilities of this new facility.

  7. A new gun facility dedicated to performing shock physics and terminal ballistics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakraysek, Alan J.; Sutherland, Gerrit T.; Sandusky, Harold D.; Strange, David

    2000-04-01

    A new building has been constructed to house various powder and single-stage and two-stage gas guns at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division. Guns previously located at the Naval Research Laboratory and the former White Oak Site of the Naval Surface Warfare Center have been relocated here. Most of the guns are mounted on moveable pedestals to allow them to be shot into various chambers. The facility includes a concrete blast chamber, a target chamber/catch tank for flyer plate experiments, and a target chamber outfitted for terminal ballistics measurements. This paper will discuss the capabilities of this new facility.

  8. RF Gun Optimization Study

    SciTech Connect

    A. S. Hofler; P. Evtushenko; M. Krasilnikov

    2007-08-01

    Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. RF and SRF gun design is further complicated because the bunches are space charge dominated and require additional emittance compensation. A genetic algorithm has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs for Cornell* and Jefferson Lab**, and we propose studying how the genetic algorithm techniques can be applied to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize gun designs that have been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation.

  9. High Velocity Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  10. Joining of Thin Metal Sheets by Shot Peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    In shot peening the substrate undergoes large plastic deformation near the surface due to the hit with shots. The plastic flow areas formed by cold working may form the surface layer. Authors have recently proposed new joining methods using shot peening, shot lining and shot caulking. Our approach has been applied to the butt joining of the dissimilar metal sheets. In the present study, joining of thin metal sheets using a shot peening process was investigated to improve the joinability. In the joined section, the edge of sheets is the equally-spaced slits. In this method, the convex edges of the sheet are laid on top of the other sheet. Namely, the two sheets are superimposed in the joining area. When the connection is shot-peened, the material of the convex area undergoes large plastic deformation near the surface due to the collision of shots. In this process, particularly noteworthy is the plastic flow near surface layer. The convex edges of the sheet can be joined to the other sheet, thus two sheets are joined each other. In the experiment, the shot peening treatment was performed by using an air-type peening machine. The shots used were made of high carbon cast steel. Air pressure was 0.6 MPa and peening time was in the range of 30-150s. The peening conditions were controlled in the experiment. The thin sheets were commercial low-carbon steel, stainless steel, pure aluminum, and aluminium alloy. The effects of processing conditions on the joinability were mainly examined. The joint strength increased with the kinetic energy of shots. It was found that the present method was effective for joining of thin metal sheets.

  11. Kids Guide to Shots

    MedlinePlus

    ... that they usually don't get a very bad case of it. Milder cases mean fewer spots and less itching. Shots are given by injection with a needle. A syringe (say: seh-RINJ) holds the liquid vaccine, and the needle has a hole in it ...

  12. A system to damp the free piston oscillations in a two-stage light-gas gun used for hypervelocity impact experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavarin, D.; Francesconi, A.; Angrilli, F.

    2004-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact experiments that reproduce on-orbit collisions between micrometeoroids or orbital debris and space structures are commonly performed by means of propellant-driven two-stage light-gas guns. Such devices accelerate projectiles using the thrust of a light propellant gas that is compressed to high pressure and temperature by a piston running in a pump tube. Though these guns have the unique capability of accelerating particles up to 9 km/s, many components of the gun must be checked and/or substituted after each shot making test sessions long and expensive. In order to have a lot of and many different types of hypervelocity impact data, the Center of Studies and activities for Space CISAS "G. Colombo" of Padua University developed a high-shot-frequency two-stage light-gas gun that can increase the shot repetition rate of standard facilities by a factor of 5 or more and at the same time reduce the shot cost by a factor of 2 or more. This is made possible through the use of special mechanical and diagnostic solutions that were designed to operate the gun for more than 50 shots in sequence without having to carry out maintenance operations. This article presents the design and operation of the CISAS two-stage light-gas gun damping system, which is one of the subsystems that makes it possible to achieve high-shot frequency. The damping system is in charge of controlling the piston oscillations in the pump tube, making it possible for the piston to withstand more than 100 shots without any damage. In particular, the damping system avoids piston strikes onto the gun head at the end of each compression stroke and allows the piston to be positioned at the base of the pump tube after each shot. The sensitivity of the piston oscillations to the damping operations and main subsystem design parameters were identified using numerical simulations, carried out according to a model that describes every working phase of the gun. Moreover, in this paper, the

  13. Electromagnetic targeting of guns

    SciTech Connect

    Pogue, E.W.; Boat, R.M.; Holden, D.N.; Lopez, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) signals produced from explosives being fired have been reported in the literature for fifty years. When a gun is fired it produces an EMP muzzle blast signal. The strength and nature of these signals was first analyzed in the early 1970s, while the results were interesting, no follow-up studies were conducted. With modern detection and signal processing technology, we believe that these signals could be used to instantaneously locate guns of virtually all calibers as they fire. The objective of our one-year project was to establish the basic nature of these signals and their utility in the concept of electromagnetic targeting of guns.

  14. Mole gun injury.

    PubMed

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. PMID:23746826

  15. Where the guns come from: the gun industry and gun commerce.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2002-01-01

    Under federal law, it is illegal for youth under age 18 to purchase rifles or shotguns, and for those under age 21 to purchase handguns. However, fatality and injury statistics clearly show that guns are finding their way into young people's hands. Many of these youth obtain guns through illegal gun markets. This article focuses on how guns in the United States are manufactured, marketed, and sold. The article shows how the legal and illegal gun markets are intimately connected and make guns easily accessible to youth. Although the domestic gun manufacturing industry is relatively small and has experienced declining sales in recent years, it has significant political clout and a large market for its products, and has engaged in aggressive marketing to youth. Lax oversight of licensed firearms dealers, combined with little or no regulation of private sales between gun owners, mean that guns can quickly moved from the legal gun market into the illegal market, where they can be acquired by young people. Certain guns, especially inexpensive, poorly made small handguns, are particularly attractive to criminals and youth. The author observes that several policy innovations--including increased regulation of licensed firearms dealers, intensified screening of prospective buyers, regulation of private sales, gun licensing and registration, and bans on some types of weapons--hold promise for decreasing the flow of guns into the hands of youth. PMID:12194613

  16. The Mystery of the Gun Turret in the Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R. D.

    2015-11-30

    The mystery of the gun turret in the desert began with an ingenious idea: to develop a reusable open-air line of sight diagnostic device to support LLNL’s early nuclear weapons development efforts. Obtained from the Mare Island Navy Shipyard (MINS) in January 1957, the gun turret traveled by ship to the Naval Construction Battalion base at Port Hueneme, California, and then by truck to Area 2 in the Yucca Flats valley at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS).

  17. Unbalanced field RF electron gun

    DOEpatents

    Hofler, Alicia

    2013-11-12

    A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

  18. Improving the Performance of Two-Stage Gas Guns By Adding a Diaphragm in the Pump Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, D. W.; Miller, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Herein, we study the technique of improving the gun performance by installing a diaphragm in the pump tube of the gun. A CFD study is carried out for the 0.28 in. gun in the Hypervelocity Free Flight Radiation (HFF RAD) range at the NASA Ames Research Center. The normal, full-length pump tube is studied as well as two pump tubes of reduced length (approximately 75% and approximately 33% of the normal length). Significant improvements in performance are calculated to be gained for the reduced length pump tubes upon the addition of the diaphragm. These improvements are identified as reductions in maximum pressures in the pump tube and at the projectile base of approximately 20%, while maintaining the projectile muzzle velocity or as increases in muzzle velocity of approximately 0.5 km/sec while not increasing the maximum pressures in the gun. Also, it is found that both guns with reduced pump tube length (with diaphragms) could maintain the performance of gun with the full length pump tube without diaphragms, whereas the guns with reduced pump tube lengths without diaphragms could not. A five-shot experimental investigation of the pump tube diaphragm technique is carried out for the gun with a pump tube length of 75% normal. The CFD predictions of increased muzzle velocity are borne out by the experimental data. Modest, but useful muzzle velocity increases (2.5 - 6%) are obtained upon the installation of a diaphragm, compared to a benchmark shot without a diaphragm.

  19. ZAPP shot summary

    SciTech Connect

    Loisel, Guillaume Pascal

    2015-10-01

    This was the second Z Astrophysical Plasma Properties (ZAPP) fundamental science shot series of 2015. ZAPP experiments measure fundamental properties of atoms in plasmas to solve the following important astrophysical puzzles: Why can’t we accurately model the opacity of Fe at the convection zone boundary in the Sun? How accurate are the photoionization models used to interpret data from xray satellite observations? and Why doesn’t spectral fitting provide the correct properties for White Dwarfs?

  20. Hot hollow cathode gun assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, J.D.

    1983-11-22

    A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  1. Glue Guns: Aiming for Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    While glue guns are very useful, there are safety issues. Regardless of the temperature setting, glue guns can burn skin. The teacher should demonstrate and supervise the use of glue guns and have a plan should a student get burned. There should be an initial first aid protocol in place, followed by a visit to the school nurse. An accident report…

  2. Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1985-01-01

    A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  3. Children, Youth, and Gun Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of articles summarizes knowledge and research about how gun violence affects children and youth and discusses which policies hold promise for reducing youth gun violence. The papers are: (1) "Statement of Purpose" (Richard E. Behrman); "Children, Youth, and Gun Violence: Analysis and Recommendations" (Kathleen Reich, Patti L.…

  4. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, W.

    1988-04-01

    Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations.

  5. The Rail Gun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gay B.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a rail gun demonstration that addresses a broad group of educational goals in introductory electricity and magnetism. Uses a battery-powered circuit consisting of a movable conductor placed across two conducting rails in a magnetic field to review mechanics, foster approximate reasoning and lateral class discussion, and demonstrate the…

  6. Service Without Guns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberly, Donald J.; Gal, Reuven

    2006-01-01

    "Service Without Guns"--by Donald J. Eberly and Reuven Gal with a guest chapter by Michael Sherraden--notes the many similarities between military service and civilian National Youth Service (NYS) and concludes that NYS can and should become as large and influential in the 21st Century as military service was in the 20th. The book examines the…

  7. Radar gun hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-20

    Radar guns - hand-held units used by the law to nail speeders - have been in use since the early '60s. Now they've been accused of causing cancer. Police officers in several states have so far filed eight suits against the manufacturer, claiming that they have contracted rare forms of cancer, such as of the eyelid and the testicle, from frequent proximity to the devices. Spurred by concerns expressed by police groups, researchers at the Rochester Institute of Technology are conducting what they believe to be the first research of its kind in the nation. Last month psychologist John Violanti, an expert in policy psychology and health, sent out a one-page survey to 6,000 active and retired police officers in New York State, asking them about their health and their use of radar guns. Violanti says melanoma, leukemia, and lymph node cancer may be linked to these as well as other electromagnetic devices. The Food and Drug Administration earlier this year issued a warning about radar guns, telling users not to operate them closer than 6 inches from the body. But this may not be a sufficient safeguard since the instruments can give off crisscrossing wave emissions within a police vehicle. The survey will be used to help determine if it would be safer to mount the guns, which are currently either hand-held or mounted on dashboards, outside troopers' cars.

  8. Gun control saves lives.

    PubMed

    Matzopoulos, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Reducing firearm mortality by means of stricter gun control is one of the most important short- to medium-term measures to address the burden of violence in South Africa, while longer-term interventions and policy measures take effect. PMID:27245735

  9. Gun Dealers, USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie; And Others

    In the United States, more than 11,500 adolescents' and young adults' lives are taken each year by firearms. Although Federal law prohibits minors from purchasing handguns, they typically get them by asking someone of legal age (18 years or older) to purchase them from one of the 256,771 Federally licensed gun dealers. This pamphlet answers…

  10. Lead shot toxicity to passerines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Heinz, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of a single size 7.5 lead shot to passerines. No mortalities or signs of plumbism were observed in dosed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) fed a commercial diet, but when given a more natural diet, three of 10 dosed birds died within 1 day. For all survivors from which shot were recovered, all but one excreted the shot within 24 h of dosing, whereas, the dead birds retained their shot. Shot erosion was significantly greater (P < 0.05) when weathered shot were ingested compared to new shot, and the greatest erosion was observed in those birds that died (2.2-9.7%). Blood lead concentrations of birds dosed with new shot were not significantly different (P=0.14) from those of birds exposed to weathered shot. Liver lead concentrations of birds that died ranged from 71 to 137 ppm, dry weight. Despite the short amount of time the shot was retained, songbirds may absorb sufficient lead to compromise their survival.

  11. The Physics of Shot Towers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscombe, Trevor C.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    In the late 18th and throughout the 19th century, lead shot for muskets was prepared by use of a shot tower. Molten lead was poured from the top of a tower and, during its fall, the drops became spherical under the action of surface tension. In this article, we ask and answer the question: "How does the size of the lead shot depend on the height…

  12. Lead shot poisons bald eagles

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, J.P.

    1985-09-01

    This article describes the controversy between the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Wildlife Federation and the increased mortality of bald eagles. The eagles are being poisoned by preying on waterfowl which have ingested lead shot or have been wounded by shot and not recovered. The controversy has resulted in the establishment of new criteria for so-called non-toxic shot waterfowl hunting.

  13. The Physics of Shot Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipscombe, Trevor C.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-04-01

    In the late 18th and throughout the 19th century, lead shot for muskets was prepared by use of a shot tower. Molten lead was poured from the top of a tower and, during its fall, the drops became spherical under the action of surface tension. In this article, we ask and answer the question: How does the size of the lead shot depend on the height of the tower? In the process, we explain the basic technology underlying an important historical invention (the shot tower) and use simple physics (Newtonian mechanics and the thermodynamic laws of cooling) to model its operation.

  14. Use of a Tantalum Liner to Reduce Bore Erosion and Increase Muzzle Velocity in Two-Stage Light Gas Guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Muzzle velocities and gun erosion predicted by earlier numerical simulations of two stage light gas guns with steel gun tubes were in good agreement with experimental values. In a subsequent study, simulations of high performance shots were repeated with rhenium (Re) gun tubes. Large increases in muzzle velocity (2 - 4 km/sec) were predicted for Re tubes. In addition, the hydrogen-produced gun tube erosion was, in general, predicted to be zero with Re tubes. Tantalum (Ta) has some mechanical properties superior to those of Re. Tantalum has a lower modulus of elasticity than Re for better force transmission from the refractory metal liner to an underlying thick wall steel tube. Tantalum also has greater ductility than Re for better survivability during severe stress/strain cycles. Also, tantalum has been used as a coating or liner in military powder guns with encouraging results. Tantalum has, however, somewhat inferior thermal properties to those of rhenium, with a lower melting point and lower density and thermal conductivity. The present study was undertaken to see to what degree the muzzle velocity gains of rhenium gun tubes (over steel tubes) could be achieved with tantalum gun tubes. Nine high performance shots were modeled with a new version of our CFD gun code for steel, rhenium and tantalum gun tubes. For all except the highest velocity shot, the results with Ta tubes were nearly identical with those for Re tubes. Even for the highest velocity shot, the muzzle velocity gain over a steel tube using Ta was 82% of the gain obtained using Re. Thus, the somewhat inferior thermal properties of Ta (when compared to those of Re) translate into only very slightly poorer overall muzzle velocity performance. When this fact is combined with the superior mechanical properties of Ta and the encouraging performance of Ta liners/coatings in military powder guns, tantalum is to be preferred over Re as a liner/coating material for two stage light gas guns to increase muzzle

  15. Centrifugal shot blast system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

  16. The polarized SRF gun experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Grover, R.; Todd, R.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Schultheiss, T.

    2007-09-10

    RF electron guns are capable of producing electron bunches with high brightness, which outperform DC electron guns and may even be able to provide electron beams for the ILC without the need for a damping ring. However, all successful existing guns for polarized electrons are DC guns because the environment inside an RF gun is hostile to the GaAs cathode material necessary for polarization. While the typical vacuum pressure in a DC gun is better than 10{sup -11} torr the vacuum in an RF gun is in the order of 10{sup -9} torr. Experiments at BINP Novosibirsk show that this leads to strong ion back-bombardment and generation of dark currents, which destroy the GaAs cathode in a short time. The situation might be much more favorable in a (super-conducting) SRF gun. The cryogenic pumping of the gun cavity walls may make it possible to maintain a vacuum close to 10{sup -12} torr, solving the problem of ion bombardment and dark currents. Of concern would be contamination of the gun cavity by evaporating cathode material. This report describes an experiment that Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in collaboration with Advanced Energy Systems (AES) is conducting to answer these questions.

  17. CFD Modelling of Bore Erosion in Two-Stage Light Gas Guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    A well-validated quasi-one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for the analysis of the internal ballistics of two-stage light gas guns is modified to explicitly calculate the ablation of steel from the gun bore and the incorporation of the ablated wall material into the hydrogen working cas. The modified code is used to model 45 shots made with the NASA Ames 0.5 inch light gas gun over an extremely wide variety of gun operating conditions. Good agreement is found between the experimental and theoretical piston velocities (maximum errors of +/-2% to +/-6%) and maximum powder pressures (maximum errors of +/-10% with good igniters). Overall, the agreement between the experimental and numerically calculated gun erosion values (within a factor of 2) was judged to be reasonably good, considering the complexity of the processes modelled. Experimental muzzle velocities agree very well (maximum errors of 0.5-0.7 km/sec) with theoretical muzzle velocities calculated with loading of the hydrogen gas with the ablated barrel wall material. Comparison of results for pump tube volumes of 100%, 60% and 40% of an initial benchmark value show that, at the higher muzzle velocities, operation at 40% pump tube volume produces much lower hydrogen loading and gun erosion and substantially lower maximum pressures in the gun. Large muzzle velocity gains (2.4-5.4 km/sec) are predicted upon driving the gun harder (that is, upon using, higher powder loads and/or lower hydrogen fill pressures) when hydrogen loading is neglected; much smaller muzzle velocity gains (1.1-2.2 km/sec) are predicted when hydrogen loading is taken into account. These smaller predicted velocity gains agree well with those achieved in practice. CFD snapshots of the hydrogen mass fraction, density and pressure of the in-bore medium are presented for a very erosive shot.

  18. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  19. Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Linda; Weeks, Kyle; Murphy, Marie Mackay

    1997-01-01

    Using three studies, examined the relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime. Findings indicate a connection between fear of crime and attitudes toward guns: people higher in fear of crime favored gun control. Results also established a relationship between stereotypical beliefs about gun victims and support for gun control. (RJM)

  20. Magnetron Driven L Band RF Gun using a Photocathode Emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Kirk; Fisher, Amnon; Friedman, Moshe

    1996-11-01

    Magnetron Driven L Band RF Gun using a Photocathode Emitter A tunable 5 megawatt L-Band injection locked magnetron amplifier is used to drive a 1-1/2 cell RF cavity gun, to produce a 2.5 megavolt electron beam. A tunable RF source relaxes the precision of the cavity gun construction, and therefore simplifies the design and reduces the overall cost. The design of the L-Band ( 1.3 GHz) RF cavity linear accelerator is presented, along with Superfish, SOS computer simulations, and calculations of beam energy and temporal qualities. Measurements of a few robust photocathode materials as well as measurements of the beam qualities of the final accelerator are presented. Future work will utilize new semiconductor laser diodes that can be electrically driven in the gigahertz range. This makes possible an electron gun system which can run at the RF frequency used to accelerate the electron beam. Such a system produces a "lock to clock" and synchronized RF and electron beam source which can be run single shot or any rep rate up to the RF frequency.

  1. Shot Planning and Analysis Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, A; Beeler, R; Conder, A; Fallejo, R; Flegel, M; Hutton, M; Jancaitis, K; Lakamsani, V; Potter, D; Reisdorf, S; Tappero, J; Whitman, P; Carr, W; Liao, Z

    2011-07-25

    Shot planning and analysis tools (SPLAT) integrate components necessary to help achieve a high over-all operational efficiency of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) by combining near and long-term shot planning, final optics demand and supply loops, target diagnostics planning, and target fabrication requirements. Currently, the SPLAT project is comprised of two primary tool suites for shot planning and optics demand. The shot planning component provides a web-based interface to selecting and building a sequence of proposed shots for the NIF. These shot sequences, or 'lanes' as they are referred to by shot planners, provide for planning both near-term shots in the Facility and long-term 'campaigns' in the months and years to come. The shot planning capabilities integrate with the Configuration Management Tool (CMT) for experiment details and the NIF calendar for availability. Future enhancements will additionally integrate with target diagnostics planning and target fabrication requirements tools. The optics demand component is built upon predictive modelling of maintenance requirements on the final optics as a result of the proposed shots assembled during shot planning. The predictive models integrate energetics from a Laser Performance Operations Model (LPOM), the status of the deployed optics as provided by the online Final Optics Inspection system, and physics-based mathematical 'rules' that predict optic flaw growth and new flaw initiations. These models are then run on an analytical cluster comprised of forty-eight Linux-based compute nodes. Results from the predictive models are used to produce decision-support reports in the areas of optics inspection planning, optics maintenance exchanges, and optics beam blocker placement advisories. Over time, the SPLAT project will evolve to provide a variety of decision-support and operation optimization tools.

  2. Friction in rail guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

  3. Guns and blood alcohol levels among homicide victims.

    PubMed

    Abel, E L

    1986-11-01

    A retrospective study of homicide victims in Erie County, NY was conducted for 1973-1984 to determine the association of blood alcohol levels among homicide victims slain by guns and other weapons. Most victims of gunshot or beating had negative blood alcohol levels (BALs) at time of death whereas most stabbing victims had positive BALs, especially black victims. Gunshot victims were more likely to be killed in a private home compared to a street or building. Location of homicide did not relate significantly to BAL. Younger victims were less likely to be shot to death compared to middle-aged victims. These results do not support previous contentions that alcohol is a major contributor to gun-related homicides. PMID:3803196

  4. Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bisognano, Joseph J.; Bissen, M.; Bosch, R.; Efremov, M.; Eisert, D.; Fisher, M.; Green, M.; Jacobs, K.; Keil, R.; Kleman, K.; Rogers, G.; Severson, M.; Yavuz, D. D.; Legg, Robert A.; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna; Hovater, J. Curtis; Plawski, Tomasz; Powers, Thomas J.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.

  5. Methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.

    2007-10-02

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  6. Systems and methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.

    2005-07-12

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  7. Moon shots for management.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Gary

    2009-02-01

    In May 2008, a group of management scholars and senior executives worked to define an agenda for management during the next 100 years. The so-called renegade brigade, led by Gary Hamel, included academics, such as C.K. Prahalad, Peter Senge, and Jeffrey Pfeffer; new-age thinkers, like James Surowiecki; and progressive CEOs, such as Whole Foods' John Mackey, W.L. Gore's Terri Kelly, and IDEO's Tim Brown. What drew them together was a set of shared beliefs about the importance of management and a sense of urgency about reinventing it for a new era. The group's first task was to compile a roster of challenges that would focus the energies of management innovators around the world. Accordingly, in this article, Hamel (who has set up the Management Lab, a research organization devoted to management innovation) outlines 25 "moon shots"--ambitious goals that managers should strive to achieve and in the process create Management 2.0. Topping the list is the imperative of extending management's responsibilities beyond just creating shareholder value. To do so will require both reconstructing the field's philosophical foundations so that work serves a higher purpose and fully embedding the ideas of community and citizenship into organizations. A number of challenges focus on ameliorating the toxic effects of hierarchy. Others focus on better ways to unleash creativity and capitalize on employees' passions. Still others seek to transcend the limitations of traditional patterns of management thinking. Not all the moon shots are new, but many tackle issues that are endemic in large organizations. Their purpose is to inspire new solutions to long-simmering problems by making every company as genuinely human as the people who work there. PMID:19266704

  8. Gun muzzle blast and flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingenberg, Guenter; Heimerl, Joseph M.

    A repository of fundamental experimental and analytical data concerning the complex phenomena associated with gun-muzzle blast and flash effects is presented, proceeding from gun muzzle signatures to modern gun-propulsion concepts, interior and transitional ballistics, and characterizations of blast-wave research and muzzle flash. Data are presented in support of a novel hypothesis which explains the ignition of secondary flash and elucidates the means for its suppression. Both chemical and mechanical (often competing) methods of flash suppression are treated. The historical work of Kesslau and Ladenburg is noted, together with French, British, Japanese and American research efforts and current techniques of experimental characterization for gun muzzle phenomena.

  9. Allergy Shots: Could They Help Your Allergies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... substance that you are allergic to (called the allergen). Common allergens include mold and pollen from grasses, ragweed and ... shot. Allergy shots help your body fight the allergen. When you get shots that contain the allergen, ...

  10. Resonant optical gun.

    PubMed

    Maslov, A V; Bakunov, M I

    2014-05-01

    We propose a concept of a structure-a resonant optical gun-to realize an efficient propulsion of dielectric microparticles by light forces. The structure is based on a waveguide in which a reversal of the electromagnetic momentum flow of the incident mode is realized by exciting a whispering gallery resonance in the microparticle. The propelling force can reach the value up to the theoretical maximum of twice the momentum flow of the initial wave. The force density oscillates along the particle periphery and has very large amplitude. PMID:24784113

  11. Gun Concerns Personal for Duncan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    As U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan works with other Obama administration officials on policy responses to the shootings at a Connecticut elementary school, he brings a personal and professional history that has acquainted him with the impact of gun violence. As schools chief in Chicago from 2001 to 2008, he was affected by the gun deaths…

  12. LCLS Gun Solenoid Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Schmerge, John

    2010-12-10

    The LCLS photocathode rf gun requires a solenoid immediately downstream for proper emittance compensation. Such a gun and solenoid have been operational at the SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) for over eight years. Based on magnetic measurements and operational experience with the GTF gun solenoid multiple modifications are suggested for the LCLS gun solenoid. The modifications include adding dipole and quadrupole correctors inside the solenoid, increasing the bore to accommodate the correctors, decreasing the mirror plate thickness to allow the solenoid to move closer to the cathode, cutouts in the mirror plate to allow greater optical clearance with grazing incidence cathode illumination, utilizing pancake coil mirror images to compensate the first and second integrals of the transverse fields and incorporating a bipolar power supply to allow for proper magnet standardization and quick polarity changes. This paper describes all these modifications plus the magnetic measurements and operational experience leading to the suggested modifications.

  13. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. PMID:25646308

  14. Electric arc welding gun

    DOEpatents

    Luttrell, Edward; Turner, Paul W.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to improved apparatus for arc welding an interior joint formed by intersecting tubular members. As an example, the invention is well suited for applications where many similar small-diameter vertical lines are to be welded to a long horizontal header. The improved apparatus includes an arc welding gun having a specially designed welding head which is not only very compact but also produces welds that are essentially free from rolled-over solidified metal. The welding head consists of the upper end of the barrel and a reversely extending electrode holder, or tip, which defines an acute angle with the barrel. As used in the above-mentioned example, the gun is positioned to extend upwardly through the vertical member and the joint to be welded, with its welding head disposed within the horizontal header. Depending on the design of the welding head, the barrel then is either rotated or revolved about the axis of the vertical member to cause the electrode to track the joint.

  15. SunShot Identity Video

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Minh; Resch, Rhone

    2014-05-19

    Highlights of the SunShot program, the national targets for the program, and the "all of the above" approach to achieving those goals through research, tech transfer, permitting, tax incentives, and a comprehensive approach to installation.

  16. SunShot Identity Video

    ScienceCinema

    Le, Minh; Resch, Rhone

    2014-06-05

    Highlights of the SunShot program, the national targets for the program, and the "all of the above" approach to achieving those goals through research, tech transfer, permitting, tax incentives, and a comprehensive approach to installation.

  17. 5. GUN MOUNT ON TERRACE, EAST VIEW (1992). WrightPatterson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GUN MOUNT ON TERRACE, EAST VIEW (1992). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building 71, Power Plant Engine Test Torque Stands, Seventh Street between D & G Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  18. 2. CONTEXT SHOT LOOKING NORTH, WITH BUILDING 8250 (ARCH HANGAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEXT SHOT LOOKING NORTH, WITH BUILDING 8250 (ARCH HANGAR IN BACKGROUND AND STEAM PIPES BENDING OVER RAILROAD TRACKS IN MIDDLE GROUND. - Loring Air Force Base, Double Cantilever Hangar, East of Arizona Road, west of southern portion of Taxiway J, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  19. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  20. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    PubMed Central

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  1. 76 FR 59421 - Proposed Information Collection; Approval Procedures for Nontoxic Shot and Shot Coatings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... Shot Coatings AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments... Procedures for Nontoxic Shot and Shot Coatings, 50 CFR 20.134. Service Form Number(s): None. Type of Request... market approved nontoxic shot types or nontoxic shot coatings. Respondent's Obligation: Required...

  2. High Intensity Polarized Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Redwine, Robert P.

    2012-07-31

    The goal of the project was to investigate the possibility of building a very high intensity polarized electron gun for the Electron-Ion Collider. This development is crucial for the eRHIC project. The gun implements a large area cathode, ring-shaped laser beam and active cathode cooling. A polarized electron gun chamber with a large area cathode and active cathode cooling has been built and tested. A preparation chamber for cathode activation has been built and initial tests have been performed. Major parts for a load-lock chamber, where cathodes are loaded into the vacuum system, have been manufactured.

