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Sample records for air handling system

  1. 15. VIEW OF THE SPECIAL SHROUDING AND AIR HANDLING SYSTEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF THE SPECIAL SHROUDING AND AIR HANDLING SYSTEM USED IN BERYLLIUM PRODUCTION. (3/30/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Controls to Improve Air-Handling System Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, C. P.; Sherman, M. H.; Walker, I. S.; Dickerhoff, D. J.; Federspiel, C. C.

    2008-09-01

    The performance of air-handling systems in buildings needs to be improved. Many of the deficiencies result from myths and lore and a lack of understanding about the non-linear physical principles embedded in the associated technologies. By incorporating these principles, a few important efforts related to diagnostics and controls have already begun to solve some of the problems. This paper illustrates three novel solutions: one rapidly assesses duct leakage, the second configures ad hoc duct-static-pressure reset strategies, and the third identifies useful intermittent ventilation strategies. By highlighting these efforts, this paper seeks to stimulate new research and technology developments that could further improve air-handling systems.

  3. A new guide for commissioning air handling systems: Using a model functional test

    SciTech Connect

    Haasl, Tudi; Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann; Bourassa, Norman; Gillespie, Ken

    2002-05-01

    Functional tests are a set of detailed instructions for building commissioning that demand extensive HVAC system knowledge to write and perform. Understanding the energy use implications and theory behind the test procedures, estimating the costs and benefits of doing a particular test, implementing the tests correctly, and resolving problems require years of field experience. As part of a large research project now underway, a practical guide is being developed that communicates this knowledge. This paper presents the components and intended use of the Functional Testing Guide and Model Functional Test for Air Handling Systems. A series of model functional tests, starting at the outdoor air intake section and proceeding through the air handling unit, distribution system, and terminal equipment and ending at the exhaust air discharge point, are provided for many commonly installed air handling system configurations. The model functional tests contain advice for tailoring the test procedures to specific system configurations, desirable and undesirable testing outcomes, a calculation appendix, references to other resources, and examples of completed test forms. The guide is an educational resource, with background information that clarifies the principles behind testing configurations and results. The functional tests have been selected from an extensive commissioning test protocol library compiled by Pacific Gas and Electric in 2001. The guide also includes a design guideline for the selection of control and monitoring points and a design intent documentation form.

  4. Air-handling capabilities of blood cardioplegia delivery systems in a simulated pediatric model.

    PubMed

    Palanzo, David; Guan, Yulong; Wan, Caihong; Baer, Larry; Kunselman, Allen; Qiu, Feng; Undar, Akif

    2010-11-01

    Blood cardioplegia delivery systems are employed in most pediatric open heart cases to arrest the heart and keep it preserved during aortic cross-clamping. They are also used as part of a modified ultrafiltration system at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass. We evaluated and compared the air-handling capabilities of different types of blood cardioplegia delivery devices. A simple circuit incorporating a cardiotomy reservoir, a roller pump, a cardioplegia test system, and two emboli detection and classification sensors were used to investigate the air-handling capabilities of the following cardioplegia delivery systems: GISH Vision, Maquet Plegiox, Medtronic Trillium MYOtherm XP, Sorin Group BCD Vanguard, Sorin Group CSC14, and Terumo Sarns Conducer and Bubble Trap. The 0.25-in. circuit was primed with 400mL of Lactated Ringer's. Outdated packed red blood cells were added to obtain a hematocrit of 24-28%. System pressure was maintained at 50mmHg. Air (0.1, 0.3, 0.5mL) was injected at a speed of 0.1mL/s into the circuit just after the pump head. Gaseous microemboli (GME) were measured prior to the cardioplegia system and after the device to evaluate the air-handling characteristics. The tests were run at 100, 200, and 400mL/min blood flow for both 4 and 37°C. There were no significant differences among the groups when comparing precardioplegia delivery system GME, thus demonstrating that all devices received the same amount of injected air. When comparing the groups for postcardioplegia delivery system GME, significant differences were noted especially at the 400mL/min blood flow rate. These results suggest that for the devices compared in this study, the Maquet Plegiox and the Medtronic Trillium MYOtherm XP eliminated GME the best.

  5. Combination sound and vibration isolation curb for rooftop air-handling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paige, Thomas S.

    2005-09-01

    This paper introduces the new Model ESSR Sound and Vibration Isolation Curb manufactured by Kinetics Noise Control, Inc. This product was specially designed to address all of the common transmission paths associated with noise and vibration sources from roof-mounted air-handling equipment. These include: reduction of airborne fan noise in supply and return air ductwork, reduction of duct rumble and breakout noise, reduction of direct airborne sound transmission through the roof deck, and reduction of vibration and structure-borne noise transmission to the building structure. Upgrade options are available for increased seismic restraint and wind-load protection. The advantages of this new system over the conventional approach of installing separate duct silencers in the room ceiling space below the rooftop unit are discussed. Several case studies are presented with the emphasis on completed projects pertaining to classrooms and school auditorium applications. Some success has also been achieved by adding active noise control components to improve low-frequency attenuation. This is an innovative product designed for conformance with the new classroom acoustics standard ANSI S12.60.

  6. Basement utility room (room 24; air handling room), near the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement utility room (room 24; air handling room), near the west end of the combat operations center, looking southwest towards fan system one, air ducts, and walk-in filter rooms. The exterior equipment well is visible at the left - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  7. IAQ and air handling unit design

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns are affecting the design of air handlers currently being offered by the manufacturers of equipment in the marketplace. These design changes are being driven by increased awareness, code changes, literature, and lawsuits within the HVAC industry. The design professionals who apply the manufacturers` products are acutely aware of the need to improve the quality of air within buildings. With the new awareness of indoor air quality issues come more options, different construction techniques, and modularity in air handling unit design.

  8. Bulk material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Kleysteuber, William K.; Mayercheck, William D.

    1979-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a bulk material handling system particularly adapted for underground mining and includes a monorail supported overhead and carrying a plurality of conveyors each having input and output end portions with the output end portion of a first of the conveyors positioned above an input end portion of a second of the conveyors, a device for imparting motion to the conveyors to move the material from the input end portions toward the output end portions thereof, a device for supporting at least one of the input and output end portions of the first and second conveyors from the monorail, and the supporting device including a plurality of trolleys rollingly supported by the monorail whereby the conveyors can be readily moved therealong.

  9. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    S.C. Khamamkar

    2000-06-23

    The Waste Handling Building Electrical System performs the function of receiving, distributing, transforming, monitoring, and controlling AC and DC power to all waste handling building electrical loads. The system distributes normal electrical power to support all loads that are within the Waste Handling Building (WHB). The system also generates and distributes emergency power to support designated emergency loads within the WHB within specified time limits. The system provides the capability to transfer between normal and emergency power. The system provides emergency power via independent and physically separated distribution feeds from the normal supply. The designated emergency electrical equipment will be designed to operate during and after design basis events (DBEs). The system also provides lighting, grounding, and lightning protection for the Waste Handling Building. The system is located in the Waste Handling Building System. The system consists of a diesel generator, power distribution cables, transformers, switch gear, motor controllers, power panel boards, lighting panel boards, lighting equipment, lightning protection equipment, control cabling, and grounding system. Emergency power is generated with a diesel generator located in a QL-2 structure and connected to the QL-2 bus. The Waste Handling Building Electrical System distributes and controls primary power to acceptable industry standards, and with a dependability compatible with waste handling building reliability objectives for non-safety electrical loads. It also generates and distributes emergency power to the designated emergency loads. The Waste Handling Building Electrical System receives power from the Site Electrical Power System. The primary material handling power interfaces include the Carrier/Cask Handling System, Canister Transfer System, Assembly Transfer System, Waste Package Remediation System, and Disposal Container Handling Systems. The system interfaces with the MGR Operations

  10. Air-Cooled Stack Freeze Tolerance Freeze Failure Modes and Freeze Tolerance Strategies for GenDriveTM Material Handling Application Systems and Stacks Final Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, David, W.

    2012-02-14

    Air-cooled stack technology offers the potential for a simpler system architecture (versus liquid-cooled) for applications below 4 kilowatts. The combined cooling and cathode air allows for a reduction in part count and hence a lower cost solution. However, efficient heat rejection challenges escalate as power and ambient temperature increase. For applications in ambient temperatures below freezing, the air-cooled approach has additional challenges associated with not overcooling the fuel cell stack. The focus of this project was freeze tolerance while maintaining all other stack and system requirements. Through this project, Plug Power advanced the state of the art in technology for air-cooled PEM fuel cell stacks and related GenDrive material handling application fuel cell systems. This was accomplished through a collaborative work plan to improve freeze tolerance and mitigate freeze-thaw effect failure modes within innovative material handling equipment fuel cell systems designed for use in freezer forklift applications. Freeze tolerance remains an area where additional research and understanding can help fuel cells to become commercially viable. This project evaluated both stack level and system level solutions to improve fuel cell stack freeze tolerance. At this time, the most cost effective solutions are at the system level. The freeze mitigation strategies developed over the course of this project could be used to drive fuel cell commercialization. The fuel cell system studied in this project was Plug Power's commercially available GenDrive platform providing battery replacement for equipment in the material handling industry. The fuel cell stacks were Ballard's commercially available FCvelocity 9SSL (9SSL) liquid-cooled PEM fuel cell stack and FCvelocity 1020ACS (Mk1020) air-cooled PEM fuel cell stack.

  11. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    P.A. Kumar

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Handling Building (WHB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WHB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement areas ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination within the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WHB. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System is designed to perform its safety functions under accident conditions and other Design Basis Events (DBEs) (such as earthquakes, tornadoes, fires, and loss of the primary electric power). Additional system design features (such as compartmentalization with independent subsystems) limit the potential for cross-contamination within the WHB. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits. The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is

  12. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T.; Coffin, D.O.

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  13. Expert Systems and Document Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Describes significant attributes of expert systems, contrasts them to conventional computer systems, and provides an overview of the R1 expert system used by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) to put together operational systems that meet customers' requirements. Document handling, particularly pictures and images in documents, is also briefly…

  14. A probabilistic method to diagnose faults of air handling units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Debashis

    Air handling unit (AHU) is one of the most extensively used equipment in large commercial buildings. This device is typically customized and lacks quality system integration which can result in hardwire failures and controller errors. Air handling unit Performance Assessment Rules (APAR) is a fault detection tool that uses a set of expert rules derived from mass and energy balances to detect faults in air handling units. APAR is computationally simple enough that it can be embedded in commercial building automation and control systems and relies only upon sensor data and control signals that are commonly available in these systems. Although APAR has many advantages over other methods, for example no training data required and easy to implement commercially, most of the time it is unable to provide the diagnosis of the faults. For instance, a fault on temperature sensor could be fixed bias, drifting bias, inappropriate location, complete failure. Also a fault in mixing box can be return and outdoor damper leak or stuck. In addition, when multiple rules are satisfied the list of faults increases. There is no proper way to have the correct diagnosis for rule based fault detection system. To overcome this limitation we proposed Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) as a diagnostic tool. BBN can be used to simulate diagnostic thinking of FDD experts through a probabilistic way. In this study we developed a new way to detect and diagnose faults in AHU through combining APAR rules and Bayesian Belief network. Bayesian Belief Network is used as a decision support tool for rule based expert system. BBN is highly capable to prioritize faults when multiple rules are satisfied simultaneously. Also it can get information from previous AHU operating conditions and maintenance records to provide proper diagnosis. The proposed model is validated with real time measured data of a campus building at University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA).The results show that BBN is correctly able to

  15. Remote Handling System for Ignitor^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbiati, L.; Bianchi, A.; Lucca, F.; Coppi, B.

    2005-10-01

    Since access in Ignitor is through the limited width of the equatorial ports, the use of remote handling (RH) technology for any in-vessel intervention is required, even before the vessel becomes activated. In particular, the first wall of Ignitor, which is made of TZM (Molybdenum) tiles mounted on Inconel tile-carriers covering the entire plasma chamber, has been designed to be installed and replaced entirely by the RH system. The presence of radiation screens inside the cryostat and around the ports ensure a sufficiently low level of activation around the machine to avoid the need of ex-vessel RH techniques. The in-vessel RH system is based on two transporters carrying an articulated boom with end-effectors, supported by a movable structure over a transport system that can be lifted and set in position adjacent to two opposite horizontal ports. The design of the in-vessel RH system, of the boom and its enclosure, and of the most significant end-effectors (welding and cutting tools, and tools for the removal and handling of tile carriers) has been completed. A series of other dedicated tools for installation and maintainances of diagnostics components, of the RF antennas, vacuum cleaners, tools for general inspection and metrology are included in the design. ^*Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the U.S. DOE.

  16. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

  17. ATA diagnostic data handling system: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, F.W.; Kallman, J.; McDonald, J.; Slominski, M.

    1984-06-14

    The functions to be performed by the ATA diagnostic data handling system are discussed. The capabilities of the present data acquisition system (System 0) are presented. The goals for the next generation acquisition system (System 1), currently under design, are discussed. Facilities on the Octopus system for data handling are reviewed. Finally, we discuss what has been learned about diagnostics and computer based data handling during the past year.

  18. DISPOSAL CONTAINER HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E. F. Loros

    2000-06-30

    The Disposal Container Handling System receives and prepares new disposal containers (DCs) and transfers them to the Assembly Transfer System (ATS) or Canister Transfer System (CTS) for loading. The system receives the loaded DCs from ATS or CTS and welds the lids. When the welds are accepted the DCs are termed waste packages (WPs). The system may stage the WP for later transfer or transfer the WP directly to the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System. The system can also transfer DCs/WPs to/from the Waste Package Remediation System. The Disposal Container Handling System begins with new DC preparation, which includes installing collars, tilting the DC upright, and outfitting the container for the specific fuel it is to receive. DCs and their lids are staged in the receipt area for transfer to the needed location. When called for, a DC is put on a cart and sent through an airlock into a hot cell. From this point on, all processes are done remotely. The DC transfer operation moves the DC to the ATS or CTS for loading and then receives the DC for welding. The DC welding operation receives loaded DCs directly from the waste handling lines or from interim lag storage for welding of the lids. The welding operation includes mounting the DC on a turntable, removing lid seals, and installing and welding the inner and outer lids. After the weld process and non-destructive examination are successfully completed, the WP is either staged or transferred to a tilting station. At the tilting station, the WP is tilted horizontally onto a cart and the collars removed. The cart is taken through an air lock where the WP is lifted, surveyed, decontaminated if required, and then moved into the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System. DCs that do not meet the welding non-destructive examination criteria are transferred to the Waste Package Remediation System for weld preparation or removal of the lids. The Disposal Container Handling System is contained within the Waste Handling Building System

  19. CARRIER/CASK HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-23

    The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives casks on railcars and legal-weight trucks (LWTs) (transporters) that transport loaded casks and empty overpacks to the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) from the Carrier/Cask Transport System. Casks that come to the MGR on heavy-haul trucks (HHTs) are transferred onto railcars before being brought into the Carrier/Cask Handling System. The system is the interfacing system between the railcars and LWTs and the Assembly Transfer System (ATS) and Canister Transfer System (CTS). The Carrier/Cask Handling System removes loaded casks from the cask transporters and transfers the casks to a transfer cart for either the ATS or CTS, as appropriate, based on cask contents. The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives the returned empty casks from the ATS and CTS and mounts the casks back onto the transporters for reshipment. If necessary, the Carrier/Cask Handling System can also mount loaded casks back onto the transporters and remove empty casks from the transporters. The Carrier/Cask Handling System receives overpacks from the ATS loaded with canisters that have been cut open and emptied and mounts the overpacks back onto the transporters for disposal. If necessary, the Carrier/Cask Handling System can also mount empty overpacks back onto the transporters and remove loaded overpacks from them. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is located within the Carrier Bay of the Waste Handling Building System. The system consists of cranes, hoists, manipulators, and supporting equipment. The Carrier/Cask Handling System is designed with the tooling and fixtures necessary for handling a variety of casks. The Carrier/Cask Handling System performance and reliability are sufficient to support the shipping and emplacement schedules for the MGR. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Carrier/Cask Transport System, ATS, and CTS as noted above. The Carrier/Cask Handling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for building

  20. Automated Proactive Techniques for Commissioning Air-Handling Units

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas ); Brambley, Michael R. ); Luskay, Larry

    2003-08-30

    Many buildings today use sophisticated building automation systems (BASs) to manage a wide and varied range of building systems. Although the capabilities of the BASs seem to have increased over time, many buildings still are not properly commissioned, operated or maintained. Lack of or improper commissioning, the inability of the building operators to grasp the complex controls, and lack of proper maintenance leads to inefficient operations and reduced lifetimes of the equipment. If regularly scheduled manual maintenance or re-commissioning practices are adopted, they can be expensive and time consuming. Automated proactive commissioning and diagnostic technologies address two of the main barriers to commissioning: cost and schedules. Automated proactive continuous commissioning tools can reduce both the cost and time associated with commissioning, as well as enhance the persistence of commissioning fixes. In the long run, automation even offers the potential for automatically correcting problems by reconfiguring controls or changing control algorithms dynamically. This paper will discuss procedures and processes that can be used to automate and continuously commission the economizer operation and outdoor-air ventilation systems of an air-handling unit.

  1. Cask system design guidance for robotic handling

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmeyer, J.M.; Drotning, W.D.; Morimoto, A.K.; Bennett, P.C.

    1990-10-01

    Remote automated cask handling has the potential to reduce both the occupational exposure and the time required to process a nuclear waste transport cask at a handling facility. The ongoing Advanced Handling Technologies Project (AHTP) at Sandia National Laboratories is described. AHTP was initiated to explore the use of advanced robotic systems to perform cask handling operations at handling facilities for radioactive waste, and to provide guidance to cask designers regarding the impact of robotic handling on cask design. The proof-of-concept robotic systems developed in AHTP are intended to extrapolate from currently available commercial systems to the systems that will be available by the time that a repository would be open for operation. The project investigates those cask handling operations that would be performed at a nuclear waste repository facility during cask receiving and handling. The ongoing AHTP indicates that design guidance, rather than design specification, is appropriate, since the requirements for robotic handling do not place severe restrictions on cask design but rather focus on attention to detail and design for limited dexterity. The cask system design features that facilitate robotic handling operations are discussed, and results obtained from AHTP design and operation experience are summarized. The application of these design considerations is illustrated by discussion of the robot systems and their operation on cask feature mock-ups used in the AHTP project. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Acoustophoretic contactless transport and handling of matter in air

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Klingauf, Mirko; Ferrari, Aldo; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-01-01

    Levitation and controlled motion of matter in air have a wealth of potential applications ranging from materials processing to biochemistry and pharmaceuticals. We present a unique acoustophoretic concept for the contactless transport and handling of matter in air. Spatiotemporal modulation of the levitation acoustic field allows continuous planar transport and processing of multiple objects, from near-spherical (volume of 0.1–10 μL) to wire-like, without being limited by the acoustic wavelength. The independence of the handling principle from special material properties (magnetic, optical, or electrical) is illustrated with a wide palette of application experiments, such as contactless droplet coalescence and mixing, solid–liquid encapsulation, absorption, dissolution, and DNA transfection. More than a century after the pioneering work of Lord Rayleigh on acoustic radiation pressure, a path-breaking concept is proposed to harvest the significant benefits of acoustic levitation in air. PMID:23858454

  3. Acoustophoretic contactless transport and handling of matter in air.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Klingauf, Mirko; Ferrari, Aldo; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-07-30

    Levitation and controlled motion of matter in air have a wealth of potential applications ranging from materials processing to biochemistry and pharmaceuticals. We present a unique acoustophoretic concept for the contactless transport and handling of matter in air. Spatiotemporal modulation of the levitation acoustic field allows continuous planar transport and processing of multiple objects, from near-spherical (volume of 0.1-10 μL) to wire-like, without being limited by the acoustic wavelength. The independence of the handling principle from special material properties (magnetic, optical, or electrical) is illustrated with a wide palette of application experiments, such as contactless droplet coalescence and mixing, solid-liquid encapsulation, absorption, dissolution, and DNA transfection. More than a century after the pioneering work of Lord Rayleigh on acoustic radiation pressure, a path-breaking concept is proposed to harvest the significant benefits of acoustic levitation in air. PMID:23858454

  4. 21 CFR 878.5070 - Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....5070 Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room. (a) Identification. Air-handling apparatus... that has been filtered to remove particulate matter and microorganisms to provide an area free...

  5. 21 CFR 878.5070 - Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....5070 Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room. (a) Identification. Air-handling apparatus... that has been filtered to remove particulate matter and microorganisms to provide an area free...

  6. 21 CFR 878.5070 - Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....5070 Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room. (a) Identification. Air-handling apparatus... that has been filtered to remove particulate matter and microorganisms to provide an area free...

  7. 21 CFR 878.5070 - Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....5070 Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room. (a) Identification. Air-handling apparatus... that has been filtered to remove particulate matter and microorganisms to provide an area free...

  8. 21 CFR 878.5070 - Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....5070 Air-handling apparatus for a surgical operating room. (a) Identification. Air-handling apparatus... that has been filtered to remove particulate matter and microorganisms to provide an area free...

  9. Zoned heating and air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Beachboard, S.A.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes a zoned heating and air conditioning system comprising: a central air handling system with an air heating means and an air cooling means and a blower connected to an air duct system; thermostats each have heating and cooling set points, respectively associated with and located in different zones of a building; dampers respectively associated with each building zone positioned in the air duct system. Each damper has an open position allowing air into the respective zone from the duct system and a closed position; relay means for connecting one thermostat to the air handling system upon a call for heating or cooling by one thermostat and disconnecting all other thermostats by connecting one thermostat's connections between the thermostat and air handling system. Only one thermostat is connected to the air handling system at a time and the relay means disconnects one thermostat from the air handling system after one thermostat is satisified; and damper actuating means for unlocking each damper in one building zone responsive actuated by a respective zone thermostat connected to the air handling system by the relay means. The damper actuates means including a damper solenoid for each damper located adjacent each damper and connected to a respective zone thermostat. It unlocks each damper in one building zone responsive to being actuated by the respective zone thermostat and unlocks the dampers in one building zone when one thermostat is actuated while preventing the dampers in another thermostat's building zone from unlocking.

  10. Structural interaction with transportation and handling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Problems involved in the handling and transportation of finished space vehicles from the factory to the launch site are presented, in addition to recommendations for properly accounting for in space vehicle structural design, adverse interactions during transportation. Emphasis is given to the protection of vehicle structures against those environments and loads encountered during transportation (including temporary storage) which would exceed the levels that the vehicle can safely withstand. Current practices for verifying vehicle safety are appraised, and some of the capabilities and limitations of transportation and handling systems are summarized.

  11. Handling System for Iridium-192 Seeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, W.; Wodicka, D.

    1973-01-01

    A complete system is proposed for safe handling of iridium-192 seeds used to internally irradiate malignant growths. A vibratory hopper feeds the seeds onto a transport system for deposit in a magazine or storage area. A circular magazine consisting of segmented plastic tubing with holes in the walls to accommodate the seeds seems feasible. The magazine is indexed to stop and release a seed for calibration and deposition.

  12. Self-Correcting HVAC Controls: Algorithms for Sensors and Dampers in Air-Handling Units

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2009-12-31

    This report documents the self-correction algorithms developed in the Self-Correcting Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Controls project funded jointly by the Bonneville Power Administration and the Building Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The algorithms address faults for temperature sensors, humidity sensors, and dampers in air-handling units and correction of persistent manual overrides of automated control systems. All faults considered create energy waste when left uncorrected as is frequently the case in actual systems.

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR MUCK HANDLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) muck handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) (DOE 1998). This QA classification incorporates the current MGR design and the results of the ''Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository (CRWMS M and O 1998a).

  14. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.K.; Lindemann, P.E.

    1982-07-19

    A system and method are claimed for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  15. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, John K.; Lindemann, Paul E.

    1984-01-01

    A system and method for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  16. SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, S.; Parkes, S. M.; O'Gribin, N.

    2007-08-01

    The SpaceWire standard was published in 2003 with the aim of providing a standard for onboard communications, defining the physical and data link layers of an interconnection, in order to improve reusability, reliability and to reduce the cost of mission development. The many benefits which it provides mean that it has already been used in a number of missions, both in Europe and throughout the world. Recent work by the SpaceWire community has included the development of higher level protocols for SpaceWire, such as the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) which can be used for many purposes, including the configuration of SpaceWire devices. Although SpaceWire has become very popular, the various ways in which it can be used are still being discovered, as are the most efficient ways to use it. At the same time, some in the space industry are not even aware of SpaceWire's existence. This paper describes the SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System that has been developed by the University of Dundee. This system simulates an onboard data handling network based on SpaceWire. It uses RMAP for all communication, and so demonstrates how SpaceWire and standardised higher level protocols can be used onboard a spacecraft. The system is not only a good advert for those who are unfamiliar with the benefits of SpaceWire, it is also a useful tool for those using SpaceWire to test ideas.

  17. Patient handling arrangements for NMR imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carper, R.L.; Keller, J.T.

    1988-02-23

    In a nuclear magnetic resonance imaging system, including a magnet having a bore in which a subject to be imaged is to be located, a patient handling system is described comprising: a patient table which may be located so as to oppose the magnet bore, the patient table including a bottom portion and a top portion; a patient pallet, movably located on the top portion and adapted to be moved between the top portion and the magnet bore; mechanically driven transport means for transporting the patient pallet into and out of the magnet bore, including latch means for connecting the transport means to the patient pallet; and release means, located on the pallet, for manually releasing the latch means from the pallet, whereby the pallet may be manually removed from the magnet bore.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING USING LOCATION SPECIFIC AIR MONITORING IN BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.; Hanks, D.; Degange, J.; Brant, H.; Hall, G.; Cable-Dunlap, P.; Anderson, B.

    2011-06-07

    when used during unannounced inspections, design information verification, limited frequency unannounced access, and complementary access visits at bulk handling facilities. Analysis of technical features required for tamper indication and resistance will demonstrate the viability of successful application of the system in taking ES within a bulk handling location. Further exploration of putting this technology into practice is planned to include mapping uranium enrichment facilities for the identification of optimal for installation of air monitoring devices.

  19. Fuel handling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Saiveau, James G.; Kann, William J.; Burelbach, James P.

    1986-01-01

    A pool type nuclear fission reactor has a core, with a plurality of core elements and a redan which confines coolant as a hot pool at a first end of the core separated from a cold pool at a second end of the core by the redan. A fuel handling system for use with such reactors comprises a core element storage basket located outside of the redan in the cold pool. An access passage is formed in the redan with a gate for opening and closing the passage to maintain the temperature differential between the hot pool and the cold pool. A mechanism is provided for opening and closing the gate. A lifting arm is also provided for manipulating the fuel core elements through the access passage between the storage basket and the core when the redan gate is open.

  20. Fuel handling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Saiveau, James G.; Kann, William J.; Burelbach, James P.

    1986-12-02

    A pool type nuclear fission reactor has a core, with a plurality of core elements and a redan which confines coolant as a hot pool at a first end of the core separated from a cold pool at a second end of the core by the redan. A fuel handling system for use with such reactors comprises a core element storage basket located outside of the redan in the cold pool. An access passage is formed in the redan with a gate for opening and closing the passage to maintain the temperature differential between the hot pool and the cold pool. A mechanism is provided for opening and closing the gate. A lifting arm is also provided for manipulating the fuel core elements through the access passage between the storage basket and the core when the redan gate is open.

  1. SITE GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    S. C. Khamankar

    2000-06-20

    The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System handles radioactive waste products that are generated at the geologic repository operations area. The waste is collected, treated if required, packaged for shipment, and shipped to a disposal site. Waste streams include low-level waste (LLW) in solid and liquid forms, as-well-as mixed waste that contains hazardous and radioactive constituents. Liquid LLW is segregated into two streams, non-recyclable and recyclable. The non-recyclable stream may contain detergents or other non-hazardous cleaning agents and is packaged for shipment. The recyclable stream is treated to recycle a large portion of the water while the remaining concentrated waste is packaged for shipment; this greatly reduces the volume of waste requiring disposal. There will be no liquid LLW discharge. Solid LLW consists of wet solids such as ion exchange resins and filter cartridges, as-well-as dry active waste such as tools, protective clothing, and poly bags. Solids will be sorted, volume reduced, and packaged for shipment. The generation of mixed waste at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) is not planned; however, if it does come into existence, it will be collected and packaged for disposal at its point of occurrence, temporarily staged, then shipped to government-approved off-site facilities for disposal. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System has equipment located in both the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) and in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). All types of liquid and solid LLW are processed in the WTB, while wet solid waste from the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is packaged where received in the WHB. There is no installed hardware for mixed waste. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System receives waste from locations where water is used for decontamination functions. In most cases the water is piped back to the WTB for processing. The WTB and WHB provide staging areas for storing and shipping LLW

  2. Quick actuating closure and handling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Johnny W.; White, Dorsey E., III; Updike, Benjamin T.; Gregory, Peyton B.

    1988-01-01

    A quick activating closure and handling system, which utilizes conical sections for locking, was developed to allow quick access to the combustor internal components of the 8 ft High Temperature Tunnel. These critical components include the existing methane spraybar, a transpiration cooled nozzle and the new liquid oxygen (LOX) injection system housed within the combustor. A substantial cost savings will be realized once the mechanism is installed since it will substantially reduce the access time and increase the time available for conducting wind tunnel tests. A need exists for more frequent inspections when the wind tunnel operates at the more severe conditions generated by using LOX in the combustor. A loads analysis and a structural (finite element) analysis were conducted to verify that the new closure system is compatible with the existing pressure shell. In addition, strain gages were placed on the pressure vessel to verify how the pressure shell reacts to transient pressure loads. A scale model of the new closure system was built to verify the operation of the conical sections in the locking mechanisms.

  3. Simple handling of venous air embolism during abdominal myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Basaran, Betül; Basaran, Ahmet; Kozanhan, Betül; Özmen, Sadık; Basaran, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of venous air embolism during abdominal myomectomy. Although true incidence of venous air embolism is not known, in literature most of reported cases are belongs to sitting position craniotomies. Many of those are subclinical, and diagnostic methods have varying degrees of sensitivity and specificity. At time of suspicion, prevention of any subsequent air emboli is the cornerstone of treatment. PMID:27591473

  4. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  5. 46 CFR 98.33-13 - Cargo-handling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Certain Grade E Combustible Liquids and Other Regulated Materials § 98.33-13 Cargo-handling systems. A... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo-handling systems. 98.33-13 Section 98.33-13... authorized under § 98.33-5 of this part unless the cargo-handling system meets the requirements of subpart...

  6. 46 CFR 98.33-13 - Cargo-handling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Certain Grade E Combustible Liquids and Other Regulated Materials § 98.33-13 Cargo-handling systems. A... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo-handling systems. 98.33-13 Section 98.33-13... authorized under § 98.33-5 of this part unless the cargo-handling system meets the requirements of subpart...

  7. ISS Update: Station Command and Data Handling System

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kylie Clem interviews ODIN flight controller Amy Brezinski, who monitors and commands the Command and Data Handling System for the International Space Station. Brezinski...

  8. Application Examples for Handle System Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toussaint, F.; Weigel, T.; Thiemann, H.; Höck, H.; Stockhause, M.; Lautenschlager, M.

    2012-12-01

    Besides the well-known DOI (Digital Object Identifiers) as a special form of Handles that resolve to scientific publications there are various other applications in use. Others perhaps are just not yet. We present some examples for the existing ones and some ideas for the future. The national German project C3-Grid provides a framework to implement a first solution for provenance tracing and explore unforeseen implications. Though project-specific, the high-level architecture is generic and represents well a common notion of data derivation. Users select one or many input datasets and a workflow software module (an agent in this context) to execute on the data. The output data is deposited in a repository to be delivered to the user. All data is accompanied by an XML metadata document. All input and output data, metadata and the workflow module receive Handles and are linked together to establish a directed acyclic graph of derived data objects and involved agents. Data that has been modified by a workflow module is linked to its predecessor data and the workflow module involved. Version control systems such as svn or git provide Internet access to software repositories using URLs. To refer to a specific state of the source code of for instance a C3 workflow module, it is sufficient to reference the URL to the svn revision or git hash. In consequence, individual revisions and the repository as a whole receive PIDs. Moreover, the revision specific PIDs are linked to their respective predecessors and become part of the provenance graph. Another example for usage of PIDs in a current major project is given in EUDAT (European Data Infrastructure) which will link scientific data of several research communities together. In many fields it is necessary to provide data objects at multiple locations for a variety of applications. To ensure consistency, not only the master of a data object but also its copies shall be provided with a PID. To verify transaction safety and to

  9. Material handling systems for the fluidized-bed combustion boiler at Rivesville, West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branam, J. G.; Rosborough, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    The 300,000 lbs/hr steam capacity multicell fluidized-bed boiler (MFB) utilizes complex material handling systems. The material handling systems can be divided into the following areas: (1) coal preparation; transfer and delivery, (2) limestone handling system, (3) fly-ash removal and (4) bed material handling system. Each of the above systems are described in detail and some of the potential problem areas are discussed. A major potential problem that exists is the coal drying system. The coal dryer is designed to use 600 F preheated combustion air as drying medium and the dryer effluent is designed to enter a hot electrostatic precipitator (730 F) after passage through a cyclone. Other problem areas to be discussed include the steam generator coal and limestone feed system which may have operating difficulties with wet coal and/or coal fines.

  10. 324 Bldg Liquid Waste Handling System Functional Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    HAM, J.E.

    1999-12-16

    The 324 Building in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, is preparing to design, construct, and operate the Liquid Waste Handling System (LWHS). The system will include transfer, collection, treatment, and disposal of radiological and mixed liquid waste.

  11. A Mars Sample Return Sample Handling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, David; Stroker, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We present a sample handling system, a subsystem of the proposed Dragon landed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission [1], that can return to Earth orbit a significant mass of frozen Mars samples potentially consisting of: rock cores, subsurface drilled rock and ice cuttings, pebble sized rocks, and soil scoops. The sample collection, storage, retrieval and packaging assumptions and concepts in this study are applicable for the NASA's MPPG MSR mission architecture options [2]. Our study assumes a predecessor rover mission collects samples for return to Earth to address questions on: past life, climate change, water history, age dating, understanding Mars interior evolution [3], and, human safety and in-situ resource utilization. Hence the rover will have "integrated priorities for rock sampling" [3] that cover collection of subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments, low-temperature fluidaltered rocks, unaltered igneous rocks, regolith and atmosphere samples. Samples could include: drilled rock cores, alluvial and fluvial deposits, subsurface ice and soils, clays, sulfates, salts including perchlorates, aeolian deposits, and concretions. Thus samples will have a broad range of bulk densities, and require for Earth based analysis where practical: in-situ characterization, management of degradation such as perchlorate deliquescence and volatile release, and contamination management. We propose to adopt a sample container with a set of cups each with a sample from a specific location. We considered two sample cups sizes: (1) a small cup sized for samples matching those submitted to in-situ characterization instruments, and, (2) a larger cup for 100 mm rock cores [4] and pebble sized rocks, thus providing diverse samples and optimizing the MSR sample mass payload fraction for a given payload volume. We minimize sample degradation by keeping them frozen in the MSR payload sample canister using Peltier chip cooling. The cups are sealed by interference fitted heat activated memory

  12. Handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    SciTech Connect

    Shipers, L.R.; Allen, G.C.

    1992-09-09

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

  13. Earth resources ground data handling systems for the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanvleck, E. M.; Sinclair, K. F.; Pitts, S. W.; Slye, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The system requirements of an operational data handling system for earth resources in the decade of the 1980's are investigated. Attention is drawn to problems encountered in meeting the stringent agricultural user requirements of that time frame. Such an understanding of requirements is essential not only in designing the ground system that will ultimately handle the data, but also in design studies of the earth resources platform, sensors, and data relay satellites which may be needed.

  14. Method and system rapid piece handling

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1996-01-01

    The advent of high-speed fabric cutters has made necessary the development of automated techniques for the collection and sorting of garment pieces into collated piles of pieces ready for assembly. The present invention enables a new method for such handling and sorting of garment parts, and to apparatus capable of carrying out this new method. The common thread is the application of computer-controlled shuttling bins, capable of picking up a desired piece of fabric and dropping it in collated order for assembly. Such apparatus with appropriate computer control relieves the bottleneck now presented by the sorting and collation procedure, thus greatly increasing the overall rate at which garments can be assembled.

  15. Effectiveness of Germicidal UV Radiation for Reducing Fungal Contamination within Air-Handling Units

    PubMed Central

    Levetin, Estelle; Shaughnessy, Richard; Rogers, Christine A.; Scheir, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Levels of fungi growing on insulation within air-handling units (AHUs) in an office building and levels of airborne fungi within AHUs were measured before the use of germicidal UV light and again after 4 months of operation. The fungal levels following UV operation were significantly lower than the levels in control AHUs. PMID:11472952

  16. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-08

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  17. Cellular Manufacturing System with Dynamic Lot Size Material Handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khannan, M. S. A.; Maruf, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Sutrisno, S.; Wibawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    Material Handling take as important role in Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS) design. In several study at CMS design material handling was assumed per pieces or with constant lot size. In real industrial practice, lot size may change during rolling period to cope with demand changes. This study develops CMS Model with Dynamic Lot Size Material Handling. Integer Linear Programming is used to solve the problem. Objective function of this model is minimizing total expected cost consisting machinery depreciation cost, operating costs, inter-cell material handling cost, intra-cell material handling cost, machine relocation costs, setup costs, and production planning cost. This model determines optimum cell formation and optimum lot size. Numerical examples are elaborated in the paper to ilustrate the characterictic of the model.

  18. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  19. Bag-out material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Brak, Stephen B.; Milek, Henry F.

    1984-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an pening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  20. Bag-out material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Brak, Stephen B.

    1985-01-01

    A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.

  1. System and method for slurry handling

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Raymond Douglas; Oppenheim, Judith Pauline

    2015-12-29

    A system includes a slurry depressurizing system that includes a liquid expansion system configured to continuously receive a slurry at a first pressure and continuously discharge the slurry at a second pressure. For example, the slurry depressurizing system may include an expansion turbine to expand the slurry from the first pressure to the second pressure.

  2. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  3. Linkage Of Laser And Handling Systems In Multi Station Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petschke, U.; Kramer, R.; Wolff, Udo W.; Beyer, Eckhard

    1989-03-01

    Special requirements are needed for highly flexible, multi station laser processing. Linkage of several lasers with various handling stations causes different kinds of tasks to be solved in the fields of optics, electro mechanics, laser technology and opto electro-nics. A new design for flexible high power CO2 laser beam handling has been developed, including self-checking security systems, laser beam diagnostics, easily adjustable high power beam bending mirrors, high precision motorized mechanics and computer controlled user guidance.

  4. Interrupt handling in a multiprocessor computing system

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amico, L.W.; Guyer, J.M.

    1989-01-03

    A multiprocessor computing system is described comprising: a system bus, including an address bus for carrying an address phase of an instruction and a data bus for carrying a data phase of an instruction; a plurality of processing units connected to the system bus, each processing unit including means for generating broadcast interrupt origin request instructions on the system bus; asynchronous input/output channel controllers connected to the system bus, each of the input/output channel controllers including means for generating a synchronizing signal in response to completion of an address phase of a broadcast instruction on the system bus, and corresponding to a different one of the processing units connected through each of the input/output channel controllers, the input/output channel controllers being arranged on the priority lines in order of priority, the priority lines being gated in an input/output channel controller so that priority is asserted over all lower priority input/output channel controllers on a priority line by an input/output channel controller if the input/output channel controller has an interrupt pending in the input/output channel controller for the processing unit corresponding to the priority line.

