Science.gov

Sample records for air heater outlet

  1. Forced air heater

    SciTech Connect

    Livezey, D.J.

    1980-09-23

    An air heating chamber is supported to project into a stove through an opening provided in the rear wall of the stove by a mounting plate mounted to the exterior of the stove rear wall. The mounting plate which forms the exterior end wall of the heating chamber, includes laterally spaced heating chamber inlet and outlet openings. A blower is detachably mounted to the exterior of the mounting plate in registration with the heating chamber inlet opening to deliver cool forced air into the heating chamber. After circulating therethrough, the air exits the heating chamber through the outlet opening and flows into a hot air manifold, which is also detachably mounted to the exterior of the mounting plate. The manifold includes an upwardly extending inlet chamber with a hot air inlet at its lower end aligned with the heating chamber outlet opening. A horizontal outlet chamber is attached to the top end of the inlet chamber to extend laterally along the back of the stove. Hot air outlets are provided at each end of the manifold outlet chamber to discharge the heated air horizontally over the top and towards the front of the stove.

  2. Regenerative air heater

    DOEpatents

    Hasselquist, Paul B.; Baldner, Richard

    1982-01-01

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  3. Regenerative air heater

    DOEpatents

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  4. Solar air heaters and their applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    The solar air heater appears to be the most logical choice, as far as the ultimate application of heating air to maintain a comfortable environment is concerned. One disadvantage of solar air heaters is the need for handling larger volumes of air than liquids due to the low density of air as a working substance. Another disadvantage is the low thermal capacity of air. In cases where thermal storage is needed, water is superior to air. Design variations of solar air heaters are discussed along with the calculation of the efficiency of a flat plate solar air heater, the performance of various collector types, and the applications of solar air heaters. Attention is given to collectors with nonporous absorber plates, collectors with porous absorbers, the performance of flat plate collectors with finned absorbers, a wire mesh absorber, and an overlapped glass plate air heater.

  5. Build Your Own Solar Air Heater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    The solar air heater is a simple device for catching some of the sun's energy to heat a home. Procedures for making and installing such a heater are presented. Included is a materials list, including tools needed for constructing the heater, sources for obtaining further details, and a list of material specifications. (JN)

  6. Air heater leakage: worse than you think

    SciTech Connect

    Guffre, J.

    2006-04-15

    Every good engineer knows that you cannot control what you cannot measure. In the case of rotary regenerative air heaters, many plants fail to limit the negative impact of heater leakage because they use measurement procedures and/or devices that fail to take into account its indirect effects. For a 500 MW coal-fired plant the heat energy that air heaters capture and recycle amounts to about 60% of that existing in the boiler, equivalent to 1.5 Btu per hour. This article explains the importance of accurately measuring leakage levels and the need to use modern seals to make heaters air-tight. 4 figs.

  7. Design data brochure: Solar hot air heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The design, installation, performance, and application of a solar hot air heater for residential, commercial and industrial use is reported. The system has been installed at the Concho Indian School in El Reno, Oklahoma.

  8. Thermal performance of a new solar air heater

    SciTech Connect

    Tiris, C.; Ozbalta, N.; Tiris, M.; Dincer, I.

    1995-05-01

    A solar air heater, part of a food drying system using solar energy as a renewable energy source for heat, was developed and tested for several agricultural products (i.e., sultana grapes, green beans, sweet peppers, chili peppers). Drying processes were conducted in the chamber with forced natural air heated partly by solar energy. Solar air heater performances were discussed along with estimates of energy efficiency of the system. The obtained results indicate that the present system is efficiency and effective.

  9. Industrial applications of MHD high temperature air heater technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, D. P.; Fenstermacher, J. E.; White, L. R.; Marksberry, C. L.

    1981-12-01

    The MHD high temperature air heater (HTAH) requires technology beyond the current state-of-the-art of industrial regenerative heaters. Specific aspects of HTAH technology which may find other application include refractory materials and valves resistant to the high temperature, corrosive, slag-bearing gas, materials resistant to cyclic thermal stresses, high temperature support structures for the cored brick bed, regenerative heater operating techniques for preventing accumulation of slag in the heater, and analytical tools for computing regenerative heater size, cost, and performance. Areas where HTAH technology may find application include acetylene/ethylene production processes, flash pyrolysis of coal, high temperature gas reactors, coal gasification processes, various metallurgical processes, waste incineration, and improvements to existing regenerator technology such as blast furnace stoves and glass tank regenerators.

  10. Airshuffler implementation at freezer air outlets for heat transfer enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćerezci, Gökhan; Darka, Murat; Şenman, Ozan

    2016-06-01

    A study which is composed of computational simulation and experimental validation has been conducted for implementation of small, vane type geometries at freezer air outlets, similar to microvortex generators used in aircraft wings, in order to improve the heat transfer efficiency inside the freezer compartment by decreasing airside thermal resistance and improving the air distribution. Both simulation and experimental validation were performed in a loaded condition which was prepared according to `Household refrigerating appliances - characteristics and test methods - IEC 62552 [1]. Solutions for the incompressible K-epsilon (k-ɛ) turbulence model obtained for Bosch KDN 49 refrigerator freezer both with and without airshufflers at air outlets, which are similar to vane type microvortex generators with different geometric dimensions. The airshuffler dimensions were chosen with design of experiment (DOE) principles for finding the optimum geometry. The best combinations were tested according to cooling rate inside freezer compartment. Results were evaluated for feasibility of implementing of vortex generating surfaces (airshufflers) for cooling appliances.

  11. Process Heater Ultra-low Excess Air Control

    SciTech Connect

    David V. Thompson

    2006-06-30

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate automatic control of combustion within process heaters using flue gas carbon monoxide (CO) instead of flue gas oxygen (excess air) as the control point for the burner registers to continually achieve near stoichiometric conditions without operator adjustments.

  12. Thermography and Sonic Anemometry to Analyze Air Heaters in Mediterranean Greenhouses

    PubMed Central

    López, Alejandro; Valera, Diego L.; Molina-Aiz, Francisco; Peña, Araceli

    2012-01-01

    The present work has developed a methodology based on thermography and sonic anemometry for studying the microclimate in Mediterranean greenhouses equipped with air heaters and polyethylene distribution ducts to distribute the warm air. Sonic anemometry allows us to identify the airflow pattern generated by the heaters and to analyze the temperature distribution inside the greenhouse, while thermography provides accurate crop temperature data. Air distribution by means of perforated polyethylene ducts at ground level, widely used in Mediterranean-type greenhouses, can generate heterogeneous temperature distributions inside the greenhouse when the system is not correctly designed. The system analyzed in this work used a polyethylene duct with a row of hot air outlet holes (all of equal diameter) that expel warm air toward the ground to avoid plant damage. We have observed that this design (the most widely used in Almería's greenhouses) produces stagnation of hot air in the highest part of the structure, reducing the heating of the crop zone. Using 88 kW heating power (146.7 W·m−2) the temperature inside the greenhouse is maintained 7.2 to 11.2 °C above the outside temperature. The crop temperature (17.6 to 19.9 °C) was maintained above the minimum recommended value of 10 °C. PMID:23202025

  13. 30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.341 Direct-fired intake air heaters. (a) If any system used to heat intake air malfunctions, the heaters affected shall...

  14. 30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.341 Direct-fired intake air heaters. (a) If any system used to heat intake air malfunctions, the heaters affected shall...

  15. 30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.341 Direct-fired intake air heaters. (a) If any system used to heat intake air malfunctions, the heaters affected shall...

  16. 30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.341 Direct-fired intake air heaters. (a) If any system used to heat intake air malfunctions, the heaters affected shall...

  17. 30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.341 Direct-fired intake air heaters. (a) If any system used to heat intake air malfunctions, the heaters affected shall...

  18. Experimental study of heat transfer and thermal performance with longitudinal fins of solar air heater.

    PubMed

    Chabane, Foued; Moummi, Noureddine; Benramache, Said

    2014-03-01

    The thermal performance of a single pass solar air heater with five fins attached was investigated experimentally. Longitudinal fins were used inferior the absorber plate to increase the heat exchange and render the flow fluid in the channel uniform. The effect of mass flow rate of air on the outlet temperature, the heat transfer in the thickness of the solar collector, and the thermal efficiency were studied. Experiments were performed for two air mass flow rates of 0.012 and 0.016 kg s(-1). Moreover, the maximum efficiency values obtained for the 0.012 and 0.016 kg s(-1) with and without fins were 40.02%, 51.50% and 34.92%, 43.94%, respectively. A comparison of the results of the mass flow rates by solar collector with and without fins shows a substantial enhancement in the thermal efficiency.

  19. Experimental study of heat transfer and thermal performance with longitudinal fins of solar air heater

    PubMed Central

    Chabane, Foued; Moummi, Noureddine; Benramache, Said

    2013-01-01

    The thermal performance of a single pass solar air heater with five fins attached was investigated experimentally. Longitudinal fins were used inferior the absorber plate to increase the heat exchange and render the flow fluid in the channel uniform. The effect of mass flow rate of air on the outlet temperature, the heat transfer in the thickness of the solar collector, and the thermal efficiency were studied. Experiments were performed for two air mass flow rates of 0.012 and 0.016 kg s−1. Moreover, the maximum efficiency values obtained for the 0.012 and 0.016 kg s−1 with and without fins were 40.02%, 51.50% and 34.92%, 43.94%, respectively. A comparison of the results of the mass flow rates by solar collector with and without fins shows a substantial enhancement in the thermal efficiency. PMID:25685486

  20. Design of Solar Heat Sheet for Air Heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, S. Shanmuga; Premalatha, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, I.

    2011-12-01

    The technique of harnessing solar energy for drying offers significant potential to dry agricultural products such as food grains, fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants, thereby eliminating many of the problems experienced with open-sun drying and industrial drying, besides saving huge quantities of fossil fuels. A great deal of experimental work over the last few decades has already demonstrated that agricultural products can be satisfactorily dehydrated using solar energy. Various designs of small scale solar dryers have been developed in the recent past, mainly for drying agricultural products. Major problems experienced with solar dryers are their non-reliability as their operation largely depends on local weather conditions. While back-up heaters and hybrid dryers partly solved this issue, difficulties in controlling the drying air temperature and flow rate remains a problem, and affects the quality of the dried product. This study is aimed at eliminating the fluctuations in the quality of hot air supplied by simple solar air heaters used for drying fruits, vegetables and other applications. It is an attempt to analyse the applicability of the combination of an glazed transpired solar collector (tank), thermal storage and a intake fan(suction fan) to achieve a steady supply of air at a different atmospheric temperature and flow rate for drying fruits and vegetables. Development of an efficient, low-cost and reliable air heating system for drying applications is done.

  1. Energy use test facility: CAC-DOE solar air heater test report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    The solar air heater testing demonstrated an attractive application for residential space heating, especially appealing to the do-it-yourself market. Simple improvements in construction, such as caulking of the glazing, could increase collector performance at little cost. The operating cost of the fan was insignificant, being less than $0.05/week. Tested in its as-shipped configuration at 96.1 cfm (3 cfm/ft (2)), the useful energy delivered averaged 20,000 Btu/day for six days in December. The electrical consumption of the fan was approximately 1 kWh. Doubling the flowrate did not increase collector performance appreciably. A TRNSYS computer simulation model for this solar air heater design was validated by comparing the measured test data on Jaunary 4, 1981 with calculated values. TRNSYS predicted that measured collector outlet temperatures within +- 1.20F and the energy delivered within +- 3%. The excellent agreement was obtained by adjusting the collector loss coefficient to an unrealistically low value; therefore, a parametric study is recommended to determine the model sensitivity to varying different parameters. A first-order collector efficiency curve was derived from the TRNSYS simulations which compared well with the curve defined by the clear-day measured data.

  2. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor fixtures and equipment shall be listed for use in wet locations, except that if located on the underside...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 73992, Dec. 9, 2013. (a) Outdoor fixtures and equipment shall be listed for...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor fixtures and equipment shall be listed for use in wet locations, except that if located on the underside...

  5. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor fixtures and equipment shall be listed for use in wet locations, except that if located on the underside...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor fixtures and equipment shall be listed for use in wet locations, except that if located on the underside...

  7. Air demand estimation in bottom outlets with the particle finite element method - Susqueda Dam case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Fernando; San-Mauro, Javier; Celigueta, Miguel Ángel; Oñate, Eugenio

    2016-06-01

    Dam bottom outlets play a vital role in dam operation and safety, as they allow controlling the water surface elevation below the spillway level. For partial openings, water flows under the gate lip at high velocity and drags the air downstream of the gate, which may cause damages due to cavitation and vibration. The convenience of installing air vents in dam bottom outlets is well known by practitioners. The design of this element depends basically on the maximum air flow through the air vent, which in turn is a function of the specific geometry and the boundary conditions. The intrinsic features of this phenomenon makes it hard to analyse either on site or in full scaled experimental facilities. As a consequence, empirical formulas are frequently employed, which offer a conservative estimate of the maximum air flow. In this work, the particle finite element method was used to model the air-water interaction in Susqueda Dam bottom outlet, with different gate openings. Specific enhancements of the formulation were developed to consider air-water interaction. The results were analysed as compared to the conventional design criteria and to information gathered on site during the gate operation tests. This analysis suggests that numerical modelling with the PFEM can be helpful for the design of this kind of hydraulic works.

  8. High-pressure ceramic air heater for indirectly fired gas turbine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaye, P. G.; Briggs, G. F.; Vandervort, C. L.; Seger, J. L.

    The Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) offers a method for operating high-efficiency gas and steam turbine combined cycles on coal. In the EFCC, an air heater replaces the gas turbine combustor so that the turbine can be indirectly fired. Ceramic materials are required for the heat exchange surfaces to accommodate the operating temperatures of modern gas turbines. The ceramic air heater or heat exchanger is the focus of this program, and the two primary objectives are (1) to demonstrate that a ceramic air heater can be reliably pressurized to a level of 225 psia (1.5 MPa); and (2) to show that the air heater can withstand exposure to the products of coal combustion at elevated temperatures. By replacing the gas turbine combustor with a ceramic air heater, the cycle can use coal or other ash-bearing fuels. Numerous programs have attempted to fuel high efficiency gas turbines directly with coal, often resulting in significant ash deposition upon turbine components and corrosion or erosion of turbine blades. This report will show that a ceramic air heater is significantly less susceptible to ash deposition or corrosion than a gas turbine when protected by rudimentary methods of gas-stream clean-up. A 25 x 10(sup 6) Btu/hr (7 MW) test facility is under construction in Kennebunk, Maine. It is anticipated that this proof of concept program will lead to commercialization of the EFCC by electric utility and industrial organizations. Applications are being pursued for power plants ranging from 10 to 100 megawatts.

  9. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Air Inlet and Outlet Openings on a Streamline Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, John V

    1951-01-01

    In connection with the general problem of providing air flow to an aircraft power plant located within a fuselage, an investigation was conducted in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel to determine the effect on external drag and pressure distribution of air inlet openings located at the nose of a streamline body. Air outlet openings located at the tail and at the 21-percent and 63-percent stations of the body were also investigated. Boundary layer transition measurements were made and correlated with the force and the pressure data. Individual openings were investigated with the aid of a blower and then practicable combinations of inlet and outlet openings were tested. Various modifications to the internal duct shape near the inlet opening and the aerodynamic effects of a simulated gun in the duct were also studied. The results of the tests suggested that outlet openings should be designed so that the static pressure of the internal flow at the outlet would be the same as the static pressure of the external flow in the vicinity of the opening.

  10. Application of high temperature air heaters to advanced power generation cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T R; Boss, W H; Chapman, J N

    1992-03-01

    Recent developments in ceramic composite materials open up the possibility of recuperative air heaters heating air to temperatures well above the feasible with metal tubes. A high temperature air heater (HTAH) has long been recognized as a requirement for the most efficient MHD plants in order to reach high combustor flame temperatures. The application of gas turbines in coal-fired plants of all types has been impeded because of the problems in cleaning exhaust gas sufficiently to avoid damage to the turbine. With a possibility of a HTAH, such plants may become feasible on the basis of air turbine cycles, in which air is compressed and heated in the HTAH before being applied to turbine. The heat exchanger eliminates the need for the hot gas cleanup system. The performance improvement potential of advanced cycles with HTAH application including the air turbine cycle in several variations such as the DOE program on ``Coal-Fired Air Furnace Combined Cycle...,`` variations originated by the authors, and the MHD combined cycle are presented. The status of development of ceramic air heater technology is included.

  11. Eliminating air heater plugging and corrosion caused by SCR/SNCR systems for NOx control on coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Guffre, J.

    2007-10-15

    In a typical coal-fired power plant the rotary regenerative air heater is responsible for 5-10% of the boiler's total efficiency. The three biggest threats to air heater performance deterioration are corrosion of the heat exchange surfaces, plugging, and air heater leakage through the seals. The article concentrates on the vastly increased level of corrosion and plugging issues associated with installing selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) systems for controlling nitrogen oxide emissions. Some injected ammonia in the SCR process reacts with SO{sub 2} to form ammonium sulphate and bisulphate (ABS) which is deposited on the air heater element surfaces. This can be overcome by applying coatings, using corrosion-resistant steels, reconfiguring the air heaters to a two layer design, improving air heater blowers, improving technologies for removing ammonia 'slip' before it enters the air heater, and using new catalysts that reduce the oxidation of SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. 4 figs.

  12. ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA643. CAMERA FACES NORTH. AIR HEATERS LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. CAMERA FACES NORTH. AIR HEATERS LINE UP AGAINST WALL, TO BE USED IN CONNECTION WITH ETR EXPERIMENTS. EACH HAD A HEAT OUTPUT OF 8 MILLION BTU PER HOUR, OPERATED AT 1260 DEGREES F. AND A PRESSURE OF 320 PSI. NOTE METAL WALLS AND ROOF. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3709. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G. ); Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K. )

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  14. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G.; Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K.

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  15. Comparative study of solar air heater performance with various shapes and configurations of obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Kishor; Kim, Kwang-Yong

    2016-02-01

    An investigation is performed to find an optimum shape of obstacles attached to a solar air heater using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes analyses of heat transfer and fluid flow. The Reynolds number, which is based on the hydraulic diameter of the channel, is in the range of 6800-10,000. The Nusselt number and friction factor are used to measure the thermal and aerodynamic performances of the solar air heater, respectively. Four different obstacle shapes (U-shaped, rectangular, trapezoidal, and pentagonal) and three arrangements of obstacles were tested to determine their effects on performance of the solar air heater. The results show that the performance factor (defined by a ratio of thermal to aerodynamic performance) was above unity for all the cases tested, and the pentagonal obstacle shape indicates the highest performance regardless of the Reynolds number. Detailed analyses of the thermal and flow fields are performed in order to obtain a better understanding of the heat transfer characteristics.

  16. Magnetically Diffused Radial Electric-Arc Air Heater Employing Water-Cooled Copper Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, R. F.; Davis, D. D., Jr.

    1962-01-01

    A magnetically rotated electric-arc air heater has been developed that is novel in that an intense magnetic field of the order of 10,000 to 25,000 gauss is employed. This field is supplied by a coil that is connected in series with the arc. Experimentation with this heater has shown that the presence of an intense magnetic field transverse to the arc results in diffusion of the arc and that the arc has a positive effective resistance. With the field coil in series with the arc, highly stable arc operation is obtained from a battery power supply. External ballast is not required to stabilize the arc when it is operating at maximum power level. The electrode erosion rate is so low that the airstream contamination is no more than 0.07 percent and may be substantially less.

  17. MHD air heater technology development. Annual technical progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1981-03-01

    Progress on the technology development of the directly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) for MHD power plants is described in detail. The objective of task 1 is to continue development of ceramic materials technology for the directly-fired HTAH. The objectives of task 2 are to demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating a directly-fired HTAH (including both the heater matrix and valves), to continue obtaining information on life and corrosion resistance of HTAH materials, and to obtain design information for full-scale studies and future design work. The objectives of task 3 are to begin the identification of HTAH control requirements and control system needs, and to continue full-scale study efforts incorporating updated materials and design information in order to identify development needs for the HTAH development program. (WHK)

  18. Optimum outlet temperature of solar collector for maximum work output for an Otto air-standard cycle with ideal regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Eldighidy, S.M. )

    1993-09-01

    The optimum solar collector outlet temperature for maximizing the work output for an Otto air-standard cycle with ideal regeneration is investigated. A mathematical model for the energy balance on the solar collector along with the useful work output and the thermal efficiency of the Otto air-standard cycle with ideal regeneration is developed. The optimum solar collector outlet temperature for maximum work output is determined. The effect of radiative and convective heat losses from the solar collector, on the optimum outlet temperature is presented. The results reveal that the highest solar collector outlet temperature and, therefore, greatest Otto cycle efficiency and work output can be attained with the lowest values of radiative and convective heat losses. Moreover, high cycle work output (as a fraction of absorbed solar energy) and high efficiency of an Otto heat engine with ideal regeneration, driven by a solar collector system, can be attained with low compression ratio.

  19. High pressure ceramic air heater for indirectly fired gas turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    LaHaye, P.G.; Briggs, G.F.; Orozxo, N.J.; Seger, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    The EFCC cycle is conceptually simple. Air enters the compressor where it is pressurized and becomes the tube-side flow of the ceramic air heater. Heat transferred from the hot combustion gases flowing through the shell-side raises the air temperature to the desired turbine inlet temperature. Internally insulated high pressure piping returns the heated compressor air to the turbine, where it is expanded providing power to drive the electric generator and gas turbine compressor. Exhaust air from the turbine is used as the combustion air for the coal combustor. The EFCC cycle burns pulverized coal in an atmospheric combustion chamber similar to the combustion system in a conventional steam generator. The combustion gas exits the combustor and enters a slag screen, or impact separator, where the larger ash particles are collected to prevent fouling of the heat exchanger. After the slag screen, the combustion gas enters the shell-side of the CerHX where its thermal energy is transferred to the tube side air flow. Shell-side exit temperatures are sufficiently high to provide thermal energy for the bottoming Rankine Cycle through a heat recovery steam generator. Exhaust gas exiting the steam generator passes through a flue gas desulfurization system and a particulate removal system.

  20. Forecast of thermal-hydrological conditions and air injection test results of the single heater test at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Tsang, Y.W.

    1996-12-01

    The heater in the Single Heater Test (SHT) in alcove 5 of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) was turned on August 26, 1996. A large number of sensors are installed in the various instrumented boreholes to monitor the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical responses of the rock mass to the heat generated in the single heater. In this report the authors present the results of the modeling of both the heating and cooling phases of the Single Heater Test (SHT), with focus on the thermal-hydrological aspect of the coupled processes. Also in this report, the authors present simulations of air injection tests will be performed at different stages of the heating and cooling phase of the SHT.

  1. Performance Analysis and Parametric Study of a Natural Convection Solar Air Heater With In-built Oil Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhote, Yogesh; Thombre, Shashikant

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the thermal performance of the proposed double flow natural convection solar air heater with in-built liquid (oil) sensible heat storage. Unused engine oil was used as thermal energy storage medium due to its good heat retaining capacity even at high temperatures without evaporation. The performance evaluation was carried out for a day of the month March for the climatic conditions of Nagpur (India). A self reliant computational model was developed using computational tool as C++. The program developed was self reliant and compute the performance parameters for any day of the year and would be used for major cities in India. The effect of change in storage oil quantity and the inclination (tilt angle) on the overall efficiency of the solar air heater was studied. The performance was tested initially at different storage oil quantities as 25, 50, 75 and 100 l for a plate spacing of 0.04 m with an inclination of 36o. It has been found that the solar air heater gives the best performance at a storage oil quantity of 50 l. The performance of the proposed solar air heater is further tested for various combinations of storage oil quantity (50, 75 and 100 l) and the inclination (0o, 15o, 30o, 45o, 60o, 75o, 90o). It has been found that the proposed solar air heater with in-built oil storage shows its best performance for the combination of 50 l storage oil quantity and 60o inclination. Finally the results of the parametric study was also presented in the form of graphs carried out for a fixed storage oil quantity of 25 l, plate spacing of 0.03 m and at an inclination of 36o to study the behaviour of various heat transfer and fluid flow parameters of the solar air heater.

  2. Effect of gas and kerosene space heaters on indoor air quality: a study in homes of Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pablo A; Toro, Claudia; Cáceres, Jorge; López, Gianni; Oyola, Pedro; Koutrakis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    The impact of outdoor and indoor pollution sources on indoor air quality in Santiago, Chile was investigated. Toward this end, 16 homes were sampled in four sessions. Each session included an outdoor site and four homes using different unvented space heaters (electric or central heating, compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, and kerosene). Average outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations were very high (55.9 microg x m(-3)), and a large fraction of these particles penetrated indoors. PM2.5 and several PM2.5 components (including sulfate, elemental carbon, organic carbon, metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were elevated in homes using kerosene heaters. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ultrafine particles (UFPs) were higher in homes with combustion heaters as compared with those with electric heaters or central heating. A regression model was used to assess the effect of heater use on continuous indoor PM2.5 concentrations when windows were closed. The model found an impact only for kerosene heaters (45.8 microg m(-3)).

  3. Effect of gas and kerosene space heaters on indoor air quality: a study in homes of Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pablo A; Toro, Claudia; Cáceres, Jorge; López, Gianni; Oyola, Pedro; Koutrakis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    The impact of outdoor and indoor pollution sources on indoor air quality in Santiago, Chile was investigated. Toward this end, 16 homes were sampled in four sessions. Each session included an outdoor site and four homes using different unvented space heaters (electric or central heating, compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, and kerosene). Average outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations were very high (55.9 microg x m(-3)), and a large fraction of these particles penetrated indoors. PM2.5 and several PM2.5 components (including sulfate, elemental carbon, organic carbon, metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were elevated in homes using kerosene heaters. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ultrafine particles (UFPs) were higher in homes with combustion heaters as compared with those with electric heaters or central heating. A regression model was used to assess the effect of heater use on continuous indoor PM2.5 concentrations when windows were closed. The model found an impact only for kerosene heaters (45.8 microg m(-3)). PMID:20102039

  4. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 1: Transmittal documents; Executive summary; Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described.