  3. The Internal Ballistics of an Air Gun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The internal ballistics of a firearm or artillery piece considers the pellet, bullet, or shell motion while it is still inside the barrel. In general, deriving the muzzle speed of a gunpowder firearm from first principles is difficult because powder combustion is fast and it very rapidly raises the temperature of gas (generated by gunpowder…

  4. Nail-gun injuries. Accident, homicide, or suicide?

    PubMed

    McCorkell, S J; Harley, J D; Cummings, D

    1986-09-01

    It may be difficult to distinguish industrial accidents from suicide attempts or even assaults or homicide. Nail guns are relatively new industrial tools that can produce severe or fatal injuries. The configuration of the nail on patients' radiographs after such injuries can be helpful in determining the cause of injury. Steel nails that are bent are due to a ricochet and thus indicate accidental injury. Straight-nail injuries to the co-workers of nail-gun users are most likely due to over-penetration of the substance being nailed or accidental mid-air firing; however, intentional injury cannot be ruled out. Extremity injuries caused by straight steel nails in nail gun users are the result of carelessness or poor technique, but suicide should be considered when straight nails cause wounds to the chest, head, or abdomen. PMID:3788906

  5. Temporal association between federal gun laws and the diversion of guns to criminals in Milwaukee.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel W; Vernick, Jon S; Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vittes, Katherine A

    2012-02-01

    The practices of licensed gun dealers can threaten the safety of urban residents by facilitating the diversion of guns to criminals. In 2003, changes to federal law shielded gun dealers from the release of gun trace data and provided other protections to gun dealers. The 14-month period during which the dealer did not sell junk guns was associated with a 68% reduction in the diversion of guns to criminals within a year of sale by the dealer and a 43% increase in guns diverted to criminals following sales by other dealers. The laws were associated with a 203% increase in the number of guns diverted to criminals within a year of sale by the gun store, which was the focus of this study. Policies which affect gun dealer accountability appeared to influence the diversion of guns to criminals. PMID:22218834

  6. The polarized SRF gun experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Todd, R.; Wang, E.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Shultheiss, T.

    2008-10-01

    An experiment is under way to prove the feasibility of a super-conducting RF gun for the production of polarized electrons. We report on the progress of the experiment and on simulations predicting the possibility of success.

  7. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  8. Shot-noise Fano factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajdl, Kamil; Lansky, Petr

    2015-11-01

    A variability measure of the times of uniform events based on a shot-noise process is proposed and studied. The measure is inspired by the Fano factor, which we generalize by considering the time-weighted influence of the events given by a shot-noise response function. The sequence of events is assumed to be an equilibrium renewal process, and based on this assumption we present formulas describing the behavior of the variability measure. The formulas are derived for a general response function, restricted only by some natural conditions, but the main focus is given to the shot noise with exponential decrease. The proposed measure is analyzed and compared with the Fano factor.

  9. Shot-noise Fano factor.

    PubMed

    Rajdl, Kamil; Lansky, Petr

    2015-11-01

    A variability measure of the times of uniform events based on a shot-noise process is proposed and studied. The measure is inspired by the Fano factor, which we generalize by considering the time-weighted influence of the events given by a shot-noise response function. The sequence of events is assumed to be an equilibrium renewal process, and based on this assumption we present formulas describing the behavior of the variability measure. The formulas are derived for a general response function, restricted only by some natural conditions, but the main focus is given to the shot noise with exponential decrease. The proposed measure is analyzed and compared with the Fano factor. PMID:26651674

  10. The case for moderate gun control.

    PubMed

    DeGrazia, David

    2014-03-01

    In addressing the shape of appropriate gun policy, this essay assumes for the sake of discussion that there is a legal and moral right to private gun ownership. My thesis is that, against the background of this right, the most defensible policy approach in the United States would feature moderate gun control. The first section summarizes the American gun control status quo and characterizes what I call "moderate gun control." The next section states and rebuts six leading arguments against this general approach to gun policy. The section that follows presents a positive case for moderate gun control that emphasizes safety in the home and society as well as rights whose enforcement entails some limits or qualifications on the right to bear arms. A final section shows how the recommended gun regulations address legitimate purposes, rather than imposing arbitrary restrictions on gun rights, and offers concluding reflections. PMID:24783322

  11. New LANL Group M-7 two-stage gun: Double-diaphragm and wrap-around gas breech

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, S.A.; Martinez, A.R.

    1992-10-01

    A new two-stage gun is being installed in a high explosive testing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the purpose of subjecting insensitive high explosives to controlled projectile impacts so that shock-to-detonation transition can be studied in detail. This gun has been patterned after guns designed by Alois Stilp at Ernst Mach Institut (EMI) in Freiburg and Wintersweiler, Germany. Several changes were made to adapt the design to our needs. The gun has a 100-mm diameter pump tube and 33-mm and 50-mm diameter launch tubes; both pump and launch tubes are 7.6 m long. We plan to use only helium as the reservoir gas. Large hydraulic clamps hold the gun together in three places during a shot; these are located on both sides of the transition section and at the breech. These clamps make gun conversions to different setups relatively simple, i.e., the two-stage gun can be converted into a single-stage gun. A gas breech has been designed which can be operated in either wrap-around or double-diaphragm mode with a maximum operating pressure of 15,000 psi. Two-stage gun calculations indicate that in the gas breech configuration, projectile velocities up to 4 km/s can be obtained using helium in both the breech and the reservoir. The gun has been fabricated and is being installed at the present time. Testing is expected to begin in early 1993 if the startup difficulties do not become excessive.

  12. New LANL Group M-7 two-stage gun: Double-diaphragm and wrap-around gas breech

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, S.A.; Martinez, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    A new two-stage gun is being installed in a high explosive testing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the purpose of subjecting insensitive high explosives to controlled projectile impacts so that shock-to-detonation transition can be studied in detail. This gun has been patterned after guns designed by Alois Stilp at Ernst Mach Institut (EMI) in Freiburg and Wintersweiler, Germany. Several changes were made to adapt the design to our needs. The gun has a 100-mm diameter pump tube and 33-mm and 50-mm diameter launch tubes; both pump and launch tubes are 7.6 m long. We plan to use only helium as the reservoir gas. Large hydraulic clamps hold the gun together in three places during a shot; these are located on both sides of the transition section and at the breech. These clamps make gun conversions to different setups relatively simple, i.e., the two-stage gun can be converted into a single-stage gun. A gas breech has been designed which can be operated in either wrap-around or double-diaphragm mode with a maximum operating pressure of 15,000 psi. Two-stage gun calculations indicate that in the gas breech configuration, projectile velocities up to 4 km/s can be obtained using helium in both the breech and the reservoir. The gun has been fabricated and is being installed at the present time. Testing is expected to begin in early 1993 if the startup difficulties do not become excessive.

  13. Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and the Risk of Being Assaulted With a Gun

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Elliott, Michael R.; Richmond, Therese S.; Culhane, Dennis P.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    Background We conducted a population-based case–control study to better delineate the relationship between individual alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets in the surrounding environment, and being assaulted with a gun. Methods An incidence density sampled case–control study was conducted in the entire city of Philadelphia from 2003 to 2006. We enrolled 677 cases that had been shot in an assault and 684 population-based controls. The relationships between 2 independent variables of interest, alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, and the outcome of being assaulted with a gun were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for numerous confounding variables. Results After adjustment, heavy drinkers were 2.67 times as likely to be shot in an assault when compared with nondrinkers (p < 0.10) while light drinkers were not at significantly greater risk of being shot in an assault when compared with nondrinkers. Regression-adjusted analyses also demonstrated that being in an area of high off-premise alcohol outlet availability significantly increased the risk of being shot in an assault by 2.00 times (p < 0.05). Being in an area of high on-premise alcohol outlet availability did not significantly change this risk. Heavy drinkers in areas of high off-premise alcohol outlet availability were 9.34 times (p < 0.05) as likely to be shot in an assault. Conclusions This study finds that the gun assault risk to individuals who are near off-premise alcohol outlets is about the same as or statistically greater than the risk they incur from heavy drinking. The combination of heavy drinking and being near off-premise outlets resulted in greater risk than either factor alone. By comparison, light drinking and being near on-premise alcohol outlets were not associated with increased risks for gun assault. Cities should consider addressing alcohol-related factors, especially off-premise outlets, as highly modifiable and politically feasible approaches

  14. With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158514.html With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything Vaccination seems to ... 26, 2016 TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Flu shots may be more effective when people get ...

  15. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Should People With Cancer Get a Flu Shot? Getting a flu shot is recommended for ... need for the flu season. What types of flu vaccines are recommended for people with cancer? People ...

  16. Flu Shot Might Cut Stillbirth Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158080.html Flu Shot Might Cut Stillbirth Risk Australian researchers find ... THURSDAY, March 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A seasonal flu shot may reduce a pregnant woman's risk of ...

  17. With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158514.html With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything Vaccination seems to ... 26, 2016 TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Flu shots may be more effective when people get ...

  18. A case of a BB-gun pellet injury to the ethmoid sinus in a child.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Dinesh K; Shapiro, Nina L

    2004-03-01

    Injuries caused by BB and pellet guns remain common among children. These guns fire low-velocity missiles that can cause considerable harm when fired at close range. Most injuries occur in adolescents as a result of accidental or careless shooting. Such injuries to head and neck sites are common, second only to injuries to the extremities. We report the case of a 10-year-old girl who was accidentally shot by a BB gun. The BB pierced the skin of her right cheek, traversed the right maxillary sinus walls, and lodged at the junction of the right ethmoid sinus and septum. Preoperative radiology combined with endoscopic surgery techniques and instrumentation allowed us to precisely locate and remove the steel ball from the paranasal sinus while the patient was under general anesthesia. We review the scope of maxillofacial injuries caused by BB and pellet guns, and we discuss their presentation, diagnosis, and management. Although these guns are easily bought and sold as toys, they are weapons capable of causing significant injury. PMID:15086012

  19. States with More Gun Owners Have More Gun-Related Suicides: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158931.html States With More Gun Owners Have More Gun-Related Suicides: Study But only association was found, ... HealthDay News) -- In states where there are more gun owners, there are also more gun-related suicides, ...

  20. States with More Gun Owners Have More Gun-Related Suicides: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158931.html States With More Gun Owners Have More Gun-Related Suicides: Study But only association was found, ... HealthDay News) -- In states where there are more gun owners, there are also more gun-related suicides, ...

  1. Shot Automation for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lagin, L J; Bettenhausen, R C; Beeler, R G; Bowers, G A; Carey, R; Casavant, D D; Cline, B D; Demaret, R D; Domyancic, D M; Elko, S D; Fisher, J M; Hermann, M R; Krammen, J E; Kohut, T R; Marshall, C D; Mathisen, D G; Ludwigsen, A P; Patterson, Jr., R W; Sanchez, R J; Stout, E A; Van Arsdall, P J; Van Wonterghem, B M

    2005-09-21

    A shot automation framework has been developed and deployed during the past year to automate shots performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using the Integrated Computer Control System This framework automates a 4-8 hour shot sequence, that includes inputting shot goals from a physics model, set up of the laser and diagnostics, automatic alignment of laser beams and verification of status. This sequence consists of set of preparatory verification shots, leading to amplified system shots using a 4-minute countdown, triggering during the last 2 seconds using a high-precision timing system, followed by post-shot analysis and archiving. The framework provides for a flexible, model-based execution driven of scriptable automation called macro steps. The framework is driven by high-level shot director software that provides a restricted set of shot life cycle state transitions to 25 collaboration supervisors that automate 8-laser beams (bundles) and a common set of shared resources. Each collaboration supervisor commands approximately 10 subsystem shot supervisors that perform automated control and status verification. Collaboration supervisors translate shot life cycle state commands from the shot director into sequences of ''macro steps'' to be distributed to each of its shot supervisors. Each Shot supervisor maintains order of macro steps for each subsystem and supports collaboration between macro steps. They also manage failure, restarts and rejoining into the shot cycle (if necessary) and manage auto/manual macro step execution and collaborations between other collaboration supervisors. Shot supervisors execute macro step shot functions commanded by collaboration supervisors. Each macro step has database-driven verification phases and a scripted perform phase. This provides for a highly flexible methodology for performing a variety of NIF shot types. Database tables define the order of work and dependencies (workflow) of macro steps to be performed for a

  2. Toxicity of experimental lead-iron shot versus commercial lead shot in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    The toxicity of an experimental lead-iron shot containing 38.1 percent lead was compared with commercial lead shot in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) fed corn for 14 weeks. Significantly higher mortality occurred in ducks dosed with commercial lead shot compared to ducks given lead-iron shot containing comparable amounts of lead. Loss of body weight was indicative of the difference in toxicity of the 2 types of shot. Mortality was dose related in ducks given commercial lead shot; one # 8 shot (73 mg lead) caused 35 percent mortality with higher amounts of lead causing 80 to 100 percent mortality. Ingestion of up to 2 #4 lead-iron shot (111 mg lead) caused no significant weight loss and only 5 percent mortality. However, ducks dosed with 5 lead-iron shot suffered 45 percent mortality and those given 16 shot 50 percent mortality.

  3. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    DOEpatents

    Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Neal, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is provided. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun.

  4. ["Piggyback" shot: ballistic parameters of two simultaneously discharged airgun pellets].

    PubMed

    Frank, Matthias; Schönekess, Holger C; Grossjohann, Rico; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Bockholdt, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Green and Good reported an uncommon case of homicide committed with an air rifle in 1982 (Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol. 3: 361-365). The fatal wound was unusual in that two airgun pellets were loaded in so-called "piggyback" fashion into a single shot air rifle. Lack of further information on the ballistic characteristics of two airgun pellets as opposed to one conventionally loaded projectile led to this investigation. The mean kinetic energy (E) of the two pellets discharged in "piggyback" fashion was E = 3.6 J and E = 3.4 J, respectively. In comparison, average kinetic energy values of E = 12.5 J were calculated for conventionally discharged single diabolo pellets. Test shots into ballistic soap confirmed the findings of a single entrance wound as reported by Green and Good. While the ballistic background of pellets discharged in "piggyback" fashion could be clarified, the reason behind this mode of shooting remains unclear. PMID:24855739

  5. Unintentional Gun Deaths among Children. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Children are at risk of being killed or injured by a gun if their parents own a gun because many guns obtained for self-defense are kept loaded and within reach of children. This brief fact sheet presents statistical information relating to accidental deaths involving young people and firearms. Safety measures are suggested for preventing…

  6. Rotary peening with captive shot

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    Roto Peen with captive shot removes coatings and surface contamination from concrete floors. The objective of treating radioactively contaminated concrete floors during the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) process is to reduce the surface contamination levels to meet regulatory criteria for unrestricted use. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Chicago Operations office and DOE`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) jointly sponsored a Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial D and D technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. As part of the LSDP, roto Peen with captive shot was demonstrated March 17--20, 1997, to treat a 20 x 25 ft area of radioactively contaminated concrete floor on the service level of the CP-5 building.

  7. The Problem of Shot Selection in Basketball

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In basketball, every time the offense produces a shot opportunity the player with the ball must decide whether the shot is worth taking. In this article, I explore the question of when a team should shoot and when they should pass up the shot by considering a simple theoretical model of the shot selection process, in which the quality of shot opportunities generated by the offense is assumed to fall randomly within a uniform distribution. Within this model I derive an answer to the question “how likely must the shot be to go in before the player should take it?” and I show that this lower cutoff for shot quality depends crucially on the number of shot opportunities remaining (say, before the shot clock expires), with larger demanding that only higher-quality shots should be taken. The function is also derived in the presence of a finite turnover rate and used to predict the shooting rate of an optimal-shooting team as a function of time. The theoretical prediction for the optimal shooting rate is compared to data from the National Basketball Association (NBA). The comparison highlights some limitations of the theoretical model, while also suggesting that NBA teams may be overly reluctant to shoot the ball early in the shot clock. PMID:22295109

  8. The problem of shot selection in basketball.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In basketball, every time the offense produces a shot opportunity the player with the ball must decide whether the shot is worth taking. In this article, I explore the question of when a team should shoot and when they should pass up the shot by considering a simple theoretical model of the shot selection process, in which the quality of shot opportunities generated by the offense is assumed to fall randomly within a uniform distribution. Within this model I derive an answer to the question "how likely must the shot be to go in before the player should take it?" and I show that this lower cutoff for shot quality f depends crucially on the number n of shot opportunities remaining (say, before the shot clock expires), with larger n demanding that only higher-quality shots should be taken. The function f(n) is also derived in the presence of a finite turnover rate and used to predict the shooting rate of an optimal-shooting team as a function of time. The theoretical prediction for the optimal shooting rate is compared to data from the National Basketball Association (NBA). The comparison highlights some limitations of the theoretical model, while also suggesting that NBA teams may be overly reluctant to shoot the ball early in the shot clock. PMID:22295109

  9. SnapShot: Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Braggio, Esteban; Kortüm, K Martin; Stewart, A Keith

    2015-11-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Genetic abnormalities are not only key events in the origin and progression of the disease but are also useful tools for prognosis, risk stratification, and therapeutic decision making. Although still incurable, a revolution in the treatment of MM is currently ongoing, leading to a significant improvement of clinical outcome and survival. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:26555176

  10. Incidence of lead shot in canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.

    1976-01-01

    During 1975 and 1976, 2,544 canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) from North Dakota, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Maryland were flouroscoped to determine the incidence of body shot. A significant increase from west to east was detected in the incidence of shot for immatures from the four states. The incidence of shot in immatures after the 1975-76 hunting season was 18 percent in Maryland and 20 percent in Illinois. In Wisconsin no difference in the incidence of shot could be detected between areas trapped or time periods when trapping was conducted. In Maryland a significant decrease in the incidence of body shot was detected in adults, but not immatures, between 1975 and 1976. shot was located throughout the body of canvasbacks. Frequency varied from one to nine shot per bird and averaged 2.0 for adults and 1.5 for immatures.

  11. High gradient rf gun studies of CsBr photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Vecchione, Theodore; Maldonado, Juan R.; Gierman, Stephen; Corbett, Jeff; Hartmann, Nick; Pianetta, Piero A.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Schmerge, John F.

    2015-04-03

    CsBr photocathodes have 10 times higher quantum efficiency with only 3 times larger intrinsic transverse emittance than copper. They are robust and can withstand 80 MV/m fields without breaking down or emitting dark current. They can operate in 2×10⁻⁹ torr vacuum and survive exposure to air. They are well suited for generating high pulse charge in rf guns without a photocathode transfer system.

  12. High gradient rf gun studies of CsBr photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchione, Theodore; Maldonado, Juan R.; Gierman, Stephen; Corbett, Jeff; Hartmann, Nick; Pianetta, Piero A.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Schmerge, John F.

    2015-04-01

    CsBr photocathodes have 10 times higher quantum efficiency with only 3 times larger intrinsic transverse emittance than copper. They are robust and can withstand 80 MV /m fields without breaking down or emitting dark current. They can operate in 2 ×10-9 torr vacuum and survive exposure to air. They are well suited for generating high pulse charge in rf guns without a photocathode transfer system.

  13. Temperature Controller System for Gas Gun Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucholtz, S. M.; Gehr, R. J.; Rupp, T. D.; Sheffield, S. A.; Robbins, D. L.

    2006-07-01

    A temperature controller system capable of heating and cooling gas gun targets over the range -75°C to +120°C was designed and tested. The system uses cold nitrogen gas from a liquid nitrogen Dewar for cooling and compressed air for heating. Two gas flow heaters control the gas temperature for both heating and cooling. One heater controls the temperature of the target mounting plate and the other the temperature of a copper tubing coil surrounding the target. Each heater is separately adjustable, so the target material will achieve a uniform temperature throughout its volume. A magnetic gauge membrane with integrated thermocouples was developed to measure the internal temperature of the target. Using this system, multiple magnetic gauge shock experiments, including equation-of-state measurements and shock initiation of high explosives, can be performed over a range of initial temperatures. Successful heating and cooling tests were completed on Teflon samples.

  14. Almen intensity effect on microstructure and mechanical properties of low carbon steel subjected to severe shot peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Okan; Varol, Remzi

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses alteration of microstructure and mechanical properties of low carbon steel after severe shot peening process. An ultra fine grained surface layer was formed on AISI 1017 mild steel by means of severe shot peening process. Surface characteristics were affirmed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Nano hardness measurements were taken along the depth from shot peened surface using nanoindentation methods. The results showed that severe (unconventional) air blast shot peening process is an effective way to obtain ultra fine grained surface layer and to obtain superior mechanical properties.

  15. Guns in Schools. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Common reasons that young people choose to carry firearms outside of school--protection, intimidation of others, or to be like their peers--are the same reasons they carry guns into the school. This fact sheet presents statistics regarding the prevalence of firearms amongst students in American schools, including: shooting fatalities and woundings…

  16. Secondary skull fractures in head wounds inflicted by captive bolt guns: autopsy findings and experimental simulation.

    PubMed

    Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nadjem, Hadi; Kromeier, Jan; Pollak, Stefan; Thierauf, Annette

    2010-11-01

    Apart from one article published by Rabl and Sigrist in 1992 (Rechtsmedizin 2:156-158), there are no further reports on secondary skull fractures in shots from captive bolt guns. Up to now, the pertinent literature places particular emphasis on the absence of indirect lesions away from the impact point, when dealing with the wounding capacity of slaughterer's guns. The recent observation of two suicidal head injuries accompanied by skull fractures far away from the bolt's path gave occasion to experimental studies using simulants (glycerin soap, balls from gelatin) and skull–brain models. As far as ballistic soap was concerned, the dimensions of the bolt's channel were assessed by multi-slice computed tomography before cutting the blocks open. The test shots to gelatin balls and to skull-brain models were documented by means of a high-speed motion camera. As expected, the typical temporary cavity effect of bullets fired from conventional guns could not be observed when captive bolt stunners were discharged. Nevertheless, the visualized transfer of kinetic energy justifies the assumption that the secondary fractures seen in thin parts of the skull were caused by a hydraulic burst effect. PMID:20393855

  17. RF Design of the LCLS Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Limborg-Deprey, C

    2010-12-13

    Final dimensions for the LCLS RF gun are described. This gun, referred to as the LCLS gun, is a modified version of the UCLA/BNL/SLAC 1.6 cell S-Band RF gun [1], referred to as the prototype gun. The changes include a larger mode separation (15 MHz for the LCLS gun vs. 3.5 MHz for the prototype gun), a larger radius at the iris between the 2 cells, a reduced surface field on the curvature of the iris between the two cells, Z power coupling, increased cooling channels for operation at 120 Hz, dual rf feed, deformation tuning of the full cell, and field probes in both cells. Temporal shaping of the klystron pulse, to reduce the average power dissipated in the gun, has also been adopted. By increasing the mode separation, the amplitude of the 0-mode electric field on the cathode decreases from 10% of the peak on axis field for the prototype gun to less than 3% for the LCLS gun for the steady state fields. Beam performance is improved as shown by the PARMELA simulations. The gun should be designed to accept a future load lock system. Modifications follow the recommendations of our RF review committee [2]. Files and reference documents are compiled in Section IV.

  18. Single shot dynamic ellipsometry mesaurements of laser-driven shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Bolme, C. A.

    2007-12-12

    A technique has been developed to measure the time-resolved position of a laser-driven shock wave and the subsequent material flow. Ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry, using a chirped femtosecond laser pulse, probes picosecond material dynamics in a single shot by capitalizing on the refractive index changes in the shocked material. For transparent materials, the shock velocity, the particle velocity, and the shocked material's refractive index are extracted. Hugoniot data for poly(chlorotrifluoroethylene-co-vinylidene fluoride) (Kel-F 800) was obtained using ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry, and the data agrees well with previous data on macroscopic samples obtained in plate impact gas gun experiments.

  19. Semantic Shot Classification in Sports Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ling-Yu; Xu, Min; Tian, Qi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present a unified framework for semantic shot classification in sports videos. Unlike previous approaches, which focus on clustering by aggregating shots with similar low-level features, the proposed scheme makes use of domain knowledge of a specific sport to perform a top-down video shot classification, including identification of video shot classes for each sport, and supervised learning and classification of the given sports video with low-level and middle-level features extracted from the sports video. It is observed that for each sport we can predefine a small number of semantic shot classes, about 5~10, which covers 90~95% of sports broadcasting video. With the supervised learning method, we can map the low-level features to middle-level semantic video shot attributes such as dominant object motion (a player), camera motion patterns, and court shape, etc. On the basis of the appropriate fusion of those middle-level shot classes, we classify video shots into the predefined video shot classes, each of which has a clear semantic meaning. The proposed method has been tested over 4 types of sports videos: tennis, basketball, volleyball and soccer. Good classification accuracy of 85~95% has been achieved. With correctly classified sports video shots, further structural and temporal analysis, such as event detection, video skimming, table of content, etc, will be greatly facilitated.

  20. Generalized tonic-clonic seizure after a taser shot to the head

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Esther T.; Sourkes, Myra; Wennberg, Richard

    2009-01-01

    During a police chase on foot, a previously well police officer was hit mistakenly by a taser shot meant for the suspect. The taser gun had been fired once, sending 2 barbed darts into his upper back and occiput. Within seconds, the officer collapsed and experienced a generalized tonic-clonic seizure with loss of consciousness and postictal confusion. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging scans of the head and electroencephalograms were normal. The patient has experienced no recurrence of seizure over more than a year of follow-up. This report shows that a taser shot to the head may result in a brain-specific complication such as generalized tonic-clonic seizure. It also suggests that seizure should be considered an adverse event related to taser use. PMID:19289806

  1. Granny, (don't) get your gun: competency issues in gun ownership by older adults.

    PubMed

    Greene, Edith; Bornstein, Brian H; Dietrich, Hannah

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible risks associated with gun ownership by older adults. We summarize existing regulations on who may own firearms, especially with respect to age. We then present data on older gun owners and violence committed by older adults in general, followed by a discussion of gun violence perpetrated by gun owners whose functional and cognitive abilities have declined, perhaps as a result of dementia. For comparison purposes, we review regulations on driving among older adults, drawing parallels to gun ownership. The paper concludes with recommendations for ensuring the safety of older gun owners and others, balanced against citizens' right to bear arms, and with some directions for research. PMID:17559168

  2. Shot noise in ballistic graphene.

    PubMed

    Danneau, R; Wu, F; Craciun, M F; Russo, S; Tomi, M Y; Salmilehto, J; Morpurgo, A F; Hakonen, P J

    2008-05-16

    We have investigated shot noise in graphene field effect devices in the temperature range of 4.2-30 K at low frequency (f=600-850 MHz). We find that for our graphene samples with a large width over length ratio W/L, the Fano factor F reaches a maximum F ~ 1/3 at the Dirac point and that it decreases strongly with increasing charge density. For smaller W/L, the Fano factor at Dirac point is significantly lower. Our results are in good agreement with the theory describing that transport at the Dirac point in clean graphene arises from evanescent electronic states. PMID:18518472

  3. A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinping; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Shizhong; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Hongru

    2016-01-01

    A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation was developed to address the disadvantages of the insufficient driving capability of high-pressure gas and the constraints of gunpowder. The performance of this gasdynamic gun was investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. Much more powerful launching capability was achieved by this gun relative to a conventional high-pressure gas gun, owing to the use of the chemical energy of the driver gas. To achieve the same launching condition, the initial pressure required for this gun was an order of magnitude lower than that for a gun driven by high-pressure H2. Because of the presence of the detonation, however, a more complex internal ballistic process of this gun was observed. Acceleration of projectiles for this gun was accompanied by a series of impulse loads, in contrast with the smooth acceleration for a conventional one, which indicates that this gun should be used conditionally. The practical feasibility of this gun was verified by experiments. The experiments demonstrated the convenience of taking advantage of the techniques developed for detonation-driven shock tubes and tunnels.

  4. A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinping; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Shizhong; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Hongru

    2016-01-01

    A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation was developed to address the disadvantages of the insufficient driving capability of high-pressure gas and the constraints of gunpowder. The performance of this gasdynamic gun was investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. Much more powerful launching capability was achieved by this gun relative to a conventional high-pressure gas gun, owing to the use of the chemical energy of the driver gas. To achieve the same launching condition, the initial pressure required for this gun was an order of magnitude lower than that for a gun driven by high-pressure H2. Because of the presence of the detonation, however, a more complex internal ballistic process of this gun was observed. Acceleration of projectiles for this gun was accompanied by a series of impulse loads, in contrast with the smooth acceleration for a conventional one, which indicates that this gun should be used conditionally. The practical feasibility of this gun was verified by experiments. The experiments demonstrated the convenience of taking advantage of the techniques developed for detonation-driven shock tubes and tunnels. PMID:26827358

  5. Effects of a gun dealer's change in sales practices on the supply of guns to criminals.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel W; Vernick, Jon S; Bulzacchelli, Maria T

    2006-09-01

    Licensed gun dealers are a major conduit for gun trafficking. Prior to May 1999, a single gun store sold more than half of the guns recovered from criminals in Milwaukee, WI, shortly following retail sale. On May 10, 1999, the store stopped selling small, inexpensive handguns popular with criminals, often called "Saturday night specials." The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of this gun store's changed sales practices on criminals' acquisition of new guns. We used an interrupted time-series design with comparisons to test for changes in the number of guns that police recovered from criminals within a year of retail sale following the gun dealer's new sales policy. The dealer's changed sales policy was associated with a 96% decrease in recently sold, small, inexpensive handguns use in crime in Milwaukee, a 73% decrease in crime guns recently sold by this dealer, and a 44% decrease in the flow of all new, trafficked guns to criminals in Milwaukee. The findings demonstrate the substantial impact that a single gun store's sales practices can have on the supply of new guns to criminals. Proposed anti-gun-trafficking efforts in other cities could benefit from targeting problem retail outlets. PMID:16937085

  6. Effects of a Gun Dealer's Change in Sales Practices on the Supply of Guns to Criminals

    PubMed Central

    Vernick, Jon S.; Bulzacchelli, Maria T.

