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Sample records for air heater technology

  1. Industrial applications of MHD high temperature air heater technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, D. P.; Fenstermacher, J. E.; White, L. R.; Marksberry, C. L.

    1981-12-01

    The MHD high temperature air heater (HTAH) requires technology beyond the current state-of-the-art of industrial regenerative heaters. Specific aspects of HTAH technology which may find other application include refractory materials and valves resistant to the high temperature, corrosive, slag-bearing gas, materials resistant to cyclic thermal stresses, high temperature support structures for the cored brick bed, regenerative heater operating techniques for preventing accumulation of slag in the heater, and analytical tools for computing regenerative heater size, cost, and performance. Areas where HTAH technology may find application include acetylene/ethylene production processes, flash pyrolysis of coal, high temperature gas reactors, coal gasification processes, various metallurgical processes, waste incineration, and improvements to existing regenerator technology such as blast furnace stoves and glass tank regenerators.

  2. MHD air heater development technology. Technical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The technology development of the directly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) for MHD power plants is described. Progress is reported on the three tasks. The first task is materials selection, evaluation, and development. The objective of this task is to continue development of ceramic materials technology for the directly-fired HTAH. Task two is operability, performance, and materials testing. The objectives of this task are to demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating a directly-fired HTAH (including both the heater matrix and valves), to continue obtaining information on life and corrosion resistance of HTAH materials, and to obtain design information for full-scale studies and future design work. The objectives of the full-scale design task are to begin the identification of HTAH control requirements and control system needs, and to continue full-scale study efforts incorporating updated materials and design information in order to identify development needs for the HTAH development program. (WHK)

  3. MHD air heater development technology. Technical progress report, April 1, 1980-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Technology development for the directly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) for MHD power plants is described. Work is being done under three tasks as described in the following. (1) materials selection, evaluation, and development: The objective of this task is to continue development of ceramic materials technology for the directly-fired HTAH. The scope of the work will include compilation of materials data, materials selection for testing and design studies, materials property determination, liaison with refractory manufacturers and other organizations to encourage development of materials and fabrication technology, establishment of preliminary HTAH material specifications, analyses of test materials, and development of criteria for thermal stress limits for crack-tolerant refractory materials. (2) operability, performance, and materials testing: The objectives of this task are to demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating a directly-fired HTAH (including both the heater matrix and valves), to continue obtaining information on life and corrosion resistance of HTAH materials, and to obtain design information for full-scale studies and future design work. (3) full-scale design concepts: The objectives of this task are to begin the identification of HTAH control requirements and control system needs, and to continue full-scale study efforts incorporating updated materials and design information in order to identify development needs for the HTAH development program. Progress is described. (WHK)

  4. Regenerative air heater

    DOEpatents

    Hasselquist, Paul B.; Baldner, Richard

    1982-01-01

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  5. Regenerative air heater

    DOEpatents

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  6. MHD air heater development technology. Progress report, November 26, 1979-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    Work on the development of the directly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) for MHD power plants is reported. Progress is reported on three tasks: (1) materials selection, evaluation, and development, (2) operability, performance, and materials testing, and (3) full-scale design concepts. Under Task 1, efforts were carried out in several areas. Work on the computer data base for material properties was begun. Data were compiled for several HTAH materials. Materials selections for Valve Test 3 and full-scale studies were made. Test conditions were defined for and creep results obtained from Montana College of Mineral Science and Technology concerning candidate matrix and hot liner materials. Liaison efforts with refractory manufacturers were continued, and information was provided to Argonne National Laboratory and Babcock and Wilcox concerning the HRSR design. Analyses of materials samples from previous matrix and valve tests were completed. Finally, a thermal stress cycling experiment to be carried out at Montana Tech was designed. Under Task 2, efforts were directed toward running Valve Test 3. Problems were encountered with the VTF hot gas supply duct which necessitated two intermediate shutdowns without reaching the final test goal of 300 hours. Modifications necessary to complete the test were begun. Under Task 3, an example HTAH system was defined which will be used as a focal point for screening and definition of control systems and determination of operating methods. The system was defined using the size/cost and other HTAH computer codes. A layout of the system was made, and steady state performance was calculated with the SCAMP code. (WHK)

  7. Build Your Own Solar Air Heater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    The solar air heater is a simple device for catching some of the sun's energy to heat a home. Procedures for making and installing such a heater are presented. Included is a materials list, including tools needed for constructing the heater, sources for obtaining further details, and a list of material specifications. (JN)

  8. Design data brochure: Solar hot air heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The design, installation, performance, and application of a solar hot air heater for residential, commercial and industrial use is reported. The system has been installed at the Concho Indian School in El Reno, Oklahoma.

  9. Thermal performance of a new solar air heater

    SciTech Connect

    Tiris, C.; Ozbalta, N.; Tiris, M.; Dincer, I.

    1995-05-01

    A solar air heater, part of a food drying system using solar energy as a renewable energy source for heat, was developed and tested for several agricultural products (i.e., sultana grapes, green beans, sweet peppers, chili peppers). Drying processes were conducted in the chamber with forced natural air heated partly by solar energy. Solar air heater performances were discussed along with estimates of energy efficiency of the system. The obtained results indicate that the present system is efficiency and effective.

  10. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  11. Design of Solar Heat Sheet for Air Heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, S. Shanmuga; Premalatha, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, I.

    2011-12-01

    The technique of harnessing solar energy for drying offers significant potential to dry agricultural products such as food grains, fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants, thereby eliminating many of the problems experienced with open-sun drying and industrial drying, besides saving huge quantities of fossil fuels. A great deal of experimental work over the last few decades has already demonstrated that agricultural products can be satisfactorily dehydrated using solar energy. Various designs of small scale solar dryers have been developed in the recent past, mainly for drying agricultural products. Major problems experienced with solar dryers are their non-reliability as their operation largely depends on local weather conditions. While back-up heaters and hybrid dryers partly solved this issue, difficulties in controlling the drying air temperature and flow rate remains a problem, and affects the quality of the dried product. This study is aimed at eliminating the fluctuations in the quality of hot air supplied by simple solar air heaters used for drying fruits, vegetables and other applications. It is an attempt to analyse the applicability of the combination of an glazed transpired solar collector (tank), thermal storage and a intake fan(suction fan) to achieve a steady supply of air at a different atmospheric temperature and flow rate for drying fruits and vegetables. Development of an efficient, low-cost and reliable air heating system for drying applications is done.

  12. Emissions Characterization of Residential Wood-Fired Hydronic Heater Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential wood-fired hydronic heaters (RWHHs) can negatively impact the local ambient air quality and thus are of major environmental concern in wood burning areas of the U. S. Few studies have been conducted which characterize the emissions from RWHHs. To address the lack of e...

  13. Development and operation of new arc heater technology for a large-scale scramjet propulsion test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balboni, John; Atler, Doug

    1993-01-01

    An arc-heater technology development effort conducted at NASA-Ames has led to the creation of a 100 MW Huels arc heater which has been integrated into the hydrogen-fueled Direct Connect Arcjet Facility for long-duration, high Mach-number scramjet performance evaluation. This development effort has significantly advanced the design of vortex-stabilized arc heaters; air enthalpy levels of 2.8-7.5 MJ/kg, at stagnation pressures of up to 45 atm, are produced. The facility furnishes technology-development support that is critical to the definition of NASP-related propulsion systems.

  14. 30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section 75.341 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.341 Direct-fired intake air heaters. (a) If any system used to...

  15. 30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section 75.341 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.341 Direct-fired intake air heaters. (a) If any system used to...

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Heat Pump Water Heater Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-08-01

    In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory studied heat pump water heaters, an efficient, cost-effective alternative to traditional electric resistance water heaters that can improve energy efficiency by up to 62%.

  17. UNVENTED KEROSENE HEATER EMISSIONS FROM MOBILE HOMES: STUDIES ONINDOOR AIR PARTICLES, SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANICS, CARBON MONOXIDE, ANDMUTAGENICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to assess human exposure to air pollutantsresulting from the use of kerosene heaters in mobile homes. t hasbeen estimated that 15-17 million unvented kerosene heaters havebeen sold in the United States, and 33% of these heaters have beensold to mobile hom...