  5. Inadvertent venous air embolism during cesarean section: collapsible intravenous fluid bags without self-sealing outlet have risks. Case report.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Mefkur; Topuz, Ufuk; Esen, Asim; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Ozturk, Erdogan

    2013-01-01

    The anesthesiologist must be aware of the causes, diagnosis and treatment of venous air embolism and adopt the practice patterns to prevent its occurrence. Although venous air embolism is a known complication of cesarean section, we describe an unusual inattention that causes iatrogenic near fatal venous air embolism during a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. One of the reasons for using self-collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of conventional glass or plastic bottles is to take precaution against air embolism. We also demonstrated the risk of air embolism for two kinds of plastic collapsible intravenous fluid bags: polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polypropylene-based. Fluid bags without self-sealing outlets pose a risk for air embolism if the closed system is broken down, while the flexibility of the bag limits the amount of air entry. PVC-based bags, which have more flexibility, have significantly less risk of air entry when IV administration set is disconnected from the outlet. Using a pressure bag for rapid infusion can be dangerous without checking and emptying all air from the IV bag.

  6. Inadvertent venous air embolism during cesarean section: Collapsible intravenous fluid bags without self-sealing outlet have risks. Case report.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Mefkur; Topuz, Ufuk; Esen, Asim; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Ozturk, Erdogan

    2013-01-01

    The anesthesiologist must be aware of the causes, diagnosis and treatment of venous air embolism and adopt the practice patterns to prevent its occurrence. Although venous air embolism is a known complication of cesarean section, we describe an unusual inattention that causes iatrogenic near fatal venous air embolism during a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. One of the reasons for using self-collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of conventional glass or plastic bottles is to take precaution against air embolism. We also demonstrated the risk of air embolism for two kinds of plastic collapsible intravenous fluid bags: polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polypropylene-based. Fluid bags without self-sealing outlets pose a risk for air embolism if the closed system is broken down, while the flexibility of the bag limits the amount of air entry. PVC-based bags, which have more flexibility, have significantly less risk of air entry when IV administration set is disconnected from the outlet. Using a pressure bag for rapid infusion can be dangerous without checking and emptying all air from the IV bag.

  7. Infrared Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The heating units shown in the accompanying photos are Panelbloc infrared heaters, energy savers which burn little fuel in relation to their effective heat output. Produced by Bettcher Manufacturing Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, Panelblocs are applicable to industrial or other facilities which have ceilings more than 12 feet high, such as those pictured: at left the Bare Hills Tennis Club, Baltimore, Maryland and at right, CVA Lincoln- Mercury, Gaithersburg, Maryland. The heaters are mounted high above the floor and they radiate infrared energy downward. Panelblocs do not waste energy by warming the surrounding air. Instead, they beam invisible heat rays directly to objects which absorb the radiation- people, floors, machinery and other plant equipment. All these objects in turn re-radiate the energy to the air. A key element in the Panelbloc design is a coating applied to the aluminized steel outer surface of the heater. This coating must be corrosion resistant at high temperatures and it must have high "emissivity"-the ability of a surface to emit radiant energy. The Bettcher company formerly used a porcelain coating, but it caused a production problem. Bettcher did not have the capability to apply the material in its own plant, so the heaters had to be shipped out of state for porcelainizing, which entailed extra cost. Bettcher sought a coating which could meet the specifications yet be applied in its own facilities. The company asked The Knowledge Availability Systems Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a NASA Industrial Applications Center (IAC), for a search of NASA's files

  8. Heat flux: thermohydraulic investigation of solar air heaters used in agro-industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmati Aidinlou, H.; Nikbakht, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    A new design of solar air heater simulator is presented to comply with the extensive applications inagro-industry. A wise installation of increased heat transfer surface area provided uniform and efficient heat diffusion over the duct. Nusselt number and friction factor have been investigated based on the constant roughness parameters such as relative roughness height (e/D), relative roughness pitch (P/e), angle of attack (α) and aspect ratio with Reynolds numbers ranging from 5000 to 19,000 in the fully developed region. Heat fluxes of 800, 900 and 1000 Wm-2 were provided. The enhancement in friction factor is observed to be 3.1656, 3.47 and 3.0856 times, and for the Nusselt number either, augmentation is calculated to be 1.4437, 1.4963 and 1.535 times, respectively, over the smooth duct for 800, 900 and 1000 Wm-2 heat fluxes. Thermohydraulic performance is plotted versus the Reynolds number based on the aforementioned roughness parameters at varying heat fluxes. The results show up that thermohydraulic performance is found to be maximum for 1000 Wm-2 at the average Reynolds number of 5151. Based on the results, we can verify that the introduced solar simulator can help analyzing and developing solar collector installations at the simulated heat fluxes.

  9. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  10. MHD air heater development technology. Progress report, November 26, 1979-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    Work on the development of the directly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) for MHD power plants is reported. Progress is reported on three tasks: (1) materials selection, evaluation, and development, (2) operability, performance, and materials testing, and (3) full-scale design concepts. Under Task 1, efforts were carried out in several areas. Work on the computer data base for material properties was begun. Data were compiled for several HTAH materials. Materials selections for Valve Test 3 and full-scale studies were made. Test conditions were defined for and creep results obtained from Montana College of Mineral Science and Technology concerning candidate matrix and hot liner materials. Liaison efforts with refractory manufacturers were continued, and information was provided to Argonne National Laboratory and Babcock and Wilcox concerning the HRSR design. Analyses of materials samples from previous matrix and valve tests were completed. Finally, a thermal stress cycling experiment to be carried out at Montana Tech was designed. Under Task 2, efforts were directed toward running Valve Test 3. Problems were encountered with the VTF hot gas supply duct which necessitated two intermediate shutdowns without reaching the final test goal of 300 hours. Modifications necessary to complete the test were begun. Under Task 3, an example HTAH system was defined which will be used as a focal point for screening and definition of control systems and determination of operating methods. The system was defined using the size/cost and other HTAH computer codes. A layout of the system was made, and steady state performance was calculated with the SCAMP code. (WHK)

  11. An investigation into the feasibility of a radiant recuperative air heater for a magnetohydrodynamic/steam power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, W.H.; Babu, S.

    1991-01-01

    The ultimate high efficiencies envisioned for a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)/steam power plant have been based on the development of a regenerative high temperature air heater (HTAH). Oxygen enriched and vitiation heated air has been used in current test facilities and is proposed for early commercial plants to circumvent the costly development of the HTAH for MHD. Since the US DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) routinely conducts proof-of-concept (POC) MHD tests lasting several hundred hours, it was decided that it would be simple and inexpensive to include materials tests to investigate their suitability for either a recuperative or regenerative type high temperature air heater for MHD applications. Although both the regenerator and recuperator required for use in the MHD environment are beyond the state-of-the-art, the recuperator is much less complex operationally and should be less expensive. This interim report identifies a material and recuperator concept that warrants further testing and development based on the test results presented herein. An additional material was also identified which was highly resistant to corrosion and thus may have value as a protective coating. This phase of the study was concerned with the screening of candidate materials on a pass/fail basis, thus, little effort was made toward collecting accurate temperature data for each sample. The next phase will concentrate on acquiring more engineering data on the materials. Measurements will also be made to determine the effectiveness of the recuperator concept. 24 refs., 79 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Experimental study of the influence of collector height on the steady state performance of a passive solar air heater

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, D.; Burek, S.A.M.

    2010-09-15

    Passive solar air heaters, such as solar chimneys and Trombe Walls, rely on solar-induced buoyancy-driven (natural) convection to produce the flow of air. Although buoyancy-driven convection is well understood for a single vertical plate, buoyancy-driven convection in an asymmetrically-heated channel is more problematic, and in particular, the effects of the channel height on the flow rate and heat transfer. This paper reports on experiments on test rigs resembling lightweight passive solar air-heating collectors. The test rigs were of heights 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 m, with adjustable channel depths (20-150 mm) and heat inputs (up to 1000 W/m{sup 2}). Measurements were made of the air, plate and cover temperatures, and air velocities. Results are presented as dimensionless correlations of mass flow (as Reynolds number) and efficiency against heat input (as Rayleigh number), channel depth and height. Thermal efficiency is shown to be a function of the heat input and the system height, but not of the channel depth; mass flow is shown to be a dependent on all three parameters. (author)

  13. Development of a double-effect air conditioner-heater (deach) phase 2. Final report, January 1989-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    De Vuono, A.C.; Landstrom, D.K.; Osborne, R.L.; Christensen, R.N.; Flanigan, L.

    1992-12-01

    The report describes the results of Phase II of a multi-phase project to develop a high-efficiency, gas-fired, residential size air-conditioner/heater based on a double-effect, absorption cycle using LiBr and water as working fluids. The results discussed include experimental and analytical analysis of various options for key components and subsystems including absorber, direct expansion evaporator, solution heat exchangers and burner/generator subsystem. The thermodynamic model used to evaluate various system design tradeoffs is also discussed. The results of the Phase II effort provided the basis for full-scale, integrated breadboard testing to be conducted in Phase III of the project.

  14. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  15. Transmission of Mycobacterium chimaera from Heater-Cooler Units during Cardiac Surgery despite an Ultraclean Air Ventilation System.

    PubMed

    Sommerstein, Rami; Rüegg, Christian; Kohler, Philipp; Bloemberg, Guido; Kuster, Stefan P; Sax, Hugo

    2016-06-01

    Heater-cooler units (HCUs) were recently identified as a source of Mycobacterium chimaera causing surgical site infections. We investigated transmission of this bacterium from HCUs to the surgical field by using a thermic anemometer and particle counter, videotape of an operating room equipped with an ultraclean laminar airflow ventilation system, and bacterial culture sedimentation plates in a nonventilated room. Smoke from the HCU reached the surgical field in 23 s by merging with ultraclean air. The HCU produced on average 5.2, 139, and 14.8 particles/min in the surgical field at positions Off, On/oriented toward, and On/oriented away, respectively. Culture plates were positive for M. chimaera <5 m from the HCU in the test room. These experiments confirm airborne transmission of M. chimaera aerosols from a contaminated HCU to an open surgical field despite ultraclean air ventilation. Efforts to mitigate infectious risks during surgery should consider contamination from water sources and airflow-generating devices.

  16. Transmission of Mycobacterium chimaera from Heater-Cooler Units during Cardiac Surgery despite an Ultraclean Air Ventilation System.

    PubMed

    Sommerstein, Rami; Rüegg, Christian; Kohler, Philipp; Bloemberg, Guido; Kuster, Stefan P; Sax, Hugo

    2016-06-01

    Heater-cooler units (HCUs) were recently identified as a source of Mycobacterium chimaera causing surgical site infections. We investigated transmission of this bacterium from HCUs to the surgical field by using a thermic anemometer and particle counter, videotape of an operating room equipped with an ultraclean laminar airflow ventilation system, and bacterial culture sedimentation plates in a nonventilated room. Smoke from the HCU reached the surgical field in 23 s by merging with ultraclean air. The HCU produced on average 5.2, 139, and 14.8 particles/min in the surgical field at positions Off, On/oriented toward, and On/oriented away, respectively. Culture plates were positive for M. chimaera <5 m from the HCU in the test room. These experiments confirm airborne transmission of M. chimaera aerosols from a contaminated HCU to an open surgical field despite ultraclean air ventilation. Efforts to mitigate infectious risks during surgery should consider contamination from water sources and airflow-generating devices. PMID:27070958

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Turbulent Flows through a Solar Air Heater Having Square-Sectioned Transverse Rib Roughness on the Absorber Plate

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Anil Singh; Bhagoria, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Solar air heater is a type of heat exchanger which transforms solar radiation into heat energy. The thermal performance of conventional solar air heater has been found to be poor because of the low convective heat transfer coefficient from the absorber plate to the air. Use of artificial roughness on a surface is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer. A CFD-based investigation of turbulent flow through a solar air heater roughened with square-sectioned transverse rib roughness has been performed. Three different values of rib-pitch (P) and rib-height (e) have been taken such that the relative roughness pitch (P/e = 14.29) remains constant. The relative roughness height, e/D, varies from 0.021 to 0.06, and the Reynolds number, Re, varies from 3800 to 18,000. The results predicted by CFD show that the average heat transfer, average flow friction, and thermohydraulic performance parameter are strongly dependent on the relative roughness height. A maximum value of thermohydraulic performance parameter has been found to be 1.8 for the range of parameters investigated. Comparisons with previously published work have been performed and found to be in excellent agreement. PMID:24222752

  18. Experimental study of heat transfer enhancement in solar air heater with different angle of attack of V-down continuous ribs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istanto, Tri; Danardono, Dominicus; Yaningsih, Indri; Wijayanta, Agung Tri

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an experimental study on the effect of angle attack in V-down continuous ribs on heat transfer and friction factor in an artificially roughened air heater duct is presented. The electric heater with a constant heat flux as a simulation of the indoor testing solar air heater is used to heat the roughened part of rectangular duct while other parts were insulated. The system and operating conditions were used to decide the range of parameters for the study. The ratio of the width to height of the duct (W/H) was 12, the relative roughness pitch (p/e) was 10, the relative roughness height (e/Dh) was 0.033 and the angle of attack of flow (α) was 30-80°. The air flow rate corresponded to Reynolds number between 3500 -10,000. The result of heat transfer and friction factor had been compared to those for smooth duct under similar flow and thermal boundary condition. The thermo-hydraulic performance also had been considered. As a result, the maximum enhancement of Nusselt number (Nu) and friction factor(f) were 2.34 and 2.45 times, respectively. For each variation of angle attack of flow, the thermo-hydraulic performance has been compared and the result shows that a V-down continuous rib with the angle of attack of flow as 60° gave the best thermo-hydraulic performance.

  19. MHD oxidant intermediate temperature ceramic heater study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Saari, D. P.; Marksberry, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The use of three types of directly fired ceramic heaters for preheating oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1144K was investigated. The three types of ceramic heaters are: (1) a fixed bed, periodic flow ceramic brick regenerative heater; (2) a ceramic pebble regenerative heater. The heater design, performance and operating characteristics under conditions in which the particulate matter is not solidified are evaluated. A comparison and overall evaluation of the three types of ceramic heaters and temperature range determination at which the particulate matter in the MHD exhaust gas is estimated to be a dry powder are presented.

  20. Superheater/intermediate temperature air heater tube corrosion tests in the MHD coal fired flow facility (Montana Rosebud POC tests)

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.

    1996-01-01

    Nineteen alloys have been exposed for approximately 1000 test hours as candidate superheater and intermediate temperature air heater tubes in a U.S. DOE facility dedicated to demonstrating Proof of Concept for the bottoming or heat and seed recovery portion of coal fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generating plants. Corrosion data have been obtained from a test series utilizing a western United States sub-bituminous coal, Montana Rosebud. The test alloys included a broad range of compositions ranging from carbon steel to austenitic stainless steels to high chromium nickel-base alloys. The tubes, coated with K{sub 2}SO-containing deposits, developed principally, oxide scales by an oxidation/sulfidation mechanism. In addition to being generally porous, these scales were frequently spalled and/or non-compact due to a dispersed form of outward growth by oxide precipitation in the adjacent deposit. Austenitic alloys generally had internal penetration as trans Tranular and/or intergranular oxides and sulfides. While only two of the alloys had damage visible without magnification as a result of the relatively short exposure, there was some concern about Iona-term corrosion performance owing to the relatively poor quality scales formed. Comparison of data from these tests to those from a prior series of tests with Illinois No. 6, a high sulfur bituminous coal, showed less corrosion in the present test series with the lower sulfur coal. Although K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}was the principal corrosive agent as the supplier of sulfur, which acted to degrade alloy surface scales, tying up sulfur as K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} prevented the occurrence of complex alkali iron trisulfates responsible for severe or catastrophic corrosion in conventional power plants with certain coals and metal temperatures.

  1. Effects of rib size and arrangement on forced convective heat transfer in a solar air heater channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skullong, Sompol; Thianpong, Chinaruk; Promvonge, Pongjet

    2015-10-01

    The article presents an experimental investigation on turbulent heat transfer and friction loss behaviors of airflow through a constant heat-fluxed solar air heater channel fitted with rib turbulators. The experiment was conducted for the airflow rate in terms of Reynolds numbers based on the hydraulic diameter of the channel in a range of 5000-24,000. In the present work, a comparative study between square and thin ribs (90°-rib) with three rib arrangements, namely, one ribbed wall (or single rib), in-line and staggered ribs on two opposite walls was first introduced. The study shows a significant effect of the presence of the ribs on the heat transfer rate and friction loss over the smooth wall channel. The comparison made at a single rib pitch and height also revealed that the thin rib performs better than the corresponding square one. Among the three arrangements, the in-line rib array provides higher heat transfer and friction loss than the staggered and the single one. However, the staggered thin rib provides the highest thermal performance. With this reason, only the staggered thin ribs at four different relative heights (BR = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) and three relative pitches (PR = 0.5, 0.75 and 1.33) are investigated further. It is found that the staggered rib at BR = 0.4 and PR = 0.5 yields the highest heat transfer and friction factor but the maximum thermal performance is at BR = 0.2 and PR = 0.75.

  2. Fireplace heater stove

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, H.W.

    1982-03-23

    A cylindrical wood-burning firebox is surrounded by a cylindrical metal outer shell which together comprise a convection heater stove which fits into any of various sizes of fireplaces with the cylinder axes directed into the fireplace. Room air enters the lower front portion of the stove between the firebox and the outer shell, is drawn toward the rear of the heater stove, rises between the firebox and the outer shell as the air is heated by the firebox, and exits as hot air from the upper front of the stove between the firebox and the outer shell. The front face of the firebox is recessed relative to the outer shell. A coil through which a fluid can flow can be provided in the gap between the firebox and the outer shell, said coil having an axis also directed into the fireplace.

  3. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  4. Gas turbine outlet arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Horgan, J.J.

    1987-09-29

    An engine outlet section is described for an axial-flow gas turbine engine having a hot core gas flow and a surrounding annular bypass fan air flow, comprising: an annular flow separator, separating the core gas from the fan air upstream of the outlet section and terminating at a circular trailing edge; an annular mixer, secured to the trailing edge of the flow separator. The mixer includes alternately radially inwardly and outwardly extending flow lobes. The outwardly extending lobes have a small radial height relative to the radial height of the fan air flow annulus; an axial nozzle plug, disposed downstream of the annular mixer and having a diameter increasing with axial downstream displacement to a maximum diameter greater than or equal to the diameter of the trailing edge of the flow separator. The plug diameter decreases with further downstream axial displacement; and an outer annular engine fairing, confining the fan air upstream of the convoluted mixer and confining the mixing fan air and core gas flow downstream of the mixer. The outer engine fairing further terminates at a downstream edge at a point axially proximate the maximum diameter of the nozzle plug.

  5. Experimental investigations on decay heat removal in advanced nuclear reactors using single heater rod test facility: Air alone in the annular gap

    SciTech Connect

    Bopche, Santosh B.; Sridharan, Arunkumar

    2010-11-15

    During a loss of coolant accident in nuclear reactors, radiation heat transfer accounts for a significant amount of the total heat transfer in the fuel bundle. In case of heavy water moderator nuclear reactors, the decay heat of a fuel bundle enclosed in the pressure tube and outer concentric calandria tube can be transferred to the moderator. Radiation heat transfer plays a significant role in removal of decay heat from the fuel rods to the moderator, which is available outside the calandria tube. A single heater rod test facility is designed and fabricated as a part of preliminary investigations. The objective is to anticipate the capability of moderator to remove decay heat, from the reactor core, generated after shut down. The present paper focuses mainly on the role of moderator in removal of decay heat, for situation with air alone in the annular gap of pressure tube and calandria tube. It is seen that the naturally aspirated air is capable of removing the heat generated in the system compared to the standstill air or stagnant water situations. It is also seen that the flowing moderator is capable of removing a greater fraction of heat generated by the heater rod compared to a stagnant pool of boiling moderator. (author)

  6. Fireplace heater stove

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, H.W.

    1983-02-22

    A heater stove which fits into a fireplace, the heater stove comprising a cylindrical firebox having (A) a front face, a back face, and a side wall, with a first closed-curve cross-section, extending between the front face and the back face and (B) an axis directed into the fireplace when the heater stove is within the fireplace; an outer cylindrical shell having a side wall with a second closed-curve cross-section and a back wall, the shell surrounding and being spaced apart from the back face and the side wall of the firebox, the side wall of the shell and the side wall of the firebox having a gap therebetween the gap including an opening at the front of the stove; and means for angularly dividing the gap proximate the opening into a plurality of regions which extend a short distance in the axial direction between the firebox side wall and the shell side wall, the regions including at least one lower region into which unheated air is drawn and at least one upper region from which heated air exits, air drawn through the at least one lower region (A) mixing with air flowing in other of the regions, (B) being heated by the firebox, and (C) exiting through at least one of the at least one upper regions. The first and second closed-curve cross-sections may alternatively be the same or different.

  7. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... air, heated or to be heated, from the engine compartment or from direct contact with any portion of... unlikely the burning or charring of parts of the vehicle by radiation or by direct contact. The place of... heater which conducts engine compartment air into any such space. (2) Unenclosed flame heaters. Any...

  8. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... air, heated or to be heated, from the engine compartment or from direct contact with any portion of... unlikely the burning or charring of parts of the vehicle by radiation or by direct contact. The place of... heater which conducts engine compartment air into any such space. (2) Unenclosed flame heaters. Any...

  9. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... air, heated or to be heated, from the engine compartment or from direct contact with any portion of... unlikely the burning or charring of parts of the vehicle by radiation or by direct contact. The place of... heater which conducts engine compartment air into any such space. (2) Unenclosed flame heaters. Any...

  10. Convective heater

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  11. Convective heater

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  12. Convective heater

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-12-27

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation. 14 figs.

  13. Nonpowered instant water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyer, Eric C.

    1994-08-01

    The technical feasibility of a nonpowered instantaneous water heater based on the use of a condensing steam ejector pump has been established by test of a commercially available ejector. Using steam at approximately 25 PSIG pressure, it has been demonstrated that water can be simultaneously heated and pumped to pressures up to two times the steam pressure. The overall system concept is that of a lightweight, portable heater package that is fired with a constant-run, manually-controlled burner. The concept can accommodate the operation of a constant-run burner with only intermittent water delivery, as in a kitchen use, by recirculation of heated water back to the supply tank/barrel. With outlet water pressure greater than the inlet steam pressure, the unit can incorporate automatic feed of makeup water to the steam generator. The system concept can be implemented in a range of outputs. At 100,000 Btu/hr burner output and 50% efficiency, system capability would be at about 0.8 GPM continuously with a 100 deg F temperature rise, 1.5 GPM continuously with about a 50 deg rise, or 1.5 GPM intermittently at 100 F rise and 50%/50% on-off delivery duty cycle.

  14. Development of a Double-Effect Air-Conditioner Heater (DEACH). Phase 3 and final report, January 1990-December 1991. Phase 3, September 1987-December 1991. Overall project

    SciTech Connect

    De Vuono, A.C.; Hanna, W.T.; Osborne, R.L.; Ball, D.A.

    1992-04-01

    The report describes development efforts on a Double-Effect Air-Conditioner Heater (DEACH). Based on a double-effect LiBr/H2O absorption cycle, the DEACH was focused on residential applications with the primary objective being a low first-cost efficient gas-fired cooling system. The concept included compact integrated heat exchangers, direct heat rejection to outdoor air (no cooling tower), and ability to self-decrystallize. The performance goals of the system were essentially demonstrated in a full-scale (3 refrigeration ton), fully integrated breadboard. However, the projected manufacturing cost was somewhat above the original target and even further above that deemed competitive at the end of the project. Therefore, technical development was stopped in late 1991.

  15. Windmill driven eddy current heater

    SciTech Connect

    Birgel, W. J.; Hajec, C. S.

    1983-12-20

    A windmill electric heater converts wind energy to heat energy. A windmill drives a rotor of an eddy current heater. Magnetic fields are provided at an air gap between the rotor and a stator of the eddy current heater. Rotation of the rotor with respect to the stator causes eddy currents, and therefore heat, to be generated in the rotor. The heat generated in the rotor is drawn off for beneficial use such as in heating a house or other building. Excitation of the magnetic fields (and therefore the amount of heat generated) is controlled as a function of sensed parameters such as wind velocity, ambient temperature of the surroundings to be heated and temperature of the eddy current heater.

  16. CFD Analysis to Study Effect of Circular Vortex Generator Placed in Inlet Section to Investigate Heat Transfer Aspects of Solar Air Heater

    PubMed Central

    Gawande, Vipin B.; Dhoble, A. S.; Zodpe, D. B.