    2006-01-01

    Licensed gun dealers are a major conduit for gun trafficking. Prior to May 1999, a single gun store sold more than half of the guns recovered from criminals in Milwaukee, WI, shortly following retail sale. On May 10, 1999, the store stopped selling small, inexpensive handguns popular with criminals, often called “Saturday night specials.” The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of this gun store's changed sales practices on criminals' acquisition of new guns. We used an interrupted time-series design with comparisons to test for changes in the number of guns that police recovered from criminals within a year of retail sale following the gun dealer's new sales policy. The dealer's changed sales policy was associated with a 96% decrease in recently sold, small, inexpensive handguns use in crime in Milwaukee, a 73% decrease in crime guns recently sold by this dealer, and a 44% decrease in the flow of all new, trafficked guns to criminals in Milwaukee. The findings demonstrate the substantial impact that a single gun store's sales practices can have on the supply of new guns to criminals. Proposed anti-gun-trafficking efforts in other cities could benefit from targeting problem retail outlets. PMID:16937085

  7. Single shot line-field optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Schill, Alexander; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Li, Jiasong; Han, Zhaolong; Raghunathan, Raksha; Kazemi, Tina; Nair, Achuth; Hsu, Thomas; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    Elastic wave imaging optical coherence elastography (EWI-OCE) is an emerging technique that can quantify local biomechanical properties of tissues. However, long acquisition times make this technique unfeasible for clinical use. Here, we demonstrate a noncontact single shot line-field OCE technique using a line-field interferometer and an air-pulse delivery system. The spatial-temporal elastic wave propagation profile was acquired in a single shot and used to quantify the elastic wave group velocity in tissue. Results on tissue-mimicking phantoms and chicken breast muscle agreed well with mechanical compression testing, demonstrating that the presented method can effectively reduce the OCE acquisition time to a few milliseconds in biological application.

  8. Communication: Effects of thermionic-gun parameters on operating modes in ultrafast electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kieft, Erik; Schliep, Karl B; Suri, Pranav K; Flannigan, David J

    2015-09-01

    Ultrafast electron microscopes with thermionic guns and LaB6 sources can be operated in both the nanosecond, single-shot and femtosecond, single-electron modes. This has been demonstrated with conventional Wehnelt electrodes and absent any applied bias. Here, by conducting simulations using the General Particle Tracer code, we define the electron-gun parameter space within which various modes may be optimized. The properties of interest include electron collection efficiency, temporal and energy spreads, and effects of laser-pulse duration incident on the LaB6 source. We find that collection efficiencies can reach 100% for all modes, despite there being no bias applied to the electrode. PMID:26798820

  9. Communication: Effects of thermionic-gun parameters on operating modes in ultrafast electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kieft, Erik; Schliep, Karl B.; Suri, Pranav K.; Flannigan, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast electron microscopes with thermionic guns and LaB6 sources can be operated in both the nanosecond, single-shot and femtosecond, single-electron modes. This has been demonstrated with conventional Wehnelt electrodes and absent any applied bias. Here, by conducting simulations using the General Particle Tracer code, we define the electron-gun parameter space within which various modes may be optimized. The properties of interest include electron collection efficiency, temporal and energy spreads, and effects of laser-pulse duration incident on the LaB6 source. We find that collection efficiencies can reach 100% for all modes, despite there being no bias applied to the electrode. PMID:26798820

  10. X-Band RF Gun Development

    SciTech Connect

    Vlieks, Arnold; Dolgashev, Valery; Tantawi, Sami; Anderson, Scott; Hartemann, Fred; Marsh, Roark; /LLNL, Livermore

    2012-06-22

    In support of the MEGa-ray program at LLNL and the High Gradient research program at SLAC, a new X-band multi-cell RF gun is being developed. This gun, similar to earlier guns developed at SLAC for Compton X-ray source program, will be a standing wave structure made of 5.5 cells operating in the pi mode with copper cathode. This gun was designed following criteria used to build SLAC X-band high gradient accelerating structures. It is anticipated that this gun will operate with surface electric fields on the cathode of 200 MeV/m with low breakdown rate. RF will be coupled into the structure through a final cell with symmetric duel feeds and with a shape optimized to minimize quadrupole field components. In addition, geometry changes to the original gun, operated with Compton X-ray source, will include a wider RF mode separation, reduced surface electric and magnetic fields.

  11. Improved DC Gun Insulator Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sah, R.; Dudas, A.; Neubauer, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Surles-Law, K. E.L.

    2010-05-23

    Many user fa­cil­i­ties such as syn­chrotron ra­di­a­tion light sources and free elec­tron lasers re­quire ac­cel­er­at­ing struc­tures that sup­port elec­tric fields of 10-100 MV/m, es­pe­cial­ly at the start of the ac­cel­er­a­tor chain where ce­ram­ic in­su­la­tors are used for very high gra­di­ent DC guns. These in­su­la­tors are dif­fi­cult to man­u­fac­ture, re­quire long com­mis­sion­ing times, and often ex­hib­it poor re­li­a­bil­i­ty. Two tech­ni­cal ap­proach­es to solv­ing this prob­lem will be in­ves­ti­gat­ed. First­ly, in­vert­ed ce­ram­ics offer so­lu­tions for re­duced gra­di­ents be­tween the elec­trodes and ground. An in­vert­ed de­sign will be pre­sent­ed for 350 kV, with max­i­mum gra­di­ents in the range of 5-10 MV/m. Sec­ond­ly, novel ce­ram­ic man­u­fac­tur­ing pro­cess­es will be stud­ied, in order to pro­tect triple junc­tion lo­ca­tions from emis­sion, by ap­ply­ing a coat­ing with a bulk re­sis­tiv­i­ty. The pro­cess­es for cre­at­ing this coat­ing will be op­ti­mized to pro­vide pro­tec­tion as well as be used to coat a ce­ram­ic with an ap­pro­pri­ate gra­di­ent in bulk re­sis­tiv­i­ty from the vac­u­um side to the air side of an HV stand­off ce­ram­ic cylin­der. Ex­am­ple in­su­la­tor de­signs are being com­put­er mod­elled, and in­su­la­tor sam­ples are being man­u­fac­tured and test­ed

  12. Racism, Gun Ownership and Gun Control: Biased Attitudes in US Whites May Influence Policy Decisions

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kerry; Forrest, Walter; Lynott, Dermot; Daly, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. Method The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification) were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. Results After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58) was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46), which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns). Conclusions Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites’ paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions. PMID:24204867

  13. Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, W.

    1986-01-01

    Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

  14. Health and Gun Violence. Guns as a Public-Health Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Victoria

    1994-01-01

    Violence in all settings has reached epidemic proportions. Most shootings are committed by friends or relatives following an argument or when playing with guns. The public needs education about nonviolent ways of coping with anger and about the high cost of gun violence. Suggestions for avoiding gun violence and the PTA position on firearms are…

  15. Inflammation: John Hunter's "A treatise on the blood, inflammation and gun-shot wounds".

    PubMed

    Turk, J L

    1994-12-01

    John Hunter's A Treatise on the Blood, Inflammation and Gunshot Wounds was published in 1794. Throughout the nineteenth century this was considered the most important study of inflammation and has been widely quoted since. After a section on the nature of blood and the circulatory system, in which he describes the vascular supply in detail, he passes on to an extensive survey of inflammation. This is based mainly on his wide clinical experience, including that as a military surgeon. He, however, supplements this with a number of experiments, some of which are classic. He bases his observations on the four cardinal signs of Celsus (redness, heat, swelling and pain). Inflammation is then divided into three main groups: adhesive, suppurative and ulcerative. He discusses the nature of pus and the formation and treatment of abscesses. He describes his experiments on the transplantation of tissues under the general heading of adhesive inflammation. This, he states, underlies the union of wounds and thus the union of tissues after transplantation. Although unaware of the role of infecting organisms as a cause of inflammation, he makes observations on inflammation in smallpox, venereal infections and tuberculosis. He relates these to his observations on inflammatory aspects of wound healing. Lister was particularly influenced by Hunter's observations in the development of antisepsis. As well as the local effect of inflammation, Hunter was concerned with the constitutional effects such as fever. PMID:7734328

  16. Clinical case histories and sketches of gun-shot injuries from the Carlist War.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, M H

    2001-10-01

    The Anatomical Museum of the University of Edinburgh contains a substantial collection of human osteological preparations that display the effects of musket-ball and sabre injuries. Most of these formerly belonged to the Museum Collection associated with the class of Military Surgery. This collection had principally been amassed by Sir George Ballingall to illustrate his lectures when he was Regius Professor of Military Surgery in the University of Edinburgh from 1822-55. About half of the osteological preparations in his collection had been purchased from Dr Rutherford Alcock in 1843. Alcock had collected them when he was Deputy Inspector General of Hospitals to the British Auxiliary Legion in Spain during the Carlist War of 1835-37. Just under 60% of the osteological preparations purchased from Alcock still remain on display in the Anatomy Museum of the University of Edinburgh. Previously, the only information on these items was that published in Ballingall's Catalogue of the Museum attached to the Class of Military Surgery, published in 1855. Very recently, twelve volumes of manuscript material, consisting principally of clinical case records prepared by Alcock and his medical officers have been located in the Special Collections Section of Edinburgh University Library. This has now enabled the full clinical case records of the majority of the individuals whose osteological preparations are still available in the collection to be studied. This manuscript material provides a unique record of the treatment of the sick and wounded men in this campaign. It also allows the clinical records of men wounded by musket-ball to be studied with their associated bony lesions. PMID:11697696

  17. Wounds due to a modified shot gun (home-made): a case report.

    PubMed

    Palimar, Vikram; Nayak, Vinod C; Arun, M; Kumar, Pradeep G; Bhagavath, Prashantha

    2010-05-01

    In a case of firearm fatality, the autopsy surgeon is required to opine as to the range of fire in addition to the cause of death which will help in reconstruction of the events. Problems may arise in estimating the range of fire based on wound ballistics when there is an alteration or modification in the internal ballistics. We encountered such a case in the department of Forensic Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, which is discussed. PMID:20382360

  18. 7 CFR 51.904 - Shot berries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shot berries. 51.904 Section 51.904 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.904 Shot berries....

  19. SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2014-05-01

    The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals outlined in the SunShot Vision Study. Contents include overviews of each of SunShot’s five subprogram areas, as well as a description of every active project in the SunShot’s project portfolio as of May 2014.

  20. SnapShot: Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Turajlic, Samra; Larkin, James; Swanton, Charles

    2015-12-01

    This SnapShot summarizes current knowledge about the key features in mutational landscape, major pathways, and tumor evolution and heterogeneity in renal cell carcinoma, as well as the most recent advances in therapeutic development. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:26638079

  1. The killing efficiency of soft iron shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, R.; Longcore, J.R.

    1969-01-01

    A cooperative research effort between the ammunition industry and the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is aimed at finding a suitable non-toxic substitute for lead shot. A contract study by an independent research organization evaluated ways of coating or detoxifying lead shot or replacing it with another metal. As a result of that study, the only promising candidate is soft iron. Previous tests of hard iron shot had suggested that its killing effectiveness was poor at longer ranges due to the lower density. In addition, its hardness caused excessive damage to shotgun barrels. A unique, automated shooting facility was constructed at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to test the killing effectiveness of soft iron shot under controlled conditions. Tethered game-farm mallards were transported across a shooting point in a manner simulating free flight. A microswitch triggered a mounted shotgun so that each shot was 'perfect.' A soft iron shot, in Number 4 size, was produced by the ammunition industry and loaded in 12-gauge shells to give optimum ballistic performance. Commercial loads of lead shot in both Number 4 and Number 6 size were used for comparison. A total of 2,010 ducks were shot at ranges of 30 to 65 yards and at broadside and head-on angles in a statistically designed procedure. The following data were recorded for each duck: time until death, broken wing or leg bones, and number of embedded shot. Those ducks not killed outright were held for 10 days. From these data, ducks were categorized as 'probably bagged,' 'probably lost cripples,' or survivors. The test revealed that the killing effectiveness of this soft iron shot was superior to its anticipated performance and close to that obtained with commercial lead loads containing an equal number of pellets. Bagging a duck, in terms of rapid death or broken wing, was primarily dependent on the probability of a shot striking that vital area, and therefore a function of range. There was no indication

  2. Shot-size reduction of photoresist formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Wayne M.; Cornett, Kathleen M.; Fahey, James T.; Linehan, Leo L.; Montgomery, Warren; Plat, Marina V.; Smith, Randolph S.; Wood, Robert L.

    1995-06-01

    The cost of expendable chemicals in the resist process is increasing and with this the economic impetus to conserve usage. The volume of liquid resist dispensed (shot size) determines the consumption rate and disposal volumes of liquid resist. The choice of resist solvent can influence the shot volume. Three formulation factors influence the shot size: (1) the surface tension of the resist and the interfacial energy of the coating surface, (2) the viscosity of the resist formulation, and (3) the evaporation rate of the solvent. The suitable resist formulation and subsequent solvent choice should be of the lowest surface tension and lowest viscosity and be balanced by an evaporation rate which allows a minimum shot volume to be spread on the surface without significant solvent loss. Of all the solvents examined, ethyl 3-ethoxy propionate (EEP) gave the lowest shot size relative to the old resist solvent standard of 2- ethoxy ethyl acetate (ECA).

  3. Billion shot flashlamp for spaceborne lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Linda; Schuda, Felix; Degnan, John

    1990-01-01

    A billion-shot flashlamp developed under a NASA contract for spaceborne laser missions is presented. Lifetime-limiting mechanisms are identified and addressed. Two energy loadings of 15 and 44 Joules were selected for the initial accelerated life testing. A fluorescence-efficiency test station was used for measuring the useful-light output degradation of the lamps. The design characteristics meeting NASA specifications are outlined. Attention is focused on the physical properties of tungsten-matrix cathodes, the chemistry of dispenser cathodes, and anode degradation. It is reported that out of the total 83 lamps tested in the program, 4 lamps reached a billion shots and one lamp is beyond 1.7 billion shots, while at 44 Joules, 4 lamps went beyond 100 million shots and one lamp reached 500 million shots.

  4. A review on the basketball jump shot.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Victor H A; Rodacki, André L F; Satern, Miriam N

    2015-06-01

    The ability to shoot an effective jump shot in the sport of basketball is critical to a player's success. In an attempt to better understand the aspects related to expert performance, researchers have investigated successful free throws and jump shots of various basketball players and identified movement variables that contribute to their success. The purpose of this study was to complete a systematic review of the scientific literature on the basketball free throw and jump shot for the purpose of revealing the critical components of shooting that coaches, teachers, and players should focus on when teaching, learning, practising, and performing a jump shot. The results of this review are presented in three sections: (a) variables that affect ball trajectory, (b) phases of the jump shot, and PMID:26102462

  5. Adults Don't Need Tetanus Shot Every Decade

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_157980.html Adults Don't Need Tetanus Shot Every Decade: Study Booster shot every 30 years would protect as well as ... have always been told to get a tetanus shot every 10 years, but actually, there is very ...

  6. From gun politics to self-defense politics: a feminist critique of the great gun debate.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jennifer D

    2014-03-01

    This article calls attention to a problematic binary produced by public debates surrounding gun rights and gun control-namely, that women must choose armed self-protection or no self-protection at all. I argue that both anti- and pro-gun discourses, drawing on and reproducing race and class privileges, use assumptions about women's physical inferiority to further their agendas. I highlight how both sides have used guns as the proxy for self-defense and conclude by calling for a shift in public discourse to focus on the broader question of the right to self-defense rather than the narrower question of gun rights. PMID:24686128

  7. Crafting a Gauss Gun Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, Matthew E.; Blodgett, E. D.

    2006-12-01

    A Gauss Gun launches a ferromagnetic projectile using a pulsed electromagnet. This demonstration provides a nice counterpoint to the popular Thompson's jumping ring demonstration, which launches a nonferromagnetic ring via repulsion of an induced current. The pulsed current must be short enough in duration so that the projectile is not retarded by lingering current in the launch solenoid, but also large enough to provide a suitably impressive velocity. This project involved an iterative design process, as we worked through balancing all the different design criteria. We recommend it as a very nice electronics design project which will produce a very portable and enjoyable demonstration. AAPT sponsor Earl Blodgett.

  8. The Xygra gun simulation tool.

    SciTech Connect

    Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Lamppa, Derek C.; Aubuchon, Matthew S.; Shirley, David Noyes; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Russo, Thomas V.

    2008-12-01

    Inductive electromagnetic launchers, or coilguns, use discrete solenoidal coils to accelerate a coaxial conductive armature. To date, Sandia has been using an internally developed code, SLINGSHOT, as a point-mass lumped circuit element simulation tool for modeling coilgun behavior for design and verification purposes. This code has shortcomings in terms of accurately modeling gun performance under stressful electromagnetic propulsion environments. To correct for these limitations, it was decided to attempt to closely couple two Sandia simulation codes, Xyce and ALEGRA, to develop a more rigorous simulation capability for demanding launch applications. This report summarizes the modifications made to each respective code and the path forward to completing interfacing between them.

  9. Electromagnetic Gun With Commutated Coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David G.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed electromagnetic gun includes electromagnet coil, turns of which commutated in sequence along barrel. Electrical current fed to two armatures by brushes sliding on bus bars in barrel. Interaction between armature currents and magnetic field from coil produces force accelerating armature, which in turn, pushes on projectile. Commutation scheme chosen so magnetic field approximately coincides and moves with cylindrical region defined by armatures. Scheme has disadvantage of complexity, but in return, enables designer to increase driving magnetic field without increasing armature current. Attainable muzzle velocity increased substantially.

  10. Guns and High Gas Output Devices Panel: Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Ronald L.; Kaste, Pamela J.

    2000-01-01

    A new panel known as the Guns and High Gas Output Panel was organized in 1999 under the auspices of the JANNAF Propellant and Characterization SubCommittee (PDCS). This is an introduction to our first meeting, purpose of the panel, and the scope of activities to be covered. The primary purpose of the panel is very simple: to provide a single focal point for interfacing Government Laboratories (Department of Defense and Department of Energy) and commercial industry researchers to share R&D activities and findings (i.e. facilitate the exchange of information) specifically aimed at gun-launched propulsion and high-gas output devices (gas generators and air bag inflators). Specific areas of interest included in the Panel's scope (and the Technical Data Base) are the following: (1) new propellant formulations and chemistry, (2) new ingredients, (3) ballistic effects of the new formulations and ingredients, (4) new processing methods unique to gun propellants, (5) thermochemistry of new ingredients, (6) unique physical and mechanical properties, (7) burning rates of new propellants and small scale closed bomb testing, (8) plasma effects on the propellant, and (9) unique safety and insensitive munitions properties.

  11. Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    Beginning with statistics pertaining to children and gun violence in a single year in the United States, this report details trends in child and youth gun deaths. Tables present information on the following: (1) number of firearms deaths by manner and by race from 1979 to 2000; (2) number of firearms deaths by manner for each state and nationwide,…

  12. Fighting Juvenile Gun Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, David; Grant, Heath; Rowe, Wendy; Jacobs, Nancy

    This bulletin describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's efforts to fight juvenile gun violence. The Office awarded four community demonstration grants to implement "Partnerships To Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence." Partnership goals include increasing the effectiveness of existing strategies by enhancing and coordinating…

  13. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  14. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    DOEpatents

    Laabs, G.W.; Funk, D.J.; Asay, B.W.

    1998-06-09

    Gas gun with reduced timing jitter is disclosed. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile. 4 figs.

  15. Superconducting 112 MHz QWR electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Boulware, C.H.; Chang, X.; Grimm, T.L.; Rao, T.; Siegel, B.; Skaritka, J.; Than, R.; Winowski, M.; Wu, Q.; Xin, T.; Xue, L.

    2011-07-25

    Brookhaven National Laboratory and Niowave, Inc. have designed and fabricated a superconducting 112 MHz quarter-wave resonator (QWR) electron gun. The first cold test of the QWR cryomodule has been completed at Niowave. The paper describes the cryomodule design, presents the cold test results, and outline plans to upgrade the cryomodule. Future experiments include studies of different photocathodes and use for the coherent electron cooling proof-of-principle experiment. Two cathode stalk options, one for multi-alkali photocathodes and the other one for a diamond-amplified photocathode, are discussed. A quarter-wave resonator concept of superconducting RF (SRF) electron gun was proposed at BNL for electron cooling hadron beams in RHIC. QWRs can be made sufficiently compact even at low RF frequencies (long wavelengths). The long wavelength allows to produce long electron bunches, thus minimizing space charge effects and enabling high bunch charge. Also, such guns should be suitable for experiments requiring high average current electron beams. A 112 MHz QWR gun was designed, fabricated, and cold-tested in collaboration between BNL and Niowave. This is the lowest frequency SRF gun ever tested successfully. In this paper we describe the gun design and fabrication, present the cold test results, and outline our plans. This gun will also serve as a prototype for a future SRF gun to be used for coherent electron cooling of hadrons in eRHIC.

  16. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    DOEpatents

    Laabs, Gary W.; Funk, David J.; Asay, Blaine W.

    1998-01-01

    Gas gun with reduced timing jitter. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile.

  17. Youth Homicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Young Americans are killed with guns at rates far higher than young people in other countries and than older Americans, with young, urban African-American males being most at risk. This fact sheet presents data on gun-related homicides among teenagers in the United States. The high rate of youth homicide in the United States is unique in the…

  18. Experiments and Demonstrations with Soldering Guns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Dennis C.; Danielson, Sarah A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the essential electrical characteristics of a particular model of soldering gun. Presents four classroom demonstrations that utilize the soldering gun to test the following geometrics of wire loops as electromagnets: (1) the original tip; (2) a single circular loop; (3) a Helmholtz coil; and (4) the solenoid. (MDH)

  19. Gun shows across a multistate American gun market: observational evidence of the effects of regulatory policies

    PubMed Central

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe gun shows and assess the impact of increased regulation on characteristics linked to their importance as sources of guns used in crime. Design Cross‐sectional, observational. Subjects Data were collected at a structured sample of 28 gun shows in California, which regulates these events and prohibits undocumented private party gun sales; and in Arizona, Nevada, Texas and Florida—all leading sources of California's crime guns—where these restrictions do not exist. Main outcome measures Size of shows, measured by numbers of gun vendors and people in attendance; number and nature of guns for sale by gun vendors; measures of private party gun sales and illegal surrogate (“straw”) gun purchases. Results Shows in comparison states were larger, but the number of attendees per gun vendor was higher in California. None of these differences was statistically significant. Armed attendees were more common in other states (median 5.7%, interquartile range (IQR) 3.9–10.0%) than in California (median 1.1%, IQR 0.5–2.2%), p = 0.0007. Thirty percent of gun vendors both in California and elsewhere were identifiable as licensed firearm retailers. There were few differences in the types or numbers of guns offered for sale; vendors elsewhere were more likely to sell assault weapons (34.9% and 13.3%, respectively; p = 0.001). Straw purchases were more common in the comparison states (rate ratio 6.6 (95% CI 0.9 to 49.1), p = 0.06). Conclusions California's regulatory policies were associated with a decreased incidence of anonymous, undocumented gun sales and illegal straw purchases at gun shows. No significant adverse effects of these policies were observed. PMID:17567968

  20. Life-threatening nail gun injuries.

    PubMed

    Beaver, A C; Cheatham, M L

    1999-12-01

    The use of pneumatic and explosive cartridge-activated nail guns is common in the construction industry. The ease and speed of nailing these tools afford enhance productivity at the cost of increased potential for traumatic injury. Although extremity injuries are most common, life-threatening injuries to the head, neck, chest, or abdomen and pelvis may occur. During a 20-month period, eight potentially life-threatening nail gun injuries were admitted to a Level I trauma center, including injuries to the brain, eye, neck, heart, lung, and femoral artery. Mechanism of injury included nail ricochet, nail gun misuse due to inadequate training, and successful suicide. Nail guns have significant potential for causing severe debilitating injury and death. These findings indicate a need for improved safety features and user education. The various types of nail guns, their ballistic potential, and techniques for operative management are discussed. PMID:10597056

  1. Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Chu, Henry S.; Novascone, Stephen R.

    2011-11-15

    Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

  2. Electron gun jitter effects on beam bunching

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, M. S.; Iqbal, M.

    2014-02-15

    For routine operation of Beijing Electron Positron Collider II (BEPCII) linac, many factors may affect the beam bunching process directly or indirectly. We present the measurements and analyses of the gun timing jitter, gun high voltage jitter, and beam energy at the exit of the standard acceleration section of the linac quantitatively. Almost 80 mV and more than 200 ps of gun high voltage and time jitters have ever been measured, respectively. It was analyzed that the gun timing jitter produced severe effects on beam energy than the gun high voltage jitter, if the timing jitter exceeded 100 ps which eventually deteriorates both the beam performance and the injection rate to the storage ring.

  3. ECR ion source with electron gun

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1993-10-26

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source having an electron gun for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber of the ion source is described. The ion source has a injection enclosure and a plasma chamber tank. The plasma chamber is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets. The electron gun injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber such that ionization within the plasma chamber occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun. The electron gun has a cathode for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply. A concentric inner conductor and outer conductor carry heating current to a carbon chuck and carbon pusher which hold the cathode in place and also heat the cathode. In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, the electron gun replaces the conventional first stage used in prior electron cyclotron resonance ion generators. 5 figures.

  4. Basketball shot types and shot success in different levels of competitive basketball.

    PubMed

    Erčulj, Frane; Štrumbelj, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to investigate the relative frequencies of different types of basketball shots (above head, hook shot, layup, dunk, tip-in), some details about their technical execution (one-legged, two-legged, drive, cut, …), and shot success in different levels of basketball competitions. We analysed video footage and categorized 5024 basketball shots from 40 basketball games and 5 different levels of competitive basketball (National Basketball Association (NBA), Euroleague, Slovenian 1st Division, and two Youth basketball competitions). Statistical analysis with hierarchical multinomial logistic regression models reveals that there are substantial differences between competitions. However, most differences decrease or disappear entirely after we adjust for differences in situations that arise in different competitions (shot location, player type, and attacks in transition). Differences after adjustment are mostly between the Senior and Youth competitions: more shots executed jumping or standing on one leg, more uncategorised shot types, and more dribbling or cutting to the basket in the Youth competitions, which can all be attributed to lesser technical and physical ability of developing basketball players. The two discernible differences within the Senior competitions are that, in the NBA, dunks are more frequent and hook shots are less frequent compared to European basketball, which can be attributed to better athleticism of NBA players. The effect situational variables have on shot types and shot success are found to be very similar for all competitions. PMID:26038836

  5. Basketball Shot Types and Shot Success in Different Levels of Competitive Basketball

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to investigate the relative frequencies of different types of basketball shots (above head, hook shot, layup, dunk, tip-in), some details about their technical execution (one-legged, two-legged, drive, cut, …), and shot success in different levels of basketball competitions. We analysed video footage and categorized 5024 basketball shots from 40 basketball games and 5 different levels of competitive basketball (National Basketball Association (NBA), Euroleague, Slovenian 1st Division, and two Youth basketball competitions). Statistical analysis with hierarchical multinomial logistic regression models reveals that there are substantial differences between competitions. However, most differences decrease or disappear entirely after we adjust for differences in situations that arise in different competitions (shot location, player type, and attacks in transition). Differences after adjustment are mostly between the Senior and Youth competitions: more shots executed jumping or standing on one leg, more uncategorised shot types, and more dribbling or cutting to the basket in the Youth competitions, which can all be attributed to lesser technical and physical ability of developing basketball players. The two discernible differences within the Senior competitions are that, in the NBA, dunks are more frequent and hook shots are less frequent compared to European basketball, which can be attributed to better athleticism of NBA players. The effect situational variables have on shot types and shot success are found to be very similar for all competitions. PMID:26038836

  6. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  7. Subterranean well casing perforating gun

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, G. W.; Nelson, J. A.

    1984-10-30

    The invention provides a subterranean well casing perforating gun device which employs shaped explosive charges to perforate the well casing. The device generally defines an outer tubular housing assembly concentrically insertable in the well and defining a vertical axis, cylindrical chamber. A tubular carrier of polygonal cross sectional configuration is insertable in the chamber in concentric relationship to the cylindrical wall of the cylindrical chamber. Each of the faces of the carrier have a plurality of spaced passages therethrough, each passage having a configuration substantially corresponding to the configuration of the polygonal face. A shaped charge container has its cylindrical body insertable in any selected one of the passages and a radial flange on the outer end for abutting the polygonal face portion adjacent the respective passage, thereby limiting the insertion of each of the containers into the selected passage. Selectively disengageable fastening means are operable from the exterior of the carrier for clamping the radial flange against the respective polygonal face and for selective disengagement therefrom from the exterior of the carrier. The invention also contemplates a method of utilization of the carrier and the gun, as well as to incorporation of same into a particular perforating and gravel packing method and apparatus.

  8. On the nonlinear modeling of shot noise

    PubMed Central

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    We introduced a nonlinear shot-noise model, a natural generalization of the “classic” shot-noise model, which differs markedly from the existing linear shot-noise models. This model produces a wide spectrum of stationary noise processes. Because of its intrinsic nonlinearity, the model's resulting noise processes are capable of displaying a rich variety of both amplitudal and temporal statistical behaviors. Surprisingly, the nonlinear model is amenable to mathematical analysis and yields closed-form formulae for the characterizing statistics of its resulting noise processes. PMID:16172376

  9. A Practical Example Aiding Understanding Momentum in 1D: The Water Gun Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod, Katarin

    2007-01-01

    The law of conservation of momentum is one that students often have difficulties understanding. This experiment allows students to use childhood toys to examine and calculate the muzzle velocity of their favourite water gun by using an air track, a spark timer or data logger and the law of conservation of momentum in a one-dimensional case, a…

  10. Between Shots TRANSP Web Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feibush, E.; Andre, R.; Ludescher-Furth, C.; Kaye, S.; McCune, D.