  5. An underwater work systems package. [remote handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, N. B.

    1975-01-01

    A modular unit which is adaptable to several existing deep sea submersibles was developed to extend their working abilities and acquire knowledge of components and techniques for working in the deep sea environment. This work systems package is composed of an aluminum pipe structure on which are mounted two six-function grabber arms, a seven function manipulator, tool suit, 1,000/lb. capacity winch, electrohydraulic power supply, electronics housing, lights, and television. The unit is designed to be operated by itself either remotely or with divers, attached to manned submersibles, or mounted on unmanned cable-controlled submersibles.

  6. TDRSS data handling and management system study. Ground station systems for data handling and relay satellite control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a two-phase study of the (Data Handling and Management System DHMS) are presented. An original baseline DHMS is described. Its estimated costs are presented in detail. The DHMS automates the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) ground station's functions and handles both the forward and return link user and relay satellite data passing through the station. Direction of the DHMS is effected via a TDRSS Operations Control Central (OCC) that is remotely located. A composite ground station system, a modified DHMS (MDHMS), was conceptually developed. The MDHMS performs both the DHMS and OCC functions. Configurations and costs are presented for systems using minicomputers and midicomputers. It is concluded that a MDHMS should be configured with a combination of the two computer types. The midicomputers provide the system's organizational direction and computational power, and the minicomputers (or interface processors) perform repetitive data handling functions that relieve the midicomputers of these burdensome tasks.

  7. Operational earth resources data handling system for the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Vleck, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a recent study of data handling requirements for future operational earth observation systems are reported. Such systems in the 1980's may have 10-20 meter resolution and generate .2 tecabits of data per day, with peak rates of 0.8 gigabits per second based on the dominant requirements of agriculture. System alternatives are considered that will handle such data. Data relayed to the facility are recorded at high rates and then processed at lower speed by computer. Hardwired special digital logic computers may be used with an appropriate classification algorithm for crop recognition. Optical mass memories now in the prototype stage will handle the 10 tecabits and 800 megabit per second read-in rate required.

  8. Culture systems: air quality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  9. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  10. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1999-03-17

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  11. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1998-11-09

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  12. Dual Source Mass Spectrometer and Sample Handling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Cornish, T. J.; Cheng, A. F.; Niemann, H. B.; Harpold, D. N.; Gorevan, S. P.; Rafeek, S.; Yucht, D.

    2002-01-01

    We present details of a miniature integrated time-of-flight mass spectrometer and sample handling system under development to address some of the needs for in situ sample analysis on landed missions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. 30 CFR 75.817 - Cable handling and support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.817 Cable handling and support systems. Longwall mining equipment must be... the possibility of miners contacting the cables and to protect the high-voltage cables from damage....

  14. Design Package for Fuel Retrieval System Fuel Handling Tool Modification

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    2000-03-27

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  15. X.400: The Standard for Message Handling Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Leigh; Tallim, Paula

    1990-01-01

    Profiles X.400, the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Application layer standard that supports interpersonal electronic mail services, facsimile transfer, electronic data interchange, electronic funds transfer, electronic publishing, and electronic invoicing. Also discussed are an electronic directory to support message handling, compatibility…

  16. 30 CFR 75.817 - Cable handling and support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cable handling and support systems. 75.817 Section 75.817 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.817 Cable...

  17. 30 CFR 75.817 - Cable handling and support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.817 Cable handling and support systems. Longwall mining equipment must be... the possibility of miners contacting the cables and to protect the high-voltage cables from damage....

  18. 30 CFR 75.817 - Cable handling and support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.817 Cable handling and support systems. Longwall mining equipment must be... the possibility of miners contacting the cables and to protect the high-voltage cables from damage....

  19. 30 CFR 75.817 - Cable handling and support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.817 Cable handling and support systems. Longwall mining equipment must be... the possibility of miners contacting the cables and to protect the high-voltage cables from damage....

  20. Universal Data Handling System for Sounding Rockets and Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, G.

    2015-09-01

    Data handling systems (DHS) used in service systems and experiment modules on sounding rockets and balloons have traditionally been different in design. A study was performed in 2012 at SSC to evaluate the feasibility of a common system usable across different platforms. The outcome was the “Unified DHS system”. The new DHS is very modular in design and can easily be adapted to different mission scenarios.

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE HANDLING BUILDING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste handling building system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste handling building fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE HANDLING BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste handling building electrical system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  4. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.D.; Hurd, R.; Couture, S.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies.

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR DISPOSAL CONTAINER HANDLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) disposal container handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-O333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  6. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  7. Development and implementation of automated radioactive materials handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jacoboski, D.L.

    1992-12-01

    Material handling of radioactive and hazardous materials has forced the need to pursue remotely operated and robotic systems in light of operational safety concerns. Manual maneuvering, repackaging, overpacking and inspecting of containers which store radioactive and hazardous materials is the present mode of operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald Ohio. The manual methods are unacceptable in the eyes of concerned site workers and influential community oversight committees. As an example to respond to the FEMP material handling needs, design efforts have been initiated to provide a remotely operated system to repackage thousands of degradated drums containing radioactive Thorium: Later, the repackaged Thorium will be shipped offsite to a predesignated repository again requiring remote operation.

  8. A sensor-based automation system for handling nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Kimberly, H.; Wapman, W.; Darras, D.

    1997-03-01

    An automated system is being developed for handling large payloads of radioactive nuclear materials in an analytical laboratory. The automation system performs unpacking and repacking of payloads from shipping and storage containers, and delivery of the payloads to the stations in the laboratory. The system uses machine vision and force/torque sensing to provide sensor-based control of the automation system in order to enhance system safety, flexibility, and robustness, and achieve easy remote operation. The automation system also controls the operation of the laboratory measurement systems and the coordination of them with the robotic system. Particular attention has been given to system design features and analytical methods that provide an enhanced level of operational safety. Independent mechanical gripper interlock and tool release mechanisms were designed to prevent payload mishandling. An extensive Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the automation system was developed as a safety design analysis tool.

  9. System design for safe robotic handling of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Wapman, W.; Fahrenholtz, J.; Kimberly, H.; Kuhlmann, J.

    1996-03-01

    Robotic systems are being developed by the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at Sandia National Laboratories to perform automated handling tasks with radioactive nuclear materials. These systems will reduce the occupational radiation exposure to workers by automating operations which are currently performed manually. Because the robotic systems will handle material that is both hazardous and valuable, the safety of the operations is of utmost importance; assurance must be given that personnel will not be harmed and that the materials and environment will be protected. These safety requirements are met by designing safety features into the system using a layered approach. Several levels of mechanical, electrical and software safety prevent unsafe conditions from generating a hazard, and bring the system to a safe state should an unexpected situation arise. The system safety features include the use of industrial robot standards, commercial robot systems, commercial and custom tooling, mechanical safety interlocks, advanced sensor systems, control and configuration checks, and redundant control schemes. The effectiveness of the safety features in satisfying the safety requirements is verified using a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. This technique can point out areas of weakness in the safety design as well as areas where unnecessary redundancy may reduce the system reliability.

  10. Observation metadata handling system at the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzycki, Adam; Brandt, Daniel; Giot, David; Lockhart, John; Rodriguez, Jesus; Rossat, Nathalie; Vuong, My Hà

    2006-06-01

    We present the design of the system for handling observations metadata at the Science Archive Facility of the European Southern Observatory using Sybase ASE, Replication Server and Sybase IQ. The system has been reengineered to enhance the browsing capabilities of Archive contents using searches on any observation parameter, for on-line updates on all parameters and for the on-the-fly introduction of those updates in files retrieved from the Archive. The systems also reduces the replication of duplicate information and simplifies database maintenance.

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR CARRIER PREPARATION BUILDING MATERIALS HANDLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    2001-02-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) carrier preparation building materials handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Preclosure Safety and Systems Engineering Section. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 2000). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2000).

  12. CARRIER PREPARATION BUILDING MATERIALS HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-28

    The Carrier Preparation Building Materials Handling System receives rail and truck shipping casks from the Carrier/Cask Transport System, and inspects and prepares the shipping casks for return to the Carrier/Cask Transport System. Carrier preparation operations for carriers/casks received at the surface repository include performing a radiation survey of the carrier and cask, removing/retracting the personnel barrier, measuring the cask temperature, removing/retracting the impact limiters, removing the cask tie-downs (if any), and installing the cask trunnions (if any). The shipping operations for carriers/casks leaving the surface repository include removing the cask trunnions (if any), installing the cask tie-downs (if any), installing the impact limiters, performing a radiation survey of the cask, and installing the personnel barrier. There are four parallel carrier/cask preparation lines installed in the Carrier Preparation Building with two preparation bays in each line, each of which can accommodate carrier/cask shipping and receiving. The lines are operated concurrently to handle the waste shipping throughputs and to allow system maintenance operations. One remotely operated overhead bridge crane and one remotely operated manipulator is provided for each pair of carrier/cask preparation lines servicing four preparation bays. Remotely operated support equipment includes a manipulator and tooling and fixtures for removing and installing personnel barriers, impact limiters, cask trunnions, and cask tie-downs. Remote handling equipment is designed to facilitate maintenance, dose reduction, and replacement of interchangeable components where appropriate. Semi-automatic, manual, and backup control methods support normal, abnormal, and recovery operations. Laydown areas and equipment are included as required for transportation system components (e.g., personnel barriers and impact limiters), fixtures, and tooling to support abnormal and recovery operations. The

  13. Overview of the CDF Run II data handling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley-Geer, L.; Lammel, S.; Leininger, M.; Watts, T.

    2001-10-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) collaboration records and analyses proton-anti-proton interactions with a center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV at the Tevatron. During the next collider run the experiment expects to record about 1 PetaByte of data, an increase by more than an order of magnitude in data volume compared to the existing data of the experiment. This paper gives an overview of the new data handling system. The design builds upon successful strategies used in the past but eliminates shortcomings encountered with the old system. The core of the central analysis system will be a pool of over 20 TBytes of data disks. Logically behind this disk pool will be an automated tape library with a storage capacity to hold the full 1 PByte of Run II data. Multi-processor compute systems will be located around this storage pool to provide the required analysis power of over 3000 SPECint95. Desktop systems will be integrated into the analysis system via a shared login area and user authentication. The data handling software falls into four categories: software to manage computing resources, software for the data disks and for the mass storage subsystem, software to organize and manage the meta-data information, and the I/O modules in the analysis framework for accessing data.

  14. Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) for Circular Habitat Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Haselschwardt, Sally

    2012-01-01

    A Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) has been developed to service a circular floor area in variable gravity. On planetary surfaces, pressurized human habitable volumes will require a means to carry heavy equipment between various locations within the volume of the habitat, regardless of the partial gravity (Earth, moon, Mars, etc). On the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU), a vertical cylindrical volume, it was determined that a variety of heavy items would need to be carried back and forth from deployed locations to the General Maintenance Work Station (GMWS) when in need of repair, and other equipment may need to be carried inside for repairs, such as rover parts and other external equipment. The vertical cylindrical volume of the HDU lent itself to a circular overhead track and hoist system that allows lifting of heavy objects from anywhere in the habitat to any other point in the habitat interior. In addition, the system is able to hand off lifted items to other material handling systems through the side hatches, such as through an airlock. This paper describes the RIMS system which is scalable for application in a variety of circular habitat volumes.

  15. Sample Acquisition and Handling System from a Remote Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    A system has been developed to acquire and handle samples from a suspended remote platform. The system includes a penetrator, a penetrator deployment mechanism, and a sample handler. A gravity-driven harpoon sampler was used for the system, but other solutions can be used to supply the penetration energy, such as pyrotechnic, pressurized gas, or springs. The deployment mechanism includes a line that is attached to the penetrator, a spool for reeling in the line, and a line engagement control mechanism. The penetrator has removable tips that can collect liquid, ice, or solid samples. The handling mechanism consists of a carousel that can store a series of identical or different tips, assist in penetrator reconfiguration for multiple sample acquisition, and deliver the sample to a series of instruments for analysis. The carousel sample handling system was combined with a brassboard reeling mechanism and a penetrator with removable tips. It can attach the removable tip to the penetrator, release and retrieve the penetrator, remove the tip, and present it to multiple instrument stations. The penetrator can be remotely deployed from an aerobot, penetrate and collect the sample, and be retrieved with the sample to the aerobot. The penetrator with removable tips includes sample interrogation windows and a sample retainment spring for unconsolidated samples. The line engagement motor can be used to control the penetrator release and reeling engagement, and to evenly distribute the line on the spool by rocking between left and right ends of the spool. When the arm with the guiding ring is aligned with the spool axis, the line is free to unwind from the spool without rotating the spool. When the arm is perpendicular to the spool axis, the line can move only if the spool rotates.

  16. Automated cassette-to-cassette substrate handling system

    DOEpatents

    Kraus, Joseph Arthur; Boyer, Jeremy James; Mack, Joseph; DeChellis, Michael; Koo, Michael

    2014-03-18

    An automated cassette-to-cassette substrate handling system includes a cassette storage module for storing a plurality of substrates in cassettes before and after processing. A substrate carrier storage module stores a plurality of substrate carriers. A substrate carrier loading/unloading module loads substrates from the cassette storage module onto the plurality of substrate carriers and unloads substrates from the plurality of substrate carriers to the cassette storage module. A transport mechanism transports the plurality of substrates between the cassette storage module and the plurality of substrate carriers and transports the plurality of substrate carriers between the substrate carrier loading/unloading module and a processing chamber. A vision system recognizes recesses in the plurality of substrate carriers corresponding to empty substrate positions in the substrate carrier. A processor receives data from the vision system and instructs the transport mechanism to transport substrates to positions on the substrate carrier in response to the received data.

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    2000-11-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste handling building ventilation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Preclosure Safety and Systems Engineering Section. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 2000). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2000). This QA classification incorporates the current MGR design and the results of the ''Design Basis Event Frequency and Dose Calculation for Site Recommendation'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a) and ''Bounding Individual Category 1 Design Basis Event Dose Calculation to Support Quality Assurance Classification'' (Gwyn 2000).

  18. 78 FR 41810 - Proposed Revisions to Light Load Handling System and Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Revisions to Light Load Handling System and Operations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Light Load Handling System and Operations'' of NUREG-0800, ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of...) with respect to the light load handling system and related refueling operations. The draft SRP...

  19. An Exposure Prevention Plan for an Anhydrous Ammonia Handling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padolewski, Cathy L.; Bower, Amy; Ponikvar, Gary; Mellott, Ken

    1997-01-01

    In July of 1996, the Industrial Hygiene Team of the Environmental Management Office at NASA Lewis Research Center was contacted by the Space Station Program Office to conduct ammonia awareness training for a team of engineers and technicians. The team was tasked with assembling and operating an ammonia handling system for testing of a photovoltaic radiator at the NASA Plum Brook Station Space Power Facility. The ammonia handling system supports a radiator designed to radiate excess heat from a photovoltaic array module used to provide power to the International Space Station. The system would consist of a hazardous materials trailer equipped with an anhydrous ammonia tank, heater, accumulator, chiller, and flow bench. Meetings were held with representatives from the Space Station Program Office, the engineers and Plum Brook safety personnel. Guidance was also provided by representatives from Kennedy Space Center. Determinations were made concerning the locations and types of potential exposures and a plan was developed which included training, personal protective equipment, engineering controls and emergency response. Various organizations including the Plum Brook Safety Committee, the Lewis Environmental Management Office, the Test Readiness Review Board and the Program Office all had requirements that had to be met in order to satisfy themselves that all personnel involved in the operation of the system would be safe. What resulted was a comprehensive plan that provided more than adequate safety measures and succeeded in protecting all personnel from the hazards of the ammonia system. Testing of the photovoltaic radiator was successful and although ammonia leaks were detected and maintenance of the system was ongoing, no one was injured. It was felt that the training and controls in place allowed for a comfort level that did not interfere with the operations.

  20. A scintillator purification plant and fluid handling system for SNO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Richard J.

    2015-08-01

    A large capacity purification plant and fluid handling system has been constructed for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment, located 6800 feet underground at SNOLAB, Canada. SNO+ is a refurbishment of the SNO detector to fill the acrylic vessel with liquid scintillator based on Linear Alkylbenzene (LAB) and 2 g/L PPO, and also has a phase to load natural tellurium into the scintillator for a double-beta decay experiment with 130Te. The plant includes processes multi-stage dual-stream distillation, column water extraction, steam stripping, and functionalized silica gel adsorption columns. The plant also includes systems for preparing the scintillator with PPO and metal-loading the scintillator for double-beta decay exposure. We review the basis of design, the purification principles, specifications for the plant, and the construction and installations. The construction and commissioning status is updated.

  1. A scintillator purification plant and fluid handling system for SNO+

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Richard J.

    2015-08-17

    A large capacity purification plant and fluid handling system has been constructed for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment, located 6800 feet underground at SNOLAB, Canada. SNO+ is a refurbishment of the SNO detector to fill the acrylic vessel with liquid scintillator based on Linear Alkylbenzene (LAB) and 2 g/L PPO, and also has a phase to load natural tellurium into the scintillator for a double-beta decay experiment with {sup 130}Te. The plant includes processes multi-stage dual-stream distillation, column water extraction, steam stripping, and functionalized silica gel adsorption columns. The plant also includes systems for preparing the scintillator with PPO and metal-loading the scintillator for double-beta decay exposure. We review the basis of design, the purification principles, specifications for the plant, and the construction and installations. The construction and commissioning status is updated.

  2. Integrated Payload Data Handling Systems Using Software Partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Alun; Hann, Mark; Wishart, Alex

    2015-09-01

    An integrated Payload Data Handling System (I-PDHS) is one in which multiple instruments share a central payload processor for their on-board data processing tasks. This offers a number of advantages over the conventional decentralised architecture. Savings in payload mass and power can be realised because the total processing resource is matched to the requirements, as opposed to the decentralised architecture here the processing resource is in effect the sum of all the applications. Overall development cost can be reduced using a common processor. At individual instrument level the potential benefits include a standardised application development environment, and the opportunity to run the instrument data handling application on a fully redundant and more powerful processing platform [1]. This paper describes a joint program by SCISYS UK Limited, Airbus Defence and Space, Imperial College London and RAL Space to implement a realistic demonstration of an I-PDHS using engineering models of flight instruments (a magnetometer and camera) and a laboratory demonstrator of a central payload processor which is functionally representative of a flight design. The objective is to raise the Technology Readiness Level of the centralised data processing technique by address the key areas of task partitioning to prevent fault propagation and the use of a common development process for the instrument applications. The project is supported by a UK Space Agency grant awarded under the National Space Technology Program SpaceCITI scheme. [1].

  3. Attenuating noise generated by variable-air-volume systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, R.

    1985-03-01

    Sound generated by HVAC systems is receiving much attention because they are generally the principal contributors to room background sound levels that may become irritating and distracting noise if not controlled. This article discusses the creation of a quiet working environment through an analysis of the three traditional sound paths associated with air handling systems: radiated sound, inlet or return air sound and discharge sound. Recommended standards are given as well as a brief overview of materials used to fabricate HVAC system components.

  4. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Organic production and handling system plan. 205.201...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.201 Organic production and handling system plan. (a) The producer or handler of a...

  5. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Organic production and handling system plan. 205.201...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.201 Organic production and handling system plan. (a) The producer or handler of a...

  6. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organic production and handling system plan. 205.201...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.201 Organic production and handling system plan. (a) The producer or handler of a...

  7. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Organic production and handling system plan. 205.201...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.201 Organic production and handling system plan. (a) The producer or handler of a...

  8. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Organic production and handling system plan. 205.201...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.201 Organic production and handling system plan. (a) The producer or handler of a...

  9. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  10. 324 Building liquid waste handling and removal system project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-07-29

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 324 Building. Recent discussions indicate that the Hanford site railroad system will be closed by the end of FY 1998 necessitating the need for an alternate transfer method. The issue of handling of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) from the 324 Building (assuming the 340 Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart 1997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 324 Building RLWS to allow load-out of wastewater to a truck tanker, while making maximum use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes to the building. This alternative is accepted as the basis for further discussion presented in this study. The goal of this engineering study is to verify the path forward presented in the previous studies and assure that the selected alternative satisfies the 324 Building deactivation goals and objectives as currently described in the project management plan. This study will also evaluate options available to implement the preferred alternative and select the preferred option for implementation of the entire system. Items requiring further examination will also be identified. Finally, the study will provide a conceptual design, schedule and cost estimate for the required modifications to the 324 Building to allow removal of RLW. Attachment 5 is an excerpt from the project baseline schedule found in the Project Management Plan.

  11. The roles of vibration analysis and infrared thermography in monitoring air-handling equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurzbach, Richard N.

    2003-04-01

    Industrial and commercial building equipment maintenance has not historically been targeted for implementation of PdM programs. The focus instead has been on manufacturing, aerospace and energy industries where production interruption has significant cost implications. As cost-effectiveness becomes more pervasive in corporate culture, even office space and labor activities housed in large facilities are being scrutinized for cost-cutting measures. When the maintenance costs for these facilities are reviewed, PdM can be considered for improving the reliability of the building temperature regulation, and reduction of maintenance repair costs. An optimized program to direct maintenance resources toward a cost effective and pro-active management of the facility can result in reduced operating budgets, and greater occupant satisfaction. A large majority of the significant rotating machinery in a large building environment are belt-driven air handling units. These machines are often poorly designed or utilized within the facility. As a result, the maintenance staff typically find themselves scrambling to replace belts and bearings, going from one failure to another. Instead of the reactive-mode maintenance, some progressive and critical institutions are adopting predictive and proactive technologies of infrared thermography and vibration analysis. Together, these technologies can be used to identify design and installation problems, that when corrected, significantly reduce maintenance and increase reliability. For critical building use, such as laboratories, research facilities, and other high value non-industrial settings, the cost-benefits of more reliable machinery can contribute significantly to the operational success.

  12. Uncertainty Analysis for a Virtual Flow Meter Using an Air-Handling Unit Chilled Water Valve

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Li; Wang, Gang; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-04-28

    A virtual water flow meter is developed that uses the chilled water control valve on an air-handling unit as a measurement device. The flow rate of water through the valve is calculated using the differential pressure across the valve and its associated coil, the valve command, and an empirically determined valve characteristic curve. Thus, the probability of error in the measurements is significantly greater than for conventionally manufactured flow meters. In this paper, mathematical models are developed and used to conduct uncertainty analysis for the virtual flow meter, and the results from the virtual meter are compared to measurements made with an ultrasonic flow meter. Theoretical uncertainty analysis shows that the total uncertainty in flow rates from the virtual flow meter is 1.46% with 95% confidence; comparison of virtual flow meter results with measurements from an ultrasonic flow meter yielded anuncertainty of 1.46% with 99% confidence. The comparable results from the theoretical uncertainty analysis and empirical comparison with the ultrasonic flow meter corroborate each other, and tend to validate the approach to computationally estimating uncertainty for virtual sensors introduced in this study.

  13. Mark 4A antenna control system data handling architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, H. C.; Eldred, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    A high-level review was conducted to provide an analysis of the existing architecture used to handle data and implement control algorithms for NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas and to make system-level recommendations for improving this architecture so that the DSN antennas can support the ever-tightening requirements of the next decade and beyond. It was found that the existing system is seriously overloaded, with processor utilization approaching 100 percent. A number of factors contribute to this overloading, including dated hardware, inefficient software, and a message-passing strategy that depends on serial connections between machines. At the same time, the system has shortcomings and idiosyncrasies that require extensive human intervention. A custom operating system kernel and an obscure programming language exacerbate the problems and should be modernized. A new architecture is presented that addresses these and other issues. Key features of the new architecture include a simplified message passing hierarchy that utilizes a high-speed local area network, redesign of particular processing function algorithms, consolidation of functions, and implementation of the architecture in modern hardware and software using mainstream computer languages and operating systems. The system would also allow incremental hardware improvements as better and faster hardware for such systems becomes available, and costs could potentially be low enough that redundancy would be provided economically. Such a system could support DSN requirements for the foreseeable future, though thorough consideration must be given to hard computational requirements, porting existing software functionality to the new system, and issues of fault tolerance and recovery.

  14. Mark 4A antenna control system data handling architecture study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, H. C.; Eldred, D. B.

    1991-11-01

    A high-level review was conducted to provide an analysis of the existing architecture used to handle data and implement control algorithms for NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas and to make system-level recommendations for improving this architecture so that the DSN antennas can support the ever-tightening requirements of the next decade and beyond. It was found that the existing system is seriously overloaded, with processor utilization approaching 100 percent. A number of factors contribute to this overloading, including dated hardware, inefficient software, and a message-passing strategy that depends on serial connections between machines. At the same time, the system has shortcomings and idiosyncrasies that require extensive human intervention. A custom operating system kernel and an obscure programming language exacerbate the problems and should be modernized. A new architecture is presented that addresses these and other issues. Key features of the new architecture include a simplified message passing hierarchy that utilizes a high-speed local area network, redesign of particular processing function algorithms, consolidation of functions, and implementation of the architecture in modern hardware and software using mainstream computer languages and operating systems. The system would also allow incremental hardware improvements as better and faster hardware for such systems becomes available, and costs could potentially be low enough that redundancy would be provided economically. Such a system could support DSN requirements for the foreseeable future, though thorough consideration must be given to hard computational requirements, porting existing software functionality to the new system, and issues of fault tolerance and recovery.

  15. Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) for Circular Habitat Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Alan S.; Haselschwardt, Sally; Bogatko, Alex; Humphrey, Brian; Patel, Amit

    2013-01-01

    On planetary surfaces, pressurized human habitable volumes will require a means to carry equipment around within the volume of the habitat, regardless of the partial gravity (Earth, Moon, Mars, etc.). On the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU), a vertical cylindrical volume, it was determined that a variety of heavy items would need to be carried back and forth from deployed locations to the General Maintenance Work Station (GMWS) when in need of repair, and other equipment may need to be carried inside for repairs, such as rover parts and other external equipment. The vertical cylindrical volume of the HDU lent itself to a circular overhead track and hoist system that allows lifting of heavy objects from anywhere in the habitat to any other point in the habitat interior. In addition, the system is able to hand-off lifted items to other material handling systems through the side hatches, such as through an airlock. The overhead system consists of two concentric circle tracks that have a movable beam between them. The beam has a hoist carriage that can move back and forth on the beam. Therefore, the entire system acts like a bridge crane curved around to meet itself in a circle. The novelty of the system is in its configuration, and how it interfaces with the volume of the HDU habitat. Similar to how a bridge crane allows coverage for an entire rectangular volume, the RIMS system covers a circular volume. The RIMS system is the first generation of what may be applied to future planetary surface vertical cylinder habitats on the Moon or on Mars.

  16. Quinone-induced protein handling changes: Implications for major protein handling systems in quinone-mediated toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David

    2014-10-15

    Para-quinones such as 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and menadione (MD) and ortho-quinones including the oxidation products of catecholamines, are derived from xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules. The effects of quinones on major protein handling systems in cells; the 20/26S proteasome, the ER stress response, autophagy, chaperone proteins and aggresome formation, have not been investigated in a systematic manner. Both BQ and aminochrome (AC) inhibited proteasomal activity and activated the ER stress response and autophagy in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. AC also induced aggresome formation while MD had little effect on any protein handling systems in N27 cells. The effect of NQO1 on quinone induced protein handling changes and toxicity was examined using N27 cells stably transfected with NQO1 to generate an isogenic NQO1-overexpressing line. NQO1 protected against BQ–induced apoptosis but led to a potentiation of AC- and MD-induced apoptosis. Modulation of quinone-induced apoptosis in N27 and NQO1-overexpressing cells correlated only with changes in the ER stress response and not with changes in other protein handling systems. These data suggested that NQO1 modulated the ER stress response to potentiate toxicity of AC and MD, but protected against BQ toxicity. We further demonstrated that NQO1 mediated reduction to unstable hydroquinones and subsequent redox cycling was important for the activation of the ER stress response and toxicity for both AC and MD. In summary, our data demonstrate that quinone-specific changes in protein handling are evident in N27 cells and the induction of the ER stress response is associated with quinone-mediated toxicity. - Highlights: • Unstable hydroquinones contributed to quinone-induced ER stress and toxicity.

  17. System interactions of air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E. )

    1992-06-01

    The impact of system interactions and simultaneous or sequential exposure to various air pollutants, both man-made and natural ones, requires greater concern in the interpretation of the total adverse impact of various air pollutants. It is clear that there are highly significant system interactions with exposure to various air pollutants, and these must be considered very carefully in the evaluation of their adverse health effects.

  18. Integrated robotic vehicle control system for outdoor container handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viitanen, Jouko O.; Haverinen, Janne; Mattila, Pentti; Maekelae, Hannu; von Numers, Thomas; Stanek, Zbigniev; Roening, Juha

    1997-09-01

    We describe an integrated system developed for use onboard a moving work machine. The machine is targeted to such applications as e.g. automatic container handling at loading terminals. The main emphasis is on the various environment perception duties required by autonomous or semi-autonomous operation. These include obstacle detection, container position determination, localization needed for efficient navigation and measurement of docking and grasping locations of containers. Practical experience is reported on the use of several different types of technologies for the tasks. For close distance measurement, such as container row following, ultrasonic measurement was used, with associated control software. For obstacle and docking position detection, 3D active vision techniques were developed with structured lighting, utilizing also motion estimation techniques. Depth from defocus-based methods were developed for passive 3D vision. For localization, fusion of data from several sources was carried out. These included dead-reckoning data from odometry, an inertial unit, and several alternative external localization devices, i.e. real-time kinematic GPS, inductive and optical transponders. The system was integrated to run on a real-time operating system platform, using a high-level software specification tool that created the hierarchical control structure of the software.

  19. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  20. Fundamentals of air quality systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, K.E.

    1999-08-01

    The book uses numerous examples to demonstrate how basic design concepts can be applied to the control of air emissions from industrial sources. It focuses on the design of air pollution control devices for the removal of gases and particles from industrial sources, and provides detailed, specific design methods for each major air pollution control system. Individual chapters provide design methods that include both theory and practice with emphasis on the practical aspect by providing numerous examples that demonstrate how air pollution control devices are designed. Contents include air pollution laws, air pollution control devices; physical properties of air, gas laws, energy concepts, pressure; motion of airborne particles, filter and water drop collection efficiency; fundamentals of particulate emission control; cyclones; fabric filters; wet scrubbers; electrostatic precipitators; control of volatile organic compounds; adsorption; incineration; absorption; control of gaseous emissions from motor vehicles; practice problems (with solutions) for the P.E. examination in environmental engineering. Design applications are featured throughout.

  1. Advanced air revitalization system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Schubert, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    A previously developed experimental air revitalization system was tested cyclically and parametrically. One-button startup without manual interventions; extension by 1350 hours of tests with the system; capability for varying process air carbon dioxide partial pressure and humidity and coolant source for simulation of realistic space vehicle interfaces; dynamic system performance response on the interaction of the electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator, the Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction subsystem, and the static feed water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem, the carbon dioxide concentrator module with unitized core technology for the liquid cooled cell; and a preliminary design for a regenerative air revitalization system for the space station are discussed.

  2. Yeast prions: structure, biology, and prion-handling systems.

    PubMed

    Wickner, Reed B; Shewmaker, Frank P; Bateman, David A; Edskes, Herman K; Gorkovskiy, Anton; Dayani, Yaron; Bezsonov, Evgeny E

    2015-03-01

    A prion is an infectious protein horizontally transmitting a disease or trait without a required nucleic acid. Yeast and fungal prions are nonchromosomal genes composed of protein, generally an altered form of a protein that catalyzes the same alteration of the protein. Yeast prions are thus transmitted both vertically (as genes composed of protein) and horizontally (as infectious proteins, or prions). Formation of amyloids (linear ordered β-sheet-rich protein aggregates with β-strands perpendicular to the long axis of the filament) underlies most yeast and fungal prions, and a single prion protein can have any of several distinct self-propagating amyloid forms with different biological properties (prion variants). Here we review the mechanism of faithful templating of protein conformation, the biological roles of these prions, and their interactions with cellular chaperones, the Btn2 and Cur1 aggregate-handling systems, and other cellular factors governing prion generation and propagation. Human amyloidoses include the PrP-based prion conditions and many other, more common amyloid-based diseases, several of which show prion-like features. Yeast prions increasingly are serving as models for the understanding and treatment of many mammalian amyloidoses. Patients with different clinical pictures of the same amyloidosis may be the equivalent of yeasts with different prion variants.

  3. Yeast Prions: Structure, Biology, and Prion-Handling Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shewmaker, Frank P.; Bateman, David A.; Edskes, Herman K.; Gorkovskiy, Anton; Dayani, Yaron; Bezsonov, Evgeny E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY A prion is an infectious protein horizontally transmitting a disease or trait without a required nucleic acid. Yeast and fungal prions are nonchromosomal genes composed of protein, generally an altered form of a protein that catalyzes the same alteration of the protein. Yeast prions are thus transmitted both vertically (as genes composed of protein) and horizontally (as infectious proteins, or prions). Formation of amyloids (linear ordered β-sheet-rich protein aggregates with β-strands perpendicular to the long axis of the filament) underlies most yeast and fungal prions, and a single prion protein can have any of several distinct self-propagating amyloid forms with different biological properties (prion variants). Here we review the mechanism of faithful templating of protein conformation, the biological roles of these prions, and their interactions with cellular chaperones, the Btn2 and Cur1 aggregate-handling systems, and other cellular factors governing prion generation and propagation. Human amyloidoses include the PrP-based prion conditions and many other, more common amyloid-based diseases, several of which show prion-like features. Yeast prions increasingly are serving as models for the understanding and treatment of many mammalian amyloidoses. Patients with different clinical pictures of the same amyloidosis may be the equivalent of yeasts with different prion variants. PMID:25631286

  4. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  5. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  6. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  7. The sample handling system for the Mars Icebreaker Life mission: from dirt to data.

    PubMed

    Davé, Arwen; Thompson, Sarah J; McKay, Christopher P; Stoker, Carol R; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Mellerowicz, Bolek; Glass, Brian J; Willson, David; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Rask, Jon

    2013-04-01

    The Mars Icebreaker Life mission will search for subsurface life on Mars. It consists of three payload elements: a drill to retrieve soil samples from approximately 1 m below the surface, a robotic sample handling system to deliver the sample from the drill to the instruments, and the instruments themselves. This paper will discuss the robotic sample handling system. Collecting samples from ice-rich soils on Mars in search of life presents two challenges: protection of that icy soil--considered a "special region" with respect to planetary protection--from contamination from Earth, and delivery of the icy, sticky soil to spacecraft instruments. We present a sampling device that meets these challenges. We built a prototype system and tested it at martian pressure, drilling into ice-cemented soil, collecting cuttings, and transferring them to the inlet port of the SOLID2 life-detection instrument. The tests successfully demonstrated that the Icebreaker drill, sample handling system, and life-detection instrument can collectively operate in these conditions and produce science data that can be delivered via telemetry--from dirt to data. Our results also demonstrate the feasibility of using an air gap to prevent forward contamination. We define a set of six analog soils for testing over a range of soil cohesion, from loose sand to basalt soil, with angles of repose of 27° and 39°, respectively. Particle size is a key determinant of jamming of mechanical parts by soil particles. Jamming occurs when the clearance between moving parts is equal in size to the most common particle size or equal to three of these particles together. Three particles acting together tend to form bridges and lead to clogging. Our experiments show that rotary-hammer action of the Icebreaker drill influences the particle size, typically reducing particle size by ≈ 100 μm.

  8. The sample handling system for the Mars Icebreaker Life mission: from dirt to data.

    PubMed

    Davé, Arwen; Thompson, Sarah J; McKay, Christopher P; Stoker, Carol R; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Mellerowicz, Bolek; Glass, Brian J; Willson, David; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Rask, Jon

    2013-04-01

    The Mars Icebreaker Life mission will search for subsurface life on Mars. It consists of three payload elements: a drill to retrieve soil samples from approximately 1 m below the surface, a robotic sample handling system to deliver the sample from the drill to the instruments, and the instruments themselves. This paper will discuss the robotic sample handling system. Collecting samples from ice-rich soils on Mars in search of life presents two challenges: protection of that icy soil--considered a "special region" with respect to planetary protection--from contamination from Earth, and delivery of the icy, sticky soil to spacecraft instruments. We present a sampling device that meets these challenges. We built a prototype system and tested it at martian pressure, drilling into ice-cemented soil, collecting cuttings, and transferring them to the inlet port of the SOLID2 life-detection instrument. The tests successfully demonstrated that the Icebreaker drill, sample handling system, and life-detection instrument can collectively operate in these conditions and produce science data that can be delivered via telemetry--from dirt to data. Our results also demonstrate the feasibility of using an air gap to prevent forward contamination. We define a set of six analog soils for testing over a range of soil cohesion, from loose sand to basalt soil, with angles of repose of 27° and 39°, respectively. Particle size is a key determinant of jamming of mechanical parts by soil particles. Jamming occurs when the clearance between moving parts is equal in size to the most common particle size or equal to three of these particles together. Three particles acting together tend to form bridges and lead to clogging. Our experiments show that rotary-hammer action of the Icebreaker drill influences the particle size, typically reducing particle size by ≈ 100 μm. PMID:23577818

  9. Cold air systems: Sleeping giant

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, C.D. )

    1994-04-01

    This article describes how cold air systems help owners increase the profits from their buildings by reducing electric costs and improving indoor air quality through lower relative humidity levels. Cold air distribution involves energy savings, cost savings, space savings, greater comfort, cleaner air, thermal storage, tighter ducting, coil redesign, lower relative humidities, retrofitting, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). It opens a door for architects, engineers, owners, builders, environmentalists, retrofitters, designers, occupants, and manufacturers. Three things have held up cold air's usage: multiple fan-powered boxes that ate up the energy savings of primary fans. Cold air room diffusers that provided inadequate comfort. Condensation from ducts, boxes, and diffusers. Such problems have been largely eliminated through research and development by utilities and manufacturers. New cold air diffusers no longer need fan powered boxes. It has also been found that condensation is not a concern so long as the ducts are located in air conditioned space, such as drop ceilings or central risers, where relative humidity falls quickly during morning startup.