    2014-01-01

    CFD analysis of 2-dimensional artificially roughened solar air heater duct with additional circular vortex generator, inserted in inlet section is carried out. Circular transverse ribs on the absorber plate are placed as usual. The analysis is done to investigate the effect of inserting additional vortex generator on the heat transfer and flow friction characteristics inside the solar air heater duct. This investigation covers relative roughness pitch in the range of 10 ≤ P/e ≤ 25 and relevant Reynolds numbers in the range of 3800 ≤ Re ≤ 18000. Relative roughness height (e/D) is kept constant as 0.03 for analysis. The turbulence created due to additional circular vortex generator increases the heat transfer rate and at the same time there is also increase in friction factor values. For combined arrangement of ribs and vortex generator, maximum Nusselt number is found to be 2.05 times that of the smooth duct. The enhancement in Nusselt number with ribs and additional vortex generator is found to be 1.06 times that of duct using ribs alone. The maximum increase in friction factor with ribs and circular vortex generator is found to be 2.91 times that of the smooth duct. Friction factor in a combined arrangement is 1.114 times that in a duct with ribs alone on the absorber plate. The augmentation in Thermal Enhancement Factor (TEF) with vortex generator in inlet section is found to be 1.06 times more than with circular ribs alone on the absorber plate. PMID:25254251

  17. CFD analysis to study effect of circular vortex generator placed in inlet section to investigate heat transfer aspects of solar air heater.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Vipin B; Dhoble, A S; Zodpe, D B

    2014-01-01

    CFD analysis of 2-dimensional artificially roughened solar air heater duct with additional circular vortex generator, inserted in inlet section is carried out. Circular transverse ribs on the absorber plate are placed as usual. The analysis is done to investigate the effect of inserting additional vortex generator on the heat transfer and flow friction characteristics inside the solar air heater duct. This investigation covers relative roughness pitch in the range of 10 ≤ P/e ≤ 25 and relevant Reynolds numbers in the range of 3800 ≤ Re ≤ 18000. Relative roughness height (e/D) is kept constant as 0.03 for analysis. The turbulence created due to additional circular vortex generator increases the heat transfer rate and at the same time there is also increase in friction factor values. For combined arrangement of ribs and vortex generator, maximum Nusselt number is found to be 2.05 times that of the smooth duct. The enhancement in Nusselt number with ribs and additional vortex generator is found to be 1.06 times that of duct using ribs alone. The maximum increase in friction factor with ribs and circular vortex generator is found to be 2.91 times that of the smooth duct. Friction factor in a combined arrangement is 1.114 times that in a duct with ribs alone on the absorber plate. The augmentation in Thermal Enhancement Factor (TEF) with vortex generator in inlet section is found to be 1.06 times more than with circular ribs alone on the absorber plate. PMID:25254251

  18. CFD analysis to study effect of circular vortex generator placed in inlet section to investigate heat transfer aspects of solar air heater.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Vipin B; Dhoble, A S; Zodpe, D B

    2014-01-01

    CFD analysis of 2-dimensional artificially roughened solar air heater duct with additional circular vortex generator, inserted in inlet section is carried out. Circular transverse ribs on the absorber plate are placed as usual. The analysis is done to investigate the effect of inserting additional vortex generator on the heat transfer and flow friction characteristics inside the solar air heater duct. This investigation covers relative roughness pitch in the range of 10 ≤ P/e ≤ 25 and relevant Reynolds numbers in the range of 3800 ≤ Re ≤ 18000. Relative roughness height (e/D) is kept constant as 0.03 for analysis. The turbulence created due to additional circular vortex generator increases the heat transfer rate and at the same time there is also increase in friction factor values. For combined arrangement of ribs and vortex generator, maximum Nusselt number is found to be 2.05 times that of the smooth duct. The enhancement in Nusselt number with ribs and additional vortex generator is found to be 1.06 times that of duct using ribs alone. The maximum increase in friction factor with ribs and circular vortex generator is found to be 2.91 times that of the smooth duct. Friction factor in a combined arrangement is 1.114 times that in a duct with ribs alone on the absorber plate. The augmentation in Thermal Enhancement Factor (TEF) with vortex generator in inlet section is found to be 1.06 times more than with circular ribs alone on the absorber plate.

  19. High-speed analysis of complex indoor VOC mixtures by vacuum-outlet GC with air carrier gas and programmable retention.

    PubMed

    Grall, A J; Zellers, E T; Sacks, R D

    2001-01-01

    A pressure-tunable, series-coupled column ensemble was used with atmospheric pressure air as carrier gas for the vacuum-outlet GC analysis of 42 volatile and semivolatile organic compounds commonly encountered as indoor air pollutants. Separation strategies applicable to a field-portable instrument that will employ a dual-stage preconcentrator and a microsensor array as the detector were developed, where coelution of certain analytes can be tolerated. The capillary column ensemble consists of a 4.5-m segment of nonpolar dimethyl polysiloxane followed by a 7.5-m segment of polar trifluoropropylmethyl polysiloxane. Good long-term thermal stability of the column ensemble was observed for continuous operation in air at temperatures up to 210 degrees C. A computer-driven pressure controller at the column junction point is used to adjust vapor retention for specified sets of target compounds. The compounds were divided into two groups according to retention order, and high-speed analysis conditions were determined for the two groups individually as well as for the entire mixture. The earlier eluting group of 21 compounds was analyzed isothermally at 30 degrees C in about 160 s using a single, on-the-fly junction-point pressure change during the separation. The later eluting group of 21 compounds was analyzed in about 200 s with temperature programming and a constant (tuned) junction-point pressure. The entire mixture was analyzed in about 400 s using a two-step temperature program and a three-step pressure program, with minimal overlap in eluting peaks. Separations are adequate for analysis by a sensor array capable of discriminating among small groups of coeluting vapors on the basis of their response patterns.

  20. Heater stove apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Vickery, J.K.

    1980-12-30

    A heater stove apparatus is disclosed as including an enclosed stove housing having a fire chamber in which a suitable fuel is burned for heating. A heat collector manifold is provided for receiving the combustion products from the fire chamber and a plurality of heat pipes extend between the fire chamber and the heat manifold for delivery of heat and combustion products to the heat collection manifold. An air flow path extends generally vertically the height of the heat pipes and horizontally along one of the dimensions of the stove housing with the path being defined in part by the bottom surface of the heat manifold in an upper surface of the fire chamber. A means is provided for circulating air generally through the stove housing along the air flow path. A unique draft door arrangement is provided which rids the fire chamber of smoke prior to the door being opened for access to the interior of the fire chamber.

  1. Double outlet right ventricle

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007328.htm Double outlet right ventricle To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a heart disease that is ...

  2. Solar Water-Heater Design and Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlamert, P.; Kennard, J.; Ciriunas, J.

    1982-01-01

    Solar/Water heater system works as follows: Solar--heated air is pumped from collectors through rock bin from top to bottom. Air handler circulates heated air through an air-to-water heat exchanger, which transfers heat to incoming well water. In one application, it may reduce oil use by 40 percent.

  3. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  4. Thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, John E; Lebus V, George F; Bible, Jesse E

    2015-04-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is a well-described disorder caused by thoracic outlet compression of the brachial plexus and/or the subclavian vessels. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome is the most common manifestation, presenting with pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, and vasomotor changes of the upper extremity. Vascular complications of thoracic outlet syndrome are uncommon and include thromboembolic phenomena and swelling. The clinical presentation is highly variable, and no reproducible study exists to confirm the diagnosis; instead, the diagnosis is based on a physician's judgment after a meticulous history and physical examination. Both nonsurgical and surgical treatment methods are available for thoracic outlet syndrome. Whereas nonsurgical management appears to be effective in some persons, surgical treatment has been shown to provide predictable long-term cure rates for carefully selected patients. In addition, physicians who do not regularly treat patients with thoracic outlet syndrome may not have an accurate view of this disorder, its treatment, or the possible success rate of treatment. PMID:25808686

  5. Thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, John E; Lebus V, George F; Bible, Jesse E

    2015-04-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is a well-described disorder caused by thoracic outlet compression of the brachial plexus and/or the subclavian vessels. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome is the most common manifestation, presenting with pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, and vasomotor changes of the upper extremity. Vascular complications of thoracic outlet syndrome are uncommon and include thromboembolic phenomena and swelling. The clinical presentation is highly variable, and no reproducible study exists to confirm the diagnosis; instead, the diagnosis is based on a physician's judgment after a meticulous history and physical examination. Both nonsurgical and surgical treatment methods are available for thoracic outlet syndrome. Whereas nonsurgical management appears to be effective in some persons, surgical treatment has been shown to provide predictable long-term cure rates for carefully selected patients. In addition, physicians who do not regularly treat patients with thoracic outlet syndrome may not have an accurate view of this disorder, its treatment, or the possible success rate of treatment.

  6. Calculating the parameters of self-oscillations in the vertical combustion chamber of the blast-furnace air heater during unstable combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basok, B. I.; Gotsulenko, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    A procedure for simplified calculation of the parameters of self-oscillations excited during unstable (vibrating) combustion in the vertical combustion chambers of blast-furnace air heaters is developed. The proposed procedure is based on an independent nonlinear dynamic system similar to the equations from the theory of a blade supercharger stalling and surging mode. The head characteristic considered in the blade supercharger stalling and surging theory determines the part of the supercharger drive rotation energy that is converted into the head developed by the supercharger. In the considered system, the supercharger head characteristic is replaced by the combustion chamber head characteristic. Being a function of flow rate, this characteristic describes the part of heat supplied to flow that is converted to the flow head. Unlike the supercharger head characteristic, which is determined by experiment, the combustion chamber head characteristic is determined by calculation, due to which it becomes much easier to calculate the parameters of self-oscillations according to the proposed procedure. In particular, an analysis of the periodic solutions of the obtained dynamic system made it possible to determine the pattern in which the amplitude of considered self-oscillations depends on the surge impedance of the vertical combustion chamber.

  7. Packaged die heater

    SciTech Connect

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  8. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  9. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James D.; Biermayer, Peter; King, Derek

    2008-10-27

    Energy required for water heating accounts for approximately 40percent of national residential natural gas consumption in California. With water heating contributing such a substantial portion of natural gas consumption, it is important to pay attention to water heater efficiencies. This paper reports on an investigation of a patented, buoyancy-operated flue damper. It is an add-on design to a standard atmospherically vented natural-draft gas-fired storage water heater. The flue damper was expected to reduce off-cycle standby losses, which would lead to improvements in the efficiency of the water heater. The test results showed that the Energy Factor of the baseline water heater was 0.576. The recovery efficiency was 0.768. The standby heat loss coefficient was 10.619 (BTU/hr-oF). After the damper was installed, the test results show an Energy Factor for the baseline water heater of 0.605. The recovery efficiency was 0.786. The standby heat loss coefficient was 9.135 (BTU/hr-oF). The recovery efficiency increased 2.3percent and the standby heat loss coefficient decreased 14percent. When the burner was on, the baseline water heater caused 28.0 CFM of air to flow from the room. During standby, the flow was 12.4 CFM. The addition of the damper reduced the flow when the burner was on to 23.5 CFM. During standby, flow with the damper was reduced to 11.1 CFM. The flue damper reduced off-cycle standby losses, and improved the efficiency of the water heater. The flue damper also improved the recovery efficiency of the water heater by restricting on-cycle air flows through the flue.With or without the flue damper, off-cycle air flow upthe stack is nearly half the air flow rate as when the burner is firing.

  10. 16. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF OUTLET STRUCTURE AND OUTLET CHANNEL, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF OUTLET STRUCTURE AND OUTLET CHANNEL, FROM WEST END OF EMBANKMENT. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  11. 21. AERIAL VIEW OF THE OUTLET STRUCTURE AND OUTLET CHANNEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW OF THE OUTLET STRUCTURE AND OUTLET CHANNEL, LOOKING UPSTREAM.... Volume XVII, No. 11, December 26, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  12. 50. OUTLET WORKS: OUTLET STRUCTURE PLAN AND SECTIONS. Sheet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. OUTLET WORKS: OUTLET STRUCTURE - PLAN AND SECTIONS. Sheet C-1, September, 1939. File no. SA 343/50. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  13. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) causes pain in the shoulder, arm, and neck. It happens when the nerves or blood vessels just below your ... vein is compressed, your hand might be sensitive to cold, or turn pale or bluish. Your arm ...

  14. Phase change material storage heater

    DOEpatents

    Goswami, D. Yogi; Hsieh, Chung K.; Jotshi, Chand K.; Klausner, James F.

    1997-01-01

    A storage heater for storing heat and for heating a fluid, such as water, has an enclosure defining a chamber therein. The chamber has a lower portion and an upper portion with a heating element being disposed within the enclosure. A tube through which the fluid flows has an inlet and an outlet, both being disposed outside of the enclosure, and has a portion interconnecting the inlet and the outlet that passes through the enclosure. A densely packed bed of phase change material pellets is disposed within the enclosure and is surrounded by a viscous liquid, such as propylene glycol. The viscous liquid is in thermal communication with the heating element, the phase change material pellets, and the tube and transfers heat from the heating element to the pellets and from the pellets to the tube. The viscous fluid has a viscosity so that the frictional pressure drop of the fluid in contact with the phase change material pellets substantially reduces vertical thermal convection in the fluid. As the fluid flows through the tube heat is transferred from the viscous liquid to the fluid flowing through the tube, thereby heating the fluid.

  15. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  16. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  17. [Thoracic outlet syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, José Maria

    2005-01-01

    The thoracic outlet syndrome is a polymorphic clinical entity, whose nature is essentially anatomic, caused by the chronic compression of the neurovascular structures that are originated in the chest or neck and course to the upper extremity. According to the most affected structure, they can be classified as neurologic, arterial or venous syndromes, that may cause discomfort, pain and disability, sometimes definite and irreparable. Thoracic outlet syndrome are often difficult to recognize in clinical practice and it is important to emphasize some peculiar symptoms or signs that each syndrome may present, through specific maneuvers or adequate complementary studies. The great majority of patients may improve with physical therapy or postural correction, and a minority is indicated for surgical therapy. The main features of the diverse thoracic outlet syndromes, their clinical presentation, diagnosis, conventional and surgical management, surgical access, complications and prognosis are described and discussed in this paper dedicated to a complete review of the entity. PMID:16234911

  18. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... passing through any fire region must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire originating in the heater can be contained...

  19. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... passing through any fire region must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire originating in the heater can be contained...

  20. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... passing through any fire region must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire originating in the heater can be contained...

  1. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... passing through any fire region must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire originating in the heater can be contained...

  2. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... passing through any fire region must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire originating in the heater can be contained...

  3. Thoracic outlet syndrome: anatomy.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, Erdoğan

    2004-02-01

    The thoracic outlet region contains three important structures: the brachial plexus, the subclavian artery, and the subclavian vein. As they travel from the upper mediastinum to the upper extremity, these structures run through three important spaces: the interscalene triangle, the costoclavicular space, and the subpectoral space. Compression can occur in any of these three spaces because of structural anomalies or trauma.

  4. Explosives tester with heater

    SciTech Connect

    Del Eckels, Joel; Nunes, Peter J.; Simpson, Randall L.; Whipple, Richard E.; Carter, J. Chance; Reynolds, John G.

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  5. Natural outlet of flue gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adámek, Karel; Kolář, Jan; Peukert, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Many incidents of poisoning all the time became due to bad natural exhaust of burnt product from heating devices. The aim of this article is to simulate some reasons of it, therefore the content is focused on some influences, only - the vertical and horizontal shape of the outlet channel, the design of the chimney cap, situation of the surrounding walls, combined with the wind influence etc. It does not solve the possible bad maintaining of both chimney and device, bad supply of the combustion air etc. As main results of simulation there is presented an optimum cap shape of the chimney and an unsuitable influence of the unsteady starting of the flow just after the burner ignition.

  6. 53. THRUST SECTION HEATER AND GASEOUS NITROGEN PURGE CONTROLS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. THRUST SECTION HEATER AND GASEOUS NITROGEN PURGE CONTROLS ON EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK. LAUNCHER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 72. SECOND FLOOR, HEATER ROOM ENTRANCE (UPPER RIGHT) AND STEEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. SECOND FLOOR, HEATER ROOM ENTRANCE (UPPER RIGHT) AND STEEL, CONCRETE, BRICK, AND SPRING AIR CONDITIONER BASE, BAY 31-32/4 SOUTH, TO WEST - Ford Motor Company Edgewater Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 309 River Road, Edgewater, Bergen County, NJ

  8. 43. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEED VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEED VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING CONTROL PEDESTAL IN FOREGROUND AND NEEDLE VALVE AIR VENTS IN CENTER. VIEW TO WEST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  9. Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

  10. Water heater with an improved thermostat mounting and a method of making such water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, H.J.; Deneau, M.E.

    1993-06-15

    An improvement in an electric water heater is described comprising: a non-metallic tank, a cold water inlet, a hot water outlet, an electrical heating means adapted to heat a body of water contained in the tank and a thermostat having a sensing face with a given area controlling the flow of electric current to the heating means, the improvement comprising a thermally conductive thermostat mounting plate having a surface area substantially larger than the sensing face given area in direct contact with the tank and a thermostat retention means releasably holding the thermostat in contact with the thermostat mounting plate.

  11. Coaxial Electric Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Coaxial electric heaters have been conceived for use in highly sensitive instruments in which there are requirements for compact heaters but stray magnetic fields associated with heater electric currents would adversely affect operation. Such instruments include atomic clocks and magnetometers that utilize heated atomic-sample cells, wherein stray magnetic fields at picotesla levels could introduce systematic errors into instrument readings. A coaxial electric heater is essentially an axisymmetric coaxial cable, the outer conductor of which is deliberately made highly electrically resistive so that it can serve as a heating element. As in the cases of other axisymmetric coaxial cables, the equal magnitude electric currents flowing in opposite directions along the inner and outer conductors give rise to zero net magnetic field outside the outer conductor. Hence, a coaxial electric heater can be placed near an atomic-sample cell or other sensitive device. A coaxial electric heater can be fabricated from an insulated copper wire, the copper core of which serves as the inner conductor. For example, in one approach, the insulated wire is dipped in a colloidal graphite emulsion, then the emulsion-coated wire is dried to form a thin, uniform, highly electrically resistive film that serves as the outer conductor. Then the film is coated with a protective layer of high-temperature epoxy except at the end to be electrically connected to the power supply. Next, the insulation is stripped from the wire at that end. Finally, electrical leads from the heater power supply are attached to the exposed portions of the wire and the resistive film. The resistance of the graphite film can be tailored via its thickness. Alternatively, the film can be made from an electrically conductive paint, other than a colloidal graphite emulsion, chosen to impart the desired resistance. Yet another alternative is to tailor the resistance of a graphite film by exploiting the fact that its resistance

  12. Calculation of gas temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber and in the air-gas channel of a gas-turbine unit by data of acceptance tests in accordance with ISO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, A. G.; Karpunin, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a high accuracy method enabling performance of the calculation of real values of the initial temperature of a gas turbine unit (GTU), i.e., the gas temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber, in a situation where manufacturers do not disclose this information. The features of the definition of the initial temperature of the GTU according to ISO standards were analyzed. It is noted that the true temperatures for high-temperature GTUs is significantly higher than values determined according to ISO standards. A computational procedure for the determination of gas temperatures in the air-gas channel of the gas turbine and cooling air consumptions over blade rims is proposed. As starting equations, the heat balance equation and the flow mixing equation for the combustion chamber are assumed. Results of acceptance GTU tests according to ISO standards and statistical dependencies of required cooling air consumptions on the gas temperature and the blade metal are also used for calculations. An example of the calculation is given for one of the units. Using a developed computer program, the temperatures in the air-gas channel of certain GTUs are calculated, taking into account their design features. These calculations are performed on the previously published procedure for the detailed calculation of the cooled gas turbine subject to additional losses arising because of the presence of the cooling system. The accuracy of calculations by the computer program is confirmed by conducting verification calculations for the GTU of the Mitsubishi Comp. and comparing results with published data of the company. Calculation data for temperatures were compared with the experimental data and the characteristics of the GTU, and the error of the proposed method is estimated.

  13. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing through any fire zone must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire...

  14. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing through any fire zone must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire...

  15. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing through any fire zone must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire...

  16. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing through any fire zone must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire...

  17. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... air ducts. Each ventilating air duct passing through any fire zone must be fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to ensure that any fire...

  18. Hot gas engine heater head

    DOEpatents

    Berntell, John O.

    1983-01-01

    A heater head for a multi-cylinder double acting hot gas engine in which each cylinder is surrounded by an annular regenerator unit, and in which the tops of each cylinder and its surrounding regenerator are interconnected by a multiplicity of heater tubes. A manifold for the heater tubes has a centrally disposed duct connected to the top of the cylinder and surrounded by a wider duct connecting the other ends of the heater tubes with the regenerator unit.

  19. Core Outlet Temperature Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moisseytsev, A.; Hoffman, E.; Majumdar, S.

    2008-07-28

    It is a known fact that the power conversion plant efficiency increases with elevation of the heat addition temperature. The higher efficiency means better utilization of the available resources such that higher output in terms of electricity production can be achieved for the same size and power of the reactor core or, alternatively, a lower power core could be used to produce the same electrical output. Since any nuclear power plant, such as the Advanced Burner Reactor, is ultimately built to produce electricity, a higher electrical output is always desirable. However, the benefits of the higher efficiency and electricity production usually come at a price. Both the benefits and the disadvantages of higher reactor outlet temperatures are analyzed in this work.

  20. Electric controlled air incinerator for radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Warren, Jeffery H.; Hootman, Harry E.

    1981-01-01

    A two-stage incinerator is provided which includes a primary combustion chamber and an afterburner chamber for off-gases. The latter is formed by a plurality of vertical tubes in combination with associated manifolds which connect the tubes together to form a continuous tortuous path. Electrically-controlled heaters surround the tubes while electrically-controlled plate heaters heat the manifolds. A gravity-type ash removal system is located at the bottom of the first afterburner tube while an air mixer is disposed in that same tube just above the outlet from the primary chamber. A ram injector in combination with rotary magazine feeds waste to a horizontal tube forming the primary combustion chamber.

  1. 16. VIEW OF HIGHLINE CANAL PIPELINE OUTLET, SHOWING THE OUTLET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF HIGHLINE CANAL PIPELINE OUTLET, SHOWING THE OUTLET, A GROUNDWATER PUMP (LEFT), AND THE SOUTH BRANCH OF THE CANAL (FOREGROUND), August 1989 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 6. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, WITH OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, WITH OUTLET CHANNEL IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Island Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.8 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  3. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  4. [Thoracic outlet syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sonoo, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a well-known disorder, but its definition has been disputed. TOS is differentiated into five distinct disorders: arterial vascular, venous vascular, traumatic neurovascular, true neurologic (TN-TOS), and nonspecific TOS. TN-TOS is caused by compression of the lower plexus (T1>C8 roots and/or lower trunk) by a fibrous band. The most frequent presenting symptoms are insidious-onset atrophy and weakness of the intrinsic hand muscles, predominantly in the thenar eminence and radial digital flexors. Numbness and sensory loss are usually present, mainly in the ulnar forearm, although severe pain or pain/paresthesia proximal to the elbow can occur; however, sensory symptoms or signs can be absent in some patients. Nerve conduction studies are pathognomonic and show the loss or severe attenuation of the sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. Additionally, they show a severely depressed median compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and, subsequently, a depressed ulnar CMAP and SNAP. TN-TOS is a rare disorder, although its incidence may be higher than previously believed. Hirayama disease is an important differential diagnosis. Nonspecific TOS, which is mainly diagnosed by provocative maneuvers, corresponds to the classical concept of TOS. However, this concept is now challenged and the existence of nonspecific TOS is doubted. PMID:25475030

  5. Arkansas Solar Retrofit Guide. Greenhouses, Air Heaters and Water Heaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skiles, Albert; Rose, Mary Jo

    Solar retrofits are devices of structures designed to be attached to existing buildings to augment their existing heating sources with solar energy. An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is the subject of this report. Following an introduction (section 1), section 2 focuses on…

  6. Solar Water Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-01-01

    Skylab derived Heating System offers computerized control with an innovative voice synthesizer that literally allows the control unit to talk to the system user. It reports time of day, outside temperature and system temperature, and asks questions as to how the user wants the system programmed. Master Module collects energy from the Sun and either transfers it directly to the home water heater or stores it until needed.

  7. High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission, Integrated Process Heater System

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Howard; Boral, Anindya; Chhotray, San; Martin, Matthew

    2006-06-19

    The team of TIAX LLC, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, and Callidus Technologies, LLC conducted a six-year program to develop an ultra-low emission process heater burner and an advanced high efficiency heater design. This project addresses the critical need of process heater operators for reliable, economical emission reduction technologies to comply with stringent emission regulations, and for heater design alternatives that reduce process heater energy requirements without significant cost increase. The key project targets were NOx emissions of 10 ppm (@ 3% O2), and a heater thermal efficiency of 95 percent. The ultra low NOx burner was developed through a series of pilot-scale and field tests combined with computational fluid dynamic modeling to arrive at simultaneous low emissions and suitable flame shape and stability. Pilot scale tests were run at TIAX, at the 2 MMBtu/hr scale, and at Callidus at 8 MMBtu/hr. The full scale burner was installed on a 14 burner atmospheric pipestill furnace at an ExxonMobil refinery. A variety of burner configurations, gas tips and flame stabilizers were tested to determine the lowest emissions with acceptable flame shape and stability. The resulting NOx emissions were 22 ppm on average. Starting in 2001, Callidus commercialized the original ultra low NOx burner and made subsequent design improvements in a series of commercial burners evolving from the original concept and/or development. Emissions in the field with the ultra low-NOx burner over a broad spectrum of heater applications have varied from 5 ppm to 30 ppm depending on heater geometry, heater service, fuel and firing capacity. To date, 1550 of the original burners, and 2500 of subsequent generation burners have been sold by Callidus. The advanced heater design was developed by parametric evaluations of a variety of furnace and combustion air preheater configurations and technologies for enhancing convective and radiative heat transfer. The design evolution

  8. 29. DETAIL OF OUTLET DUCTS FOR MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DETAIL OF OUTLET DUCTS FOR MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF SLC-3W MST STATION 70.5 (LOWEST PAYLOAD SERVICE STATION). NOTE RING ATTACHMENT FOR PERSONNEL SAFETY HARNESS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. LOW EMISSION AND HIGH EFFICIENCY RESIDENTIAL PELLET-FIRED HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of air emissions testing and efficiency testing on new commercially available under-feed and top-feed residential heaters burning hardwood- and softwood-based pellets. The results were compared with data from earlier models. Reductions in air emissions w...

  10. Modelling Greenland Outlet Glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderVeen, Cornelis; Abdalati, Waleed (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop simple yet realistic models of Greenland outlet glaciers to better understand ongoing changes and to identify possible causes for these changes. Several approaches can be taken to evaluate the interaction between climate forcing and ice dynamics, and the consequent ice-sheet response, which may involve changes in flow style. To evaluate the icesheet response to mass-balance forcing, Van der Veen (Journal of Geophysical Research, in press) makes the assumption that this response can be considered a perturbation on the reference state and may be evaluated separately from how this reference state evolves over time. Mass-balance forcing has an immediate effect on the ice sheet. Initially, the rate of thickness change as compared to the reference state equals the perturbation in snowfall or ablation. If the forcing persists, the ice sheet responds dynamically, adjusting the rate at which ice is evacuated from the interior to the margins, to achieve a new equilibrium. For large ice sheets, this dynamic adjustment may last for thousands of years, with the magnitude of change decreasing steadily over time as a new equilibrium is approached. This response can be described using kinematic wave theory. This theory, modified to pertain to Greenland drainage basins, was used to evaluate possible ice-sheet responses to perturbations in surface mass balance. The reference state is defined based on measurements along the central flowline of Petermann Glacier in north-west Greenland, and perturbations on this state considered. The advantage of this approach is that the particulars of the dynamical flow regime need not be explicitly known but are incorporated through the parameterization of the reference ice flux or longitudinal velocity profile. The results of the kinematic wave model indicate that significant rates of thickness change can occur immediately after the prescribed change in surface mass balance but adjustments in flow

  11. Qualification of improved joint heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Qualification testing of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor improved igniter-to-case joint and field joint heaters was conducted on the fired TEM-04 static test motor and was completed on 7 Sep. 1989. The purpose of the test was to certify the installation and performance of the improved joint heaters for use on flight motors. The changes incorporated in the improved heaters improve durability and should reduce handling damage. The igniter-to-case joint and field joint primary heater circuits were subjected to five 20-hr ON cycles. The heater redundant circuits were then subjected to one 20-hr ON cycle. Voltage, current, and temperature set point values were maintained within the specified limits for both heaters during each ON cycle. When testing was complete, both heaters were removed and inspected. No discolorations or any other anomalies were found on either of the heaters. Based on the successful completion of this test, it is recommended that the improved igniter-to-case joint and field joint heaters be used on future flight motors.