    2008-11-01

    Running TRANSP between NSTX shots requires rapid data preparation and job submittal. A web service with a graphical user interface and data visualization has been developed to meet these goals. The underlying data preparation system has a command line interface written in Python and runs on a PPPL compute server. The display client is a Java program (ElVis) that sends requests to the data preparation system. As the run data is prepared, graphs are created and sent to the client for display. Flux surface plots are displayed and animated over time. The most commonly used control options are implemented in the UI as buttons and text fields. A time slice or time dependent run can be prepared. The command line interface is available in the client program for expert users to apply advanced settings, to prototype new UI buttons, and to run scripts. The client program contains a simple text editor for modifying the TRANSP namelist. When data preparation is complete the run is submitted to the TRANSP production system. The initial version has been deployed and is being tested in the control room setting. Results will be discussed in the poster presentation. Work performed at PPPL under the auspices of U.S. DOE Contract DE-AC02-76CH03073.

  11. Temperature Controller System for Gas Gun Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucholtz, Scott; Sheffield, Stephen

    2005-07-01

    A temperature controller system capable of heating and cooling gas gun targets over the range -75 C to +200 C was designed and tested. The system uses cold nitrogen gas from a liquid nitrogen Dewar for cooling and compressed air for heating. Two gas flow heaters control the gas temperature for both heating and cooling. One heater controls the temperature of the target mounting plate and the other the temperature of a copper tubing coil surrounding the target. Each heater is separately adjustable, so the target material will achieve a uniform temperature throughout its volume. A magnetic gauge with integrated thermocouples was developed to measure the internal temperature of the target. Using this system shock experiments, including equation-of-state measurements and shock initiation of high explosives, can be performed over a range of initial temperatures. Successful tests were completed on Teflon samples. This work was supported by the NNSA Enhanced Surveillance Campaign through contract DE-ACO4-01AL66850.

  12. POST-SHOT RADIATION ENVIRONMENT FOLLOWING LOW-YIELD SHOTS INSIDE THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Sitaraman, S; Brereton, S; Dauffy, L; Hall, J; Hansen, L; Khater, H; Kim, S; Pohl, B; Verbeke, J

    2010-10-29

    A detailed model of the Target Bay (TB) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been developed to estimate the post-shot radiation environment inside the facility. The model includes large number of structures and diagnostic instruments present inside the TB. These structures and instruments are activated by the few nanosecond pulse of neutrons generated during a shot and the resultant gamma dose rates are estimated at various decay times following the shot. The results presented in this paper are based on a low-yield D-T shot of 10{sup 16} neutrons. General environment dose rates drop to below 3 mrem/h within three hours following a shot with higher dose rates observed at contact with some of the components. Dose rate maps of the different TB levels were generated to aid in estimating worker stay-out times following a shot before entry is permitted into the TB.

  13. Gun Violence, Mental Illness, And Laws That Prohibit Gun Possession: Evidence From Two Florida Counties.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Easter, Michele M; Robertson, Allison G; Swartz, Marvin S; Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Moseley, Daniel; Dion, Charles; Petrila, John

    2016-06-01

    Gun violence kills about ninety people every day in the United States, a toll measured in wasted and ruined lives and with an annual economic price tag exceeding $200 billion. Some policy makers suggest that reforming mental health care systems and improving point-of-purchase background checks to keep guns from mentally disturbed people will address the problem. Epidemiological research shows that serious mental illness contributes little to the risk of interpersonal violence but is a strong factor in suicide, which accounts for most firearm fatalities. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of gun restrictions focused on mental illness remains poorly understood. This article examines gun-related suicide and violent crime in people with serious mental illnesses, and whether legal restrictions on firearm sales to people with a history of mental health adjudication are effective in preventing gun violence. Among the study population in two large Florida counties, we found that 62 percent of violent gun crime arrests and 28 percent of gun suicides involved individuals not legally permitted to have a gun at the time. Suggested policy reforms include enacting risk-based gun removal laws and prohibiting guns from people involuntarily detained in short-term psychiatric hospitalizations. PMID:27269024

  14. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibodies after getting flu vaccine. Talk to your doctor, nurse, or clinic about getting vaccinated as soon as ... have already had a flu shot--call your doctor, nurse, or clinic right away. Doctors can prescribe medicine ...

  15. Expectant Mom's Flu Shot Protects 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... infant records. Information was available for nine flu seasons from December 2005 through March 2014. Only about ... shot during any trimester of pregnancy during flu season, Tan said. The new study found that 97 ...

  16. Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158983.html Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women It also offers short-term protection to ... News) -- The whooping cough vaccine is safe for pregnant women, a new study indicates. The researchers also ...

  17. Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158983.html Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women It also offers ... MONDAY, May 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The whooping cough vaccine is safe for pregnant women, a new ...

  18. Using rule-based shot dose assignment in model-based MPC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Wang, Lin; Müller, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    levels and requires a model which accurately predicts mask shapes at all dose levels used. The calibration of such a model is described in a separate paper [1]. In summary this paper presents an efficient method for combining rule-based VSB shot dose assignment with modelbased shape corrections in MPC. This method expands the printability of small features sizes without the need for increasing the base dose of the e-beam writer which reduces backscattering and increases the lifetime of the electron gun of the writer.

  19. The Hardest Straight-in Pool Shot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Rick

    2010-01-01

    When playing pool or billiards, a player often has the opportunity to make a "straight-in" shot, that is, one in which the cue ball, the object ball, and the target (e.g., a pocket) are collinear. With the distance from the cue ball to the target assumed fixed, the relative difficulty is here explored of shots taken at varying positions of the…

  20. Gun Violence, mental health, and Connecticut physicians.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Peter R; Anderson, Caitlyn O; Dodds, Jon H

    2014-01-01

    While there is a public perception that gun violence is associated with mental illness we present evidence that it is a complex public health problem which defies simple characterizations and solutions. Only a small percentage of individuals with mental illness are at risk for extreme violence and they account for only a small percentage of gun-related homicides. Individuals who are at risk for gun violence are difficult to identify and successfully treat. The incidence, and perhaps the demographics, of gun violence vary substantially from state to state. We make a case for Connecticut physicians to study gun violence at the state level. We recommend that Connecticut physicians promote and expand upon the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for creating a "safe home environment. "We suggest that guns be secured in all homes in which there are children. In addition we suggest that guns be voluntarily removed from homes in which there are individuals with a history of violence, threats of violence, depression, drug and/or alcohol abuse, and individuals with major mental illnesses who are not cooperating with therapy. PMID:25745735

  1. Nail-Gun Injuries to the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Pappas-Politis, Effie; Naidu, Deepak K.; Salas, R. Emerick; Johnson, Erika L.; Payne, Wyatt G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The nail gun is a commonly utilized tool in carpentry and construction. When used properly with appropriate safety precautions, it can facilitate production and boost efficiency; however, this powerful tool also has the potential to cause serious injury. The most common site of nail-gun injuries in both industrial and nonoccupational settings is the hand. Materials and Methods: We report on two patients with nail-gun injuries to the hand. A review of the literature and discussion of clinical evaluation and treatment of nail-gun injuries to the hand are presented. Results: Two patients present with soft tissue injuries to the hand with the nail embedded and intact at the injury site. Operative removal of the nail and wound care resulted in successful treatment in both cases. Nail-gun injuries to the hand vary in severity on the basis of the extent of structural damage. Treatment is based on the severity of injury and the presence and location of barbs on the penetrating nail. Conclusion: Healthcare providers must understand and educate patients on the prevention mechanics of nail-gun injuries. Nail-gun injuries to the hand necessitate appropriate evaluation techniques, understanding of surgical management versus nonsurgical management, and awareness of potential pitfalls in treatment. PMID:19079574

  2. Homopolar Gun for Pulsed Spheromak Fusion Reactors II

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T

    2004-06-14

    A homopolar gun is discussed that could produce the high currents required for pulsed spheromak fusion reactors even with unit current amplification and open field lines during injection, possible because close coupling between the gun and flux conserver reduces gun losses to acceptable levels. Example parameters are given for a gun compatible with low cost pulsed reactors and for experiments to develop the concept.

  3. Gun Safety Management with Patients at Risk for Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robert I.

    2007-01-01

    Guns in the home are associated with a five-fold increase in suicide. All patients at risk for suicide must be asked if guns are available at home or easily accessible elsewhere, or if they have intent to buy or purchase a gun. Gun safety management requires a collaborative team approach including the clinician, patient, and designated person…

  4. Alignment Fixtures For Vacuum-Plasma-Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Fixtures for alignment of vacuum-plasma-spray guns built. Each fixture designed to fit specific gun and holds small, battery-powered laser on centerline of gun. Laser beam projects small red dot where centerline intersects surface of workpiece to be sprayed. After laser beam positioned on surface of workpiece, fixture removed from gun and spraying proceeds.

  5. Ready, Fire, Aim: The College Campus Gun Fight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether guns should be permitted on college and university campuses in the United States reflects the tension between two competing perspectives. America has both a robust gun culture and an equally robust (if less well known) gun-control culture. The gun culture is as American as apple pie: There may be as many as 300 million…

  6. Correlates of Gun Involvement and Aggressiveness among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody S.; Nelsen, Edward A.; Lassonde, Cynthia T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated adolescents' aggressiveness in relation to their experiences, beliefs, and attitudes concerning gun use, also noting family composition, relationships with parents, and emotionality as correlates of gun involvement and aggression. Student surveys indicated links between gun ownership and recreational use, beliefs about gun use, and…

  7. Establishing reliable good initial quantum efficiency and in-situ laser cleaning for the copper cathodes in the RF gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, F.; Sheppard, J. C.; Vecchione, T.; Jongewaard, E.; Brachmann, A.; Corbett, J.; Gilevich, S.; Weathersby, S.

    2015-05-01

    Establishing good initial quantum efficiency (QE) and reliable in-situ cleaning for copper cathode in the RF gun is of critical importance for the RF gun operations. Recent studies on the SLAC RF gun test bed indicated that the pre-cleaning (plasma cleaning) in the test chamber followed by copper cathode exposure to air for cathode change leads to a very low initial QE in the RF gun, and also demonstrated that without the pre-cleaning good initial QE >4×10-5 can be routinely achieved in the RF gun with the cathodes of QE <1×10-7 measured in the test chamber. QE can decay over the time in the RF gun. The in-situ laser cleaning technique for copper cathodes in the RF gun is established and refined in comparison to previous cleaning at the linac coherent light source, resulting in an improved QE and emittance evolutions. The physics of the laser cleaning process is discussed. It is believed that the reflectivity change is one of the major factors for the QE boost with the laser cleaning.

  8. A Two Frequency Thermionic Cathode Electron Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelen, Jon; Biedron, Sandra; Harris, John; Lewellen, John; Milton, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    When an un-gated thermionic cathode is operated in an RF gun, some fraction of the emitted electrons will return to the cathode due to the change in sign of the electric field in the gun. This back-bombardment current causes heating of the cathode, and this reduces the ability of the cathode heater to control the bunch charge. In this paper, we investigate the use of a two frequency TM010 / TM020 electron gun to mitigate this effect. Simulations revealed that for a 100-pC bunch charge operating at 10MV/m gradient the harmonic field produced a 63% reduction in the back-bombardment power.

  9. SSRL photocathode RF gun test stand

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, M.; Baltay, M.; Boyce, A.

    1995-12-31

    A photocathode RF gun test stand designed for the production and study of high brightness electron beams will be constructed at SSRL. The beam will be generated from a laser driven third generation photocathode RF gun being developed in collaboration with BNL, LBL, and UCLA. The 3-5 [MeV] beam from the gun will be accelerated using a SLAC three meter S-band accelerator section, in order to achieve the desired low emittance beam, emittance compensation with solenoidal focusing will be employed.

  10. Advances in DC photocathode electron guns

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce M. Dunham; P. Heartmann; Reza Kazimi; Hongxiu Liu; B. M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; Charles K. Sinclair

    1998-07-01

    At Jefferson Lab, a DC photoemission gun using GaAs and GaAs-like cathodes provides a source of polarized electrons for the main accelerator. The gun is required to produce high average current with long operational lifetimes and high system throughout. Recent work has shown that careful control of the parameters affecting cathode lifetime lead to dramatic improvements in source operation. These conditions include vacuum and the related effect of ion backbombardment, and precise control of all of the electrons emitted from the cathode. In this paper, the authors will review recent results and discuss implications for future photocathode guns.

  11. Evaluation of Smart Gun Technologies preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Smart Gun Technology Project has a goal to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing {open_quote}smart{close_quote} technologies. Smart technologies are those that can in some manner identify an officer. This report will identify, describe, and grade various technologies as compared to the requirements that were obtained from officers. This report does not make a final recommendation for a smart gun technology, nor does it give the complete design of a smart gun system.

  12. Performance of the Brookhaven photocathode rf gun

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Fernow, R.C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, A.S.; Gallardo, J.; Ingold, G.; Kirk, H.G.; Leung, K.P.; Malone, R.; Pogorelsky, I.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Rogers, J.; Tsang, T.; Sheehan, J.; Ulc, S.; Woodle, M.; Xie, J.; Zhang, R.S.; Lin, L.Y.; McDonald, K.T.; Russell, D.P.; Hung, C.M.; Wang, X.J.

    1991-12-31

    The Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) uses a photocathode rf gun to provide a high-brightness electron beam intended for FEL and laser-acceleration experiments. The rf gun consists of 1{1/2} cells driven at 2856 MHz in {pi}-mode with a maximum cathode field of 100 MV/m. To achieve long lifetimes, the photocathode development concentrates on robust metals such as copper, yttrium and samarium. We illuminate these cathodes with a 10-ps, frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser. We describe the initial operation of the gun, including measurements of transverse and longitudinal emittance, quantum efficiencies, and peak current. The results are compared to models.

  13. Performance of the Brookhaven photocathode rf gun

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Fernow, R.C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, A.S.; Gallardo, J.; Ingold, G.; Kirk, H.G.; Leung, K.P.; Malone, R.; Pogorelsky, I.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Rogers, J.; Tsang, T.; Sheehan, J.; Ulc, S.; Woodle, M.; Xie, J.; Zhang, R.S. ); Lin, L.Y. . Dept. of Applied Physics); McDonald, K.T.; Russell, D.P. (Pr

    1991-01-01

    The Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) uses a photocathode rf gun to provide a high-brightness electron beam intended for FEL and laser-acceleration experiments. The rf gun consists of 1{1/2} cells driven at 2856 MHz in {pi}-mode with a maximum cathode field of 100 MV/m. To achieve long lifetimes, the photocathode development concentrates on robust metals such as copper, yttrium and samarium. We illuminate these cathodes with a 10-ps, frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser. We describe the initial operation of the gun, including measurements of transverse and longitudinal emittance, quantum efficiencies, and peak current. The results are compared to models.

  14. "Is there a gun in the home?" Assessing the risks of gun ownership in older adults.

    PubMed

    Pinholt, Ellen M; Mitchell, Joshua D; Butler, Jane H; Kumar, Harjinder

    2014-06-01

    An important ethical and safety concern that geriatricians, primary care providers, and home health professionals need to address is gun ownership by elderly adults. Those aged 65 and older now have the highest rate of gun ownership in America, and they also have a high prevalence of depression and suicide. Dementia can add additional layers of risk. Even older gun owners who are otherwise intellectually intact may benefit from information about gun safety with the increasing numbers of children being cared for by grandparents. Health professionals should ask patients, "Is there a gun in the home?" in the clinic and during home visits. Healthcare professionals must have knowledge and skills to address safe gun ownership in elderly adults. The 5 L's (Locked, Loaded, Little children, feeling Low, Learned owner) will assist professionals in addressing all aspects of safe ownership. PMID:24898055

  15. Effects of undercover police stings of gun dealers on the supply of new guns to criminals

    PubMed Central

    Webster, D W; Bulzacchelli, M T; Zeoli, A M; Vernick, J S

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of undercover police stings and lawsuits against gun dealers suspected of facilitating illegal gun sales in three US cities (Chicago, Detroit, Gary) on the flow of new firearms to criminals. Methods An interrupted time series design and negative binomial regression analyses were used to test for temporal change in the recovery of guns used in crimes within one year of retail sale in both intervention and comparison cities. Results The stings were associated with an abrupt 46.4% reduction in the flow of new guns to criminals in Chicago (95% confidence interval, −58.6% to −30.5%), and with a gradual reduction in new crime guns recovered in Detroit. There was no significant change associated with the stings in Gary, and no change in comparison cities that was coincident with the stings in Chicago and Detroit. Conclusions The announcement of police stings and lawsuits against suspect gun dealers appeared to have reduced the supply of new guns to criminals in Chicago significantly, and may have contributed to beneficial effects in Detroit. Given the important role that gun stores play in supplying guns to criminals in the US, further efforts of this type are warranted and should be evaluated. PMID:16887943

  16. Separating batterers and guns: a review and analysis of gun removal laws in 50 States.

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S

    2006-06-01

    Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers through a protective order ("court-ordered removal laws"). As of April 2004, 18 states had police gun removal laws; 16 states had court-ordered removal laws. The authors examine relevant characteristics of the laws and recommend that these laws be mandatory, apply to all guns and ammunition possessed by an abuser, and include clear procedures to enhance implementation. PMID:16679498

  17. Circuit Model for Gun Driven Spheromaks

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K I

    2000-07-14

    In this note we derive circuit equations for sustained spheromaks, in the phase after a spheromak is detached from the gun and sustained in a flux conserver. The impedance of the spheromak during the formation and ''bubble burst'' phase has been discussed by Barnes et. al. We assume here that the spheromak is formed and helicity is being delivered to it from the gun, currents are above the threshold current, and the {lambda}-gradients are outward ({lambda} decreasing inward). We follow an open field line that begins and ends at the gun electrodes, encircling the closed flux surfaces of the spheromak, and apply power and helicity balance equations for this gun-driven system. In addition to these equations one will need to know the initial conditions (currents, stored energies) after the ''bubble burst'' in order to project forward in time.

  18. The electric rail gun for space propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, D. P.; Barber, J. P.; Vahlberg, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    An analytic feasibility investigation of an electric propulsion concept for space application is described. In this concept, quasistatic thrust due to inertial reaction to repetitively accelerated pellets by an electric rail gun is used to propel a spacecraft. The study encompasses the major subsystems required in an electric rail gun propulsion system. The mass, performance, and configuration of each subsystem are described. Based on an analytic model of the system mass and performance, the electric rail gun mission performance as a reusable orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) is analyzed and compared to a 30 cm ion thruster system (BIMOD) and a chemical propulsion system (IUS) for payloads with masses of 1150 kg and 2300 kg. For system power levels in the range from 25 kW(e) to 100 kW(e) an electric rail gun OTV is more attractive than a BIMOD system for low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit transfer durations in the range from 20 to 120 days.

  19. Arc-driven rail gun research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The equations describing the performance of an inductively-driven rail gun are analyzed numerically. Friction between the projectile and rails is included through an empirical formulation. The equations are applied to the experiment of Rashleigh and Marshall to obtain an estimate of energy distribution in rail guns as a function of time. The effect of frictional heat dissipation on the bore of the gun is calculated. The mechanism of plasma and projectile acceleration in a dc rail gun is described from a microscopic point of view through the establishment of the Hall field. The plasma conductivity is shown to be a tensor indicating that there is a small component of current parallel to the direction of acceleration. The plasma characteristics are evaluated as a function of plasma mass through a simple fluid mechanical analysis of the plasma. By equating the energy dissipated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the properties of the plasma are determined.

  20. Direct launch using the electric rail gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The concept explored involves using a large single stage electric rail gun to achieve orbital velocities. Exit aerodynamics, launch package design and size, interior ballistics, system and component sizing and design concepts are treated. Technology development status and development requirements are identified and described. The expense of placing payloads in Earth orbit using conventional chemical rockets is considerable. Chemical rockets are very inefficient in converting chemical energy into payload kinetic energy. A rocket motor is relatively expensive and is usually expended on each launch. In addition specialized and expensive forms of fuel are required. Gun launching payloads directly to orbit from the Earth's surface is a possible alternative. Guns are much more energy efficient than rockets. The high capital cost of the gun installation can be recovered by reusing it over and over again. Finally, relatively inexpensive fuel and large quantities of energy are readily available to a fixed installation on the Earth's surface.

  1. Arc Plasma Gun With Coaxial Powder Feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, Isidor

    1988-01-01

    Redesigned plasma gun provides improved metallic and ceramic coatings. Particles injected directly through coaxial bore in cathode into central region of plasma jet. Introduced into hotter and faster region of plasma jet.

  2. Lightweight, High-Current Welding Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starck, Thomas F.; Brennan, Andrew D.

    1989-01-01

    Lighweight resistance-welding, hand-held gun supplies alternating or direct current over range of 600 to 4,000 A and applies forces from 40 to 60 lb during welding. Used to weld metal sheets in multilayered stacks.

  3. Toroid Joining Gun For Fittings And Couplings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L.; Swaim, Robert J.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Buckley, John D.; Copeland, Carl E.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Johnston, David F.; Phillips, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Hand-held gun used to join metal heat-to-shrink couplings. Uses magnetic induction (eddy currents) to produce heat in metal coupling, and thermocouple to measure temperature and signals end of process. Gun, called "toroid joining gun" concentrates high levels of heat in localized areas. Reconfigured for use on metal heat-to-shrink fitting and coupling applications. Provides rapid heating, operates on low power, lightweight and portable. Safe for use around aircraft fuel and has no detrimental effects on surrounding surfaces or objects. Reliable in any environment and under all weather conditions. Gun logical device for taking full advantage of capabilities of new metal heat-to-shrink couplings and fittings.

  4. 50 CFR 20.134 - Approval of nontoxic shot types and shot coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... will add the shot material to the list of approved nontoxic shot materials at 50 CFR 20.21(j). (a... of Sewage Sludge at 40 CFR part 503. Explain how the estimated EEC relates to the toxicity thresholds... Practice Standards (40 CFR part 160) except where they conflict with the requirements in this section...

  5. Indirect monitoring shot-to-shot shock waves strength reproducibility during pump-probe experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Ozaki, N.; Hartley, N. J.; Albertazzi, B.; Matsuoka, T.; Takahashi, K.; Habara, H.; Tange, Y.; Matsuyama, S.; Yamauchi, K.; Ochante, R.; Sueda, K.; Sakata, O.; Sekine, T.; Sato, T.; Umeda, Y.; Inubushi, Y.; Yabuuchi, T.; Togashi, T.; Katayama, T.; Yabashi, M.; Harmand, M.; Morard, G.; Koenig, M.; Zhakhovsky, V.; Inogamov, N.; Safronova, A. S.; Stafford, A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Pikuz, S. A.; Okuchi, T.; Seto, Y.; Tanaka, K. A.; Ishikawa, T.; Kodama, R.

    2016-07-01

    We present an indirect method of estimating the strength of a shock wave, allowing on line monitoring of its reproducibility in each laser shot. This method is based on a shot-to-shot measurement of the X-ray emission from the ablated plasma by a high resolution, spatially resolved focusing spectrometer. An optical pump laser with energy of 1.0 J and pulse duration of ˜660 ps was used to irradiate solid targets or foils with various thicknesses containing Oxygen, Aluminum, Iron, and Tantalum. The high sensitivity and resolving power of the X-ray spectrometer allowed spectra to be obtained on each laser shot and to control fluctuations of the spectral intensity emitted by different plasmas with an accuracy of ˜2%, implying an accuracy in the derived electron plasma temperature of 5%-10% in pump-probe high energy density science experiments. At nano- and sub-nanosecond duration of laser pulse with relatively low laser intensities and ratio Z/A ˜ 0.5, the electron temperature follows Te ˜ Ilas2/3. Thus, measurements of the electron plasma temperature allow indirect estimation of the laser flux on the target and control its shot-to-shot fluctuation. Knowing the laser flux intensity and its fluctuation gives us the possibility of monitoring shot-to-shot reproducibility of shock wave strength generation with high accuracy.

  6. Conference on electromagnetic guns and launchers, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Anon

    1982-01-01

    Proceedings includes 31 papers dealing with the physical principles and engineering technology associated with the development of electromagnetic propulsion, with emphasis on its use for guns, launchers as well as other military equipment. Topics covered include: rail guns, projectiles, mass accelerators, electric motors and generators, nuclear reactors, superconducting devices, plasma acceleration and confinement, traveling magnetic waves, aerospace propulsion, space shuttles, homopolar generators, fusion reactors, tokamaks, impact fusion, and electric power generation. 14 papers are abstracted and indexed separately.

  7. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  8. NPS Gas Gun for Planar Impact Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong Ho, Chien; Hixson, Robert

    2009-11-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) commissioned a Gas Gun for shock wave studies on 9^th October 2009, by performing the first experiment. The Gas Gun is the key element of NPS Shock Wave Research Program within the Physics Department, where well-characterized planar impacts are essential for obtaining high quality data, to characterize a solid material. This first experiment was very successful, and returned key data on the quality of the impact conditions created. The Gas Gun is designed by SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES, and the NPS spent twelve months fabricating the components of the Gas Gun and six months assembling the Gas Gun. Three inch projectile are launched at velocities up to 0.5 km/s, creating high pressure and temperature states that can be used to characterize the fundamental response of relevant materials to dynamic loading. The projectile is launched from a `wrap around' gas breech where helium gas is pressurized to relatively low pressure. This gas is used to accelerate the projectile down a 3m barrel. Upon impact, the speed of the projectile and the flatness of the impact is measured, via a stepped circular pin array circuit. The next stage of development for the Gas Gun is to integrate a Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR). The VISAR sees all the waves that flow through the target plate as a result of the impact. This is a key diagnostic for determining material properties under dynamic loading conditions.

  9. Effect of Shot Peening on Surface Chracteristics of Carbon Steel with Different Heat Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Yasunori; Yakura, Ryota

    2011-01-01

    The shot peening process is one of the surface treatments. The peening effects are characterized by the fact that the surface layer undergoes large plastic deformation due to the collision of shots. This action imparts compressive residual stress on the surface, thus improving the fatigue life of the component. Therefore, this process has been utilized in order to improve the performance of engineering components. Researchers have been found a number of new phenomena in the shot peening process. It is well known that the peening effects are greatly influenced by the processing history or the thermal history of material. The hardness near the surface of the deformed material or heat treated material was often decreased by shot peening. Presently, little is known about the relation between hardness of the shot peened surface and the processing history of materials. In the present study, the effects of shot peening conditions on the surface characteristics of medium carbon steels with different heat treatments were investigated. In the experiment, the shot peening process was performed with an air-type machine using cast steel balls. Air pressure is in the range from 0.4 to 0.8 MPa and coverage is from 200 to 2000%. The workpiece was used the commercial medium carbon steel JIS-S45C. These are annealed at 900° C for 7.2 ks and quenched and tempered from 850° C in oil. Hardness, surface roughness, and compressive residual stress in the peened workpieces were measured. When the tempered workpiece was shot peened, the hardness of the surface was considerably lowered. The hardness distribution shows work softening near the surface. This amount increases with increasing coverage. This is due to the influence of processing heat generated by the plastic deformation during shot peening. The maximum residual stress appears about 840 MPa at about 0.180 mm in depth from the surface. It was found that the difference of the thermal history of the workpiece influences the hardness

  10. Methodology for calculating guideline concentrations for safety shot sites

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Residual plutonium (Pu), with trace quantities of depleted uranium (DU) or weapons grade uranium (WU), exists in surficial soils at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR), and the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as the result of the above-ground testing of nuclear weapons and special experiments involving the detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The special experiments (referred to as safety shots) involving plutonium-bearing devices were conducted to study the behavior of Pu as it was being explosively compressed; ensure that the accidental detonation of the chemical explosive in a production weapon would not result in criticality; evaluate the ability of personnel to manage large-scale Pu dispersal accidents; and develop criteria for transportation and storage of nuclear weapons. These sites do not pose a health threat to either workers or the general public because they are under active institutional control. The DOE is committed to remediating the safety shot sites so that radiation exposure to the public, both now and in the future, will be maintained within the established limits and be as low as reasonably achievable. Remediation requires calculation of a guideline concentration for the Pu, U, and their decay products that are present in the surface soil. This document presents the methodology for calculating guideline concentrations of weapons grade plutonium, weapons grade uranium, and depleted uranium in surface soils at the safety shot sites. Emphasis is placed on obtaining site-specific data for use in calculating dose to potential residents from the residual soil contamination.

  11. Separating Batterers and Guns: A Review and Analysis of Gun Removal Laws in 50 States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S.

    2006-01-01

    Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers…

  12. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  13. Optimal Shot Peening Treatments to Maximize the Fatigue Life of Quenched and Tempered Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llaneza, V.; Belzunce, F. J.

    2015-07-01

    The search for the optimal Almen intensity to use in shot peening treatments to maximize the fatigue life of industrial steel components involves many different variables and physical phenomena. In this paper, the optimal peening intensity of different steel grades obtained from an AISI 4340 steel through heat treatments has been determined. Six different steel grades were subjected to shot peening treatments, which were performed under full coverage, but employing diverse Almen intensities, shot sizes and air pressures. The role of the mechanical properties of the treated steel and the applied Almen intensity on the shot peening effects were studied to understand the results obtained by means of rotating bending fatigue tests. Each steel has a specific Almen intensity value able to optimize its fatigue life, thereby allowing an optimal balance between the positive and negative effects induced by shot peening. This value, or range of values, is dependent on the mechanical properties of the treated steel, increasing with increasing steel properties up to a certain point and then decreasing for stronger steels. In these cases, over peening treatments produce sufficiently large surface defects to induce relaxation of the surface residual stress and facilitate the initiation of surface fatigue cracks.