  10. Sustainable fouling management for spacecraft fluid handling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Evan Alexander Beirne

    Current technologies for microgravity fluid management utilize centripetal acceleration or capillary action to separate liquids from gases without gravity buoyancy. Centripetal acceleration hardware is prone to failure from fouling, while capillary technologies have only been utilized in favorable wetting environments, wherein the contact angle of the liquid, Qadv, a key design parameter, is reliably low. In this work, the impact of wastewater fouling on Qadv, is characterized, and the results applied to the development of a capillary static phase separator. Mean wastewater Qadv, on clean surfaces are between ≈78° and ≈89° on hydrophilic surfaces, and up to over ≈105° on hydrophobic surfaces. Small crystalline growth on the order of 10microm can lower advancing contact angles Qadv, by approximately 30°, while biofilm growth can lower them by approximately 15o. Vacuum drying of fouled surfaces increased Qadv, by about 8°, and defects greater in height than 5% of the capillary length increased Qadv, by approximately 30°. Interestingly, the promotion of wastewater fouling may even improve the performance of capillary dependent fluid management systems, and designs attempting to exploit wastewater wetting must account for highly variable wetting conditions. Reduced gravity flight tests demonstrated a static phase separator that achieved nearly 100% separation of gas from fluids with widely varying Qadv. The system uses centrifugal force to coalesce droplets via a circular path; collects bulk fluid via capillary geometries (wetting) or air drag (non-wetting); and contains bulk fluid by capillary force; while minimizing liquid carryover into the air stream by pinning edges (wetting) or tortuous path (non-wetting). Instead of attempting to prevent or reduce wastewater fouling, sustainable fluid management systems can be designed to accommodate fouling. For example, a lunar outpost water recovery system could be encouraged to foul regolith media and form

  11. Technique for Handling Cover Slips Used in Cell Culture Systems *

    PubMed Central

    Bowne, J. G.; Jochim, Michael M.

    1964-01-01

    A stainless steel, grooved rack was designed to handle large numbers of coverslips used in cell cultures. The rack separated and held the coverslips through the washing process and subsequent manipulations. Slips washed by this method allowed consistently good cell sheets to grow with no signs of cytotoxicity to the cultures. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2. PMID:17649500

  12. The Sample Handling System for the Mars Icebreaker Life Mission: from Dirt to Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dave, Arwen; Thompson, Sarah J.; McKay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Mellerowicz, Bolek; Glass, Brian J.; Wilson, David; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Rask, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The Mars icebreaker life mission will search for subsurface life on mars. It consists of three payload elements: a drill to retrieve soil samples from approx. 1 meter below the surface, a robotic sample handling system to deliver the sample from the drill to the instruments, and the instruments themselves. This paper will discuss the robotic sample handling system.

  13. Air support facilities. [interface between air and surface transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Airports are discussed in terms of the interface between the ground and air for transportation systems. The classification systems, design, facilities, administration, and operations of airports are described.

  14. Handling, genetic and housing effects on the mouse stress system, dopamine function, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Gariépy, Jean-Louis; Rodriguiz, Ramona Marie; Jones, Byron C

    2002-08-01

    This research was designed to examine how early stimulation (i.e., handling), subsequent housing conditions and genetic factors interact to produce adult differences in stress regulation. High-aggressive (NC900) and low-aggressive (NC100) mice were handled for 3 weeks potspartum and were subsequently isolated or grouped until observed as adults in an open field or a dyadic test. In NC100, handling abolished the temporal variations seen in open-field activity among the nonhandled subjects and reduced corticosterone (CORT) activation. In NC900, these two measures were unaffected by handling. Only among handled NC100 did subsequent group rearing further reduce CORT activation. By contrast, handling caused an up-regulation of D1 dopamine receptors in both lines, and, in NC100, this effect was increased by group rearing. In a dyadic encounter with another male mouse, subjects of both lines showed handling effects. NC100 froze less rapidly and NC900 attacked more rapidly. This multifactorial design showed that the systemic effects of handling are modulated by genetic background, and that measures of these effects are affected by experience beyond infancy. Our findings also showed that the effects of handling vary when assessed across different physiological systems and across social and nonsocial testing conditions.

  15. Learning to Design and Analyze Materials Handling Systems: Developing Multimedia Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heragu, Sunderesh; Jennings, Sybillyn

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe aspects related to learning and learning assessment including pedagogy, cognition, pilot study and results from the study. This study is conducted for an educational module on "10 Principles of Materials Handling". This module along with another on "Analysis and Design of Integrated Materials Handling Systems" constitute…

  16. Magnus air turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Thomas F.

    1982-01-01

    A Magnus effect windmill for generating electrical power is disclosed. A large nacelle-hub mounted pivotally (in Azimuth) atop a support tower carries, in the example disclosed, three elongated barrels arranged in a vertical plane and extending symmetrically radially outwardly from the nacelle. The system provides spin energy to the barrels by internal mechanical coupling in the proper sense to cause, in reaction to an incident wind, a rotational torque of a predetermined sense on the hub. The rotating hub carries a set of power take-off rollers which ride on a stationary circular track in the nacelle. Shafts carry the power, given to the rollers by the wind driven hub, to a central collector or accumulator gear assembly whose output is divided to drive the spin mechanism for the Magnus barrels and the main electric generator. A planetary gear assembly is interposed between the collector gears and the spin mechanism functioning as a differential which is also connected to an auxiliary electric motor whereby power to the spin mechanism may selectively be provided by the motor. Generally, the motor provides initial spin to the barrels for start-up after which the motor is braked and the spin mechanism is driven as though by a fixed ratio coupling from the rotor hub. During high wind or other unusual conditions, the auxiliary motor may be unbraked and excess spin power may be used to operate the motor as a generator of additional electrical output. Interposed between the collector gears of the rotating hub and the main electric generator is a novel variable speed drive-fly wheel system which is driven by the variable speed of the wind driven rotor and which, in turn, drives the main electric generator at constant angular speed. Reference is made to the complete specification for disclosure of other novel aspects of the system such as, for example, the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the novel Magnus barrels as well as novel gearing and other power coupling

  17. Is the Air Handling Capability of the Quadrox D Pump Dependent within an ECMO Circuit? An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Martin C.; Dando, Hayden; Dittmer, John

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The occurrence of gaseous microemboli (GME) within the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit is largely overlooked, as are methods to ameliorate this occurrence. We aimed to determine if the air handling capability of the Quadrox D oxygenator was dependent upon whether it was used in conjunction with a centrifugal or roller pump; and if application of a Pall air eliminating filter (AEF) would prevent circuit air introduction from intravenous infusions. Using a blood primed circuit 1 mL of air was infused pre pump. GME were quantified post pump and post oxygenator using the EDAC® Quantifier. Trials were conducted at 1 and 2 L/min flow. To prevent GME recirculation a Capiox SX18 was used in circuit with negative pressure applied to its oxygenator; an EDAC® cuvette distal to this device quantified GME recirculation. Following air infusion, 3–5 minute data recordings were carried out for each trial. Separate trials were carried out for centrifugal and roller pumps, and for each flow rate. The process was then repeated following the application of the AEF to the air infusion line. More GME were detected post Quadrox D when the centrifugal pump was used in comparison to the roller pump at 1 L/min (p ≤ .05), and 2 L/min (p = .05). A greater volume of air was detected post Quadrox D when used in conjunction with the centrifugal device at 1 L/min (p ≤ .05), and 2 L/min (p ≤ .05). Application of the AEF resulted in zero GME detected at any circuit location. The results of this study confirm that a greater total count and volume of GME are detected distal to the Quadrox D when used in conjunction with a Rotaflow centrifugal pump. Application of a Pall AEF to infusion and drug lines can prevent air introduction from this source. PMID:21114223

  18. Is the air handling capability of the quadrox D pump dependent within an ECMO circuit? An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gill, Martin C; Dando, Hayden; John, Dittmer

    2010-09-01

    The occurrence of gaseous microemboli (GME) within the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit is largely overlooked, as are methods to ameliorate this occurrence. We aimed to determine if the air handling capability of the Quadrox D oxygenator was dependent upon whether it was used in conjunction with a centrifugal or roller pump; and if application of a Pall air eliminating filter (AEF) would prevent circuit air introduction from intravenous infusions. Using a blood primed circuit 1 mL of air was infused pre pump. GME were quantified post pump and post oxygenator using the EDAC Quantifier. Trials were conducted at 1 and 2 L/min flow. To prevent GME recirculation a Capiox SX18 was used in circuit with negative pressure applied to its oxygenator; an EDAC cuvette distal to this device quantified GME recirculation. Following air infusion, 3-5 minute data recordings were carried out for each trial. Separate trials were carried out for centrifugal and roller pumps, and for each flow rate. The process was then repeated following the application of the AEF to the air infusion line. More GME were detected post Quadrox D when the centrifugal pump was used in comparison to the roller pump at 1 L/min (p < .05), and 2 L/min (p = .05). A greater volume of air was detected post Quadrox D when used in conjunction with the centrifugal device at 1 L/min (p < or = .05), and 2 L/min (p < or = .05). Application of the AEF resulted in zero GME detected at any circuit location. The results of this study confirm that a greater total count and volume of GME are detected distal to the Quadrox D when used in conjunction with a Rotaflow centrifugal pump. Application of a Pall AEF to infusion and drug lines can prevent air introduction from this source.

  19. Evaluating the Handling Qualities of Flight Control Systems Including Nonlinear Aircraft and System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Raymond Chao

    The handling qualities evaluation of nonlinear aircraft systems is an area of concern in loss-of-control (LOC) prevention. The Get Transfer Function (GetTF) method was demonstrated for evaluating the handling qualities of flight control systems and aircraft containing nonlinearities. NASA's Generic Transport Model (GTM), a nonlinear model of a civilian jet transport aircraft, was evaluated. Using classical techniques, the stability, control, and augmentation (SCAS) systems were designed to control pitch rate, roll rate, and airspeed. Hess's structural pilot model was used to model pilot dynamics in pitch and roll-attitude tracking. The simulated task was simultaneous tracking of, both, pitch and roll attitudes. Eight cases were evaluated: 1) gain increase of pitch-attitude command signal, 2) gain increase of roll-attitude command signal, 3) gain reduction of elevator command signal, 4) backlash in elevator actuator, 5) combination 3 and 4 in elevator actuator, 6) gain reduction of aileron command signal, 7) backlash in aileron actuator, and 8) combination of 6 and 7 in aileron actuator. The GetTF method was used to estimate the transfer function approximating a linear relationship between the proprioceptive signal of the pilot model and the command input. The transfer function was then used to predict the handling qualities ratings (HQR) and pilot-induced oscillation ratings (PIOR). The HQR is based on the Cooper-Harper rating scale. In pitch-attitude tracking, the nominal aircraft is predicted to have Level 2* HQRpitch and 2 < PIORpitch < 4. The GetTF method generally predicted degraded handling qualities for cases with impaired actuators. The results demonstrate GetTF's utility in evaluating the handling qualities during the design phase of flight control and aircraft systems. A limited human-in-the-loop pitch tracking exercise was also conducted to validate the structural pilot model.

  20. High Level Waste Remote Handling Equipment in the Melter Cave Support Handling System at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bardal, M.A.; Darwen, N.J.

    2008-07-01

    Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site. Bechtel National, Inc. is building the largest nuclear Waste Treatment Plant in the world located at the Department of Energy's Hanford site to immobilize the millions of gallons of radioactive waste. The site comprises five main facilities; Pretreatment, High Level Waste vitrification, Low Active Waste vitrification, an Analytical Lab and the Balance of Facilities. The pretreatment facilities will separate the high and low level waste. The high level waste will then proceed to the HLW facility for vitrification. Vitrification is a process of utilizing a melter to mix molten glass with radioactive waste to form a stable product for storage. The melter cave is designated as the High Level Waste Melter Cave Support Handling System (HSH). There are several key processes that occur in the HSH cell that are necessary for vitrification and include: feed preparation, mixing, pouring, cooling and all maintenance and repair of the process equipment. Due to the cell's high level radiation, remote handling equipment provided by PaR Systems, Inc. is required to install and remove all equipment in the HSH cell. The remote handling crane is composed of a bridge and trolley. The trolley supports a telescoping tube set that rigidly deploys a TR 4350 manipulator arm with seven degrees of freedom. A rotating, extending, and retracting slewing hoist is mounted to the bottom of the trolley and is centered about the telescoping tube set. Both the manipulator and slewer are unique to this cell. The slewer can reach into corners and the manipulator's cross pivoting wrist provides better operational dexterity and camera viewing angles at the end of the arm. Since the crane functions will be operated remotely, the entire cell and crane have been modeled with 3-D software. Model simulations have been used to confirm operational and maintenance

  1. Welding Robot and Remote Handling System for the Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, M.E.; Holt, T.E.; LaValle, D.R.; Pace, D.P.; Croft, K.M.; Shelton-Davis, C.V.

    2008-07-01

    In preparation for the license application and construction of a repository for housing the nation's spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste in Yucca Mountain, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been charged with preparing a mock-up of a full-scale prototype system for sealing the waste packages (WP). Three critical pieces of the closure room include two PaR Systems TR4350 Telerobotic Manipulators and a PaR Systems XR100 Remote Handling System (RHS). The TR4350 Manipulators are 6-axis programmable robots that will be used to weld the WP lids and purge port cap as well as conduct nondestructive examinations. The XR100 Remote Handling System is a 4-axis programmable robot that will be used to transport the WP lids and process tools to the WP for operations and remove equipment for maintenance. The welding and RHS robots will be controlled using separate PaR 5/21 CIMROC Controllers capable of complex motion control tasks. A tele-operated PaR 4350 Manipulator will also be provided with the XR100 Remote Handling System. It will be used for maintenance and associated activities within the closure room. (authors)

  2. Effects of neonatal handling on the basal forebrain cholinergic system of adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Pondiki, S; Stamatakis, A; Fragkouli, A; Philippidis, H; Stylianopoulou, F

    2006-10-13

    Neonatal handling is an early experience which results in improved function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, increased adaptability and coping as a response to stress, as well as better cognitive abilities. In the present study, we investigated the effect of neonatal handling on the basal forebrain cholinergic system, since this system is known to play an important role in cognitive processes. We report that neonatal handling results in increased number of choline-acetyl transferase immunopositive cells in the septum/diagonal band, in both sexes, while no such effect was observed in the other cholinergic nuclei, such as the magnocellular preoptic nucleus and the nucleus basalis of Meynert. In addition, neonatal handling resulted in increased M1 and M2 muscarinic receptor binding sites in the cingulate and piriform cortex of both male and female rats. A handling-induced increase in M1 muscarinic receptor binding sites was also observed in the CA3 and CA4 (fields 3 and 4 of Ammon's horn) areas of the hippocampus. Furthermore, a handling-induced increase in acetylcholinesterase staining was found only in the hippocampus of females. Our results thus show that neonatal handling acts in a sexually dimorphic manner on one of the cholinergic parameters, and has a beneficial effect on BFCS function, which could be related to the more efficient and adaptive stress response and the superior cognitive abilities of handled animals.

  3. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II

    1998-12-31

    By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

  4. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  5. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  6. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  7. Message handling system concepts and services in a land mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barberis, S.; Settimo, F.; Giralda, A.; Mistretta, I.; Loisy, C.; Parmentier, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    A network architecture containing the capabilities offered by the Message Handling System (MHS) to the PRODAT Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) is described taking into account the constraints of a preexisting satellite system which is going to become operational. The mapping between MHS services and PRODAT requirements is also reported and shows that the supplied performance can be significantly enhanced to both fixed and mobile users. The impact of the insertion of additional features on the system structure, especially on the centralized control unit, are also addressed.

  8. Atmospheric Pressure Corrections in Geodesy and Oceanography: a Strategy for Handling Air Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponte, Rui M.; Ray, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    Global pressure data are often needed for processing or interpreting modern geodetic and oceanographic measurements. The most common source of these data is the analysis or reanalysis products of various meteorological centers. Tidal signals in these products can be problematic for several reasons, including potentially aliased sampling of the semidiurnal solar tide as well as the presence of various modeling or timing errors. Building on the work of Van den Dool and colleagues, we lay out a strategy for handling atmospheric tides in (re)analysis data. The procedure also offers a method to account for ocean loading corrections in satellite altimeter data that are consistent with standard ocean-tide corrections. The proposed strategy has immediate application to the on-going Jason-1 and GRACE satellite missions.

  9. Air control system providing healthful enclosed environment

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.A.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes an environmentally controlled building. It comprises an outer wall defining an outer building perimeter and having at least one fenestration therethrough for passage of personnel; a roof supported by and cooperating with the outer wall to define a building exterior and interior; and an environmental control system for controlling the environment within the building interior, the environmental control system including a heating and air conditioning unit, having an air inlet, for controlling the temperature of air drawing into the air control system; a humidity control unit, having an inlet connected to the heating and air conditioning unit, for controlling the humidity of air within the air control system; an air blower for forcing air from the environmental control system into the building interior; and an air filtering system having an inlet connected to the humidity control unit and an outlet connected to the blower.

  10. Air Sampling System Evaluation Template

    2000-05-09

    The ASSET1.0 software provides a template with which a user can evaluate an Air Sampling System against the latest version of ANSI N13.1 "Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities". The software uses the ANSI N13.1 PIC levels to establish basic design criteria for the existing or proposed sampling system. The software looks at such criteria as PIC level, type of radionuclide emissions, physical state ofmore » the radionuclide, nozzle entrance effects, particulate transmission effects, system and component accuracy and precision evaluations, and basic system operations to provide a detailed look at the subsystems of a monitoring and sampling system/program. A GAP evaluation can then be completed which leads to identification of design and operational flaws in the proposed systems. Corrective measures can then be limited to the GAPs.« less

  11. Combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wijmans, J.G.; Baker, R.W.; Kamaruddin, H.D.; Kaschemekat, J.; Olsen, R.P.; Rose, M.E.; Segelke, S.V.

    1992-11-01

    Air stripping is an economical and efficient method of removing dissolved volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. Air strippers, however, produce a vent air stream, which must meet the local air quality limits. If the VOC content exceeds the limits, direct discharge is not possible; therefore, a carbon adsorption VOC capture system is used to treat the vent air. This treatment step adds a cost of at least $50/lb of VOC captured. In this program, a combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation system was constructed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The membrane system captures VOCs from the stripper vent stream at a projected cost of $15/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 5 ppmw, and $75/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 1 ppmw. The VOCs are recovered as a small, concentrated liquid fraction for disposal or solvent recycling. The concept has been demonstrated in experiments with a system capable of handling up to 150,000 gpd of water. The existing demonstration system is available for field tests at a DOE facility or remediation site. Replacement of the current short air stripping tower (effective height 3 m) with a taller tower is recommended to improve VOC removal.

  12. A Few Comments on Visual Systems of Ship Handling Simulator for Sea Pilot's Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Koji; Okazaki, Tadatsugi; Hayashi, Yuji

    We are using a ship handling simulator for sea pilot's training; however, in case of entering a port, it is not enough for a visual image around own ship. The general ship handling simulator does not have the visual image (screen) around own ship. We challenge to clear the effect of a visual system around own ship for entering a port. The training for entering a port is one of important training factor for a sea pilot. This paper describes characteristics of captain's visual observation area and the mental workload for ship handling when entering a port. The visual observation area comes from eye movement and the mental workload comes from heart rate variability (R-R interval), nasal temperature. The results show that the visual system around own ship gives their safe ship handling for entering a port based on eye movement.

  13. Handling of liquid holdup in Duyong two-phase flow pipeline system

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, M.R.; Singh, B. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with the handling of liquids in the multi-phase flow pipeline system within Carigali's Duyong Offshore Gas Complex and the Onshore Gas Terminal, in Kerteh, Terongganu. The data and operations experience gathered necessitate changes to the operating procedures originally identified during the design phase. This is to ensure more efficient handling of liquid hold-up in the pipeline during low gas flowrates.

  14. Safety assessment of a robotic system handling nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, C.B.; Robinson, D.G.

    1996-02-01

    This paper outlines the use of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, The Weigh and Leak Check System, is to replace a manual process at the Department of Energy facility at Pantex by which nuclear material is inspected for weight and leakage. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the system had been meet. These analyses showed that the risks to people and the internal and external environment were acceptable.

  15. Healthcare complaints handling systems: a comparison between Britain, Australia and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Sophie Yahui

    2011-05-01

    This paper explores the health care complaints handling reforms enacted in Britain, Australia and Taiwan. A documentary search for policy documents, reports and studies related to the reforms of the health care complaints handling system was conducted. A keyword search was performed within PubMed and ProQuest for the period 1985-2009 to identify relevant articles. The study found that the major difference in health care complaints handling systems between countries, is the mechanism for running a complaints system. Both Britain and Australia have attempted to incorporate patient complaints into their national quality systems. Their intention was to set up mechanisms to create an effective bridge, at a national policy level, between the patient complaints management system and the quality management system.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A TAMPER RESISTANT/INDICATING AEROSOL COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AT BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.

    2012-06-06

    Environmental sampling has become a key component of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards approaches since its approval for use in 1996. Environmental sampling supports the IAEA's mission of drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear material or nuclear activities in a Nation State. Swipe sampling is the most commonly used method for the collection of environmental samples from bulk handling facilities. However, augmenting swipe samples with an air monitoring system, which could continuously draw samples from the environment of bulk handling facilities, could improve the possibility of the detection of undeclared activities. Continuous sampling offers the opportunity to collect airborne materials before they settle onto surfaces which can be decontaminated, taken into existing duct work, filtered by plant ventilation, or escape via alternate pathways (i.e. drains, doors). Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been working to further develop an aerosol collection technology that could be installed at IAEA safeguarded bulk handling facilities. The addition of this technology may reduce the number of IAEA inspector visits required to effectively collect samples. The principal sample collection device is a patented Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) which utilizes electrostatic precipitation principles to deposit particulates onto selected substrates. Recent work has focused on comparing traditional swipe sampling to samples collected via an ACE system, and incorporating tamper resistant and tamper indicating (TRI) technologies into the ACE system. Development of a TRI-ACE system would allow collection of samples at uranium/plutonium bulk handling facilities in a manner that ensures sample integrity and could be an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. This work was supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Office

  17. Concept Design of the Payload Handling Manipulator System. [space shuttle orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The design, requirements, and interface definition of a remote manipulator system developed to handle orbiter payloads are presented. End effector design, control system concepts, and man-machine engineering are considered along with crew station requirements and closed circuit television system performance requirements.

  18. A distributed microprocessor system for spacecraft control and data handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennels, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    The specific requirements for spacecraft computing systems are considered. These requirements are partly related to the constraints of limited resources of power, weight, and volume. Another important factor is the requirement of extremely high reliability. These reliability requirements have led to introduction of automated redundancy techniques on board the spacecraft. The various redundant computers check each other and provide recovery procedures when a computer is found to have failed. Past and future capabilities are considered along with distributed processing requirements. System considerations are discussed, taking into account suboptimum computer throughput, sensitivity to software modifications, hierarchic timing, I/O granularity, restricted communications, synchronous functions, hierarchic control, and concurrent error detection. A description is presented of the Unified Data System (UDS), which consists of a set of standard microcomputers connected by several buses. Attention is also given to synchronization and timing, the executive control structure, the programming language, and the executive program.

  19. Gas handling systems using titanium-sponge and uranium bulk getters

    SciTech Connect

    Kherani, N.P.; Shmayda, W.T.

    1985-09-01

    A protium gas handling system using titanium and uranium bulk getters was designed, constructed and tested. Numerous process operations were carried out on this system to aid in the design of a tritium gas handling system four times the experimental scale. Experimental results have shown that high percentages of tritium on long-term titanium storage beds can be recovered in a relatively short period of time and be transferred to uranium bed(s) in direct (pump-less) and pump-aided transfers. An optimum storage time after which the rate of interstitial /sup 3/He evolution would be prohibitive to conduct direct tritium transfers is estimated.

  20. A case study for the handling of data in a skimming control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevanato, Elisa; Stroili, Roberto

    2009-07-01

    This work focuses on the architectural, methodological and technological aspect of handling huge amounts of data. In this summary we particularly focus our attention on the description of a special system built to support large scale data access. The work comes from the need to develop a special purpose skimming control system; this system has been designed as a collaboration between the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC, USA), and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN, National Istitute of Nuclear Physic, Padua, Italy). The goal was to provide the handle of more than 10 7 files, representing Physics data collected by the BaBar experiment.

  1. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  2. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  3. Mercury Handling for the Target System for a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Van B; Mcdonald, K; Kirk, H.; Weggel, Robert; Souchlas, Nicholas; Sayed, H; Ding, X

    2012-01-01

    The baseline target concept for a Muon Collider or Neutrino Factory is a free-stream mercury jet being impacted by an 8-GeV proton beam. The target is located within a 20-T magnetic field, which captures the generated pions that are conducted to a downstream decay channel. Both the mercury and the proton beam are introduced at slight downward angles to the magnetic axis. A pool of mercury serves as a receiving reservoir for the mercury and a dump for the unexpended proton beam. The impact energy of the remaining beam and jet are substantial, and it is required that splashes and waves be controlled in order to minimize the potential for interference of pion production at the target. Design issues discussed in this paper include the nozzle, splash mitigation in the mercury pool, the mercury containment vessel, and the mercury recirculation system.

  4. 76 FR 63714 - Big Spring Rail System, Inc.;Operation Exemption;Transport Handling Specialists, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board Big Spring Rail System, Inc.;Operation Exemption;Transport Handling Specialists, Inc. Big Spring Rail System, Inc. (BSRS), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption....07 in Howard County, Tex., owned by the City of Big Spring, Tex. (City). BSRS will be operating...

  5. Query-handling in MLM-based decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Arkad, K; Gao, X M; Ahlfeldt, H

    1995-01-01

    Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Modules is a standard specification for creation and sharing of knowledge bases. The standard specification focuses on knowledge that can be represented as a set of independent Medical Logic Modules (MLMs) such as rules, formulas and protocols. The basic functions of an MLM are to retrieve patient data, manipulate the data, come to some decision, and possibly perform an action. All connections to the world outside an MLM are collected in the data-slot of the MLM. The institution specific parts of these connections are inside the notation of curly brackets ([]) to facilitate sharing of MLM between institutions. This paper focuses on some of the problems that occur in relation to Arden Syntax and connections to a patient database such as database queries. Problems related to possibilities of moving one or several module(s) are also discussed, with emphasis on database connections. As an example, an MLM based Decision Support System (DSS) developed at Linköping University is described. PMID:8882561

  6. Air Force Training for Instructional Systems Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Ronald R.

    Detailed information is provided about the Air Force Instructional System Development (ISD) Model to supplement the 1979 AECT presentation made in New Orleans. Information of interest to instructional systems designers includes (1) a short overview of the Air Force ISD model, (2) an extended example which demonstrates the Air Training Command…

  7. ATHLETE: A Cargo-Handling Vehicle for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. Each vehicle is based on six wheels at the ends of six multi-degree-of-freedom limbs. Because each limb has enough degrees of freedom for use as a general-purpose leg, the wheels can be locked and used as feet to walk out of excessively soft or other extreme terrain. Since the vehicle has this alternative mode of traversing through or at least out of extreme terrain, the wheels and wheel actuators can be sized for nominal terrain. There are substantial mass savings in the wheel and wheel actuators associated with designing for nominal instead of extreme terrain. These mass savings are comparable-to or larger-than the extra mass associated with the articulated limbs. As a result, the entire mobility system, including wheels and limbs, can be about 25% lighter than a conventional mobility chassis. A side benefit of this approach is that each limb has sufficient degrees-of-freedom to use as a general-purpose manipulator (hence the name "limb" instead of "leg"). Our prototype ATHLETE vehicles have quick-disconnect tool adapters on the limbs that allow tools to be drawn out of a "tool belt" and maneuvered by the limb. A power-take-off from the wheel actuates the tools, so that they can take advantage of the 1+ horsepower motor in each wheel to enable drilling, gripping or other power-tool functions. Architectural studies have indicated that one useful role for ATHLETE in planetary (moon or Mars) exploration is to "walk" cargo off the payload deck of a lander and transport it across the surface. Recent architectural approaches are focused on the concept that the lander descent stage will use liquid hydrogen as a propellant. This is the highest performance chemical fuel, but it requires very large tanks. A natural geometry for the lander is to have a single throttleable rocket engine on

  8. Advanced remote handling for future applications: The advanced integrated maintenance system

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Kring, C.T.; Rowe, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing advanced techniques for remote maintenance of future US fuel reprocessing plants. The developed technology has a wide spectrum of application for other hazardous environments. These efforts are based on the application of teleoperated, force-reflecting servomanipulators for dexterous remote handling with television viewing for large-volume hazardous applications. These developments fully address the nonrepetitive nature of remote maintenance in the unstructured environments encountered in fuel reprocessing. This paper covers the primary emphasis in the present program; the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a prototype remote handling system for reprocessing applications, the Advanced Integrated Maintenance System.

  9. The activation sequence of cellular protein handling systems after proteasomal inhibition in dopaminergic cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunction of protein handling has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases and inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been linked to the formation of protein aggregates and proteinopathies in such diseases. While proteasomal inhibition could trigger an array of downstream protein handling changes including up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs), induction of molecular chaperones, activation of the ER stress/unfolded protein response (UPR), autophagy and aggresome formation, little is known of the relationship of proteasomal inhibition to the sequence of activation of these diverse protein handling systems. In this study we utilized the reversible proteasome inhibitor MG132 and examined the activity of several major protein handling systems in the immortalized dopaminergic neuronal N27 cell line. In the early phase (up to 6 hours after proteasomal inhibition), MG132 induced time-dependent proteasomal inhibition which resulted in stimulation of the UPR, increased autophagic flux and stimulated heat shock protein response as determined by increased levels of phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)/GADD153, turnover of autophagy related microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and increased levels of Hsp70 respectively. After prolonged proteasomal inhibition induced by MG132, we observed the formation of vimentin-caged aggresome-like inclusion bodies. A recovery study after MG132-induced proteasomal inhibition indicated that the autophagy-lysosomal pathway participated in the clearance of aggresomes. Our data characterizes the relationship between proteasome inhibition and activation of other protein handling systems. These data also indicated that the induction of alternate protein handling systems and their temporal relationships may be important factors that determine the extent of accumulation of misfolded proteins in cells as a result of

  10. Remote Handled Transuranic Sludge Retrieval Transfer And Storage System At Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Rick E.; Frederickson, James R.; Criddle, James; Hamilton, Dennis; Johnson, Mike W.

    2012-10-18

    This paper describes the systems developed for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU). An experienced, integrated CH2M HILL/AFS team was formed to design and build systems to retrieve, interim store, and treat for disposal the K West Basin sludge, namely the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). A system has been designed and is being constructed for retrieval and interim storage, namely the Engineered Container Retrieval, Transfer and Storage System (ECRTS).

  11. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  12. An integrated regenerative air revitalization system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, G. P.; Heppner, D. B.; Schubert, F. H.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1982-01-01

    Progress towards development of an air revitalization system (ARS) for spacecraft breathable atmosphere regeneration is assessed, and a preliminary design for a one-person ARS is described. The ARS is considered a necessary component of any permanently manned orbital station, and studies have demonstrated that penalties for expendable air supplies justify an ARS for missions longer than 40 days. CO2 must be removed and O2 returned along with N2, which can be extracted from hydrazine, with the H2 component returning to the operation of the CO2 reduction subsystem. An experimental ARS (ARX-1) features a cabin humidity control unit, a CO2 concentrator, an air-cooled CO2 reduction reactor, an oxygen generator (electrolysis), the hydrazine N2 generator, and a water handling unit. A 120-day test demonstrated one-button startup and 480 hr operation in a normal mode.

  13. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    PubMed

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  14. Conceptual design of the data handling system for the European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolli, Ilaria; Cauzzi, Gianna; Collados, Manuel; Paletou, Frederic; Reardon, Kevin; Aboudarham, Jean; Cirami, Roberto; Cosentino, Rosario; Del Moro, Dario; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Giorgi, Fabrizio; Lafon, Martine; Pietropaolo, Ermanno; Romano, Paolo

    2012-09-01

    We present an overview of the conceptual design of the data handling unit of the ECS, the Control System for the European Solar Telescope (EST). We will focus on describing the critical requirements for this unit resulting from the overall design of the telescope, together with its architecture and the results of the feasibility analysis carried out to date.

  15. Application of advanced remote systems technology to future waste handling facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kring, C.T.; Meacham, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been advancing the technology of remote handling and remote maintenance for in-cell systems planned for future nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Much of the experience and technology developed over the past decade in this endeavor is directly applicable to the proposed in-cell systems being considered for the facilities of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). The application of teleoperated, force-reflecting servomanipulators with television viewing could be a major step forward in waste handling facility design. Primary emphasis in the current program is the operation of a prototype remote handling and maintenance system, the advanced servomanipulator (ASM), which specifically addresses the requirements of fuel reprocessing and waste handling with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. Concurrent with the evolution of dexterous manipulators, concepts have also been developed that provide guidance for standardization of the design of the remotely operated and maintained equipment, the interface between the maintenance tools and the equipment, and the interface between the in-cell components and the facility.

  16. Elimination of ``memory`` from sample handling and inlet system of a mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Chastgner, P.

    1991-05-08

    This paper describes a method for preparing the sample handling and inlet system of a mass spectrometer for analysis of a subsequent sample following analysis of a previous sample comprising the flushing of the system interior with supercritical CO{sub 2} and venting the interior. The method eliminates the effect of system ``memory`` on the subsequent analysis, especially following persistent samples such as xenon and krypton.

  17. Payload/orbiter signal-processing and data-handling system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teasdale, W. E.; Polydoros, A.

    1980-01-01

    Incompatibilities between orbiter subsystems and payload communication systems to assure that acceptable and to end system performamce will be achieved are identified. The potential incompatabilities are associated with either payloads in the cargo bay or detached payloads communicating with the orbiter via an RF link. The payload signal processing and data handling systems are assessed by investigating interface problems experienced between the inertial upper stage and the orbiter since similar problems are expected for other payloads.

  18. Initial Investigation of Reaction Control System Design on Spacecraft Handling Qualities for Earth Orbit Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Ragsdale, W. Al; Neuhaus, Jason; Barnes, Jim

    2008-01-01

    A program of research, development, test, and evaluation is planned for the development of Spacecraft Handling Qualities guidelines. In this first experiment, the effects of Reaction Control System design characteristics and rotational control laws were evaluated during simulated proximity operations and docking. Also, the influence of piloting demands resulting from varying closure rates was assessed. The pilot-in-the-loop simulation results showed that significantly different spacecraft handling qualities result from the design of the Reaction Control System. In particular, cross-coupling between translational and rotational motions significantly affected handling qualities as reflected by Cooper-Harper pilot ratings and pilot workload, as reflected by Task-Load Index ratings. This influence is masked but only slightly by the rotational control system mode. While rotational control augmentation using Rate Command Attitude Hold can reduce the workload (principally, physical workload) created by cross-coupling, the handling qualities are not significantly improved. The attitude and rate deadbands of the RCAH introduced significant mental workload and control compensation to evaluate when deadband firings would occur, assess their impact on docking performance, and apply control inputs to mitigate that impact.

  19. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction for (NOC) Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling

    SciTech Connect

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-03-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A,'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 IO) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. An operations support trailer will be installed in the proximity of the 2736-ZB Building. A new

  20. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction (NOC) for Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling

    SciTech Connect

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-05-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants''. The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. A new exhaust stack will be built and operated at the 2736-ZB Building to handle the effluents associated with the operation of the stabilization and repackaging process

  1. TITLE III EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE MATERIAL AND PERSONNEL HANDLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Misiak

    1998-05-21

    This Title III Evaluation Report (TER) provides the results of an evaluation that was conducted on the Material and Personnel Handling System. This TER has been written in accordance with the ''Technical Document Preparation Plan for the Mined Geologic Disposal System Title III Evaluation Reports'' (BA0000000-01717-4600-00005 REV 03). The objective of this evaluation is to provide recommendations to ensure consistency between the technical baseline requirements, baseline design, and the as-constructed Material and Personnel Handling System. Recommendations for resolving discrepancies between the as-constructed system, the technical baseline requirements, and the baseline design are included in this report. Cost and Schedule estimates are provided for all recommended modifications.

  2. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE-GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site-generated radiological waste handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  4. Robust telerobotics - an integrated system for waste handling, characterization and sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, S.A.; Hurd, R.L.; Wilhelmsen, K.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was designed to serve as a national testbed to demonstrate integrated technologies for the treatment of low-level organic mixed waste at a pilot-plant scale. Pilot-scale demonstration serves to bridge the gap between mature, bench-scale proven technologies and full-scale treatment facilities by providing the infrastructure needed to evaluate technologies in an integrated, front-end to back-end facility. Consistent with the intent to focus on technologies that are ready for pilot scale deployment, the front-end handling and feed preparation of incoming waste material has been designed to demonstrate the application of emerging robotic and remotely operated handling systems. The selection of telerobotics for remote handling in MWMF was made based on a number of factors - personnel protection, waste generation, maturity, cost, flexibility and extendibility. Telerobotics, or shared control of a manipulator by an operator and a computer, provides the flexibility needed to vary the amount of automation or operator intervention according to task complexity. As part of the telerobotics design effort, the technical risk of deploying the technology was reduced through focused developments and demonstrations. The work involved integrating key tools (1) to make a robust telerobotic system that operates at speeds and reliability levels acceptable to waste handling operators and, (2) to demonstrate an efficient operator interface that minimizes the amount of special training and skills needed by the operator. This paper describes the design and operation of the prototype telerobotic waste handling and sorting system that was developed for MWMF.

  5. Air ion exposure system for plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    A system was developed for subjecting plants to elevated air ion levels. This system consisted of a rectangular Plexiglas chamber lined with a Faraday cage. Air ions were generated by corona discharge from frayed stainless steel fibers placed at one end of the chamber. This source was capable of producing varying levels of either positive or negative air ions. During plant exposures, environmental conditions were controlled by operating the unit in a growth chamber.

  6. Nonlinear programming in design of control systems with specified handling qualities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schy, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    A method is described for using nonlinear programing in the computer-aided design of aircraft control systems. It is assumed that the quality of such systems depends on many criteria. These criteria are included in the constraints vector, and the design proceeds through a sequence of nonlinear programing solutions in which the designer varies the specification of sets of requirements levels. The method is applied to design of a lateral stability augmentation system (SAS) for a fighter aircraft, in which the requirements vector is chosen from the official handling-qualities specifications. Results are shown for several simple SAS configurations designed to obtain desirable handling qualities over all design flight conditions with minimum feedback gains.

  7. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    SciTech Connect

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  8. Technology gap analysis on sodium-cooled reactor fuel handling system supporting advanced burner reactor development.

    SciTech Connect

    Chikazawa, Y.; Farmer, M.; Grandy, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-01

    The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand in an environmentally sustainable manner, to address nuclear waste management issues without making separated plutonium, and to address nonproliferation concerns. The advanced burner reactor (ABR) is a fast reactor concept which supports the GNEP fuel cycle system. Since the integral fast reactor (IFR) and advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) projects were terminated in 1994, there has been no major development on sodium-cooled fast reactors in the United States. Therefore, in support of the GNEP fast reactor program, the history of sodium-cooled reactor development was reviewed to support the initiation of this technology within the United States and to gain an understanding of the technology gaps that may still remain for sodium fast reactor technology. The fuel-handling system is a key element of any fast reactor design. The major functions of this system are to receive, test, store, and then load fresh fuel into the core; unload from the core; then clean, test, store, and ship spent fuel. Major requirements are that the system must be reliable and relatively easy to maintain. In addition, the system should be designed so that it does not adversely impact plant economics from the viewpoints of capital investment or plant operations. In this gap analysis, information on fuel-handling operating experiences in the following reactor plants was carefully reviewed: EBR-I, SRE, HNPF, Fermi, SEFOR, FFTF, CRBR, EBR-II, DFR, PFR, Rapsodie, Phenix, Superphenix, KNK, SNR-300, Joyo, and Monju. The results of this evaluation indicate that a standardized fuel-handling system for a commercial fast reactor is yet to be established. However, in the past sodium-cooled reactor plants, most major fuel-handling components-such as the rotatable plug, in-vessel fuel-handling machine, ex-vessel fuel transportation cask, ex-vessel sodium-cooled storage

  9. Waste fuel handling system design: How to avoid or solve flow problems

    SciTech Connect

    Purutyan, H.; Pittenger, B.H.; Stuart-Dick, D.