  12. Water heater control module

    DOEpatents

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  13. Radiant for gas heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Wysong, C.F.

    1983-03-01

    Atlanta Stove Works' improved radiant for vented or unvented gas heaters embodies a pair of upward converging front and rear walls that are formed of a fibrous aluminum silicate refractory board; at least two connector members extend between the front and rear walls to hold the lower end portions a fixed distance apart. Multiple perforations in the front wall emit radiant heat toward the area to be heated; the rear wall has at least one upper vent. This refractory board radiant offers simpler construction, greater resilience, lighter weight, and more economical manufacture than conventional clay radiants.

  14. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    SciTech Connect

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  15. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  16. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  17. Spacecraft component heater control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachtel, Frederick D. (Inventor); Owen, James W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A heater control circuit is disclosed as being constructed in a single integrated circuit, with the integrated circuit conveniently mounted proximate to a spacecraft component requiring temperature control. Redundant heater controllers control power applied to strip heaters disposed to provide heat to a component responsive to sensed temperature from temperature sensors. Signals from these sensors are digitized and compared with a dead band temperature and set point temperature stored in memory to generate an error signal if the sensed temperature is outside the parameter stored in the memory. This error signal is utilized by a microprocessor to selectively instruct the heater controllers to apply power to the strip heaters. If necessary, the spacecraft central processor may access or interrogate the microprocessor in order to alter the set point temperature and dead band temperature range to obtain operational data relating to the operation of an integrated circuit for relaying to the ground control, or to switch off faulty components.

  18. Visibly Transparent Heaters.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ritu; Rao, K D M; Kiruthika, S; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2016-05-25

    Heater plates or sheets that are visibly transparent have many interesting applications in optoelectronic devices such as displays, as well as in defrosting, defogging, gas sensing and point-of-care disposable devices. In recent years, there have been many advances in this area with the advent of next generation transparent conducting electrodes (TCE) based on a wide range of materials such as oxide nanoparticles, CNTs, graphene, metal nanowires, metal meshes and their hybrids. The challenge has been to obtain uniform and stable temperature distribution over large areas, fast heating and cooling rates at low enough input power yet not sacrificing the visible transmittance. This review provides topical coverage of this important research field paying due attention to all the issues mentioned above. PMID:27176472

  19. Biobriefcase aerosol collector heater

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Perry M.; Christian, Allen T.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Willis, Ladona; Masquelier, Donald A.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2009-03-17

    A system for sampling air and collecting particles potentially including bioagents entrained in the air for detection. The system comprises collecting a sample of the air with the particles entrained in the air, directing the sample to a receiving surface, directing a liquid to the receiving surface thereby producing a liquid surface, wherein the particles potentially including bioagents become captured in the liquid, and heating the liquid wherein the particles potentially including bioagents become heated to lysis the bioagents.

  20. Tuning The Laser Heater Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zackary

    2010-12-03

    The laser heater undulator for the LCLS requires different tuning techniques than the main undulators. It is a pure permanent magnet (PPM) undulator, rather than the hybrid design of the main undulators. The PPM design allows analytic calculation of the undulator fields. The calculations let errors be introduced and correction techniques be derived. This note describes how the undulator was modelled, and the methods which were found to correct potential errors in the undulator. The laser heater undulator for the LCLS is a pure permanent magnet device requiring different tuning techniques than the main undulators. In this note, the laser heater undulator is modelled and tuning techniques to compensate various errors are derived.

  1. 42. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING OVERHEAD SERVICE CRANE AT CENTER. NOTE NEEDLE VALVE AIR VENTS AND GAUGES AT RIGHT, NEXT TO CONTROL PEDESTAL. VIEW TO EAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  2. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  3. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  4. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  5. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  6. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  7. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  8. Methods for forming long subsurface heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong Sub

    2013-09-17

    A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

  9. Heater head for stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  10. Thermomechanics of the granular bed T-joint water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplitskii, Yu. S.; Belonovich, D. G.

    2012-11-01

    On the basis of the heat transfer model taking into account the radiative transport the temperature distribution and the resistance of the water heater with a granular packing having two independent air inlets have been investigated. The generalized dependence for calculating the resistance of the granular bed has been obtained.

  11. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to... be fireproof for a distance great enough to prevent damage from backfiring or reverse...

  12. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to... be fireproof for a distance great enough to prevent damage from backfiring or reverse...

  13. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to... be fireproof for a distance great enough to prevent damage from backfiring or reverse...

  14. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to... be fireproof for a distance great enough to prevent damage from backfiring or reverse...

  15. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fireproof. In addition— (1) Unless isolation is provided by fireproof valves or by equally effective means, the ventilating air duct downstream of each heater must be fireproof for a distance great enough to... be fireproof for a distance great enough to prevent damage from backfiring or reverse...

  16. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a... design evaluation may be used as an alternative to the performance test for storage vessels and...

  17. Emissions Characterization of Residential Wood-Fired Hydronic Heater Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential wood-fired hydronic heaters (RWHHs) can negatively impact the local ambient air quality and thus are of major environmental concern in wood burning areas of the U. S. Few studies have been conducted which characterize the emissions from RWHHs. To address the lack of e...

  18. Solar Hot Water Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  19. DETAIL OF HEATER PANEL, 2’2” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, ALTITUDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF HEATER PANEL, -2’-2” LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. 24 CFR 3280.806 - Receptacle outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., 15 and 20 ampere receptacle outlets, including receptacles in light fixtures, installed outdoors, in... bathrooms within 36 inches (914 mm) of the outside edge of each basin. The receptacle outlet must be...

  1. An Evaluation of the Water Heater Load Potential for Providing Regulation Service

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, Junji; Lu, Ning; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2011-08-31

    This paper investigates the possibility of providing aggregated regulation services with small loads, such as water heaters or air conditioners. A direct-load control algorithm is presented to aggregate the water heater load for the purpose of regulation. A dual-element electric water heater model is developed, which accounts for both thermal dynamics and users’ water consumptions. A realistic regulation signal was used to evaluate the number of water heaters needed and the operational characteristics of a water heater when providing 2-MW regulation service. Modeling results suggest that approximately 33,333 water heaters are needed to provide a 2-MW regulation service 24 hours a day. However, if water heaters only provide regulation from 6:00 to 24:00, approximately 20,000 will be needed. Because the control algorithm has considered the thermal setting of the water heater, the customer comfort is obstructed little. Therefore, the aggregated regulation service provided by water heater loads can become a major source of revenue for load-service entities when the smart grid enables the direct load control.

  2. Porous absorber for solar air heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, J.A.

    1980-09-10

    A general discussion of the factors affecting solar collector performance is presented. Bench scale tests done to try to determine the heat transfer characteristics of various screen materials are explained. The design, performance, and evaluation of a crude collector with a simple screen stack absorber is treated. The more sophisticated absorber concept, and its first experimental approximation is examined. A short summary of future plans for the collector concept is included. (MHR)

  3. Heater with zone-controlled radiant burners

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, R.M.; Schreiber, R.J.; Minden, A.C.; Wong, T.

    1987-05-12

    A radiant burner is described for use in a process heater. The burner comprises the combination of a fiber matrix shell of elongate cylindrical shape, the matrix having interstitial spaces between the fibers for diffusing fuel and air therethrough. Baffle means divide the internal shell volume into separate plena which extend lengthwise of the shell. Inlet means direct independent streams of gas into the separate plena, with a first one of the plena receiving a first stream comprising a fuel and air mixture which flows through the fiber matrix and flamelessly combusts on the outer surface portion of the shell which surrounds the first plenum forming an active combustion zone to transfer heat outwardly primarily by radiation.

  4. High Performance Diesel Fueled Cabin Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, Tom

    2001-08-05

    Recent DOE-OHVT studies show that diesel emissions and fuel consumption can be greatly reduced at truck stops by switching from engine idle to auxiliary-fired heaters. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has studied high performance diesel burner designs that address the shortcomings of current low fire-rate burners. Initial test results suggest a real opportunity for the development of a truly advanced truck heating system. The BNL approach is to use a low pressure, air-atomized burner derived form burner designs used commonly in gas turbine combustors. This paper reviews the design and test results of the BNL diesel fueled cabin heater. The burner design is covered by U.S. Patent 6,102,687 and was issued to U.S. DOE on August 15, 2000.The development of several novel oil burner applications based on low-pressure air atomization is described. The atomizer used is a pre-filming, air blast nozzle of the type commonly used in gas turbine combustion. The air pressure used can b e as low as 1300 Pa and such pressure can be easily achieved with a fan. Advantages over conventional, pressure-atomized nozzles include ability to operate at low input rates without very small passages and much lower fuel pressure requirements. At very low firing rates the small passage sizes in pressure swirl nozzles lead to poor reliability and this factor has practically constrained these burners to firing rates over 14 kW. Air atomization can be used very effectively at low firing rates to overcome this concern. However, many air atomizer designs require pressures that can be achieved only with a compressor, greatly complicating the burner package and increasing cost. The work described in this paper has been aimed at the practical adaptation of low-pressure air atomization to low input oil burners. The objective of this work is the development of burners that can achieve the benefits of air atomization with air pressures practically achievable with a simple burner fan.

  5. Igniter heater EMI transient test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Testing to evaluate Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor igniter heater electromagnetic interference (EMI) effects on the Safe and Arm (S and A) device was completed. It was suspected that EMI generated by the igniter heater and it's associated electromechanical relay could cause a premature firing of the NASA Standard Initiators (NSIs) inside the S and A. The maximum voltage induced into the NSI fire lines was 1/4 of the NASA specified no-fire limit of one volt (SKB 26100066). As a result, the igniter heaters are not expected to have any adverse EMI effects on the NSIs. The results did show, however, that power switching causes occasional high transients within the igniter heater power cable. These transients could affect the sensitive equipment inside the forward skirt. It is therefore recommended that the electromechanical igniter heater relays be replaced with zero crossing solid state relays. If the solid state relays are installed, it is also recommended that they be tested for EMI transient effects.

  6. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union's Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  7. IR Imaging Study on Heater Performamnce of Outside Rearview Mirrors for Automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin; England, Todd W

    2006-01-01

    Adhesive bonded electrical heaters have been used in outside rearview mirrors of automobiles in order to act as defrosters. Entrapment of air pockets between the heater and the mirror can affects the performance and structural integrity of the mirror assembly. Since painting over the mirror is not an option in the production environment, the biggest challenge for IR imaging is to minimize surface reflection. Looking through a smooth, highly reflective first-surface mirror and a 2 mm thick glass without picking up other heat sources in the room, such as people, electronics equipment and the camera itself, requires careful planning and effective shielding. In this paper, we present our method of avoiding mirror reflection and IR images of the heated mirror in operation. Production heaters and heaters with artificial defect were studied. The IR imaging method has shown to be an effective tool for heater quality control and performance studies.

  8. Solar water heater design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  9. Solar Water Heater Installation Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A 48-page report describes water-heating system, installation (covering collector orientation, mounting, plumbing and wiring), operating instructions and maintenance procedures. Commercial solar-powered water heater system consists of a solar collector, solar-heated-water tank, electrically heated water tank and controls. Analysis of possible hazards from pressure, electricity, toxicity, flammability, gas, hot water and steam are also included.

  10. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... listed under UL 174, UL 1453 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet...

  11. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... listed under UL 174, UL 1453 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet...

  12. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... listed under UL 174, UL 1453 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet...

  13. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... listed under UL 174, UL 1453 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet...

  14. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... listed under UL 174, UL 1453 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet...

  15. 10 CFR 429.24 - Pool heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool heaters. 429.24 Section 429.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.24 Pool heaters. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to pool heaters; and (2) For...

  16. 10 CFR 429.24 - Pool heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool heaters. 429.24 Section 429.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.24 Pool heaters. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to pool heaters; and (2) For...

  17. 10 CFR 429.24 - Pool heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pool heaters. 429.24 Section 429.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.24 Pool heaters. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to pool heaters; and (2) For...

  18. 21 CFR 884.5390 - Perineal heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Perineal heater. 884.5390 Section 884.5390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... Perineal heater. (a) Identification. A perineal heater is a device designed to apply heat directly...

  19. Sealed-in-quartz resistance heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    Electric resistance quartz heater operates at 1,400 F without developing excessively hot spots that can fail prematurely. Since resistance element is sealed in quartz, heater can be used in hostile environments. Sealed construction also keeps heater from contaminating heated object.

  20. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  1. High reliability cathode heaters for ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    A number of space missions were proposed which utilize 30-cm mercury bombardment ion thrusters and also require a large number of thruster restarts. A test program was carried out to determine thermal cycle life of several different cathode heater designs. Plasma/flame sprayed heaters and swaged type heaters were tested. Four of the five plasma/flame sprayed heaters tested failed in a comparatively short time. Four tantalum swaged heaters that were brazed to the tantalum cathode tube were successfully tested and met the goals that were set at the start of the test.

  2. High reliability cathode heaters for ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    A number of space missions have been proposed which will utilize 30-cm mercury bombardment ion thrusters and also will require a large number of thruster restarts. A test program was carried out to determine thermal cycle life of several different cathode heater designs. Plasma/flame sprayed heaters and swaged type heaters were tested. Four of the five plasma/flame sprayed heaters tested failed in a comparatively short time. Four tantalum swaged heaters that were brazed to the tantalum cathode tube were successfully tested and met the goals that were set at the start of the test.

  3. FFTF reactor immersion heaters. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Romrell, D.M.

    1994-08-26

    This specification establishes requirements for design, testing, and quality assurance for electric heaters that will be used to maintain primary Sodium temperature in the Fast Test Facility (FFTF) reactor vessel. The Test Specification (WHC-SD-FF-SDS-003) has been revised to Rev. 1. This change modifies the fabrication of approximately 25 feet of the subject heater using ceramic insulators over the heater lead wire rather than compressed magnesium oxide. Also, 304 or 316 stainless steel can be used for the heater sheath. This change should simplify fabrication and improve the heater operational reliability.

  4. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    SciTech Connect

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  5. Heater Development, Fabrication, and Testing: Analysis of Fabricated Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Dickens, R. E.; Farmer, J. T.; Davis, J. D.; Adams, M. R.; Martin, J. J.; Webster, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal simulators (highly designed heater elements) developed at the Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fission in a variety of reactor concepts. When inserted into the reactor geometry, the purpose of the thermal simulators is to deliver thermal power to the test article in the same fashion as if nuclear fuel were present. Considerable effort has been expended to mimic heat from fission as closely as possible. To accurately represent the fuel, the simulators should be capable of matching the overall properties of the nuclear fuel rather than simply matching the fuel temperatures. This includes matching thermal stresses in the pin, pin conductivities, total core power, and core power profile (axial and radial). This Technical Memorandum discusses the historical development of the thermal simulators used in nonnuclear testing at the EFF-TF and provides a basis for the development of the current series of thermal simulators. The status of current heater fabrication and testing is assessed, providing data and analyses for both successes and failures experienced in the heater development and testing program.

  6. Improved Air-Treatment Canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed air-treatment canister integrates a heater-in-tube water evaporator into canister header. Improved design prevents water from condensing and contaminating chemicals that regenerate the air. Heater is evenly spiraled about the inlet header on the canister. Evaporator is brazed to the header.

  7. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  8. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  9. Welding shield for coupling heaters

    DOEpatents

    Menotti, James Louis

    2010-03-09

    Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

  10. Space Station solar water heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  11. Silicon photonic heater-modulator

    DOEpatents

    Zortman, William A.; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-07-14

    Photonic modulators, methods of forming photonic modulators and methods of modulating an input optical signal are provided. A photonic modulator includes a disk resonator having a central axis extending along a thickness direction of the disk resonator. The disk resonator includes a modulator portion and a heater portion. The modulator portion extends in an arc around the central axis. A PN junction of the modulator portion is substantially normal to the central axis.

  12. 24 CFR 3280.806 - Receptacle outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Electrical Systems § 3280.806... Article 406.3 of the National Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70-2005. (3) Except when supplying specific... installed above electric baseboard heaters....

  13. 24 CFR 3280.806 - Receptacle outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Electrical Systems § 3280.806... Article 406.3 of the National Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70-2005. (3) Except when supplying specific... installed above electric baseboard heaters....

  14. 24 CFR 3280.806 - Receptacle outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Electrical Systems § 3280.806... Article 406.3 of the National Electrical Code, NFPA No. 70-2005. (3) Except when supplying specific... installed above electric baseboard heaters....

  15. Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters

    DOEpatents

    Brady; Michael Patrick , Horton, Jr.; Joseph Arno , Vitek; John Michael

    2010-03-23

    Heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Such heaters can be obtained by using the systems and methods described herein. The heater includes a heater section including iron, cobalt, and carbon. The heater section has a Curie temperature less than a phase transformation temperature. The Curie temperature is at least 740.degree. C. The heater section provides, when time varying current is applied to the heater section, an electrical resistance.

  16. Alcohol outlets and clusters of violence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol related violence continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. In particular, there is substantial evidence of an association between alcohol outlets and assault. However, because the specific geographic relationships between alcohol outlets and the distribution of violence remains obscured, it is important to identify the spatial linkages that may exist, enhancing public health efforts to curb both violence and morbidity. Methods The present study utilizes police-recorded data on simple and aggravated assaults in Cincinnati, Ohio. Addresses of alcohol outlets for Cincinnati, including all bars, alcohol-serving restaurants, and off-premise liquor and convenience stores were obtained from the Ohio Division of Liquor Control and geocoded for analysis. A combination of proximity analysis, spatial cluster detection approaches and a geographic information system were used to identify clusters of alcohol outlets and the distribution of violence around them. Results A brief review of the empirical work relating to alcohol outlet density and violence is provided, noting that the majority of this literature is cross-sectional and ecological in nature, yielding a somewhat haphazard and aggregate view of how outlet type(s) and neighborhood characteristics like social organization and land use are related to assaultive violence. The results of the statistical analysis for Cincinnati suggest that while alcohol outlets are not problematic per se, assaultive violence has a propensity to cluster around agglomerations of alcohol outlets. This spatial relationship varies by distance and is also related to the characteristics of the alcohol outlet agglomeration. Specifically, spatially dense distributions of outlets appear to be more prone to clusters of assaultive violence when compared to agglomerations with a lower density of outlets. Conclusion With a more thorough understanding of the spatial relationships between alcohol outlets and the

  17. Complex Greenland outlet glacier flow captured.

    PubMed

    Aschwanden, Andy; Fahnestock, Mark A; Truffer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass at an accelerating rate due to increased surface melt and flow acceleration in outlet glaciers. Quantifying future dynamic contributions to sea level requires accurate portrayal of outlet glaciers in ice sheet simulations, but to date poor knowledge of subglacial topography and limited model resolution have prevented reproduction of complex spatial patterns of outlet flow. Here we combine a high-resolution ice-sheet model coupled to uniformly applied models of subglacial hydrology and basal sliding, and a new subglacial topography data set to simulate the flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Flow patterns of many outlet glaciers are well captured, illustrating fundamental commonalities in outlet glacier flow and highlighting the importance of efforts to map subglacial topography. Success in reproducing present day flow patterns shows the potential for prognostic modelling of ice sheets without the need for spatially varying parameters with uncertain time evolution. PMID:26830316

  18. Complex Greenland outlet glacier flow captured

    PubMed Central

    Aschwanden, Andy; Fahnestock, Mark A.; Truffer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass at an accelerating rate due to increased surface melt and flow acceleration in outlet glaciers. Quantifying future dynamic contributions to sea level requires accurate portrayal of outlet glaciers in ice sheet simulations, but to date poor knowledge of subglacial topography and limited model resolution have prevented reproduction of complex spatial patterns of outlet flow. Here we combine a high-resolution ice-sheet model coupled to uniformly applied models of subglacial hydrology and basal sliding, and a new subglacial topography data set to simulate the flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Flow patterns of many outlet glaciers are well captured, illustrating fundamental commonalities in outlet glacier flow and highlighting the importance of efforts to map subglacial topography. Success in reproducing present day flow patterns shows the potential for prognostic modelling of ice sheets without the need for spatially varying parameters with uncertain time evolution. PMID:26830316

  19. A micro solar heater for portable energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Raúl; Morrison, Graham; The, Owen; Rosengarten, Gary

    2007-12-01

    This study presents a new concept that combines microtechnology with solar thermal energy to provide a free portable energy source. A water-methanol mixture flows through an array of parallel microchannels which are fabricated into a silicon matrix using conventional micro-fabrication techniques. A vacuum layer is interposed between the channels and the external surface to thermally insulate the channels from the ambient temperature. A selective coating is deposited on one of the vacuum walls to absorb the short wavelength incoming radiation and reduce the long wavelength radiation, hence reducing the heat losses. A geometry and material optimization is still being developed in order to obtain the highest possible efficiency for the micro-heater, while keeping a low pressure drop in the micro-channels. The methanol outlet temperature is predicted to be higher than 250°C. This temperature is required for hydrogen production in a methanol reforming micro-reactor. Therefore, it is envisaged that the micro-solar heater will supply the thermal energy needed for hydrogen generation, that can later be used as fuel for microfuel cells. Both technologies can be integrated in a portable device.

  20. End Calorimeter Warm Tube Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Primdahl, K.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-06

    The Tevatron accelerator beam tube must pass through the End Calorimeter cryostats of the D-Zero Collider Detector. Furthermore, the End Calorimeter cryostats must be allowed to roll back forty inches without interruption of the vacuum system; hence, the Tev tube must slide through the End Calorimeter cryostat as it is rolled back. The Tev pass through the End Calorimeter can actually be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: Tev tube, warm (vacuum vessel) tube, IS layers of superinsulation, cold tube (argon vessel), and Inner Hadronic center support tube. M. Foley generated an ANSYS model to study the heat load. to the cryostat. during collider physics studies; that is, without operation of the heater. A sketch of the model is included in the appendix. The vacuum space and superinsulation was modeled as a thermal solid, with conductivity derived from tests performed at Fermilab. An additional estimate was done. by this author, using data supplied by NR-2. a superinsulation manufacturer. The ANSYS result and hand calculation are in close agreement. The ANSYS model was modified. by this author. to incorporate the effect of the heater. Whereas the earlier model studied steady state operation only. the revised model considers the heater-off steady state mode as the initial condition. then performs a transient analysis with a final load step for time tending towards infinity. Results show the thermal gradient as a function of time and applied voltage. It should be noted that M. Foley's model was generated for one half the warm tube. implying the tube to be symmetric. In reality. the downstream connection (relative to the collision point) attachment to the vacuum shell is via several convolutions of a 0.020-inch wall bellows; hence. a nearly adiabatic boundary condition. Accordingly. the results reported in the table reflect extrapolation of the curves to the downstream end of the tube. Using results from the ANSYS analysis, that is, tube temperature and

  1. Exposure to Alcohol Outlets in Rural Towns

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower income populations are exposed to excess risks related to the presence of greater concentrations of alcohol outlets in their communities. Theory from economic geography suggests this is due to dynamic processes that shape urban retail markets (as outlets are attracted to areas of higher population density due to the increased demand but are excluded from higher income areas due to land and structure rents). This mechanism may explain increased exposure to alcohol outlets for lower income populations in rural areas. This study tests the hypothesis that the distribution of outlets between rural towns will reflect these market dynamics, such that outlets are concentrated in towns with (i) greater resident and temporary populations, (ii) lower income, and (iii) are adjacent to towns with higher income. Method Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models examined counts of bars, restaurants and off-premise outlets within 353 discrete towns of rural Victoria, Australia (mean population = 4,326.0, SD = 15,754.1). Independent variables were each town’s total resident population, net changes to population (due to commuter flow, visitors, and the flow of local residents to other towns (spatial interaction)), and income for the local and adjacent towns. Results Lower local income and increased income in adjacent towns were associated with more outlets of all types. Greater resident populations and greater net population due to commuters also predicted greater numbers of all outlets. Bars and restaurants were positively related to greater net population due to visitors, and negatively related to spatial interaction. Conclusions The economic geographic processes that lead to greater concentrations of alcohol outlets in lower income areas are common to all retail markets. Lower income populations are exposed to increased risk associated with the presence of additional outlets that service demand from non-residents. In rural areas these processes appear

  2. Thermal response of transparent silver nanowire/PEDOT:PSS film heaters.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shulin; He, Weiwei; Wang, Ke; Ran, Yunxia; Ye, Changhui

    2014-12-10

    Thermal response behavior of transparent silver nanowire/PEDOT:PSS film heaters are intensively studied for manipulating heating temperature, response time, and power consumption. Influences of substrate heat capacity, heat transfer coefficient between air and heater, sheet resistance and dimension of Ag nanowire film, on the thermal response are investigated from thermodynamic analysis. Suggestion is given for practical applications that if other parameters are fixed, Ag nanowire coverage can be utilized as an effective parameter to adjust the thermal response. The heat transfer coefficient plays opposite roles on thermal response speed and achievable steady temperature. A value of ≈32 W m(-2) K(-1) is obtained from transient process analysis after correcting it by considering heater resistance variation during heating tests. Guidance of designing heaters with a given response time is provided by forming Ag nanowire film with a suitable sheet resistance on substrate of appropriate material and a certain thickness. Thermal response tests of designed Ag heaters are performed to show higher heating temperature, shorter response time, and lower power consumption (179 °C cm(2) W(-1)) than ITO/FTO heaters, as well as homogeneous temperature distribution and stability for repeated use. Potential applications of the Ag heaters in window defogging, sensing and thermochromism are manifested.