  18. UNVENTED KEROSENE HEATER EMISSIONS FROM MOBILE HOMES: STUDIES ON INDOOR AIR PARTICLES, SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANICS, CARBON MONOXIDE AND MUTAGENICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to assess human exposure to air pollutants resulting from the use of kerosene heaters in mobile homes. t has been estimated that 15-17 million unvented kerosene heaters have been sold in the United States, and 33% of these heaters have been sold to mobile...

  19. Development and the Implementation of High-Temperature Reliable Heaters in Plasma Spray Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudenziati, Maria

    2008-06-01

    Many problems have been encountered during development of reliable high-temperature heaters by means of atmospheric plasma spray and procedures commonly adopted in thermal spray technology, especially due to poor steel substrate corrosion resistance, notably affected by grit-blasting operations, but also deriving from contamination of insulating layers, dielectric arcs, and failures due to hot spots in the heating elements. While seeking the origin of these problems, a close scrutiny of every single step of the preparation process and analyses of the coatings were carried out using laser confocal scanning microscopy, optical and electronic microscopy, fluorescence analysis, X-ray diffraction, and ancillary techniques. The electrical properties of both alumina layers and metal strips prepared with Ni, NiCr, NiAl commercial powders for the heating elements were studied and cross-related to the failures in the heaters. The article reports the main results of these investigations, delineates the innovations introduced to overcome or circumvent the problems, and underlines the distinct characteristics of new heaters, whose reliability has been proven up to now with temperatures of up to 600 °C in air.

  20. High-pressure ceramic air heater for indirectly fired gas turbine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaye, P. G.; Briggs, G. F.; Vandervort, C. L.; Seger, J. L.

    The Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) offers a method for operating high-efficiency gas and steam turbine combined cycles on coal. In the EFCC, an air heater replaces the gas turbine combustor so that the turbine can be indirectly fired. Ceramic materials are required for the heat exchange surfaces to accommodate the operating temperatures of modern gas turbines. The ceramic air heater or heat exchanger is the focus of this program, and the two primary objectives are (1) to demonstrate that a ceramic air heater can be reliably pressurized to a level of 225 psia (1.5 MPa); and (2) to show that the air heater can withstand exposure to the products of coal combustion at elevated temperatures. By replacing the gas turbine combustor with a ceramic air heater, the cycle can use coal or other ash-bearing fuels. Numerous programs have attempted to fuel high efficiency gas turbines directly with coal, often resulting in significant ash deposition upon turbine components and corrosion or erosion of turbine blades. This report will show that a ceramic air heater is significantly less susceptible to ash deposition or corrosion than a gas turbine when protected by rudimentary methods of gas-stream clean-up. A 25 x 10(sup 6) Btu/hr (7 MW) test facility is under construction in Kennebunk, Maine. It is anticipated that this proof of concept program will lead to commercialization of the EFCC by electric utility and industrial organizations. Applications are being pursued for power plants ranging from 10 to 100 megawatts.

  1. 30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section 75.341 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... measurement of the carbon monoxide concentration at the bottom of each shaft, slope, or in the drift...

  2. 30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section 75.341 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... measurement of the carbon monoxide concentration at the bottom of each shaft, slope, or in the drift...

  3. 30 CFR 75.341 - Direct-fired intake air heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Direct-fired intake air heaters. 75.341 Section 75.341 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... measurement of the carbon monoxide concentration at the bottom of each shaft, slope, or in the drift...

  4. Emissions characterization of residential wood-fired hydronic heater technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsey, John S.; Touati, Abderrahmane; Yelverton, Tiffany L. B.; Aurell, Johanna; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Linak, William P.; Gullett, Brian K.

    2012-12-01

    Residential wood-fired hydronic heaters (RWHHs) can negatively impact the local ambient air quality and thus are an environmental concern in wood burning areas of the U. S. Only a few studies have been conducted which characterize the emissions from RWHHs. To address the lack of emissions data, a study was conducted on four appliances of differing design using multiple fuel types to determine their thermal, boiler, and combustion efficiency as well as the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), total particulate matter (PM) mass, and particle number as well as particle size distribution (PSD). Three of these appliances were fired with split-log cordwood with the fourth unit using hardwood pellets. The measured thermal efficiencies for the appliances tested varied from 22 to 44% and the combustion efficiencies from 81 to 98%. Depending on appliance and fuel type, the emission factors ranged from about 1300 to 1800 g kg-1 dry fuel for CO2, 8-190 g kg-1 dry fuel for CO, <1-54 g kg-1 dry fuel for THC and 6-120 mg kg-1 for N2O. For the particle phase pollutants, the PM mass emission factors ranged from 0.31 to 47 g kg-1 dry fuel and the PM number emission factors from 8.5 × 1010 to 2.4 × 1014 particles kg-1 dry fuel, also depending on the appliance and fuel tested. The PSD for all four appliances indicated a well established accumulation mode with evidence of a nucleation mode present for Appliances A and B. The average median aerodynamic particle diameters observed for the four appliances ranged from 84 to 187 nm while burning red oak or pellets. In general, the pellet-burning appliance had the highest overall operating efficiency and lowest emissions of the four units tested.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE-OIL HEATER USING STAGED AIR LANCES FOR NOX REDUCTION. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume of the report gives emission results from field tests of a crude-oil process heater burning a combination of oil and refinery gas. The heater had been modified by adding a system for injecting secondary air to reduce NOx emissions. One test was conducted with the stag...

  6. ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA643. CAMERA FACES NORTH. AIR HEATERS LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. CAMERA FACES NORTH. AIR HEATERS LINE UP AGAINST WALL, TO BE USED IN CONNECTION WITH ETR EXPERIMENTS. EACH HAD A HEAT OUTPUT OF 8 MILLION BTU PER HOUR, OPERATED AT 1260 DEGREES F. AND A PRESSURE OF 320 PSI. NOTE METAL WALLS AND ROOF. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3709. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G. ); Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K. )

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  8. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G.; Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K.

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  9. Comparative study of solar air heater performance with various shapes and configurations of obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Kishor; Kim, Kwang-Yong

    2016-02-01

    An investigation is performed to find an optimum shape of obstacles attached to a solar air heater using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes analyses of heat transfer and fluid flow. The Reynolds number, which is based on the hydraulic diameter of the channel, is in the range of 6800-10,000. The Nusselt number and friction factor are used to measure the thermal and aerodynamic performances of the solar air heater, respectively. Four different obstacle shapes (U-shaped, rectangular, trapezoidal, and pentagonal) and three arrangements of obstacles were tested to determine their effects on performance of the solar air heater. The results show that the performance factor (defined by a ratio of thermal to aerodynamic performance) was above unity for all the cases tested, and the pentagonal obstacle shape indicates the highest performance regardless of the Reynolds number. Detailed analyses of the thermal and flow fields are performed in order to obtain a better understanding of the heat transfer characteristics.

  10. Thermography and Sonic Anemometry to Analyze Air Heaters in Mediterranean Greenhouses

    PubMed Central

    López, Alejandro; Valera, Diego L.; Molina-Aiz, Francisco; Peña, Araceli

    2012-01-01

    The present work has developed a methodology based on thermography and sonic anemometry for studying the microclimate in Mediterranean greenhouses equipped with air heaters and polyethylene distribution ducts to distribute the warm air. Sonic anemometry allows us to identify the airflow pattern generated by the heaters and to analyze the temperature distribution inside the greenhouse, while thermography provides accurate crop temperature data. Air distribution by means of perforated polyethylene ducts at ground level, widely used in Mediterranean-type greenhouses, can generate heterogeneous temperature distributions inside the greenhouse when the system is not correctly designed. The system analyzed in this work used a polyethylene duct with a row of hot air outlet holes (all of equal diameter) that expel warm air toward the ground to avoid plant damage. We have observed that this design (the most widely used in Almería's greenhouses) produces stagnation of hot air in the highest part of the structure, reducing the heating of the crop zone. Using 88 kW heating power (146.7 W·m−2) the temperature inside the greenhouse is maintained 7.2 to 11.2 °C above the outside temperature. The crop temperature (17.6 to 19.9 °C) was maintained above the minimum recommended value of 10 °C. PMID:23202025

  11. Magnetically Diffused Radial Electric-Arc Air Heater Employing Water-Cooled Copper Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, R. F.; Davis, D. D., Jr.