    1994-12-31

    The number of power plants utilizing waste products as fuel has increased due to a number of factors. First, growing environmental concerns have provided a thrust for utilizing waste products, such as culm, gob, bio-mass, chopped tires, etc., rather than stockpiling them. At the same time, advances in combustion technology, i.e., high efficiencies and cleaner combustion have made energy extraction economically viable. A second driving economic factor has been incentives for co-generation plants provided by the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. In plants and processes involving solids handling, the proper operation of the solids handling systems is often one of the most crucial elements in preventing plant startup delays, reduced plant efficiency, and equipment downtime. The Rand Corporation conducted a six-year study of 40 solids processing plants in the U.S. and Canada. Their findings reveal that 80% of these plants experience solids handling problems. This study also found that these plants were slow in coming up-to-speed, with an average startup time for some types of plants approaching 18 months. Once startup begins, poor performance continues to plague these operations with performance between 40% and 50% of design. While the focus of this survey was not exclusively power plants, parallels can easily be drawn to waste-to-energy plants since the fuel is inherently variable and often difficult to handle. Problems with material handling systems can translate into big losses as heavy penalties may be imposed for startup delays and for not meeting on-line requirements.

  10. Solar Hot-Air System --Memphis, Tennessee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar collectors using air as collection medium provide space heating for four-building office complex in Memphis. 98 page report furnishes details on installation, including: description of system; system startup and acceptance-test results; technical data on collector; installation manuals for collectors, air handler and heat-storage unit.

  11. Effects of repeated handling and air exposure on the immune response and the disease resistance of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) over winter.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingyuan; Wang, Cuicui; Tu, Yongqin; Hu, Huihua; Han, Dong; Zhu, Xiaoming; Jin, Junyan; Yang, Yunxia; Xie, Shouqi

    2015-12-01

    High mortalities and suppressed immune functions of farmed fish over winter are the universal problems in aquaculture. It is necessary to improve the immune response and disease resistance in the overwintering fish. A recent study suggested that repeated handling increased innate immune mechanisms and disease resistance in Senegalese sole. Therefore, the present study evaluated the hypothesis that appropriate repeated handling could compromise the immune depression and increase the disease resistance in gibel carp over winter. The experiment was executed in field net cages (2 m × 2 m × 2 m) from Dec. 4, 2012 to Apr. 2, 2013. Three cages with 50 fish per cage were randomly designed as the control group and did not receive any interfere over winter. The other three cages received repeated handling with an air exposure for 5 min every week during the experiment. Fish were not fed over winter. At the end of the trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a dose of 1.5 × 10(8) CFU ml(-1). The results showed that no significant difference of final body weight was found between groups. The spleen and kidney somatic index increased in the control fish after bacterial challenge and showed a rising trend but not a statistical change in repeated handled fish. Plasma cortisol levels significantly increased in the control fish at 6 h post bacterial challenge and then declined. However, repeated handled fish did not show any significant change in plasma cortisol levels after challenge. The reduced inducement of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expressions by repeated handling was found in gibel carp post bacterial challenge. After overwintering, the repeated handled fish exhibited increased catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Enhanced plasma CAT activities and reduced plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were found in repeated handled fish over time against invading bacteria. Up-regulation of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88

  12. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); Acott, Phillip E. (Inventor); Spaeth, Lisa G. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air includes at least one, and in some embodiments three, transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. The transceivers are scanned or aligned along several different axes. Each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines air temperatures, wind speeds, and wind directions based on the scattered laser radiation. Applications of the system to wind power site evaluation, wind turbine control, traffic safety, general meteorological monitoring and airport safety are presented.

  13. Integration of image analysis and robotics into a fully automated colony picking and plate handling system.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, P; Watson, A; Davies, M; Stubbings, S

    1992-01-01

    We describe here the integration of image analysis and robotics to produce a fully automated colony picking/plate handling system. Biological tests were performed to verify its performance in terms of sterilisation and accuracy of picking. The machine was then used by a single operative to pick a 36,000 clone cDNA library in approximately 42 hrs over 5 days. Images PMID:1408762

  14. Method for predicting pump-induced acoustic pressures in fluid-handling systems. [ACSTIC code

    SciTech Connect

    Schwirian, R.E.; Shockling, L.A.; Singleton, N.R.; Riddell, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for predicting the amplitudes of pump-induced acoustic pressures in fluid-handling systems using a node-flow path discretization methodology and a harmonic analysis algorithm. A computer model of a Westinghouse test loop using the volumetric forcing function model of the pump is presented. Comparisons of measured pressure amplitude profiles in the loop with model prediction are shown to be in good agreement for both the first and second pump blade-passing frequencies. 10 refs.

  15. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOEpatents

    Atabay, Keramettin

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  16. Spent nuclear fuel retrieval system fuel handling development testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.R.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1997-09-01

    Fuel handling development testing was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project, a subtask of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The FRS will be used to retrieve and repackage K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) currently stored in old K-Plant storage basins. The FRS is required to retrieve full fuel canisters from the basin, clean the fuel elements inside the canister to remove excessive uranium corrosion products (or sludge), remove the contents from the canisters and sort the resulting debris, scrap, and fuel for repackaging. The fuel elements and scrap will be collected in fuel storage and scrap baskets in preparation for loading into a multi canister overpack (MCO), while the debris is loaded into a debris bin and disposed of as solid waste. This report describes fuel handling development testing performed from May 1, 1997 through the end of August 1997. Testing during this period was mainly focused on performance of a Schilling Robotic Systems` Conan manipulator used to simulate a custom designed version, labeled Konan, being fabricated for K-Basin deployment. In addition to the manipulator, the camera viewing system, process table layout, and fuel handling processes were evaluated. The Conan test manipulator was installed and fully functional for testing in early 1997. Formal testing began May 1. The purposes of fuel handling development testing were to provide proof of concept and criteria, optimize equipment layout, initialize the process definition, and identify special needs/tools and required design changes to support development of the performance specification. The test program was set up to accomplish these objectives through cold (non-radiological) development testing using simulated and prototype equipment.

  17. Interim report spent nuclear fuel retrieval system fuel handling development testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ketner, G.L.; Meeuwsen, P.V.; Potter, J.D.; Smalley, J.T.; Baker, C.P.; Jaquish, W.R.

    1997-06-01

    Fuel handling development testing was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project at the Hanford Site. The project will retrieve spent nuclear fuel, clean and remove fuel from canisters, repackage fuel into baskets, and load fuel into a multi-canister overpack (MCO) for vacuum drying and interim dry storage. The FRS is required to retrieve basin fuel canisters, clean fuel elements sufficiently of uranium corrosion products (or sludge), empty fuel from canisters, sort debris and scrap from whole elements, and repackage fuel in baskets in preparation for MCO loading. The purpose of fuel handling development testing was to examine the systems ability to accomplish mission activities, optimization of equipment layouts for initial process definition, identification of special needs/tools, verification of required design changes to support performance specification development, and validation of estimated activity times/throughput. The test program was set up to accomplish this purpose through cold development testing using simulated and prototype equipment; cold demonstration testing using vendor expertise and systems; and graphical computer modeling to confirm feasibility and throughput. To test the fuel handling process, a test mockup that represented the process table was fabricated and installed. The test mockup included a Schilling HV series manipulator that was prototypic of the Schilling Hydra manipulator. The process table mockup included the tipping station, sorting area, disassembly and inspection zones, fuel staging areas, and basket loading stations. The test results clearly indicate that the Schilling Hydra arm cannot effectively perform the fuel handling tasks required unless it is attached to some device that can impart vertical translation, azimuth rotation, and X-Y translation. Other test results indicate the importance of camera locations and capabilities, and of the jaw and end effector tool design. 5 refs., 35 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. A fluid handling system with finger-tightened connectors for biological studies at kiloatmosphere pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urayama, Paul; Frey, Eric W.; Eldridge, Michael J.

    2008-04-01

    We present a high-pressure fluid handling system based around a simple-to-construct seal for applications in the biologically relevant kiloatmosphere range. Connectors are compact and finger tightened, as compared to the wrench tightening required of cone-type seals commonly used. The seal relies on an O-ring compression, and the system has been tested up to 2000atm. While the system was designed for biological studies, it should be versatile enough for a wide range of applications, thus contributing finger-tightened convenience to the kiloatmosphere range.

  19. Air-water flow in subsurface systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A.; Mishra, P.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater traces its roots to tackle challenges of safe and reliable drinking water and food production. When the groundwater level rises, air pressure in the unsaturated Vadose zone increases, forcing air to escape from the ground surface. Abnormally high and low subsurface air pressure can be generated when the groundwater system, rainfall, and sea level fluctuation are favorably combined [Jiao and Li, 2004]. Through this process, contamination in the form of volatile gases may diffuse from the ground surface into residential areas, or possibly move into groundwater from industrial waste sites. It is therefore crucial to understand the combined effects of air-water flow in groundwater system. Here we investigate theoretically and experimentally the effects of air and water flow in groundwater system.

  20. Handling and safety enhancement of race cars using active aerodynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diba, Fereydoon; Barari, Ahmad; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-09-01

    A methodology is presented in this work that employs the active inverted wings to enhance the road holding by increasing the downward force on the tyres. In the proposed active system, the angles of attack of the vehicle's wings are adjusted by using a real-time controller to increase the road holding and hence improve the vehicle handling. The handling of the race car and safety of the driver are two important concerns in the design of race cars. The handling of a vehicle depends on the dynamic capabilities of the vehicle and also the pneumatic tyres' limitations. The vehicle side-slip angle, as a measure of the vehicle dynamic safety, should be narrowed into an acceptable range. This paper demonstrates that active inverted wings can provide noteworthy dynamic capabilities and enhance the safety features of race cars. Detailed analytical study and formulations of the race car nonlinear model with the airfoils are presented. Computer simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed active aerodynamic system.

  1. Integrated scheduling of a container handling system with simultaneous loading and discharging operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen; Lu, Zhiqiang; Han, Xiaole; Zhang, Yuejun; Wang, Li

    2016-03-01

    The integrated scheduling of container handling systems aims to optimize the coordination and overall utilization of all handling equipment, so as to minimize the makespan of a given set of container tasks. A modified disjunctive graph is proposed and a mixed 0-1 programming model is formulated. A heuristic algorithm is presented, in which the original problem is divided into two subproblems. In the first subproblem, contiguous bay crane operations are applied to obtain a good quay crane schedule. In the second subproblem, proper internal truck and yard crane schedules are generated to match the given quay crane schedule. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm based on the heuristic algorithm is developed to search for better solutions. The computational results show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently find high-quality solutions. They also indicate the effectiveness of simultaneous loading and discharging operations compared with separate ones.

  2. Systemic air embolization from penetrating lung injury.

    PubMed

    Meier, G H; Wood, W J; Symbas, P N

    1979-02-01

    This study evaluates the role of increased intratracheal pressure in developing systemic air embolization. Twenty healthy mongrel dogs were monitored for air embolization, both by means of an extracorporeal arteriovenous shunt constructed from transparent plastic tubing for visualization of air emboli and by means of a Doppler flow probe implanted at the root of the aorta. Systemic arterial, left atrial, intratracheal, and intrapleural pressures were recorded. In 10 of the dogs, a penetrating wound of the lung 1 cm wide by 4 cm deep was produced; in 5 the chest was left open and in 5 the chest was closed. The remaining 10 dogs served as controls (with no wound of the lung); in 5 the chest was left open and in the other 5 the chest was closed. No air embolization occurred in any animals at intratracheal pressures less than 65 mm Hg. However, systemic air embolization occurred in every dog in all groups upon hyperinflation of the lung above 65 mm Hg. The control groups differed from the groups with penetrating wound only in the quantity of embolized air. This study suggests that hyperinflation of the lung to an intratracheal pressure above 65 mm Hg results in systemic air embolization and that the presence of a penetrating wound of the lung at such intratracheal pressure predisposes to a greater quantity of air embolization.

  3. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) - GRAPHICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  4. Solar-powered hot-air system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  5. Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

  6. An Optimized Small Tissue Handling System for Immunohistochemistry and In Situ Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Giovanni; Lee, Ju-Ahng

    2016-01-01

    Recent development in 3D printing technology has opened an exciting possibility for manufacturing 3D devices on one's desktop. We used 3D modeling programs to design 3D models of a tissue-handling system and these models were "printed" in a stereolithography (SLA) 3D printer to create precision histology devices that are particularly useful to handle multiple samples with small dimensions in parallel. Our system has been successfully tested for in situ hybridization of zebrafish embryos. Some of the notable features include: (1) A conveniently transferrable chamber with 6 mesh-bottomed wells, each of which can hold dozens of zebrafish embryos. This design allows up to 6 different samples to be treated per chamber. (2) Each chamber sits in a well of a standard 6-well tissue culture plate. Thus, up to 36 different samples can be processed in tandem using a single 6 well plate. (3) Precisely fitting lids prevent solution evaporation and condensation, even at high temperatures for an extended period of time: i.e., overnight riboprobe hybridization. (4) Flat bottom mesh maximizes the consistent treatment of individual tissue samples. (5) A magnet-based lifter was created to handle up to 6 chambers (= 36 samples) in unison. (6) The largely transparent resin aids in convenient visual inspection both with eyes and using a stereomicroscope. (7) Surface engraved labeling enables an accurate tracking of different samples. (8) The dimension of wells and chambers minimizes the required amount of precious reagents. (9) Flexible parametric modeling enables an easy redesign of the 3D models to handle larger or more numerous samples. Precise dimensions of 3D models and demonstration of how we use our devices in whole mount in situ hybridization are presented. We also provide detailed information on the modeling software, 3D printing tips, as well as 3D files that can be used with any 3D printer. PMID:27489962

  7. An Optimized Small Tissue Handling System for Immunohistochemistry and In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Giovanni; Lee, Ju-Ahng

    2016-01-01

    Recent development in 3D printing technology has opened an exciting possibility for manufacturing 3D devices on one’s desktop. We used 3D modeling programs to design 3D models of a tissue-handling system and these models were “printed” in a stereolithography (SLA) 3D printer to create precision histology devices that are particularly useful to handle multiple samples with small dimensions in parallel. Our system has been successfully tested for in situ hybridization of zebrafish embryos. Some of the notable features include: (1) A conveniently transferrable chamber with 6 mesh-bottomed wells, each of which can hold dozens of zebrafish embryos. This design allows up to 6 different samples to be treated per chamber. (2) Each chamber sits in a well of a standard 6-well tissue culture plate. Thus, up to 36 different samples can be processed in tandem using a single 6 well plate. (3) Precisely fitting lids prevent solution evaporation and condensation, even at high temperatures for an extended period of time: i.e., overnight riboprobe hybridization. (4) Flat bottom mesh maximizes the consistent treatment of individual tissue samples. (5) A magnet-based lifter was created to handle up to 6 chambers (= 36 samples) in unison. (6) The largely transparent resin aids in convenient visual inspection both with eyes and using a stereomicroscope. (7) Surface engraved labeling enables an accurate tracking of different samples. (8) The dimension of wells and chambers minimizes the required amount of precious reagents. (9) Flexible parametric modeling enables an easy redesign of the 3D models to handle larger or more numerous samples. Precise dimensions of 3D models and demonstration of how we use our devices in whole mount in situ hybridization are presented. We also provide detailed information on the modeling software, 3D printing tips, as well as 3D files that can be used with any 3D printer. PMID:27489962

  8. The effects of air leaks on solar air heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkin, R.; Cash, M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the effects of leakages in collector and duct work on the system performance of a typical single-family residence solar air heating system. Positive (leakage out) and negative (leakage in) pressure systems were examined. Collector and duct leakage rates were varied from 10 to 30 percent of the system flow rate. Within the range of leakage rates investigated, solar contribution to heated space and domestic hot water loads was found to be reduced up to 30 percent from the no-leak system contribution with duct leakage equally divided between supply and return duct; with supply duct leakage greater than return leakage a reduction of up to 35 percent was noted. The negative pressure system exhibited a reduction in solar contribution somewhat larger than the positive pressure system for the same leakage rates.

  9. Integrated digital control and man-machine interface for complex remote handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, J.C.; Spille, R.F.; Zimmermann, S.D.

    1986-12-01

    The Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS) is part of a continuing effort within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop and extend the capabilities of remote manipulation and maintenance technology. The AIMS is a totally integrated approach to remote handling in hazardous environments. State-of-the-art computer systems connected through a high-speed communication network provide a real-time distributed control system that supports the flexibility and expandability needed for large integrated maintenance applications. A Man-Machine Interface provides high-level human interaction through a powerful color graphics menu-controlled operator console. An auxiliary control system handles the real-time processing needs for a variety of support hardware. A pair of dedicated fiber-optic-linked master/slave computer system control the Advanced Servomanipulator master/slave arms using powerful distributed digital processing methods. The FORTH language was used as a real-time operating and development environment for the entire system, and all of these components are integrated into a control room concept that represents the latest advancements in the development of remote maintenance facilities for hazardous environments.

  10. Handling Pyrophoric Reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.

    2009-08-14

    Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

  11. Transportation and handling loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrem, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Criteria and recommended practices are presented for the prediction and verification of transportation and handling loads for the space vehicle structure and for monitoring these loads during transportation and handling of the vehicle or major vehicle segments. Elements of the transportation and handling systems, and the forcing functions and associated loads are described. The forcing functions for common carriers and typical handling devices are assessed, and emphasis is given to the assessment of loads at the points where the space vehicle is supported during transportation and handling. Factors which must be considered when predicting the loads include the transportation and handling medium; type of handling fixture; transport vehicle speed; types of terrain; weather (changes in pressure of temperature, wind, etc.); and dynamics of the transportation modes or handling devices (acceleration, deceleration, and rotations of the transporter or handling device).

  12. D0 Cryo Instrument Air Backup System

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-11-20

    The D0 instrument air system for cryo controls has an emergency backup supply of nitrogen gas. The backup system consists of a high pressure tube trailer (38 tubes - 2400 psig MAWP), piping, valves, regulators and pressure monitoring instrumentation. The trailer is located south of DAB alongside the LN{sub 2} Dewar. Fixed piping ties to the trailer with a flex-hose. The piping follows the cryo piping bridge entering the south wall of DAB. where it passes through the pipe chase and into the cryo pump room (Rm 315). The high pressure gas is regulated down to 90 psig before tying into the compressor supplied instrument air system. Check valves are installed at the tee for the primary air and the backup N{sub 2}. Normal operating pressure for instrument air is 100-120 psig. With the backup supply pressure set to 90 psig, 'emergency air' is supplied whenever primary air pressure falls below 90 psig. There are two additional, outside connections to the system: one is a connection for repumping the trailer after a minimum backup volume is reached and the other is an auxiliary flex-hose connection for another trailer. All manual valves at system connections will be locked closed when not in use. The system's maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is 2400 psi, which is the trailer MAWP. All piping and components have a minimum 2400 psi working pressure. Actual component working pressures are included in the component list.

  13. Air quality and future energy system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  14. Fully-automated roller bottle handling system for large scale culture of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kunitake, R; Suzuki, A; Ichihashi, H; Matsuda, S; Hirai, O; Morimoto, K

    1997-01-20

    A fully automatic and continuous cell culture system based on roller bottles is described in this paper. The system includes a culture rack storage station for storing a large number of roller bottles filled with culture medium and inoculated with mammalian cells, mass-handling facility for extracting completed cultures from the roller bottles, and replacing the culture medium. The various component units of the system were controlled either by a general-purpose programmable logic controller or a dedicated controller. The system provided four subsequent operation modes: cell inoculation, medium change, harvesting, and medium change. The operator could easily select and change the appropriate mode from outside of the aseptic area. The development of the system made large-scale production of mammalian cells, and manufacturing and stabilization of high quality products such as erythropoietin possible under total aseptic control, and opened up the door for industrial production of physiologically active substances as pharmaceutical drugs by mammalian cell culture.

  15. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  16. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  2. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reading. (2) The air brake system compressor shall increase the air pressure in the reservoir(s) from the... time allowed for air pressure buildup shall not exceed 45 seconds. (3) The warning device (visual or audible) connected to the brake system air pressure source shall be activated when air pressure is...

  3. Material handling systems for use in glovebox lines: A survey of Department of Energy facility experience

    SciTech Connect

    Teese, G.D.; Randall, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study has recommended that a new manufacturing facility be constructed to replace the Rocky Flats Plant. In the new facility, use of an automated material handling system for movement of components would reduce both the cost and radiation exposure associated with production and maintenance operations. Contamination control would be improved between process steps through the use of airlocks and portals. Part damage associated with improper transport would be reduced, and accountability would be increased. In-process workpieces could be stored in a secure vault, awaiting a request for parts at a production station. However, all of these desirable features rely on the proper implementation of an automated material handling system. The Department of Energy Weapons Production Complex has experience with a variety of methods for transporting discrete parts in glovebox lines. The authors visited several sites to evaluate the existing technologies for their suitability for the application of plutonium manufacturing. Technologies reviewed were Linear motors, belt conveyors, roller conveyors, accumulating roller conveyors, pneumatic transport, and cart systems. The sites visited were The Idaho National Engineering laboratory, the Hanford Site, and the Rocky Flats Plant. Linear motors appear to be the most promising technology observed for the movement of discrete parts, and further investigation is recommended.

  4. Material handling systems for use in glovebox lines: A survey of Department of Energy facility experience

    SciTech Connect

    Teese, G.D.; Randall, W.J.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study has recommended that a new manufacturing facility be constructed to replace the Rocky Flats Plant. In the new facility, use of an automated material handling system for movement of components would reduce both the cost and radiation exposure associated with production and maintenance operations. Contamination control would be improved between process steps through the use of airlocks and portals. Part damage associated with improper transport would be reduced, and accountability would be increased. In-process workpieces could be stored in a secure vault, awaiting a request for parts at a production station. However, all of these desirable features rely on the proper implementation of an automated material handling system. The Department of Energy Weapons Production Complex has experience with a variety of methods for transporting discrete parts in glovebox lines. The authors visited several sites to evaluate the existing technologies for their suitability for the application of plutonium manufacturing. Technologies reviewed were Linear motors, belt conveyors, roller conveyors, accumulating roller conveyors, pneumatic transport, and cart systems. The sites visited were The Idaho National Engineering laboratory, the Hanford Site, and the Rocky Flats Plant. Linear motors appear to be the most promising technology observed for the movement of discrete parts, and further investigation is recommended.

  5. Performance evaluation of radiant cooling system integrated with air system under different operational strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Yasin; Khare, Vaibhav Rai; Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2015-03-26

    The paper describes a parametric study developed to estimate the energy savings potential of a radiant cooling system installed in a commercial building in India. The study is based on numerical modeling of a radiant cooling system installed in an Information Technology (IT) office building sited in the composite climate of Hyderabad. To evaluate thermal performance and energy consumption, simulations were carried out using the ANSYS FLUENT and EnergyPlus softwares, respectively. The building model was calibrated using the measured data for the installed radiant system. Then this calibrated model was used to simulate the energy consumption of a building using a conventional all-air system to determine the proportional energy savings. For proper handling of the latent load, a dedicated outside air system (DOAS) was used as an alternative to Fan Coil Unit (FCU). A comparison of energy consumption calculated that the radiant system was 17.5 % more efficient than a conventional all-air system and that a 30% savings was achieved by using a DOAS system compared with a conventional system. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed to evaluate indoor air quality and thermal comfort. It was found that a radiant system offers more uniform temperatures, as well as a better mean air temperature range, than a conventional system. To further enhance the energy savings in the radiant system, different operational strategies were analyzed based on thermal analysis using EnergyPlus. Lastly, the energy savings achieved in this parametric run were more than 10% compared with a conventional all-air system.

  6. Performance evaluation of radiant cooling system integrated with air system under different operational strategies

    DOE PAGES

    Khan, Yasin; Khare, Vaibhav Rai; Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2015-03-26

    The paper describes a parametric study developed to estimate the energy savings potential of a radiant cooling system installed in a commercial building in India. The study is based on numerical modeling of a radiant cooling system installed in an Information Technology (IT) office building sited in the composite climate of Hyderabad. To evaluate thermal performance and energy consumption, simulations were carried out using the ANSYS FLUENT and EnergyPlus softwares, respectively. The building model was calibrated using the measured data for the installed radiant system. Then this calibrated model was used to simulate the energy consumption of a building usingmore » a conventional all-air system to determine the proportional energy savings. For proper handling of the latent load, a dedicated outside air system (DOAS) was used as an alternative to Fan Coil Unit (FCU). A comparison of energy consumption calculated that the radiant system was 17.5 % more efficient than a conventional all-air system and that a 30% savings was achieved by using a DOAS system compared with a conventional system. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed to evaluate indoor air quality and thermal comfort. It was found that a radiant system offers more uniform temperatures, as well as a better mean air temperature range, than a conventional system. To further enhance the energy savings in the radiant system, different operational strategies were analyzed based on thermal analysis using EnergyPlus. Lastly, the energy savings achieved in this parametric run were more than 10% compared with a conventional all-air system.« less

  7. 20 CFR 658.401 - Types of complaints handled by the JS complaint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mandatory listing requirements under 38 U.S.C. 2012 shall not be handled under this subpart. The State agency shall handle such complaints under the Department's regulations at 41 CFR part 60-250....

  8. Molecular optical air data system (MOADS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchoryk, Peter, Jr.; Watkins, Christopher B.; Lindemann, Scott K.; Hays, Paul B.; Nardell, Carl A.

    2001-09-01

    The Molecular Optical Air Data System (MOADS) is a compact optical instrument that can directly measure wind speed and direction, density, and temperature of the air surrounding an aircraft. From these measurements, a complete set of air data products can be determined. Single-axis wind tunnel testing of wind speed and density has just been completed for the current prototype. These wind tunnel measurements have shown that the current prototype meets wind speed accuracy predictions and initial results from density testing indicate a high level of correlation with absolute pressure transducer measurements. A preliminary design for the next generation instrument, the Joint Optical Air Data System (JOADS), has been completed and is intended to meet Joint Striker Fighter (JSF) requirements. Work is also underway to evaluate the application of MOADS to Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs), helicopters and weapon systems. Extensions of MOADS technology to wind shear, gust alleviation, and clear air turbulence detection for commercial aircraft are also being pursued. The basic instrument operation, preliminary ground testing (wind tunnel) results, comparison of these results to simulations, next generation instrument capabilities, and plans for a flight demonstration are discussed.

  9. A solid target system with remote handling of irradiated targets for PET cyclotrons.

    PubMed

    Siikanen, J; Tran, T A; Olsson, T G; Strand, S-E; Sandell, A

    2014-12-01

    A solid target system was developed for a PET cyclotron. The system is compatible with many different target materials in the form of foils and electroplated/sputtered targets which makes it useful for production of a wide variety of different PET radionuclides. The target material is manually loaded into the system. Remote handling of irradiated target material is managed with a pneumatic piston and a vacuum technique which allows the targets to be dropped into a shielded transport container. To test the target performance, proton irradiations (12.8 MeV, 45 μA) of monoisotopic yttrium foils (0.64 mm, direct water cooling) were performed to produce 89Zr. The yields were 2200±200 MBq (1 h, n=13) and 6300±65 MBq (3 h, n=3).

  10. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    SciTech Connect

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  11. A Sample Handling System for Mars Sample Return - Design and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouis, E.; Renouf, I.; Deridder, M.; Vrancken, D.; Gelmi, R.; Re, E.

    2009-04-01

    A mission to return atmosphere and soil samples form the Mars is highly desired by planetary scientists from around the world and space agencies are starting preparation for the launch of a sample return mission in the 2020 timeframe. Such a mission would return approximately 500 grams of atmosphere, rock and soil samples to Earth by 2025. Development of a wide range of new technology will be critical to the successful implementation of such a challenging mission. Technical developments required to realise the mission include guided atmospheric entry, soft landing, sample handling robotics, biological sealing, Mars atmospheric ascent sample rendezvous & capture and Earth return. The European Space Agency has been performing system definition studies along with numerous technology development studies under the framework of the Aurora programme. Within the scope of these activities Astrium has been responsible for defining an overall sample handling architecture in collaboration with European partners (sample acquisition and sample capture, Galileo Avionica; sample containment and automated bio-sealing, Verhaert). Our work has focused on the definition and development of the robotic systems required to move the sample through the transfer chain. This paper presents the Astrium team's high level design for the surface transfer system and the orbiter transfer system. The surface transfer system is envisaged to use two robotic arms of different sizes to allow flexible operations and to enable sample transfer over relatively large distances (~2 to 3 metres): The first to deploy/retract the Drill Assembly used for sample collection, the second for the transfer of the Sample Container (the vessel containing all the collected samples) from the Drill Assembly to the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). The sample transfer actuator also features a complex end-effector for handling the Sample Container. The orbiter transfer system will transfer the Sample Container from the capture

  12. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  13. Engine powered auxiliary air supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Lean, J.R.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes an auxiliary air supply system comprising: an engine; at least one exhaust driven turbocharger including a turbine and a compressor associated therewith for supply of compressed air to the engine; a low pressure compressor including means for powering the low pressure compressor utilizing the engine exhaust gas and flow connected to receive a portion of the compressed air exiting the engine turbocharger compressor; a high pressure compressor including means for powering the high pressure compressor utilizing the engine exhaust gas and flow connected to receive the compressed air exiting the low pressure compressor; and means for directing engine exhaust gases between at least one engine turbocharger and the means for powering the low and high pressure compressors.

  14. Evaluation and improvement on external-hazard proof of JSFR fuel handling system

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, A.; Chikazawa, Y.; Uzawa, M.

    2012-07-01

    Responding to the the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (1F-NPP) accident, the earthquake and the tsunami proof of the fuel handling system (FHS) in Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR) is studied. In the earthquake proof estimation, the margin of seismic resistance against the earthquake of the 1F-envelop condition and the sloshing behavior in the EVST is estimated. In terms of the tsunami proof, the scenario to lead fuel subassemblies into the stable cooling state and the potential of the cooling system is introduced in case of loss of the emergency power supply. As a result, it is clear that JSFR FHS originally could already be prepared to have the potential to prevent the release of radioactive material. (authors)

  15. A Globally Distributed System for Job, Data, and Information Handling for High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Garzoglio, Gabriele

    2006-01-13

    The computing infrastructures of the modern high energy physics experiments need to address an unprecedented set of requirements. The collaborations consist of hundreds of members from dozens of institutions around the world and the computing power necessary to analyze the data produced surpasses already the capabilities of any single computing center. A software infrastructure capable of seamlessly integrating dozens of computing centers around the world, enabling computing for a large and dynamical group of users, is of fundamental importance for the production of scientific results. Such a computing infrastructure is called a computational grid. The SAM-Grid offers a solution to these problems for CDF and DZero, two of the largest high energy physics experiments in the world, running at Fermilab. The SAM-Grid integrates standard grid middleware, such as Condor-G and the Globus Toolkit, with software developed at Fermilab, organizing the system in three major components: data handling, job handling, and information management. This dissertation presents the challenges and the solutions provided in such a computing infrastructure.

  16. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly duct-tube-to-handling-socket attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Smith, Bob G.

    1982-01-01

    A reusable system for removably attaching the upper end 10of a nuclear reactor duct tube to the lower end 30 of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly handling socket. A transition ring 20, fixed to the duct tube's upper end 10, has an interior-threaded section 22 with a first locking hole segment 24. An adaptor ring 40, fixed to the handling socket's lower end 30 has an outside-threaded section 42 with a second locking hole segment 44. The inside 22 and outside 42 threaded sections match and can be joined so that the first 24 and second 44 locking hole segments can be aligned to form a locking hole. A locking ring 50, with a locking pin 52, slides over the adaptor ring 40 so that the locking pin 52 fits in the locking hole. A swage lock 60 or a cantilever finger lock 70 is formed from the locking cup collar 26 to fit in a matching groove 54 or 56 in the locking ring 50 to prevent the locking ring's locking pin 52 from backing out of the locking hole.

  17. The Preemptive Stocker Dispatching Rule of Automatic Material Handling System in 300 mm Semiconductor Manufacturing Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. N.; Lin, H. S.; Hsu, H. P.; Wang, Yen-Hui; Chang, Y. P.

    2016-04-01

    The integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing industry is one of the biggest output industries in this century. The 300mm wafer fabs is the major fab size of this industry. The automatic material handling system (AMHS) has become one of the most concerned issues among semiconductor manufacturers. The major lot delivery of 300mm fabs is used overhead hoist transport (OHT). The traffic jams are happened frequently due to the wide variety of products and big amount of OHTs moving in the fabs. The purpose of this study is to enhance the delivery performance of automatic material handling and reduce the delay and waiting time of product transportation for both hot lots and normal lots. Therefore, this study proposes an effective OHT dispatching rule: preemptive stocker dispatching (PSD). Simulation experiments are conducted and one of the best differentiated preemptive rule, differentiated preemptive dispatching (DPD), is used for comparison. Compared with DPD, The results indicated that PSD rule can reduce average variable delivery time of normal lots by 13.15%, decreasing average variable delivery time of hot lots by 17.67%. Thus, the PSD rule can effectively reduce the delivery time and enhance productivity in 300 mm wafer fabs.

  18. Methodology on Investigating the Influences of Automated Material Handling System in Automotive Assembly Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffar, Seha; Azni Jafar, Fairul; Jamaludin, Zamberi

    2016-02-01

    A case study was selected as a method to collect data in actual industry situation. The study aimed to assess the influences of automated material handling system in automotive industry by proposing a new design of integration system through simulation, and analyze the significant effect and influence of the system. The method approach tool will be CAD Software (Delmia & Quest). The process of preliminary data gathering in phase 1 will collect all data related from actual industry situation. It is expected to produce a guideline and limitation in designing a new integration system later. In phase 2, an idea or concept of design will be done by using 10 principles of design consideration for manufacturing. A full factorial design will be used as design of experiment in order to analyze the performance measured of the integration system with the current system in case study. From the result of the experiment, an ANOVA analysis will be done to study the performance measured. Thus, it is expected that influences can be seen from the improvement made in the system.

  19. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  20. A comparative life cycle assessment of material handling systems for sustainable mining.

    PubMed

    Erkayaoğlu, M; Demirel, N

    2016-06-01

    In this comprehensive LCA comparison study, main objectives are to investigate life cycle environmental impacts of off-highway mining trucks and belt conveyors in surface mining. The research methodology essentially entails determination of the functional unit as 20,000 tons/day coal production transported for 5 km distance. After the system boundary was selected as the entire life cycle of material handling systems including pre-manufacturing of steel parts and plastic components, manufacturing, transportation, and utilization data was compiled from equipment manufacturers and the Eco-invent database. Life cycle impact categories for both material-handling systems were identified and the developed model was implemented using SIMAPRO 7.3. Climate change and acidification were selected as major impact categories as they were considered to be major concerns in mining industry. Although manufacturing stage had a significant impact on all of the environmental parameters, utilization stage was the hotspot for the selected impact categories. The results of this study revealed that belt conveyors have a greater environmental burden in climate change impact category when compared to the trucks. On the other hand, trucks have a greater environmental burden in acidification impact category when compared to the belt conveyors. This study implied that technological improvement in fuel combustion and electricity generation is crucial for the improvement of environmental profiles of off-highway trucks and belt conveyors in the mining industry. The main novelty of this study is that it is the first initiative in applying LCA in the Turkish mining industry. PMID:26986638

  1. Secondary air injection system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  2. Advanced Air Data Systems for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to get a crude estimate of wind speed and direction while driving a car at night in the rain, with the motion of the raindrop reflections in the headlights providing clues about the wind. The clues are difficult to interpret, though, because of the relative motions of ground, car, air, and raindrops. More subtle interpretation is possible if the rain is replaced by fog, because the tiny droplets would follow the swirling currents of air around an illuminated object, like, for example, a walking pedestrian. Microscopic particles in the air (aerosols) are better for helping make assessments of the wind, and reflective air molecules are best of all, providing the most refined measurements. It takes a bright light to penetrate fog, so it is easy to understand how other factors, like replacing the headlights with the intensity of a searchlight, can be advantageous. This is the basic principle behind a lidar system. While a radar system transmits a pulse of radiofrequency energy and interprets the received reflections, a lidar system works in a similar fashion, substituting a near-optical laser pulse. The technique allows the measurement of relative positions and velocities between the transmitter and the air, which allows measurements of relative wind and of air temperature (because temperature is associated with high-frequency random motions on a molecular level). NASA, as well as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), have interests in this advanced lidar technology, as much of their explorative research requires the ability to measure winds and turbulent regions within the atmosphere. Lidar also shows promise for providing warning of turbulent regions within the National Airspace System to allow commercial aircraft to avoid encounters with turbulence and thereby increase the safety of the traveling public. Both agencies currently employ lidar and optical sensing for a variety of weather-related research projects, such as analyzing

  3. On-line computerized data handling system for treating patients with renal disease.

    PubMed

    Pollak, V E; Buncher, R; Donovan, E R

    1977-04-01

    Some patients with renal disease accrue 6,000 to 8,000 individual data items relating to symptoms, signs, laboratory information, and treatment in one year. To deal with the problem of handling so many data items, the following steps were taken: (1) a dictionary of terms peculiar to nephrology was created; (2) manual time-oriented records for nephrology were constructed; and (3) an on-line data processing system, using a PDP-11/70 computer and remote teleprocessing terminal, was developed. On the terminal screen, up to 11 consecutive patient visits can be displayed horizontally, with 18 data items displayed vertically. Up to 30 of the most recent patient visits are easily accessible. For patient treatment, a special feature allows a rearrangement and instantaneous display of any combination of data, thus permitting review of essential feedback relationships between clinical events and treatment.

  4. The range of options for handling plane angle and solid angle within a system of units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quincey, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The radian and steradian are unusual units within the SI, originally belonging to their own category of ‘supplementary units’, with this status being changed to dimensionless ‘derived units’ in 1995. Recent papers have suggested that angles could be handled in two different ways within the SI, both differing from the present system. The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for putting such suggestions into context, outlining the range of options that is available, together with the advantages and disadvantages of these options. Although less rigorously logical than some alternatives, the present SI approach is generally supported, but with some changes to the SI brochure to make the position clearer, in particular with regard to the designation of the radian and steradian as derived units.

  5. Film/chemistry selection for the earth resources technology satellite /ERTS/ ground data handling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the methods of choose the duplication film and chemistry currently used in the NASA-ERTS Ground Data Handling System. The major ERTS photographic duplication goals are given as background information to justify the specifications for the desirable film/chemistry combination. Once these specifications were defined, a quantitative evaluation program was designed and implemented to determine if any recommended combinations could meet the ERTS laboratory specifications. The specifications include tone reproduction, granularity, MTF and cosmetic effects. A complete description of the techniques used to measure the test response variables is given. It is anticipated that similar quantitative techniques could be used on other programs to determine the optimum film/chemistry consistent with the engineering goals of the program.