  3. Joint used for coupling long heaters

    DOEpatents

    Menottie, James Louis

    2013-02-26

    Systems for coupling ends of elongated heaters and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include two elongated heaters with an end portion of one heater abutted or near to an end portion of the other heater and a core coupling material. The core coupling material may extend between the two elongated heaters. The elongated heaters may include cores and at least one conductor substantially concentrically surrounds the cores. The cores may have a lower melting point than the conductors. At least one end portion of the conductor may have a beveled edge. The gap formed by the beveled edge may be filled with a coupling material for coupling the one or more conductors. One end portion of at least one core may have a recessed opening and the core coupling material may be partially inside the recessed opening.

  4. Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Hancock, C. E.

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes the Mascot home, an abandoned property that was extensively renovated. Several efficiency upgrades were integrated into this home, of particular interest, a unique water heater (a Navien CR240-A). Field monitoring was performed to determine the in-use efficiency of the hybrid condensing water heater. The results were compared to the unit's rated efficiency. This unit is Energy Star qualified and one of the most efficient gas water heaters currently available on the market.

  5. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dieckmann, John T.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Teagan, W. Peter; Zogg, Robert

    1999-09-07

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  6. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.; Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  7. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  8. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between

  9. SELECTED ORGANIC POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM UNVENTED KEROSENE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An exploratory study was performed to assess the semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emission rates from unvented kerosene space heaters. A well-tuned radiant heater and maltuned convective heater were tested for semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emiss...

  10. Socioeconomic Determinants of Exposure to Alcohol Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ponicki, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol outlets tend to be located in lower income areas, exposing lower income populations to excess risks associated with alcohol sales through these establishments. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses about the etiology of these differential exposures based on theories of the economic geography of retail markets: (a) outlets will locate within or near areas of high alcohol demand, and (b) outlets will be excluded from areas with high land and structure rents. Method: Data from the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used to develop a surrogate for alcohol demand (i.e., market potential) at two census geographies for the city of Melbourne, Australia. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models estimated multilevel spatial relationships between counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets and market potential, income, and zoning ordinances (Level 1: n = 8,914). Results: Market potentials were greatest in areas with larger older age, male, English-speaking, high-income populations. Independent of zoning characteristics, greater numbers of outlets appeared in areas with greater market potentials and the immediately surrounding areas. Greater income excluded outlets in local and surrounding areas. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol outlets are located in areas with high demand and are excluded from high-income areas. These processes appear to take place at relatively small geographic scales, encourage the concentration of outlets in specific low-income areas, and represent a very general economic process likely to take place in communities throughout the world. PMID:25978830

  11. Plug into a Great Outlet for Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Is there beauty in the wall socket that people plug their appliances into daily? Can one find beauty in the grate covering the heat vent in his classroom? The author posed these very questions to her third-grade students. She had the students take a good look at the outlet cover (or plate) on the wall. After thinking and discussing the outlets,…

  12. "Starfish" Heater Head For Stirling Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitale, N.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed "starfish" heater head for Stirling engine enables safe use of liquid sodium as heat-transfer fluid. Sodium makes direct contact with heater head but does not come in contact with any structural welds. Design concept minimizes number of, and simplifies nonstructural thermal welds and facilitates inspection of such welds.

  13. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... passengers or occupants against injury by fans, belts, or any other moving parts. (3) Heaters, secured. Every... overturns. Every heater shall be so designed, constructed, and mounted as to minimize the likelihood of... failure of the fuel lines. (5) Operating controls to be protected. On every bus designed to transport...

  14. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... passengers or occupants against injury by fans, belts, or any other moving parts. (3) Heaters, secured. Every... overturns. Every heater shall be so designed, constructed, and mounted as to minimize the likelihood of... failure of the fuel lines. (5) Operating controls to be protected. On every bus designed to transport...

  15. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  16. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  17. Solar Water-Heater Design Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Information on a solar domestic-hot water heater is contained in 146 page design package. System consists of solar collector, storage tanks, automatic control circuitry and auxiliary heater. Data-acquisition equipment at sites monitors day-by-day performance. Includes performance specifications, schematics, solar-collector drawings and drawings of control parts.

  18. Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Bass, Ronald Marshall; Kim, Dong Sub; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Stegemeier, George Leo; Keltner, Thomas Joseph; Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon

    2010-12-28

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

  19. Extended range tankless water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.A.

    1993-04-18

    In this research program, a laboratory test facility was built for the purpose of testing a gas-fired water heating appliance. This test facility can be used to examine the important performance characteristics of efficiency, dynamic response, and quality of combustion. An innovative design for a tankless water heater was built and then tested to determine its performance characteristics. This unit was tested over a 5:1 range in input (20,000 to 100,000 btuh heat input). The unit was then configured as a circulating hot water boiler, and a specially designed heat exchanger was used with it to generate domestic hot water. This unit was also tested, and was found to offer performance advantages with regard to low flow and temperature stability.

  20. Helium heater design for the helium direct cycle component test facility. [for gas-cooled nuclear reactor power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, V. R.; Gunn, S. V.; Lee, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes a helium heater to be used to conduct non-nuclear demonstration tests of the complete power conversion loop for a direct-cycle gas-cooled nuclear reactor power plant. Requirements for the heater include: heating the helium to a 1500 F temperature, operating at a 1000 psia helium pressure, providing a thermal response capability and helium volume similar to that of the nuclear reactor, and a total heater system helium pressure drop of not more than 15 psi. The unique compact heater system design proposed consists of 18 heater modules; air preheaters, compressors, and compressor drive systems; an integral control system; piping; and auxiliary equipment. The heater modules incorporate the dual-concentric-tube 'Variflux' heat exchanger design which provides a controlled heat flux along the entire length of the tube element. The heater design as proposed will meet all system requirements. The heater uses pressurized combustion (50 psia) to provide intensive heat transfer, and to minimize furnace volume and heat storage mass.

  1. Temperature measurements from a horizontal heater test in G-Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wunan; Ramirez, A.L.; Watwood, D.

    1991-10-01

    A horizontal heater test was conducted in G-Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, to study the hydrothermal response of the rock mass due to a thermal loading. The results of the temperature measurements are reported here. The measured temperatures agree well with a scoping calculation that was performed using a model which investigates the transport of water, vapor, air, and heat in fractured porous media. Our results indicate that the temperature field might be affected by the initial moisture content of the rock, the fractures in the rock, the distance from the free surface of the alcove wall, and the temperature distribution on the heater surface. Higher initial moisture content, higher fracture density, and cooling from the alcove wall tend to decrease the measured temperature. The temperature on top of the horizontal heater can was about 30{degrees}C greater than at the bottom throughout most of the heating phase, causing the rock temperatures above the heater to be greater than those below. Along a radius from the center of the heater, the heating created a dry zone, followed by a boiling zone and condensation zone. Gravity drainage of the condensed water in the condensation zone had a strong effect on the boiling process in the test region. The temperatures below and to the side of the heater indicated a region receiving liquid drainage from an overlying region of condensation. We verified that a thermocouple in a thin-wall tubing measures the same temperature as one grouted in a borehole.

  2. Granular Matter Transport in Vertical Pipes: The Influence of Pipe Outlet Conditions on Gravity-driven Granular Flow.

    PubMed

    Jaklič, Miha; Kočevar, Klemen; Srčič, Stanko; Dreu, Rok

    2016-01-01

    Gravity transport of granular materials in vertical pipes is one of the most fundamental steps in bulk powder handling and processing. Presented study investigates powder flow characteristics in vertical pipes with open and closed outlets and condition of free powder fall. Powder flow of pharmaceutical grade powders was observed in transparent, vertical pipe model. Description of flow structures was performed. Powder volume flow rate, acceleration, and dilatation were quantified and correlated with powder properties. The results show that in pipes with a closed outlet the escaping air slows down the powder flow, resulting in a much slower flow than in pipes with an open outlet. A dense granular flow was detected in an open outlet condition, whereas in a closed outlet condition two concurrent flow regimes were observed: a slow moving, dense powder bed, and a fast dilute powder flow. Differences in flow regimes may promote segregation, with important implications to industrial processes.

  3. Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Xie, Xueying; Miller, David Scott; Ginestra, Jean Charles

    2011-07-26

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes an elongated heater in an opening in the formation. The elongated heater includes two or more portions along the length of the heater that have different power outputs. At least one portion of the elongated heater includes at least one temperature limited portion with at least one selected temperature at which the portion provides a reduced heat output. The heater is configured to provide heat to the formation with the different power outputs. The heater is configured so that the heater heats one or more portions of the formation at one or more selected heating rates.

  4. Heater head for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Darooka, D.K.

    1988-09-06

    A heater head is described for a compound Stirling engine modules, each including a displacer cylinder coaxially aligned with the displacer cylinder of the other of the engine modules, a displacer piston mounted for reciprocation in the displacer cylinder.

  5. Is your electric process heater safe?

    SciTech Connect

    Tiras, C.S.

    2000-04-01

    Over the past 35 years, electric process heaters (EPHs) have been used to heat flowing fluids in different sectors of the energy industry: oil and gas exploration and production, refineries, petrochemical plants, pipeline compression facilities and power-generation plants. EPHs offer several advantages over fired heaters and shell-and-tube exchangers, which have been around for many years, including: smaller size, lighter weight, cleaner operation, lower capital costs, lower maintenance costs, no emissions or leakage, better control and improved safety. However, while many industrial standards have addressed safety concerns of fired heaters and shell-and-tube exchangers (API, TEMA, NFPA, OSHA and NEC), no standards address EPHs. The paper presents a list of questions that plant operators need to ask about the safety of their electric process heaters. The answers are also given.

  6. High-temperature MEMS Heater Platforms: Long-term Performance of Metal and Semiconductor Heater Materials

    PubMed Central

    Spannhake, Jan; Schulz, Olaf; Helwig, Andreas; Krenkow, Angelika; Müller, Gerhard; Doll, Theodor

    2006-01-01

    Micromachined thermal heater platforms offer low electrical power consumption and high modulation speed, i.e. properties which are advantageous for realizing non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas- and liquid monitoring systems. In this paper, we report on investigations on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based infrared (IR) emitter devices heated by employing different kinds of metallic and semiconductor heater materials. Our results clearly reveal the superior high-temperature performance of semiconductor over metallic heater materials. Long-term stable emitter operation in the vicinity of 1300 K could be attained using heavily antimony-doped tin dioxide (SnO2:Sb) heater elements.

  7. Slat Heater Boxes for Thermal Vacuum Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    Slat heater boxes have been invented for controlling the sink temperatures of objects under test in a thermal vacuum chamber, the walls of which are cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. A slat heater box (see Figure 1) includes a framework of struts that support electrically heated slats that are coated with a high-emissivity optically gray paint. The slats can be grouped together into heater zones for the purpose of maintaining an even temperature within each side. The sink temperature of an object under test is defined as the steady-state temperature of the object in the vacuum/ radiative environment during the absence of any internal heat source or sink. The slat heater box makes it possible to closely control the radiation environment to obtain a desired sink temperature. The slat heater box is placed inside the cold thermal vacuum chamber, and the object under test is placed inside (but not in contact with) the slat heater box. The slat heaters occupy about a third of the field of view from any point on the surface of the object under test, the remainder of the field of view being occupied by the cold chamber wall. Thus, the radiation environment is established by the combined effects of the slat heater box and the cold chamber wall. Given (1) the temperature of the chamber wall, (2) the fractions of the field of view occupied by the chamber wall and the slat heater box, and (3) the emissivities of the slats, chamber wall, and the surface of object under test, the slat temperature required to maintain a desired sink temperature can be calculated by solving the equations of gray-body radiation for the steady-state adiabatic case (equal absorption and emission by the object under test). Slat heater boxes offer an important advantage over the infrared lamps that have been previously used to obtain desired sink temperatures: In comparison with an infrared lamp, a slat heater box provides a greater degree of sink temperature uniformity for a test

  8. Light-weight radioisotope heater unit

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, A.

    1981-01-01

    DOE is developing a new generation of radioisotope-fueled 1-watt heaters, for initial use on NASA's Galileo and International Solar-Polar Missions. Each heater must contain passive safety provisions to ensure fuel retention under all credible accident conditions. Initial design reviews raised some concern about the accuracy of the predicted peak reentry temperature, and about the adequacy of the safety margin under certain unlike reentry modes. 5 refs.

  9. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  10. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  11. MTR, TRA603. SUBBASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. INLET/OUTLET TUNNELS FOR COOLANT WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. SUB-BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. INLET/OUTLET TUNNELS FOR COOLANT WATER (NORTH SIDE) AND AIR (SOUTH SIDE). RABBIT CANAL AND BULKHEADS. SUMPS AND DRAINS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-3-7, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100006, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. JPS heater and sensor lightning qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Simulated lightning strike testing of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) field joint protection system heater assembly was performed at Thiokol Corp., Wendover Lightning Facility. Testing consisted of subjecting the lightning evaluation test article to simulated lightning strikes and evaluating the effects of heater cable transients on cables within the systems tunnel. The maximum short circuit current coupled onto a United Space Boosters, Inc. operational flight cable within the systems tunnel, induced by transients from all cables external to the systems tunnel, was 92 amperes. The maximum open-circuit voltage coupled was 316 volts. The maximum short circuit current coupled onto a United Space Boosters, Inc. operational flight cable within the systems tunnel, induced by heater power cable transients only, was 2.7 amperes; the maximum open-circuit voltage coupled was 39 volts. All heater power cable induced coupling was due to simulated lightning discharges only, no heater operating power was applied during the test. The results showed that, for a worst-case lightning discharge, the heater power cable is responsible for a 3.9 decibel increase in voltage coupling to operational flight cables within the systems tunnel. Testing also showed that current and voltage levels coupled onto cables within the systems tunnel are partially dependant on the relative locations of the cables within the systems tunnel.

  13. 46 CFR 108.453 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 108.453 Section 108.453 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.453...

  14. 46 CFR 108.453 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 108.453 Section 108.453 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.453...

  15. 24 CFR 3280.806 - Receptacle outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Electrical Systems § 3280.806... shall be: (1) Of grounding type; (2) Installed according to Article 406.3 of the National Electrical... (30 inches) of a shower or bathtub space. (f) Receptacle outlets shall not be installed above...

  16. Heater test 1, Climax Stock granite, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Montan, D.N.; Bradkin, W.E.

    1984-10-01

    We conducted a series of in-situ tests in the Climax Stock, an intrusive granite formation at the Nevada Test Site, to validate the concept of housing a nuclear waste repository in granitic crystalline rock. The thermal properties of the granite were measured with resistance heaters and thermocouple frames that had been emplaced in drilled holes in the floor of a drift 420 m below the surface. Data analysis was performed primarily by comparing the measured and calculated temperature histories, varying conductivity and diffusivity in the calculations until reasonable agreement was achieved. The best-fit value for in-situ conductivity was approximately 3.1 W/m x K, and the deduced value for in-situ diffusivity was approximately 1.2 mm{sup 2}/s. Anisotropic effects in the thermal field were less than 10%. Permeability was determined by sealing off portions of the drilled holes, using inflatable rubber packers and an air-pressurization system. We then compared the resulting decay in pressure with analytic solutions of the pressure loss from a cylindrical source in an infinite isotropic medium, obtaining a permeability of approximately 1 nanodarcy (nD) at about 30{sup 0}C. As the temperature increased, the permeability decreased to about 0.2 nD at about 50{sup 0}C and became too small to measure (<0.02 nD) at higher temperatures. These tests provided new data on the in-situ properties of a granite typical of the Basin and Range province and significantly advanced our understanding of and ability to perform in-situ thermal and permeability measurements. This knowledge will be of considerable value for future spent-fuel tests.

  17. Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

  18. Dielectric Heaters for Testing Spacecraft Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, William Herbert; Bitteker, Leo; Godfroy, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A document proposes the development of radio-frequency-(RF)-driven dielectric heaters for non-nuclear thermal testing of the cores of nuclear-fission reactors for spacecraft. Like the electrical-resistance heaters used heretofore for such testing, the dielectric heaters would be inserted in the reactors in place of nuclear fuel rods. A typical heater according to the proposal would consist of a rod of lossy dielectric material sized and shaped like a fuel rod and containing an electrically conductive rod along its center line. Exploiting the dielectric loss mechanism that is usually considered a nuisance in other applications, an RF signal, typically at a frequency .50 MHz and an amplitude between 2 and 5 kV, would be applied to the central conductor to heat the dielectric material. The main advantage of the proposal is that the wiring needed for the RF dielectric heating would be simpler and easier to fabricate than is the wiring needed for resistance heating. In some applications, it might be possible to eliminate all heater wiring and, instead, beam the RF heating power into the dielectric rods from external antennas.

  19. D0 Cryo CC Heater Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-03-16

    Nine pairs of heaters are installed in the bottom of the CC pressure vessel.The physical layout is shown in the CC internal development drawing, D0 dwg. 3740.510-ME-255523. Electrically the heater system is a delta configuration. Electrical details are found on D0 dwg. 3740.515EC-273761. The feedthrough connectors for power to the heaters are located in the instrumentation box. Connector positions are found on D0 dwg.3740.515-EC-273760. Original sketches for the above named drawings are included in this document. The heaters and wiring were cleaned various times prior to and after installation with ethyl a1chohol. At various stages in the installation hi-pot and continuity tests were successfully accomplished to verify the integrity of the system. The fmal hi-pot numbers are included in the documentation. The heaters and wiring are kept separated from thermometry and purity cell wiring by SS sheetmetal barriers. The fabrication, testing and installation was completed by M. Hentges and his crew from AD/Cryo.

  20. NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed

  1. 12. VIEW OF OUTLET LOCKS AND RARITAN RIVER, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF OUTLET LOCKS AND RARITAN RIVER, LOOKING NORTH FROM APPROXIMATE SITE OF FORMER LOCK TENDER'S HOUSE - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Outlet Locks, Between State Route 18 & Raritan River, New Brunswick, Middlesex County, NJ

  2. 30. CONSTRUCTION LAYOUT DETAILS OF OUTLET WORKS AND SPILLWAY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. CONSTRUCTION LAYOUT - DETAILS OF OUTLET WORKS AND SPILLWAY. Sheet C-10, September, 1938. File no. SA 343/1. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  3. 18. GENERAL VIEW OF THE OUTLET STRUCTURE LOOKING DOWNSTREAM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. GENERAL VIEW OF THE OUTLET STRUCTURE LOOKING DOWNSTREAM AT WEST ABUTMENT.... Volume XVI, No. 13, July 26, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  4. 41. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL TOWER ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL TOWER - ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS NO. 1. Sheet 35, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/74. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  5. 43. OUTLET WORKS: SERVICE BRIDGE PLAN AND ELEVATION. Sheet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. OUTLET WORKS: SERVICE BRIDGE - PLAN AND ELEVATION. Sheet 37, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/76. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  6. 26. UPSTREAM VIEW OF DISCHARGE END OF OUTLET STRUCTURE.... Volume ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. UPSTREAM VIEW OF DISCHARGE END OF OUTLET STRUCTURE.... Volume XVI, No. 17, September 29, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  7. 22. UPSTREAM VIEW OF THE OUTLET CONTROL STRUCTURE AND THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. UPSTREAM VIEW OF THE OUTLET CONTROL STRUCTURE AND THE PIER FOR THE SERVICE BRIDGE.... Volume XVIII, No. 12, January 29, 1940. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  8. 17. OUTLET STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ALSO THE DRAINAGE CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. OUTLET STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ALSO THE DRAINAGE CHANNEL AND CONCRETE FLUME ALONG WEST EDGE OF EMBANKMENT. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  9. 42. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL TOWER ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL TOWER - ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS NO. 2. Sheet 36, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/79. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  10. 38. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL HOUSE PLAN AND ELEVATIONS. Sheet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL HOUSE - PLAN AND ELEVATIONS. Sheet 32, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/71. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  11. 23. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF COMPLETED OUTLET CONTROL STRUCTURE.... Volume XIX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF COMPLETED OUTLET CONTROL STRUCTURE.... Volume XIX, No. 8, April 12, 1940. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  12. 37. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL WORKS ELEVATIONS AND INDEX TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL WORKS - ELEVATIONS AND INDEX TO REFERENCE DRAWINGS. Sheet 31, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/70. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  13. 31. OUTLET WORKS: INTAKE PLAN AND SECTIONS. Sheet 21, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. OUTLET WORKS: INTAKE - PLAN AND SECTIONS. Sheet 21, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/60. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  14. 39. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL HOUSE STRUCTURAL DETAILS. Sheet 33, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. OUTLET WORKS: CONTROL HOUSE - STRUCTURAL DETAILS. Sheet 33, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/72. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  15. 34. OUTLET WORKS: GATES ELEVATIONS AND SECTION. Sheet 43, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. OUTLET WORKS: GATES - ELEVATIONS AND SECTION. Sheet 43, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/89(?). - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  16. 45. OUTLET WORKS: SERVICE BRIDGE BEARING DETAILS. Sheet 39, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. OUTLET WORKS: SERVICE BRIDGE - BEARING DETAILS. Sheet 39, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/78. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  17. 44. OUTLET WORKS: SERVICE BRIDGE GIRDER DETAILS. Sheet 38, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. OUTLET WORKS: SERVICE BRIDGE - GIRDER DETAILS. Sheet 38, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/77. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  18. 49. OUTLET WORKS: THREE TON CRANE, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO 4. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. OUTLET WORKS: THREE TON CRANE, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NO 4. Sheet H-4, December 12, 1939. File no. SA 342/60. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  19. 35. OUTLET WORKS: GATE HOIST ASSEMBLY. Sheet 44, August 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. OUTLET WORKS: GATE HOIST ASSEMBLY. Sheet 44, August 20, 1938. File no. SA 121/84(?). - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  20. Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Vitek, John Michael [Oak Ridge, TN; Brady, Michael Patrick [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-06

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Systems and methods for making heaters are described herein. At least one heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The heater provides a first amount of heat at a lower temperature. The heater may provide a second reduced amount of heat when the heater reaches a selected temperature, or enters a selected temperature range, at which the ferromagnetic conductor undergoes a phase transformation.

  1. Economic analysis of residential solar water heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlock, J.; Overton, R.

    1980-09-01

    A residential solar water heater, cost and performance information, and monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. Economic evaluations of solar water heaters are presented in increasingly complex levels of detail. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described. Methods for calculating the payback period for any nontypical solar water heater are described. This calculated payback period is shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the purchaser of the system would receive for a typical set of economic conditions. A method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system can provide.

  2. Surface factors influencing burnout on flat heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ramilison, J.M.; Sadasivan, P.; Lienhard, J.H. )

    1992-02-01

    Ever since Kutateladze (1951) and Zuber (1958) proposed hydrodynamic descriptions of the burnout heat flux, q{sub max}, confusion has marked the scope of their agreed-upon equation. The problem stems from Kutateladze's original correlation. The mischief in all of this is that Zuber's sketches and other aspects of his derivation suggested that he was deriving an expression applicable to a flat heater. In fact, Zuber operated under the premise - later disproved by many investigators - that the geometry did not affect burnout. His comparison of his prediction with Kutateladze's correlation did not reflect a lack of care. It reflected the conviction that geometry did not matter. As one looks more closely, surface conditions become more important than once thought. The objective of this paper is to take into account the influence of the condition of the heater surface in recreating a correlation of q{sub max} for horizontal heaters.

  3. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Steve R.

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  4. Economic analysis of residential solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-23

    A typical residential solar water heater, and typical cost and performance information are described briefly. The monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. Economic evaluations of solar water heaters are presented in increasingly complex levels of detail. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described. Methods for calculating the Payback Period for any non-typical solar water heater are described. This calculated Payback Period is then shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the puchaser of the system would receive for a typical set of economic conditions. A method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system would provide. (MHR)

  5. Solar Air Collectors: How Much Can You Save?

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Newburn, J. D.

    1985-04-01

    A collector efficiency curve is used to determine the output of solar air collectors based on the testing of seven solar collectors sold in Iowa. In this application the solar heater is being used as a space heater for a house. The performance of the solar air heater was analyzed and an 8% savings in energy was achieved over a one year period using two 4 x 8 collectors in a typical house.

  6. 46 CFR 76.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.15-25 Section 76.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets...

  7. 46 CFR 76.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.15-25 Section 76.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets...

  8. 46 CFR 76.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.15-25 Section 76.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets...

  9. 46 CFR 76.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.15-25 Section 76.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets...

  10. 46 CFR 76.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.15-25 Section 76.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets...

  11. 46 CFR 95.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.17-20 Section 95.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall...

  12. 46 CFR 95.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.17-20 Section 95.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall...

  13. 46 CFR 95.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.17-20 Section 95.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall...

  14. 46 CFR 76.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.17-20 Section 76.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of...

  15. 46 CFR 95.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.17-20 Section 95.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall...

  16. 46 CFR 76.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.17-20 Section 76.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of...

  17. 46 CFR 76.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.17-20 Section 76.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of...

  18. 46 CFR 76.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.17-20 Section 76.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of...

  19. 46 CFR 76.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 76.17-20 Section 76.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall be of...

  20. 46 CFR 95.17-20 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.17-20 Section 95.17-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-20 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge outlets shall...

  1. Alcohol outlet policies and practices concerning sales to underage people.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, M; Toomey, T L; Murray, D M; Forster, J L; Short, B J; Wagenaar, A C

    1996-04-01

    Little is known about the relationship between alcohol outlet policies and practices in the United States and the likelihood that outlets will sell alcoholic beverages to persons under the legal drinking age. This study assessed the prevalence of such outlet-level policies and practices, and analyzed the relationships between outlet variables and outlets' actual propensity to sell alcoholic beverages to youth. The sample consisted of all outlets licensed for off-premise and a 40% random sample of outlets licensed for on-premise sale of alcoholic beverages in 15 small to medium-sized communities in Minnesota and Wisconsin (USA). Data on outlet characteristics, policies and practices were collected by a telephone survey of the owner or manager of each outlet. In addition, alcohol purchase attempts were conducted at each outlet by youthful-appearing study confederates. Generally, policies and practices that may reduce the likelihood of sales to youth were reported by a minority of outlets. Purchase success was found to be associated with a number of outlet characteristics, policies and practices. The implications of these findings for policy and future research are discussed. PMID:8857384

  2. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in... equalization of pressure. (b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and...

  3. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in... equalization of pressure. (b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and...

  4. 49 CFR 178.337-8 - Openings, inlets, and outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in... equalization of pressure. (b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and...