  14. Evaluation of the LLNL Spectrometer for Possible use with the NSTec Optical Streak Camera as a Light Gas Gun Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, J., Cradick, J.

    2012-09-27

    In fiscal year 2012, it was desired to combine a visible spectrometer with a streak camera to form a diagnostic system for recording time-resolved spectra generated in light gas gun experiments. Acquiring a new spectrometer was an option, but it was possible to borrow an existing unit for a period of months, which would be sufficient to evaluate both “off-line” and in-gas gun shots. If it proved adequate for this application, it could be duplicated (with possible modifications); if not, such testing would help determine needed specifications for another model. This report describes the evaluation of the spectrometer (separately and combined with the NSTec LO streak camera) for this purpose. Spectral and temporal resolutions were of primary interest. The first was measured with a monochromatic laser input. The second was ascertained by the combination of the spectrometer’s spatial resolution in the time-dispersive direction and the streak camera’s intrinsic temporal resolution. System responsivity was also important, and this was investigated by measuring the response of the spectrometer/camera system to black body input—the gas gun experiments are expected to be similar to a 3000K black body—as well as measuring the throughput of the spectrometer separately over a range of visible light provided by a monochromator. The flat field (in wavelength) was also measured and the final part of the evaluation was actual fielding on two gas gun shots. No firm specifications for spectral or temporal resolution were defined precisely, but these were desired to be in the 1–2 nm and 1–2 ns ranges, respectively, if possible. As seen below, these values were met or nearly met, depending on wavelength. Other performance parameters were also not given (threshold requirements) but the evaluations performed with laser, black body, and successful gas gun shots taken in aggregate indicate that the spectrometer is adequate for this purpose. Even still, some (relatively

  15. SnapShot: Expanding the Ubiquitin Code.

    PubMed

    Rajalingam, Krishnaraj; Dikic, Ivan

    2016-02-25

    The Ubiquitin (Ub) system coordinates vital cellular processes by controlling lifetime, signaling, and binding properties of proteins. Ub serves as a multivalent protein tag that is further diversified by post-translational modifications. Specialized Ub receptors then convert the encoded signals into cellular responses. This SnapShot highlights the importance of the rapidly expanding Ub code in biology as well as novel pharmacological approaches to target the Ub system in multiple diseases. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:26919436

  16. SunShot Initiative Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort launched in 2011 that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost competitive with traditional energy sources before the end of the decade. The SunShot fact sheet outlines goals and successes of the program as it works with private companies, universities, non-profit organizations, state and local governments, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, without incentives, by the year 2020.

  17. The supply and demand for guns to juveniles: Oakland's gun tracing project.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Deane; Dodge, Andrea Craig; Journel, Coraline S; Zahnd, Elaine

    2005-12-01

    In response to Oakland, California's high level of gun violence affecting young people, the East Oakland Partnership to Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence, a citywide collaboration, was formed in 1997. In 1999, the Partnership established the Oakland Gun Tracing Project to develop evidence-based policy recommendations aimed at reducing the supply of and demand for gun acquisition among urban youth. The advocacy project involved gathering, analyzing, and using police record and gun sale/registration data to inform policy and practice. Such data were collected for all gun crimes committed in Oakland, California between 1998 and 1999 in which a juvenile was either the suspect or the victim. The 213 cases involved 263 juveniles of which 170 were suspects/perpetrators and 93 were victims. Suspects as well as victims were predominantly male and African American. The 213 cases involved 132 recovered guns. Only 55% of the cases were traced to a federally licensed dealer. Three-quarters of the guns were purchased near Oakland, California. Successful traces, defined as the ability to identify federally licensed dealers and initial purchasers, were completed on only 52 of the 132 guns, demonstrating systemic tracing difficulties. Data gathered for the project was used to advocate for numerous policy changes. Recommended policy strategies include initiating a comprehensive gun tracing program so police can track all secondary sales, new laws requiring federal handgun registration which would track ownership changes, required reporting of stolen firearms, and providing effective intervention services to all juveniles the first time they enter the criminal justice system. PMID:16269532

  18. [A gun silencer of a special kind].

    PubMed

    Schyma, C; Schyma, P; Milbradt, H

    2000-01-01

    The authors report about a small bore pistol with silencer. In addition, the silencer can be sealed up by a rubber plate. This leads to a false estimation of the shooting distance. Also at close range shots the shot with the silencer and the rubber seal leaves hardly gunshot residues. The bullet wipe persists but microradiography shows his changed morphological composition. The use of the rubber seal leads predominantly to atypical bullet holes. PMID:10829239

  19. A high-brightness thermionic microwave electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.

    1991-02-01

    In a collaborative effort by SSRL, AET Associates, and Varian Associates, a high-brightness microwave electron gun using a thermionic cathode has been designed, built, tested, and installed for use with the SSRL 150 MeV linear accelerator. This thesis discusses the physics behind the design and operation of the gun and associated systems, presenting predictions and experimental tests of the gun's performance. The microwave gun concept is of increasing interest due to its promise of providing higher-current, lower-emittance electron beams than possible from conventional, DC gun technology. In a DC guns, accelerating gradients are less than 8 MV/m, while those in a microwave gun can exceed 100 MV/m, providing much more rapid initial acceleration, thereby reducing the deleterious effects of space-charge. Microwave guns produce higher momentum beams than DC guns, thus lessening space-charge effects during subsequent beam transport. Typical DC guns produce kinetic energies of 80--400 KeV, compared to 2--3 MeV for the SSRL microwave gun. State-of-the-art'' microwave gun designs employ laser-driven photocathodes, providing excellent performance but with greater complexity and monetary costs. A thermionic microwave gun with a magnetic bunching system is comparable in cost and complexity to a conventional system, but provides performance that is orders of magnitude better. Simulations of the SSRL microwave gun predict a normalized RMS emittance at the gun exist of < 10 {pi} {center dot} m{sub e}c {center dot} {mu}m for a beam consisting of approximately 50% of the particles emitted from the gun, and having a momentum spread {plus minus}10%. These emittances are for up to 5 {times} 10{sup 9}e{sup {minus}} per bunch. Chromatic aberrations in the transport line between the gun and linear accelerator increase this to typically < 30 {pi} {center dot} m{sub e} {center dot} {mu}m.

  20. Development of plasma cathode electron guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oks, Efim M.; Schanin, Peter M.

    1999-05-01

    The status of experimental research and ongoing development of plasma cathode electron guns in recent years is reviewed, including some novel upgrades and applications to various technological fields. The attractiveness of this kind of e-gun is due to its capability of creating high current, broad or focused beams, both in pulsed and steady-state modes of operation. An important characteristic of the plasma cathode electron gun is the absence of a thermionic cathode, a feature which leads to long lifetime and reliable operation even in the presence of aggressive background gas media and at fore-vacuum gas pressure ranges such as achieved by mechanical pumps. Depending on the required beam parameters, different kinds of plasma discharge systems can be used in plasma cathode electron guns, such as vacuum arcs, constricted gaseous arcs, hollow cathode glows, and two kinds of discharges in crossed E×B fields: Penning and magnetron. At the present time, plasma cathode electron guns provide beams with transverse dimension from fractional millimeter up to about one meter, beam current from microamperes to kiloamperes, beam current density up to about 100 A/cm2, pulse duration from nanoseconds to dc, and electron energy from several keV to hundreds of keV. Applications include electron beam melting and welding, surface treatment, plasma chemistry, radiation technologies, laser pumping, microwave generation, and more.

  1. Electron gun system for NSC KIPT linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zu-Sheng; He, Da-Yong; Chi, Yun-Long

    2014-06-01

    In the NSC KIPT linac, a neutron source based on a subcritical assembly driven by a 100 MeV/100 kW electron linear accelerator is under design and development. The linear accelerator needs a new high current electron gun. In this paper, the physical design, mechanical fabrication and beam test of this new electron gun are described. The emission current is designed to be higher than 2 A for the pulse width of 3 μs with repetition rate of 50 Hz. The gun will operate with a DC high voltage power supply that can provide a high voltage up to 150 kV. Computer simulations and optimizations have been carried out in the design stage, including the gun geometry and beam transport line. The test results of high voltage conditioning and beam test are presented. The operation status of the electron gun system is also included. The basic test results show that the design, manufacture, and operation of the new electron system are basically successful.

  2. ECR ion source with electron gun

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Zu Q.; Lyneis, Claude M.

    1993-01-01

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10) having an electron gun (52) for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber (18) of the ion source (10). The ion source (10) has a injection enclosure (12) and a plasma chamber tank (14). The plasma chamber (18) is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets (16). The electron gun (52) injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber (18) such that ionization within the plasma chamber (18) occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun (52). The electron gun (52) has a cathode (116) for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply (96) while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply (118). A concentric inner conductor (60) and Outer conductor (62) carry heating current to a carbon chuck (104) and carbon pusher (114) Which hold the cathode (116) in place and also heat the cathode (16). In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10), the electron gun (52) replaces the conventional first stage used in prior art electron cyclotron resonance ion generators.

  3. Influence of the Spray Gun Type on Microstructure and Properties of HVAF Sprayed Fe-Based Corrosion Resistant Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanti, A.; Koivuluoto, H.; Vuoristo, P.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the microstructural details and corrosion properties of novel Fe-based coatings prepared using two different generations of HVAF spray guns. These two generations of HVAF guns are Activated Combustion HVAF (AC-HVAF, 2nd generation) M2 gun and Supersonic Air Fuel HVAF (SAF, 3rd generation) M3 gun. Structural details were analysed using x-ray diffractometry and field-emission scanning electron microscope. Higher denseness with homogeneous microstructure was achieved for Fe-based coating deposited by the M3 process. Such coatings exhibit higher particle deformation and lower oxide content compared to coatings manufactured with M2 gun. Corrosion properties were studied by open-cell potential measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The lower porosity and higher interlamellar cohesion of coating manufactured with M3 gun prevent the electrolyte from penetrating through the coating and arriving to the substrate, enhancing the overall corrosion resistance. This can be explained by the improved microstructures and coating performance.

  4. Ultrasonics and Optics Would Control Shot Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    Feedback system assures production of silicon shot of uniform size. Breakup of silicon stream into drops is controlled, in part, by varying frequency of vibrations imparted to stream by ultrasonic transducer. Drop size monitored by photodetector. Control method particularly advantageous in that constant size is maintained even while other process variables are changed deliberately or inadvertently. Applicable to materials other than silicon.

  5. Patronin Takes a Shot at Polarity.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, Masatoshi; Toya, Mika

    2016-07-11

    To specify the anterior-posterior axis of Drosophila embryos, noncentrosomal microtubules grow out from cortical regions of the oocyte and help transport axis determinants. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Nashchekin et al. (2016) report a Shot- and Patronin-dependent mechanism by which the oocyte cortex produces polarized microtubule arrays. PMID:27404355

  6. Dual echelon femtosecond single-shot spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Taeho; Wolfson, Johanna W.; Teitelbaum, Samuel W.; Kandyla, Maria; Nelson, Keith A.

    2014-08-15

    We have developed a femtosecond single-shot spectroscopic technique to measure irreversible changes in condensed phase materials in real time. Crossed echelons generate a two-dimensional array of time-delayed pulses with one femtosecond probe pulse. This yields 9 ps of time-resolved data from a single laser shot, filling a gap in currently employed measurement methods. We can now monitor ultrafast irreversible dynamics in solid-state materials or other samples that cannot be flowed or replenished between laser shots, circumventing limitations of conventional pump-probe methods due to sample damage or product buildup. Despite the absence of signal-averaging in the single-shot measurement, an acceptable signal-to-noise level has been achieved via background and reference calibration procedures. Pump-induced changes in relative reflectivity as small as 0.2%−0.5% are demonstrated in semimetals, with both electronic and coherent phonon dynamics revealed by the data. The optical arrangement and the space-to-time conversion and calibration procedures necessary to achieve this level of operation are described. Sources of noise and approaches for dealing with them are discussed.

  7. SnapShot: The Bacterial Cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Fink, Gero; Szewczak-Harris, Andrzej; Löwe, Jan

    2016-07-14

    Most bacteria and archaea contain filamentous proteins and filament systems that are collectively known as the bacterial cytoskeleton, though not all of them are cytoskeletal, affect cell shape, or maintain intracellular organization. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:27419875

  8. Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Get Your Flu Shot! Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents ... failure, or lung disease "For the 2010–2011 flu season, the flu vaccine provides protection against the ...

  9. Jello Shots While Underage, Bigger Booze Problems Later?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158578.html Jello Shots While Underage, Bigger Booze Problems Later? Study suggests the alcohol- ... 2016 FRIDAY, April 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many underage Americans down jello shots, and these young drinkers ...

  10. 35. INTERIOR VIEW, WHEELBRATORFRYE SHOT PEENER FOR REMOVAL OF RUST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. INTERIOR VIEW, WHEELBRATOR-FRYE SHOT PEENER FOR REMOVAL OF RUST AND SCALE; NOTE TOOLS ARE TUMBLED WITH BLASTED WITH LEAD SHOT TO CLEAN SURFACES - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  11. Flu Shot Safe for Surgery Patients in Hospital: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157754.html Flu Shot Safe for Surgery Patients in Hospital: Study ... increased risk for complications if they receive a flu shot in the hospital, a new study suggests. ...

  12. [Comparison of wound morphology following gunshots by machine guns and sub-machine guns].

    PubMed

    Grellner, W; Madea, B

    1999-01-01

    Automatic weapons such as machine guns and submachine guns are found in the German-speaking region only in special army and police units and appear accordingly rarely in homicides, suicides and accidents. In the following, the findings in two cases of death with the use of machine and submachine guns are presented. The first case was a fatal accident during shooting on a training area (current machine gun of the German army, calibre 7.62 x 51 mm), the second case was a killing during a physical conflict (submachine gun MP 40 from World War II, calibre 9 x 19 mm). In the case with the machine gun autopsy disclosed typical entry holes corresponding to the calibre, but unusually large exit wounds with tissue bridges in the wound ground, measuring 4 x 2.5 cm in diameter. By contrast, the second case (submachine gun) showed "normal" entry and exit wounds. The differences are mainly caused by deviating ballistic data of the ammunition used. They are discussed against the background of literature on wound ballistics. PMID:10198694

  13. 13. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), VIEW NORTH AT SOUTH END OF BUILDING. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  14. The Real Costs of Gun Violence

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Philip J.

    2001-03-14

    I will report some of the results in my new book, 'Gun Violence: The Real Costs' (Oxford University Press, 2000; with Jens Ludwig). The problem of gun violence is usually summarized by statistics on deaths and injuries. Those statistics tell only part of the story. All of us bear some of the burden of gun violence, at least in the form of higher taxes and waiting to go through the airport security checks. But that's just the beginning. The extraordinary reductions in lethal violence that occurred during the 1990s help account for rising property values and urban renewal; further reductions are possible and would do still more to enhance the average standard of living. This talk will explain why the economic perspective provides a fresh, useful point of view on violence, and will discuss the technique used to arrive at an estimate of the magnitude of the burden.

  15. Electromagnetic theta gun and tubular projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, T.J.; Cnare, E.C.; Oberkampf, W.L.; Beard, S.G.; Cowan, M.

    1980-12-01

    Unlike the better known rail gun, the theta gun applies the propelling force along the length of its projectile. This is shown to allow much greater acceleration of high fineness ratio projectiles for a given barrel pressure, allowing much shorter barrels for military applications. A computer code which simulates performance of the theta gun is described and experimental results from a few simple, low energy experiments show close agreement with code predictions. Trajectories and aerodynamic heating for three candidate military projectiles are calculated for vertical and horizontal atmospheric launches where initial velocity is as high as 3 km/s. The calculations indicate that in some cases a thin layer of heatshield (ablator) will be required to control projectile heating.

  16. An analysis of electron guns for welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabchevski, S. P.; Mladenov, G. M.; Wojcicki, S.; Dabek, J.

    1996-06-01

    Results from numerical experiments and direct measurements for the analysis of an axially symmetric triode electron gun with thermionic cathode for electron beam welding are presented and discussed. Computer simulation is carried out using the new version of the GUN-EBT software package. The self-consistent model takes into account the energy spectrum of emitted electrons and formation of a potential minimum in front of the cathode. The method underlying the investigation incorporates not only the commonly used trajectory analysis (ray tracing) but also an analysis in the phase space (phase analysis) which allows the emittance of the beams to be evaluated. It is demonstrated that computer simulation of beam formation provides ample information for the assessment both of the quality of generated beams and operational performance of the guns.

  17. Pulser for the Tevatron electron lens gun

    SciTech Connect

    Iouri Terechkine et al.

    2004-05-18

    To compensate for beam-beam interaction in Tevatron, an ''electron lens'' is considered to be an effective instrument. When a bunch of electrons with energy in the range (10-16) kV is overlapping with a bunch of antiprotons, the resulting focusing force for antiprotons can be adjusted by changing the electron beam current and by profiling its radial distribution. There exist several scenarios of how the system must function. According to one of them, an electron gun that supplies electrons must be fed by voltage pulses that follow with the frequency of antiproton bunches circulating in the Tevatron, which is about 2.5 MHz. To provide focusing tailored for each individual antiproton bunch, a modulator of the gun (pulser) must allow pulse-to-pulse voltage change. This report will cover main approaches to a design of a pulser for use with the gun of the Tevatron Electron Lens.

  18. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Kewisch, Jorg; Chang, Xiangyun

    2007-06-05

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  19. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2009-10-13

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  20. Novel ignition systems for heavy calibre guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, C. N.; Cook, G. G.; Henning, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years there was a trend towards steadily rising gun pressures, especially in direct fire weapons and this has caused many functional problems to arise with conventional vent tube ignition systems. To overcome these problems and to allow the process of gun development to continue, the United Kingdom is performing a program of research into a number of ignition systems for heavy caliber guns. These include: spark ignition, laser ignition, and electrical impulse ignition. A number of different spark plug configurations were evaluated. Extensive trials were performed on the ignition characteristics of black powders and black powder substitutes using an experimental 4 J neodymium laser. Work was also performed on the development of high pressure sapphire windows. A study into methods of charge ignition by electrical impulse techniques was also performed.

  1. Three cases of death caused by shots from blank cartridge.

    PubMed

    Zdravkovic, Miodrag; Milic, Miroslav; Stojanovic, Miroslav; Kostov, Milos

    2009-12-01

    The authors describe 3 cases of lethal injuries caused by 7.62 mm blank cartridge shots from military automatic rifle of domestic origin (AK 47, 7.62 mm). In 1 case, the cartridge was fired from a weapon that had been leaned on the head, with subsequent destruction of brain, and in other 2 cases, the weapon had been leaned on the chests, which led to destruction of heart parts. The injuries were caused by the action of striking wave of gunpowder explosion, the air blast type. The cases demonstrate that the gas pressure from the exploding propellant of blank cartridge is powerful enough to penetrate the thoracic wall and the skull. PMID:19901805

  2. Improved DC Gun and Insulator Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Michael; Johnson, Rolland P

    2015-01-11

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron radiation light sources and free electron lasers rely on DC high voltage photoguns with internal field gradients as high as 10 to 15 MV/m. These high gradients often lead to field emission which poses serious problems for the photocathode used to generate the electron beam and the ceramic insulators used to bias the photocathode at high voltage. Ceramic insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic causing a buildup of charge and eventual puncture, and also because large diameter ceramics are difficult to braze reliably. The lifetimes of photo cathodes inside high current DC guns exhibiting field emission are limited to less than a hundred hours. Reducing the surface gradients on the metals reduces the field emission, which serves to maintain the required ultrahigh vacuum condition. A novel gun design with gradients around 5 MV/m and operating at 350 kV, a major improvement over existing designs, was proposed that allows for the in-situ replacement of photo cathodes in axially symmetric designs using inverted ceramics. In this project, the existing JLAB CEBAF asymmetric gun design with an inverted ceramic support was modeled and the beam dynamics characterized. An improved structure was designed that reduces the surface gradients and improves the beam optics. To minimize the surface gradients, a number of electrostatic gun designs were studied to determine the optimum configuration of the critical electrodes within the gun structure. Coating experiments were carried out to create a charge dissipative coating for cylindrical ceramics. The phase II proposal, which was not granted, included the design and fabrication of an axially symmetric DC Gun with an inverted ceramic that would operate with less than 5 MV/m at 350 kV and would be designed with an in-situ replaceable photo-cathode.

  3. Simulations of Gaussian electron guns for RHIC electron lens

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, A.

    2014-02-28

    Simulations of two versions of the electron gun for RHIC electron lens are presented. The electron guns have to generate an electron beam with Gaussian radial profile of the electron beam density. To achieve the Gaussian electron emission profile on the cathode we used a combination of the gun electrodes and shaping of the cathode surface. Dependence of electron gun performance parameters on the geometry of electrodes and the margins for electrodes positioning are presented.

  4. Shot to shot variation in perveance of the explosive emission electron beam diode

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava; Menon, R.; Singh, S. K.; Kulkarni, M. R.; Saroj, P. C.; Nagesh, K. V.; Mittal, K. C.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2009-03-15

    The shot to shot variation in perveance of a planar diode with explosive emission graphite cathode in a range of accelerating gaps 3-12 mm is investigated experimentally. The typical electron beam parameters were 200 kV, 12 kA, 100 ns, with a few hundreds of A/cm{sup 2} current density. The diode perveance remains less than the Child-Langmuir value, indicating that only a fraction of the cathode take part in the emission process. A simple statistical analysis of the diode perveance shows that the shot to shot variation is more pronounced for the later part of the accelerating pulse. The cathode plasma expansion velocity and the effective initial emission area have been calculated from the perveance data. It was found that the plasma expansion velocity varies from 3 to 6.5 cm/{mu}s. The mean expansion velocity and the standard deviation increase with the increase in the accelerating gap. The initial emission areas also varies randomly on a shot to shot basis and at the beginning of the accelerating pulse only 4%-35% of the cathode area take part in the emission process. The mean initial emission area and the standard deviation also increase with the increase in the accelerating gap. Experimental result indicates that the larger gaps and lower electric fields suggest a path to more uniform emission.

  5. 50 CFR 20.108 - Nontoxic shot zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nontoxic shot zones. 20.108 Section 20.108... Nontoxic shot zones. Beginning September 1, 1991, the contiguous 48 United States, and the States of Alaska... United States, are designated for the purpose of § 20.21(j) as nontoxic shot zones for hunting...

  6. Nb-Pb Superconducting RF Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Sekutowicz, J.; Iversen, J.; Kreps, G.; Moller, W.D.; Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Smedley, J.; Rao, T.; Ferrario, M.; Kneisel, P.; Langner, J.; Strzyzewski, P.; Lefferts, R.; Lipski, A.; Szalowski, K.; Ko, K.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2006-03-29

    We report on the status of an electron RF-gun made of two superconductors: niobium and lead. The presented design combines the advantages of the RF performance of bulk niobium superconducting cavities and the reasonably high quantum efficiency of lead, as compared to other superconducting metals. The concept, mentioned in a previous paper, follows the attractive approach of all niobium superconducting RF-gun as it has been proposed by the BNL group. Measured values of quantum efficiency for lead at various photon energies, analysis of recombination time of photon-broken Cooper pairs for lead and niobium, and preliminary cold test results are discussed in this paper.

  7. Nb-Pb superconducting RF gun

    SciTech Connect

    J. Sekutowicz; J. Iversen; G. Kreps; W.D. Moller; W. Singer; X. Singer; I. Ben-Zvi; A. Burrill; J. Smedley; T. Rao; M. Ferrario; P. Kneisel; J. Langner; P. Strzyzewski; R. Lefferts; A. Lipski; K. Szalowski; K. Ko; L. Xiao

    2006-04-14

    We report on the status of an electron RF-gun made of two superconductors: niobium and lead. The presented design combines the advantages of the RF performance of bulk niobium superconducting cavities and the reasonably high quantum efficiency of lead, as compared to other superconducting metals. The concept, mentioned in a previous paper, follows the attractive approach of all niobium superconducting RF-gun as it has been proposed by the BNL group. Measured values of quantum efficiency for lead at various photon energies, analysis of recombination time of photon-broken Cooper pairs for lead and niobium, and preliminary cold test results are discussed in this paper.

  8. Electron trapping mechanisms in magnetron injection guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagonakis, Ioannis Gr.; Piosczyk, Bernhard; Zhang, Jianhua; Illy, Stefan; Rzesnicki, Tomasz; Hogge, Jean-Philippe; Avramidis, Konstantinos; Gantenbein, Gerd; Thumm, Manfred; Jelonnek, John

    2016-02-01

    A key parameter for the gyrotron operation and efficiency is the presence of trapped electrons. Two electron trapping mechanisms can take place in gyrotrons: (i) the adiabatic trap and (ii) the magnetic potential well. Their influence on the gyrotron operation is analyzed. Two gun design criteria are then proposed to suppress both mechanisms in order to minimize the risk of possible problems. Experimental results of three high power gyrotrons are presented and their performance is correlated to the presence of populations of trapped electrons. Finally, some very general gun design principles are presented for the limitation of harmful electron trapping.

  9. Transverse-longitudinal correlations in electron guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. R.; Lewellen, J. W.; Poole, B. R.

    2012-07-01

    When a modulated beam is produced in a DC electron gun, the time-dependent space charge force and the time-independent focusing force produce a correlation between current, position along the beam, and the beam's radius and divergence. This has implications for beam extraction and downstream beam transport. Here, we simulate an electrostatically-focused DC electron gun to study this correlation. Beam radius and divergence at the anode are found to be approximately linear functions of beam current, and the consequences for beam loss and extraction are considered.

  10. Dynamics Modelling of Biolistic Gene Guns

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.; Tao, W.; Pianetta, P.A.

    2009-06-04

    The gene transfer process using biolistic gene guns is a highly dynamic process. To achieve good performance, the process needs to be well understood and controlled. Unfortunately, no dynamic model is available in the open literature for analysing and controlling the process. This paper proposes such a model. Relationships of the penetration depth with the helium pressure, the penetration depth with the acceleration distance, and the penetration depth with the micro-carrier radius are presented. Simulations have also been conducted. The results agree well with experimental results in the open literature. The contribution of this paper includes a dynamic model for improving and manipulating performance of the biolistic gene gun.

  11. Do guns provide safety? At what cost?

    PubMed

    Narang, Puneet; Paladugu, Anubha; Manda, Sainath Reddy; Smock, William; Gosnay, Cynthia; Lippmann, Steven

    2010-02-01

    Many people feel that having a gun provides greater safety for them and their family. Actually, having a firearm in the home escalates the risk for death or injury, while using it to shoot someone who endangers the household is much less common. The resultant injuries, deaths, emotional turmoil, and/or disabilities lead to greater utilization of health care and legal/police services. Payment for these expenses is provided by higher insurance premiums and tax rates. This financial aspect has become a part of our country's current political concern over firearm ownership rights, gun violence or regulation, health care costs, the economy, and taxes. PMID:20065902

  12. Gun Injuries More Often Fatal Now, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... in 2013. Regardless of how people feel about gun control, "there are a number of things we can all agree upon," Sauaia suggested. These include: Children and people who are mentally unstable should not have access to unlocked, loaded guns. Use technology to improve the safety of guns. ...

  13. Aspirator Gun for High-Throughput Mosquito Bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe an innovative aspirator gun designed to transfer anaesthetized mosquitoes directly into glass bioassay tubes. The gun has been used for thousands of transfers with extremely low associated mortality and is the central component of a high-throughput bioassay system. The gun is constructed...

  14. Aspirator gun for high-throughput mosquito bioassays.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Robert L; Wynn, W Wayne; Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2012-03-01

    We describe an innovative aspirator gun designed to transfer individual anesthetized mosquitoes directly into glass bioassay tubes. The gun has been used for thousands of transfers with extremely low associated mortality and is the central component of a high-throughput bioassay system. The gun is constructed using readily obtainable materials and can be modified for a range of insects. PMID:22533090

  15. Youth, Guns, and the Juvenile Justice System. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey; Coggeshall, Mark; Gouvis, Caterina; Mears, Daniel; Travis, Jeremy; Waul, Michelle; White, Ruth

    This report documents trends in youth gun violence and the response within the justice system, noting the growing variety of data resources available to investigate the effect of new gun laws on youth, communities, and public safety. The first section reviews recent trends, examining the major wave of gun violence in the United States during the…

  16. Product-oriented approaches to reducing youth gun violence.

    PubMed

    Teret, Stephen P; Culross, Patti L

    2002-01-01

    Injury prevention experts have suggested that gun manufacturers could reduce youth violence by changing the design of guns. Product safety features could make guns more difficult for children to fire unintentionally and more difficult to use if stolen or obtained illegally. This article gives a brief history of efforts to make safer, smarter guns and assesses the potential of the product safety approach for reducing youth gun violence. Among the article's key findings: Research from the injury prevention field suggests that changing product design may be more effective in preventing injuries than trying to change personal behaviors; Existing product safety technologies for guns could reduce unintentional gun injuries, especially to young children. In addition, emerging technologies will enable gun manufacturers to "personalize" guns, which could prevent unauthorized users of any age from firing the weapons. Personalization could decrease access to guns by adolescents; Gun manufacturers have been slow to incorporate safety features into their products; but legislative, regulatory, and litigation efforts are under way to mandate safer guns. The authors envision a future when the law requires product safety features--including personalization--on all new firearms. These product safety features have the potential to reduce both intentional and unintentional firearm injury and death. PMID:12194606

  17. Should Gun Safety Be Taught in Schools? Perspectives of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Background: Gun-related injuries and deaths among children occur at disproportionately high rates in the United States. Children who live in homes with guns are the most likely victims. This study describes teachers' views on whether gun safety should be taught to children in the preschool and elementary years. Methods: A total of 150 survey…

  18. Gun Violence and Children: Factors Related To Exposure and Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovak, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Study investigated relationship between access to firearms and parental monitoring on rural youths' exposure to gun violence, and examined the effect of gun violence exposure on mental health. Results indicated a substantial number were exposed to gun violence. Exposure was related to firearm access and parental monitoring. Implications for social…

  19. VIEW OF SOUTH GUN EMPLACEMENT. NOTE THE EXCAVATED EDGE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH GUN EMPLACEMENT. NOTE THE EXCAVATED EDGE OF THE GUN BLOCK IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING NORTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, South Gun Emplacement, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Gun ownership and suicide in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1989-05-01

    The circulation of firearm magazines was used as an index of gun ownership in the states of the USA. States with a higher per capita circulation of firearm magazines had higher suicide rates by gun and higher overall suicide rates. Homicide rates were unrelated to this measure of gun availability. Implications for the prevention of suicide are discussed. PMID:2788293

  1. Geophysical investigation of the pressure field produced by water guns at a pond site in La Crosse, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Ryan F.; Morrow, William S.