    1962-01-01

    A magnetically rotated electric-arc air heater has been developed that is novel in that an intense magnetic field of the order of 10,000 to 25,000 gauss is employed. This field is supplied by a coil that is connected in series with the arc. Experimentation with this heater has shown that the presence of an intense magnetic field transverse to the arc results in diffusion of the arc and that the arc has a positive effective resistance. With the field coil in series with the arc, highly stable arc operation is obtained from a battery power supply. External ballast is not required to stabilize the arc when it is operating at maximum power level. The electrode erosion rate is so low that the airstream contamination is no more than 0.07 percent and may be substantially less.

  12. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  13. COMPARISON OF AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM VAPORIZING AND AIR ATOMIZING WASTE OIL HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions and vaporizing pot solid residues resulting from the combustion of waste crankcase oil in space heaters. Two types of waste oil burners were tested: a vaporizing oil burner rated at 35.2 kW, and an...

  14. Experimental study of heat transfer and thermal performance with longitudinal fins of solar air heater

    PubMed Central

    Chabane, Foued; Moummi, Noureddine; Benramache, Said

    2013-01-01

    The thermal performance of a single pass solar air heater with five fins attached was investigated experimentally. Longitudinal fins were used inferior the absorber plate to increase the heat exchange and render the flow fluid in the channel uniform. The effect of mass flow rate of air on the outlet temperature, the heat transfer in the thickness of the solar collector, and the thermal efficiency were studied. Experiments were performed for two air mass flow rates of 0.012 and 0.016 kg s−1. Moreover, the maximum efficiency values obtained for the 0.012 and 0.016 kg s−1 with and without fins were 40.02%, 51.50% and 34.92%, 43.94%, respectively. A comparison of the results of the mass flow rates by solar collector with and without fins shows a substantial enhancement in the thermal efficiency. PMID:25685486

  15. Flow distribution in unglazed transpired plate solar air heaters of large area

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnewiek, L.H.; Brundrett, E.; Hollands, K.G.T.

    1996-10-01

    Unglazed transpired plate solar air heaters have proven to be effective in heating outside air on a once-through basis for ventilation and drying applications. Outside air is sucked through unglazed plates having uniformly distributed perforations. The air is drawn into a plenum behind the plate and then supplied to the application by fans. Large collectors have been built that cover the sides of sizable buildings, and the problem of designing the system so that the air is sucked uniformly everywhere (or nearly so) has proven to be a challenging one. This article describes an analytical tool that has been developed to predict the flow distribution over the collector. It is based on modelling the flow-field in the plenum by means of a commercial CFD (computational fluid mechanics) code, incorporating a special set of boundary conditions to model the plate and the ambient air. The article presents the 2D version of the code, and applies it to the problem of predicting the flow distribution in still air (no wind) conditions, a situation well treated by a 2D code. Results are presented for a wide range of conditions, and design implications are discussed. An interesting finding of the study is that the heat transfer at the back of the plate can play an important role, and because of this heat transfer, the efficiency of a collector in nonuniform flow can actually be greater than that of the same collector in uniform flow. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  17. Energy use test facility: CAC-DOE solar air heater test report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    The solar air heater testing demonstrated an attractive application for residential space heating, especially appealing to the do-it-yourself market. Simple improvements in construction, such as caulking of the glazing, could increase collector performance at little cost. The operating cost of the fan was insignificant, being less than $0.05/week. Tested in its as-shipped configuration at 96.1 cfm (3 cfm/ft (2)), the useful energy delivered averaged 20,000 Btu/day for six days in December. The electrical consumption of the fan was approximately 1 kWh. Doubling the flowrate did not increase collector performance appreciably. A TRNSYS computer simulation model for this solar air heater design was validated by comparing the measured test data on Jaunary 4, 1981 with calculated values. TRNSYS predicted that measured collector outlet temperatures within +- 1.20F and the energy delivered within +- 3%. The excellent agreement was obtained by adjusting the collector loss coefficient to an unrealistically low value; therefore, a parametric study is recommended to determine the model sensitivity to varying different parameters. A first-order collector efficiency curve was derived from the TRNSYS simulations which compared well with the curve defined by the clear-day measured data.

  18. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other benefits. Because it

  19. Performance Analysis and Parametric Study of a Natural Convection Solar Air Heater With In-built Oil Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhote, Yogesh; Thombre, Shashikant

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the thermal performance of the proposed double flow natural convection solar air heater with in-built liquid (oil) sensible heat storage. Unused engine oil was used as thermal energy storage medium due to its good heat retaining capacity even at high temperatures without evaporation. The performance evaluation was carried out for a day of the month March for the climatic conditions of Nagpur (India). A self reliant computational model was developed using computational tool as C++. The program developed was self reliant and compute the performance parameters for any day of the year and would be used for major cities in India. The effect of change in storage oil quantity and the inclination (tilt angle) on the overall efficiency of the solar air heater was studied. The performance was tested initially at different storage oil quantities as 25, 50, 75 and 100 l for a plate spacing of 0.04 m with an inclination of 36o. It has been found that the solar air heater gives the best performance at a storage oil quantity of 50 l. The performance of the proposed solar air heater is further tested for various combinations of storage oil quantity (50, 75 and 100 l) and the inclination (0o, 15o, 30o, 45o, 60o, 75o, 90o). It has been found that the proposed solar air heater with in-built oil storage shows its best performance for the combination of 50 l storage oil quantity and 60o inclination. Finally the results of the parametric study was also presented in the form of graphs carried out for a fixed storage oil quantity of 25 l, plate spacing of 0.03 m and at an inclination of 36o to study the behaviour of various heat transfer and fluid flow parameters of the solar air heater.

  20. Effect of gas and kerosene space heaters on indoor air quality: a study in homes of Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pablo A; Toro, Claudia; Cáceres, Jorge; López, Gianni; Oyola, Pedro; Koutrakis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    The impact of outdoor and indoor pollution sources on indoor air quality in Santiago, Chile was investigated. Toward this end, 16 homes were sampled in four sessions. Each session included an outdoor site and four homes using different unvented space heaters (electric or central heating, compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, and kerosene). Average outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations were very high (55.9 microg x m(-3)), and a large fraction of these particles penetrated indoors. PM2.5 and several PM2.5 components (including sulfate, elemental carbon, organic carbon, metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were elevated in homes using kerosene heaters. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ultrafine particles (UFPs) were higher in homes with combustion heaters as compared with those with electric heaters or central heating. A regression model was used to assess the effect of heater use on continuous indoor PM2.5 concentrations when windows were closed. The model found an impact only for kerosene heaters (45.8 microg m(-3)). PMID:20102039

  1. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

  2. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 1: Transmittal documents; Executive summary; Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described.

  3. Indoor air pollutants from unvented kerosene-heater emissions in mobile homes: Studies on particles, semivolatile organics, carbon monoxide, and mutagenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, J.L.; Williams, R.W.; Walsh, D.B.; Burton, R.M.; Svendsgaard, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess human exposure to air pollutants resulting from the use of kerosene heaters in mobile homes. It has been estimated that 15-17 million unvented kerosene heaters have been sold in the United States, and 33% of these heaters have been sold to mobile home residents. The emissions from kerosene heaters can result in high pollutants levels in mobile homes that have a small air volume and low ventilation rate. Eight totally electric mobile homes with no smokers living in the homes were monitored for indoor air particles < 10 micrometer (PM10), semivolatile organics, carbon monoxide (CO), and mutagenicity of semivolatile and particle-phase organics in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 without S9 using a microsuspension reverse-mutation assay. Each home was monitored for an average of 6.5 h/day, 3 days/week, for 4 weeks (2 weeks with the heater on and 2 weeks with the heater off) during the heating season of 1989. Indoor air exchange rate, temperature, and humidity were measured. Chemical analyses, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and nitro PAH, also were performed on the indoor air samples from a selected home with the kerosene heater on and off. Increases in CO and organic concentrations resulting from the use of kerosene heaters were found in most homes monitored. Chemical analysis data also suggested the presence of evaporated, unburned kerosene fuel present in semivolatile organics collected in the XAD samples. In comparison with the U.S. national ambient air standards, four out of the eight heaters investigated in the study emitted pollutants that exceeded the ambient air standards some days. These data suggested that emissions from unvented kerosene heaters can significantly impact indoor air quality in mobile homes and that these emissions contain carcinogenic compounds and can be potentially carcinogenic in humans.