  5. Alcohol Outlet Density and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nonmetropolitan College Town: Accounting for Neighborhood Characteristics and Alcohol Outlet Types.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Aleksandra J

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing evidence of an ecological association between alcohol outlet density and intimate partner violence. It is reasonable to assume, however, that not all types of alcohol outlets contribute equally to criminal behavior, and to date, most ecological studies have been of large urban cities. Using Bloomington, Indiana, block groups as units of analysis and controlling for several structural characteristics associated with violence rates, I estimated spatially lagged regression models to determine if the variation in alcohol outlet density, including total outlets and disaggregating by on- and off-premise outlets, is related to intimate partner violence density. Results suggested that total alcohol outlet density and off-premise alcohol outlet density were significantly associated with intimate partner violence density. On-premise alcohol outlet density was not significantly associated with intimate partner violence density. These results not only extend the geographic scope of this relationship beyond large metropolitan areas but also have important policy implications.

  6. Superfluid Performance of Tevatron IR Quad Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.D.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1996-12-12

    A collaborative team from the two laboratories measured the performance of a Tevatron Interaction region (IR) quadrupole at temperatures from 1.8 K to 4.4 K. These studies included measurement of their performance as a function of temperature as well as measurement of the effectiveness of the protection heaters. Heater diffusion times were measured for various temperatures, current levels, and power densities. These results and their implications on the design of magnet protection systems and magnet design operating in this temperature range will be discussed.

  7. Right atrial outlet atresia with straddling left atrioventricular valve. A form of double outlet atrium.

    PubMed Central

    Coto, E O; Calabro, R; Marsico, F; Lopez Arranz, J S

    1981-01-01

    We present three hearts showing right atrial outlet atresia with straddling left atrioventricular valve; clinical data of two of the patients are reported. For semantic and practical reasons we believe the terms tricuspid or mitral atresia should not be used in these cases, and atrial outlet atresia is preferable; for similar reasons we prefer to use stradding left or right atrioventricular valve. These anomalies represent an interesting form of double outlet atrium and diagnosis clinically may be possible if the existence of the anomaly is considered. Differentiation from common atrioventricular canal with atrial outlet atresia is important since total repair, which is possible for this last anomaly, does not seem feasible in cases like ours. Classifications of tricuspid atresia may have to be enlarged to include cases with double outlet from either ventricular chamber or anatomically corrected malposition. Characterisation of the right ventricular chamber is difficult; we believe that description of its morphology and the type and mode of its connections should be used. Images PMID:7470345

  8. Technology Solutions Case Study: Heat Pump Water Heater Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-08-01

    In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory studied heat pump water heaters, an efficient, cost-effective alternative to traditional electric resistance water heaters that can improve energy efficiency by up to 62%.

  9. Measure Guideline. Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This measure guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters.

  10. 75 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles,'' including residential water heaters... to consider amended energy conservation standards for residential water heaters, direct heating... conservation standards for residential water heaters, direct heating equipment, and pool heaters on March...

  11. Stirling engine external heat system design with heat pipe heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godett, Ted M.; Ziph, Benjamin

    1986-01-01

    This final report presents the conceptual design of a liquid fueled external heating system (EHS) and the preliminary design of a heat pipe heater for the STM-4120 Stirling cycle engine, to meet the Air Force mobile electric power (MEP) requirement for units in the range of 20 to 60 kW. The EHS design had the following constraints: (1) Packaging requirements limited the overall system dimensions to about 330 mm x 250 mm x 100 mm; (2) Heat flux to the sodium heat pipe evaporator was limited to an average of 100 kW/m and a maximum of 550 kW/m based on previous experience; and (3) The heat pipe operating temperature was specified to be 800 C based on heat input requirements of the STM4-120. An analysis code was developed to optimize the EHS performance parameters and an analytical development of the sodium heat pipe heater was performed; both are presented and discussed. In addition, construction techniques were evaluated and scale model heat pipe testing performed.

  12. Youth activity spaces and daily exposure to tobacco outlets.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Morrison, Christopher; Grube, Joel W; Gaidus, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    We explored whether exposure to tobacco outlets in youths' broader activity spaces differs from that obtained using traditional geographic measures of exposure to tobacco outlet within buffers around homes and schools. Youths completed an initial survey, daily text-prompted surveys, and carried GPS-enabled phones for one week. GPS locations were geocoded and activity spaces were constructed by joining sequential points. We calculated the number of tobacco outlets around these polylines and around homes and schools. Results suggest that activity spaces provide a more accurate measure of tobacco outlet exposures than traditional measures. Assessing tobacco outlet exposure within activity spaces may yield significant information to advance the field.

  13. Materials for a Stirling engine heater head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, J. E.; Lehmann, G. A.; Emigh, S. G.

    1990-01-01

    Work done on the 25-kW advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) terrestrial solar program in establishing criteria and selecting materials for the engine heater head and heater tubes is described. Various mechanisms contributing to incompatibility between materials are identified and discussed. Large thermal gradients, coupled with requirements for long life (60,000 h at temperature) and a large number of heatup and cooldown cycles (20,000) drive the design from a structural standpoint. The pressurized cylinder is checked for creep rupture, localized yielding, reverse plasticity, creep and fatigue damage, and creep ratcheting, in addition to the basic requirements for bust and proof pressure. In general, creep rupture and creep and fatigue interaction are the dominant factors in the design. A wide range of materials for the heater head and tubes was evaluated. Factors involved in the assessment were strength and effect on engine efficiency, reliability, and cost. A preliminary selection of Inconel 713LC for the heater head is based on acceptable structural properties but driven mainly by low cost. The criteria for failure, the structural analysis, and the material characteristics with basis for selection are discussed.

  14. 21 CFR 884.5390 - Perineal heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Perineal heater. 884.5390 Section 884.5390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... and the anus) and is used to soothe or to help heal the perineum after an episiotomy (incision of...

  15. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Ying, David H. S.

    1984-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

  16. A programmable heater control circuit for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, D. D.; Owen, J. W.; Smith, D. A.; Lewter, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal control is accomplished for many components through use of multilayer insulation systems, electrical heaters, and radiator systems. The heaters are commanded to maintain component temperatures within design specifications. The programmable heater control circuit (PHCC) was designed to obtain an effective and efficient means of spacecraft thermal control. The hybrid circuit provides use of control instrumentation as temperature data, available to the spacecraft central data system, reprogramming capability of the local microprocessor during the spacecraft's mission, and the elimination of significant spacecraft wiring. The hybrid integrated circuit has a temperature sensing and conditioning circuit, a microprocessor, and a heater power and control circuit. The device is miniature and housed in a volume which allows physical integration with the component to be controlled. Applications might include alternate battery-powered logic-circuit configurations. A prototype unit with appropriate physical and functional interfaces was procured for testing. The physical functionality and the feasibility of fabrication of the hybrid integrated circuit were successfully verified. The remaining work to develop a flight-qualified device includes fabrication and testing of a Mil-certified part. An option for completing the PHCC flight qualification testing is to enter into a joint venture with industry.

  17. 49 CFR 179.12 - Interior heater systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Design Requirements § 179.12 Interior heater systems. (a) Interior heater systems shall be of approved design and materials. If a tank is divided into compartments, a separate system shall be provided for... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior heater systems. 179.12 Section...

  18. 46 CFR 111.70-5 - Heater circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heater circuits. 111.70-5 Section 111.70-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-5 Heater circuits. (a) If an enclosure for a... from a separate circuit, the heater circuit must be disconnected from its source of potential by...

  19. 46 CFR 111.70-5 - Heater circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heater circuits. 111.70-5 Section 111.70-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-5 Heater circuits. (a) If an enclosure for a... from a separate circuit, the heater circuit must be disconnected from its source of potential by...

  20. 46 CFR 52.25-15 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 52.25-15 Section 52.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-15 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Fired thermal fluid heaters shall be...

  1. 46 CFR 52.25-15 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 52.25-15 Section 52.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-15 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Fired thermal fluid heaters shall be...

  2. 46 CFR 52.25-15 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 52.25-15 Section 52.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-15 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Fired thermal fluid heaters shall be...

  3. Thoracic outlet syndrome following breast implant rupture.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Raakhi; Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus

    2015-03-01

    We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient. PMID:25878942

  4. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Following Breast Implant Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient. PMID:25878942

  5. Water loss from the skin of term and preterm infants nursed under a radiant heater.

    PubMed

    Kjartansson, S; Arsan, S; Hammarlund, K; Sjörs, G; Sedin, G

    1995-02-01

    The rate of evaporation from the skin (g/m2/h) was measured in 12 full-term and 16 preterm infants (gestational age 25-34 wk) both during incubator care and when nursed under a radiant heater. The method for evaporation rate measurement is noninvasive and based on determination of the water vapor pressure gradient close to the skin surface. Measurements were first made with the infant nursed in an incubator with a controlled environment with respect to humidity, temperature, and air velocity. The measurements in the term infants were performed at an ambient relative humidity (RH) of 50%, and in the preterm infants first at 50% and subsequently at 30-40%. Evaporation rate was then measured with the infant nursed under a radiant heater. In term infants, mean evaporation rate was 3.3 g/m2/h during incubator care (RH 50%) and 4.4 g/m2/h during care under the radiant heater. In preterm infants, the corresponding values were 15.5 g/m2/h in the incubator at RH 50%, 16.7 g/m2/h at RH 30-40%, and 17.9 g/m2/h under the radiant heater. It is concluded that the evaporative water loss from the skin depends on the ambient water vapor pressure, irrespective of whether the infant is nursed in an incubator or under a radiant heater. The higher rate of evaporation during care under a radiant heater is due to the lower ambient water vapor pressure and not to any direct effect of the nonionizing radiation on the skin.

  6. Air conditioning system and component therefore distributing air flow from opposite directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D.; Bauer, H. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The air conditioning system comprises a plurality of separate air conditioning units coupled to a common supply duct such that air may be introduced into the supply duct in two opposite flow directions. A plurality of outlets such as registers or auxiliary or branch ducts communicate with the supply duct and valve means are disposed in the supply duct at at least some of the outlets for automatically channelling a controllable amount of air from the supply duct to the associated outlet regardless of the direction of air flow within the supply duct. The valve means comprises an automatic air volume control apparatus for distribution within the air supply duct into which air may be introduced from two opposite directions. The apparatus incorporates a freely swinging movable vane in the supply duct to automatically channel into the associated outlet only the deflected air flow which has the higher relative pressure.

  7. Fast-flowing outlet glaciers on Svalbard ice caps

    SciTech Connect

    Dowdeswell, J.A. ); Collin, R.L. )

    1990-08-01

    Four well-defined outlet glaciers are present on the 2510 km{sup 2} cap of Vestfonna in Nordaustlandet, Svalbard. Airborne radio echo sounding and aerial-photograph and satellite-image analysis methods are used to analyze the morphology and dynamics of the ice cap and its component outlet glaciers. The heavily crevassed outlets form linear depressions in the ice-cap surface and flow an order of magnitude faster than the ridges of uncrevassed ice between them. Ice flow on the ridges is accounted for by internal deformation alone, whereas rates of outlet glacier flow require basal motion. One outlet has recently switched into and out of a faster mode of flow. Rapid terminal advance, a change from longitudinal compression to tension, and thinning in the upper basin indicate surge behavior. Observed outlet glacier discharge is significantly greater than current inputs of mass of the ice cap, indicating that present rates of flow cannot be sustained under the contemporary climate.

  8. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  9. Heater effects on cyclone performance for the separation of solids from high temperature and pressure effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Laspidou, C.S.; Lawler, D.F.; Gloyna, E.F.; Rittmann, B.E.

    1999-11-01

    A 25.4-mm diameter hydrocyclone with an underflow receiver was evaluated for its ability to achieve separation of fine particles from water at elevated temperatures and pressures relevant to supercritical oxidation. Temperature was varied from 25 C to 340 C, while pressure was maintained at 27.6 MPa. The particles studied were {alpha}-alumina. Particle-removal efficiency was affected by the separation capabilities of the hydrocyclone, deposition on the heater surface, and flocculation of the particles. Particle-size distributions and suspended solids analyses confirmed that cyclone, separation efficiency was controlled by the (density{sub particle}--density{sub water})/viscosity{sub water} ratio. Because this ratio is sensitive to temperature, especially in the neighborhood of the supercritical point, separation efficiencies sharply increased with temperature. Contrary to traditional air cyclone theory, removal efficiency was inversely correlated to flow rate. This result was caused by particle deposition and particle flocculation in the heater. Low flow rates increased heater detention times and, thus, opportunities for flocculation and particle deposition. Therefore, the performance of a hydrocyclone used in conjunction with supercritical oxidation depends on phenomena occurring in the heater and the hydrocyclone.

  10. Electric heater for nuclear fuel rod simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Dial, R.E.; Mcculloch, R.W.; Morgan, C.S.

    1982-04-20

    The present invention is directed to an electric cartridge-type heater for use as a simulator for a nuclear fuel pin in reactor studies. The heater comprises an elongated cylindrical housing containing a longitudinally extending helically wound heating element with the heating element radially inwardly separated from the housing. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of boron nitride electrically insulate the heating element from the housing while providing good thermal conductivity. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of magnesia or a magnesia-15 percent boron nitride mixture are disposed in the cavity of the helical heating element. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the magnesia or the magnesia-boron nitride mixture is higher than that of the boron nitride disposed about the heating element for urging the boron nitride radially outwardly against the housing during elevated temperatures to assure adequate thermal contact between the housing and the boron nitride.

  11. Hydrodynamic instability of solar thermosyphon water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Du, S.C.; Huang, B.J.; Yen, R.H. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-02-01

    The flow instability of a solar thermosyphon water heater is studied analytically. A system dynamics model is derived by means of a one-dimensional approach and a linear perturbation method. The characteristic equation is obtained and the Nyquist criterion is used to examine the flow stability. The parameter M is a dimensionless parameter of system stability. The stability maps are plotted in terms of 14 parameters. The occurrence of hydrodynamic instability is determined by comparing the stability curves and the designed values of M. Flow instability is shown not to occur in most of solar water heaters commercially available, because the loop friction is relatively high in the design and because solar irradiation in field operation is still not high enough to cause flow instability.

  12. Electric heater for nuclear fuel rod simulators

    DOEpatents

    McCulloch, Reginald W.; Morgan, Jr., Chester S.; Dial, Ralph E.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an electric cartridge-type heater for use as a simulator for a nuclear fuel pin in reactor studies. The heater comprises an elongated cylindrical housing containing a longitudinally extending helically wound heating element with the heating element radially inwardly separated from the housing. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of boron nitride electrically insulate the heating element from the housing while providing good thermal conductivity. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of magnesia or a magnesia-15 percent boron nitride mixture are disposed in the cavity of the helical heating element. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the magnesia or the magnesia-boron nitride mixture is higher than that of the boron nitride disposed about the heating element for urging the boron nitride radially outwardly against the housing during elevated temperatures to assure adequate thermal contact between the housing and the boron nitride.

  13. Single-heater test final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, S. C.; Buscheck, T. A.; DeLoach, L. D.; Lin, W.; Ramirez, A. I.

    1998-09-01

    The Single-Heater Test (SHT) was one phase of the field-scale thermal testing program of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The primary purpose of the SHT was to study the thermomechanical (TM) behavior of the densely welded, non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff at the Exploratory Studies Facility. The SHT was also used as a shake-down for testing thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical processes in situ, testing that will be conducted in the Drift-Scale Test. In the SHT, a line-heat source 5-m long was emplaced in a pillar and used to heat the pillar for approximately nine months. The thermal field was relatively cylindrical about the line-heat source. The heater was turned off after nine months of heating, and the rock mass was monitored during the cool-down for another nine months, until May 28, 1997, when the test was terminated.

  14. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  15. 12. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works construction drawing dated January 15, 1951. Drawn by W.A. Doe for the Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Co. (copy in possession of Bureau of Reclamation, location of original unknown) 'AS CONSTRUCTED' PLANS OF 1949-50, REHABILITATION OF TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS, DETAILS OF DISCHARGE BASIN. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  16. 11. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works construction drawing dated January 15, 1951. Drawn by W.A. Doe for the Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Co. (copy in possession of Bureau of Reclamation, location of original unknown) 'AS CONSTRUCTED' PLANS OF 1949-1950, REHABILITATION OF TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS, DETAILS OF UPSTREAM WING WALLS. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  17. Antivortex Device for Multi-Outlet Liquid Reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, Gary David (Inventor); Addison, Stephen Michael (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A liquid reservoir with a sump includes at least two outlet ports in fluid communication with a fluid conduit. An anti-vortex device includes a first plate extending across the at least two outlet ports and a second plate coupled to the first plate and extending substantially perpendicular to the first plate. The anti-vortex device is configured to disrupt formation of a vortex formed by liquid passing from the reservoir through said outlet ports.

  18. Solar-Powered Cooler and Heater for an Automobile Interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    The apparatus would include a solar photovoltaic panel mounted on the roof and a panellike assembly mounted in a window opening. The window-mounted assembly would include a stack of thermoelectric devices sandwiched between two heat sinks. A fan would circulate interior air over one heat sink. Another fan would circulate exterior air over the other heat sink. The fans and the thermoelectric devices would be powered by the solar photovoltaic panel. By means of a double-pole, double-throw switch, the panel voltage fed to the thermoelectric stack would be set to the desired polarity: For cooling operation, the chosen polarity would be one in which the thermoelectric devices transport heat from the inside heat sink to the outside one; for heating operation, the opposite polarity would be chosen. Because thermoelectric devices are more efficient in heating than in cooling, this apparatus would be more effective as a heater than as a cooler. However, if the apparatus were to include means to circulate air between the outside and the inside without opening the windows, then its effectiveness as a cooler in a hot, sunny location would be increased.

  19. EPRI studies Legionella in electric water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Home electric water heaters were found not to be a major risk factor for Legionnaires` disease in a 2-year study conducted recently in Ohio. EPRI has published the final report of the project, and a scientific paper on the study will soon appear in a major medical journal. The research was sponsored by EPRI`s Environmental and Health Sciences business Unit and the Federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), with cofunding from the Canadian Electrical Association.

  20. Water heaters subject to new regulations.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Alan

    2014-06-01

    On 26 September 2015 the Ecodesign and Energy Labelling Directives for water heaters (Lot 2) come into force, meaning that water-heating products sold in the UK and other countries in the European Economic Area will need to meet minimum energy performance criteria in order to be legally placed on the market, and will require an energy label. Here Alan Clarke, technical support manager at Heatrae Sadia, explains more. PMID:25004554

  1. Cryostat including heater to heat a target

    DOEpatents

    Pehl, R.H.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.

    1990-09-11

    A cryostat is provided which comprises a vacuum vessel; a target disposed within the vacuum vessel; a heat sink disposed within the vacuum vessel for absorbing heat from the detector; a cooling mechanism for cooling the heat sink; a cryoabsorption mechanism for cryoabsorbing residual gas within the vacuum vessel; and a heater for maintaining the target above a temperature at which the residual gas is cryoabsorbed in the course of cryoabsorption of the residual gas by the cryoabsorption mechanism. 2 figs.

  2. Cryostat including heater to heat a target

    DOEpatents

    Pehl, Richard H.; Madden, Norman W.; Malone, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A cryostat is provided which comprises a vacuum vessel; a target disposed within the vacuum vessel; a heat sink disposed within the vacuum vesssel for absorbing heat from the detector; a cooling mechanism for cooling the heat sink; a cryoabsorption mechanism for cryoabsorbing residual gas within the vacuum vessel; and a heater for maintaining the target above a temperature at which the residual gas is cryoabsorbed in the course of cryoabsorption of the residual gas by the cryoabsorption mechanism.

  3. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  4. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, C. E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  5. Tubular electric heater with a thermocouple assembly

    DOEpatents

    House, R.K.; Williams, D.E.

    1975-08-01

    This patent relates to a thermocouple or other instrumentation which is installed within the walls of a tubular sheath surrounding a process device such as an electric heater. The sheath comprises two concentric tubes, one or both of which have a longitudinal, concave crease facing the other tube. The thermocouple is fixedly positioned within the crease and the outer tube is mechanically reduced to form an interference fit onto the inner tube. (auth)

  6. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Ying, David H. S.; McDermott, Wayne T.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  7. Water heaters subject to new regulations.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Alan

    2014-06-01

    On 26 September 2015 the Ecodesign and Energy Labelling Directives for water heaters (Lot 2) come into force, meaning that water-heating products sold in the UK and other countries in the European Economic Area will need to meet minimum energy performance criteria in order to be legally placed on the market, and will require an energy label. Here Alan Clarke, technical support manager at Heatrae Sadia, explains more.

  8. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operating Limits for Boilers and... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDDD, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart DDDDD of Part 63—Operating Limits for Boilers and...

  9. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost-effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads and found that the tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system, among other key findings.

  10. Research and development of a high efficiency gas-fired water heater. Volume 2. Task reports

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilakis, A.D.; Pearson, J.F.; Gerstmann, J.

    1980-01-01

    Design and development of a cost-effective high efficiency gas-fired water heater to attain a service efficiency of 70% (including the effect of exfiltration) and a service efficiency of 78% (excluding exfiltration) for a 75 GPD draw at a 90/sup 0/F temperature rise, with a stored water to conditioned air temperature difference of 80/sup 0/F, are described in detail. Based on concept evaluation, a non-powered natural draft water heater was chosen as the most cost-effective design to develop. The projected installed cost is $374 compared to $200 for a conventional unit. When the project water heater is compared to a conventional unit, it has a payback of 3.7 years and life cycle savings of $350 to the consumer. A prototype water heater was designed, constructed, and tested. When operated with sealed combustion, the unit has a service efficiency of 66.4% (including the effect of exfiltration) below a burner input of 32,000 Btu/h. In the open combustion configuration, the unit operated at a measured efficiency of 66.4% Btu/h (excluding exfiltration). This compares with a service efficiency of 51.3% for a conventional water heater and 61% for a conventional high efficiency unit capable of meeting ASHRAE 90-75. Operational tests showed the unit performed well with no evidence of stacking or hot spots. It met or exceeded all capacity or usage tests specified in the program test plan and met all emission goals. Future work will concentrate on designing, building, and testing pre-production units. It is anticipated that both sealed combustion and open draft models will be pursued.

  11. Automated robotic equipment for ultrasonic inspection of pressurizer heater wells

    SciTech Connect

    Nachbar, H.D.; DeRossi, R.S.; Mullins, L.E.

    1991-12-31

    A robotic device for remotely inspecting pressurizer heater wells is provided which has the advantages of quickly, precisely, and reliably acquiring data at reasonable cost while also reducing radiation exposure of an operator. The device comprises a probe assembly including a probe which enters a heater well, gathers data regarding the condition of the heater well and transmits a signal carrying that data; a mounting device for mounting the probe assembly at the opening of the heater well so that the probe can enter the heater well; a first motor mounted on the mounting device for providing movement of the probe assembly in an axial direction; and a second motor mounted on the mounting device for providing rotation of the probe assembly. This arrangement enables full inspection of the heater well to be carried out.

  12. Automated robotic equipment for ultrasonic inspection of pressurizer heater wells

    SciTech Connect

    Nachbar, Henry D.; DeRossi, Raymond S.; Mullins, Lawrence E.

    1993-01-01

    A robotic device for remotely inspecting pressurizer heater wells is provided which has the advantages of quickly, precisely, and reliably acquiring data at reasonable cost while also reducing radiation exposure of an operator. The device comprises a prober assembly including a probe which enters a heater well, gathers data regarding the condition of the heater well and transmits a signal carrying that data; a mounting device for mounting the probe assembly at the opening of the heater well so that the probe can enter the heater well; a first motor mounted on the mounting device for providing movement of the probe assembly in an axial direction; and a second motor mounted on the mounting device for providing rotation of the probe assembly. This arrangement enables full inspection of the heater well to be carried out.

  13. Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Uherka, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications.

  14. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section 993.108... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.108 Non-human consumption outlet. Non-human... feed, or other product for non-human use, who has established, to the satisfaction of the...

  15. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section 993.108... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.108 Non-human consumption outlet. Non-human... feed, or other product for non-human use, who has established, to the satisfaction of the...

  16. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section 993.108... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.108 Non-human consumption outlet. Non-human... feed, or other product for non-human use, who has established, to the satisfaction of the...

  17. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 23.977 Section 23.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... five times the area of the outlet line. (c) The diameter of each strainer must be at least that of...

  18. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... component. (b) (c) The clear area of each fuel tank outlet strainer must be at least five times the area...

  19. 14 CFR 27.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 27.977 Section 27.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... component. (b) The clear area of each fuel tank outlet strainer must be at least five times the area of...

  20. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... component. (b) The clear area of each fuel tank outlet strainer must be at least five times the area of...

  1. 25. UPSTREAM VIEW OF LOWER END OF OUTLET STRUCTURE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. UPSTREAM VIEW OF LOWER END OF OUTLET STRUCTURE SHOWING FORMS IN PLACE FOR GRAVITY WALL SECTIONS.... Volume XVI, No. 16, August 16, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  2. 4. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS TAKEN FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS TAKEN FROM THE NORTH BANK OF THE CHANNEL BETWEEN THE OLD WORKS AND TWIN LAKES DAM. VIEW LOOKING WEST. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  3. 2. VIEW OF UPSTREAM SIDE OF HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF UPSTREAM SIDE OF HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS TAKEN FROM CENTER OF THE CHANNEL FROM TWIN LAKES. VIEW LOOKING EAST. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  4. 3. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS TAKEN FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF HISTORIC OUTLET WORKS TAKEN FROM THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE CHANNEL BETWEEN THE OLD WORKS AND TWIN LAKES DAM. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  5. 6. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OUTLET CHANNEL FLOWING INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF DAM 83, SHOWING OUTLET CHANNEL FLOWING INTO POND A WITH DIVERSION GATES LONG EAST (LEFT) SIDE OF OUTLET CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTH FROM DOWNSTREAM FACE OF THE DAM - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 83, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  6. 46 CFR 95.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.15-25 Section 95.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge...

  7. 46 CFR 193.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 193.15-25 Section 193.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-25 Discharge outlets....

  8. 46 CFR 193.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 193.15-25 Section 193.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge...

  9. 46 CFR 193.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 193.15-25 Section 193.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge...

  10. 46 CFR 95.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.15-25 Section 95.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge...

  11. 46 CFR 193.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 193.15-25 Section 193.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-25 Discharge outlets....