  6. System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 8: Command/data handling subsystems studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesely, D. D.

    1973-01-01

    Study tasks for the command and data handling subsystems have been directed to: (1) determining ground data systems, (GDS) interfaces and deep space network (DSN) changes, if required, (2) defining subsystem requirements, (3) surveying existing hardware that could be used or modified to meet subsystem requirements, and (4) establishing a baseline design. Study of the existing GDS led to the conclusion that the Viking configuration GDS can be used with only minor changes required for the Pioneer Venus baseline. Those changes required are associated with providing a predetection recording capability used during probe entry and descent. Subsystem requirements were first formulated with sufficient latitude so that surveys of existing hardware could lead to low cost hardware which, in turn, could modify more narrowly defined subsystem requirements.

  7. Archive data base and handling system for the Orbiter flying qualities experiment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. T.; Dimarco, R.; Magdaleno, R. E.; Aponso, B. L.

    1986-01-01

    The OFQ archives data base and handling system assembled as part of the Orbiter Flying Qualities (OFQ) research of the Orbiter Experiments Program (EOX) are described. The purpose of the OFQ archives is to preserve and document shuttle flight data relevant to vehicle dynamics, flight control, and flying qualities in a form that permits maximum use for qualified users. In their complete form, the OFQ archives contain descriptive text (general information about the flight, signal descriptions and units) as well as numerical time history data. Since the shuttle program is so complex, the official data base contains thousands of signals and very complex entries are required to obtain data. The OFQ archives are intended to provide flight phase oriented data subsets with relevant signals which are easily identified for flying qualities research.

  8. Effects of prenatal stress and neonatal handling on anxiety, spatial learning and serotonergic system of male offspring mice.

    PubMed

    Akatsu, Shigemi; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Takemura, Kaori; Ohtani, Akiko; Shiga, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Environmental factors during perinatal period have various effects on behavior. The present study examined the effects of prenatal stress and neonatal handling on anxiety and spatial learning of offspring. Prenatal stress increased anxiety-related behavior of adult offspring, whereas neonatal handling had no effect. In contrast, spatial learning was not affected by prenatal stress, but improved by neonatal handling in both prenatally stressed and non-stressed mice. Next, to elucidate possible brain mechanisms mediating effects of environmental factors on behavior, we focused on serotonin (5-HT) system in the frontal cortex and hippocampus which is involved in anxiety and learning. We examined effects of environmental factors on the mRNA expression of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the frontal cortex and hippocampus during postnatal period and adulthood. Both prenatal stress and neonatal handling altered the mRNA expression of 5-HT receptors. These effects were dependent on environmental factors, brain regions and developmental stages. In summary, the present study revealed that prenatal stress and neonatal handling had differential effects on anxiety and spatial learning of offspring, and concomitantly the expression of 5-HT receptors. It was also shown that the effects of prenatal stress on 5-HT system were recovered partially by neonatal handling.

  9. WASTE CRATE ASSAY SYSTEM (WCAS) : ASSAY SOLUTIONS FOR VERY LARGE REMOTE HANDLED CRATES

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, Howard O.; Rinard, Phillip M.; Li, T. K.; Romero, M.; Hiruta, K.; Nasuno, S.

    2001-01-01

    An advanced passive neutron counter has been designed and fabricated to measure the plutonium content in large remote handled (RH) waste crates. The waste crate assay system (WCAS) was developed under an agreement between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL), and BNFL Instruments Inc. (BII) to measure the plutonium content in the waste generated in the Rokkasho reprocessing facility. The primary goal of the design was to produce an assay system for large waste containers. The system also includes 200-L drum pallet assay capability. The measurements are based on neutron-time correlation counting of the passive neutron emissions from the 240Pu, and the plutonium isotopic ratios are used to calculate the total plutonium. The system is designed for both RH waste and low-activity plutonium waste. The system permits the measurement of the singles, doubles, and triples rates and the multiplicity mode analysis is used together with the 'add-a-source' method to correct for the matrix materials in the crates. In the multiplicity analysis, the efficiency for counting the neutrons emitted from the crate is directly calculated from the three measured rates. For improved detectability limits, advanced methods have been incorporated in the WCAS-A to reduce the cosmic-ray neutron backgrounds. These methods include statistical filters and truncation of high-multiplicity events. The paper describes the WCAS-A design, performance, and calibration.

  10. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  11. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  13. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...

  14. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...

  15. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...

  16. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...

  17. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...

  18. 21. DETAIL OF AIR HANDLER 1 (MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL OF AIR HANDLER 1 (MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER, STATION 30, SLC-3W MST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. Fuel-air ratio controlled carburetion system

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, H. G.

    1980-02-12

    An automatic control system is disclosed supplying a fuel-air mixture to an internal combustion engine including a variable-venturi carburetor. Air is fed into the input of the venturi, the air passing through the throat thereof whose effective area is adjusted by a mechanism operated by a servo motor. Fuel is fed into the input of the venturi from a fuel reservoir through a main path having a fixed orifice and an auxiliary path formed by a metering valve operated by an auxiliary fuel-control motor. The differential air pressure developed between the inlet of the venturi and the throat thereof is sensed to produce an airvelocity command signal that is applied to a controller adapted to compare the command signal with the servo motor set point to produce an output for governing the servo motor to cause it to seek a null point, thereby defining a closed process control loop. The intake manifold vacuum, which varies in degree as a function of load and speed conditions is sensed to govern the auxiliary fuel-control motor accordingly, is at the same time converted into an auxiliary signal which is applied to the controller in the closed loop to modulate the command signal in a manner establishing an optimum air-fuel ratio under the varying conditions of load and speed.

  20. A warm air poultry brooding system

    SciTech Connect

    Nulte, W.H.

    1980-12-01

    As the energy crisis escalated during the mid-70's, it became apparent that energy intensive industries must seek alternate fuel sources. Georgia Tech realized that one of these industries was the poultry industry. Consequently, a demonstration project of a wood-fired, warm air poultry brooding system was designed and built. Since its completion in mid-1978, the system has demonstrated considerable cost savings as well as being a very functional and reliable system. The system consists of 3 main components--a wood burning furnace, a supply distribution and return duct, and 20 flexible ducts which simulate the function of the propane brooders by providing warm air close to the ground. A separate structure houses the furnace and wood supply. This house is located at the midpoint of the growout house to allow symmetrical and naturally balanced air distribution. Since the system became operational, 16 flocks of birds have been brooded. During this time, wood usage has averaged approximately 30 cords per year while in a neighboring house, that is used as a control house, the propane usage has averaged 3,800 gallons per year. In the area of Georgia where the demonstration project is located, the cost of fuelwood has remained stable over the last 2 years, whereas the price of propane has continually increased. Thus the grower has the benefit of constantly increasing cost savings while utilizing a renewable resource as fuel.

  1. Force Sensitive Handles and Capacitive Touch Sensor for Driving a Flexible Haptic-Based Immersive System

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Mario; Bordegoni, Monica; Cugini, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present an approach that uses both two force sensitive handles (FSH) and a flexible capacitive touch sensor (FCTS) to drive a haptic-based immersive system. The immersive system has been developed as part of a multimodal interface for product design. The haptic interface consists of a strip that can be used by product designers to evaluate the quality of a 3D virtual shape by using touch, vision and hearing and, also, to interactively change the shape of the virtual object. Specifically, the user interacts with the FSH to move the virtual object and to appropriately position the haptic interface for retrieving the six degrees of freedom required for both manipulation and modification modalities. The FCTS allows the system to track the movement and position of the user's fingers on the strip, which is used for rendering visual and sound feedback. Two evaluation experiments are described, which involve both the evaluation and the modification of a 3D shape. Results show that the use of the haptic strip for the evaluation of aesthetic shapes is effective and supports product designers in the appreciation of the aesthetic qualities of the shape. PMID:24113680

  2. 36 CFR 1202.8 - How does NARA handle records that are in Government-wide Privacy Act systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does NARA handle records that are in Government-wide Privacy Act systems? 1202.8 Section 1202.8 Parks, Forests, and Public... in Government-wide Privacy Act systems? Records in the custody of NARA in a Government-wide...

  3. The application of advanced remote systems technology to future waste handling facilities: Waste Systems Data and Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kring, C.T.; Herndon, J.N.; Meacham, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been advancing the technology in remote handling and remote maintenance of in-cell systems planned for future US nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Much of the experience and technology developed over the past decade in this endeavor are directly applicable to the in-cell systems being considered for the facilities of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). The ORNL developments are based on the application of teleoperated force-reflecting servomanipulators controlled by an operator completely removed from the hazardous environment. These developments address the nonrepetitive nature of remote maintenance in the unstructured environments encountered in a waste handling facility. Employing technological advancements in dexterous manipulators, as well as basic design guidelines that have been developed for remotely maintained equipment and processes, can increase operation and maintenance system capabilities, thereby allowing the attainment of two FWMS major objectives: decreasing plant personnel radiation exposure and increasing plant availability by decreasing the mean-time-to-repair in-cell maintenance and process equipment. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  4. The Conceptual Design of a Mechatronic System to Handle Bedridden Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Silva; José, Machado; Filomena, Soares; Vítor, Carvalho; Demétrio, Matos; Karolina, Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    The ever-growing percentage of elderly people in developed countries have made Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) solutions an important subject to be explored and developed. The increase in geriatric care requests are overburdening specialized institutions that cannot cope with the demand for support. Patients are forced to have to remain at their homes encumbering the spouse or close family members with the caregiver role. This caregiver is not always physically and technically apt to assist the bedridden person with his/her meals and hygiene/bath routine. Consequently, a solution to assist caregivers in these tasks is of the utmost importance. This paper presents an approach for supporting caregivers when moving and repositioning Bedridden Elderly Peoples (BEPs) in home settings by means of a mechatronic system inspired by industrial conveyers. The proposed solution is able to insert itself underneath the patient, due to its low-profile structural properties, and retrieve and reallocate him/her. Ideally, the proposed mechatronic system aims to promote autonomy by reducing handling complexity, alter the role of the caregiver from physically handler of the BEP to an operator/supervisor role, and lessen the amount of effort expended by caregivers and BEPs alike. PMID:27213383

  5. The Conceptual Design of a Mechatronic System to Handle Bedridden Elderly Individuals.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Silva; José, Machado; Filomena, Soares; Vítor, Carvalho; Demétrio, Matos; Karolina, Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    The ever-growing percentage of elderly people in developed countries have made Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) solutions an important subject to be explored and developed. The increase in geriatric care requests are overburdening specialized institutions that cannot cope with the demand for support. Patients are forced to have to remain at their homes encumbering the spouse or close family members with the caregiver role. This caregiver is not always physically and technically apt to assist the bedridden person with his/her meals and hygiene/bath routine. Consequently, a solution to assist caregivers in these tasks is of the utmost importance. This paper presents an approach for supporting caregivers when moving and repositioning Bedridden Elderly Peoples (BEPs) in home settings by means of a mechatronic system inspired by industrial conveyers. The proposed solution is able to insert itself underneath the patient, due to its low-profile structural properties, and retrieve and reallocate him/her. Ideally, the proposed mechatronic system aims to promote autonomy by reducing handling complexity, alter the role of the caregiver from physically handler of the BEP to an operator/supervisor role, and lessen the amount of effort expended by caregivers and BEPs alike. PMID:27213383

  6. Combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation systems. [Volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wijmans, J.G.; Baker, R.W.; Kamaruddin, H.D.; Kaschemekat, J.; Olsen, R.P.; Rose, M.E.; Segelke, S.V.

    1992-11-01

    Air stripping is an economical and efficient method of removing dissolved volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. Air strippers, however, produce a vent air stream, which must meet the local air quality limits. If the VOC content exceeds the limits, direct discharge is not possible; therefore, a carbon adsorption VOC capture system is used to treat the vent air. This treatment step adds a cost of at least $50/lb of VOC captured. In this program, a combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation system was constructed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The membrane system captures VOCs from the stripper vent stream at a projected cost of $15/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 5 ppmw, and $75/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 1 ppmw. The VOCs are recovered as a small, concentrated liquid fraction for disposal or solvent recycling. The concept has been demonstrated in experiments with a system capable of handling up to 150,000 gpd of water. The existing demonstration system is available for field tests at a DOE facility or remediation site. Replacement of the current short air stripping tower (effective height 3 m) with a taller tower is recommended to improve VOC removal.

  7. Criticality safety evaluation report for the cold vacuum drying facility's process water handling system

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, J.V.

    1999-05-12

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

  8. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facilities Process Water Handling System

    SciTech Connect

    KESSLER, S.F.

    2000-08-10

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

  9. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air... contamination following any probable failure of the turbocharger or its lubrication system. (b) The...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air... contamination following any probable failure of the turbocharger or its lubrication system. (b) The...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air... contamination following any probable failure of the turbocharger or its lubrication system. (b) The...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air... contamination following any probable failure of the turbocharger or its lubrication system. (b) The...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air... contamination following any probable failure of the turbocharger or its lubrication system. (b) The...

  20. Control rod system useable for fuel handling in a gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.

    1976-11-30

    A control rod and its associated drive are used to elevate a complete stack of fuel blocks to a position above the core of a gas-cooled nuclear reactor. A fuel-handling machine grasps the control rod and the drive is unlatched from the rod. The stack and rod are transferred out of the reactor, or to a new location in the reactor, by the fuel-handling machine.

  1. Air Force geographic information and analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Henney, D.A.; Jansing, D.S.; Durfee, R.C.; Margle, S.M.; Till, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputer-based geographic information and analysis system (GIAS) was developed to assist Air Force planners with environmental analysis, natural resources management, and facility and land-use planning. The system processes raster image data, topological data structures, and geometric or vector data similar to that produced by computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems, integrating the data where appropriate. Data types included Landsat imagery, scanned images of base maps, digitized point and chain features, topographic elevation data, USGS stream course data, highway networks, railroad networks, and land use/land cover information from USGS interpreted aerial photography. The system is also being developed to provide an integrated display and analysis capability with base maps and facility data bases prepared on CADD systems. 3 refs.

  2. An Overview of the Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beegle, L. W.; Anderson, R. C.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Jandura, L.; Limonadi, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mission (MSL), landed on Mars on August 5. The rover and a scientific payload are designed to identify and assess the habitability, geological, and environmental histories of Gale crater. Unraveling the geologic history of the region and providing an assessment of present and past habitability requires an evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the landing site; this includes providing an in-depth examination of the chemical and physical properties of Martian regolith and rocks. The MSL Sample Acquisition, Processing, and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem is the first in-situ system designed to acquire interior rock and soil samples from Martian surface materials. These samples are processed and separated into fine particles and distributed to two onboard analytical science instruments SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite) and CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) or to a sample analysis tray for visual inspection. The SA/SPaH subsystem is also responsible for the placement of the two contact instruments, Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), and the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), on rock and soil targets. Finally, there is a Dust Removal Tool (DRT) to remove dust particles from rock surfaces for subsequent analysis by the contact and or mast mounted instruments (e.g. Mast Cameras (MastCam) and the Chemistry and Micro-Imaging instruments (ChemCam)). It is expected that the SA/SPaH system will have produced a scooped system and possibility a drilled sample in the first 90 sols of the mission. Results from these activities and the ongoing testing program will be presented.

  3. Proposal for Construction/Demonstration/Implementation of A Material Handling System

    SciTech Connect

    Jim Jnatt

    2001-08-24

    Vortec Corporation, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) and DOE/Paducah propose to complete the technology demonstration and the implementation of the Material Handling System developed under Contract Number DE-AC21-92MC29120. The demonstration testing and operational implementation will be done at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The scope of work, schedule and cost for the activities are included in this proposal. A description of the facility to be constructed and tested is provided in Exhibit 1, attached. The USEC proposal for implementation at Paducah is presented in Exhibit 2, and the commitment letters from the site are included in Exhibit 3. Under our agreements with USEC, Bechtel Jacobs Corporation and DOE/Paducah, Vortec will be responsible for the construction of the demonstration facility as documented in the engineering design package submitted under Phase 4 of this contract on August 9, 2001. USEC will have responsibility for the demonstration testing and commercial implementation of the plant. The demonstration testing and initial commercial implementation of the technology will be achieved by means of a USEC work authorization task with the Bechtel Jacobs Corporation. The initial processing activities will include the processing of approximately 4,250 drums of LLW. Subsequent processing of LLW and TSCA/LLW will be done under a separate contract or work authorization task. To meet the schedule for commercial implementation, it is important that the execution of the Phase 4 project option for construction of the demonstration system be executed as soon as possible. The schedule we have presented herein assumes initiation of the construction phase by the end of September 2001. Vortec proposes to complete construction of the demonstration test system for an estimated cost of $3,254,422. This price is based on the design submitted to DOE/NETL under the Phase 4 engineering design deliverable (9 august 2001). The cost is subject to the

  4. Spacecraft contamination programs within the Air Force Systems Command Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murad, Edmond

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft contamination programs exist in five independent AFSC organizations: Geophysics Laboratory (GL), Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC), Rome Air Development Center (RADC/OSCE), Wright Research and Development Center (MLBT), Armament Laboratory (ATL/SAI), and Space Systems Division (SSD/OL-AW). In addition, a sizable program exists at Aerospace Corp. These programs are complementary, each effort addressing a specific area of expertise: GL's effort is aimed at addressing the effects of on-orbit contamination; AEDC's effort is aimed at ground simulation and measurement of optical contamination; RADC's effort addresses the accumulation, measurement, and removal of contamination on large optics; MLBT's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of contamination on materials; ATL's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of plume contamination on systems; SSD's effort is confined to the integration of some contamination experiments sponsored by SSD/CLT; and Aerospace Corp.'s effort is aimed at supporting the needs of the using System Program Offices (SPO) in specific areas, such as contamination during ground handling, ascent phase, laboratory measurements aimed at understanding on-orbit contamination, and mass loss and mass gain in on-orbit operations. These programs are described in some detail, with emphasis on GL's program.

  5. Wood stove with safety forced air system

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, A.J.; Thulman, R.D.

    1982-08-03

    A high efficiency, air-tight wood stove has a firebox with front, side, rear, top and bottom walls, primary air introducing means for admitting combustion air into the firebox, air flow means adjacent the bottom of the firebox for directing a flow of air upwardly across at least one firebox wall, at least one supplemental air inlet for diverting a portion of the air from the air flow means into the firebox, fan means for forcing air through the air flow means and through the supplemental air inlet, the size of the primary air introducing means being chosen to automatically restrict the combustion in the firebox if the fan means stops to maintain the temperature of the stove and surroundings at safe levels.

  6. Project Plan 7930 Cell G PaR Remote Handling System Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, Kathryn A

    2009-10-01

    For over 40 years the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have made Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) available for a wide range of industries including medical, nuclear fuels, mining, military and national security. The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) located within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) processes irradiated production targets from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Operations in Building 7930, Cell G provide over 70% of the world's demand for {sup 252}Cf. Building 7930 was constructed and equipped in the mid-1960s. Current operations for {sup 252}Cf processing in Building 7930, Cell G require use of through-the-wall manipulators and the PaR Remote Handling System. Maintenance and repairs for the manipulators is readily accomplished by removal of the manipulator and relocation to a repair shop where hands-on work can be performed in glove boxes. Contamination inside cell G does not currently allow manned entry and no provisions were created for a maintenance area inside the cell. There has been no maintenance of the PaR system or upgrades, leaving operations vulnerable should the system have a catastrophic failure. The Cell G PaR system is currently being operated in a run to failure mode. As the manipulator is now 40+ years old there is significant risk in this method of operation. In 2006 an assessment was completed that resulted in recommendations for replacing the manipulator operator control and power centers which are used to control and power the PaR manipulator in Cell G. In mid-2008 the chain for the bridge drive failed and subsequent examinations indicated several damaged links (see Figure 1). To continue operations the PaR manipulator arm is being used to push and pull the bridge as a workaround. A retrieval tool was fabricated, tested and staged inside Cell G that will allow positioning of the bridge and manipulator arm for removal from the cell should the PaR system completely fail. A fully

  7. The gas-chromatographic analysis system in the JET active gas handling plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lässer, R.; Grieveson, B.; Hemmerich, J. L.; Stagg, R.; Dowhyluk, T.; Torr, K.; Massey, R.; Chambers, P.

    1993-09-01

    A gas chromatographic system for the analysis of gas species to be collected from the JET torus and to be processed in the JET active gas handling plant during the active operation phase with deuterium and tritium plasmas was designed and built by CFFTP under contract with JET. The gas-chromatograph consists of a compression/injection stage and of two parallel, analytical stages, one for the detection of helium, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, and the six hydrogen molecules by means of a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) and one for the detection of carbon monoxide, methane, carbon dioxide, and higher hydrocarbons by means of a flame ionization detector (FID). A flow proportional counting detector (FPCD) is placed in series to TCD and FID for the specific analysis of tritiated gas compounds. A detailed description of the system and of its performance will be given which was evaluated using several calibrated gas mixtures including test runs with tritiated species at JET. The gas species mentioned above can be detected in the concentration range from ppm levels to 100%. The estimated error is about 20% at very low concentrations and 1% at high concentrations. The required minimum detection limit for the TCD can be achieved by the injection of large samples and the use of large filament currents. In addition, neon or helium can be chosen as carrier gas. The use of Ne increases the sensitivity for hydrogen and allows the detection of He, whereas He carrier gas gives superior TCD results for all other gases. Due to the high sensitivity of the FPCDs ppb levels of tritiated gas species can be detected.

  8. Electrochemical air revitalization system optimization investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Schubert, F. H.; Hallick, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    A program to characterize a Breadboard of an Electrochemical Air Revitalization System (BEARS) was successfully completed. The BEARS is composed of three components: (1) a water vapor electrolysis module (WVEM) for O2 production and partial humidity control, (2) an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module (EDCM) for CO2 control, and (3) a power-sharing controller, designed to utilize the power produced by the EDCM to partially offset the WVEM power requirements. It is concluded from the results of this work that the concept of electrochemical air revitalization with power-sharing is a viable solution to the problem of providing a localized topping force for O2 generation, CO2 removal and partial humidity control aboard manned spacecraft. Continued development of the EARS concept is recommended, applying the operational experience and limits identified during the BEARS program to testing of a one-man capacity system and toward the development of advanced system controls to optimize EARS operation for given interfaces and requirements. Successful completion of this development will produce timely technology necessary to plan future advanced environmental control and life support system programs and experiments.

  9. UV Disinfection System for Cabin Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soojung

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is commonly used for disinfection of water. As a result of advancements made in the last 10-15 years, the analysis and design of UV disinfection systems for water is well developed. UV disinfection is also used for disinfection of air; however, despite the fact the UV-air systems have a longer record of application than UV-water systems, the methods used to analyze and design UV-air disinfection systems remain quite empirical. It is well-established that the effectiveness of UV-air systems is strongly affected by the type of microorganisms, the irradiation level/type (lamp power and wavelength), duration of irradiation (exposure time), air movement pattern (mixing degree), and relative humidity. This paper will describe ongoing efforts to evaluate, design and test a UV-air system based on first principles. Specific issues to be addressed in this work will include laboratory measurements of relevant kinetics (i.e., UV dose-response behavior) and numerical simulations designed to represent fluid mechanics and the radiation intensity field. UV dose-response behavior of test microorganism was measured using a laboratory (bench-scale) system. Target microorganisms (e.g., bacterial spores) were first applied to membrane filters at sub-monolayer coverage. The filters were then transferred to an environmental chamber at fixed relative humidity (RH) and allowed to equilibrate with their surroundings. Microorganisms were then subjected to UV exposure under a collimated beam. The experiment was repeated at RH values ranging from 20% to 100%. UV dose-response behavior was observed to vary with RH. For example, at 100% RH, a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm2 accomplished 90% (1 log10 units) of the B. subtilis spore inactivation, whereas 99 % (2 log10 units) inactivation was accomplished at this same UV dose under 20% RH conditions. However, at higher doses, the result was opposite of that in low dose. Reactor behavior is simulated using an integrated application

  10. The Research Data Archive at NCAR: A System Designed to Handle Diverse Climate Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattore, B.; Worley, S.

    2010-09-01

    Improving discovery of and access to high quality climate data is critical to advancing our understanding of the Earth's climate system and how it changes over time. The Research Data Archive (RDA), managed within the Computational and Information Systems Laboratory at NCAR, is a data resource designed to meet the needs of climate and weather research. First efforts to build the RDA began in the late-1960s when datasets were typically small in size and did not have global coverage, e.g. surface observations for a single country or balloon data from a single experiment. Further, many distinct specialized data formats were common. Today datasets are generally larger, have global coverage, and are often stored in common data formats. The RDA is now over 600 distinct datasets comprised of more than 4 million files totaling 400 TB with 10% readily available online. Major changes in metadata collection have transformed the RDA into a climate data flow management system that is efficient, adaptable, and provides many user data access benefits. We will describe the uniform methods and tools used in the workflow of the RDA, including: the transformation of legacy metadata into the new system using a XML structure that allows for diversity and richness of a long-term archive, a GUI for entering and editing constrained discovery metadata, tools for collecting file level metadata for common formats (GRIB1, GRIB2, netCDF, BUFR, IMMA, and several legacy formats) and handling file archiving I/O, and the usage of a relational metadatabase to hold all the results. Most importantly, we will then show how this integrated metadata foundation enables several different approaches for data discovery that are always up-to-date, accurate definition of multiple data access and extraction methods that can vary from dataset to dataset, interfaces where user driven constraints will isolate the data files needed from within terabyte size collections, automatic construction of codes to aid in

  11. Air traffic coverage

    SciTech Connect

    George, L.L.

    1988-09-16

    The Federal Aviation Administration plans to consolidate several hundred air traffic control centers and TRACONs into area control facilities while maintaining air traffic coverage. This paper defines air traffic coverage, a performance measure of the air traffic control system. Air traffic coverage measures performance without controversy regarding delay and collision probabilities and costs. Coverage measures help evaluate alternative facility architectures and help schedule consolidation. Coverage measures also help evaluate protocols for handling one facility's air traffic to another facility in case of facility failure. Coverage measures help evaluate radar, communications and other air traffic control systems and procedures. 4 refs., 2 figs.,

  12. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  13. Acceptance Test Procedure: SY101 air pallet system

    SciTech Connect

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-05-30

    The purpose of this test procedure is to verify that the system(s) procured to load the SY-101 Mitigation Test Pump package fulfills its functional requirements. It will also help determine the man dose expected due to handling of the package during the actual event. The scope of this procedure focuses on the ability of the air pallets and container saddles to carry the container package from the new 100 foot concrete pad into 2403-WD where it will be stored awaiting final disposition. This test attempts to simulate the actual event of depositing the SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test pump into the 2403-WD building. However, at the time of testing road modifications required to drive the 100 ton trailer into CWC were not performed. Therefore a flatbed trailer will be use to transport the container to CWC. The time required to off load the container from the 100 ton trailer will be recorded for man dose evaluation on location. The cranes used for this test will also be different than the actual event. This is not considered to be an issue due to minimal effects on man dose.

  14. An Interoperable Architecture for Air Pollution Early Warning System Based on Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadzadegan, F.; Zahmatkesh, H.; Saber, M.; Ghazi khanlou, H. J.

    2013-09-01

    Environmental monitoring systems deal with time-sensitive issues which require quick responses in emergency situations. Handling the sensor observations in near real-time and obtaining valuable information is challenging issues in these systems from a technical and scientific point of view. The ever-increasing population growth in urban areas has caused certain problems in developing countries, which has direct or indirect impact on human life. One of applicable solution for controlling and managing air quality by considering real time and update air quality information gathered by spatially distributed sensors in mega cities, using sensor web technology for developing monitoring and early warning systems. Urban air quality monitoring systems using functionalities of geospatial information system as a platform for analysing, processing, and visualization of data in combination with Sensor Web for supporting decision support systems in disaster management and emergency situations. This system uses Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) framework of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), which offers a standard framework that allows the integration of sensors and sensor data into spatial data infrastructures. SWE framework introduces standards for services to access sensor data and discover events from sensor data streams as well as definition set of standards for the description of sensors and the encoding of measurements. The presented system provides capabilities to collect, transfer, share, process air quality sensor data and disseminate air quality status in real-time. It is possible to overcome interoperability challenges by using standard framework. In a routine scenario, air quality data measured by in-situ sensors are communicated to central station where data is analysed and processed. The extracted air quality status is processed for discovering emergency situations, and if necessary air quality reports are sent to the authorities. This research proposed an

  15. The promise of air cargo: System aspects and vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The current operation of the air cargo system is reviewed. An assessment of the future of air cargo is provided by: (1) analyzing statistics and trends, (2) by noting system problems and inefficiencies, (3) by analyzing characteristics of 'air eligible' commodities, and (4) by showing the promise of new technology for future cargo aircraft with significant improvements in costs and efficiency. The following topics are discussed: (1) air cargo demand forecasts; (2) economics of air cargo transport; (3) the integrated air cargo system; (4) evolution of airfreighter design; and (5) the span distributed load concept.

  16. UV disinfection system for cabin air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soojung; Blatchley, Ernest R.

    2009-10-01

    The air of indoor cabin environments is susceptible to contamination by airborne microbial pathogens. A number of air treatment processes are available for inactivation or removal of airborne pathogens; included among these processes is ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The effectiveness of UV-based processes is known to be determined by the combined effects of UV dose delivery by the reactor and the UV dose-response behavior of the target microbe(s). To date, most UV system designs for air treatment have been based on empirical approaches, often involving crude representations of dose delivery and dose-response behavior. The objective of this research was to illustrate the development of a UV system for disinfection of cabin air based on well-defined methods of reactor and reaction characterization. UV dose-response behavior of a test microorganism was measured using a laboratory (bench-scale) system. Target microorganisms (bacterial spores) were first applied to membrane filters at sub-monolayer coverage. The filters were then transferred to a humidity chamber at fixed relative humidity (RH) and allowed to equilibrate with their surroundings. Microorganisms were then subjected to UV exposure under a collimated beam. The experiment was repeated at RH values ranging from 20% to 100%. UV dose-response behavior was observed to vary with RH. For example, at 100% RH, a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm 2 accomplished 99.7% (2.5 log10 U) of the Bacillus subtilis spore inactivation, whereas 99.94% (3.2 log10 U) inactivation was accomplished at this same UV dose under 20% RH conditions. To determine reactor behavior, UV dose-response behavior was combined with simulated results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and radiation intensity field models. This modeling approach allowed estimating the UV dose distribution delivered by the reactor. The advantage of this approach is that simulation of many reactor configurations can be done in a relatively short period of time. Moreover, by

  17. Design and evaluation of an advanced air-ground data-link system for air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denbraven, Wim

    1992-01-01

    The design and evaluation of the ground-based portion of an air-ground data-link system for air traffic control (ATC) are described. The system was developed to support the 4D Aircraft/ATC Integration Study, a joint simulation experiment conducted at NASA's Ames and Langley Research Centers. The experiment focused on airborne and ground-based procedures for handling aircraft equipped with a 4D-Flight Management System (FMS) and the system requirements needed to ensure conflict-free traffic flow. The Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) at Ames was used for the ATC part of the experiment, and the 4D-FMS-equipped aircraft was simulated by the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) simulator at Langley. The data-link system supported not only conventional ATC communications, but also the communications needed to accommodate the 4D-FMS capabilities of advanced aircraft. Of great significance was the synergism gained from integrating the data link with CTAS. Information transmitted via the data link was used to improve the monitoring and analysis capability of CTAS without increasing controller input workload. Conversely, CTAS was used to anticipate and create prototype messages, thus reducing the workload associated with the manual creation of data-link messages.

  18. Development and Test Results of a System on a Chip for a data Handling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boléat, C.; Coldefy, J.-F.; Lefebvre, M.; Souryi, M.; Weigand, R.

    This document presents the architecture definition, the main architecture and technical choices, their developments and the tests results of the System on a Chip development performed by ESTEC and ASTRIUM. The need for an integrated DHS is very important for next future missions. This development raises the problem of functions to be implemented, cross-strapping implementation, reliability and testability. 1- INTRODUCTION The level of integration of radiation tolerant technology is continuously increasing. By now, 0.35 um CMOS technology are available for space applications, an adaptation of 0.25 um or 0.18 um processes are in progress. More than

  19. Air conditioning system and component therefore distributing air flow from opposite directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D.; Bauer, H. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The air conditioning system comprises a plurality of separate air conditioning units coupled to a common supply duct such that air may be introduced into the supply duct in two opposite flow directions. A plurality of outlets such as registers or auxiliary or branch ducts communicate with the supply duct and valve means are disposed in the supply duct at at least some of the outlets for automatically channelling a controllable amount of air from the supply duct to the associated outlet regardless of the direction of air flow within the supply duct. The valve means comprises an automatic air volume control apparatus for distribution within the air supply duct into which air may be introduced from two opposite directions. The apparatus incorporates a freely swinging movable vane in the supply duct to automatically channel into the associated outlet only the deflected air flow which has the higher relative pressure.

  20. Tritium handling experience in vacuum systems at TSTA (Tritium Systems Test Assembly)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Jenkins, E.M.; Walthers, C.R.; Yoshida, H.; Fukui, H.; Naruse, Y.; Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki )

    1989-01-01

    Compound cryopumps have been added to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) integrated fusion fuel loop. Operations have been performed which closely simulate an actual fusion reactor pumping scenario. In addition, performance data have been taken that support the concept of using coconut charcoal as a sorbent at 4K for pumping helium. Later tests show that coconut charcoal may be used to co-pump D,T and He mixtures on a single 4K panel. Rotary spiral pumps have been used successfully in several applications at TSTA and have acquired more than 9000 hours of maintenance-free operation. Metal bellows pumps have been used to back the spiral pumps and have been relatively trouble free in loop operations. Bellows pumps also have more than 9000 hours of maintenance-free operation. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  1. One man electrochemical air revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, J. C.; Aylward, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An integrated water vapor electrolysis (WVE) hydrogen depolarized CO2 concentrator (HDC) system sized for one man support over a wide range of inlet air conditions was designed, fabricated, and tested. Data obtained during 110 days of testing verified that this system can provide the necessary oxygen, CO2 removal, and partial humidity control to support one man (without exceeding a cabin partial pressure of 3.0 mmHg for CO2 and while maintaining a 20% oxygen level), when operated at a WVE current of 50 amperes and an HDC current of 18 amperes. An evaluation to determine the physical properties of tetramethylammonium bicarbonate (TMAC) and hydroxide was made. This provides the necessary electrolyte information for designing an HDC cell using TMAC.

  2. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  3. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  4. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant-Based Outdoor Air Preconditioning Systems, Final Report: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.

    2001-07-09

    This report summarizes an investigation of the performance of two active desiccant cooling systems that were installed as pilot systems in two locations--a college dormitory and a research laboratory--during the fall of 1999. The laboratory system was assembled in the field from commercially available Trane air-handling modules combined with a standard total energy recovery module and a customized active desiccant wheel, both produced by SEMCO. The dormitory system was a factory-built, integrated system produced by SEMCO that included both active desiccant and sensible-only recovery wheels, a direct-fired gas regeneration section, and a pre-piped Trane heat pump condensing section. Both systems were equipped with direct digital control systems, complete with full instrumentation and remote monitoring capabilities. This report includes detailed descriptions of these two systems, installation details, samples of actual performance, and estimations of the energy savings realized. These pilot sites represent a continuation of previous active desiccant product development research (Fischer, Hallstrom, and Sand 2000; Fischer 2000). Both systems performed as anticipated, were reliable, and required minimal maintenance. The dehumidification/total-energy-recovery hybrid approach was particularly effective in all respects. System performance showed remarkable improvement in latent load handling capability and operating efficiency compared with the original conventional cooling system and with the conventional system that remained in another, identical wing of the facility. The dehumidification capacity of the pilot systems was very high, the cost of operation was very low, and the system was cost-effective, offering a simple payback for these retrofit installations of approximately 5 to 6 years. Most important, the dormitory system resolved numerous indoor air quality problems in the dormitory by providing effective humidity control and increased, continuous ventilation air.

  5. HVAC system performance and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the mid-seventies, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) promulgated ASHRAE Standard 90-75 Energy Conservation in New Building Design, which called for revised minimum ventilation rates and the elimination of energy-wasting HVAC systems. Most building codes which cover energy conservation in the late seventies and eighties referred to this standard. This lowering of ventilation rates, coupled with the tighter building envelope (walls, windows, doors and roof) led to a reduction in outside air, both by engineering design and by minimizing infiltration through the structure. The minimum ventilation rates are based on the assumption that average concentrations of tobacco smoke exist in all enclosed spaces (30 percent of the population being smokers at two cigarettes per hour), rather than having separate rates for smoking and nonsmoking areas, as in the 1981 revision of the Standard. If tobacco smoke is ever declared a carcinogen, it will undoubtedly prompt a review of Standard 62-1989, as well as hasten totally smoke-free buildings.

  6. Potassium Handling with Dual Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibition in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Adams-Huet, Beverley; Nguyen, Mark; Molina, Christopher; Toto, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are the cornerstones of pharmacologic therapy in diabetic nephropathy. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockers reduce proteinuria as single agents or add-on therapy to other renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system-inhibiting drugs in these patients. The long-term benefits and ultimate role of mineralocorticoid receptor blockers in diabetic nephropathy remain unknown. A clinical trial previously showed that the kalemic effect of spironolactone is higher than losartan when added to lisinopril in patients with diabetic nephropathy. The purpose of this study was to investigate if renal potassium handling was primarily responsible for that observation. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a blinded, randomized, three-arm placebo-controlled clinical trial, 80 participants with diabetic nephropathy taking lisinopril (80 mg) were randomized to spironolactone (25 mg daily), losartan (100 mg daily), or placebo (trial dates from July of 2003 to December of 2006). Serum potassium, aldosterone, and 24-hour urine sodium, potassium, and creatinine were measured over 48 weeks. Differences were analyzed with repeated measures mixed models. Results Mean follow-up serum potassium was 5.0 mEq/L for spironolactone, 4.7 mEq/L for losartan (P=0.05 versus spironolactone), and 4.5 mEq/L for placebo (P<0.001 versus spironolactone; P=0.03 versus losartan). The difference in serum potassium was 0.23 mEq/L for losartan versus placebo (P=0.02), 0.43 mEq/L for spironolactone versus placebo (P<0.001), and 0.2 mEq/L for spironolactone versus losartan (P=0.05). Serum and urine potassium excretion and secretion rates were similar between groups throughout the study. Conclusion Spironolactone raised serum potassium more than losartan in patients with diabetic nephropathy receiving lisinopril, despite similar renal sodium and potassium excretion. This finding suggests that extrarenal

  7. Airport baggage handling--where do human factors fit in the challenges that airports put on a baggage system?

    PubMed

    Lenior, O N M

    2012-01-01

    The challenges put on large baggage systems by airports can be summarized as: handling a high number of bags in a short period of time, in a limited space, with all sorts of disruptions, whilst complying with stringent regulation upon security, sustainability and health and safety. The aim of this company case study is to show in the different project phases--as indicated in the system ergonomic approach--how the human factors specialist can play a major part in tackling these challenges. By describing different projects in terms of scope, organization, human factors topics covered, phases and lessons learned, the importance of Human-Computer Interaction, automation as well as manual handling and work organization in baggage is addressed.