  4. Evaluation of a candidate material for a coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) high temperature recuperative air heater

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J; Dahotre, N B; Boss, W

    1993-02-01

    In order to achieve the desired efficiency in the MHD cycle, one of two procedures must be employed. The first is to inject pure oxygen during combustion in order to achieve higher combustion temperatures which will yield better conversion efficiencies. The other is to preheat the combustor air through the use of high temperature air heaters (HTAH). A recuperative air heater heats the combustor air directly by passing it through tubes which are in the exhaust gas flow before sending it into the combustor. The procedure of passing air through the furnace requires a material for the tubes which will withstand the high temperatures and corrosive environment of the furnace and should have a high heat transfer coefficient. All of the necessary properties seem to exist in ceramic materials, so ceramics have begun to be studied for high temperature air heaters as well as other high temperature applications. The present project outlines one such effort to evaluate the performance of a ceramic composite tube in a coal fired MHD facility in order to determine any changes in the tube material after exposure to high temperature and a highly corrosive environment. A recuperative high temperature air heater (HTAH) would be positioned in the radiant furnace, because the radiant furnace provides conditions comparable to an actual MHD facility and is adequate for testing HTAH materials. The temperature conditions in the furnace range from approximately 1600{degree}C to 1890{degree}C, and velocities of approximately 12 m/s to 100 m/s have been measured depending on the location in the furnace. The evaluated tube was placed in the furnace in a reducing environment with approximately 14 m/s velocity, 1650{degree}C gas temperature, and 1230{degree}C tube temperature.

  5. Evaluation of a candidate material for a coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) high temperature recuperative air heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, J.; Dahotre, N. B.; Boss, W.

    In order to achieve the desired efficiency in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) cycle, one of two procedures must be employed. The first is to inject pure oxygen during combustion in order to achieve higher combustion temperatures which will yield better conversion efficiencies. The other is to preheat the combustor air through the use of high temperature air heaters (HTAH). A recuperative air heater heats the combustor air directly by passing it through tubes which are in the exhaust gas flow before sending it into the combustor. The procedure of passing air through the furnace requires a material for the tubes which will withstand the high temperatures and corrosive environment of the furnace and should have a high heat transfer coefficient. All of the necessary properties seem to exist in ceramic materials, so ceramics have begun to be studied for high temperature air heaters as well as other high temperature applications. One such effort to evaluate the performance of a ceramic composite tube in a coal fired MHD facility in order to determine any changes in the tube material after exposure to high temperature and a highly corrosive environment is outlined. A recuperative high temperature air heater (HTAH) would be positioned in the radiant furnace, because the radiant furnace provides conditions comparable to an actual MHD facility and is adequate for testing HTAH materials. The temperature conditions in the furnace range from approximately 1600 C to 1890 C, and velocities of approximately 12 m/s to 100 m/s were measured depending on the location in the furnace. The evaluated tube was placed in the furnace in a reducing environment with approximately 14 m/s velocity, 1650 C gas temperature, and 1230 C tube temperature.

  6. Infrared Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The heating units shown in the accompanying photos are Panelbloc infrared heaters, energy savers which burn little fuel in relation to their effective heat output. Produced by Bettcher Manufacturing Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, Panelblocs are applicable to industrial or other facilities which have ceilings more than 12 feet high, such as those pictured: at left the Bare Hills Tennis Club, Baltimore, Maryland and at right, CVA Lincoln- Mercury, Gaithersburg, Maryland. The heaters are mounted high above the floor and they radiate infrared energy downward. Panelblocs do not waste energy by warming the surrounding air. Instead, they beam invisible heat rays directly to objects which absorb the radiation- people, floors, machinery and other plant equipment. All these objects in turn re-radiate the energy to the air. A key element in the Panelbloc design is a coating applied to the aluminized steel outer surface of the heater. This coating must be corrosion resistant at high temperatures and it must have high "emissivity"-the ability of a surface to emit radiant energy. The Bettcher company formerly used a porcelain coating, but it caused a production problem. Bettcher did not have the capability to apply the material in its own plant, so the heaters had to be shipped out of state for porcelainizing, which entailed extra cost. Bettcher sought a coating which could meet the specifications yet be applied in its own facilities. The company asked The Knowledge Availability Systems Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a NASA Industrial Applications Center (IAC), for a search of NASA's files

  7. Heat flux: thermohydraulic investigation of solar air heaters used in agro-industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmati Aidinlou, H.; Nikbakht, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    A new design of solar air heater simulator is presented to comply with the extensive applications inagro-industry. A wise installation of increased heat transfer surface area provided uniform and efficient heat diffusion over the duct. Nusselt number and friction factor have been investigated based on the constant roughness parameters such as relative roughness height (e/D), relative roughness pitch (P/e), angle of attack (α) and aspect ratio with Reynolds numbers ranging from 5000 to 19,000 in the fully developed region. Heat fluxes of 800, 900 and 1000 Wm-2 were provided. The enhancement in friction factor is observed to be 3.1656, 3.47 and 3.0856 times, and for the Nusselt number either, augmentation is calculated to be 1.4437, 1.4963 and 1.535 times, respectively, over the smooth duct for 800, 900 and 1000 Wm-2 heat fluxes. Thermohydraulic performance is plotted versus the Reynolds number based on the aforementioned roughness parameters at varying heat fluxes. The results show up that thermohydraulic performance is found to be maximum for 1000 Wm-2 at the average Reynolds number of 5151. Based on the results, we can verify that the introduced solar simulator can help analyzing and developing solar collector installations at the simulated heat fluxes.

  8. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 3: Appendix F through I

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  9. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  10. Air transportation noise technology overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggin, B.; Chestnutt, D.

    1973-01-01

    The NASA and DOT technology program planning for quieter air transportation systems is reviewed. To put this planning in context, the nature of the noise problem and the projected nature of the air transportation fleet are identified. The technology program planning reviewed here is discussed in relation to the following areas of activity: systems analysis, community acceptance, basic research and technology, and the various classes of civil aircraft, i.e. existing and advanced transports, powered-lift transports, and general aviation.

  11. Advanced Air Bag Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R. L.; Dowdy, M. W.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Kim. E.-H.; Moore, N. R.; VanZandt, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the concern for the growing number of air-bag-induced injuries and fatalities, the administrators of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to a cooperative effort that "leverages NHTSA's expertise in motor vehicle safety restraint systems and biomechanics with NASAs position as one of the leaders in advanced technology development... to enable the state of air bag safety technology to advance at a faster pace..." They signed a NASA/NHTSA memorandum of understanding for NASA to "evaluate air bag to assess advanced air bag performance, establish the technological potential for improved technology (smart) air bag systems, and identify key expertise and technology within the agency (i.e., NASA) that can potentially contribute significantly to the improved effectiveness of air bags." NASA is committed to contributing to NHTSAs effort to: (1) understand and define critical parameters affecting air bag performance; (2) systematically assess air bag technology state of the art and its future potential; and (3) identify new concepts for air bag systems. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) was selected by NASA to respond to the memorandum of understanding by conducting an advanced air bag technology assessment. JPL analyzed the nature of the need for occupant restraint, how air bags operate alone and with safety belts to provide restraint, and the potential hazards introduced by the technology. This analysis yielded a set of critical parameters for restraint systems. The researchers examined data on the performance of current air bag technology, and searched for and assessed how new technologies could reduce the hazards introduced by air bags while providing the restraint protection that is their primary purpose. The critical parameters which were derived are: (1) the crash severity; (2) the use of seat belts; (3) the physical characteristics of the occupants; (4) the

  12. ENVITEC shows off air technologies

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, R.W.