  12. 46 CFR 95.15-25 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 95.15-25 Section 95.15-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-25 Discharge outlets. (a) Discharge...

  13. 46 CFR 108.459 - Number and location of outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.459 Number and location of outlets. (a) A foam extinguishing system in a space must have enough outlets to spread a layer of foam of uniform thickness over the deck or bilge areas of the space. (b) A foam extinguishing system in a...

  14. 46 CFR 108.459 - Number and location of outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.459 Number and location of outlets. (a) A foam extinguishing system in a space must have enough outlets to spread a layer of foam of uniform thickness over the deck or bilge areas of the space. (b) A foam extinguishing system in a...

  15. 46 CFR 108.459 - Number and location of outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.459 Number and location of outlets. (a) A foam extinguishing system in a space must have enough outlets to spread a layer of foam of uniform thickness over the deck or bilge areas of the space. (b) A foam extinguishing system in a...

  16. 46 CFR 108.459 - Number and location of outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.459 Number and location of outlets. (a) A foam extinguishing system in a space must have enough outlets to spread a layer of foam of uniform thickness over the deck or bilge areas of the space. (b) A foam extinguishing system in a...

  17. 46 CFR 108.459 - Number and location of outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.459 Number and location of outlets. (a) A foam extinguishing system in a space must have enough outlets to spread a layer of foam of uniform thickness over the deck or bilge areas of the space. (b) A foam extinguishing system in a...

  18. 46 CFR 111.79-1 - Receptacle outlets; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Receptacle outlets; general. 111.79-1 Section 111.79-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-1 Receptacle outlets; general. (a) There must be a...

  19. 46 CFR 111.79-1 - Receptacle outlets; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Receptacle outlets; general. 111.79-1 Section 111.79-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-1 Receptacle outlets; general. (a) There must be a...

  20. 46 CFR 111.79-1 - Receptacle outlets; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receptacle outlets; general. 111.79-1 Section 111.79-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-1 Receptacle outlets; general. (a) There must be a...

  1. 8. CLOSEUP OF THE GATES ON THE TOBY CREEK OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. CLOSEUP OF THE GATES ON THE TOBY CREEK OUTLET AND THE OUTLET OF THE PUMP DISCHARGE CHANNEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  2. 46 CFR 111.79-1 - Receptacle outlets; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Receptacle outlets; general. 111.79-1 Section 111.79-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-1 Receptacle outlets; general. (a) There must be a...

  3. 46 CFR 111.79-1 - Receptacle outlets; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Receptacle outlets; general. 111.79-1 Section 111.79-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-1 Receptacle outlets; general. (a) There must be a...

  4. 7 CFR 929.57 - Outlets for restricted cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Outlets for restricted cranberries. 929.57 Section 929... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES....57 Outlets for restricted cranberries. (a) Except as provided in this section and in §...

  5. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  6. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  7. 7 CFR 929.57 - Outlets for restricted cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outlets for restricted cranberries. 929.57 Section 929... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES....57 Outlets for restricted cranberries. (a) Except as provided in this section and in §...

  8. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  9. 7 CFR 929.57 - Outlets for restricted cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Outlets for restricted cranberries. 929.57 Section 929... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES....57 Outlets for restricted cranberries. (a) Except as provided in this section and in §...

  10. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  11. 7 CFR 929.57 - Outlets for restricted cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Outlets for restricted cranberries. 929.57 Section 929... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES....57 Outlets for restricted cranberries. (a) Except as provided in this section and in §...

  12. 7 CFR 929.61 - Outlets for excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outlets for excess cranberries. 929.61 Section 929.61... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... excess cranberries. (a) Noncommercial outlets. Excess cranberries may be disposed of in...

  13. 7 CFR 929.57 - Outlets for restricted cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Outlets for restricted cranberries. 929.57 Section 929... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES....57 Outlets for restricted cranberries. (a) Except as provided in this section and in §...

  14. 49 CFR 178.345-11 - Tank outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank outlets. 178.345-11 Section 178.345-11... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-11 Tank outlets. (a) General. As used in this section, “loading/unloading outlet” means any opening in the cargo tank wall used for loading...

  15. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be... reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  16. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be... reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  17. 14 CFR 27.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 27.977 Section 27.977... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be a... reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  18. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be... reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  19. 14 CFR 27.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 27.977 Section 27.977... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be a... reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  20. 14 CFR 27.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 27.977 Section 27.977... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be a... reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  1. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be... reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  2. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be... reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  3. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be... reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  4. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be... reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  5. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be... reciprocating engine powered airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  6. 14 CFR 27.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 27.977 Section 27.977... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be a... reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch; and (2) For turbine engine...

  7. Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Sandberg, Chester Ledlie

    2010-11-09

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

  8. 88. ARAIII. "Petrochem" heater is hoisted over south exterior wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. ARA-III. "Petro-chem" heater is hoisted over south exterior wall of heater pit in GCRE reactor building (ARA-608). Printing on heater says, "Petro-chem iso-flow furnace; American industrial fabrications, inc." Camera facing north. January 7, 1959. Ineel photo no. 529-124. Photographer: Ken Mansfield. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. The Geography of Fast Food Outlets: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Lorna K.; Edwards, Kimberly L.; Cade, Janet; Clarke, Graham P.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity. PMID:20623025

  10. The geography of Fast Food outlets: a review.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Lorna K; Edwards, Kimberly L; Cade, Janet; Clarke, Graham P

    2010-05-01

    The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity. PMID:20623025

  11. The geography of Fast Food outlets: a review.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Lorna K; Edwards, Kimberly L; Cade, Janet; Clarke, Graham P

    2010-05-01

    The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity.

  12. Third ventriculostomy and fourth ventricle outlets obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Enrique; de Notaris, Matteo

    2013-02-01

    A dilated fourth ventricle due to outlet obstruction is a clinical-radiologic entity with symptoms similar to those of a posterior fossa space-occupying lesion. Indeed, blockage of the foramina of Luschka and Magendie and of the aqueduct results in a "trapped" fourth ventricle. Continued cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production within the fourth ventricle leads to cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle. We could not, until now, understand the phenomenon, mainly on exploring endoscopically the permeability of the whole aqueduct. In adults, we call this condition the functional trapped fourth ventricle because in none of our cases have we found physical obstruction of CSF flow. Third ventricle-fourth ventriculostomy is by far the most frequently used technique for cannulation of the aqueduct in a trapped fourth ventricle. In our reported cases, we have introduced a silicone tube stent from below after accessing the fourth ventricle through a small suboccipital craniectomy, ascending it on the aqueduct in order to reach the third ventricle. Management of this infrequently isolated fourth ventricle, but communicated with the rest of ventricular system, remains a challenge for neurosurgeons. Lack of knowledge of the pathophysiology makes it difficult to treat a problem that we do not understand.

  13. Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

  14. Assessing a novel contact heater as a new method of recovering explosives traces from porous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yu, Holly A; Lewis, Simon W; Beardah, Matthew S; NicDaeid, Niamh

    2016-02-01

    It can be very challenging to recover explosives traces from porous surfaces, such as clothing and car seats, compared to non-porous surfaces. The contact heater has been developed as a novel instrument designed to recover explosives traces from porous surfaces. Samples are taken by heating and drawing air across a surface, with the air flowing through a sampling cartridge containing adsorbent polymer beads, which act to trap any recovered explosive material. Any collected explosive can then be eluted from this cartridge using a solvent, prior to analysis. This paper outlines work performed to evaluate the usefulness of the contact heater with regards to the recovery of explosives traces from porous materials. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) were chosen as two representative explosives for this study. Quantification was performed using GC-MS for EGDN and LC-MS/MS for TATP. Different sampling temperatures, sampling times and elution solvents were investigated. Recovery was trialled from leather, carpet and denim. Recoveries of up to 71% were obtained following optimisation. It was also possible to recover TATP from fabrics exposed to TATP vapour in a vapour-laden jar up to two hours after exposure. The contact heater therefore appears to be a very useful tool for the recovery of explosives traces from porous materials. PMID:26653508

  15. Assessing a novel contact heater as a new method of recovering explosives traces from porous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yu, Holly A; Lewis, Simon W; Beardah, Matthew S; NicDaeid, Niamh

    2016-02-01

    It can be very challenging to recover explosives traces from porous surfaces, such as clothing and car seats, compared to non-porous surfaces. The contact heater has been developed as a novel instrument designed to recover explosives traces from porous surfaces. Samples are taken by heating and drawing air across a surface, with the air flowing through a sampling cartridge containing adsorbent polymer beads, which act to trap any recovered explosive material. Any collected explosive can then be eluted from this cartridge using a solvent, prior to analysis. This paper outlines work performed to evaluate the usefulness of the contact heater with regards to the recovery of explosives traces from porous materials. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) were chosen as two representative explosives for this study. Quantification was performed using GC-MS for EGDN and LC-MS/MS for TATP. Different sampling temperatures, sampling times and elution solvents were investigated. Recovery was trialled from leather, carpet and denim. Recoveries of up to 71% were obtained following optimisation. It was also possible to recover TATP from fabrics exposed to TATP vapour in a vapour-laden jar up to two hours after exposure. The contact heater therefore appears to be a very useful tool for the recovery of explosives traces from porous materials.

  16. Shipping device for heater unit assembly

    DOEpatents

    Blaushild, Ronald M.; Abbott, Stephan L.; Miller, Phillip E.; Shaffer, Robert

    1991-01-01

    A shipping device for a heater unit assembly (23), the heater unit assembly (23) including a cylindrical wall (25) and a top plate (31) secured to the cylindrical wall (25) and having a flange portion which projects radially beyond the outer surface of the cylindrical wall (25), and the shipping device including: a cylindrical container (3) having a closed bottom (13); a support member (47) secured to the container (3) and having an inwardly directed flange for supporting the flange portion of the top plate (31); a supplemental supporting system (1) for positioning the heater unit assembly (23) in the container (3) at a spaced relation from the inner surface and bottom wall (13) of the container (3); a cover (15) for closing the top of the container (3); and a container supporting structure (5,7,8) supporting the container (3) in a manner to permit the container (3) to be moved, relative to the supporting structure (5,7,8 ), between a vertical position for loading and unloading the assembly (23) and a horizontal position for transport of the assembly (23). A seal (57) is interposed between the container (3) and the cover (15) for sealing the interior of the container (3) from the environment. An abutment member (41) is mounted on the container supporting structure (5,7,8) for supporting the container bottom (13), when the container (3) is in the vertical position, to prevent the container (3) from moving past the vertical position in the direction away from the horizontal position, and a retainer member (55) is secured within the cover (15) for retaining the assembly top plate (31) in contact with the support member (47) when the cover (15) closes the top of the container (3).

  17. Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Moujaes, S.F.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

  18. Waste oil heaters: organic, inorganic, and bioassay analyses of combustion samples. Report for Sep 82-Mar 84

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, M.; Bresler, W.E.; Hayes, T.L.; Hall, R.E.; Mumford, J.L.

    1984-05-01

    The paper describes tests on two typical designs of waste-oil space heaters, firing two different types of waste crankcase oils. Study results can be summarized according to the four substances investigated: particulates, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organolead, and fuel samples. Analysis of samples from the air atomizing heater (AAH) confirmed previously identified elevated metal content of waste oil emissions. Bromine levels were exceptionally high. The ferrous ion (Fe(II)) content in particulate samples from the AAH was very low. Several PAHs were at elevated levels in gaseous emissions from both space heaters: the vaporizing pot heater (VPH) emissions had the higher PAH content. No organolead was detected in emissions from the AAH (organolead analyses were not performed on the VPH emissions). Mutagenicity assays of the particulate and the XAD samples from both heaters were mutagenic and contained direct-acting mutagens: emissions from the VPH were the more mutagenic. Comparison of the two types of fuels showed that emissions from the automobile waste crankcase oil were consistently more mutagenic than those from the truck waste crankcase oil.

  19. Multi-decadal retreat of Novaya Zemlya outlet glaciers, in response to climatic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Rachel; Bell, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Arctic ice masses have rapidly lost ice from the mid-1990s, through a combination of negative surface mass balance and accelerated ice discharge from marine-terminating outlet glaciers. In the past decade, substantial mass deficits have been identified on Novaya Zemlya (NVZ), Russian High Arctic, and its outlet glaciers have retreated dramatically, likely due to declining sea ice concentrations. However, little is known about longer-term glacier behaviour on NVZ, and its potential impact on overall mass balance. Here we greatly extend the available record of retreat and assess multi-decadal glacier response to forcing between 1976 and 2014 using remotely sensed data. Following at least 25 years of gradual recession, retreat rates accelerated substantially from circa. 2000 and again from 2011 onwards. The rate and temporal pattern of retreat were strongly dependant on terminus type: marine-terminating outlets receded an order of magnitude faster than land- or lagoon-terminating glaciers and land-based termini showed limited change in retreat rate over time. Furthermore, retreat was markedly higher on the Barents Sea coast than the Kara Sea. Comparison with forcing data shows that accelerated retreat from 2011 onwards coincided with exceptionally low sea ice concentration and duration between 2011 and 2013. This suggests that sea ice is an important controlling factor, which agrees with shorter-term studies on NVZ. Although air temperature information is more limited on NVZ, data from both meteorological stations and reanalysis highlight 2011 and 2012 as two of the warmest years during the period 1950 to 2014. The limited response of land-terminating outlets suggests that air temperatures do not cause retreat directly, via melting or enhanced basal lubrication, but may have an indirect influence through melting of sea ice or hydro fracture.

  20. Simulated Altitude Investigation of Stewart-Warner Model 906-B Combustion Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebersbach, Frederick R.; Cervenka, Adolph J.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to determine thermal and pressure-drop performance and the operational characteristics of a Stewart-Warner model 906-B combustion heater. The performance tests covered a range of ventilating-air flows from 500 to 3185 pounds per hour, combustion-air pressure drops from 5 to 35 inches of water, and pressure altitudes from sea level to 41,000 feet. The operational characteristics investigated were the combustion-air flows for sustained combustion and for consistent ignition covering fuel-air ratios ranging from 0.033 to 0.10 and pressure altitudes from sea level to 45,000 feet. Rated heat output of 50,000 Btu per hour was obtained at pressure altitudes up to 27,000 feet for ventilating-air flows greater than 800 pounds per hour; rated output was not obtained at ventilating-air flow below 800 pounds per hour at any altitude. The maximum heater efficiency was found to be 60.7 percent at a fuel-air ratio of 0.050, a sea-level pressure altitude, a ventilating-air temperature of 0 F, combustion-air temperature of 14 F, a ventilating-air flow of 690 pounds per hour, and a combustion-air flow of 72.7 pounds per hour. The minimum combustion-air flow for sustained combustion at a pressure altitude of 25,000 feet was about 9 pounds per hour for fuel-air ratios between 0.037 and 0.099 and at a pressure altitude of 45,000 feet increased to 18 pounds per hour at a fuel-air ratio of 0.099 and 55 pounds per hour at a fuel-air ratio of 0.036. Combustion could be sustained at combustion-air flows above values of practical interest. The maximum flow was limited, however, by excessively high exhaust-gas temperature or high pressure drop. Both maximum and minimum combustion-air flows for consistent ignition decrease with increasing pressure altitude and the two curves intersect at a pressure altitude of approximately 25,000 feet and a combustion-air flow of approximately 28 pounds per hour.

  1. Status of Hollow Cathode Heater Development for the Space Station Plasma Contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    1994-01-01

    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor has been selected for use on the Space Station. During the operation of the plasma contactor, the hollow cathode heater will endure approximately 12000 thermal cycles. Since a hollow cathode heater failure would result in a plasma contactor failure, a hollow cathode heater development program was established to produce a reliable heater. The development program includes the heater design, process documents for both heater fabrication and assembly, and heater testing. The heater design was a modification of a sheathed ion thruster cathode heater. Heater tests included testing of the heater unit alone and plasma contactor and ion thruster testing. To date, eight heaters have been or are being processed through heater unit testing, two through plasma contactor testing and three through ion thruster testing, all using direct current power supplies. Comparisons of data from heater unit performance tests before cyclic testing, plasma contactor tests, and ion thruster tests at the ignition input current level show the average deviation of input power and tube temperature near the cathode tip to be +/-0.9 W and +/- 21 C, respectively. Heater unit testing included cyclic testing to evaluate reliability under thermal cycling. The first heater, although damaged during assembly, completed 5985 ignition cycles before failing. Four additional heaters successfully completed 6300, 6300, 700, and 700 cycles. Heater unit testing is currently ongoing for three heaters which have to date accumulated greater than 7250, greater than 5500, and greater than 5500 cycles, respectively.

  2. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    DOEpatents

    McCulloch, Reginald W.; Dial, Ralph E.; Finnell, Wilber K. R.

    1988-01-01

    A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocouple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

  3. Evaluation of radiofrequency dielectric heaters workers exposure.

    PubMed

    Benes, M; Del Frate, S; Villalta, R

    2008-01-01

    Radiofrequency dielectric heaters (RFDH) are widely used in the woodworking industry for gluing laminates by applying pressure and RF heating. The workers operating such equipment remain in the vicinity of the machinery all day and can therefore be exposed to considerable levels of electric and magnetic field at RFs. This work describes the method used to measure the strength of fields generated by this particular machinery. This procedure is based on current methods cited in the literature and introduces the necessary modifications to meet this specific case. In particular, as there is often a scarcity of technical data available relating to such heaters, it is suggested that a spectrum analyser be used for measurements in the frequencies domain. On the basis of the data obtained the norms of reference are established, the instrumentation to be used in successive stages determined as well as the identification of possible sources of interference from spurious signals. Furthermore, a mapping of the field strengths is presented and the means of determining the decay curve as a function of distance. This last type of measurement is done to estimate the effectiveness of grounding the machinery. The report ends with an estimate of the exposure of workers to electromagnetic fields and also some recommendations for reducing risk. PMID:17971347

  4. Radioisotopic heater units warm an interplanetary spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Ferreira, E.A.; Rinehart, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    The Cassini orbiter and Huygens probe, which were successfully launched on October 15, 1997, constitute NASA`s last grand-scale interplanetary mission of this century. The mission, which consists of a four-year, close-up study of Saturn and its moons, begins in July 2004 with Cassini`s 60 orbits of Saturn and about 33 fly-bys of the large moon Titan. The Huygens probe will descend and land on Titan. Investigations will include Saturn`s atmosphere, its rings and its magnetosphere. The atmosphere and surface of Titan and other icy moons also will be characterized. Because of the great distance of Saturn from the sun, some of the instruments and equipment on both the orbiter and the probe require external heaters to maintain their temperature within normal operating ranges. These requirements are met by Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) designed, fabricated and safety tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. An improved gas tungsten arc welding procedure lowered costs and decreased processing time for heat units for the Cassini spacecraft.

  5. Evaluation of radiofrequency dielectric heaters workers exposure.

    PubMed

    Benes, M; Del Frate, S; Villalta, R

    2008-01-01

    Radiofrequency dielectric heaters (RFDH) are widely used in the woodworking industry for gluing laminates by applying pressure and RF heating. The workers operating such equipment remain in the vicinity of the machinery all day and can therefore be exposed to considerable levels of electric and magnetic field at RFs. This work describes the method used to measure the strength of fields generated by this particular machinery. This procedure is based on current methods cited in the literature and introduces the necessary modifications to meet this specific case. In particular, as there is often a scarcity of technical data available relating to such heaters, it is suggested that a spectrum analyser be used for measurements in the frequencies domain. On the basis of the data obtained the norms of reference are established, the instrumentation to be used in successive stages determined as well as the identification of possible sources of interference from spurious signals. Furthermore, a mapping of the field strengths is presented and the means of determining the decay curve as a function of distance. This last type of measurement is done to estimate the effectiveness of grounding the machinery. The report ends with an estimate of the exposure of workers to electromagnetic fields and also some recommendations for reducing risk.

  6. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  7. 1. View east at west facade of culvert outlet headwall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View east at west facade of culvert outlet headwall, above which part of the canal bank has been removed. Foreground to background: streambed and coffer dam (mound in center) that was used in dewatering the culvert; intake pipes (extreme left and right) for dewatering pumps; deteriorated culvert outlet headwall with upper portion of wall fallen away; horizontal masonry cutoff wall extending above the culvert outlet partially up the canal bank (cutoff wall was exposed by removal of part of canal bank); towpath at top of canal bank. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Six Mile Run Culvert, .2 mile South of Blackwells Mills Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

  8. Parametric excitation of whistler waves by HF heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, S. P.; Lee, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    Possible generation of whistler waves by Tromso HF heater is investigated. It is shown that the HF heater wave can parametrically decay into a whistler wave and a Langmuir wave. Since whistler waves may have a broad range of frequency, the simultaneously excited Langmuir waves can have a much broader frequency bandwidth than those excited by the parametric decay instability.

  9. 46 CFR 111.70-5 - Heater circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-5 Heater circuits. (a) If an enclosure for a motor, master switch, or other equipment has an electric heater inside the enclosure that is energized.... (b) If the location of the enclosure for a motor, master switch, or other equipment for...

  10. 10 CFR 429.17 - Residential water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Residential water heaters. 429.17 Section 429.17 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.17 Residential water heaters. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential water...

  11. 10 CFR 429.17 - Residential water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Residential water heaters. 429.17 Section 429.17 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.17 Residential water heaters. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential water...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater....

  13. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater....

  14. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater....

  15. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater....

  16. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater....

  17. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... status requirements of 40 CFR part 265, subpart O; (ii) A boiler or process heater with a design heat... 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (B) The boiler or process heater has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (c) Incinerator, boiler, and process...

  18. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... status requirements of 40 CFR part 265, subpart O; (ii) A boiler or process heater with a design heat... 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (B) The boiler or process heater has certified compliance with the interim status requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H. (c) Incinerator, boiler, and process...

  19. 46 CFR 111.70-5 - Heater circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... disconnect device independent of the enclosure containing the heater. The heater disconnecting device must be adjacent to the equipment disconnecting device. A fixed sign, warning the operator to open both...

  20. 46 CFR 111.70-5 - Heater circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... disconnect device independent of the enclosure containing the heater. The heater disconnecting device must be adjacent to the equipment disconnecting device. A fixed sign, warning the operator to open both...

  1. 10 CFR 429.17 - Residential water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Residential water heaters. 429.17 Section 429.17 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.17 Residential water heaters. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential water...

  2. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion...

  3. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion...

  4. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion...

  5. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion...

  6. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion...

  7. Field validation of secondary data sources for enumerating retail tobacco outlets in a state without tobacco outlet licensing.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Heather; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Rose, Shyanika W; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2014-07-01

    Identifying tobacco retail outlets for U.S. FDA compliance checks or calculating tobacco outlet density is difficult in the 13 States without tobacco retail licensing or where licensing lists are unavailable for research. This study uses primary data collection to identify tobacco outlets in three counties in a non-licensing state and validate two commercial secondary data sources. We calculated sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) to examine the evidence of validity for two secondary data sources, and conducted a geospatial analysis to determine correct allocation to census tract. ReferenceUSA had almost perfect sensitivity (0.82) while Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) had substantial sensitivity (0.69) for identifying tobacco outlets; combined, sensitivity improved to 0.89. D&B identified fewer "false positives" with a PPV of 0.82 compared to 0.71 for ReferenceUSA. More than 90% of the outlets identified by ReferenceUSA were geocoded to the correct census tract. Combining two commercial data sources resulted in enumeration of nearly 90% of tobacco outlets in a three county area. Commercial databases appear to provide a reasonably accurate way to identify tobacco outlets for enforcement operations and density estimation.

  8. Selected organic pollutant emissions from unvented kerosene space heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Sokol, H.A. ); Chuang, J.C. ); Tucker, W.G.; Mumford, J.L. )

    1990-08-01

    An exploratory study was performed to assess the semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emissions rates from unvented kerosene space heaters. A well-tuned radiant heater and maltuned convective heater were tested for semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emissions. Each heater was operated in a 27-m{sup 3} chamber with a prescribed on/off pattern. Organic compounds were collected on Teflon-impregnated glass filters backed by XAD-2 resin and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Pollutant source strengths were calculated by use of a mass balance equation. The results show that kerosene heaters can emit polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); nitrated PAHs; alkylbenzenes, phthalates; hydronaphthalenes; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, and ketones; and other organic compounds, some of which are known mutagens.

  9. Toxic organic pollutants from kerosene space heaters in Iran.

    PubMed

    Keyanpour-Rad, Mansoor

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate qualitatively the emission of toxic organic pollutants from an unventilated conventional kerosene space heater commonly used in Iran. A brand new common convective kerosene space heater, the "Aladdin," was used for this study. The well-tuned convective heater was operated in a 2.6-m(3) test chamber and then the emission was tested for organic pollutants. The emission was collected on Teflon-impregnated glass-fiber filters and XAD-2 resin and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. It was found that in addition to the ordinary pollutant gases, the heater emits aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and the related nitrated compounds, phthalates, naphthalenes, and some other toxic organic compounds. However, it was found that the heater did not emit fluoranthene, cyclohexane, benzoic acid, and higher-molecular-weight alkylbenzenes, which could have resulted from the combustion of some other types of kerosene.

  10. Performance test plan for a space station toluene heater tube

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, M.B.

    1987-10-01

    Sundstrand Energy Systems was awarded a contract to investigate the performance capabilities of a toluene heater tube integral to a heat pipe as applied to the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) solar dynamic power system for the Space Station. This heat pipe is a subassembly of the heat receiver. The heat receiver, the heat absorption component of the ORC solar dynamic power system, consists of forty liquid metal heat pipes located circumferentially around the heat receiver`s outside diameter. Each heat pipe contains a toluene heater, two thermal energy storage (TES) canisters and potassium. The function of the heater tube is to heat the supercritical toluene to the required turbine inlet temperature. During the orbit of the space station, the heat receiver and thereby the heat pipe and heater tube will be subjected to variable heat input. The design of the heater must be such that it can accommodate the thermal and hydraulic variations that will be imposed upon it.

  11. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase

  12. Analysis of the performance and space-conditioning impacts of dedicated heat-pump water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, L.; Swisher, J.