    2015-01-01

    The July 2013 study consisted of three scenarios: fish behavior, single gun assessment, and experimental barrier evaluation. The fish behavior scenario simulated the pond conditions from previous studies. Two 80-in3 water guns were fired in the south end of the testing pond. Pressures essentially doubled from the testing of the single 80-in3 water gun. The single gun assessment scenario sought to replicate the setup of the 80-in3 scenario in September 2012, but with additional sensors to better define the pressure field. The 5-lb/in2 target pressure field continued to show a radius ranging from 40 to 45 feet, dependent on the pressure of the input air. The final scenario, the experimental barrier evaluation, showed that a two-dimensional continuous plane of 5 lb/in2 can be created between two 80-in3 water guns to a separation of 99 feet and a depth of 6.5 feet with 1,500 lb/in2 of input air.

  2. Experimental investigation of a 1 kA/cm2 sheet beam plasma cathode electron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Niraj; Narayan Pal, Udit; Kumar Pal, Dharmendra; Prajesh, Rahul; Prakash, Ram

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a cold cathode based sheet-beam plasma cathode electron gun is reported with achieved sheet-beam current density ˜1 kA/cm2 from pseudospark based argon plasma for pulse length of ˜200 ns in a single shot experiment. For the qualitative assessment of the sheet-beam, an arrangement of three isolated metallic-sheets is proposed. The actual shape and size of the sheet-electron-beam are obtained through a non-conventional method by proposing a dielectric charging technique and scanning electron microscope based imaging. As distinct from the earlier developed sheet beam sources, the generated sheet-beam has been propagated more than 190 mm distance in a drift space region maintaining sheet structure without assistance of any external magnetic field.

  3. Experimental investigation of a 1 kA/cm² sheet beam plasma cathode electron gun.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Niraj; Pal, Udit Narayan; Pal, Dharmendra Kumar; Prajesh, Rahul; Prakash, Ram

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a cold cathode based sheet-beam plasma cathode electron gun is reported with achieved sheet-beam current density ∼1 kA/cm(2) from pseudospark based argon plasma for pulse length of ∼200 ns in a single shot experiment. For the qualitative assessment of the sheet-beam, an arrangement of three isolated metallic-sheets is proposed. The actual shape and size of the sheet-electron-beam are obtained through a non-conventional method by proposing a dielectric charging technique and scanning electron microscope based imaging. As distinct from the earlier developed sheet beam sources, the generated sheet-beam has been propagated more than 190 mm distance in a drift space region maintaining sheet structure without assistance of any external magnetic field. PMID:25638082

  4. Single-Shot Rotational Raman Thermometry for Turbulent Flames Using a Low-Resolution Bandwidth Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2007-01-01

    An alternative optical thermometry technique that utilizes the low-resolution (order 10(exp 1)/cm) pure-rotational spontaneous Raman scattering of air is developed to aid single-shot multiscalar measurements in turbulent combustion studies. Temperature measurements are realized by correlating the measured envelope bandwidth of the pure-rotational manifold of the N2/O2 spectrum with a theoretical prediction of a species-weighted bandwidth. By coupling this thermometry technique with conventional vibrational Raman scattering for species determination, we demonstrate quantitative spatially resolved, single-shot measurements of the temperature and fuel/oxidizer concentrations in a high-pressure turbulent Cf4-air flame. Our technique provides not only an effective means of validating other temperature measurement methods, but also serves as a secondary thermometry technique in cases where the anti-Stokes vibrational N2 Raman signals are too low for a conventional vibrational temperature analysis.

  5. Histopathology of mallards dosed with lead and selected substitute shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Irby, H.D.; Bagley, G.E.

    1967-01-01

    The histopathological response of male game farm mallards fed lead, three types of plastic-coated lead, two lead-magnesium alloys, iron, copper, zinc-coated iron, and molybdenum-coated iron shot was studied. Mallards fed lead, plastic-coated lead, or lead-magnesium alloy shot developed a similar pathological response, including the formation of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidneys. Birds fed iron or molybdenum-coated iron shot developed hemosiderosis of the liver. Two of four mallards fed zinc-coated iron shot also developed hemosiderosis of the liver. No lesions were found in mallards fed copper shot.

  6. Shot Apple 2, a test of the TEAPOT series, 5 May 1955. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ponton, J.; Wilkinson, M.; Rohrer, S.

    1981-11-25

    This report describes the activities of more than 2,000 DOD personnel, both military and civilian, in Shot APPLE 2, the thirteenth nuclear test in the TEAPOT atmospheric nuclear weapons testing series. The test was conducted on 5 May 1955 and involved participants from Exercise Desert Rock VI, AFSWP, AFSWC, AEC, Test Groups, and the Air Weather Service. The largest activity was the test of an armored task force, Task Force RAZOR, which involved approximately 1,000 troops.

  7. Is There a Gun in the House? Gun Safety in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    Written in a conversational style with illustrations, this booklet from a series of home literacy readers is directed at the Alaskan environment where guns are a way of life, used for food and defense from animals. But more than 10% of the 1,300 U.S. deaths from gun accidents occur in Alaska, and more than 70%, at home. Nearly half the victims are…

  8. Magnetized Target Fusion Integrated Engineering Test Shot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrator, T.; Sears, J.; Turchi, P. J.; Waganaar, W. J.; Weber, T.; Wurden, G. A.; Degnan, J. H.; Domonkos, M.; Grabowski, C.; Ruden, E. L.; White, W.; Gale, D.; Kostora, M.; Parker, J.; Frese, M. H.; Frese, S. D.; Camacho, J. F.; Coffey, S. K.; Makhin, V.; Siemon, R. E.; Fuelling, S.; Bauer, B. S.; Lynn, A. G.; Roderick, N. F.

    2010-11-01

    The LANL & AFRL collaboration has carried out the first engineering shakedown demonstration of a Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) shot. We used a solid, cylinder aluminum flux compressor. The target plasma was created as a high density Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) with closed flux surfaces. After formation, the FRC was expelled to a compression region at 15km/sec. We show some initial data that characterize the target FRC, including some translation data from the Los Alamos FRC experiment FRXL and the FRCHX experiment at AFRL. Data from the implosion shot show that we achieved all our initial objectives. The solid liner realization of Magneto Inertial Fuson is only one of several magnetized, pulsed, fusion schemes that are being pursued.

  9. A Discussion on Personnel Exposure to Posttest Byproducts from a 50-cal. Light Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Don; Rodriquez, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In January of 2002, employees working in the Hypervelocity Test Facility (HTF) at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) began to notice common physical complaints. These included loss of smell, loss of taste, skin irritation, a burning sensation of the mucus membranes, and redness and chapping of the lips. These conditions extended to home during the weekends and throughout holiday breaks as well. Concerns about air contaminants were raised with regard to the operation of the .50-cal. two-stage light gas gun (2SLGG). Employees suspected that these conditions might be caused by air contaminants from small leaks at the gun pump tube joint at the breech, and exhaust gas entrainment into the WAC systems. The WSTF Industrial Hygienist (IH) was notified and samples were collected using the MIRAN infrared spectrometer (real time) air sampler on 08 January 2002 at the SO-cal. gun. The results from this screening test suggested the need for more detailed investigations with analytical sampling and analysis.

  10. Recreational Gun Use by California Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittes, Katherine A.; Sorenson, Susan B.

    2005-01-01

    Most research on adolescents and firearms focuses on urban populations, handguns, and homicide. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of recreational gun use (RGU)--for hunting or target shooting--among 5,801 community-residing 12- to 17-year-old Californians. Data are from the first statewide California Health Interview Survey (CHIS),…

  11. Simulation of an rf thermionic gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxiu

    1991-07-01

    An rf thermionic gun is simulated using Superfish and Parmela. A strong front-end compression for the bunch is demonstrated. The energy spread, phase spread and emittance of a single electron micropulse are examined subtly by cutting the bunch into slices corresponding to different initial emission phases of the particles.

  12. Gene gun immunization to combat malaria.

    PubMed

    Bergmann-Leitner, Elke S; Leitner, Wolfgang W

    2013-01-01

    DNA immunization by gene gun against a variety of infectious diseases has yielded promising results in animal models. Skin-based DNA vaccination against these diseases is not only an attractive option for the clinic but can aid in the discovery and optimization of vaccine candidates. Vaccination against the protozoan parasite Plasmodium presents unique challenges: (a) most parasite-associated antigens are stage-specific; (b) antibodies capable of neutralizing the parasite during the probing of the mosquitoes have to be available at high titers in order to prevent infection of the liver; (c) immunity to liver-stage infection needs to be absolute in order to prevent subsequent blood-stage parasitemia. Gene gun vaccination has successfully been used to prevent the infection of mice with the rodent malaria strain P. berghei and has been employed in a macaque model of human P. falciparum. DNA plasmid delivery by gene gun offers the opportunity to economically and efficiently test novel malaria vaccine candidates and vaccination strategies, which include the evaluation of novel molecular adjuvant strategies. Here we describe the procedures involved in making and delivering a pre-clinical malaria DNA vaccine by gene gun as well as the correct approach for the in vivo evaluation of the vaccine. Furthermore, we discuss various approaches that either have already been tested or could be employed to improve DNA vaccines against malaria. PMID:23104349

  13. Witness gun for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Power, J.; Simpson, J.; Chojnacki, E.; Konecny, R.

    1995-06-01

    The witness gun for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) is a six-cell, copper, iris loaded, rf photocathode operating at 1.3 GHz in a {pi}/2 standing wave mode. An intense drive beam (up to 100 nC {at} 20 psec FWHM) used in the AWA project to excite (i.e. drive) wakefields in at least two separate test devices: a dielectric loaded cylindrical waveguide and a plasma cell. In both cases a low charge, low emittance witness beam (0.1 nC charge, 1 {pi}mm-mrad 90% physical emittance) is required to probe (i.e. witness) the wakefields left behind by the drive beam. This paper will primarily discuss the recent progress in the construction of the witness gun, while also briefly summarizing the central design issues of the gun. A brief status report on the dielectric witness gun option is also included. The authors conclude with a short statement on the near term future plans.

  14. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  15. College Students Opinions on Gun Violence.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Rhonda K; LoCurto, Jamie; Brown, Kyrah; Stowell, David; Maryman, J'Vonnah; Dean, Amber; McNair, Thoi; Ojeda, Debbie; Siwierka, Julia

    2016-06-01

    Gun violence and control issues have become serious public health problems. This study gathered the opinions from 419 college students from a Midwestern University. Participants were asked about beliefs about purchasing assault weapons, beliefs about bringing handguns to college campuses and beliefs about contributing factors that lead to gun violence. Participants completed surveys online. The findings showed that overall 54 % of respondents believed that military assault weapons should be banned and 53 % agree that teachers should be allowed to carry a registered handgun on campus. There were statistically significant differences between males and females on these issues. For instance, females believed military assault weapons and high capacity magazines should be banned more than 1.9 times (p = .004) p < .05 compared to male students. On the other hand, female students were more likely to believe that school teachers should be allowed to carry registered handguns on school campuses more than 1.55 times (p = .046) p < .05 compared to their male student counterparts. There were no statistically significant differences between ethnic groups. The top four contributing factors that students believed led to gun violence were decline in parenting and family values (17 %), gang involvement (14 %), bullying (13.8 %) and guns being easy to obtain (13.8 %). Limitations and implications for policy work are discussed. PMID:26516018

  16. Performance of photocathode rf gun electron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1993-07-01

    In Photo-Injectors (PI) electron guns, electrons are emitted from a photocathode by a short laser pulse and then accelerated by intense rf fields in a resonant cavity. The best known advantage of this technique is the high peak current with a good emittance (high brightness). This is important for short wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and linear colliders. PIs are in operation in many electron accelerator facilities and a large number of new guns are under construction. Some applications have emerged, providing, for example, very high pulse charges. PIs have been operated over a wide range of frequencies, from 144 to 3000 MHz (a 17 GHz gun is being developed). An exciting new possibility is the development of superconducting PIs. A significant body of experimental and theoretical work exists by now, indicating the criticality of the accelerator elements that follow the gun for the preservation of the PI`s performance as well as possible avenues of improvements in brightness. Considerable research is being done on the laser and photocathode material of the PI, and improvement is expected in this area.

  17. Performance of photocathode rf gun electron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1993-01-01

    In Photo-Injectors (PI) electron guns, electrons are emitted from a photocathode by a short laser pulse and then accelerated by intense rf fields in a resonant cavity. The best known advantage of this technique is the high peak current with a good emittance (high brightness). This is important for short wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and linear colliders. PIs are in operation in many electron accelerator facilities and a large number of new guns are under construction. Some applications have emerged, providing, for example, very high pulse charges. PIs have been operated over a wide range of frequencies, from 144 to 3000 MHz (a 17 GHz gun is being developed). An exciting new possibility is the development of superconducting PIs. A significant body of experimental and theoretical work exists by now, indicating the criticality of the accelerator elements that follow the gun for the preservation of the PI's performance as well as possible avenues of improvements in brightness. Considerable research is being done on the laser and photocathode material of the PI, and improvement is expected in this area.

  18. Toward a terahertz-driven electron gun

    PubMed Central

    Huang, W. Ronny; Nanni, Emilio A.; Ravi, Koustuban; Hong, Kyung-Han; Fallahi, Arya; Wong, Liang Jie; Keathley, Phillip D.; Zapata, Luis E.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond electron bunches with keV energies and eV energy spread are needed by condensed matter physicists to resolve state transitions in carbon nanotubes, molecular structures, organic salts, and charge density wave materials. These semirelativistic electron sources are not only of interest for ultrafast electron diffraction, but also for electron energy-loss spectroscopy and as a seed for x-ray FELs. Thus far, the output energy spread (hence pulse duration) of ultrafast electron guns has been limited by the achievable electric field at the surface of the emitter, which is 10 MV/m for DC guns and 200 MV/m for RF guns. A single-cycle THz electron gun provides a unique opportunity to not only achieve GV/m surface electric fields but also with relatively low THz pulse energies, since a single-cycle transform-limited waveform is the most efficient way to achieve intense electric fields. Here, electron bunches of 50 fC from a flat copper photocathode are accelerated from rest to tens of eV by a microjoule THz pulse with peak electric field of 72 MV/m at 1 kHz repetition rate. We show that scaling to the readily-available GV/m THz field regime would translate to monoenergetic electron beams of ~100 keV. PMID:26486697

  19. Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    Noting that firearms outnumber children by a margin of almost three to one in the United States, this report advocates gun safety policies to protect children. The report provides information on trends in youth firearm deaths from 1994 and 1999 and comparisons of U.S. data to those of other industrialized countries. A table delineates 1996-1998…

  20. Common Sense Copper and RF Guns

    SciTech Connect

    Mulhollan, G.

    2005-01-18

    The purpose of this document is to gather together both fundamental information on copper and on the cleaning and operation of copper in RF gun structures. While incomplete, this is a living document and will be added to and updated as necessary.

  1. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  2. Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    Noting that firearms outnumber children by a margin of almost three to one in the United States, this report advocates gun safety policies to protect children. The report provides information on trends in youth firearm deaths and finds the statistics alarming, despite recent decline. The first of three tables in the report delineates 1979-1999…

  3. Issue Management and the Australian Gun Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    Examines the rise and fall of media coverage of the issues of gun control and political conflict in Australia after an incident of mass murder in April 1996. Aims to reveal the issue management process that occurred and the hidden agendas that motivated the political and media activity. Demonstrates the media's role in the creation of issue…

  4. Youth Suicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Whether or not a suicide attempt results in death depends in large part on the method chosen. If a teenager attempts suicide with a gun, his or her death is nearly guaranteed. This brief fact sheet presents data on firearms and suicide, the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young adults in the United States. Any number of societal…

  5. Safety Plan for Schools: No Guns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    In a pre-emptive move against a school safety proposal from the National Rifle Association that is expected to include a call for more people trained and approved to carry guns at schools, a coalition of civil rights and education groups unveiled its own safety plan last week. It seeks the creation of positive school climates, thoughtful and…

  6. Guns on Campus: A Chilling Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article observes that, while much has been written on the overall topic of safety with regard to allowing guns on college campuses, little has been said about how allowing the possession of deadly weapons can create a "chilling effect" on academic discussions. This article considers how some universities have…

  7. RF Gun Photocathode Research at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Jongewaard, E.; Akre, R.; Brachmann, A.; Corbett, J.; Gilevich, S.; Grouev, K.; Hering, P.; P.Krejcik,; Lewandowski, J.; Loos, H.; Montagne, T.; Sheppard, J.C.; Stefan, P.; Vlieks, A.; Weathersby, S.; Zhou, F.; /SLAC

    2012-05-16

    LCLS is presently operating with a third copper photocathode in the original rf gun, with a quantum efficiency (QE) of {approx}1 x 10{sup -4} and projected emittance {gamma}{var_epsilon}{sub x,y} = 0.45 {micro}m at 250 pC bunch charge. The spare LCLS gun is installed in the SLAC Accelerator Structure Test Area (ASTA), fully processed to high rf power. As part of a wider photocathode R and D program, a UV laser system and additional gun diagnostics are being installed at ASTA to measure QE, QE lifetime, and electron beam emittance under a variety of operating conditions. The near-term goals are to test and verify the spare photocathode production/installation sequence, including transfer from the final holding chamber to the rf gun. Mid- and longer-term goals include development of a rigorous understanding of plasma and laser-assisted surface conditioning and investigation of new, high-QE photocathode materials. In parallel, an x-ray photoemission spectroscopy station is nearing completion, to analyze Cu photocathode surface chemistry. In this paper we review the status and anticipated operating parameters of ASTA and the spectroscopy test chamber.

  8. Spray Gun With Constant Mixing Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual mechanism mounted in handle of spray gun maintains constant ratio between volumetric flow rates in two channels leading to spray head. With mechanism, possible to keep flow ratio near 1:1 (or another desired ratio) over range of temperatures, orifice or channel sizes, or clogging conditions.

  9. Nerf Guns Strike a Nerve on Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Killing zombies on campus just isn't as much fun as it used to be. Students at Bowling Green State University once carried Nerf guns for a week each semester, shooting the zombies before the creatures could tag them. Participants were seen by most bystanders as nerdy but harmless kids who liked role-playing. These days, bright plastic Nerf guns…

  10. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    SciTech Connect

    Laabs, Gary W.; Funk, David J.; Asay, Blaine W.

    1996-12-01

    A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved by pneumatic means and free the projectile.

  11. Toward a terahertz-driven electron gun.

    PubMed

    Huang, W Ronny; Nanni, Emilio A; Ravi, Koustuban; Hong, Kyung-Han; Fallahi, Arya; Wong, Liang Jie; Keathley, Phillip D; Zapata, Luis E; Kärtner, Franz X

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond electron bunches with keV energies and eV energy spread are needed by condensed matter physicists to resolve state transitions in carbon nanotubes, molecular structures, organic salts, and charge density wave materials. These semirelativistic electron sources are not only of interest for ultrafast electron diffraction, but also for electron energy-loss spectroscopy and as a seed for x-ray FELs. Thus far, the output energy spread (hence pulse duration) of ultrafast electron guns has been limited by the achievable electric field at the surface of the emitter, which is 10 MV/m for DC guns and 200 MV/m for RF guns. A single-cycle THz electron gun provides a unique opportunity to not only achieve GV/m surface electric fields but also with relatively low THz pulse energies, since a single-cycle transform-limited waveform is the most efficient way to achieve intense electric fields. Here, electron bunches of 50 fC from a flat copper photocathode are accelerated from rest to tens of eV by a microjoule THz pulse with peak electric field of 72 MV/m at 1 kHz repetition rate. We show that scaling to the readily-available GV/m THz field regime would translate to monoenergetic electron beams of ~100 keV. PMID:26486697

  12. Collapsible pistons for light-gas guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    Moving and expandable parts of gun consist of pump-tube diaphragm, piston, launch-tube diaphragm, and saboted projectile. As a result of improved piston design, pressure cycle has been significantly improved by smoother buildup, increasing muzzle velocities up to 50%.

  13. Shot overlap model-based fracturing of curvilinear OPC layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shangliang; Zakhor, Avideh

    2014-10-01

    The semiconductor manufacturing industry has been continuously shrinking the critical dimension of integrated circuits. An important step in manufacturing integrated circuits is transforming the photomasks into constituent shots, a process referred to as fracturing. A major problem with fracturing is the explosion of shots which leads to long mask write times and costly masks. In this paper, we develop fracturing algorithms that are tailored towards curvilinear layouts, such as those optimized by pixel based OPC. Our proposed fracturing algorithms generate the location, size, and dosage of shots given the mask layout and mask manufacturing parameters. We propose two classes of algorithms that both allow for shot overlap. The first manhattanizes a curvilinear mask and applies our previously developed rectilinear fracturing algorithm upon the resulting rectilinear mask. The second one directly generates the shots by matching the boundary of the input polygon with a dictionary of possible shot corners that are associated with a shot dosage. This is followed by the same rectilinear fracturing algorithm to refine the shot edges. An important feature of all our algorithms is that they can readily trade off between mask error and shot count by adjusting input parameters. Compared to a commercially available non- overlapping shot software package, our algorithm results in up to a 50% reduction in shot count with comparable mask error.

  14. Acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Ten Have, Thomas R; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2011-01-01

    A case-control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  15. Design studies for the LCLS 120 Hz RF gun

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.J.; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Chang, X.Y.; Pjerov, S.; Woodle, M.

    2000-11-01

    A preliminary design studies were carried out at Brookhaven National Laboratory for a photocathode RF gun injection system for LCLS 120 Hz operation. The starting point for the design is 50 Hz BNL Gun IV developed by a BNL/KEK/SHI collaboration. The basic parameters of the 120 Hz gun is discussed in this report. The complete photocathode RF gun injection system is described for a 120 Hz operation. The injector system includes photocathode RF gun, emittance compensation solenoid magnet, laser system and laser beam delivery system, and electron beam diagnostics. The basic design parameters, mechanical modification and the performance will be presented in this report.

  16. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  17. Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer.

  18. SnapShot: Stress and Disease.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Archana S; Sadaoui, Nouara C; Dorniak, Piotr L; Lutgendorf, Susan K; Sood, Anil K

    2016-02-01

    Perturbation of an organism's homeostasis by stress can trigger biological or behavioral adaptation and accelerate onset and course of several diseases. Signaling triggered by norepinephrine or epinephrine (via adrenergic receptors) and cortisol (through glucocorticoid receptors) has profound effects on dampening immune responses, accelerating cancer progression and increasing the risk of cardiovascular, metabolic, and colonic diseases. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:26863488

  19. SnapShot: Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Christopher J; Crooks, Daniel R; Sourbier, Carole; Schmidt, Laura S; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Linehan, W Marston

    2016-04-11

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous disease made up of a number of different cancer types, with distinct histologies, clinical courses, therapeutic responses, and genetic drivers. Germline mutations in 14 genes have been associated with increased risk of RCC and can result in HIF pathway activation, chromatin dysregulation, and altered metabolism. Knowledge of these pathway alterations can inform the development of targeted therapeutic approaches. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:27070709

  20. SnapShot: Neuronal Regulation of Aging.

    PubMed

    Weir, Heather J; Mair, William B

    2016-07-28

    Aging is characterized by loss of homeostasis across multiple tissues. The nervous system governs whole-body homeostasis by communicating external and internal signals to peripheral tissues. Here, we highlight neuronal mechanisms and downstream outputs that regulate aging and longevity. Targeting these neuronal pathways may be a novel strategy to promote healthy aging. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:27471972

  1. Shot-time photography at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedlovec, Donald; Christensen, Kim

    2015-08-01

    The Nation Ignition Facility (NIF) conducts a variety of experiments to study matter at the extremes, including studies of material properties, hydrodynamics, and the interaction of intense radiation fields with matter. The NIF supports the users by operating twenty-four hours a day, with a laser shot rate that averages one per day. We have developed a shot time camera that has the capability to provide an image of each shot for the users. While initially more of a promotional tool, there is emerging interest from the scientific staff in support of their experiments at the NIF. The shot time camera is a time integrated, shot-triggered, digital camera that images visible light generated at shot time in the NIF target chamber. It is selectable by the user and operates automatically with the NIF shot cycle. We will discuss the system design, recent results, and plans for the future.

  2. Estimating shot distance from limited pellets pattern.

    PubMed

    Plebe, Alessio; Compagnini, Domenico

    2012-10-10

    Several methods are available for shooting range estimation based on pellets pattern on the target that have a remarkable degree of accuracy. The task is usually approached working under the assumption that the entire distribution of pellets is available for examination. These methods fail, however, when the victim has been hit by a portion of the pattern only. The problem can be solved with reasonable accuracy when there are areas of void in the victim that are adjacent to the area struck by pellets. This study presents a method that can be used in precisely this type of situation, allowing the estimation of shot distance in cases of partial pellet patterns. It is based on collecting distributions in test shots at several distances, and taking samples in the targets, constrained by the shape of the void and the pellet hit areas. Statistical descriptors of patterns are extracted from such samples, and fed into a neural network classifier, estimating shot ranges of distance. PMID:22658795

  3. Interpreting the empirical evidence on illegal gun market dynamics.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A; Wintemute, Garen J; Pierce, Glenn L; Cook, Philip J; Ridgeway, Greg

    2012-10-01

    Thousands of Americans are killed by gunfire each year, and hundreds of thousands more are injured or threatened with guns in robberies and assaults. The burden of gun violence in urban areas is particularly high. Critics suggest that the results of firearm trace data and gun trafficking investigation studies cannot be used to understand the illegal supply of guns to criminals and, therefore, that regulatory and enforcement efforts designed to disrupt illegal firearms markets are futile in addressing criminal access to firearms. In this paper, we present new data to address three key arguments used by skeptics to undermine research on illegal gun market dynamics. We find that criminals rely upon a diverse set of illegal diversion pathways to acquire guns, gun traffickers usually divert small numbers of guns, newer guns are diverted through close-to-retail diversions from legal firearms commerce, and that a diverse set of gun trafficking indicators are needed to identify and shut down gun trafficking pathways. PMID:22669643

  4. Gun safety management with patients at risk for suicide.

    PubMed

    Simon, Robert I

    2007-10-01

    Guns in the home are associated with a five-fold increase in suicide. All patients at risk for suicide must be asked if guns are available at home or easily accessible elsewhere, or if they have intent to buy or purchase a gun. Gun safety management requires a collaborative team approach including the clinician, patient, and designated person responsible for removing guns from the home. A call-back to the clinician from the designated person is required confirming that guns have been removed and secured according to plan. The principle of gun safety management applies to outpatients, inpatients, and emergency patients, although its implementation varies according to the clinical setting. PMID:17967118

  5. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership. PMID:22089893

  6. An X-Band Gun Test Area at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Limborg-Deprey, C.; Adolphsen, C.; Chu, T.S.; Dunning, M.P.; Jobe, R.K.; Jongewaard, E.N.; Hast, C.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, F.; Walz, D.R.; Marsh, R.A.; Anderson, S.G.; Hartemann, F.V.; Houck, T.L.; /LLNL, Livermore

    2012-09-07

    The X-Band Test Area (XTA) is being assembled in the NLCTA tunnel at SLAC to serve as a test facility for new RF guns. The first gun to be tested will be an upgraded version of the 5.6 cell, 200 MV/m peak field X-band gun designed at SLAC in 2003 for the Compton Scattering experiment run in ASTA. This new version includes some features implemented in 2006 on the LCLS gun such as racetrack couplers, increased mode separation and elliptical irises. These upgrades were developed in collaboration with LLNL since the same gun will be used in an injector for a LLNL Gamma-ray Source. Our beamline includes an X-band acceleration section which takes the electron beam up to 100 MeV and an electron beam measurement station. Other X-Band guns such as the UCLA Hybrid gun will be characterized at our facility.

  7. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim that mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (1) permissive gun laws, (2) widespread gun ownership, (3) encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters, and cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal 14 times annually. ICVS analysis finds that the US has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40% after the Israeli armys 2006 reforms. Compared with the US, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership. PMID:22089893

  8. Oxygen partial pressure measurement in the HVOF gun tail flame

    SciTech Connect

    Korpiola, K.; Hirvonen, J.P.; Jalkanen, H.; Laas, L.; Rossi, F.