    1995-08-01

    The ENVITEC International Trade Fair for Environmental Protection and Waste Management Technologies, held in June in Duesseldorf, Germany, is the largest air pollution exhibition in the world and may be the largest environmental technology show overall. Visitors saw thousands of environmental solutions from 1,318 companies representing 29 countries and occupying roughly 43,000 square meters of exhibit space. Many innovations were displayed under the category, ``thermal treatment of air pollutants.`` New technologies include the following: regenerative thermal oxidizers; wet systems for removing pollutants; biological scrubbers;electrostatic precipitators; selective adsorption systems; activated-coke adsorbers; optimization of scrubber systems; and air pollution monitors.

  13. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase

  14. Development of a double-effect air conditioner-heater (deach) phase 2. Final report, January 1989-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    De Vuono, A.C.; Landstrom, D.K.; Osborne, R.L.; Christensen, R.N.; Flanigan, L.

    1992-12-01

    The report describes the results of Phase II of a multi-phase project to develop a high-efficiency, gas-fired, residential size air-conditioner/heater based on a double-effect, absorption cycle using LiBr and water as working fluids. The results discussed include experimental and analytical analysis of various options for key components and subsystems including absorber, direct expansion evaporator, solution heat exchangers and burner/generator subsystem. The thermodynamic model used to evaluate various system design tradeoffs is also discussed. The results of the Phase II effort provided the basis for full-scale, integrated breadboard testing to be conducted in Phase III of the project.

  15. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  16. Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in a rib grit roughened surface solar air heater using CFD

    SciTech Connect

    Karmare, S.V.; Tikekar, A.N.

    2010-03-15

    This paper presents the study of fluid flow and heat transfer in a solar air heater by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) which reduces time and cost. Lower side of collector plate is made rough with metal ribs of circular, square and triangular cross-section, having 60 inclinations to the air flow. The grit rib elements are fixed on the surface in staggered manner to form defined grid. The system and operating parameters studied are: e/D{sub h} = 0.044, p/e = 17.5 and l/s = 1.72, for the Reynolds number range 3600-17,000. To validate CFD results, experimental investigations were carried out in the laboratory. It is found that experimental and CFD analysis results give the good agreement. The optimization of rib geometry and its angle of attack is also done. The square cross-section ribs with 58 angle of attack give maximum heat transfer. The percentage enhancement in the heat transfer for square plate over smooth surface is 30%. (author)

  17. Transmission of Mycobacterium chimaera from Heater-Cooler Units during Cardiac Surgery despite an Ultraclean Air Ventilation System.

    PubMed

    Sommerstein, Rami; Rüegg, Christian; Kohler, Philipp; Bloemberg, Guido; Kuster, Stefan P; Sax, Hugo

    2016-06-01

    Heater-cooler units (HCUs) were recently identified as a source of Mycobacterium chimaera causing surgical site infections. We investigated transmission of this bacterium from HCUs to the surgical field by using a thermic anemometer and particle counter, videotape of an operating room equipped with an ultraclean laminar airflow ventilation system, and bacterial culture sedimentation plates in a nonventilated room. Smoke from the HCU reached the surgical field in 23 s by merging with ultraclean air. The HCU produced on average 5.2, 139, and 14.8 particles/min in the surgical field at positions Off, On/oriented toward, and On/oriented away, respectively. Culture plates were positive for M. chimaera <5 m from the HCU in the test room. These experiments confirm airborne transmission of M. chimaera aerosols from a contaminated HCU to an open surgical field despite ultraclean air ventilation. Efforts to mitigate infectious risks during surgery should consider contamination from water sources and airflow-generating devices. PMID:27070958

  18. Development and Field Trial of Dimpled-Tube Technology for Chemical Industry Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov

    2006-10-12

    Most approaches to increasing heat transfer rates in the convection sections of gas-fired process heaters involve the incorporation of fins, baffles, turbulizers, etc. to increase either the heat transfer surface area or turbulence or both. Although these approaches are effective in increasing the heat transfer rates, this increase is invariably accompanied by an associated increase in convection section pressure drop as well as, for heaters firing ‘dirty’ fuel mixtures, increased fouling of the tubes – both of which are highly undesirable. GTI has identified an approach that will increase heat transfer rates without a significant increase in pressure drop or fouling rate. Compared to other types of heat transfer enhancement approaches, the proposed dimpled tube approach achieves very high heat transfer rates at the lowest pressure drops. Incorporating this approach into convection sections of chemical industry fired process heaters may increase energy efficiency by 3-5%. The energy efficiency increase will allow reducing firing rates to provide the required heating duty while reducing the emissions of CO2 and NOx.

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Turbulent Flows through a Solar Air Heater Having Square-Sectioned Transverse Rib Roughness on the Absorber Plate

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Anil Singh; Bhagoria, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Solar air heater is a type of heat exchanger which transforms solar radiation into heat energy. The thermal performance of conventional solar air heater has been found to be poor because of the low convective heat transfer coefficient from the absorber plate to the air. Use of artificial roughness on a surface is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer. A CFD-based investigation of turbulent flow through a solar air heater roughened with square-sectioned transverse rib roughness has been performed. Three different values of rib-pitch (P) and rib-height (e) have been taken such that the relative roughness pitch (P/e = 14.29) remains constant. The relative roughness height, e/D, varies from 0.021 to 0.06, and the Reynolds number, Re, varies from 3800 to 18,000. The results predicted by CFD show that the average heat transfer, average flow friction, and thermohydraulic performance parameter are strongly dependent on the relative roughness height. A maximum value of thermohydraulic performance parameter has been found to be 1.8 for the range of parameters investigated. Comparisons with previously published work have been performed and found to be in excellent agreement. PMID:24222752

  20. Thermal performance predictions of flat-plate solar collector air heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oneill, T. C.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program was written that models heat exchanges occurring within flat plate solar air collectors and which computes the incoming solar flux and heat losses to the environment. Internal collector temperatures and thermal efficiencies are predicted for either steady state or transient cases from finite difference solutions to a set of energy balance equations. These relations are written for thermal modes that are generated and linked together by the internal deck logic. The program was utilized in a study of three types of air collectors. The first two configurations employed crossflow impingement along the backside of their absorbers to augment heat transfer coefficients developed at those surfaces, while the third used a rock matrix absorber to expand its surface area for heat transfer. In addition, the first collector replaced the conventional stationary plate absorber of the second design by a traveling belt.

  1. High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission, Integrated Process Heater System

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Howard; Boral, Anindya; Chhotray, San; Martin, Matthew

    2006-06-19

    The team of TIAX LLC, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, and Callidus Technologies, LLC conducted a six-year program to develop an ultra-low emission process heater burner and an advanced high efficiency heater design. This project addresses the critical need of process heater operators for reliable, economical emission reduction technologies to comply with stringent emission regulations, and for heater design alternatives that reduce process heater energy requirements without significant cost increase. The key project targets were NOx emissions of 10 ppm (@ 3% O2), and a heater thermal efficiency of 95 percent. The ultra low NOx burner was developed through a series of pilot-scale and field tests combined with computational fluid dynamic modeling to arrive at simultaneous low emissions and suitable flame shape and stability. Pilot scale tests were run at TIAX, at the 2 MMBtu/hr scale, and at Callidus at 8 MMBtu/hr. The full scale burner was installed on a 14 burner atmospheric pipestill furnace at an ExxonMobil refinery. A variety of burner configurations, gas tips and flame stabilizers were tested to determine the lowest emissions with acceptable flame shape and stability. The resulting NOx emissions were 22 ppm on average. Starting in 2001, Callidus commercialized the original ultra low NOx burner and made subsequent design improvements in a series of commercial burners evolving from the original concept and/or development. Emissions in the field with the ultra low-NOx burner over a broad spectrum of heater applications have varied from 5 ppm to 30 ppm depending on heater geometry, heater service, fuel and firing capacity. To date, 1550 of the original burners, and 2500 of subsequent generation burners have been sold by Callidus. The advanced heater design was developed by parametric evaluations of a variety of furnace and combustion air preheater configurations and technologies for enhancing convective and radiative heat transfer. The design evolution

  2. Experimental study of heat transfer enhancement in solar air heater with different angle of attack of V-down continuous ribs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istanto, Tri; Danardono, Dominicus; Yaningsih, Indri; Wijayanta, Agung Tri

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an experimental study on the effect of angle attack in V-down continuous ribs on heat transfer and friction factor in an artificially roughened air heater duct is presented. The electric heater with a constant heat flux as a simulation of the indoor testing solar air heater is used to heat the roughened part of rectangular duct while other parts were insulated. The system and operating conditions were used to decide the range of parameters for the study. The ratio of the width to height of the duct (W/H) was 12, the relative roughness pitch (p/e) was 10, the relative roughness height (e/Dh) was 0.033 and the angle of attack of flow (α) was 30-80°. The air flow rate corresponded to Reynolds number between 3500 -10,000. The result of heat transfer and friction factor had been compared to those for smooth duct under similar flow and thermal boundary condition. The thermo-hydraulic performance also had been considered. As a result, the maximum enhancement of Nusselt number (Nu) and friction factor(f) were 2.34 and 2.45 times, respectively. For each variation of angle attack of flow, the thermo-hydraulic performance has been compared and the result shows that a V-down continuous rib with the angle of attack of flow as 60° gave the best thermo-hydraulic performance.