    1980-12-01

    A description is given of the development and testing of the newly-marketed dedicated heat pump water heater (HPWH), and an analysis is presented of its performance and space conditioning impacts. This system utilizes an air-to-water heat pump, costs about $1000 installed, and obtains a coefficient of performance (COP) of about 2.0 in laboratory and field tests. Since a HPWH is usually installed indoors and extracts heat from the air, its operation is a space conditioning benefit if an air conditioning load exists and a penalty if a space heating load exists. To investigate HPWH performance and a space conditioning impacts, a simulation has been developed to model the thermal performance of a residence with resistance baseboard heat, air conditioning, and either heat pump or resistance water heating. The building characteristics are adapted for three US geographical areas (Madison, Wisconsin; Washington, DC; and Ft. Worth, Texas), and the system is simulated for a year with typical weather data. For each city, HPWH COPs are calculated monthly and yearly. In addition, the water heating and space conditioning energy requirements of HPWH operation are compared with those of resistance water heater operation to determine the relative performance ratio (RPR) of the HPWH. The annual simulated RPRs range from 1.5 to 1.7, which indicate a substantial space heating penalty of HPWH operation in these cities.

  13. 5. VIEW OF TUNNEL OUTLET AND CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF TUNNEL OUTLET AND CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Farmers Lake Tunnel, Ashley National Forest, 5.7 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  14. 7. WEST DAM STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. QUARRIES AT BOTTOM; OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WEST DAM STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. QUARRIES AT BOTTOM; OUTLET STRUCTURE UNDER CONSTRUCTION CUTTING INTO HILL AT TOP OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  15. 128. Credit JE. Outlet of tunnel on South Battle Creek ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. Credit JE. Outlet of tunnel on South Battle Creek Canal immediately above Junction with Cross Country Canal. (JE, v. 25 1910 p. 118). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  16. 20. OUTLET (FOREGROUND) AND WEIR (BACKGROUND) OF DEER FLAT CALDWELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. OUTLET (FOREGROUND) AND WEIR (BACKGROUND) OF DEER FLAT CALDWELL CANAL ON DOWNSTREAM FACE OF UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  17. 16. DETAIL OF OUTLET OF DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF OUTLET OF DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL ON DOWNSTREAM FACE OF UPPER EMBANKMENT (NOTE TWO FILLED-IN PORTALS). VIEW TO EAST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  18. 28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Main water inlet and outlet pipes under central corridor of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  19. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  20. 7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  1. 32. TWO TAILRACE OUTLETS FROM THE MIDDLESEX MILLS, LOCATED ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. TWO TAILRACE OUTLETS FROM THE MIDDLESEX MILLS, LOCATED ON EAST BANK OF THE CONCORD RIVER. MIDDLESEX MILLS HAVE BEEN DEMOLISHED: 1976 - Lowell Canal System, Merrimack & Concord Rivers, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  2. 64. Penstock housing with outlet needle valve at lower left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. Penstock housing with outlet needle valve at lower left. Roadway support work is visible at top. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 4. View of dam front and sluiceway outlets Mississippi ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of dam front and sluiceway outlets - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  4. 46. VIEW OF ELECTRIC OUTLET BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VIEW OF ELECTRIC OUTLET BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTHWEST Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 17. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING FISH WATER RELEASE OUTLET AS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING FISH WATER RELEASE OUTLET AS WELL AS SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST ELEVATIONS OF FLOAT HOUSE. - Pit 4 Diversion Dam, Pit River west of State Highway 89, Big Bend, Shasta County, CA

  6. Materials for outlet ducts in wet FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, H.S.; Koch, G.H.; Kistler, C.W.; Beavers, J.A.; Meadows, M.L.; Stewart, D.A.; Dene, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    It was found that the major materials problems are occurring with outlet ducts and stack linings. Outlet ducts and stacks are critical components in that failures may require complete boiler shutdown and loss of generating capacity for lengthy periods due to the lack of standby components or bypass capability. Accordingly, EPRI funded a study by Battelle on the performance of candidate materials in the outlet ducts of FGD systems at two utility plants. Because of the impact of materials failures on FGD system reliability, EPRI is currently funding a study by Battelle on the causes of these failures. This study involves site visits for field evaluations of the failures, laboratory analyses of samples collected in the field, and analysis of the data to establish the causes of the failures. Information on outlet ducts is presented in this paper.

  7. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF THE RADIAL GATE AT THE OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF THE RADIAL GATE AT THE OUTLET WORKS AT DAM 96, LOOKING WEST. THE GATE IS IN THE DOWN POSITION, ALLOWING PARTIAL DISCHARGE. - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge, Dam 96, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  8. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING OUTLET STREAM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING OUTLET STREAM, BURLINGTON NORTHERN TRACKS, AND U.S. HIGHWAY 2, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  9. 25. VIEW SHOWING SLIDE GATE OUTLET TRASH RACK STRUCTURE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW SHOWING SLIDE GATE OUTLET TRASH RACK STRUCTURE AT BASE OF ARCH 8. NOTE TWO SECTIONS OF NEEDLE VALVE TRASH RACKS IN PLACE BETWEEN ARCHES 8 AND 9. December 20, 1938 - Bartlett Dam, Verde River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. Special type culvert headwall, Culvert No. 124 Outlet, oblique view, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Special type culvert headwall, Culvert No. 124 Outlet, oblique view, view to southwest - Route No. 1-Overton-Lake Mead Road, Culverts and Headwalls, 6 miles south of Overton, Overton, Clark County, NV

  11. Special type culvert headwall, Culvert No. 109 Outlet, oblique view, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Special type culvert headwall, Culvert No. 109 Outlet, oblique view, view to southeast - Route No. 1-Overton-Lake Mead Road, Culverts and Headwalls, 6 miles south of Overton, Overton, Clark County, NV

  12. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF DAM SITE SHOWING OUTLET WORKS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF DAM SITE SHOWING OUTLET WORKS AND DIVERSION CHANNEL IN FOREGROUND.... Volume XVIII, No. 9, March 5, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  13. 6. EASTERLY AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE RIGHT ABUTMENT AND OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EASTERLY AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE RIGHT ABUTMENT AND OUTLET CONTROL WORKS IN THE FOREGROUND.... Volume XX, No. 8, September 9, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  14. 6. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Twin Pots Dam, Ashley National Forest, 10.1 miles North of Mountain Home, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  15. 4. VIEW SHOWING OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Clements Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 6.5 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  16. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Drift Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  17. 5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (28' WIDE HARDESTY CAST IRON SLIDE HEADGATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Duck Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  18. 4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Brown Duck Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.4 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  19. 5. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, (12' DIAMETER HARDESTY MODEL 112 CIRCULAR GATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Island Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  20. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND WHEEL (10' HARDESTY CAST IRON VERTICAL LIFT GATE), LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Weir Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  1. 4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND WHEEL (10' HARDESTY VERTICAL LIFT GATE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Pot Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  2. 6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (18' HARDESTY GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Long Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  3. 7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (15' HARDESTY MODEL 115 GATE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Marjorie Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  4. 5. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF OUTLET GATE WHEEL AND STEM, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Island Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.8 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  5. 7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM GUIDE (14' DIAMETER CIRCULAR CALCO CAST IRON SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Fire Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  6. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (HARDESTY CAST IRON RECTANGULAR SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Lost Lake Dam, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  7. 3. TWO TAILRACE OUTLETS FROM THE TREMONT MILLS ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. TWO TAILRACE OUTLETS FROM THE TREMONT MILLS ON THE EAST BANK OF THE LOWER LEVEL OF THE WESTERN CANAL JUST BELOW HICKEY HALL DAM (on the right): 1976 - Western Canal, Hickey Hall Dam, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  8. 8. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM OUTLET CULVERT AND WING RETAINING WALLS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM OUTLET CULVERT AND WING RETAINING WALLS, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Twin Pots Dam, Ashley National Forest, 10.1 miles North of Mountain Home, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  9. 41. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL PEDESTALS (MANUFACTURED BY AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE COMPANY) IN LEFT FOREGROUND AND RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  10. 3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING EAST. DISCHARGE OUTLET IS VISIBLE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING EAST. DISCHARGE OUTLET IS VISIBLE AT CENTER. WASTE WEIR BUILDING IS AT RIGHT. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  11. Demonstration of a heat pump water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blevins, R. P.

    1982-03-01

    In the period between March 1979 and January 1980, 85 prototype heat pump water heaters were installed in single-family residences. Each system was monitored for a period of one year and total program monitoring was concluded at the end of December 1980. The field demonstration provided a total of 643 unit-months of usable operational data which showed an average OOP of 1.93, or an average 48% operating savings compared to resistance water heating. Average operating conditions were 73 gallons of 140 F water consumed each day with an average inlet water temperature of 71 F. Despite a high initial failure rate for the prototypes, which resulted in a protracted debugging period, consumer reaction to the system was extremely positive. The data suggests that the HPWH would save the average consumer in the test program 2917 kWh per year. Measurable impacts on heating/cooling systems were detected in only 8% of the test homes.

  12. Coke resistant coating technology for applications in ethylene pyrolysis heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Alok Pratap Singh

    This dissertation begins with a description of the history of the events leading to ethylene pyrolysis tube failure. During service, hydrocarbons pass through the radiant heater coils at temperatures up to ˜ 1100 C. The catalytic activity between the feedstock and the tube wall leads to heterogeneous coke formation. The accumulation of coke, a homogeneous event, leads to localized temperature excursions, pressure variations, and potential tube plugging which all play a significant role in premature tube failure by creep and stress rupture. During normal operation, the tube metal temperature is frequently reduced to pass high pressure steam or steam air mixtures through the tubing to eliminate coke, a process know as decoking. At ˜ 1100 C, depending on the materials of construction, a variety of topologically close packed phases (eta, M 23C6, sigma, M7C3, etc.) form which can lead to premature tube failure by embrittlement during the decoke cycles. In this dissertation, two techniques are discussed which have the potential for overcoming premature tube failure: (1) upgrading the metallurgy to a material that forms a protective oxide coating at the service temperature and also shows resistance to the formation of topologically closed pack phases and (2) a novel technique which can deposit coke resisting coating on the inner diameter of pyrolysis tubing.

  13. Development and the Implementation of High-Temperature Reliable Heaters in Plasma Spray Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudenziati, Maria

    2008-06-01

    Many problems have been encountered during development of reliable high-temperature heaters by means of atmospheric plasma spray and procedures commonly adopted in thermal spray technology, especially due to poor steel substrate corrosion resistance, notably affected by grit-blasting operations, but also deriving from contamination of insulating layers, dielectric arcs, and failures due to hot spots in the heating elements. While seeking the origin of these problems, a close scrutiny of every single step of the preparation process and analyses of the coatings were carried out using laser confocal scanning microscopy, optical and electronic microscopy, fluorescence analysis, X-ray diffraction, and ancillary techniques. The electrical properties of both alumina layers and metal strips prepared with Ni, NiCr, NiAl commercial powders for the heating elements were studied and cross-related to the failures in the heaters. The article reports the main results of these investigations, delineates the innovations introduced to overcome or circumvent the problems, and underlines the distinct characteristics of new heaters, whose reliability has been proven up to now with temperatures of up to 600 °C in air.

  14. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1981-04-01

    DOE is developing a new generation of radioisotope-fueled 1-watt heaters, for initial use on NASA's upcoming Galileo and International Solar-Polar Missions. Each heater must contain passive safety provisions to ensure fuel retention under all credible accident conditions. Initial design reviews raised some concern about the accuracy of the predicted peak reenetry temperature, and about the adequacy of the safety margin under certain unlikely - but not impossible-reentry modes. Of particular concern was the possile release of the accumulated helium inventory from the fuel during the reentry heat pulse, and the potential effect of enhanced heat conduction due to helium buildup in gaps. The latter problem had not been addressed in previous studies. Fairchild carried out a large number of reentry thermal analyses to resolve the analytical uncertainties, and proposed design changes to reduce the thermal coupling between the aeroshell and the fuel capsule. For the computed reentry temperature history of the modified design, the rate of helium buildup in the gaps was analyzed. The analysis accounted for temperature-dependent helium diffusion through the fuel pellet and for leakage to space through the permeable aeroshell. It showed that most of the helium inventory leaves the fuel during reentry, but that it never reaches a continuum pressure in the gaps, and therefore has no significant thermal effect. Under these conditions, the Fairchild-modified design provides ample safety margin against clad failure, even for very unlikely reenty trajectories. The modified design was successfully vibration-tested and was subsequently adopted by the project. Cross Reference CID #8517. There are two copies in the file.

  15. Bacterial corrosion of reformer heater tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Ghassem, H.; Adibi, N.

    1995-03-01

    Soon after going on stream, two tubes in a heater convection bank, which had been reassembled using reclaimed tubes, started to leak and caused a fire. The tubes were made of AISI 304H stainless steel 4.5 in. diam by 0.25 in. thick. Preliminary visual inspection of the failed tubes revealed a few barely detectable pinholes on the external surfaces. Cutting the tubes at various sections near the pinholes revealed more specific features of corrosion. Each of the detected surface pinholes led to a subsurface cavity or gap, which when sectioned, resembled a bottle-shaped cavity. Corrosion had formed a number of tunnels and cavities within the tube wall, all interconnected through minute pathways, and had progressed along the tube length. On the internal surface of the failed tubes, a fairly large hole had opened to one of the corrosion cavities. Microstructural examination showed that the tube material had been sensitized and that the corrosion had progressed foremost along chromium-depleted zones next to grain boundaries. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on a bent-open minute corrosion crack revealed numerous scattered bright spots with definite shape and size on the exposed surfaces, which were very similar to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Although the heater had run for some time before its failure, the remains of bacteria on the exposed crack surfaces was quite obvious. Furthermore, analytical studies by means of SEM-energy dispersive x-ray analysis, clearly revealed sulfur inside the smaller cavities or gaps where corrosion products had remained intact.

  16. Fluid bed solids heater. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Preuit, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    A solids heater which operates at up to 2000 F was designed, fabricated, installed and operated through checkout at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center at Morgantown, West Virginia. The system, designated the 2000 F Fluid Bed Solids Heater (FBSH) uses a fluidized bed to heat limestone to 600 F and aluminium oxide or silicon carbide to 2000 F and discharges heated solids upon demand. The FBSH with added valve handling and pressurization equipment is known as the Valve Hot Solids Test Unit and is intended for use by the US Department of Energy for testing of valves for severe service applications in coal conversion and utilization processes. The FBSH as designed and supplied by Combustion Power Company includes process equipment, controls, the enclosing building and other associated equipment. In the 600 F range of operation it can circulate limestone through two valve test trains simultaneously on a continuous basis. Only one valve test train is used for 2000 F solids and operation in that range is also continuous. Limestone, crushed to minus 5/16 size, is heated, discharged, and recycled at a maximum average rate of 250 lb/min while aluminum oxide or silicon carbide, No. 8 grit, is circulated at rates up to 167 lb/min. The FBSH control system is designed for automatic operation, and capability is included for external computerized data acquisition and/or supervisory control. An operating and maintenance manual and as-built drawings have been submitted. This report describes the FBSH equipment, its design basis, and its operation. It has been prepared and submitted in fulfillment of Contract Number DIAC05-77ET10499.

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  18. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH

  19. Thin, Light, Flexible Heaters Save Time and Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Icing Branch at NASA's Glenn Research Center uses the Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) and Icing Research Aircraft to research methods for evaluating and simulating the growth of ice on aircraft, the effects that ice may have on aircraft in flight, and the development and effectiveness of various ice protection and detection systems. EGC Enterprises Inc. (EGC), of Chardon, Ohio, used the IRT to develop thermoelectric thin-film heater technology to address in-flight icing on aircraft wings. Working with researchers at Glenn and the original equipment manufacturers of aircraft parts, the company tested various thin, flexible, durable, lightweight, and efficient heaters. Development yielded a thin-film heater technology that can be used in many applications in addition to being an effective deicer for aircraft. This new thermoelectric heater was dubbed the QoFoil Rapid Response Thin-Film Heater, or QoFoil, for short. The product meets all criteria for in-flight use and promises great advances in thin-film, rapid response heater technology for a broad range of industrial applications. Primary advantages include time savings, increased efficiency, and improved temperature uniformity. In addition to wing deicing, EGC has begun looking at the material's usefulness for applications including cooking griddles, small cabinet heaters, and several laboratory uses.

  20. Thin film heater on a thermally isolated microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seajin; Chu, William; Cahill, Sean

    A microheater was fabricated on a thermally isolated silicon (Si) membrane and its electrical and thermomechanical properties were assessed. The sensor design was adjusted for good thermal isolation and good resistance to thermal shock. The heater was a platinum (Pt) thin-film meandering filament deposited with electron beam evaporation and patterned with lift-off methods. In order to operate the heater at high temperatures with minimum loss of Pt by evaporation, the heater was encapsulated with a ceramic film. During the heater operation, most of the heat was dissipated via conduction through the Si membrane which supported the multi-layered heater. When the Si membrane was completely etched away to suspend the heater, the power needed to heat the filament to strong incandescence (about 700 - 800 C) was 110 mW. Structural failure was not observed when the device was subjected to thermocycling up to approximately 500 C. The importance of the thermomechanical match of layers in a multi-layered heater structure, especially for use at high temperatures, is addressed.

  1. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Jackson, Roderick K; Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C; Lyne, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  2. Reduce air, reduce compliance cost new patented spray booth technology

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, F.

    1997-12-31

    A New Paint Spray Booth System that dramatically reduces air volumes normally required for capturing and controlling paint overspray that contains either Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) or Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP), or both. In turn, a substantial reduction in capital equipment expenditures for air abatement systems and air make-up heaters as well as related annual operating expenses is realized.

  3. Heater blanket for in-situ soil heating

    SciTech Connect

    Marsden, A.R. Jr.; Otermat, A.L.; Weingaertner, D.A.; Johnson, P.C.; Dicks, L.W.R.; Wilde, H.B.

    1993-06-22

    A heater blanket for use in in-situ treatment of contaminated soil is described comprising: a plurality of flexible electric heaters; an insulating blanket covering said plurality of heaters; a rigid support frame resting on said blanket; a plurality of pins slidingly inserted through said heaters, said blanket and said support frame, said pins being terminated at each end, when in place, by a head which prevents removal of said pin while said heads remain in place; an impermeable canopy over said support frame, the sides of said canopy resting on said blanket when in place; a plurality of attachment lugs rigidly connected to said support frame and said canopy, respectively, said lugs having holes therein, selected ones of said support frame and said canopy lug holes being in alignment when said canopy is in place; a connecting rod inserted through selected ones of said aligned holes, said rods being inserted through a plurality of access holes in the side of said canopy; a second and third layer of insulation located between said support frame and said canopy; a skirt sealingly attached to the periphery of said canopy, said canopy and said skirt, when in place, covering said contaminated soil; a vapor collection port extending through said canopy to said contaminated soil; a vapor collection system connected to said vapor collection port at the surface of said contaminated soil; heater heads connected to said heaters, said heater leads extending along the top of said insulation; electrical feeds-through in said canopy for connecting said heater leads through said canopy; rigid attachment points located on said canopy for lifting said heater blanket for placement thereof, and power supply means for supplying electric power to said feed-through terminals.

  4. Improving data accuracy of commercial food outlet databases.

    PubMed

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Martinez, Diane; Yedidia, Michael J; Petlick, Nirvana

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. Assessing food environments often requires using commercially available data. Disparate methods used for classifying food outlets in these databases call for creating a classification approach using common definitions. A systematic strategy for reclassifying food stores and restaurants, as they appear in commercial databases, into categories that differentiate the availability of healthy options is described here. DESIGN AND SETTING. Commercially available data on food outlets including names, addresses, North American Industry Classification System codes, and associated characteristics was obtained for five New Jersey communities. ANALYSIS. A reclassification methodology was developed using criteria and definitions from the literature to categorize food outlets based on availability of healthy options. Information in the database was supplemented by systematic Internet and key word searches, and from phone calls to food outlets. RESULTS. The methodology resulted in 622 supermarket/grocery stores, 183 convenience stores, and 148 specialty stores in the original data to be reclassified into 58 supermarkets, 30 grocery stores, 692 convenience stores, and 115 specialty stores. Outlets from the original list of 1485 full-service restaurants and 506 limited-service restaurants were reclassified as 563 full-service restaurants and 1247 limited-service restaurants. Reclassification resulted in less than one-seventh the number of supermarkets and grocery stores, more than three times the number of convenience stores, and twice as many limited-service restaurants-a much less healthy profile than the one generated by using exclusively the commercial databases. CONCLUSION. An explicit and replicable strategy is proposed for reclassifying food outlets in commercial databases into categories that differentiate on the basis of healthy food availability. The intent is to contribute towards building a consensus among researchers on definitions used in public health

  5. Adaptive individual-cylinder thermal state control using intake air heating for a GDCI engine

    DOEpatents

    Roth, Gregory T.; Sellnau, Mark C.

    2016-08-09

    A system for a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine includes a plurality of heaters, at least one heater per cylinder, with each heater configured to heat air introduced into a cylinder. Independent control of the heaters is provided on a cylinder-by-cylinder basis. A combustion parameter is determined for combustion in each cylinder of the engine, and control of the heater for that cylinder is based on the value of the combustion parameter for combustion in that cylinder. A method for influencing combustion in a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine, including determining a combustion parameter for combustion taking place in a cylinder of the engine and controlling a heater configured to heat air introduced into that cylinder, is also provided.

  6. 76 FR 56347 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB95 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters (Standby Mode and Off Mode) AGENCY... residential water heaters, direct heating equipment, and pool heaters to include provisions for...

  7. 40 CFR 279.23 - On-site burning in space heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false On-site burning in space heaters. 279... burning in space heaters. Generators may burn used oil in used oil-fired space heaters provided that: (a) The heater burns only used oil that the owner or operator generates or used oil received...

  8. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  9. Pool boiling on thin heaters: The role of thermal interaction among vapor stems

    SciTech Connect

    Sadasivan, P.; Unal, C.; Nelson, R.

    1993-10-01

    We examine the issue of thermal interactions within a heater as a possible explanation for conflicting critical heat flux data on thin heaters, as reported by various investigators. While heater thermal properties have been considered in previous studies, the focus of this study is the interaction between the thermal transport process within the heater and the distribution of nucleation sites on the heater surface. It is shown that the spatial distribution of stems on the heater surface, as well as the size distribution of these stems, can affect the average surface temperatures. Such interactions are greater as the heater thickness decreases.

  10. Electron beam irradiated silver nanowires for a highly transparent heater

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chan-Hwa; Oh, Seung Kyu; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Cha, Yu-Jung; Kwak, Joon Seop; Shin, Jae-Heon; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Cheong, Woo-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Transparent heaters have attracted increasing attention for their usefulness in vehicle windows, outdoor displays, and periscopes. We present high performance transparent heaters based on Ag nanowires with electron beam irradiation. We obtained an Ag-nanowire thin film with 48 ohm/sq of sheet resistance and 88.8% (substrate included) transmittance at 550 nm after electron beam irradiation for 120 sec. We demonstrate that the electron beam creates nano-soldering at the junctions of the Ag nanowires, which produces lower sheet resistance and improved adhesion of the Ag nanowires. We fabricated a transparent heater with Ag nanowires after electron beam irradiation, and obtained a temperature of 51 °C within 1 min at an applied voltage of 7 V. The presented technique will be useful in a wide range of applications for transparent heaters. PMID:26639760

  11. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ABOVE RIGHT, LOW GRADE CENTRIFUGALS BELOW. CRYSTALLIZER HOT WATER TANK TO REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  12. Electron beam irradiated silver nanowires for a highly transparent heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Chan-Hwa; Oh, Seung Kyu; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Cha, Yu-Jung; Kwak, Joon Seop; Shin, Jae-Heon; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Cheong, Woo-Seok

    2015-12-01

    Transparent heaters have attracted increasing attention for their usefulness in vehicle windows, outdoor displays, and periscopes. We present high performance transparent heaters based on Ag nanowires with electron beam irradiation. We obtained an Ag-nanowire thin film with 48 ohm/sq of sheet resistance and 88.8% (substrate included) transmittance at 550 nm after electron beam irradiation for 120 sec. We demonstrate that the electron beam creates nano-soldering at the junctions of the Ag nanowires, which produces lower sheet resistance and improved adhesion of the Ag nanowires. We fabricated a transparent heater with Ag nanowires after electron beam irradiation, and obtained a temperature of 51 °C within 1 min at an applied voltage of 7 V. The presented technique will be useful in a wide range of applications for transparent heaters.

  13. New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study

    SciTech Connect

    Symmetrics Marketing Corporation

    1999-08-18

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

  14. 3. Interior view southeast to northwest showing space heater in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Interior view southeast to northwest showing space heater in northwest corner - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Dispatcher House, North of Park Avenue at Forty-ninth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  15. Corrosion-related failures in feedwater heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Agrawal, A.K.; Berry, W.E.

    1983-07-01

    A survey of the literature was performed for the Electric Power Research Institute on corrosion-related failures in feedwater heaters. The survey was directed toward failures in fossil and in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants, but includes some pertinent information related to failures in boiling water reactor (BWR) power plants. The survey was organized into sections on the commonly used feedwater heater materials; C steel, brasses, Cu-Ni alloys, MONEL Alloy 400, and Type 304 Stainless Steel. A section on Ti as a potential feedwater heater material also is given in the appendices. Each section is divided into subsections on field experience and laboratory studies tat relate to the field failures that have been observed. Appendices are given on a feedwater heater description, water quality in power plants, forms of corrosion, and failure analysis techniques.

  16. Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar; Harold J. , Harris; Christopher Kelvin

    2012-07-17

    A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

  17. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or process heater has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (B) The boiler or process heater has certified compliance with... in § 65.63(a)(2), or 40 CFR 60.562-1(a)(1)(i)(B) for process vents, or § 65.83(a)(1) for...

  18. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or process heater has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (B) The boiler or process heater has certified compliance with... in § 65.63(a)(2), or 40 CFR 60.562-1(a)(1)(i)(B) for process vents, or § 65.83(a)(1) for...

  19. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or process heater has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (B) The boiler or process heater has certified compliance with... in § 65.63(a)(2), or 40 CFR 60.562-1(a)(1)(i)(B) for process vents, or § 65.83(a)(1) for...

  20. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in § 65.63(a)(2), or 40 CFR 60.562-1(a)(1)(i)(B) for process vents, or § 65.83(a)(1) for high...) A boiler or process heater with a design heat input capacity of 44 megawatts (150 million British... or process heater has been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 and complies with...