    1995-12-31

    An important aspect of the HVOF thermal spray process is the turbulent mixing of the spray jet with the surrounding air. The air mixing into the jet causes undesirable oxidation of the sprayed coating. In this paper a low cost and accurate method to determine the degree of air mixing is presented. This method was used to measure for the first time the partial pressure of oxygen in the thermal spray flame. The measuring method is based on electrochemical determination of oxygen potential in the tail flame using a solid electrolyte cell. The oxygen partial pressure in the HVOF-gun tail flame was measured with the fuel-to-oxygen ratio, the fuel flow rate and the stand-off distance as variables. The oxygen content of the tail flame was measured and found to vary between 4 to 17% depending on fuel to oxygen ratios and stand-off distances. Such high oxygen contents are several magnitudes too high if serious oxidation in the coating is to be avoided.

  9. Seismic data collection from water gun and industrial background sources in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal area, Illinois, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, William S.; Carpenter, Phillip J.; Adams, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    The water gun is a tool adapted from deep marine geophysical surveys that is being evaluated for use as an acoustic fish deterrent to control the movement of invasive marine species. The water gun creates a seismic signal by using a compressed air discharge to move a piston rapidly within the water, resulting in an implosion. This energy pulse may be able to modify fish behavior or destroy marine life, such as the Asian carp, at some distance. The effects of this energy pulse on structures in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC), such as canal walls, shore lines, and lock structures, are not known. The potential effects of the use of a water gun on structures was identified as a concern in the CSSC and was assessed relative to existing background sources during this study. During September 2011, two water guns with piston sizes of 80 and 343 cubic inches, respectively, were tested in the CSSC at varying pressures and distances from a canal wall consisting of dolomite and dolomite setblock. Seismic data were collected during these water gun firings using geophones on land, in boreholes, and at the canal wall interface. Data were collected at varying depths in the canal water using hydrophones. Seismic data were also collected during the occurrences of barge traffic, railroad traffic located near the electric fish barrier in Lemont, and coal-loading operations at a coal power plant near the electric fish barrier. In general, energy produced by barge and railroad sources was less than energy created by the water gun. Energy levels produced by coal-loading operations at least 200 feet from geophones were approximately four times lower than energy levels measured during water gun operations.

  10. A high-brightness thermionic microwave electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.

    1991-02-01

    In a collaborative effort by SSRL, AET Associates, and Varian Associates, a high-brightness microwave electron gun using a thermionic cathode has been designed, built, tested, and installed for use with the SSRL 150 MeV linear accelerator. This thesis discusses the physics behind the design and operation of the gun and associated systems, presenting predictions and experimental tests of the gun`s performance. The microwave gun concept is of increasing interest due to its promise of providing higher-current, lower-emittance electron beams than possible from conventional, DC gun technology. In a DC guns, accelerating gradients are less than 8 MV/m, while those in a microwave gun can exceed 100 MV/m, providing much more rapid initial acceleration, thereby reducing the deleterious effects of space-charge. Microwave guns produce higher momentum beams than DC guns, thus lessening space-charge effects during subsequent beam transport. Typical DC guns produce kinetic energies of 80--400 KeV, compared to 2--3 MeV for the SSRL microwave gun. ``State-of-the-art`` microwave gun designs employ laser-driven photocathodes, providing excellent performance but with greater complexity and monetary costs. A thermionic microwave gun with a magnetic bunching system is comparable in cost and complexity to a conventional system, but provides performance that is orders of magnitude better. Simulations of the SSRL microwave gun predict a normalized RMS emittance at the gun exist of < 10 {pi} {center_dot} m{sub e}c {center_dot} {mu}m for a beam consisting of approximately 50% of the particles emitted from the gun, and having a momentum spread {plus_minus}10%. These emittances are for up to 5 {times} 10{sup 9}e{sup {minus}} per bunch. Chromatic aberrations in the transport line between the gun and linear accelerator increase this to typically < 30 {pi} {center_dot} m{sub e} {center_dot} {mu}m.

  11. Recoil Experiments Using a Compressed Air Cannon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Brett

    2006-01-01

    Ping-Pong vacuum cannons, potato guns, and compressed air cannons are popular and dramatic demonstrations for lecture and lab. Students enjoy them for the spectacle, but they can also be used effectively to teach physics. Recently we have used a student-built compressed air cannon as a laboratory activity to investigate impulse, conservation of…

  12. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection

    SciTech Connect

    WALKER, PAMELA K.; RODACY, PHILIP J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue.

  13. Concrete Cleaning, Inc. centrifugal shot blaster: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The centrifugal shot blaster is an electronically operated shot-blast machine that removes layer of concrete of varying depths. Hardened steel shot propelled at a high rate of speed abrades the surface of the concrete. The depth of material removed is determined by the rate of speed the machine is traveling and the volume of shot being fired into the blast chamber. The steel shot is reused until it is pulverized to dust, which is deposited in the waste container with the concrete being removed. Debris is continually vacuumed by a large dust collection system attached to the shot blaster. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  14. Influence of Running on Pistol Shot Hit Patterns.

    PubMed

    Kerkhoff, Wim; Bolck, Annabel; Mattijssen, Erwin J A T

    2016-01-01

    In shooting scene reconstructions, risk assessment of the situation can be important for the legal system. Shooting accuracy and precision, and thus risk assessment, might be correlated with the shooter's physical movement and experience. The hit patterns of inexperienced and experienced shooters, while shooting stationary (10 shots) and in running motion (10 shots) with a semi-automatic pistol, were compared visually (with confidence ellipses) and statistically. The results show a significant difference in precision (circumference of the hit patterns) between stationary shots and shots fired in motion for both inexperienced and experienced shooters. The decrease in precision for all shooters was significantly larger in the y-direction than in the x-direction. The precision of the experienced shooters is overall better than that of the inexperienced shooters. No significant change in accuracy (shift in the hit pattern center) between stationary shots and shots fired in motion can be seen for all shooters. PMID:26331462

  15. Settlement rate of lead shot in tundra wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    Several species of breeding waterfowl have been shown to be exposed to lead shot on the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) Delta, Alaska. I 'seeded' experimental plots with number 4 lead shot to determine the settlement rate of shot in wetland types commonly used by foraging waterfowl. I resampled plots for 3 years, using a suction dredge to remove sediment in 4-cm layers. There was no consistent change in the proportion of shot recovered in the 0-4-cm layer among years or habitat types. My results suggest lead shot is available to feeding waterfowl for many years, and that exposure of waterfowl to lead poisoning will likely occur for >3 years after the use of lead shot is curtailed.

  16. Harmonic demodulation of nonstationary shot noise.

    PubMed

    Gray, M B; Stevenson, A J; Bachor, H A; McClelland, D E

    1993-05-15

    We report on experimental demodulation of nonstationary shot noise, which is associated with strongly modulated light. For sinusoidal modulation and demodulation, measurements confirm theoretical predictions of 1.8-dB excess noise in the modulation quadrature and 3-dB noise reduction in the opposite quadrature, relative to the standard quantum limit. Demodulation with a third harmonic produces noise correlated with that which is due to the fundamental. Reducing excess noise by 0.8 dB in the modulation quadrature, by combining the fundamental and third harmonics in a 2:1 ratio, is shown to be feasible. PMID:19802263

  17. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c)...

  18. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c)...

  19. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c)...

  20. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c)...

  1. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c)...

  2. Media violence, gun control, and public policy.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, D M

    1996-07-01

    Public concern with the national level of violence is discussed, and the complexity of the issue delineated. Research findings in two key areas of the topic, media violence and availability of firearms, are examined, as is their applicability to public policy efforts and recommendations for the prevention of violence. An approach that combines efforts to counteract media violence with those aimed at effective gun control is outlined in terms of bringing about changes in attitudes toward violence and firearm possession. PMID:8827261

  3. An experimental study on microwave electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.; Wu, J.; Wang, Y.

    1995-12-31

    We report both the simulation and experimental results of using a ring cathode instead of the solid cathode to reduce the back bombardment effect of a thermionic cathode microwave electron gun. The result shows that the back bombardment power is decreased about 2/3 without changing the beam quality apparently which allows operation at higher repetition rate. Experimental results are compared with the simulation with good agreement.

  4. Cylinder Fragmentation Using Gas Gun Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornhill, T. F.; Reinhart, W. D.; Chhabildas, L. C.; Grady, D. E.; Wilson, L. T.

    2002-07-01

    In this study an experimental technique for study of cylinder fracture fragmentation characteristics has been developed on a two-stage light gas gun. This test method allows the study of cylinder fracture fragmentation in a laboratory environment under well-controlled loading conditions. Application of this technique allows measure of failure strain, strain rates, expansion velocity, and fragmentation toughness. Results of several experiments on Aermet steel are presented.

  5. Hematologic comparisons of shot and live trapped cottontail rabbits.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, H A; Kirkpatrick, R L; Burkhart, H E; Davis, J W

    1978-01-01

    Comparisons were made between hematologic measurements of shot and box-trapped cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus). Trapped rabbits had significantly (P less than 0.001) higher serum corticoid levels and segmented neutrophil percentages and significantly (P less than 0.001) lower lymphocyte percentages than did shot rabbits. Trapped rabbits also had significantly (P less than 0.05) higher packed cell volumes and blood urea nitrogen values than did shot rabbits. PMID:633520

  6. The Development of the Linac Coherent Light Source RF Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, David H.; Jongewaard, Erik; Lewandowski, James; Limborg-Deprey, Cecile; Li, Zenghai; Schmerge, John; Vlieks, Arnold; Wang, Juwen; Xiao, Liling; /SLAC

    2008-09-24

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is the first x-ray laser user facility based upon a free electron laser (FEL) requiring extraordinary beam quality to saturate at 1.5 angstroms within a 100 meter undulator.[1] This new type of light source is using the last kilometer of the three kilometer linac at SLAC to accelerate the beam to an energy as high as 13.6 GeV and required a new electron gun and injector to produce a very bright beam for acceleration. At the outset of the project it was recognized that existing RF guns had the potential to produce the desired beam but none had demonstrated it. Therefore a new RF gun or at least the modification of an existing gun was necessary. The parameters listed in Table 1 illustrate the unique characteristics of LCLS which drive the requirements for the electron gun as given in Table 2. The gun beam quality needs to accommodate emittance growth as the beam is travels through approximately one kilometer of linac and two bunch compressors before reaching the undulator. These beam requirements were demonstrated during the recent commissioning runs of the LCLS injector and linac [2] due to the successful design, fabrication, testing and operation of the LCLS gun. The goal of this paper is to relate the technical background of how the gun was able to achieve and in some cases exceed these requirements by understanding and correcting the deficiencies of the prototype s-band RF photocathode gun, the BNL/SLAC/UCLA Gun III. This paper begins with a brief history and technical description of Gun III and the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SLAC, and studies of the gun's RF and emittance compensation solenoid. The work at the GTF identified the gun and solenoid deficiencies, and helped to define the specifications for the LCLS gun. Section 1.1.5 describes the modeling used to compute and correct the gun RF fields and Section 1.1.6 describes the use of these fields in the electron beam simulations. The magnetic design and measurements of

  7. [The forensic medical characteristics of the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic rifles].

    PubMed

    Legin, G A; Bondarchuk, A O; Perebetiuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the injurious action of three types of the bullets for the pneumatic weapons shot from different distances using the Gamo pump air pistol and the BAM B22-1 pneumatic rifle. The following four kinds of the bullets were tested: "the fireball", "Luman cap 0.3", "Luman Field Target 0.68" and "DIABOLO". It was experimentally shown that the injurious action of the bullets fired from the same distance from the pneumatic weapons depends on the type of both the bullet and the weapon, as well as the properties of the target material. Specifically, the action of bullets fired from the piston pneumatic rifle remained stable whereas that of the bullets shot from the gas-balloon air pistol decreased as the gas was exhausted. The studies by the contact-diffusion method have demonstrated that the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic weapons are surrounded by dispersed metal particles which makes it possible to estimate the shooting distance. Moreover, the bullets fired from the pneumatic weapons leave the muzzle face imprint on certain target materials. PMID:26036066

  8. Diagnostics Beamline for the SRF Gun Project

    SciTech Connect

    T. Kamps; V. Durr; K. Goldammer; D. Kramer; P. Kuske; J. Kuszynski; D. Lipka; F. Marhauser; T. Quast; D. Richter; U. Lehnert; P. Michel; J. Teichert; P. Evtushenko; I. Will

    2005-08-22

    A superconducting radio-frequency photo electron injector (SRF gun) is currently under construction by a collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZR and MBI. The project aims at the design and setup of a CW SRF gun including a diagnostics beamline for the ELBE FEL and to address R&D issues on low emittance injectors for future light sources such as the BESSY FEL. Of critical importance for the injector performance is the control of the electron beam parameters. For this reason a compact diagnostics beamline is under development serving a multitude of operation settings ranging from low-charge (77pC), low-emittance (1 mm mrad) mode to high-charge (2.5nC) operation of the gun. For these operation modes beam dynamics simulations are resulting in boundary conditions for the beam instrumentation. Proven and mature technology is projected wherever possible, for example for current and beam position monitoring. The layout of the beam profile and emittance measurement systems is described. For the bunch length, which varies between 5 ps and 50 ps, two schemes using electro-optical sampling and Cherenkov radiation are detailed. The beam energy and energy spread is measured with a 180-degree spectrometer.

  9. Gas Gun Studies of Interface Wear Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Tyler; Kennedy, Greg; Thadhani, Naresh

    2011-06-01

    The characteristics of interface wear were studied by performing gas gun experiments at velocities up to 1 km/s. The approach involved developing coefficients of constitutive strength models for Al 6061 and OFHC-Cu, then using those to design die geometry for interface wear gas gun experiments. Taylor rod-on-anvil impact experiments were performed to obtain coefficients of the Johnson-Cook constitutive strength model by correlating experimentally obtained deformed states of impacted samples with those predicted using ANSYS AUTODYN hydrocode. Simulations were used with validated strength models to design geometry involving acceleration of Al rods through a copper concentric cylindrical angular extrusion die. Experiments were conducted using 7.62 mm and 80 mm diameter gas guns. Differences in the microstructure of the interface layer and microhardness values illustrate that stress-strain conditions produced during acceleration of Al through the hollow concentric copper die, at velocities less than 800 m/s, result in formation of a layer via solid state alloying due to severe plastic deformation, while higher velocities produce an interface layer consisting of melted and re-solidified aluminum.

  10. Altitude, Gun Ownership, Rural Areas, and Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namkug; Mickelson, Jennie B.; Brenner, Barry E.; Haws, Charlotte A.; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The authors recently observed a correlation between state altitude and suicide rate in the United States, which could be explained by higher rates of gun ownership and lower population density in the intermountain West. The present study evaluated the relationship between mean county and state altitude in the United States and total age-adjusted suicide rates, firearm-related suicide rates, and non-firearm-related suicide rates. The authors hypothesized that altitude would be significantly associated with suicide rate. Method Elevation data were calculated with an approximate spatial resolution of 0.5 km, using zonal statistics on data sets compiled from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Suicide and population density data were obtained through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WONDER database. Gun ownership data were obtained through the CDC’s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Results A significant positive correlation was observed between age-adjusted suicide rate and county elevation (r=0.51). Firearm (r=0.41) and non-firearm suicide rates (r=0.32) were also positively correlated with mean county elevation. Conclusions When altitude, gun ownership, and population density are considered as predictor variables for suicide rates on a state basis, altitude appears to be a significant independent risk factor. This association may be related to the effects of metabolic stress associated with mild hypoxia in individuals with mood disorders. PMID:20843869

  11. A Robust High Current Density Electron Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mako, F.; Peter, W.; Shiloh, J.; Len, L. K.

    1996-11-01

    Proof-of-principle experiments are proposed to validate a new concept for a robust, high-current density Pierce electron gun (RPG) for use in klystrons and high brightness electron sources for accelerators. This rugged, long-life electron gun avoids the difficulties associated with plasma cathodes, thermionic emitters, and field emission cathodes. The RPG concept employs the emission of secondary electrons in a transmission mode as opposed to the conventional mode of reflection, i.e., electrons exit from the back face of a thin negative electron affinity (NEA) material, and in the same direction as the incident beam. Current amplification through one stage of a NEA material could be over 50 times. The amplification is accomplished in one or more stages consisting of one primary emitter and one or more secondary emitters. The primary emitter is a low current density robust emitter (e.g., thoriated tungsten). The secondary emitters are thin NEA electrodes which emit secondary electrons in the same direction as the incident beam. Specific application is targeted for a klystron gun to be used by SLAC with a cold cathode at 30-40 amps/cm^2 output from the secondary emission stage, a ~2 μs pulse length, and ~200 pulses/second.

  12. Overview of Plasma Guns for PLX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Bomgardner, Richard; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah; Brockington, Samuel; Wu, Linchun; Elton, Raymond; Hsu, Scott; Cassibry, Jason; Gilmore, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Plasma guns are being developed for use on the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) located at LANL. The collapsing plasma liner will be formed via merging of 30-60 dense, high Mach number plasma jets (n˜10^16-17 cm-3, M˜10--35, v˜50--70 km/s, rjet˜5 cm) in a spherically convergent geometry. Small parallel-plate railguns are being developed for this purpose. Each gun will operate at ˜300-600 kA peak current, and launch up to ˜8000 μg of high-Z plasma (Ar, Xe) using a ˜50 kJ pfn. We are now successfully operating with very fast gas valve injection of Ar, and have already achieved good performance of 1200 μg at 42 km/s, and 4000 μg at 20-25 km/s at low current. Work is underway to increase both the mass and velocity using higher current. We describe experimental development of the minirailguns and their present and projected performance. We also discuss options for modest size coaxial guns that might achieve the same performance and provide additional control of the plasmoid structure.

  13. Validation of a Dumbbell Body Sway Test in Olympic Air Pistol Shooting

    PubMed Central

    Mon, Daniel; Zakynthinaki, Maria S.; Cordente, Carlos A.; Monroy Antón, Antonio; López Jiménez, David

    2014-01-01

    We present and validate a test able to provide reliable body sway measurements in air pistol shooting, without the use of a gun. 46 senior male pistol shooters who participated in Spanish air pistol championships participated in the study. Body sway data of two static bipodal balance tests have been compared: during the first test, shooting was simulated by use of a dumbbell, while during the second test the shooters own pistol was used. Both tests were performed the day previous to the competition, during the official training time and at the training stands to simulate competition conditions. The participantś performance was determined as the total score of 60 shots at competition. Apart from the commonly used variables that refer to movements of the shooters centre of pressure (COP), such as COP displacements on the X and Y axes, maximum and average COP velocities and total COP area, the present analysis also included variables that provide information regarding the axes of the COP ellipse (length and angle in respect to X). A strong statistically significant correlation between the two tests was found (with an interclass correlation varying between 0.59 and 0.92). A statistically significant inverse linear correlation was also found between performance and COP movements. The study concludes that dumbbell tests are perfectly valid for measuring body sway by simulating pistol shooting. PMID:24756067

  14. Finger Flexor Force Influences Performance in Senior Male Air Pistol Olympic Shooting

    PubMed Central

    Mon, Daniel; Zakynthinaki, María S.; Cordente, Carlos A.; Antón, Antonio J. Monroy; Rodríguez, Bárbara Rodríguez; Jiménez, David López

    2015-01-01

    The ability to stabilize the gun is crucial for performance in Olympic pistol shooting and is thought to be related to the shooters muscular strength. The present study examines the relation between performance and finger flexor force as well as shoulder abduction isometric force in senior male air pistol shooting. 46 Spanish national level shooters served as test subjects of the study. Two maximal force tests were carried out recording handgrip and deltoid force data under competition conditions, during the official training time at national Spanish championships. Performance was measured as the total score of 60 shots at competition. Linear regressions were calculated to examine the relations between performance and peak and average finger flexor forces, peak and average finger flexor forces relative to the BMI, peak and average shoulder abduction isometric forces, peak shoulder abduction isometric force relative to the BMI. The connection between performance and other variables such as age, weight, height, BMI, experience in years and training hours per week was also analyzed. Significant correlations were found between performance at competition and average and peak finger flexor forces. For the rest of the force variables no significant correlations were found. Significant correlations were also found between performance at competition and experience as well as training hours. No significant correlations were found between performance and age, weight, height or BMI. The study concludes that hand grip strength training programs are necessary for performance in air pistol shooting. PMID:26121145

  15. Finger Flexor Force Influences Performance in Senior Male Air Pistol Olympic Shooting.

    PubMed

    Mon, Daniel; Zakynthinaki, María S; Cordente, Carlos A; Antón, Antonio J Monroy; Rodríguez, Bárbara Rodríguez; Jiménez, David López

    2015-01-01

    The ability to stabilize the gun is crucial for performance in Olympic pistol shooting and is thought to be related to the shooters muscular strength. The present study examines the relation between performance and finger flexor force as well as shoulder abduction isometric force in senior male air pistol shooting. 46 Spanish national level shooters served as test subjects of the study. Two maximal force tests were carried out recording handgrip and deltoid force data under competition conditions, during the official training time at national Spanish championships. Performance was measured as the total score of 60 shots at competition. Linear regressions were calculated to examine the relations between performance and peak and average finger flexor forces, peak and average finger flexor forces relative to the BMI, peak and average shoulder abduction isometric forces, peak shoulder abduction isometric force relative to the BMI. The connection between performance and other variables such as age, weight, height, BMI, experience in years and training hours per week was also analyzed. Significant correlations were found between performance at competition and average and peak finger flexor forces. For the rest of the force variables no significant correlations were found. Significant correlations were also found between performance at competition and experience as well as training hours. No significant correlations were found between performance and age, weight, height or BMI. The study concludes that hand grip strength training programs are necessary for performance in air pistol shooting. PMID:26121145

  16. Validation of a dumbbell body sway test in olympic air pistol shooting.

    PubMed

    Mon, Daniel; Zakynthinaki, Maria S; Cordente, Carlos A; Monroy Antón, Antonio; López Jiménez, David

    2014-01-01

    We present and validate a test able to provide reliable body sway measurements in air pistol shooting, without the use of a gun. 46 senior male pistol shooters who participated in Spanish air pistol championships participated in the study. Body sway data of two static bipodal balance tests have been compared: during the first test, shooting was simulated by use of a dumbbell, while during the second test the shooters own pistol was used. Both tests were performed the day previous to the competition, during the official training time and at the training stands to simulate competition conditions. The participantś performance was determined as the total score of 60 shots at competition. Apart from the commonly used variables that refer to movements of the shooters centre of pressure (COP), such as COP displacements on the X and Y axes, maximum and average COP velocities and total COP area, the present analysis also included variables that provide information regarding the axes of the COP ellipse (length and angle in respect to X). A strong statistically significant correlation between the two tests was found (with an interclass correlation varying between 0.59 and 0.92). A statistically significant inverse linear correlation was also found between performance and COP movements. The study concludes that dumbbell tests are perfectly valid for measuring body sway by simulating pistol shooting. PMID:24756067

  17. Piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources for gun-fired munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Haarhoff, D.; Pereira, C.; Nguyen, H.-L.

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a new class of piezoelectric based energy harvesting power sources for use in gun-fired munitions or other similar applications requiring high G survivability . These power sources are designed to harvest energy from the firing acceleration as well as vibratory motion and spinning of munitions during their flight and convert it to electrical energy that could be used directly by power consuming electronics onboard munitions or stored. The power sources are designed to withstand firing accelerations in excess of 100,000 G. The power sources have been shown to have the potential of completely eliminating the need for chemical batteries in many fuzing applications, while having the added advantage of providing for considerably more safety and long shelf life. Prototypes of a number of designs of this class of energy harvesting power sources for various power requirements have been constructed and successfully tested in the laboratory and by the U. S. Army (ARDEC) using air guns.

  18. Corrosion potential of steel bird shot in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bartels, K E; Stair, E L; Cohen, R E

    1991-10-01

    Each year many dogs are accidentally or purposely wounded with shotguns. When lead pellets were used exclusively in the past, clinical problems from chronically embedded shot seldom developed except for rare cases of lead toxicosis. However, because expended lead shot ingested unintentionally by waterfowl and other avian species is fatal, the US Fish and Wildlife Service mandated exclusive use of steel shot for waterfowl hunting beginning in 1991. To discover the effects of implanted steel shot in a biological system, in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. Severe surface corrosion was evident when steel shot was placed in physiologic saline solution and sterile canine plasma. Eight laboratory dogs were surgically implanted with sterile steel shot in various superficial locations for intervals of 2 to 26 weeks. Corrosion of implants and tissue inflammation was observed in all biopsy specimens examined. It has been shown that steel shot embedded in tissues will corrode and result in a severe inflammatory response. If the accompanying inflammation is complicated by bacterial contamination, foreign body reactions resulting in infected, draining tracts could develop. Veterinarians and dog owners should be aware that treatment and prognosis for wounds caused by steel shot may differ from those for similar wounds caused by lead shot. PMID:1769870

  19. Design of an electron gun for terahertz radiation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji; Pei, Yuan-Ji; Hu, Tong-Ning; Chen, Qu-Shan; Feng, Guang-Yao; Shang, Lei; Li, Cheng-Long

    2014-04-01

    An EC-ITC (External-Cathode Independently Tunable Cells) RF gun was employed with the aim of obtaining short-pulse bunches with high peak current for a terahertz radiation source. A gridded DC gun plays a key role as the external injecting electron source of the ITC RF gun, the performance of which determines the beam quality in the injector and transport line. In order to make the beam well compressed in the ITC RF gun, the energy of the electrons acquired from the gridded DC gun should be 15 keV at most. A proper structure of the gridded gun with double-anode is shown to overcome the strong space- charge force on the cathode, which is able to generate 6 μs beam with 4.5 A current successfully.

  20. High Peak Power Gyroklystron with an Inverted Magnetron Injection Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Michael; Neilson, Jeff; Borchard, Philipp; Ives, Lawrence; Lawson, Wes

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a 25 MW, 30 GHz gyroklystron amplifier based on a coaxial RF structure. The design includes an inverted magnetron injection gun (MIG) for positioning and cooling the inner conductor. The gun produces a very low spread beam that contributes to a device efficiency of 54%. Details are given of the gun, RF structure, input and output couplers and collector.

  1. Progress on using NEA cathodes in an RF gun

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller, R.P., III; Anderson, T.; Edwards, H.; Bluem, H.; Schultheiss, T.; Sinclair, C.; Huening, M.; /DESY

    2005-05-01

    RF guns have proven useful in multiple accelerator applications, and are an attractive electron source for the ILC. Using a NEA GaAs photocathode in such a gun allows for the production of polarized electron beams. However the lifetime of a NEA cathode in this environment is reduced by ion and electron bombardment and residual gas oxidation. We report progress made with studies to produce a RF gun using a NEA GaAs photocathode to produce polarized electron beams. We discuss simulations of ion back bombardment and attempts to reduce the residual gas pressure in the gun are discussed. Future directions are also discussed.

  2. Tearing and MHD Instability During Gun Injection into a Spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T K

    2000-05-11

    Linear stability analysis of a two-cylinder approximation to gun injection--one cylinder to represent the confined spheromak and another to represent the gun--is shown to yield equilibria in which tearing modes exist simultaneously at the magnetic axis and at the geometric (gun) axis, as might be required to sustain helicity injection. These equilibria are MHD stable at the two axes but may have localized MHD instability at an interior minimum in the q profile. The theory predicts two tearing thresholds with successively deeper q minima as the gun current is increased at constant bias flux.

  3. Effects of gun admonitions on the behaviors and attitudes of school-aged boys.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Marjorie S

    2003-10-01

    Gun-safety programs frequently warn children not to touch guns with little consideration that the messages may enhance the allure of the guns. In the current study, boys rated and ranked their preference for a gun in comparison with other desirable objects. One week later, when left alone in the room with the objects, they were forbidden to touch either the gun or some other object. Observations of their behavior and reevaluation of their attitudes followed. Although the boys forbidden to touch the gun did not report an increased preference for it, all participants were significantly more likely to touch the forbidden gun than to touch other forbidden objects. Age, parent- and coach-reported simulated gun-play, and coach-reported risky behavior predicted gun-touching behavior. The results of the current study indicate that guns hold a unique allure and cast further doubt on the ability of gun admonitions to keep children safe around guns. PMID:14578696

  4. SnapShot: Olfactory Classical Conditioning of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ronald L

    2015-10-01

    This SnapShot summarizes current knowledge about the molecules and circuitry that mediate olfactory memory formation in Drosophila, with emphasis on neural circuits carrying the learned sensory information; the molecular mechanisms for acquisition, memory storage, and forgetting; and the output pathways for memory expression. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:26451491

  5. SnapShot: SMC Protein Complexes Part I.

    PubMed

    Haering, Christian H; Gruber, Stephan

    2016-01-14

    This first of two SnapShots on SMC proteins depicts the composition and architecture of SMC protein complexes and their regulators. Their roles at different stages of the cell cycle will appear in Part II. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:26771499

  6. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cuts? I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? KidsHealth > For Teens > I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? Print A A A Text Size I ... weeks pregnant. Do I need to get the flu vaccine or will it affect my pregnancy? – Eliza* ...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1320 - Multiple-shot blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multiple-shot blasting. 75.1320 Section 75.1320... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1320 Multiple-shot blasting... periods of 1,000 milliseconds or less shall be used. (d) When blasting in anthracite mines, each...