  3. MHD oxidant intermediate temperature ceramic heater study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Saari, D. P.; Marksberry, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The use of three types of directly fired ceramic heaters for preheating oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1144K was investigated. The three types of ceramic heaters are: (1) a fixed bed, periodic flow ceramic brick regenerative heater; (2) a ceramic pebble regenerative heater. The heater design, performance and operating characteristics under conditions in which the particulate matter is not solidified are evaluated. A comparison and overall evaluation of the three types of ceramic heaters and temperature range determination at which the particulate matter in the MHD exhaust gas is estimated to be a dry powder are presented.

  4. Air Conditioning and Heating Technology--II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattone, Felix

    Twenty-eight chapters and numerous drawings provide information for instructors and students of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 1 lists the occupational opportunities in the field. Chapter 2 covers the background or development of the industry of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 3 includes some of the principle…

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION AND INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification and indoor air. RTI has responsibility for a pilot program for indoor air products as part of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The program objective is to further the development of sel...

  6. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  7. Experimental investigations on decay heat removal in advanced nuclear reactors using single heater rod test facility: Air alone in the annular gap

    SciTech Connect

    Bopche, Santosh B.; Sridharan, Arunkumar

    2010-11-15

    During a loss of coolant accident in nuclear reactors, radiation heat transfer accounts for a significant amount of the total heat transfer in the fuel bundle. In case of heavy water moderator nuclear reactors, the decay heat of a fuel bundle enclosed in the pressure tube and outer concentric calandria tube can be transferred to the moderator. Radiation heat transfer plays a significant role in removal of decay heat from the fuel rods to the moderator, which is available outside the calandria tube. A single heater rod test facility is designed and fabricated as a part of preliminary investigations. The objective is to anticipate the capability of moderator to remove decay heat, from the reactor core, generated after shut down. The present paper focuses mainly on the role of moderator in removal of decay heat, for situation with air alone in the annular gap of pressure tube and calandria tube. It is seen that the naturally aspirated air is capable of removing the heat generated in the system compared to the standstill air or stagnant water situations. It is also seen that the flowing moderator is capable of removing a greater fraction of heat generated by the heater rod compared to a stagnant pool of boiling moderator. (author)

  8. Investigation of advanced propulsion technologies: The RAM accelerator and the flowing gas radiation heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Knowlen, C.; Mattick, A. T.; Hertzberg, A.

    1992-01-01

    The two principal areas of advanced propulsion investigated are the ram accelerator and the flowing gas radiation heater. The concept of the ram accelerator is presented as a hypervelocity launcher for large-scale aeroballistic range applications in hypersonics and aerothermodynamics research. The ram accelerator is an in-bore ramjet device in which a projectile shaped like the centerbody of a supersonic ramjet is propelled in a stationary tube filled with a tailored combustible gas mixture. Combustion on and behind the projectile generates thrust which accelerates it to very high velocities. The acceleration can be tailored for the 'soft launch' of instrumented models. The distinctive reacting flow phenomena that have been observed in the ram accelerator are relevant to the aerothermodynamic processes in airbreathing hypersonic propulsion systems and are useful for validating sophisticated CFD codes. The recently demonstrated scalability of the device and the ability to control the rate of acceleration offer unique opportunities for the use of the ram accelerator as a large-scale hypersonic ground test facility. The flowing gas radiation receiver is a novel concept for using solar energy to heat a working fluid for space power or propulsion. Focused solar radiation is absorbed directly in a working gas, rather than by heat transfer through a solid surface. Previous theoretical analysis had demonstrated that radiation trapping reduces energy loss compared to that of blackbody receivers, and enables higher efficiencies and higher peak temperatures. An experiment was carried out to measure the temperature profile of an infrared-active gas and demonstrate the effect of radiation trapping. The success of this effort validates analytical models of heat transfer in this receiver, and confirms the potential of this approach for achieving high efficiency space power and propulsion.

  9. Investigation of air transportation technology at MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    A summary of the research done by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is addressed including Loran-C for guidance in flying approaches, an air traffic control simulator for the Manned Vehicle Simulation Research Facility, and an air traffic collision model theory.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification (ETV) for indoor air products. RTI is developing the framework for a verification testing program for indoor air products, as part of EPA's ETV program. RTI is establishing test protocols for products that fit into three...

  11. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  12. Convective heater

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-12-27

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation. 14 figs.

  13. Convective heater

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  14. Convective heater

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  15. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in which the engine exhaust gases are conducted into or through any space occupied by persons or any heater which conducts engine compartment air into any such space. (2) Unenclosed flame heaters. Any type... air, heated or to be heated, from the engine compartment or from direct contact with any portion...

  16. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in which the engine exhaust gases are conducted into or through any space occupied by persons or any heater which conducts engine compartment air into any such space. (2) Unenclosed flame heaters. Any type... air, heated or to be heated, from the engine compartment or from direct contact with any portion...

  17. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in which the engine exhaust gases are conducted into or through any space occupied by persons or any heater which conducts engine compartment air into any such space. (2) Unenclosed flame heaters. Any type... air, heated or to be heated, from the engine compartment or from direct contact with any portion...

  18. Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Solar Air Heater with Roughened Duct Having Arc-Shaped Elements as Roughness Element on the Absorber Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anil Prakash; Goel, Varun; Vashishtha, Siddhartha; Kumar, Amit

    2016-07-01

    An experimental study has been carried out for the heat transfer and friction characteristics for arc shaped roughness element used in solar air heaters. Duct has an aspect ratio (W/H) of 11, relative roughness pitch (p/e) range of 4-16, relative roughness height (e/D) range of 0.027-0.045, Reynolds number ( Re) range of 2200-22,000 and arc angle (α) was kept constant at 60°. The effects of Re, relative roughness pitch (p/e) and relative roughness height (e/D) on heat transfer and friction factor have been discussed. The results obtained for Nusselt number and friction factor has been compared with smooth solar air heater to see the enhancement in heat transfer and friction factor and it is found out that considerable enhancement takes place in case of heat transfer as well as in friction factor. Correlations were also developed for Nusselt number and friction factor. Thermo-hydraulic performance parameter is also calculated for the same.

  19. Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Solar Air Heater with Roughened Duct Having Arc-Shaped Elements as Roughness Element on the Absorber Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anil Prakash; Goel, Varun; Vashishtha, Siddhartha; Kumar, Amit

    2016-05-01

    An experimental study has been carried out for the heat transfer and friction characteristics for arc shaped roughness element used in solar air heaters. Duct has an aspect ratio (W/H) of 11, relative roughness pitch (p/e) range of 4-16, relative roughness height (e/D) range of 0.027-0.045, Reynolds number (Re) range of 2200-22,000 and arc angle (α) was kept constant at 60°. The effects of Re, relative roughness pitch (p/e) and relative roughness height (e/D) on heat transfer and friction factor have been discussed. The results obtained for Nusselt number and friction factor has been compared with smooth solar air heater to see the enhancement in heat transfer and friction factor and it is found out that considerable enhancement takes place in case of heat transfer as well as in friction factor. Correlations were also developed for Nusselt number and friction factor. Thermo-hydraulic performance parameter is also calculated for the same.