  8. Exception handling controllers: An application of pushdown systems to discrete event control

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Christopher H

    2008-01-01

    Recent work by the author has extended the Supervisory Control Theory to include the class of control languages defined by pushdown machines. A pushdown machine is a finite state machine extended by an infinite stack memory. In this paper, we define a specific type of deterministic pushdown machine that is particularly useful as a discrete event controller. Checking controllability of pushdown machines requires computing the complement of the controller machine. We show that Exception Handling Controllers have the property that algorithms for taking their complements and determining their prefix closures are nearly identical to the algorithms available for finite state machines. Further, they exhibit an important property that makes checking for controllability extremely simple. Hence, they maintain the simplicity of the finite state machine, while providing the extra power associated with a pushdown stack memory. We provide an example of a useful control specification that cannot be implemented using a finite state machine, but can be implemented using an Exception Handling Controller.

  9. Thermal analysis for fuel handling system for sodium cooled reactor considering minor actinide-bearing metal fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Chikazawa, Y.; Grandy, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-01

    The Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) is one of the components of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) used to close the fuel cycle. ABR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor that is used to consume transuranic elements resulting from the reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel. ABR-1000 [1000 MW(thermal)] is a fast reactor concept created at Argonne National Laboratory to be used as a reference concept for various future trade-offs. ABR-1000 meets the GNEP goals although it uses what is considered base sodium fast reactor technology for its systems and components. One of the considerations of any fast reactor plant concept is the ability to perform fuel-handling operations with new and spent fast reactor fuel. The transmutation fuel proposed as the ABR fuel has a very little experience base, and thus, this paper investigates a fuel-handling concept and potential issues of handling fast reactor fuel containing minor actinides. In this study, two thermal analyses supporting a conceptual design study on the ABR-1000 fuel-handling system were carried out. One analysis investigated passive dry spent fuel storage, and the other analysis investigated a fresh fuel shipping cask. Passive dry storage can be made suitable for the ABR-1000 spent fuel storage with sodium-bonded metal fuel. The thermal analysis shows that spent fast reactor fuel with a decay heat of 2 kW or less can be stored passively in a helium atmosphere. The 2-kW value seems to be a reasonable and practical level, and a combination of reasonably-sized in-sodium storage followed by passive dry storage could be a candidate for spent fuel storage for the next-generation sodium-cooled reactor with sodium-bonded metal fuel. Requirements for the shipping casks for minor actinide-bearing fuel with a high decay heat level are also discussed in this paper. The shipping cask for fresh sodium-cooled-reactor fuel should be a dry type to reduce the reaction between residual moisture on fresh fuel and the

  10. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, D.M.; Sullivan, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    A study is made of several outstanding issues concerning the commercial development of environmental control systems for electric vehicles (EVs). Engineering design constraints such as federal regulations and consumer requirements are first identified. Next, heating and cooling loads in a sample automobile are calculated using a computer model available from the literature. The heating and cooling loads are then used as a basis for estimating the electrical consumption that is to be expected for heat pumps installed in EVs. The heat pump performance is evaluated using an automobile heat pump computer model which has been developed recently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The heat pump design used as input to the model consists of typical finned-tube heat exchangers and a hermetic compressor driven by a variable-speed brushless dc motor. The simulations suggest that to attain reasonable system efficiencies, the interior heat exchangers that are currently installed as automobile air conditioning will need to be enlarged. Regarding the thermal envelope of the automobile itself, calculations are made which show that considerable energy savings will result if steps are taken to reduce {open_quote}hot soak{close_quote} temperatures and if the outdoor air ventilation rate is well controlled. When these changes are made, heating and cooling should consume less than 10% of the total stored electrical energy for steady driving in most U.S. climates. However, this result depends strongly upon the type of driving: The fraction of total power for heating and cooling ({open_quote}range penalty{close_quote}) increases sharply for driving scenarios having low average propulsion power, such as stop-and-go driving.

  11. A new compact and low cost Langmuir Probe and associated onboard data handling system for CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralikrishna, Polinaya; Domingos, Sinval; Paredes, Andres; Abrahão Dos Santos, Walter

    2016-07-01

    A new compact and low cost Langmuir Probe and associated onboard data handling system are being developed at Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais for launching on board one of the future 2U CubeSat missions. The system is a simplified and compacted version of the Langmuir Probe payloads launched on board several Brazilian SONDA III rockets and also developed for the Brazilian scientific satellites SACI-1 and SACI-2. The onboard data handling system will have the dual functions of preprocessing the data collected by the Langmuir Probe and acting as the interface between the experiment and the on board computer. The Langmuir Probe sensor in the form of two rectangular stainless steel strips of total surface area of approximately 80cm2 will be deployed soon after the injection of the CubeSat into orbit. A sweep voltage varying linearly from 0V to 3.0V in about 1.5 seconds and then remaining fixed at 3.0V for 1 second will be applied to the LP sensor to obtain both the electron density and electron temperature. A high sensitivity preamplifier will be used to convert the sensor current expected to be in the range of a few nano amperes to a few micro amperes into a varying potential. In order to cover the large dynamic range of the expected sensor current the preamplifier output will be further amplified by a logarithmic amplifier before being sampled and sent to the data handling system. The data handling system is projected to handle 8 analog channels and 4 digital words of 8 bits each. The incoming data will be stored in a RAM and later sent to the on board computer using a serial RS422 communication protocol. The interface unit will process the telecommands received from the on board computer. The interface is also projected to do FFT analysis of the LP sensor data and send the averaged FFT spectral amplitudes in place of the original unprocessed data. The system details are presented here.

  12. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  13. Systems evaluation of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, R. W.; Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Methods were studied for improving air transportation to low-density population regions in the U.S. through the application of new aeronautical technology. The low-density air service concepts are developed for selected regions, and critical technologies that presently limit the effective application of low-density air transportation systems are identified.

  14. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    North, William Edward

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  15. Compressed Air System Improvements at an Automotive Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-01

    In 1998, the Ford Motor Company implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Woodhaven Stamping plant in Woodhaven, Michigan. As a result of the system approach that it took towards improving the plant's compressed air system, the plant was able to take an 800-hp air compressor offline, shut down several high pressure satellite compressors, and operate the remaining compressors more efficiently.

  16. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    DOE PAGES

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment costmore » and pay back periods were calculated.« less

  17. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment cost and pay back periods were calculated.

  18. Workbook for estimating effects of accidental explosions in propellant ground handling and transport systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W. E.; Kulesz, J. J.; Ricker, R. E.; Westine, P. S.; Parr, V. B.; Vargas, L. M.; Moseley, P. K.

    1978-01-01

    A workbook is presented to supplement an earlier NASA publication, which was intended to provide the designer and safety engineer with rapid methods for predicting damage and hazards from explosions of liquid propellant and compressed gas vessels used in ground storage, transport and handling. Information is presented in the form of graphs and tables to allow easy calculation, using only desk or handheld calculators. Topics covered in various chapters are: (1) estimates of explosive yield; (2) characteristics of pressure waves; (3) effects of pressure waves; (4) characteristics of fragments; and (5) effects of fragments and related topics.

  19. Design, construction and six years' experience of an integrated system for automated handling of discrete blood samples.

    PubMed

    Andersson, J L; Schneider, H

    1998-01-01

    The present paper describes the design of an integrated system to aid in the taking and measurement of manual blood samples during nuclear medical examinations requiring blood sampling. In contrast to previously published systems, the present system is not used in the actual sampling of the blood, but aims to aid in all other aspects of handling and measurement. It consists of two main parts. One part is a distributed software system running on the scanner host computer used to register sample times, to display information pertaining to the ongoing examination and to collect data from a number of well crystals. The other main part consists of an industrial robot used to perform the actual weighing, centrifugation, pipetting and measurement of the samples. The system has been operational for 6 years, during which time it has had an "up-time" in excess of 95% and has handled and measured the blood samples from more than 5000 examinations, each comprising an average of 15 blood samples. The throughput of the system is 50 whole blood samples or 21 plasma samples per hour. In addition it has to a large extent removed the "human factor" from the process, thereby increasing the reliability of the data.

  20. The air transportation/energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The changing pattern of transportation is discussed, and the energy intensiveness of various modes of transportation is also analyzed. Sociopsychological data affecting why people travel by air are presented, along with governmental regulation and air transportation economics. The aviation user tax structure is shown in tabular form.

  1. Investigation of Control System and Display Variations on Spacecraft Handling Qualities for Docking with Stationary and Rotating Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Bailey, Randall E.; Barnes, James R.; Ragsdale, William A.; Neuhaus, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the investigation into the manual docking of a preliminary version of the Crew Exploration Vehicle with stationary and rotating targets in Low Earth Orbit. The investigation was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center in the summer of 2008 in a repurposed fixed-base transport aircraft cockpit and involved nine evaluation astronauts and research pilots. The investigation quantified the benefits of a feed-forward reaction control system thruster mixing scheme to reduce translation-into-rotation coupling, despite unmodeled variations in individual thruster force levels and off-axis center of mass locations up to 12 inches. A reduced rate dead-band in the phase-plane attitude controller also showed some promise. Candidate predictive symbology overlaid on a docking ring centerline camera image did not improve handling qualities, but an innovative attitude status indicator symbol was beneficial. The investigation also showed high workload and handling quality problems when manual dockings were performed with a rotating target. These concerns indicate achieving satisfactory handling quality ratings with a vehicle configuration similar to the nominal Crew Exploration Vehicle may require additional automation.

  2. Dynamic airspace configuration algorithms for next generation air transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jian

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is under great pressure to safely and efficiently handle the record-high air traffic volume nowadays, and will face even greater challenge to keep pace with the steady increase of future air travel demand, since the air travel demand is projected to increase to two to three times the current level by 2025. The inefficiency of traffic flow management initiatives causes severe airspace congestion and frequent flight delays, which cost billions of economic losses every year. To address the increasingly severe airspace congestion and delays, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is proposed to transform the current static and rigid radar based system to a dynamic and flexible satellite based system. New operational concepts such as Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) have been under development to allow more flexibility required to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalances in order to increase the throughput of the entire NAS. In this dissertation, we address the DAC problem in the en route and terminal airspace under the framework of NextGen. We develop a series of algorithms to facilitate the implementation of innovative concepts relevant with DAC in both the en route and terminal airspace. We also develop a performance evaluation framework for comprehensive benefit analyses on different aspects of future sector design algorithms. First, we complete a graph based sectorization algorithm for DAC in the en route airspace, which models the underlying air route network with a weighted graph, converts the sectorization problem into the graph partition problem, partitions the weighted graph with an iterative spectral bipartition method, and constructs the sectors from the partitioned graph. The algorithm uses a graph model to accurately capture the complex traffic patterns of the real flights, and generates sectors with high efficiency while evenly distributing the workload among the generated sectors. We further improve

  3. PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems: A new approach to clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Poles, T.; Anderson, D.R.; Durilla, M.; Heck, R.; Hoke, J.; Ober, R.; Rudy, W.

    1996-12-01

    PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems represents a new approach to air pollution control--one that focuses on destroying pollutants already in the air. PremAir is the trademark for a family of developmental catalysts capable of reducing ozone, carbon monoxide and potentially other pollutants in ambient air that comes into contact with catalyst-coated surfaces. The more air that comes into contact with the surface the more pollutants that can be destroyed. For this reason, Engelhard has focused its attention on heat-exchange equipment such as automotive radiators and air-conditioner condensers. It is because of advances in catalysis achieved at Engelhard that PremAir catalysts are active at the low temperatures found in these environments. In Los Angeles, which has the country`s worst smog problem, approximately one trillion cubic feet per day of air pass through car radiators and five trillion cubic feet per day pass through air conditioners. Most of the research, development and testing work performed to date has been on ozone catalysts and their application to car radiators. This paper discusses that work and the potential benefits associated with the PremAir technology. In addition, preliminary work on stationary applications of this new technology is discussed.

  4. The microbiological quality of air improves when using air conditioning systems in cars

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of better comfort, air conditioning systems are a common feature in automobiles these days. However, its impact on the number of particles and microorganisms inside the vehicle - and by this its impact on the risk of an allergic reaction - is yet unknown. Methods Over a time period of 30 months, the quality of air was investigated in three different types of cars (VW Passat, VW Polo FSI, Seat Alhambra) that were all equipped with a automatic air conditioning system. Operation modes using fresh air from outside the car as well as circulating air from inside the car were examined. The total number of microorganisms and the number of mold spores were measured by impaction in a high flow air sampler. Particles of 0.5 to 5.0 μm diameter were counted by a laser particle counter device. Results Overall 32 occasions of sampling were performed. The concentration of microorganisms outside the cars was always higher than it was inside the cars. Few minutes after starting the air conditioning system the total number of microorganisms was reduced by 81.7%, the number of mold spores was reduced by 83.3%, and the number of particles was reduced by 87.8%. There were no significant differences neither between the types of cars nor between the types of operation mode of the air conditioning system (fresh air vs. circulating air). All parameters that were looked for in this study improved during utilization of the car's air conditioning system. Conclusions We believe that the risk of an allergic reaction will be reduced during use also. Nevertheless, we recommend regular maintenance of the system and replacement of older filters after defined changing intervals. PMID:20515449

  5. Handle With Care: An Air Pollution Module for Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Grade Teachers of Health Education, Science, and Other Subject Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Dolores

    Presented is a module on air pollution for sixth through eighth graders. Six subsections address the many aspects of air and air pollution: (1) sensory awareness, (2) the nature of the atmosphere, (3) air pollution's effects on health and property, (4) values conflicts, (5) air quality control, and (6) individual responsibility. Learning…

  6. Vehicle height and posture control of the electronic air suspension system using the hybrid system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Yingfeng; Chen, Long; Liu, Yanling; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-03-01

    The electronic air suspension (EAS) system can improve ride comfort, fuel economy and handling safety of vehicles by adjusting vehicle height. This paper describes the development of a novel controller using the hybrid system approach to adjust the vehicle height (height control) and to regulate the roll and pitch angles of the vehicle body during the height adjustment process (posture control). The vehicle height adjustment system of EAS poses challenging hybrid control problems, since it features different discrete modes of operation, where each mode has an associated linear continuous-time dynamic. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to the modelling and controller design problem for the vehicle height adjustment system of EAS. The system model is described firstly in the hybrid system description language (HYSDEL) to obtain a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) hybrid model. For the resulting model, a hybrid model predictive controller is tuned to improve the vehicle height and posture tracking accuracy and to achieve the on-off statuses direct control of solenoid valves. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed approach are demonstrated by simulations and actual vehicle tests.

  7. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch - Rapid Response System for Local Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, T.; Sawada, Y.; Kamei, A.; Uchiyama, A.

    2015-12-01

    GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) launched in 2009 and its successor, GOSAT-2, to be launched in FY 2017, have push-broom imaging systems with more than one UV band with higher spatial resolution than OMI, MODIS, and VIIRS. Such imaging systems are useful for mapping the spatial extent of the optically thick air mass with particulate matters. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch, a rapid response system mainly using GOSAT CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager) data for local air pollution issues is being developed in NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) GOSAT-2 Project. The current design of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch has three data processing steps as follows: Step 1) Making a cloud mask Step 2) Estimating AOT (Aerosol Optical Thickness) in the UV region (380 nm for CAI) Step 3) Converting AOT to atmospheric pollution parameters such as PM2.5 concentration Data processing algorithms in GOSAT Air Pollution Watch are based on GOSAT/GOSAT-2 algorithms for aerosol product generation with some modification for faster and timely data processing. Data from GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be used to inform the general public the current distribution of the polluted air. In addition, they will contribute to short term prediction of the spatial extent of the polluted air using atmospheric transport models. In this presentation, the background, the current status, and the future prospect of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be reported together with the development status of GOSAT-2.

  8. Using Single-Camera 3-D Imaging to Guide Material Handling Robots in a Nuclear Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney M. Shurtliff

    2005-09-01

    Nuclear reactors for generating energy and conducting research have been in operation for more than 50 years, and spent nuclear fuel and associated high-level waste have accumulated in temporary storage. Preparing this spent fuel and nuclear waste for safe and permanent storage in a geological repository involves developing a robotic packaging system—a system that can accommodate waste packages of various sizes and high levels of nuclear radiation. During repository operation, commercial and government-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste will be loaded into casks and shipped to the repository, where these materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package, sealed, and placed into an underground facility. The waste packages range from 12 to 20 feet in height and four and a half to seven feet in diameter. Closure operations include sealing the waste package and all its associated functions, such as welding lids onto the container, filling the inner container with an inert gas, performing nondestructive examinations on welds, and conducting stress mitigation. The Idaho National Laboratory is designing and constructing a prototype Waste Package Closure System (WPCS). Control of the automated material handling is an important part of the overall design. Waste package lids, welding equipment, and other tools must be moved in and around the closure cell during the closure process. These objects are typically moved from tool racks to a specific position on the waste package to perform a specific function. Periodically, these objects are moved from a tool rack or the waste package to the adjacent glovebox for repair or maintenance. Locating and attaching to these objects with the remote handling system, a gantry robot, in a loosely fixtured environment is necessary for the operation of the closure cell. Reliably directing the remote handling system to pick and place the closure cell equipment within the cell is the major challenge.

  9. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin; Bergey, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  10. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  11. An experimental investigation of 235 sub UF sub 6 fission produced plasmas. [gas handling system for use with nuclear pumped laser experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    A gas handling system capable of use with uranium fluoride was designed and constructed for use with nuclear pumped laser experiments using the TRIGA research reactor. By employing careful design and temperature controls, the UF6 can be first transported into the irradiation chamber, and then, at the conclusion of the experiment, returned to gas cylinders. The design of the system is described. Operating procedures for the UF6 and gas handling systems are included.

  12. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-Yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for remotely sensing air outside a moving aircraft includes generating laser radiation within a swept frequency range. A portion of the laser radiation is projected from the aircraft into the air to induce scattered laser radiation. Filtered scattered laser radiation, filtered laser radiation, and unfiltered laser radiation are detected. At least one actual ratio is determined from data corresponding to the filtered scattered laser radiation and the unfiltered laser radiation. One or more air parameters are determined by correlating the actual ratio to at least one reference ratio.

  13. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-Yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for remotely sensing air outside a moving aircraft includes generating laser radiation within a swept frequency range. A portion of the laser radiation is projected from the aircraft into the air to induce scattered laser radiation. Filtered scattered laser radiation, filtered laser radiation, and unfiltered laser radiation are detected. At least one actual ratio is determined from data corresponding to the filtered scattered laser radiation and the unfiltered laser radiation. One or more air parameters are determined by correlating the actual ratio to at least one reference ratio.

  14. Tools for grid deployment of CDF offline and SAM data handling systems for summer 2004 computing

    SciTech Connect

    Kreymer, A.; Baranovski, A.; Garzoglio, G.; Herber, R.; Illingworth, R.; Kennedy, R.; Loebel-Carpenter, L.; Lyon, A.; Merritt, W.; Stonjek, S.; Terekhov, I.; Trumbo, J.; Veseli, S.; White, S.; Bartsch, V.; Leslie, M.; Belforte, S.; Burgon-Lyon, M.; St. Denis, R.; Kerzel, U.; Ratnikov, F.; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Texas Tech.

    2004-12-01

    The Fermilab CDF Run-II experiment is now providing official support for remote computing, which has provided approximately 35% of the total CDF computing capacity during the summer of 2004. We face the challenge of unreliable networks, time differences, and remote managers having little experience with this particular software. The approach we have taken has been to separate the data handling components from the main CDF offline code releases by means of shared libraries, permitting live upgrades to otherwise frozen code. We now use a special ''development lite'' release to ensure that all sites have the latest tools available. We have put substantial effort into revision control, so that essentially all active CDF sites are running exactly the same SAM code.

  15. The Space Telescope SI C&DH system. [Scientific Instrument Control and Data Handling Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadwal, Govind R.; Barasch, Ronald S.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Scientific Instrument Control and Data Handling Subsystem (SI C&DH) is designed to interface with five scientific instruments of the Space Telescope to provide ground and autonomous control and collect health and status information using the Standard Telemetry and Command Components (STACC) multiplex data bus. It also formats high throughput science data into packets. The packetized data is interleaved and Reed-Solomon encoded for error correction and Pseudo Random encoded. An inner convolutional coding with the outer Reed-Solomon coding provides excellent error correction capability. The subsystem is designed with the capacity for orbital replacement in order to meet a mission life of fifteen years. The spacecraft computer and the SI C&DH computer coordinate the activities of the spacecraft and the scientific instruments to achieve the mission objectives.

  16. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOEpatents

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  17. Air pollution and the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Braga, Alfésio Luis Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations.

  18. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A...

  19. Thermal Environment for Classrooms. Central System Approach to Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triechler, Walter W.

    This speech compares the air conditioning requirements of high-rise office buildings with those of large centralized school complexes. A description of one particular air conditioning system provides information about the system's arrangement, functions, performance efficiency, and cost effectiveness. (MLF)

  20. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  1. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  2. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  3. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  4. EMISSIONS PROCESSING FOR THE ETA/ CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of the...

  5. Precision of the all-glass impinger and the andersen microbial impactor for air sampling in solid-waste handling facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Lembke, L L; Kniseley, R N; van Nostrand, R C; Hale, M D

    1981-01-01

    A method was devised to determine the precision of the all-glass impinger and the Andersen six-stage microbial impactor over a wide range of aerosol concentrations like those found in facilities which process solid waste. Simultaneous samples were collected inside a municipal solid-waste recovery system, and the data were treated statistically to estimate the precision of each air-sampling device. All-glass impingers yielded colony counts which indicated a linear relationship between samplers over an observed aerosol concentration of 1.1 X 10(3) to 2.8 X 10(7) colony-forming units per m3 of air. Impactors also yielded colony counts which indicated a linear relationship over an observed aerosol concentration range of 3.9 X 10(3) to 1.9 X 10(5) colony-forming units per m3 of air. The coefficients of variation for the all-glass impinger and the six-stage impactor in an environment with a high and variable dust level were determined to be 0.38 and 0.23, respectively. PMID:7025757

  6. Secondary air control system in an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, K.

    1981-11-10

    This application discloses a secondary air control system in an internal combustion engine. The system comprises: an exhaust gas purifying device mounted on an exhaust pipe; a secondary air control valve which comprises a diaphragm actuated by vacuum pressure for controlling secondary supply air to said exhaust gas purifying device; a solenoid valve for controlling said vacuum pressure which acts upon said secondary air control valve; a vacuum sensor which detects the vacuum pressure at a small venturi of a carburetor; a thermo-sensor for detecting the intake air temperature; an air flow meter mounted on a secondary air supply pipe; a thermo-sensor for detecting the secondary air temperature mounted on said secondary air supply pipe, and; a computer to which said valuum sensor, said thermo-sensors, and said air flow meter are connected so as to feed input signals thereto, said solenoid valve being connected to the output of said computer so as to control the secondary air quantity in response to said input signals.

  7. Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2003-11-01

    NREL will produce this sourcebook for DOE's Industrial Technologies Office as part of a series of documents on industrial energy equipment. The sourcebook is a reference for industrial compressed air system users, outlining opportunities to improve system efficiency.

  8. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  9. The meteorological monitoring system for the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dianic, Allan V.

    1994-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) are involved in many weather-sensitive operations. Manned and unmanned vehicle launches, which occur several times each year, are obvious example of operations whose success and safety are dependent upon favorable meteorological conditions. Other operations involving NASA, Air Force, and contractor personnel, including daily operations to maintain facilities, refurbish launch structures, prepare vehicles for launch, and handle hazardous materials, are less publicized but are no less weather-sensitive. The Meteorological Monitoring System (MMS) is a computer network which acquires, processes, disseminates, and monitors near real-time and forecast meteorological information to assist operational personnel and weather forecasters with the task of minimizing the risk to personnel, materials, and the surrounding population. CLIPS has been integrated into the MMS to provide quality control analysis and data monitoring. This paper describes aspects of the MMS relevant to CLIPS including requirements, actual implementation details, and results of performance testing.

  10. Cold Vacuum Drying Instrument Air System Design Description (SYS 12)

    SciTech Connect

    SHAPLEY, B.J.; TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-06-05

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the instrument air (IA) system of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This IA system provides instrument quality air to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. The IA system is a general service system that supports the operation of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, the process equipment skids, and process instruments in the CVD Facility. The following discussion is limited to the compressor, dryer, piping, and valving that provide the IA as shown in Drawings H-1-82222, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Compressed & Instrument Air P&ID, and H-1.82161, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid P&ID MCO/Cusk Interface. Figure 1-1 shows the physical location of the 1A system in the CVD Facility.

  11. 40 CFR 82.36 - Approved refrigerant handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Approved refrigerant handling equipment. (a)(1) Refrigerant recycling equipment must be certified by the...) Recovery/Recycling Equipment and Recovery/Recycling/Recharging for Mobile Air-Conditioning Systems. (5... Recycling Equipment Intended for Use with both CFC-12 and HFC-134a, Recommended Service Procedure for...

  12. 40 CFR 82.36 - Approved refrigerant handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Approved refrigerant handling equipment. (a)(1) Refrigerant recycling equipment must be certified by the...) Recovery/Recycling Equipment and Recovery/Recycling/Recharging for Mobile Air-Conditioning Systems. (5... Recycling Equipment Intended for Use with both CFC-12 and HFC-134a, Recommended Service Procedure for...

  13. 40 CFR 82.36 - Approved refrigerant handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Approved refrigerant handling equipment. (a)(1) Refrigerant recycling equipment must be certified by the...) Recovery/Recycling Equipment and Recovery/Recycling/Recharging for Mobile Air-Conditioning Systems. (5... Recycling Equipment Intended for Use with both CFC-12 and HFC-134a, Recommended Service Procedure for...

  14. 40 CFR 82.36 - Approved refrigerant handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Approved refrigerant handling equipment. (a)(1) Refrigerant recycling equipment must be certified by the...) Recovery/Recycling Equipment and Recovery/Recycling/Recharging for Mobile Air-Conditioning Systems. (5... Recycling Equipment Intended for Use with both CFC-12 and HFC-134a, Recommended Service Procedure for...

  15. 40 CFR 82.36 - Approved refrigerant handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Approved refrigerant handling equipment. (a)(1) Refrigerant recycling equipment must be certified by the...) Recovery/Recycling Equipment and Recovery/Recycling/Recharging for Mobile Air-Conditioning Systems. (5... Recycling Equipment Intended for Use with both CFC-12 and HFC-134a, Recommended Service Procedure for...

  16. Air cycle machine for an aircraft environmental control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decrisantis, Angelo A. (Inventor); O'Coin, James R. (Inventor); Taddey, Edmund P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An ECS system includes an ACM mounted adjacent an air-liquid heat exchanger through a diffuser that contains a diffuser plate. The diffuser plate receives airflow from the ACM which strikes the diffuser plate and flows radially outward and around the diffuser plate and into the air-liquid heat exchanger to provide minimal pressure loss and proper flow distribution into the air-liquid heat exchanger with significantly less packaging space.

  17. Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates

    SciTech Connect

    Goolsby, G.K.

    1995-01-04

    The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems.

  18. Designing Forced-Air HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-31

    This guide explains proper calculation of heating and cooling design loads for homes.used to calculated for the home using the protocols set forth in the latest edition of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s (ACCA) Manual J (currently the 8th edition), ASHRAE 2009 Handbook of Fundamentals, or an equivalent computation procedure.

  19. Three-Dimensional Air Quality System (3D-AQS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel-Cox, J.; Hoff, R.; Weber, S.; Zhang, H.; Prados, A.

    2007-12-01

    The 3-Dimensional Air Quality System (3DAQS) integrates remote sensing observations from a variety of platforms into air quality decision support systems at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with a focus on particulate air pollution. The decision support systems are the Air Quality System (AQS) / AirQuest database at EPA, Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) system, the U.S. Air Quality weblog (Smog Blog) at UMBC, and the Regional East Atmospheric Lidar Mesonet (REALM). The project includes an end user advisory group with representatives from the air quality community providing ongoing feedback. The 3DAQS data sets are UMBC ground based LIDAR, and NASA and NOAA satellite data from MODIS, OMI, AIRS, CALIPSO, MISR, and GASP. Based on end user input, we are co-locating these measurements to the EPA's ground-based air pollution monitors as well as re-gridding to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model grid. These data provide forecasters and the scientific community with a tool for assessment, analysis, and forecasting of U.S Air Quality. The third dimension and the ability to analyze the vertical transport of particulate pollution are provided by aerosol extinction profiles from the UMBC LIDAR and CALIPSO. We present examples of a 3D visualization tool we are developing to facilitate use of this data. We also present two specific applications of 3D-AQS data. The first is comparisons between PM2.5 monitor data and remote sensing aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, which show moderate agreement but variation with EPA region. The second is a case study for Baltimore, Maryland, as an example of 3D-analysis for a metropolitan area. In that case, some improvement is found in the PM2.5 /LIDAR correlations when using vertical aerosol information to calculate an AOD below the boundary layer.

  20. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system. The engine must supply bleed air without adverse effect on the engine, excluding reduced thrust or...

  1. Compressed air systems. A guidebook on energy and cost savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-30

    This guidebook shows how energy can be saved in compressed air systems. It discusses basic compressed air systems which are typical of those found in industry and describes them and the engineering practices behind them. Energy conservation recommendations follow. These recommendations cover equipment selection, design, maintenance, and operation. Included is information which will help the reader to make economic evaluations of various engineering and equipment alternatives as they affect operations and costs. The appendices include some modern computer based approaches to predicting pressure drop for designing compressed air distribution systems. Also included is a bibliography providing leads for further and more detailed technical information on these and related subjects.

  2. Fluid handling equipment: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Devices and techniques used in fluid-handling and vacuum systems are described. Section 1 presents several articles on fluid lines and tubing. Section 2 describes a number of components such as valves, filters, and regulators. The last section contains descriptions of a number of innovative fluid-handling systems.

  3. Process Management and Exception Handling in Multiprocessor Operating Systems Using Object-Oriented Design Techniques. Revised Sep. 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Vincent; Johnston, Gary; Campbell, Roy

    1988-01-01

    The programming of the interrupt handling mechanisms, process switching primitives, scheduling mechanism, and synchronization primitives of an operating system for a multiprocessor require both efficient code in order to support the needs of high- performance or real-time applications and careful organization to facilitate maintenance. Although many advantages have been claimed for object-oriented class hierarchical languages and their corresponding design methodologies, the application of these techniques to the design of the primitives within an operating system has not been widely demonstrated. To investigate the role of class hierarchical design in systems programming, the authors have constructed the Choices multiprocessor operating system architecture the C++ programming language. During the implementation, it was found that many operating system design concerns can be represented advantageously using a class hierarchical approach, including: the separation of mechanism and policy; the organization of an operating system into layers, each of which represents an abstract machine; and the notions of process and exception management. In this paper, we discuss an implementation of the low-level primitives of this system and outline the strategy by which we developed our solution.

  4. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H.; Genc, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health. PMID:22523490

  5. The WAIS Melt Monitor: An automated ice core melting system for meltwater sample handling and the collection of high resolution microparticle size distribution data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breton, D. J.; Koffman, B. G.; Kreutz, K. J.; Hamilton, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    Paleoclimate data are often extracted from ice cores by careful geochemical analysis of meltwater samples. The analysis of the microparticles found in ice cores can also yield unique clues about atmospheric dust loading and transport, dust provenance and past environmental conditions. Determination of microparticle concentration, size distribution and chemical makeup as a function of depth is especially difficult because the particle size measurement either consumes or contaminates the meltwater, preventing further geochemical analysis. Here we describe a microcontroller-based ice core melting system which allows the collection of separate microparticle and chemistry samples from the same depth intervals in the ice core, while logging and accurately depth-tagging real-time electrical conductivity and particle size distribution data. This system was designed specifically to support microparticle analysis of the WAIS Divide WDC06A deep ice core, but many of the subsystems are applicable to more general ice core melting operations. Major system components include: a rotary encoder to measure ice core melt displacement with 0.1 millimeter accuracy, a meltwater tracking system to assign core depths to conductivity, particle and sample vial data, an optical debubbler level control system to protect the Abakus laser particle counter from damage due to air bubbles, a Rabbit 3700 microcontroller which communicates with a host PC, collects encoder and optical sensor data and autonomously operates Gilson peristaltic pumps and fraction collectors to provide automatic sample handling, melt monitor control software operating on a standard PC allowing the user to control and view the status of the system, data logging software operating on the same PC to collect data from the melting, electrical conductivity and microparticle measurement systems. Because microparticle samples can easily be contaminated, we use optical air bubble sensors and high resolution ice core density

  6. Overview of the Activities to Replace a Radioactive Air Emissions System

    SciTech Connect

    SWAN, R.J.

    2002-07-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is located on the Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. This facility recently initiated replacement of its main stack's sample probe. The facility has historically handled and processed plutonium. When problems with intermittent continuous air monitor (CAM) alarms on the stack's sampling system were encountered, concerns with the integrity of the overall ventilation system were raised. Many activities were launched by PFP to resolve the issue, including an investigation of the sampling system, installation of a temporary shrouded probe for comparison sampling and replacement of the existing rake probe. To address concerns raised by the regulators (the Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Health) ongoing meetings were held. It was concluded that the probe should be replaced and the historical depositions analyzed.

  7. Prototype air cleaning system for a firing range

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report recommends air cleaning system components for the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory's new large-caliber firing range, which is used for testing depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The new air cleaning system has lower operating costs during the life of the system compared to that anticipated for the existing air cleaning system. The existing system consists of three banks of filters in series; the first two banks are prefilters and the last are high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The principal disadvantage of the existing filters is that they are not cleanable and reusable. Pacific Northwest Laboratory focused the search for alternate air cleaning equipment on devices that do not employ liquids as part of the particle collection mechanism. Collected dry particles were assumed preferable to a liquid waste stream. The dry particle collection devices identified included electrostatic precipitators; inertial separators using turning vanes or cyclones; and several devices employing a filter medium such as baghouses, cartridge houses, cleanable filters, and noncleanable filters similar to those in the existing system. The economics of practical air cleaning systems employing the dry particle collection devices were evaluated in 294 different combinations. 7 references, 21 figures, 78 tables.

  8. 7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system room 25 - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1050, Northwest corner of Doolittle Avenue & D Street; Harrison Township, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  9. Technology options for an enhanced air cargo system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winston, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    A view of potential enhancements to the air cargo system through technology application is provided. NASA's role in addressing deficiencies of the current civil and military air cargo systems is outlined. The evolution of conventional airfreighter design is traced and projected through the 1990's. Also, several advanced airfreighter concepts incorporating unconventional design features are described to show their potentials benefits. A number of ongoing NASA technology programs are discussed to indicate the wide range of advanced technologies offering potential benefits to the air cargo system. The promise of advanced airfreighters is then viewed in light of the future air cargo infrastructure predicted by extensive systems studies. The derived outlook concludes that the aircraft technology benefits may be offset somewhat by adverse economic, environmental, and institutional constraints.

  10. View of building 11070 showing vents and forced air system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11070 showing vents and forced air system on east side, looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Maintenance Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  11. Air cushion landing system stability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, T. D.

    1981-02-01

    An analysis of an inelastic ACLS plunge mode dynamic model is presented. The ACLS has unrestrained side elements and frozen end elements. The model exhibits unstable behavior at certain operating conditions for which the side elements are in contact with the ground. A linear analysis showed this instability to be due mainly to the altitude sensitivities of the cushion to atmosphere airflows and the attendant influence on the dynamic pressure forces on the vehicle. The model instability can be alleviated by isolating side and end elements so that they are all unrestrained and by simultaneously venting the air cushion directly to atmosphere.

  12. 9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view to the south. The water purification system is visible in the right foreground of the photograph and the instrument air receiver tank is visible in the right background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  13. Characterization of aqueous two phase systems by combining lab-on-a-chip technology with robotic liquid handling stations.

    PubMed

    Amrhein, Sven; Schwab, Marie-Luise; Hoffmann, Marc; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2014-11-01

    Over the last decade, the use of design of experiment approaches in combination with fully automated high throughput (HTP) compatible screenings supported by robotic liquid handling stations (LHS), adequate fast analytics and data processing has been developed in the biopharmaceutical industry into a strategy of high throughput process development (HTPD) resulting in lower experimental effort, sample reduction and an overall higher degree of process optimization. Apart from HTP technologies, lab-on-a-chip technology has experienced an enormous growth in the last years and allows further reduction of sample consumption. A combination of LHS and lab-on-a-chip technology is highly desirable and realized in the present work to characterize aqueous two phase systems with respect to tie lines. In particular, a new high throughput compatible approach for the characterization of aqueous two phase systems regarding tie lines by exploiting differences in phase densities is presented. Densities were measured by a standalone micro fluidic liquid density sensor, which was integrated into a liquid handling station by means of a developed generic Tip2World interface. This combination of liquid handling stations and lab-on-a-chip technology enables fast, fully automated, and highly accurate density measurements. The presented approach was used to determine the phase diagram of ATPSs composed of potassium phosphate (pH 7) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 300, 400, 600 and 1000 Da respectively in the presence and in the absence of 3% (w/w) sodium chloride. Considering the whole ATPS characterization process, two complete ATPSs could be characterized within 24h, including four runs per ATPS for binodal curve determination (less than 45 min/run), and tie line determination (less than 45 min/run for ATPS preparation and 8h for density determination), which can be performed fully automated over night without requiring man power. The presented methodology provides

  14. Characterization of aqueous two phase systems by combining lab-on-a-chip technology with robotic liquid handling stations.

    PubMed

    Amrhein, Sven; Schwab, Marie-Luise; Hoffmann, Marc; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2014-11-01

    Over the last decade, the use of design of experiment approaches in combination with fully automated high throughput (HTP) compatible screenings supported by robotic liquid handling stations (LHS), adequate fast analytics and data processing has been developed in the biopharmaceutical industry into a strategy of high throughput process development (HTPD) resulting in lower experimental effort, sample reduction and an overall higher degree of process optimization. Apart from HTP technologies, lab-on-a-chip technology has experienced an enormous growth in the last years and allows further reduction of sample consumption. A combination of LHS and lab-on-a-chip technology is highly desirable and realized in the present work to characterize aqueous two phase systems with respect to tie lines. In particular, a new high throughput compatible approach for the characterization of aqueous two phase systems regarding tie lines by exploiting differences in phase densities is presented. Densities were measured by a standalone micro fluidic liquid density sensor, which was integrated into a liquid handling station by means of a developed generic Tip2World interface. This combination of liquid handling stations and lab-on-a-chip technology enables fast, fully automated, and highly accurate density measurements. The presented approach was used to determine the phase diagram of ATPSs composed of potassium phosphate (pH 7) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 300, 400, 600 and 1000 Da respectively in the presence and in the absence of 3% (w/w) sodium chloride. Considering the whole ATPS characterization process, two complete ATPSs could be characterized within 24h, including four runs per ATPS for binodal curve determination (less than 45 min/run), and tie line determination (less than 45 min/run for ATPS preparation and 8h for density determination), which can be performed fully automated over night without requiring man power. The presented methodology provides

  15. A reliability study of instrument air system design options

    SciTech Connect

    Guey, C.; Skelley, W. ); Gilbert, L.; Anoba, R.; Stutzke, M. )

    1992-01-01

    The existing instrument air system at Turkey Point station uses mobile diesel-driven air compressors. Although these diesel compressors have performed their function well, they represent a maintenance and financial burden requiring engineering review. An engineering evaluation is ongoing to develop several feasible conceptual design options to upgrade the instrument air systems. This phase-1 study was performed to assess the reliability of the various proposed design options. A phase-2 study will be conducted later to determine the core damage frequency for a selected option.