  8. Comparative toxicity of lead shot in black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Fleming, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    An extreme sensitivity of pen-reared black ducks (BDs) to lead shot was observed incidental to development of an enzyme assay (Pain & Rattner, 1988). Intubation of pen-reared BDs with one no. 4 lead shot resulted in 60% mortality in 6 days. It was concluded that BDs were more sensitive to lead shot than expected, or that lead toxicity may be exacerbated by stressful conditions (elevated temperature, confinement in small pens). We reexamined lead shot toxicity in BDs and mallards (MLs). In winter 1986 (Ta=1.7-14.6? C), pen-reared and wild BDs, and game-farm and wild MLs were sham-dosed or given one no. 4 shot. After 14 days, dosed birds were redosed with two or four additional shot. Since the original observation of enhanced. shot toxicity to BDs occurred during summer, the study was also repeated in summer 1987 (Ta=I7:6-30.9?C), with pen-reared BDs and game-farm MLs. Mortality, overt intoxication, weight change, aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, and protoporphyrin concentration were used to compare sensitivity among groups. Sensitivity to lead shot was similar between BDs and MLs. However, the wild ducks appeared more vulnerable than their domesticated counterparts, and signs of intoxication were more pronounced in winter than in summer.

  9. Toxicity of Lead and Proposed Substitute Shot to Mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Andrews, R.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.; Young, L.T.

    1974-01-01

    Poisoning of North American waterfowl resulting from the ingestion of lead shot by ducks, geese, and swans causes an estimated annual mortality of 2 to 3% of the population (Bellrose 1959). To alleviate this problem the search for a suitable substitute for lead has been underway since the early 1950's. Proposed substitutes for lead shot were evaluated in a series of acute toxicity tests with pen-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Most candidate materials were as toxic to ducks as commercial lead shot. Coating or alloying lead with other metals only delayed mortality among dosed ducks. The reputedly 'disintegrable' lead shot with the water-soluble binder and the lead containing biochemical additives were also as toxic to mallards as the commercial lead shot. Mortality was not significantly different among lead-dosed adult or first-year hen and drake pen-reared mallards; lead-dosed adult, wild mallards of both sexes; and lead-dosed adult, male black ducks (Anas rubripes). The ingestion of one lead shot, size 4, by each of 80 pen-reared mallards caused an average 19% mortality. The presence and type of grit in the gizzard had a measurable effect on erosion of ingested shot and on shot retention among dosed mallards. Significantly fewer lead-dosed ducks died when fed crushed oystershell grit than when fed either quartz grit or no grit.

  10. Low Emittance Guns for the ILC Polarized Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, J.E.; Brachmann, A.; Ioakeimidi, K.; Kirby, R.E.; Maruyama, T.; Miller, R.H.; Wang, J.W.; Zhou, F.; /SLAC

    2006-12-01

    Polarized electron beams generated by DC guns are routinely available at several accelerators including JLAB, Mainz and SLAC. These guns operate with a cathode bias on the order of -100 kV. To minimize space charge effects, relatively long bunches are generated at the gun and then compressed longitudinally external to the gun just before and during initial acceleration. For linear colliders, this compression is accomplished using a combination of rf bunchers. For the basic design of the International Linear Collider (ILC), a 120 kV DC photocathode gun is used to produce a series of nanosecond bunches that are each compressed by two sub-harmonic bunchers (SHBs) followed by an L-band buncher and capture section. The longitudinal bunching process results in a significantly higher emittance than produced by the gun alone. While high-energy experiments using polarized beams are not generally sensitive to the source emittance, there are several benefits to a lower source emittance including a simpler more efficient injector system and a lower radiation load during transport especially at bends as at the damping ring. For the ILC, the SHBs could be eliminated if the voltage of the gun is raised sufficiently. Simulations using the General Particle Tracer (GPT) package indicate that a cathode bias voltage of {ge}200 kV should allow both SHBs to be operated at 433 or even 650 MHz, while {ge}500 kV would be required to eliminate the SHBs altogether. Simulations can be used to determine the minimum emittance possible if the injector is designed for a given increased voltage. A possible alternative to the DC gun is an rf gun. Emittance compensation, routinely used with rf guns, is discussed for higher-voltage DC guns.

  11. Low Emittance Guns for the ILC Polarized Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, J. E.; Brachmann, A.; Ioakeimidi, K.; Kirby, R. E.; Maruyama, T.; Miller, R. H.; Wang, J. W.; Zhou, F.

    2007-06-13

    Polarized electron beams generated by DC guns are routinely available at several accelerators including JLAB, Mainz and SLAC. These guns operate with a cathode bias on the order of -100 kV. To minimize space charge effects, relatively long bunches are generated at the gun and then compressed longitudinally external to the gun just before and during initial acceleration. For linear colliders, this compression is accomplished using a combination of rf bunchers. For the basic design of the International Linear Collider (ILC), a 120 kV DC photocathode gun is used to produce a series of nanosecond bunches that are each compressed by two sub-harmonic bunchers (SHBs) followed by an L-band buncher and capture section. The longitudinal bunching process results in a significantly higher emittance than produced by the gun alone. While high-energy experiments using polarized beams are not generally sensitive to the source emittance, there are several benefits to a lower source emittance including a simpler more efficient injector system and a lower radiation load during transport especially at bends as at the damping ring. For the ILC, the SHBs could be eliminated if the voltage of the gun is raised sufficiently. Simulations using the General Particle Tracer (GPT) package indicate that a cathode bias voltage of {>=}200 kV should allow both SHBs to be operated at 433 or even 650 MHz, while {>=}500 kV would be required to eliminate the SHBs altogether. Simulations can be used to determine the minimum emittance possible if the injector is designed for a given increased voltage. A possible alternative to the DC gun is an rf gun. Emittance compensation, routinely used with rf guns, is discussed for higher-voltage DC guns.

  12. Action Alters Object Identification: Wielding a Gun Increases the Bias to See Guns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Jessica K.; Brockmole, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypes, expectations, and emotions influence an observer's ability to detect and categorize objects as guns. In light of recent work in action-perception interactions, however, there is another unexplored factor that may be critical: The action choices available to the perceiver. In five experiments, participants determined whether another…

  13. Cyclic Gun--Human Evolution: Soldiers, Guns, Machine Logic, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Guns, slug-throwing weapons, have evolved as humans have increased their grasp of the mechanical arts. In the near future, however, it seems likely that soldiers' rifles operating at punishing cyclic rates of fire face the limits of physics and materials science--heat and speed will cost accuracy and distance. This article considers not only the…

  14. Equilibrium and shot noise in mesoscopic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.

    1994-10-01

    Within the last decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in the study of noise in Mesoscopic devices, both experimentally and theoretically. Noise in solid state devices can have different origins: there is 1/f noise, which is believed to arise from fluctuations in the resistance of the sample due to the motion of impurities. On top of this contribution is a frequency independent component associated with the stochastic nature of electron transport, which will be the focus of this paper. If the sample considered is small enough that dephasing and inelastic effects can be neglected, equilibrium (thermal) and excess noise can be completely described in terms of the elastic scattering properties of the sample. As mentioned above, noise arises as a consequence of random processes governing the transport of electrons. Here, there are two sources of randomness: first, electrons incident on the sample occupy a given energy state with a probability given by the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. Secondly, electrons can be transmitted across the sample or reflected in the same reservoir where they came from with a probability given by the quantum mechanical transmission/reflection coefficients. Equilibrium noise refers to the case where no bias voltage is applied between the leads connected to the sample, where thermal agitation alone allows the electrons close to the Fermi level to tunnel through the sample. In general, equilibrium noise is related to the conductance of the sample via the Johnson-Nyquist formula. In the presence of a bias, in the classical regime, one expects to recover the full shot noise < {Delta}{sup 2}I >= 2I{Delta}{mu} as was observed a long time ago in vacuum diodes. In the Mesoscopic regime, however, excess noise is reduced below the shot noise level. The author introduces a more intuitive picture, where the current passing through the device is a superposition of pulses, or electron wave packets, which can be transmitted or reflected.

  15. Seasonal ingestion of toxic and nontoxic shot by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Samuel, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    We used rates of ingested shot and elevated blood-lead levels (≥0.18 ppm) to estimate the proportion of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) exposed to lead on 3 study areas in Manitoba, Minnesota, and Missouri. Lead exposure was prevalent on all areas and was common after the hunting season closed, when up to 15% of geese could have been exposed to lead shot. However, the proportion of steel shot ingested by geese has increased during the past 2 decades. We suggest that lead exposure is still a source of indirect hunting mortality in Canada geese but project that the prevalence of lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population and other waterfowl populations will decrease as nontoxic shot regulations persist and hunters use steel or other nontoxic shot.

  16. Testing a GaAs cathode in SRF gun

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, E.; Kewisch, J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Holmes, D.

    2011-03-28

    RF electron guns with a strained superlattice GaAs cathode are expected to generate polarized electron beams of higher brightness and lower emittance than do DC guns, due to their higher field gradient at the cathode's surface and lower cathode temperature. We plan to install a bulk GaAs:Cs in a SRF gun to evaluate the performance of both the gun and the cathode in this environment. The status of this project is: In our 1.3 GHz 1/2 cell SRF gun, the vacuum can be maintained at nearly 10{sup -12} Torr because of cryo-pumping at 2K. With conventional activation of bulk GaAs, we obtained a QE of 10% at 532 nm, with lifetime of more than 3 days in the preparation chamber and have shown that it can survive in transport from the preparation chamber to the gun. The beam line has been assembled and we are exploring the best conditions for baking the cathode under vacuum. We report here the progress of our test of the GaAs cathode in the SRF gun. Future particle accelerators, such as eRHIC and the ILC require high-brightness, high-current polarized electrons. Strained superlattice GaAs:Cs has been shown to be an efficient cathode for producing polarized electrons. Activation of GaAs with Cs,O(F) lowers the electron affinity and makes it energetically possible for all the electrons, excited into the conduction band that drift or diffuse to the emission surface, to escape into the vacuum. Presently, all operating polarized electron sources, such as the CEBAF, are DC guns. In these devices, the excellent ultra-high vacuum extends the lifetime of the cathode. However, the low field gradient on the photocathode's emission surface of the DC guns limits the beam quality. The higher accelerating gradients, possible in the RF guns, generate a far better beam. Until recently, most RF guns operated at room temperature, limiting the vacuum to {approx}10{sup -9} Torr. This destroys the GaAs's NEA surface. The SRF guns combine the excellent vacuum conditions of DC guns and the high

  17. Gun blast - Its propagation and determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, E. M.; Kahl, G. D.; Shear, D. D.

    1980-06-01

    Muzzle blast overpressure levels are limiting the operation of high performance gun systems. The pressures at crew stations are of particular concern and have not been well defined either experimentally or analytically. The present paper presents measurement and analysis of the blast fields about a range of weapons from small arms through artillery. The effects of near muzzle flow upon the blast wave are discussed and a scaling relationship is developed from experimental data which is extended to various weapons and shown to predict pressure acceptably.

  18. Electron gun simulation for 95 GHz gyrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Nitin; Sinha, A.K. E-mail: aksinha@ceeri.ernet.in; Purohit, L.P.

    2011-07-01

    A triode type Magnetron Injection Gun (MIG) for a 2 MW, 95 GHz Gyrotron has been designed by using commercially available code EGUN and another in-house developed code MIGANS. The operating mode of the gyrotron is TE{sub 24.8} and it is operated in the fundamental harmonic. The operating voltages of the modulating anode and the accelerating anode are 61 kV and 85 kV respectively. The parametric dependences of modulating anode voltage and cathode magnetic field on the beam quality have also been studied. (author)

  19. Smart gun technology requirements preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, D.R.; Brandt, D.J.; Tweet, K.D.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of the Smart Gun Technology project is to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing user-recognizing-and-authorizing surety technologies. This project is funded by the National Institute of Justice. This document reports the projects first objective: to find and document the requirements for a user-recognizing-and-authorizing firearm technology that law enforcement officers will value. This report details the problem of firearm takeaways in law enforcement, the methodology used to develop the law enforcement officers` requirements, and the requirements themselves.

  20. Characterisation of plasma in a rail gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of plasma and projectile acceleration in a DC rail gun is described from a microscopic point of view through the establishment of the Hall field. The plasma conductivity is shown to be a tensor, indicating that there is a small component of current parallel to the direction of acceleration. The plasma characteristics are evaluated in the experiment of Bauer et. al., as a function of plasma mass through a simple fluid mechanical analysis of the plasma. By equating the energy dissipatated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the properties of the plasma are determined.

  1. Catalytic Ignitor for Regenerative Propellant Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor); Ferraro, Ned W. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An ignitor initiates combustion of liquid propellant in a gun by utilizing a heated catalyst onto which the liquid propellant is sprayed in a manner which mitigates the occurrence of undesirable combustion chamber oscillations. The heater heats the catalyst sufficiently to provide the activation necessary to initiate combustion of the liquid propellant sprayed thereonto. Two embodiments of the igniter and three alternative mountings thereof within the combustion chamber are disclosed. The ignitor may also be utilized to dispose of contaminated, excess, or waste liquid propellant in a safe, controlled, simple, and reliable manner.

  2. Catalytic ignitor for regenerative propellant gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor); Ferraro, Ned W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An ignitor initiates combustion of liquid propellant in a gun by utilizing a heated catalyst onto which the liquid propellant is sprayed in a manner which mitigates the occurrence of undesirable combustion chamber oscillations. The heater heats the catalyst sufficiently to provide the activation necessary to initiate combustion of the liquid propellant sprayed thereonto. Two embodiments of the ignitor and three alternative mountings thereof within the combustion chamber are disclosed. The ignitor may also be utilized to dispose of contaminated, excess, or waste liquid propellant in a safe, controlled, simple, and reliable manner.

  3. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Yonas, Gerold

    2016-03-01

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  4. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  5. Gun Possession among American Youth: A Discovery-Based Approach to Understand Gun Violence

    PubMed Central

    Ruggles, Kelly V.; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    Objective To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions’ Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Results Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001–2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association “fingerprint” to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Conclusions Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described. PMID:25372864

  6. Gun facilitates adhesive bonding of studs to surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, B. K.; Simpson, W. G.

    1969-01-01

    Gun facilitates adhesive bonding of thermoplastic-backed studs to smooth, hard surfaces. Such studs can be used for mounting loads where defacement with drilled holes cannot be tolerated. These studs can be easily removed by softening the plastic bonding with heat from the gun.

  7. Contributions to the velocity spread of magnetron injection guns

    SciTech Connect

    Danly, B.G.; Kimura, T.; Kreischer, K.E.

    1995-12-31

    Various contributions to the velocity spread in magnetron injection guns for gyrotron applications have been studied, including the effects of misalignments, field errors, and cathode surface roughness. The net result of these effects is a substantial increase in spread over the ballistic spread usually calculated with typical gun codes.

  8. Turbulent electron beams generated by magnetron injection guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, Yu. A.; Starodubov, A. V.; Mushtakov, A. V.

    2011-06-01

    A detailed experimental investigation of oscillators based on a magnetron injection gun is carried out. Experimental data show that such oscillators offer a considerable advantage over other similar devices; namely, they are capable of generating powerful wideband noiselike microwave oscillations. This is because magnetron injection guns generate turbulent electron beams at their exit.

  9. Gun Access and Safety Practices among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Hillary D.; Flaten, Hanna K.; Betz, Marian E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Given high rates of gun ownership among older adults, geriatric providers can assess firearm safety practices using a “5 Ls” approach: Locked; Loaded; Little children; feeling Low; and Learned owner. This study describes gun access and the “5 Ls” among US older adults. Methods. Data on the “5 Ls” from the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey (ICARIS-2), a national telephone survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were analyzed. Weighted variables were used to generate national estimates regarding prevalence of gun ownership and associated gun safety among older adults (≥55 years). Results. Of 2939 older adults, 39% (95% CI 37%–42%) reported ≥1 gun stored at home. Among those with guns at home, 21% (95% CI 18–24%) stored guns loaded and unlocked; 9.2% (95% CI 6.6–12%) had ≥1 child in household; 5.1% (95% CI 3.5–6.8%) reported past-year suicidal ideation and 3.6% (95% CI 2.1–5.2%) reported history of a suicide attempt; and 55% (95% CI 51–59%) stated that ≥1 adult had attended firearm safety workshop. Conclusion. Some older adults may be at elevated risk of firearm injury because of storage practices, suicidal thoughts, or limited safety training. Future work should assess effective approaches to reduce the risk of gun-related injuries among older adults. PMID:26949391

  10. Carbon-fiber low-voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect

    Drori, R.; Jerby, E.

    1995-12-31

    Carbon-fiber cathodes am used in cold electron-guns in our laboratory. They operate in low-voltage (< 10 kV) free-electron maser and cyclotron-resonance maser experiments. The paper presents I-V characteristics of various carbon-fiber electron-guns and show results of the corresponding maser experiments.

  11. A theory for coupling gridded gun design with PPM focussing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    True, R.

    1984-03-01

    It is pointed out that a major fraction of Pierce guns in use today are gridded to allow beam current control and on/off switching by grid voltage levels roughly two orders of magnitude less than the applied cathode-to-anode voltage. Such guns are used in various electron-beam devices, such as microwave and millimeter-wave tubes, linear accelerators, and ubitrons or free electron lasers. It has been customary practice in the design of a gridded gun, to develop first a suitable ungridded or diode gun. In the considered case, difficulties begin to arise after the design of the ungridded gun. In the present paper, a description is given of the theoretical and experimental methods which are useful in the design of gridded guns. Simplified relationships are developed from which the optimum periodic permanent magnetic (PPM) field level for a given gun can be determined in a priori fashion. Attention is given to the concept of tunnel emittance, focussing stability criteria for nonlaminar beams, and the coupling between the gun and PPM focussing problems.

  12. [Dangerousness of blank fright guns and salute rifles].

    PubMed

    Schöning, R; Krause, D; Lichtenberg, W; Schmidt, U; Effenberger, O

    1997-01-01

    According to the German law salute-fire guns altered weapons with a barrel length of more than 60 cm. They have inside the barrel special constructions, which are guiding the gunshot residues under high pressure to the muzzle. Therefore they own an high potential of injury, like blank-cartridge guns with short barrels. PMID:9313063

  13. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  14. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1986-01-01

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  15. 78 FR 11902 - Review of Gun Safety Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... comments or information are directed to the following Web site: https://www.justnet.org/gun_safety_technology/ . Relevant comments or information may also be emailed to the following address... to help inform its technology assessment and market research of existing and emerging gun...

  16. What we know about gun use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D L; Fagan, J

    2001-06-01

    The current generation of American teenagers has grown up surrounded by gun violence. Guns have played a significant role in shaping the developmental trajectories and behaviors of many inner-city youths. In this essay, we examine the role of guns in the lives of young people, and especially in the social and symbolic construction of violent events among adolescents, primarily focusing on males. First, we review studies of gun attitudes and behaviors as well as several epidemiological studies of firearm experiences and risk factors for violence among youth. Second, we summarize several recent studies on the trends in youth violence in relation to firearms. Next, we review findings from our original research based on in-depth interviews with 377 active gun offenders from two socially isolated inner-city neighborhoods. We present descriptive counts for the sample on variables relating to gun acquisition and use. Data on the use of guns in violent events among adolescents are generally lacking in prior research. We attempt to fill that knowledge gap by presenting a summary of our more detailed analysis of gun and nongun use in violent events reported by our respondents. PMID:11771792

  17. A Gridded Electron Gun for a Sheet Beam Klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Read, M.E.; Miram, G.; Ives, R.L.; Ivanov, V.; Krasnykh, A.; /SLAC

    2008-04-25

    This paper describes the development of an electron gun for a sheet beam klystron. Initially intended for accelerator applications, the gun can operate at a higher perveance than one with a cylindrically symmetric beam. Results of 2D and 3D simulations are discussed.

  18. Gun Access and Safety Practices among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lum, Hillary D; Flaten, Hanna K; Betz, Marian E

    2016-01-01

    Background. Given high rates of gun ownership among older adults, geriatric providers can assess firearm safety practices using a "5 Ls" approach: Locked; Loaded; Little children; feeling Low; and Learned owner. This study describes gun access and the "5 Ls" among US older adults. Methods. Data on the "5 Ls" from the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey (ICARIS-2), a national telephone survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were analyzed. Weighted variables were used to generate national estimates regarding prevalence of gun ownership and associated gun safety among older adults (≥55 years). Results. Of 2939 older adults, 39% (95% CI 37%-42%) reported ≥1 gun stored at home. Among those with guns at home, 21% (95% CI 18-24%) stored guns loaded and unlocked; 9.2% (95% CI 6.6-12%) had ≥1 child in household; 5.1% (95% CI 3.5-6.8%) reported past-year suicidal ideation and 3.6% (95% CI 2.1-5.2%) reported history of a suicide attempt; and 55% (95% CI 51-59%) stated that ≥1 adult had attended firearm safety workshop. Conclusion. Some older adults may be at elevated risk of firearm injury because of storage practices, suicidal thoughts, or limited safety training. Future work should assess effective approaches to reduce the risk of gun-related injuries among older adults. PMID:26949391

  19. Guns and Crime: Protection versus Peril. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Many Americans, terrified of violent crime, attempt to protect themselves by owning guns. However, statistics provided in this brief fact sheet reveal that people who choose to have a gun easily available are in fact putting their families and friends into greater danger since far more homicides occur during domestic arguments than during…

  20. 10. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), LOOKING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER. BUILDING NO. 332, CHANGE HOUSE, IN RIGHT BACKGROUND; BUILDING NO. 445-F, MAGAZINE, IN LEFT BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  1. Normative Considerations in the Aftermath of Gun Violence in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereluk, Dianne T.; Donlevy, J. Kent; Thompson, Merlin B.

    2015-01-01

    Gun violence in American and Canadian schools is an ongoing tragedy that goes substantially beyond its roots in the interlocking emotional and behavioral issues of mental health and bullying. In light of the need for effective policy development, Dianne T. Gereluk, J. Kent Donlevy, and Merlin B. Thompson examine gun violence in schools from…

  2. Taking Aim at Gun Violence: Rebuilding Community Education & Employment Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    In January 2013, President Obama released a plan for protecting children and communities by reducing gun violence. This plan has generated serious debate from both sides of the issue. The ensuing conversations about how to solve the issue of gun violence have been volatile. The President's plan includes reforms to close loopholes on background…

  3. Gun Possession among Massachusetts Batterer Intervention Program Enrollees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Johnson, Renee M.; Hemenway, David

    2006-01-01

    Batterers with access to firearms present a serious lethal threat to their partners. The purpose of this exploratory study is to estimate the prevalence of and risk markers for gun possession among Massachusetts men enrolled in batterer intervention programs. The authors found that 1.8% of the men reported having a gun in or around their home.…

  4. 15. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), INTERIOR, FOURTH LEVEL. POWDER HOPPER AT TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. POWDER DISTRIBUTED FROM HERE TO LOADING ROOMS BY TUBES. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  5. Guns and Fear: A One-Way Street?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Will; Kleck, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Surveys show that more than one half of gun owners report owning their firearm for self-protection. Although research has examined the effect of fear of crime on gun ownership, the issue of reciprocity and temporal order has been largely ignored. Furthermore, the effect of firearm acquisition and relinquishment on fear has not been evaluated…

  6. 10. Detail of map showing Battery Davis and Panama Gun ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail of map showing Battery Davis and Panama Gun Mounts at right, by U.S. Engineering Office, San Francisco, California, August 5, 1934. - Fort Funston, Panama Mounts for 155mm Guns, Skyline Boulevard & Great Highway, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. NASCAP simulation of laboratory charging tests using multiple electron guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Katz, I.; Parks, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    NASCAP calculations have been performed simulating exposure of a spacecraft-like model to multiple electron guns. The results agree well with experiment. It is found that magnetic field effects are fairly small, but substantial differential charging can result from electron gun placement. Conditions for surface flashover are readily achieved.

  8. 62. SIXTEEN INCH GUN MOUNTED ON THE MACHINING LATHE; LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. SIXTEEN INCH GUN MOUNTED ON THE MACHINING LATHE; LOOKING WSW. THE GUN ITSELF EXTENDS BEYOND THE BRICK ARCHES OF THE MAIN SHOP FLOOR'S W WALL AND INTO THE W AISLE. THE LATHE'S CUTTING HEAD CAN BE SEEN AT THE RIGHT CENTER OF THE VIEW. (Ryan) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 110, Hagner Road between Schull & Whittemore Roads, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  9. 16. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), INTERIOR, SECOND LEVEL. LOOKING UP AT POWDER AND DISTRIBUTION TUBES. ELEVATOR SHAFT ON LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  10. Fluidized bed combustor and coal gun-tube assembly therefor

    DOEpatents

    Hosek, William S.; Garruto, Edward J.

    1984-01-01

    A coal supply gun assembly for a fluidized bed combustor which includes heat exchange elements extending above the bed's distributor plate assembly and in which the gun's nozzles are disposed relative to the heat exchange elements to only discharge granular coal material between adjacent heat exchange elements and in a path which is substantially equidistant from adjacent heat exchange elements.

  11. View forward of five inch gun mounted in sponson; note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward of five inch gun mounted in sponson; note glass windows which would be removed in combat, gudgeons below window allowed attachment of armor plate which could be swung up to protect gun crew in battle; also note lower section of flag rack at top left center of photograph. (p39) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. VIEW OF EAST GUN EMPLACEMENT. NOTE THE STEEL REINFORCING RODS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST GUN EMPLACEMENT. NOTE THE STEEL REINFORCING RODS PROTRUDING FROM THE BROKEN TOP OF THE RETAINING WALL. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, East Gun Emplacement, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 83. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH END OF GUN HILL PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH END OF GUN HILL PLATFORM OF 3RD AVENUE EL SHOWING THE SOUTHBOUND TRACK APPROACH INTO GUN HILL STATION. 7TH AVENUE EXPRESS EL ABOVE. - Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Third Avenue Elevated Line, Borough of the Bronx, New York County, NY

  14. VIEW OF GUN EMPLACEMENT AND THE TABLELIKE CAST CONCRETE STRUCTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF GUN EMPLACEMENT AND THE TABLE-LIKE CAST CONCRETE STRUCTURE SHOWING THE SPALLED AREA ON ITS EAST SIDE (LEFT) WHERE THE SECOND PROJECTING ARM WAS BROKEN OFF. NOTE THE SLOPED CONCRETE PAD IN THE BACKGROUND. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, East Gun Emplacement, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Everyday Engineering: What Makes a Squirt Gun Squirt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    You may not think of engineering and squirt guns in the same sentence. However, like many examples of engineering design, the squirt gun pump mechanism is uncomplicated, yet elegant, and very inexpensive to manufacture. The design is widely used because of its simplicity and low cost. With only a few moving parts, it is able to deliver a stream of…

  16. Preventing Clogging In A Vacuum Plasma Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotz, Phillip D.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.; Davis, William M.

    1994-01-01

    Modification of powder-injection ports enables lengthy, high-temperature deposition operations. Graphite inserts prevent clogging of ports through which copper powder injected into vacuum plasma spray (VPS) gun. Graphite liners eliminate need to spend production time refurbishing VPS gun, reducing cost of production and increasing productivity. Concept also applied to other material systems used for net-shape fabrication via VPS.

  17. Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, Boat Deck, House Top, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Gun Platform, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold Plan - Mission Santa Ynez, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  18. Teaching Safety Skills to Children to Prevent Gun Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himle, Michael B.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Research has shown that children often engage in gun play when they find a firearm and that this behavior is often involved in unintentional firearm injuries. Previous research has shown existing programs to be ineffective for teaching children safety skills to reduce gun play. This study examined the effectiveness of a behavioral skills training…

  19. Orchestrating Shots for the National Ignition Facililty (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Mathisen, D G; Bettenhausen, R C; Beeler, R G; Bowers, G A; Carey, R W; Casavant, D D; Cline, B D; Demaret, R D; Domyancic, D M; Elko, S D; Fisher, J M; Krammen, J E; Lagin, L J; Ludwigsen, A P; Patterson, R W; Sanchez, R J; Stout, E A

    2005-05-12

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8 Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultra-violet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. When completed, NIF will be the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing an international center to study inertial confinement fusion and physics of matter at extreme densities and pressures. The NIF is operated by the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which is a layered architecture of over 700 lower-level front-end processors attached to nearly 60,000 control points and coordinated by higher-level supervisory subsystems in the main control room. A shot automation framework has been developed and deployed during the past year to orchestrate and automate shots performed at the NIF using the ICCS. The Shot Automation framework is designed to automate 4-8 hour shot sequences, that includes deriving shot goals from an experiment definition, set up of the laser and diagnostics, automatic alignment of laser beams, and a countdown to charge and fire the lasers. These sequences consist of set of preparatory verification shots, leading to amplified system shots followed by post-shot analysis and archiving. The framework provides for a flexible, model-based work-flow execution, driven by scripted automation called macro steps. The shot director software is the orchestrating component of a very flexible automation layer which allows us to define, coordinate and reuse simpler automation sequences. This software provides a restricted set of shot life cycle state transitions to 26 collaboration supervisors that automate 8-laser beams (bundle) and a common set of shared resources. Each collaboration supervisor commands approximately 10 subsystem shot supervisors that perform automated control and status verification

  20. Guns, Mental Illness, and the Law: Introduction to This Issue.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Felthous, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    Firearm violence is a top-tier public health problem in the U.S., killing 33,563 and injuring an additional 81,396 people in 2012 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, ). Given constitutional protection and the cultural entrenchment of private gun ownership in the U.S., it is likely that guns will remain widely accessible--and largely unrestricted--for the foreseeable future. Therefore, most policies and laws intended to reduce firearm violence focus selectively on preventing "dangerous people" from having access to guns. That is a formidable challenge. How do we think productively about guns and mental illness in this context, and about the role of law in lessening the toll of gun violence? PMID:25874748