  20. Development of a Double-Effect Air-Conditioner Heater (DEACH). Phase 3 and final report, January 1990-December 1991. Phase 3, September 1987-December 1991. Overall project

    SciTech Connect

    De Vuono, A.C.; Hanna, W.T.; Osborne, R.L.; Ball, D.A.

    1992-04-01

    The report describes development efforts on a Double-Effect Air-Conditioner Heater (DEACH). Based on a double-effect LiBr/H2O absorption cycle, the DEACH was focused on residential applications with the primary objective being a low first-cost efficient gas-fired cooling system. The concept included compact integrated heat exchangers, direct heat rejection to outdoor air (no cooling tower), and ability to self-decrystallize. The performance goals of the system were essentially demonstrated in a full-scale (3 refrigeration ton), fully integrated breadboard. However, the projected manufacturing cost was somewhat above the original target and even further above that deemed competitive at the end of the project. Therefore, technical development was stopped in late 1991.

  1. Positive Displacement Compressor Technology for Air Congitioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi

    Trends of compressor technologies for air conditioners are presented in this paper. HFC refrigerants such is R410A and R407C are promising candidates as an alternative for R22. Performance of rotary and scroll compressors in the operation with R410A and R407C are described. In addition, compressor technologies such as efficiency improvement, reliability and simulation methods are described in both cases of rotary and scroll compressors. Advanced compressor technologies developed for air conditioners are desired in the field of the global environment protection and the energy saving.

  2. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensively utilizing a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives database, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings are presented relating the status of air liquefaction technology, both as a singular technical area, and also that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sink; liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices; air collection and enrichment systems (ACES); and technically related engine concepts.

  3. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  4. Technology for future air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The requirements and opportunities for technological development in transport aircraft of the next generation are reviewed, focusing primarily on conventional, subsonic aircraft. Advances in computational aerodynamics and computer-aided design and manufacturing (in numerically controlled processes) are noted as well as improved wind tunnel testing and drag reduction techniques. Advances in aeroelasticity prediction have made it possible to use flexible, high-aspect-ratio wings without large weight penalties. Weight reduction may be achieved by the use of composite aircraft structures and superplastic forming combined with diffusion bonding, however composites require improvement in manufacturing techniques and mechanical properties in order to gain general acceptance. Propulsion systems can be improved in engine fuel efficiency, control, durability, environmental compatibility (exhaust and noise emissions), and fuel specifications. In avionics, due to the growth of low-cost, miniaturized packages, opportunities exist in the fields of digital controls, navigation, guidance and communication. Applications of new technologies to various aspects of flight safety are also outlined.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the activities and progress of the pilot Air Pollution Control Technologies (APCT) portion of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program during the period from 09/15/97 to 09/15/02. The objective of the ETV Program is to verify the performance of...

  6. CFD Analysis to Study Effect of Circular Vortex Generator Placed in Inlet Section to Investigate Heat Transfer Aspects of Solar Air Heater

    PubMed Central

    Gawande, Vipin B.; Dhoble, A. S.; Zodpe, D. B.

    2014-01-01

    CFD analysis of 2-dimensional artificially roughened solar air heater duct with additional circular vortex generator, inserted in inlet section is carried out. Circular transverse ribs on the absorber plate are placed as usual. The analysis is done to investigate the effect of inserting additional vortex generator on the heat transfer and flow friction characteristics inside the solar air heater duct. This investigation covers relative roughness pitch in the range of 10 ≤ P/e ≤ 25 and relevant Reynolds numbers in the range of 3800 ≤ Re ≤ 18000. Relative roughness height (e/D) is kept constant as 0.03 for analysis. The turbulence created due to additional circular vortex generator increases the heat transfer rate and at the same time there is also increase in friction factor values. For combined arrangement of ribs and vortex generator, maximum Nusselt number is found to be 2.05 times that of the smooth duct. The enhancement in Nusselt number with ribs and additional vortex generator is found to be 1.06 times that of duct using ribs alone. The maximum increase in friction factor with ribs and circular vortex generator is found to be 2.91 times that of the smooth duct. Friction factor in a combined arrangement is 1.114 times that in a duct with ribs alone on the absorber plate. The augmentation in Thermal Enhancement Factor (TEF) with vortex generator in inlet section is found to be 1.06 times more than with circular ribs alone on the absorber plate. PMID:25254251

  7. CFD analysis to study effect of circular vortex generator placed in inlet section to investigate heat transfer aspects of solar air heater.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Vipin B; Dhoble, A S; Zodpe, D B

    2014-01-01

    CFD analysis of 2-dimensional artificially roughened solar air heater duct with additional circular vortex generator, inserted in inlet section is carried out. Circular transverse ribs on the absorber plate are placed as usual. The analysis is done to investigate the effect of inserting additional vortex generator on the heat transfer and flow friction characteristics inside the solar air heater duct. This investigation covers relative roughness pitch in the range of 10 ≤ P/e ≤ 25 and relevant Reynolds numbers in the range of 3800 ≤ Re ≤ 18000. Relative roughness height (e/D) is kept constant as 0.03 for analysis. The turbulence created due to additional circular vortex generator increases the heat transfer rate and at the same time there is also increase in friction factor values. For combined arrangement of ribs and vortex generator, maximum Nusselt number is found to be 2.05 times that of the smooth duct. The enhancement in Nusselt number with ribs and additional vortex generator is found to be 1.06 times that of duct using ribs alone. The maximum increase in friction factor with ribs and circular vortex generator is found to be 2.91 times that of the smooth duct. Friction factor in a combined arrangement is 1.114 times that in a duct with ribs alone on the absorber plate. The augmentation in Thermal Enhancement Factor (TEF) with vortex generator in inlet section is found to be 1.06 times more than with circular ribs alone on the absorber plate. PMID:25254251

  8. PROMOTING AIR QUALITY THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the promotion of improved air quality through environmental technology verifications (ETVs). In 1995, the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development began the ETV Program in response to President Clinton's "Bridge to a Sustainable Future" and Vice Presiden...

  9. Air Force Research Laboratory Cryocooler Technology Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Thomas M.; Smith, D. Adam; Easton, Ryan M.

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the cryogenic refrigerator and cryogenic integration programs in development and characterization under the Cryogenic Cooling Technology Group, Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The vision statement for the group is to support the space community as the center of excellence for developing and transitioning space cryogenic thermal management technologies. This paper will describe the range of Stirling, pulse tube; reverse Brayton, and Joule-Thomson cycle cryocoolers currently under development to meet current and future Air Force and Department of Defense requirements. Cooling requirements at 10K, 35K, 60K, 95K, and multistage cooling requirements at 35/85K are addressed. In order to meet these various requirements, the Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate is pursuing various strategic cryocooler and cryogenic integration options. The Air Force Research Laboratory, working with industry partners, is also developing several advanced cryogenic integration technologies that will result in the reduction in current cryogenic system integration penalties and design time. These technologies include the continued development of gimbaled transport systems, 35K and 10K thermal storage units, heat pipes, cryogenic straps, and thermal switches.

  10. Next-generation air measurement technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation at a workshop in Chicago on emerging air monitoring technologies, hosted by a local nonprofit. The audience is composed of a mixture of technical backgrounds. This presentation will be part of an opening panel and the goal is to give an overview of the st...

  11. NOX CONTROL BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch has performed research and developed technologies for NOx reduction via combustion modification. Techniques such as low-excess air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, low NOx bu...