  16. Air data system optimization using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Samir M.; Kumar, Renjith R.; Seywald, Hans; Siemers, Paul M., III

    1992-01-01

    An optimization method for flush-orifice air data system design has been developed using the Genetic Algorithm approach. The optimization of the orifice array minimizes the effect of normally distributed random noise in the pressure readings on the calculation of air data parameters, namely, angle of attack, sideslip angle and freestream dynamic pressure. The optimization method is applied to the design of Pressure Distribution/Air Data System experiment (PD/ADS) proposed for inclusion in the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). Results obtained by the Genetic Algorithm method are compared to the results obtained by conventional gradient search method.

  17. Using the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for testing, demonstration and training for the mined geological system surface waste handling

    SciTech Connect

    Bali, M.; Kelley, C.

    1995-08-01

    This paper explores the possibility of using the Remote Handled Transuranic) (RH TRU) side of WIPP to test and demonstrate mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) equipment and concepts of operation, and to train MGDS personnel. The authors believe that the experience gained from this interaction could lead to significant saving for both the WIPP and MGDS. The paper compares the operations at both facilities; identifies MGBS operations that can be duplicated without change at WIPP; identifies MGDS operations that can be simulated at a smaller scale at WIPP; identifies MGDS operations that require modifications at WIPP and determines the extent of modifications required and whether the modifications impact WIPP`s mission of disposing of RH TRU wastes; and finally the paper estimates the cost of using WIPP for the above testing, demonstration, and training. The paper concludes that using WIPP for the benefit of the MGDS is feasible without impacting WIPP`s mission and suggests a schedule for implementation.

  18. Effectiveness of photocatalytic filter for removing volatile organic compounds in the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Huang, Wei-Ming; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Lou, Chia-ling; Yang, Shinhao

    2006-05-01

    Nowadays, the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system has been an important facility for maintaining indoor air quality. However, the primary function of typical HVAC systems is to control the temperature and humidity of the supply air. Most indoor air pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), cannot be removed by typical HVAC systems. Thus, some air handling units for removing VOCs should be added in typical HVAC systems. Among all of the air cleaning techniques used to remove indoor VOCs, photocatalytic oxidation is an attractive alternative technique for indoor air purification and deodorization. The objective of this research is to investigate the VOC removal efficiency of the photocatalytic filter in a HVAC system. Toluene and formaldehyde were chosen as the target pollutants. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber equipped with a simplified HVAC system. A mechanical filter coated with Degussa P25 titania photocatalyst and two commercial photocatalytic filters were used as the photocatalytic filters in this simplified HVAC system. The total air change rates were controlled at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 hr(-1), and the relative humidity (RH) was controlled at 30%, 50%, and 70%. The ultraviolet lamp used was a 4-W, ultraviolet-C (central wavelength at 254 nm) strip light bulb. The first-order decay constant of toluene and formaldehyde found in this study ranged from 0.381 to 1.01 hr(-1) under different total air change rates, from 0.34 to 0.433 hr(-1) under different RH, and from 0.381 to 0.433 hr(-1) for different photocatalytic filters.

  19. Human factors programs for high-level radioactive waste handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Human Factors is the discipline concerned with the acquisition of knowledge about human capabilities and limitations, and the application of such knowledge to the design of systems. This paper discusses the range of human factors issues relevant to high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) management systems and, based on examples from other organizations, presents mechanisms through which to assure application of such expertise in the safe, efficient, and effective management and disposal of high-level waste. Additionally, specific attention is directed toward consideration of who might be classified as a human factors specialist, why human factors expertise is critical to the success of the HLRW management system, and determining when human factors specialists should become involved in the design and development process.

  20. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  1. An Air Quality Data Analysis System for Interrelating Effects, Standards and Needed Source Reductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ralph I.

    1973-01-01

    Makes recommendations for a single air quality data system (using average time) for interrelating air pollution effects, air quality standards, air quality monitoring, diffusion calculations, source-reduction calculations, and emission standards. (JR)

  2. 49 CFR 232.609 - Handling of defective equipment with ECP brake systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or locomotive equipped with an ECP brake system that is found with inoperative or ineffective brakes...; provided, all applicable provisions of this section are met and the defective car or locomotive is hauled... appliance may be used or hauled without civil penalty under this part to the nearest or nearest...

  3. 40 CFR 65.161 - Continuous records and monitoring system data handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... change to the programming or equipment constituting the monitoring system, that might reasonably be... description shall be retained on-site at all times or be accessible from a central location by computer or... description shall be retained on-site (or accessible from a central location by computer that provides...

  4. 40 CFR 65.161 - Continuous records and monitoring system data handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... change to the programming or equipment constituting the monitoring system, that might reasonably be... description shall be retained on-site at all times or be accessible from a central location by computer or... description shall be retained on-site (or accessible from a central location by computer that provides...

  5. 40 CFR 65.161 - Continuous records and monitoring system data handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... change to the programming or equipment constituting the monitoring system, that might reasonably be... description shall be retained on-site at all times or be accessible from a central location by computer or... description shall be retained on-site (or accessible from a central location by computer that provides...

  6. 40 CFR 65.161 - Continuous records and monitoring system data handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... change to the programming or equipment constituting the monitoring system, that might reasonably be... description shall be retained on-site at all times or be accessible from a central location by computer or... description shall be retained on-site (or accessible from a central location by computer that provides...

  7. 40 CFR 65.161 - Continuous records and monitoring system data handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... change to the programming or equipment constituting the monitoring system, that might reasonably be... description shall be retained on-site at all times or be accessible from a central location by computer or... description shall be retained on-site (or accessible from a central location by computer that provides...

  8. A spatial data handling system for retrieval of images by unrestricted regions of user interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorfman, Erik; Cromp, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    The Intelligent Data Management (IDM) project at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center has prototyped an Intelligent Information Fusion System (IIFS), which automatically ingests metadata from remote sensor observations into a large catalog which is directly queryable by end-users. The greatest challenge in the implementation of this catalog was supporting spatially-driven searches, where the user has a possible complex region of interest and wishes to recover those images that overlap all or simply a part of that region. A spatial data management system is described, which is capable of storing and retrieving records of image data regardless of their source. This system was designed and implemented as part of the IIFS catalog. A new data structure, called a hypercylinder, is central to the design. The hypercylinder is specifically tailored for data distributed over the surface of a sphere, such as satellite observations of the Earth or space. Operations on the hypercylinder are regulated by two expert systems. The first governs the ingest of new metadata records, and maintains the efficiency of the data structure as it grows. The second translates, plans, and executes users' spatial queries, performing incremental optimization as partial query results are returned.

  9. Investigation on wind energy-compressed air power system.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guang-Zheng; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Wu, Gen-Mao

    2004-03-01

    Wind energy is a pollution free and renewable resource widely distributed over China. Aimed at protecting the environment and enlarging application of wind energy, a new approach to application of wind energy by using compressed air power to some extent instead of electricity put forward. This includes: explaining the working principles and characteristics of the wind energy-compressed air power system; discussing the compatibility of wind energy and compressor capacity; presenting the theoretical model and computational simulation of the system. The obtained compressor capacity vs wind power relationship in certain wind velocity range can be helpful in the designing of the wind power-compressed air system. Results of investigations on the application of high-pressure compressed air for pressure reduction led to conclusion that pressure reduction with expander is better than the throttle regulator in energy saving.

  10. Analysis of decision fusion algorithms in handling uncertainties for integrated health monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zein-Sabatto, Saleh; Mikhail, Maged; Bodruzzaman, Mohammad; DeSimio, Martin; Derriso, Mark; Behbahani, Alireza

    2012-06-01

    It has been widely accepted that data fusion and information fusion methods can improve the accuracy and robustness of decision-making in structural health monitoring systems. It is arguably true nonetheless, that decision-level is equally beneficial when applied to integrated health monitoring systems. Several decisions at low-levels of abstraction may be produced by different decision-makers; however, decision-level fusion is required at the final stage of the process to provide accurate assessment about the health of the monitored system as a whole. An example of such integrated systems with complex decision-making scenarios is the integrated health monitoring of aircraft. Thorough understanding of the characteristics of the decision-fusion methodologies is a crucial step for successful implementation of such decision-fusion systems. In this paper, we have presented the major information fusion methodologies reported in the literature, i.e., probabilistic, evidential, and artificial intelligent based methods. The theoretical basis and characteristics of these methodologies are explained and their performances are analyzed. Second, candidate methods from the above fusion methodologies, i.e., Bayesian, Dempster-Shafer, and fuzzy logic algorithms are selected and their applications are extended to decisions fusion. Finally, fusion algorithms are developed based on the selected fusion methods and their performance are tested on decisions generated from synthetic data and from experimental data. Also in this paper, a modeling methodology, i.e. cloud model, for generating synthetic decisions is presented and used. Using the cloud model, both types of uncertainties; randomness and fuzziness, involved in real decision-making are modeled. Synthetic decisions are generated with an unbiased process and varying interaction complexities among decisions to provide for fair performance comparison of the selected decision-fusion algorithms. For verification purposes

  11. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 4: Functional specification for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The functional requirements for the performance, design, and testing for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS) to be demonstrated for the TDRSS S-Band Single Access Return Link are presented.

  12. Register Closing Effects on Forced Air Heating System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-11-01

    Closing registers in forced air heating systems and leaving some rooms in a house unconditioned has been suggested as a method of quickly saving energy for California consumers. This study combined laboratory measurements of the changes in duct leakage as registers are closed together with modeling techniques to estimate the changes in energy use attributed to closing registers. The results of this study showed that register closing led to increased energy use for a typical California house over a wide combination of climate, duct leakage and number of closed registers. The reduction in building thermal loads due to conditioning only a part of the house was offset by increased duct system losses; mostly due to increased duct leakage. Therefore, the register closing technique is not recommended as a viable energy saving strategy for California houses with ducts located outside conditioned space. The energy penalty associated with the register closing technique was found to be minimized if registers furthest from the air handler are closed first because this tends to only affect the pressures and air leakage for the closed off branch. Closing registers nearer the air handler tends to increase the pressures and air leakage for the whole system. Closing too many registers (more than 60%) is not recommended because the added flow resistance severely restricts the air flow though the system leading to safety concerns. For example, furnaces may operate on the high-limit switch and cooling systems may suffer from frozen coils.

  13. Advanced air revitalization system modeling and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dall-Baumann, Liese; Jeng, Frank; Christian, Steve; Edeer, Marybeth; Lin, Chin

    1990-01-01

    To support manned lunar and Martian exploration, an extensive evaluation of air revitalization subsystems (ARS) is being conducted. The major operations under study include carbon dioxide removal and reduction; oxygen and nitrogen production, storage, and distribution; humidity and temperature control; and trace contaminant control. A comprehensive analysis program based on a generalized block flow model was developed to facilitate the evaluation of various processes and their interaction. ASPEN PLUS was used in modelling carbon dioxide removal and reduction. Several life support test stands were developed to test new and existing technologies for their potential applicability in space. The goal was to identify processes which use compact, lightweight equipment and maximize the recovery of oxygen and water. The carbon dioxide removal test stands include solid amine/vacuum desorption (SAVD), regenerative silver oxide chemisorption, and electrochemical carbon dioxide concentration (EDC). Membrane-based carbon dioxide removal and humidity control, catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide, and catalytic oxidation of trace contaminants were also investigated.

  14. Electronic control system for air fuel ratio compensation in highlands

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, J.; Noji, A.

    1981-12-29

    An electronic control system which electronically controls the air fuel ratio of a mixture being supplied to a gasoline engine in highlands is described. An orifice device is provided in a passage through which secondary air is supplied to the venturi section of the engine carburetor. An electronic control unit carries out programmed control of the orifice opening of the orifice device in response to the atmospheric pressure and the engine temperature to create a reference pressure. A further electronic control unit drives a second air control valve provided in the secondary air supply passage along a predetermined operating characteristic pattern in response to the difference between the reference pressure and an actual pressure present in the venturi section of the carburetor. A mixture having an optimum air fuel ratio corresponding to the atmospheric pressure can thus be supplied to the engine from the carburetor.

  15. Performance of a photovoltaically powered air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, Jr, E. C.; Millner, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    A vapor-compression air conditioner coupled directly to a photovoltaic array is discussed. Previous analyses of such a system are reviewed, and a development system designed to test the concept is described. Preliminary experiments indicate that the performance of this initial system falls considerably short of analytic expectations.

  16. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Aldrich, R.; Arena, L.

    2012-07-01

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  17. Distributed MPC of polytopic uncertain systems: handling quantised communication and packet dropouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Langwen; Wang, Jingcheng; Wang, Bohui

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we study the distributed model predictive control (MPC) of polytopic uncertain systems with quantised communication and packet dropouts. The model of the whole plant is divided into a certain number of incomplete subsystems. Due to the nature of the distributed control structure, there is generally a lack of information about the state of the overall system. Each subsystem shares its information with neighbour subsystems via reliable connection. Distributed MPC controllers are designed for each subsystem by solving the linear matrix inequalities optimisation problem. The distributed state feedback laws are quantised and transmitted via communication network. An iterative algorithm is presented to make coordination among distributed state feedback laws. The communication is assumed to be affected by random packet dropouts in a representation of Bernoulli distributed white sequences with known conditional probabilities. A case study is carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed distributed MPC technique.

  18. Combining digital and analog controls in the design of a unique coal handling system

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.W.; Levitt, B.J.; Sabina, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The Public Service Co. of Colorado, Pawnee steam electric generating station is located in northeast Colorado, near the towan of Brush. At Pawnee, coal is blended not only for BTU content, but also for sulfur content. Comparing the costs of blending with that of scrubbing, it was found that the blending process was much more economical, while maintaining emissions below regulated limits. This blending system is detailed. (JMT)

  19. Data handling and reporting for microbiology specimens with a small laboratory computer system.

    PubMed Central

    Landowne, R A

    1981-01-01

    A small laboratory computer system designed for general application in chemistry, haematology, and urinalysis has been adapted for the bacteriology section of the laboratory using the same available programming routines. Specimens are requisitioned according to predetermined common site codes, with both preliminary and final reporting allowed for where desired. Sensitivity data also appended and entered where required, even for different organisms in the same culture. PMID:7251905

  20. Precise nanoliter fluid handling system with integrated high-speed flow sensor.

    PubMed

    Haber, Carsten; Boillat, Marc; van der Schoot, Bart

    2005-04-01

    A system for accurate low-volume delivery of liquids in the micro- to nanoliter range makes use of an integrated miniature flow sensor as part of an intelligent feedback control loop driving a micro-solenoid valve. The flow sensor is hydraulically connected with the pressurized system liquid in the dispensing channel and located downstream from the pressure source, above the solenoid valve. The sensor operates in a differential mode and responds in real-time to the internal flow-pulse resulting from the brief opening interval of the solenoid valve leading to a rapid ejection of a fluid droplet. The integral of the flow-pulse delivered by the sensor is directly proportional to the volume of the ejected droplet from the nozzle. The quantitative information is utilized to provide active control of the effectively dispensed or aspirated volume by adjusting the solenoid valve accordingly. This process significantly enhances the precision of the fluid delivery. The system furthermore compensates automatically for any changes in the viscosity of the dispensed liquid. The data delivered by the flow sensor can be saved and backtracked in order to confirm and validate the aspiration and dispensing process in its entirety. The collected dispense information can be used for quality control assessments and automatically be made part of an electronic record.

  1. Effects of higher order control systems on aircraft approach and landing longitudinal handling qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasha, M. A.; Dazzo, J. J.; Silverthorn, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of approach and landing longitudinal flying qualities, based on data generated using a variable stability NT-33 aircraft combined with significant control system dynamics is described. An optimum pilot lead time for pitch tracking, flight path angle tracking, and combined pitch and flight path angle tracking tasks is determined from a closed loop simulation using integral squared error (ISE) as a performance measure. Pilot gain and lead time were varied in the closed loop simulation of the pilot and aircraft to obtain the best performance for different control system configurations. The results lead to the selection of an optimum lead time using ISE as a performance criterion. Using this value of optimum lead time, a correlation is then found between pilot rating and performance with changes in the control system and in the aircraft dynamics. It is also shown that pilot rating is closely related to pilot workload which, in turn, is related to the amount of lead which the pilot must generate to obtain satisfactory response. The results also indicate that the pilot may use pitch angle tracking for the approach task and then add flight path angle tracking for the flare and touchdown.

  2. Multi-hole pressure probes to air data system for subsonic small-scale air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, A. M.; Berezin, D. R.; Puzirev, L. N.; Tarasov, A. Z.; Kharitonov, A. M.; Shmakov, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    A brief review of research performed to develop multi-hole probes to measure of aerodynamic angles, dynamic head, and static pressure of a flying vehicle. The basis of these works is the application a well-known classical multi-hole pressure probe technique of measuring of a 3D flow to use in the air data system. Two multi-hole pressure probes with spherical and hemispherical head to air-data system for subsonic small-scale vehicles have been developed. A simple analytical probe model with separation of variables is proposed. The probes were calibrated in the wind tunnel, one of them is in-flight tested.

  3. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  4. A formal hybrid modeling scheme for handling discontinuities in physical system models

    SciTech Connect

    Mosterman, P.J.; Biswas, G.

    1996-12-31

    Physical systems are by nature continuous, but often exhibit nonlinearities that make behavior generation complex and hard to analyze. Complexity is often reduced by linearizing model constraints and by abstracting the time scale for behavior generation. In either case, the physical components are modeled to operate in multiple modes, with abrupt changes between modes. This paper discusses a hybrid modeling methodology and analysis algorithms that combine continuous energy flow modeling and localized discrete signal flow modeling to generate complex, multi-mode behavior in a consistent and correct manner. Energy phase space analysis is employed to demonstrate the correctness of the algorithm, and the reachability of a continuous mode.

  5. SPADE: A Rock Crushing and Sample Handling System Developed for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Candice J.; Paige, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Access to the interior of rocks on Mars is an important goal for understanding Mars petrology and geologic history. The spectral signature of the potentially diverse mineralogy of rocks on Mars is veiled by the ubiquitous dust and may be further hidden by weathered rind. We have developed a rock crusher and sample distribution system under the auspices of NASA s PIDDP program. We call it the SPADE : the Sample Processing and Distribution Experiment. Its purpose is to access the interiors of rocks on Mars and prepare samples for analysis by a suite of in situ instruments.

  6. Underfloor air distribution systems: Benefits and when to use the system in building design

    SciTech Connect

    McCarry, B.T.

    1995-12-31

    Underfloor air distribution systems are a viable option for mechanical system building design. They are comprised of raised floor panels with a supply air plenum in the void between the raised floor and the concrete structure. Supply air grilles are flush mounted to the floor to create a flat floor and walking surface. The engineering challenge is to determine when to use underfloor air distribution systems and how to effectively apply them. The best places to use this system are in owner-occupied buildings with a high churn rate and/or frequent technology changes. The benefits of this system include fresh air at the level where building occupants are located, forgiveness for variations in internal cooling loads, easy relocation of the supply air grilles to suit revised layouts, a reduction in energy costs for the mechanical system, and an improvement in indoor air quality.

  7. Economic assessment of sludge handling and environmental impact of sludge treatment in a reed bed system.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    The effect on the environment of the establishment and operation of a sludge treatment reed bed system (STRB) is quite limited compared to mechanical sludge dewatering, with its accompanying use of energy and chemicals. The assessment presented here of the investment, operation and maintenance costs of a typical STRB, and of the related environmental impact, is based on the experiences gained from the operation of a large number of STRB in Denmark. There are differences in the environmental perspectives and costs involved in mechanical sludge dewatering and disposal on agricultural land compared to STRB. The two treatment methods were considered for comparison based on a treatment capacity of 550 tons of dry solids per year and with land application of the biosolids in Denmark. The initial capital cost for STRB is higher than a conventional mechanical system; however, an STRB would provide significant power and operating-cost savings, with a significant saving in the overall cost of the plant over 20-30 years. The assessment focuses on the use of chemicals, energy and greenhouse gas emissions and includes emptying, sludge residue quality and recycling. STRB with direct land application is the most cost-effective scenario and has the lowest environmental impact. A sludge strategy consisting of an STRB will be approximately DKK 536,894-647,636 cheaper per year than the option consisting of a new screw press or decanter.

  8. Tritium handling safety and operating experience at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is a facility designed to develop and demonstrate, in full scale, technologies necessary for safe and efficient operation of tokamak fusion reactors. TSTA currently consists of systems for pumping DT gas mixtures; for removing impurities; for separating the isotopes of hydrogen; for storage of hydrogen isotopes; for gas analysis; and for assuring safety by the necessary control, monitoring, and detritiation of effluent gaseous streams. TSTA also has several small scale experiments to develop and test new equipment and processes necessary for fusion reactors. Tritium was introduced into TSTA in June 1984. Current inventory is approximately 100 grams. Approximately 10{sup 9} Curies of tritium have been processed in closed loop operation at TSTA. Total tritium releases from the facility stack have been less than 75 Curies. Total operating personnel exposures are less than 500 person-mrem. Exposures to the general public from TSTA tritium releases are extremely small (less than 10{sup {minus}2} mrem). Total tritium buried as waste is less than 36,000 Curies. In this paper, data on component reliability, failure types and rates, and waste quantities are presented. Operational experience under normal, abnormal, and emergency conditions is presented. The DOE requirements for the operation of a tritium facility like TSTA include personnel training, emergency preparedness, radiation protection, safety analysis, and preoperational appraisals. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R.

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  10. Integration of air separation membrane and coalescing filter for use on an inlet air system of an engine

    DOEpatents

    Moncelle, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system suitable for combustion air of an internal combustion engine. An air separation device of the system includes a plurality of fibers, each fiber having a tube with a permeation barrier layer on the outer surface thereof and a coalescing layer on the inner surface thereof, to restrict fluid droplets from contacting the permeation barrier layer.

  11. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  12. Performance of air sparging systems: a review of case studies.

    PubMed

    Bass, D H; Hastings, N A; Brown, R A

    2000-02-25

    Fluor Daniel GTI (now IT Corporation) has compiled a database of 49 completed in-situ air sparging case studies. Air sparging is a commonly used remediation technology which volatilizes and enhances aerobic biodegradation of contamination in groundwater and saturated zone soil. The air sparging database was compiled to address questions regarding the effectiveness and permanence of air sparging, and to provide predictive indicators of air sparging success to aid in optimization of existing and future air sparging systems. In each case study, groundwater concentrations were compared before sparging was initiated, just before sparging was terminated, and in the months following shutdown of the sparging system. The case studies included both chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, and covered a wide range of soil conditions and sparge system parameters. In many cases, air sparging achieved a substantial and permanent decrease in groundwater concentrations. Successful systems were achieved with both chlorinated and petroleum contamination, both sandy and silty soils, and both continuous and pulsed flow sparging. In other cases, however, a significant rebound of groundwater concentrations was observed after sparging was terminated. Rebound sometimes required 6 to 12 months to develop fully. Rebound was more frequently observed at sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons than with chlorinated solvents. Petroleum-contaminated sites were more likely to rebound when initial groundwater contamination levels were high enough to suggest the presence of LNAPL or a smear zone of residual LNAPL. Rebound at petroleum sites appeared to be minimized by a high density of sparge wells addressing the entire source area and a high sparge air injection rate. In some cases, rebound appeared to be related to a rising water table.

  13. Yeast and Fungal Prions: Amyloid-Handling Systems, Amyloid Structure, and Prion Biology.

    PubMed

    Wickner, R B; Edskes, H K; Gorkovskiy, A; Bezsonov, E E; Stroobant, E E

    2016-01-01

    Yeast prions (infectious proteins) were discovered by their outré genetic properties and have become important models for an array of human prion and amyloid diseases. A single prion protein can become any of many distinct amyloid forms (called prion variants or strains), each of which is self-propagating, but with different biological properties (eg, lethal vs mild). The folded in-register parallel β sheet architecture of the yeast prion amyloids naturally suggests a mechanism by which prion variant information can be faithfully transmitted for many generations. The yeast prions rely on cellular chaperones for their propagation, but can be cured by various chaperone imbalances. The Btn2/Cur1 system normally cures most variants of the [URE3] prion that arise. Although most variants of the [PSI+] and [URE3] prions are toxic or lethal, some are mild in their effects. Even the most mild forms of these prions are rare in the wild, indicating that they too are detrimental to yeast. The beneficial [Het-s] prion of Podospora anserina poses an important contrast in its structure, biology, and evolution to the yeast prions characterized thus far.

  14. Integrated Collision Avoidance System for Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Collision with ground/water/terrain and midair obstacles is one of the common causes of severe aircraft accidents. The various data from the coremicro AHRS/INS/GPS Integration Unit, terrain data base, and object detection sensors are processed to produce collision warning audio/visual messages and collision detection and avoidance of terrain and obstacles through generation of guidance commands in a closed-loop system. The vision sensors provide more information for the Integrated System, such as, terrain recognition and ranging of terrain and obstacles, which plays an important role to the improvement of the Integrated Collision Avoidance System.

  15. Interval-type and affine arithmetic-type techniques for handling uncertainty in expert systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceberio, Martine; Kreinovich, Vladik; Chopra, Sanjeev; Longpre, Luc; Nguyen, Hung T.; Ludascher, Bertram; Baral, Chitta

    2007-02-01

    Expert knowledge consists of statements Sj (facts and rules). The facts and rules are often only true with some probability. For example, if we are interested in oil, we should look at seismic data. If in 90% of the cases, the seismic data were indeed helpful in locating oil, then we can say that if we are interested in oil, then with probability 90% it is helpful to look at the seismic data. In more formal terms, we can say that the implication "if oil then seismic" holds with probability 90%. Another example: a bank A trusts a client B, so if we trust the bank A, we should trust B too; if statistically this trust was justified in 99% of the cases, we can conclude that the corresponding implication holds with probability 99%. If a query Q is deducible from facts and rules, what is the resulting probability p(Q) in Q? We can describe the truth of Q as a propositional formula F in terms of Sj, i.e., as a combination of statements Sj linked by operators like &, [logical or], and [not sign]; computing p(Q) exactly is NP-hard, so heuristics are needed. Traditionally, expert systems use technique similar to straightforward interval computations: we parse F and replace each computation step with corresponding probability operation. Problem: at each step, we ignore the dependence between the intermediate results Fj; hence intervals are too wide. Example: the estimate for P(A[logical or][not sign]A) is not 1. Solution: similar to affine arithmetic, besides P(Fj), we also compute P(Fj&Fi) (or P(Fj1&...&Fjd)), and on each step, use all combinations of l such probabilities to get new estimates. Results: e.g., P(A[logical or][not sign]A) is estimated as 1.

  16. Fault handling schemes in electronic systems with specific application to radiation tolerance and VLSI design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, John Okyere

    1993-01-01

    Naturally occurring space radiation particles can produce transient and permanent changes in the electrical properties of electronic devices and systems. In this work, the transient radiation effects on DRAM and CMOS SRAM were considered. In addition, the effect of total ionizing dose radiation of the switching times of CMOS logic gates were investigated. Effects of transient radiation on the column and cell of MOS dynamic memory cell was simulated using SPICE. It was found that the critical charge of the bitline was higher than that of the cell. In addition, the critical charge of the combined cell-bitline was found to be dependent on the gate voltage of the access transistor. In addition, the effect of total ionizing dose radiation on the switching times of CMOS logic gate was obtained. The results of this work indicate that, the rise time of CMOS logic gates increases, while the fall time decreases with an increase in total ionizing dose radiation. Also, by increasing the size of the P-channel transistor with respect to that of the N-channel transistor, the propagation delay of CMOS logic gate can be made to decrease with, or be independent of an increase in total ionizing dose radiation. Furthermore, a method was developed for replacing polysilicon feedback resistance of SRAMs with a switched capacitor network. A switched capacitor SRAM was implemented using MOS Technology. The critical change of the switched capacitor SRAM has a very large critical charge. The results of this work indicate that switched capacitor SRAM is a viable alternative to SRAM with polysilicon feedback resistance.

  17. Artificial immune system approach for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2007-04-01

    Since future air combat missions will involve both manned and unmanned aircraft, the primary motivation for this research is to enable unmanned aircraft with intelligent maneuvering capabilities. During air combat maneuvering, pilots use their knowledge and experience of maneuvering strategies and tactics to determine the best course of action. As a result, we try to capture these aspects using an artificial immune system approach. The biological immune system protects the body against intruders by recognizing and destroying harmful cells or molecules. It can be thought of as a robust adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. However, another critical aspect of the immune system is that it can remember how previous encounters were successfully defeated. As a result, it can respond faster to similar encounters in the future. This paper describes how an artificial immune system is used to select and construct air combat maneuvers. These maneuvers are composed of autopilot mode and target commands, which represent the low-level building blocks of the parameterized system. The resulting command sequences are sent to a tactical autopilot system, which has been enhanced with additional modes and an aggressiveness factor for enabling high performance maneuvers. Just as vaccinations train the biological immune system how to combat intruders, training sets are used to teach the maneuvering system how to respond to different enemy aircraft situations. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the potential of using immunized maneuver selection for the purposes of air combat maneuvering.

  18. A radome for air traffic control SSR radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A new generation of monopulse and discrete interrogation systems has evolved for air traffic control applications that presents significant challenges to total system design and performance. Reliable operation of the antenna system is essential in today's ever increasing air traffic congestion. An important component of the total system is a radome to protect the antenna from the environment and to enable consistent, reliable electromagnetic performance. The various types of radomes that have been employed over the years to protect antennas are discussed and evaluated relative to the air traffic control radar application. The sandwich radome is selected as the best option and a detailed design analysis is presented which considers the vital characteristics of transmissivity, boresight error, and sidelobe perturbations.

  19. Infrared Laser System for Extended Area Monitoring of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowman, L. R.; Gillmeister, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution monitoring system using a spectrally scanning laser has been developed by the General Electric Company. This paper will report on an evaluation of a breadboard model, and will discuss applications of the concept to various ambient air monitoring situations. The system is adaptable to other tunable lasers. Operating in the middle infrared region, the system uses retroreflectors to measure average concentrations over long paths at low, safe power levels. The concept shows promise of meeting operational needs in ambient air monitoring and providing new data for atmospheric research.

  20. One-man electrochemical air revitalization system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schbert, F. H.; Marshall, R. D.; Hallick, T. M.; Woods, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A program to evaluate the performance of a one man capacity, self contained electrochemical air revitalization system was successfully completed. The technology readiness of this concept was demonstrated by characterizing the performance of this one man system over wide ranges in cabin atmospheric conditions. The electrochemical air revitalization system consists of a water vapor electrolysis module to generate oxygen from water vapor in the cabin air, and an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module to remove carbon dioxide from the cabin air. A control/monitor instrumentation package that uses the electrochemical depolarized concentrator module power generated to partially offset the water vapor electrolysis module power requirements and various structural fluid routing components are also part of the system. The system was designed to meet the one man metabolic oxygen generation and carbon dioxide removal requirements, thereby controlling cabin partial pressure of oxygen at 22 kN/sq m and cabin pressure of carbon dioxide at 400 N/sq m over a wide range in cabin air relative humidity conditions.

  1. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  2. Regenerable Air Purification System for Gas-Phase Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, Ileana C.; Finn, John E.; LeVan, M. Douglas; Lung, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tests of a pre-prototype regenerable air purification system (RAPS) that uses water vapor to displace adsorbed contaminants from an adsorbent column have been performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A unit based on this design can be used for removing trace gas-phase contaminants from spacecraft cabin air or from polluted process streams including incinerator exhaust. During the normal operation mode, contaminants are removed from the air on the column. Regeneration of the column is performed on-line. During regeneration, contaminants are displaced and destroyed inside the closed oxidation loop. In this presentation we discuss initial experimental results for the performance of RAPS in the removal and treatment of several important spacecraft contaminant species from air.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope communications and data handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesko, John

    1991-01-01

    The communications and data handling system of the HST are described in detail. Consideration is given to observation scheduling, commanding, telemetry, scientific data collection, spacecraft data handling systems, and the use of the TDRSS and NASCOM data network. The science instruments control and data handling subsystem is presented in schematic form.

  4. Compressed Air System Optimization: Case Study Food Industry in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayati, Endang; Nuzahar, Hasril

    2016-01-01

    Compressors and compressed air systems was one of the most important utilities in industries or factories. Approximately 10% of the cost of electricity in the industry was used to produce compressed air. Therefore the potential for energy savings in the compressors and compressed air systems had a big challenge. This field was conducted especially in Indonesia food industry or factory. Compressed air system optimization was a technique approach to determine the optimal conditions for the operation of compressors and compressed air systems that included evaluation of the energy needs, supply adjustment, eliminating or reconfiguring the use and operation of inefficient, changing and complementing some equipment and improving operating efficiencies. This technique gave the significant impact for energy saving and costs. The potential savings based on this study through measurement and optimization e.g. system that lowers the pressure of 7.5 barg to 6.8 barg would reduce energy consumption and running costs approximately 4.2%, switch off the compressor GA110 and GA75 was obtained annual savings of USD 52,947 ≈ 455 714 kWh, running GA75 light load or unloaded then obtained annual savings of USD 31,841≈ 270,685 kWh, install new compressor 2x132 kW and 1x 132 kW VSD obtained annual savings of USD 108,325≈ 928,500 kWh. Furthermore it was needed to conduct study of technical aspect of energy saving potential (Investment Grade Audit) and performed Cost Benefit Analysis. This study was one of best practice solutions how to save energy and improve energy performance in compressors and compressed air system.

  5. Fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation in the air distribution system of a multi-story office building: VOC production and possible relationship to a sick building syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Crow, S. A.; Simmons, R. B.; Price, D. L.; Noble, J. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Complaints characteristic of those for sick building syndrome prompted mycological investigations of a modern multi-story office building on the Gulf coast in the Southeastern United States (Houston-Galveston area). The air handling units and fiberglass duct liner of the heating, ventilating and air conditioning system of the building, without a history of catastrophic or chronic water damage, demonstrated extensive colonization with Penicillium spp and Cladosporium herbarum. Although dense fungal growth was observed on surfaces within the heating-cooling system, most air samples yielded fewer than 200 CFU m-3. Several volatile compounds found in the building air were released also from colonized fiberglass. Removal of colonized insulation from the floor receiving the majority of complaints of mouldy air and continuous operation of the units supplying this floor resulted in a reduction in the number of complaints.

  6. New challenges to air/gas cleaning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, J.L.

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the need for changes in the design and manufacturing of air and gas cleaning systems to meet waste management and site remediation requirements. Current design and manufacturing practices are primarily directed toward evaluating operational problems with existing systems in nuclear reactor facilities. However, nuclear waste management needs have developed which are much broader in scope and have different processing conditions. Numerous examples of air cleaning needs for waste management activities are provided; the major differences from operating facility needs are the requirement for continuous effluent treatment under widely different processing conditions. Related regulatory issues are also discussed briefly. 1 ref.

  7. Low power, constant-flow air pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Polito, M.D.; Albert, B.

    1994-01-01

    A rugged, yet small and lightweight constant-flow air pump system has been designed. Flow control is achieved using a novel approach which is three times more power efficient than previous designs. The resultant savings in battery size and weight makes these pumps ideal for sampling air on balloon platforms. The pump package includes meteorological sensors and an onboard computer that stores time and sensor data and turns the constant-flow pump circuit on/off. Some applications of these systems are also presented in this report.

  8. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  9. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  10. Collecting Samples in Gale Crater, Mars; an Overview of the Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Jandura, L.; Okon, A. B.; Sunshine, D.; Roumeliotis, C.; Beegle, L. W.; Hurowitz, J.; Kennedy, B.; Limonadi, D.; McCloskey, S.; Robinson, M.; Seybold, C.; Brown, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mission (MSL), scheduled to land on Mars in the summer of 2012, consists of a rover and a scientific payload designed to identify and assess the habitability, geological, and environmental histories of Gale crater. Unraveling the geologic history of the region and providing an assessment of present and past habitability requires an evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the landing site; this includes providing an in-depth examination of the chemical and physical properties of Martian regolith and rocks. The MSL Sample Acquisition, Processing, and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem will be the first in-situ system designed to acquire interior rock and soil samples from Martian surface materials. These samples are processed and separated into fine particles and distributed to two onboard analytical science instruments SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite) and CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) or to a sample analysis tray for visual inspection. The SA/SPaH subsystem is also responsible for the placement of the two contact instruments, Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), and the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), on rock and soil targets. Finally, there is a Dust Removal Tool (DRT) to remove dust particles from rock surfaces for subsequent analysis by the contact and or mast mounted instruments (e.g. Mast Cameras (MastCam) and the Chemistry and Micro-Imaging instruments (ChemCam)).

  11. French registry of workers handling engineered nanomaterials as an instrument of integrated system for surveillance and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva Canu, I.; Boutou-Kempf, O.; Delabre, L.; Ducamp, S.; Iwatsubo, Y.; Marchand, J. L.; Imbernon, E.

    2013-04-01

    Despite the lack of data on the human health potential risks related to the engineered nanomaterials (ENM) exposure, ENM handling spreads in industry. The French government officially charged the InVS to develop an epidemiological surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to ENM. An initial surveillance plan was proposed on the basis of literature review and discussions with national and international ENM and occupational safety and health (OSH) experts. In site investigations and technical visits were then carried out to build an adequate surveillance system and to assess its feasibility. The current plan consists of a multi-step methodology where exposure registry construction is paramount. Workers potentially exposed to carbon nanotubes (CNT) or nanometric titanium dioxide (TiO2) will be identified using a 3-level approach: 1-identification and selection of companies concerned with ENM exposure (based on compulsory declaration and questionnaires), 2-in site exposure assessment and identification of the jobs/tasks with ENM exposure (based on job-expose matrix, further supplemented with measurements), and 3-identification of workers concerned. Data of interest will be collected by questionnaire. Companies and workers inclusion questionnaires are designed and currently under validation. This registration is at the moment planned for three years but could be extended and include other ENM. A prospective cohort study will be established from this registry, to pursue surveillance objectives and serve as an infrastructure for performing epidemiological and panel studies with specific research objectives.

  12. HESTIA Phase I Test Results: The Air Revitalization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Sarah E.; Hansen, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    In any human spaceflight mission, a number of Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies work together to provide the conditions astronauts need to live healthily, productively, and comfortably in space. In a long-duration mission, many of these ECLSS technologies may use materials supplied by In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), introducing more interactions between systems. The Human Exploration Spacecraft Test-bed for Integration & Advancement (HESTIA) Project aims to create a test-bed to evaluate ECLSS and ISRU technologies and how they interact in a high-fidelity, closed-loop, human-rated analog habitat. Air purity and conditioning are essential components within any ECLSS and for HESTIA's first test they were achieved with the Air Revitalization System (ARS) described below. The ARS provided four essential functions to the test-bed chamber: cooling the air, removing humidity from the air, removing trace contaminants, and scrubbing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air. In this case, the oxygen supply function was provided by ISRU. In the current configuration, the ARS is a collection of different subsystems. A fan circulates the air, while a condensing heat exchanger (CHX) pulls humidity out of the air. A Trace Contaminant Removal System (TCRS) filters the air of potentially harmful contaminants. Lastly, a Reactive Plastic Lithium Hydroxide (RP-LiOH) unit removes CO2 from the breathing air. During the HESTIA Phase I test in September 2015, the ARS and its individual components each functioned as expected, although further analysis is underway. During the Phase I testing and in prior bench-top tests, the energy balance of heat removed by the CHX was not equal to the cooling it received. This indicated possible instrument error and therefore recalibration of the instruments and follow-up testing is planned in 2016 to address the issue. The ARS was tested in conjunction with two other systems: the Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS) and the

  13. Air Purification in Closed Environments: An Overview of Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; LeVan, Douglas; Crumbley, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The primary goal for a collective protection system and a spacecraft environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) are strikingly similar. Essentially both function to provide the occupants of a building or vehicle with a safe, habitable environment. The collective protection system shields military and civilian personnel from short-term exposure to external threats presented by toxic agents and industrial chemicals while an ECLSS sustains astronauts for extended periods within the hostile environment of space. Both have air quality control similarities with various aircraft and 'tight' buildings. This paper reviews basic similarities between air purification system requirements for collective protection and an ECLSS that define surprisingly common technological challenges and solutions. Systems developed for air revitalization on board spacecraft are discussed along with some history on their early development as well as a view of future needs. Emphasis is placed upon two systems implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS): the trace contaminant control system (TCCS) and the molecular sieve-based carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). Over its history, the NASA has developed and implemented many life support systems for astronauts. As the duration, complexity, and crew size of manned missions increased from minutes or hours for a single astronaut during Project Mercury to days and ultimately months for crews of 3 or more during the Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, and ISS programs, these systems have become more sophisticated. Systems aboard spacecraft such as the ISS have been designed to provide long-term environmental control and life support. Challenges facing the NASA's efforts include minimizing mass, volume, and power for such systems, while maximizing their safety, reliability, and performance. This paper will highlight similarities and differences among air purification systems

  14. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  15. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-11-16

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process.

  16. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18–22 g/m3 to a range of 13.5–18.3 g/m3. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  17. TEWI Evaluation for Household Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobue, Atsushi; Watanabe, Koichi

    In the present study, we have quantitatively evaluated the global warming impact by household refrigerator and air-conditioning systems on the basis of reliable TEWI information. In TEWI evaluation of household refrigerators, the percentage of the impact by refrigerant released to the atmosphere (direct effect) is less than 18.6% in TEWI. In case of room air-conditioners, however, the percentage of direct effect is less than 5.4% in TEWI. Therefore, it was confirmed that impact by CO2 released as a result of the energy consumed to drive the refrigeration or air-conditioning systems throughout their lifetime (indirect effect) is far larger than direct effect by the entire system. A reduction of indirect effect by energy saving is the most effective measure in reducing the global warming impact by refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, For a realization of the energy saving, not only the advanced improvement in energy efficiency by household appliance manufacturers but also the improvement of consumer's mind in selecting the systems and a way of using are concluded important.

  18. Improved fireman's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. A.; Morris, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Prototype high pressure glass filament-wound, aluminum-lined pressurant vessels suitable for use in a fireman's compressed air breathing system were designed, fabricated, and acceptance tested in order to demonstrate the feasibility of producing such high performance, lightweight units. The 4000 psi tanks have a 60 standard cubic foot (SCF) air capacity, and have a 6.5 inch diamter, 19 inch length, 415 inch volume, weigh 13 pounds when empty, and contain 33 percent more air than the current 45 SCF (2250 psi) steel units. The current steel 60 SCF (3000 psi) tanks weigh approximately twice as much as the prototype when empty, and are 2 inches, or 10 percent shorter. The prototype units also have non-rusting aluminum interiors, which removes the hazard of corrosion, the need for internal coatings, and the possibility of rust particles clogging the breathing system.

  19. Small SWAP 3D imaging flash ladar for small tactical unmanned air systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Alan; Anderson, Scott A.; Wojcik, Michael; Budge, Scott E.

    2015-05-01

    The Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), working with Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and industry leaders Advanced Scientific Concepts (ASC) and Hood Technology Corporation, has developed a small SWAP (size, weight, and power) 3D imaging flash ladar (LAser Detection And Ranging) sensor system concept design for small tactical unmanned air systems (STUAS). The design utilizes an ASC 3D flash ladar camera and laser in a Hood Technology gyro-stabilized gimbal system. The design is an autonomous, intelligent, geo-aware sensor system that supplies real-time 3D terrain and target images. Flash ladar and visible camera data are processed at the sensor using a custom digitizer/frame grabber with compression. Mounted in the aft housing are power, controls, processing computers, and GPS/INS. The onboard processor controls pointing and handles image data, detection algorithms and queuing. The small SWAP 3D imaging flash ladar sensor system generates georeferenced terrain and target images with a low probability of false return and <10 cm range accuracy through foliage in real-time. The 3D imaging flash ladar is designed for a STUAS with a complete system SWAP estimate of <9 kg, <0.2 m3 and <350 W power. The system is modeled using LadarSIM, a MATLAB® and Simulink®- based ladar system simulator designed and developed by the Center for Advanced Imaging Ladar (CAIL) at Utah State University. We will present the concept design and modeled performance predictions.

  20. Prototype Systems for Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates in Rooftop Air Handlers

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    The widespread absence of systems for real-time measurement and feedback control, of minimum outdoor air intake rates in HVAC systems contributes to the poor control of ventilation rates in commercial buildings. Ventilation rates affect building energy consumption and influence occupant health. The project designed fabricated and tested four prototypes of systems for measuring rates of outdoor air intake into roof top air handlers. All prototypes met the ±20% accuracy target at low wind speeds, with all prototypes accurate within approximately ±10% after application of calibration equations. One prototype met the accuracy target without a calibration. With two of four prototype measurement systems, there was no evidence that wind speed or direction affected accuracy; however, winds speeds were generally below usually 3.5 m s-1 (12.6 km h-1) and further testing is desirable. The airflow resistance of the prototypes was generally less than 35 Pa at maximum RTU air flow rates. A pressure drop of this magnitude will increase fan energy consumption by approximately 4%. The project did not have resources necessary to estimate costs of mass produced systems. The retail cost of components and materials used to construct prototypes ranged from approximately $1,200 to $1,700. The test data indicate that the basic designs developed in this project, particularly the designs of two of the prototypes, have considerable merit. Further design refinement, testing, and cost analysis would be necessary to fully assess commercial potential. The designs and test results will be communicated to the HVAC manufacturing community.

  1. Mobile CEM trailer and data acquisition and handling system for complying with CFR title 40, Part 60

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, R.; Wells, D.R.; Luybli, P.

    1999-07-01

    CONSOL is one of the largest coal producers in the US. At some coal preparation plants, thermal dryers are used to reduce the moisture from the fine coal. The thermal dryers are subject to CFR Title 40, Part 60 and state regulations. To satisfy the testing requirements of these regulatory agencies, CONSOL R and D designed a mobile Continuous Emissions Monitoring (CEM) trailer complete with a Data Acquisition and Handling System (DAHS). The mobile CEM trailer and the DAHS can monitor the following flue gas emissions: O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO, and total volatile organic compounds (VOC). A personal computer (PC) controls a programmable logic controller (PLC), which in turn controls the routing of calibration and flue gases through a network of tubing and solenoid valves to the CEMs. The DAHS automatically steps the operator through the EPA required pre-test procedures, such as: sample system bias, calibration error, linearity checks, and response time evaluations. There is a minimal amount of operator set-up and control required. All set-up parameters are checked by the DAHS for compliance with EPA test criteria. The DAHS compiles and averages emissions data over operator specified test durations. The DAHS also automatically compiles pre- and post-test calibration zero and span drift test data and calculates corrected emissions concentrations. After completing a test run, the DAHS generates post-test emissions reports, including corrected one-minute and overall data averages and graphical plots, as well as QA/QC related reports.

  2. Novel air-based system transfers large salmon during harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April of 2015, near the end of our last harvest of 4-6 kg Atlantic salmon, we evaluated an exciting new fish transport technology from Whooshh Innovations (Bellevue, WA) that uses air to move live Atlantic salmon from our growout tank to a finishing/purging tank. The Whooshh system uses a combina...

  3. New Compressor Added to Glenn's 450- psig Combustion Air System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    In September 1999, the Central Process Systems Engineering Branch and the Maintenance and the Central Process Systems Operations Branch, released for service a new high pressure compressor to supplement the 450-psig Combustion Air System at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The new compressor, designated C-18, is located in Glenn s Central Air Equipment Building and is remotely operated from the Central Control Building. C-18 can provide 40 pounds per second (pps) of airflow at pressure to our research customers. This capability augments our existing system capacity (compressors C 4 at 38 pps and C-5 at 32 pps), which is generated from Glenn's Engine Research Building. The C-18 compressor was originally part of Glenn's 21-Inch Hypersonic Tunnel, which was transferred from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to Glenn in the mid-1980's. With the investment of construction of facilities funding, the compressor was modified, new mechanical and electrical support equipment were purchased, and the unit was installed in the basement of the Central Air Equipment Building. After several weeks of checkout and troubleshooting, the new compressor was ready for long-term, reliable operations. With a total of 110 pps in airflow now available, Glenn is well positioned to support the high-pressure air test requirements of our research customers.

  4. Air Revitalization System Enables Excursions to the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Paragon Space Development Corporation, based in Tucson, Arizona has had a long history of collaboration with NASA, including developing a modular air purification system under the Commercial Crew Development Program, designed to support the commercial space sector. Using that device and other NASA technology, startup company World View is now gearing up to take customers on helium balloon rides to the stratosphere.

  5. Computational fluid dynamics for turbomachinery internal air systems.

    PubMed

    Chew, John W; Hills, Nicholas J

    2007-10-15

    Considerable progress in development and application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aeroengine internal flow systems has been made in recent years. CFD is regularly used in industry for assessment of air systems, and the performance of CFD for basic axisymmetric rotor/rotor and stator/rotor disc cavities with radial throughflow is largely understood and documented. Incorporation of three-dimensional geometrical features and calculation of unsteady flows are becoming commonplace. Automation of CFD, coupling with thermal models of the solid components, and extension of CFD models to include both air system and main gas path flows are current areas of development. CFD is also being used as a research tool to investigate a number of flow phenomena that are not yet fully understood. These include buoyancy-affected flows in rotating cavities, rim seal flows and mixed air/oil flows. Large eddy simulation has shown considerable promise for the buoyancy-driven flows and its use for air system flows is expected to expand in the future.

  6. Experimental Air Pressure Tank Systems for Process Control Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Christopher E.; Holland, Charles E.; Gatzke, Edward P.

    2006-01-01

    In process control education, particularly in the field of chemical engineering, there is an inherent need for industrially relevant hands-on apparatuses that enable one to bridge the gap between the theoretical content of coursework and real-world applications. At the University of South Carolina, two experimental air-pressure tank systems have…

  7. PHASE I PILOT AIR CONVEYANCE SYSTEM DESIGN, CLEANING, AND CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop and refine surface and airborne contamination
    measurement techniques that can be used to evaluate air conveyance system (ACS) cleaning.
    (NOTE: ACS cleaning is advertized to homeowners as a service having a number of benefits...

  8. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Air Quality Model System For The Vienna/bratislava Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, B. C.; Schmittner, W.; Kromp-Kolb, H.

    A model system has been build up, consisting of the mesoscale meteorological fore- cast model MM5 and the chemical air-quality model CAMx. The coarse grid covers central Europe. By nesting, a spatial resolution of 3 km is reached for the core area, which includes the cities of Vienna (Austria) and Bratislava (Slovakia). In a first approach, the model system has been applied to a 6-day period in Febru- ary 1997, which was characterized by stagnant meteorological conditions. During this episode, primary pollutants like CO and NO2 have been compared with ambient mea- surements for the validation of the new model system. In the future it is foreseen to improve the spatial resolution, to apply the model system also for ozone and particulates, and to utilize it for a short-time forecast of air-quality parameters.

  10. Reduction of sound in ventilation and similar air distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-07-01

    This Data Item is available as part of the ESDU Sub-series on Fluid Mechanics Internal Flow. A means of estimating the attenuation of sound in lined plenum chambers and ducts, and through silencers of the types used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems is given. Data are provided in graphical or tabular form for the estimation of typical silencer insertion loss, airflow generated noise and pressure loss. Both rectangular splitter silencers and cylindrical silencers are considered. The data may be used in the initial design of a system or to investigate the appropriate remedial action for an installed air distribution system that is found to be too noisy. The location of silencers in the duct system is considered, and an example is given to illustrate the use of the data provided in the selection and sizing of a silencer for a particular application.

  11. Mathematical model of one-man air revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for simulating the steady state performance in electrochemical CO2 concentrators which utilize (NMe4)2 CO3 (aq.) electrolyte. This electrolyte, which accommodates a wide range of air relative humidity, is most suitable for one-man air revitalization systems. The model is based on the solution of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations derived from mass transport and rate equations for the processes which take place in the cell. The boundary conditions are obtained by solving the mass and energy transport equations. A shooting method is used to solve the differential equations.

  12. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

    1998-07-21

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

  13. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, David John; Briesch, Michael Scot

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  14. Developments in skirt systems for air cushion vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inch, Peter; Prentice, Mark E.; Lewis, Carol Jean

    The present evaluation of the development status of air-cushion vehicle (ACV) skirts emphasizes the materials employed, with a view to the formulation of materials-performance requirements for next-generation AVCs and, in particular, an 'air-cushion catamaran' surface-effect ship (SES). Attention is given to novel skirt-design features which furnish substantial savings in maintenance costs. The employment of extant test rig data and the use of CAD methods are discussed, and the features of a novel system for the direct fixing of a bow finger onto an SES structure are noted.

  15. Information Handling is the Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concerns surrounding the automation of information handling. There are two types of decision support software that supports most Space Station Flight Controllers. one is very simple, and the other is very complex. A middle ground is sought. This is the reason for the Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed (HCAAST) Project. The aim is to study flight controllers at work, and in the bigger picture, with particular attention to how they handle information and how coordination of multiple teams is performed. The focus of the project is on intelligent assistants to assist in handling information for the flight controllers.

  16. Mold colonization of fiberglass insulation of the air distribution system: effects on patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Takuma, Takahiro; Okada, Kaoru; Yamagata, Akihiro; Shimono, Nobuyuki; Niki, Yoshihito

    2011-02-01

    We investigated mold colonization of air handling units (AHUs) of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and its effects, including invasive pulmonary mycoses and febrile neutropenia, in patients with hematological malignancies. Sample collection with transparent adhesive tape and culture swabs revealed that AHUs were heavily colonized with molds, including thermotolerant, variously distributed Penicillium spp. Cases of nosocomial invasive pulmonary mycosis were not clustered in specific patient rooms but did occur frequently when the HVAC systems were not in use, prior to intervention (i.e., sealing and disuse of AHUs in private room), and during construction of a new hospital building. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of initial episodes of febrile neutropenia showed that the rate of febrile neutropenia was significantly associated with the duration of neutropenia (odds ratio [OR]: 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.27) and with sex (OR: 0.469; CI: 0.239-0.902). An evaluation of private rooms showed that female patients also had a lower rate of fever after intervention (OR: 0.0016; 95% CI: 0.000-0.209). The reduced rate of febrile neutropenia after intervention suggests that mold colonization of AHUs had adverse effects on patients with hematological malignancies. PMID:20807030

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface compressed air system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site compressed air system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  19. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling....

  20. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling....

  1. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling....

  2. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling....

  3. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling....

  4. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  5. Scalable 96-well Plate Based iPSC Culture and Production Using a Robotic Liquid Handling System.

    PubMed

    Conway, Michael K; Gerger, Michael J; Balay, Erin E; O'Connell, Rachel; Hanson, Seth; Daily, Neil J; Wakatsuki, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Continued advancement in pluripotent stem cell culture is closing the gap between bench and bedside for using these cells in regenerative medicine, drug discovery and safety testing. In order to produce stem cell derived biopharmaceutics and cells for tissue engineering and transplantation, a cost-effective cell-manufacturing technology is essential. Maintenance of pluripotency and stable performance of cells in downstream applications (e.g., cell differentiation) over time is paramount to large scale cell production. Yet that can be difficult to achieve especially if cells are cultured manually where the operator can introduce significant variability as well as be prohibitively expensive to scale-up. To enable high-throughput, large-scale stem cell production and remove operator influence novel stem cell culture protocols using a bench-top multi-channel liquid handling robot were developed that require minimal technician involvement or experience. With these protocols human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were cultured in feeder-free conditions directly from a frozen stock and maintained in 96-well plates. Depending on cell line and desired scale-up rate, the operator can easily determine when to passage based on a series of images showing the optimal colony densities for splitting. Then the necessary reagents are prepared to perform a colony split to new plates without a centrifugation step. After 20 passages (~3 months), two iPSC lines maintained stable karyotypes, expressed stem cell markers, and differentiated into cardiomyocytes with high efficiency. The system can perform subsequent high-throughput screening of new differentiation protocols or genetic manipulation designed for 96-well plates. This technology will reduce the labor and technical burden to produce large numbers of identical stem cells for a myriad of applications. PMID:26068617

  6. Design and Implementation of Automatic Air Flow Rate Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, A.; Saputra, C.; Munir, M. M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    Venturimeter is an apparatus that can be used to measure the air flow rate. In this experiment we designed a venturimeter which equipped with a valve that is used to control the air flow rate. The difference of pressure between the cross sections was measured with the differential pressure sensor GA 100-015WD which can calculate the difference of pressures from 0 to 3737.33 Pa. A 42M048C Z36 stepper motor was used to control the valve. The precision of this motor rotation is about 0.15 °. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) was developed to monitor and set the value of flow rate then an 8-bit microcontroller was used to process the control system In this experiment- the venturimeter has been examined to get the optimal parameter of controller. The results show that the controller can set the stable output air flow rate.

  7. THE EMISSION PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR THE ETA/CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of th...

  8. Prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmahgary, Y.; Peltola, E.; Sipilae, K.; Vaeaetaeinen, A.

    1991-08-01

    A prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage (CALS) systems was launched in VTT in the course of the year 1990. The study was undertaken partly in the Laboratory of Electrical and Automation Engineering and partly in the Road, Traffic and Geotechnical Laboratory. Information on existing mines in Finland which could be used as storage caverns were collected (part 2). The costs of excavating rock caverns for compressed air storage and those for forming suitable storage caverns in existing mines were also estimated. This information was used in the first (and present) part of the report to calculate the economics of CAES. In the present part (part 1) of the study, an analysis of the different possible systems was given following a review of literature on CAES. This was followed by an economic analysis which comprised two separate systems. The first consisted of conventional oil fueled gas turbine plants provided with the CALS system. In the second system, wind turbines were used to run the compressors which are used in charging the compressed air storage cavern. The results of the current prefeasibility study confirmed the economic attractiveness of the CAES in the first system. Wind turbines still seem, however, to be too expensive to compete with coal power plants. More accurate and straight-forward results could be obtained only in a more comprehensive study.

  9. Calibration of NASA Turbulent Air Motion Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrick, John D. W.; Ritter, John A.; Watson, Catherine E.; Wynkoop, Mark W.; Quinn, John K.; Norfolk, Daniel R.

    1996-01-01

    A turbulent air motion measurement system (TAMMS) was integrated onboard the Lockheed 188 Electra airplane (designated NASA 429) based at the Wallops Flight Facility in support of the NASA role in global tropospheric research. The system provides air motion and turbulence measurements from an airborne platform which is capable of sampling tropospheric and planetary boundary-layer conditions. TAMMS consists of a gust probe with free-rotating vanes mounted on a 3.7-m epoxy-graphite composite nose boom, a high-resolution inertial navigation system (INS), and data acquisition system. A variation of the tower flyby method augmented with radar tracking was implemented for the calibration of static pressure position error and air temperature probe. Additional flight calibration maneuvers were performed remote from the tower in homogeneous atmospheric conditions. System hardware and instrumentation are described and the calibration procedures discussed. Calibration and flight results are presented to illustrate the overall ability of the system to determine the three-component ambient wind fields during straight and level flight conditions.

  10. Fungal colonization of air filters for use in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    PubMed

    Simmons, R B; Crow, S A

    1995-01-01

    New and used cellulosic air filters for HVAC systems including those treated with antimicrobials were suspended in vessels with a range of relative humidities (55-99%) and containing non-sterile potting soil which stimulates fungal growth. Most filters yielded fungi prior to suspension in the chambers but only two of 14 nontreated filters demonstrated fungal colonization following use in HVAC systems. Filters treated with antimicrobials, particularly a phosphated amine complex, demonstrated markedly less fungal colonization than nontreated filters. In comparison with nontreated cellulosic filters, fungal colonization of antimicrobial-treated cellulosic filters was selective and delayed.

  11. Numerical characterization of the hydrodynamics and thermal behavior of air flow in flexible air distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharehdaghi, Samad; Moujaes, Samir

    2013-10-01

    Flexible duct air distribution systems are used in a large percentage of residential and small commercial buildings in the United States . Very few empirical or predictive data are available though to help provide the HVAC design engineer with reliable information . Moreover, because of the ducts flexibility, the shapes of these ducts offer a different set of operating fluid flow and thermal conditions from traditional smooth metal ducts. Hence, both the flow field and heat transfer through this kind of ducts are much more complex and merit to be analyzed from a numerical predictive approach. The aim of this research paper is to compute some of the hydrodynamic and heat transfer characteristics of the air flow inside these ducts over a range of Re numbers commonly used in the flow conditions of these air distribution systems. The information resulting from this CFD simulation, where a κ-ɛ turbulent model is used to predict the flow conditions, provide pressure drop and average convective heat transfer coefficients that exist in these ducts and was compared to previously found data. Circulation zones in the depressions of these ducts are found to exist which are suspected of influencing the pressured drop and heat transfer coefficients as compared to smooth ducts. The results show that fully developed conditions exist much earlier with regard to the inlet for both hydrodynamic and thermal entrance regions than what would be expected in smooth ducts under the same turbulent conditions.

  12. Air cargo: An Integrated Systems View. 1978 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, A. (Editor); Eastman, R. (Editor); Hargrove, A. (Editor); Rabiega, W. (Editor); Olsen, R. (Editor); Soberick, M. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The national air cargo system is analyzed and how it should be in 1990 is prescribed in order to operate successfully through 2015; that is through one equipment cycle. Elements of the system which are largely under control of the airlines and the aircraft manufacturers are discussed. The discussion deals with aircraft, networks, facilities, and procedures. The regulations which govern the movement of air freight are considered. The larger public policy interests which must be served by the kind of system proposed, the air cargo integrated system (ACIS), are addressed. The possible social, economical, political, and environment impacts of the system are considered. Recommendations are also given.

  13. Preliminary design review package on air flat plate collector for solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines to be used in the development and fabrication of a prototype air flat plate collector subsystem containing 320 square feet (10-4 ft x 8 ft panels) of collector area are presented. Topics discussed include: (1) verification plan; (2) thermal analysis; (3) safety hazard analysis; (4) drawing list; (5) special handling, installation and maintenance tools; (6) structural analysis; and (7) selected drawings.

  14. Hybrid membrane contactor system for creating semi-breathing air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, D. V.

    2012-02-01

    Typically, the equipment to create an artificial climate does not involve changing the composition of the respiratory air. In particular in medical institutions assumes the existence of plant of artificial climate and disinfection in operating rooms and intensive care wards. The use of a hybrid membrane-absorption systems for the generation of artificial atmospheres are improving the respiratory system, blood is enriched or depleted of various gases, resulting in increased stamina, there is a better, faster or slower metabolism, improves concentration and memory. Application of the system contributes to easy and rapid recovery after the operation. By adding a special component, with drug activity, air ionization, and adjust its composition, you can create a special, more favorable for patients with the atmosphere. These factors allow for the treatment and rehabilitation of patients and reduce mortality of heavy patients.

  15. Development of a Fieldable Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Inspection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, J. J.; Barnard, D. J.; Hsu, D. K.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a non-mechanically encoded, simple, field-worthy air-coupled ultrasonic scanning system that gives quantitative information about the size of damage and underlying structure in composite and aluminum aerospace structures. The system consists of the AIRSCAN® air-coupled ultrasonic testing system, the Flock of Birds® real-time motion tracking equipment, a lightweight composite yoke, and laptop PC with data acquisition and processing software. Through transmission C-scan images are generated manually by moving transducers attached to a yoke across the part's surface. The prototype has produced images for a variety of aircraft composite and metal honeycomb structures containing flaws, damages, and repairs. Field tests on commercial and military aircraft as well as rotor blades have begun. Initial test results are shown.

  16. Propane gas: Handle with care

    SciTech Connect

    Fernald, D.

    1996-04-01

    Because of its chemical composition and combustion properties, this liquefied petroleum (LP) gas can be mixed with air and used as a direct replacement for natural gas with no burner or process equipment modifications. One major and growing use of propane is as a vehicle fuel. Growing industrial use of propane also has prompted the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) to issue new codes. NFPA standard 58-95, Storing and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases, stresses the need to adhere to safe work and handling practices whenever propane is involved. All employees directly handling the gas should be formally trained and certified, and recertified annually. Although the code applies only to those directly handling propane or operating propane equipment such as portable cylinder filling stations, all employees working around or with propane or other LP gases should understand the characteristics of LP gas and be aware of basic safe handling practices. The paper discusses what LP gas is, special safety concerns, the care required in refilling cylinders, and cylinder inspection.

  17. Bisphenol A in Solid Waste Materials, Leachate Water, and Air Particles from Norwegian Waste-Handling Facilities: Presence and Partitioning Behavior.

    PubMed

    Morin, Nicolas; Arp, Hans Peter H; Hale, Sarah E

    2015-07-01

    The plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly found in landfill leachate at levels exceeding acute toxicity benchmarks. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling BPA emissions from waste and waste-handling facilities, a comprehensive field and laboratory campaign was conducted to quantify BPA in solid waste materials (glass, combustibles, vehicle fluff, waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), plastics, fly ash, bottom ash, and digestate), leachate water, and atmospheric dust from Norwegian sorting, incineration, and landfill facilities. Solid waste concentrations varied from below 0.002 mg/kg (fly ash) to 188 ± 125 mg/kg (plastics). A novel passive sampling method was developed to, for the first time, establish a set of waste-water partition coefficients, KD,waste, for BPA, and to quantify differences between total and freely dissolved concentrations in waste-facility leachate. Log-normalized KD,waste (L/kg) values were similar for all solid waste materials (from 2.4 to 3.1), excluding glass and metals, indicating BPA is readily leachable. Leachate concentrations were similar for landfills and WEEE/vehicle sorting facilities (from 0.7 to 200 μg/L) and dominated by the freely dissolved fraction, not bound to (plastic) colloids (agreeing with measured KD,waste values). Dust concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 50.7 mg/kgdust. Incineration appears to be an effective way to reduce BPA concentrations in solid waste, dust, and leachate. PMID:26055751

  18. Bisphenol A in Solid Waste Materials, Leachate Water, and Air Particles from Norwegian Waste-Handling Facilities: Presence and Partitioning Behavior.

    PubMed

    Morin, Nicolas; Arp, Hans Peter H; Hale, Sarah E

    2015-07-01

    The plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly found in landfill leachate at levels exceeding acute toxicity benchmarks. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling BPA emissions from waste and waste-handling facilities, a comprehensive field and laboratory campaign was conducted to quantify BPA in solid waste materials (glass, combustibles, vehicle fluff, waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), plastics, fly ash, bottom ash, and digestate), leachate water, and atmospheric dust from Norwegian sorting, incineration, and landfill facilities. Solid waste concentrations varied from below 0.002 mg/kg (fly ash) to 188 ± 125 mg/kg (plastics). A novel passive sampling method was developed to, for the first time, establish a set of waste-water partition coefficients, KD,waste, for BPA, and to quantify differences between total and freely dissolved concentrations in waste-facility leachate. Log-normalized KD,waste (L/kg) values were similar for all solid waste materials (from 2.4 to 3.1), excluding glass and metals, indicating BPA is readily leachable. Leachate concentrations were similar for landfills and WEEE/vehicle sorting facilities (from 0.7 to 200 μg/L) and dominated by the freely dissolved fraction, not bound to (plastic) colloids (agreeing with measured KD,waste values). Dust concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 50.7 mg/kgdust. Incineration appears to be an effective way to reduce BPA concentrations in solid waste, dust, and leachate.

  19. Understanding Skill in EVA Mass Handling. Volume 2; Empirical Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccio, Gary; McDonald, Vernon; Peters, Brian; Layne, Charles; Bloomberg, Jacob

    1997-01-01

    In this report we describe the details of our empirical protocol effort investigating skill in extravehicular mass handling using NASA's principal mass handling simulator, the precision air bearing floor. Contents of this report include a description of the necessary modifications to the mass handling simulator; choice of task, and the description of an operationally relevant protocol. Our independent variables are presented in the context of the specific operational issues they were designed to simulate. The explanation of our dependent variables focuses on the specific data processing procedures used to transform data from common laboratory instruments into measures that are relevant to a special class of nested control systems (discussed in Volume 1): manual interactions between an individual and the substantial environment. The data reduction is explained in the context of the theoretical foundation described in Volume 1. Finally as a preface to the presentation of the empirical data in Volume 3 of this report series, a set of detailed hypotheses is presented.

  20. PECVD/ECR/HWCVD Multichamber System with Robotic Substrate Handling System for deposition of Thin Film Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rava, P.

    2012-11-01

    The present work reports on progress in the design of modular UHV cluster tool multichamber systems. A wide range of processes has been implemented in the Deposition Process Chambers (DPC's), including rf-PECVD, vhf-PECVD, ECR-PECVD and HWCVD. A wide range of intrinsic and doped amorphous and microcrystalline silicon and silicon alloy materials have been produced and have been used in the fabrication of several types of electronic devices such as solar cells, Light Emitting Devices (LED's), Thin Film Transistors (TFT's), etc. using multichamber systems at several laboratories worldwide.

  1. Transforming the NAS: The Next Generation Air Traffic Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    The next-generation air traffic control system must be designed to safely and efficiently accommodate the large growth of traffic expected in the near future. It should be sufficiently scalable to contend with the factor of 2 or more increase in demand expected by the year 2020. Analysis has shown that the current method of controlling air traffic cannot be scaled up to provide such levels of capacity. Therefore, to achieve a large increase in capacity while also giving pilots increased freedom to optimize their flight trajectories requires a fundamental change in the way air traffic is controlled. The key to achieving a factor of 2 or more increase in airspace capacity is to automate separation monitoring and control and to use an air-ground data link to send trajectories and clearances directly between ground-based and airborne systems. In addition to increasing capacity and offering greater flexibility in the selection of trajectories, this approach also has the potential to increase safety by reducing controller and pilot errors that occur in routine monitoring and voice communication tasks.

  2. High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckes, John

    2006-04-15

    R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature

  3. Liquid Desiccant in Air Conditioners: Nano-Engineered Porous Hollow Fiber Membrane-Based Air Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-02

    BEETIT Project: UTRC is developing an air conditioning system that is optimized for use in warm and humid climates. UTRC’s air conditioning system integrates a liquid drying agent or desiccant and a traditional vapor compression system found in 90% of air conditioners. The drying agent reduces the humidity in the air before it is cooled, using less energy. The technology uses a membrane as a barrier between the air and the liquid salt stream allowing only water vapor to pass through and not the salt molecules. This solves an inherent problem with traditional liquid desiccant systems—carryover of the liquid drying agent into the conditioned air stream—which eliminates corrosion and health issues

  4. Aircraft handling qualities data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Jewell, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    Available information on weight and inertia, aerodynamic derivatives, control characteristics, and stability augmentation systems is documented for 10 representative contemporary airplanes. Data sources are given for each airplane. Flight envelopes are presented and dimensional derivatives, transfer functions for control inputs, and several selected handling qualities parameters have been computed and are tabulated for 10 different flight conditions including the power approach configuration. The airplanes documented are the NT-33A, F-104A, F-4C, X-15, HL-10, Jetstar, CV-880M, B-747, C-5A, and XB-70A.

  5. New research on bioregenerative air/water purification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Ellender, R. D.; Watkins, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    For the past several years, air and water purification systems have been developed and used. This technology is based on the combined activities of plants and microorganisms as they function in a natural environment. More recently, researchers have begun to address the problems associated with indoor air pollution. Various common houseplants are currently being evaluated for their abilities to reduce concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) such as formaldehyde and benzene. With development of the Space Exploration Initiative, missions will increase in duration, and problems with resupply necessitates implementation of regenerative technology. Aspects of bioregenerative technology have been included in a habitat known as the BioHome. The ultimate goal is to use this technology in conjunction with physicochemical systems for air and water purification within closed systems. This study continued the risk assessment of bioregenerative technology with emphasis on biological hazards. In an effort to evaluate the risk for human infection, analyses were directed at enumeration of fecal streptococci and enteric viruses with the BioHome waste water treatment system.

  6. Operational air quality forecasting system for Spain: CALIOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldasano, J. M.; Piot, M.; Jorba, O.; Goncalves, M.; Pay, M.; Pirez, C.; Lopez, E.; Gasso, S.; Martin, F.; García-Vivanco, M.; Palomino, I.; Querol, X.; Pandolfi, M.; Dieguez, J. J.; Padilla, L.

    2009-12-01

    The European Commission (EC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) have shown great concerns to understand the transport and dynamics of pollutants in the atmosphere. According to the European directives (1996/62/EC, 2002/3/EC, 2008/50/EC), air quality modeling, if accurately applied, is a useful tool to understand the dynamics of air pollutants, to analyze and forecast the air quality, and to develop programs reducing emissions and alert the population when health-related issues occur. The CALIOPE project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of the Environment, has the main objective to establish an air quality forecasting system for Spain. A partnership of four research institutions composes the CALIOPE project: the Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), the center of investigation CIEMAT, the Earth Sciences Institute ‘Jaume Almera’ (IJA-CSIC) and the CEAM Foundation. CALIOPE will become the official Spanish air quality operational system. This contribution focuses on the recent developments and implementation of the integrated modelling system for the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and Canary Islands (CI) with a high spatial and temporal resolution (4x4 sq. km for IP and 2x2 sq. km for CI, 1 hour), namely WRF-ARW/HERMES04/CMAQ/BSC-DREAM. The HERMES04 emission model has been specifically developed as a high-resolution (1x1 sq. km, 1 hour) emission model for Spain. It includes biogenic and anthropogenic emissions such as on-road and paved-road resuspension production, power plant generation, ship and plane traffic, airports and ports activities, industrial and agricultural sectors as well as domestic and commercial emissions. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the model was performed for a reference year (2004) using data from ground-based measurement networks. The products of the CALIOPE system will provide 24h and 48h forecasts for O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10 and PM2.5 at surface level. An operational evaluation system has been developed

  7. Applied patent RFID systems for building reacting HEPA air ventilation system in hospital operation rooms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jesun; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2012-12-01

    RFID technology, an automatic identification and data capture technology to provide identification, tracing, security and so on, was widely applied to healthcare industry in these years. Employing HEPA ventilation system in hospital is a way to ensure healthful indoor air quality to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections. However, the system consumes lots of electricity which cost a lot. This study aims to apply the RFID technology to offer a unique medical staff and patient identification, and reacting HEPA air ventilation system in order to reduce the cost, save energy and prevent the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. The system, reacting HEPA air ventilation system, contains RFID tags (for medical staffs and patients), sensor, and reacting system which receives the information regarding the number of medical staff and the status of the surgery, and controls the air volume of the HEPA air ventilation system accordingly. A pilot program was carried out in a unit of operation rooms of a medical center with 1,500 beds located in central Taiwan from Jan to Aug 2010. The results found the air ventilation system was able to function much more efficiently with less energy consumed. Furthermore, the indoor air quality could still keep qualified and hospital-acquired infection or other occupational diseases could be prevented.

  8. D-Zero Instrument Air System Humidity Transmitter Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Serges, T.J.; /Fermilab

    1988-07-15

    This report shows the findings that resulted in the purchase of the optimum dew point hygrometer for use in the D-Zero instrument air system (see diagram 2 on page 9). The hygrometer will monitor the air syste m to insure that the dew point level does not go above the normal operating output of the driers (this precise value will be determined during initial system start-up). The following criteria was used in the evaluation: (1) Long term durability; (2) Minimum calibration; (3) Indicate a dew point level down to -40 C accurately; (4) Designed to work in a low humidity region; (5) Minimum maintenance; (6) Fast response time; and (7) Lowest cost provided all other criteria is met.

  9. Regenerable Air Purification System for Gas-Phase Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, Ileana C.; Qi, Nan; LeVan, M. Douglas; Finn, Cory K.; Finn, John E.; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A regenerable air purification system (RAPS) that uses water vapor to displace adsorbed contaminants from an. adsorbent column into a closed oxidation loop is under development through cooperative R&D between Vanderbilt University and NASA Ames Research Center. A unit based on this design can be used for removing trace gas-phase contaminants from spacecraft cabin air or from polluted process streams including incinerator exhaust. Recent work has focused on fabrication and operation of a RAPS breadboard at NASA Ames, and on measurement of adsorption isotherm data for several important organic compounds at Vanderbilt. These activities support the use and validation of RAPS modeling software also under development at Vanderbilt, which will in turn be used to construct a prototype system later in the project.

  10. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  11. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  12. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  13. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  14. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  15. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  16. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  17. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  18. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  19. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  20. Modeling urban air pollution with optimized hierarchical fuzzy inference system.

    PubMed

    Tashayo, Behnam; Alimohammadi, Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Environmental exposure assessments (EEA) and epidemiological studies require urban air pollution models with appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. Uncertain available data and inflexible models can limit air pollution modeling techniques, particularly in under developing countries. This paper develops a hierarchical fuzzy inference system (HFIS) to model air pollution under different land use, transportation, and meteorological conditions. To improve performance, the system treats the issue as a large-scale and high-dimensional problem and develops the proposed model using a three-step approach. In the first step, a geospatial information system (GIS) and probabilistic methods are used to preprocess the data. In the second step, a hierarchical structure is generated based on the problem. In the third step, the accuracy and complexity of the model are simultaneously optimized with a multiple objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm. We examine the capabilities of the proposed model for predicting daily and annual mean PM2.5 and NO2 and compare the accuracy of the results with representative models from existing literature. The benefits provided by the model features, including probabilistic preprocessing, multi-objective optimization, and hierarchical structure, are precisely evaluated by comparing five different consecutive models in terms of accuracy and complexity criteria. Fivefold cross validation is used to assess the performance of the generated models. The respective average RMSEs and coefficients of determination (R (2)) for the test datasets using proposed model are as follows: daily PM2.5 = (8.13, 0.78), annual mean PM2.5 = (4.96, 0.80), daily NO2 = (5.63, 0.79), and annual mean NO2 = (2.89, 0.83). The obtained results demonstrate that the developed hierarchical fuzzy inference system can be utilized for modeling air pollution in EEA and epidemiological studies.