  12. Air abrasion: an old technology reborn.

    PubMed

    Berry, E A; Eakle, W S; Summitt, J B

    1999-08-01

    Recently, air abrasion has experienced a rebirth in restorative dentistry. Originally developed in the late 1940s, the principle of air abrasion is the imparting of kinetic energy to tiny aluminum oxide particles that are projected by a stream of compressed air or gas and expelled from a small nozzle. The force generated by the relatively hard particles striking a relatively hard surface is sufficient to cut into that surface. In the last decade, more than a dozen models of air abrasion units have been introduced into the marketplace and more are on the way. Manufacturers have developed air abrasion instruments that offer a broad range of features, from small table-top units to self-contained systems with compressors, vacuums, and curing lights. The costs range dramatically--from $1,000 to $20,000 or more--depending on the complexity of the features and attachments. Manufacturers make a variety of claims to support the value of this technology to the practicing dentist. A term often used to describe one of the benefits of air abrasion is microdentistry. The claim is that smaller, less invasive tooth preparations may be accomplished using air abrasion than with a traditional bur and air turbine. This may be true in some instances, but it would certainly depend on the operator's experience and ability to visually discern fine detail. Other claims about air abrasion are that it can be used to cut into tooth structure without local anesthesia and that it should be used on all stained grooves or fissures to determine if incipient carious lesions are present. Despite the limited number of clinical studies, the popularity of air abrasion continues to grow. To gain additional insight about these claims and to see what might be on the horizon for this technology, I spoke with three highly respected educators who are recognized for their expertise in air abrasion. What they said should give the reader a better understanding of how air abrasion might augment restorative

  13. Technology Solutions Case Study: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  14. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviation's ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  15. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviations ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe, which are envisioned as being powered by Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems.

  16. ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and co...

  17. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  18. ECONOMICS AND PERFORMANCE MODELING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) is active in the development, refinement, and maintenance of economic and performance evaluation models that provide agency-wide support for estimating costs for air pollution preventio...

  19. Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technology Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, P. J.; Counce, D. M.

    1993-12-01

    The Alternative Fluorocarbon Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS), a consortium of fluorocarbon manufacturers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are collaborating on a project to evaluate the energy use and global warming impacts of CFC alternatives. The goal of this project is to identify technologies that could replace the use of CFC's in refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning equipment; to evaluate the direct impacts of chemical emissions on global warming; and to compile accurate estimates of energy use and indirect CO2 emissions of substitute technologies. The first phase of this work focused on alternatives that could be commercialized before the year 2000. The second phase of the project is examining not-in-kind and next-generation technologies that could be developed to replace CFC's, HCFC's, and HFC's over a longer period. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory held a workshop on June 23-25, 1993. The preliminary agenda covered a broad range of alternative technologies and at least one speaker was invited to make a brief presentation at the workshop on each technology. Some of the invited speakers were unable to participate, and in a few cases other experts could not be identified. As a result, those technologies were not represented at the workshop. Each speaker was asked to prepare a five to seven page paper addressing six key issues concerning the technology he/she is developing. These points are listed in the sidebar. Each expert also spoke for 20 to 25 minutes at the workshop and answered questions from the other participants concerning the presentation and area of expertise. The primary goal of the presentations and discussions was to identify the developmental state of the technology and to obtain comparable data on system efficiencies.

  20. HUMID AIR TURBINE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Tuthill

    2002-07-18

    The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Technology Development Program focused on obtaining HAT cycle combustor technology that will be the foundation of future products. The work carried out under the auspices of the HAT Program built on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work performed in the past by Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This Program is an integral part of technology base development within the Advanced Turbine Systems Program at the Department of Energy (DOE) and its experiments stretched over 5 years. The goal of the project was to fill in technological data gaps in the development of the HAT cycle and identify a combustor configuration that would efficiently burn high moisture, high-pressure gaseous fuels with low emissions. The major emphasis will be on the development of kinetic data, computer modeling, and evaluations of combustor configurations. The Program commenced during the 4th Quarter of 1996 and closed in the 4th Quarter of 2001. It teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) with P&W, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, kraftWork Systems Inc. The execution of the program started with bench-top experiments that were conducted at UTRC for extending kinetic mechanisms to HAT cycle temperature, pressure, and moisture conditions. The fundamental data generated in the bench-top experiments was incorporated into the analytical tools available at P&W to design the fuel injectors and combustors. The NETL then used the hardware to conduct combustion rig experiments to evaluate the performance of the combustion systems at elevated pressure and temperature conditions representative of the HAT cycle. The results were integrated into systems analysis done by kraftWork to verify that sufficient understanding of the technology had been achieved and that large-scale technological application and demonstration could be undertaken as follow-on activity. An optional program extended the

  1. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  2. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  3. Packaged die heater

    SciTech Connect

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  4. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  5. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James D.; Biermayer, Peter; King, Derek

    2008-10-27

    Energy required for water heating accounts for approximately 40percent of national residential natural gas consumption in California. With water heating contributing such a substantial portion of natural gas consumption, it is important to pay attention to water heater efficiencies. This paper reports on an investigation of a patented, buoyancy-operated flue damper. It is an add-on design to a standard atmospherically vented natural-draft gas-fired storage water heater. The flue damper was expected to reduce off-cycle standby losses, which would lead to improvements in the efficiency of the water heater. The test results showed that the Energy Factor of the baseline water heater was 0.576. The recovery efficiency was 0.768. The standby heat loss coefficient was 10.619 (BTU/hr-oF). After the damper was installed, the test results show an Energy Factor for the baseline water heater of 0.605. The recovery efficiency was 0.786. The standby heat loss coefficient was 9.135 (BTU/hr-oF). The recovery efficiency increased 2.3percent and the standby heat loss coefficient decreased 14percent. When the burner was on, the baseline water heater caused 28.0 CFM of air to flow from the room. During standby, the flow was 12.4 CFM. The addition of the damper reduced the flow when the burner was on to 23.5 CFM. During standby, flow with the damper was reduced to 11.1 CFM. The flue damper reduced off-cycle standby losses, and improved the efficiency of the water heater. The flue damper also improved the recovery efficiency of the water heater by restricting on-cycle air flows through the flue.With or without the flue damper, off-cycle air flow upthe stack is nearly half the air flow rate as when the burner is firing.

  6. Air modeling: Air dispersion models; regulatory applications and technological advances

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.; Liles, R.

    1995-09-01

    Air dispersion models are a useful and practical tool for both industry and regulatory agencies. They serve as tools for engineering, permitting, and regulations development. Their cost effectiveness and ease of implementation compared to ambient monitoring is perhaps their most-appealing trait. Based on the current momentum within the U.S. EPA to develop better models and contain regulatory burdens on industry, it is likely that air dispersion modeling will be a major player in future air regulatory initiatives.

  7. Infrared microradiometry of thermal ink jet heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Olaf; Drews, Reinhold E.

    1989-07-01

    Thermal inkjet heaters were studied by infrared microradiometry using an apparatus similar to that reported in the literature. An InSb infrared sensor is mounted on a modified Leitz microscope equipped with a 36X reflecting objective. The system looks at a spot on the heater about 14 μm in diameter. The locally emitted infrared output is used as a qualitative measure of the local temperature. The temperature distribution on the heater surface is studied by constructing two-dimensional temperature contour maps. Current pulsing is carried out in air or in the presence of a high boiling point liquid. Other variables include pulse width, frequency, voltage, and heater geometry. Temperature profiles obtained in this way are in good agreement with those obtained from modeling calculations. Cycling has been carried out with several different passivation coatings with an emphasis on Ta passivation. Microradiometry of Ta-passivated heaters is complicated by the formation of Ta2O5 under most pulsing conditions and Ta2O5 has a much higher emissivity than tantalum. Burn-in curves (infrared output versus time) are used to monitor this oxidation process. Since the Ta2O5 thickness is not uniform over the heater surface, an accurate interpretation of the temperature contour maps of Ta-covered heaters is not easy. Microradiometry data of oxidized Ta heaters are supplemented with data obtained using optical microscopy, SEM, and profilometry. By overstressing heaters, hot spots were generated and studied using temperature contour maps. Subsequently, failed heaters were studied using SEM, and from these data failure mechanisms are postulated.

  8. An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Peter F.; Adams, Milton B.; Allinger, Deborah F.; Rosch, Gene; Kuchar, James

    1998-01-01

    The continuing growth of air traffic will place demands on NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) system that cannot be accommodated without the creation of significant delays and economic impacts. To deal with this situation, work has begun to develop new approaches to providing a safe and economical air transportation infrastructure. Many of these emerging air transport technologies will represent radically new approaches to ATM, both for ground and air operations.

  9. Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange is a two-year research effort to visualize the U. S. aviation industry at a point 50 years in the future, and to define potential communication solutions to meet those future data exchange needs. The research team, led by XCELAR, was tasked with identifying future National Airspace System (NAS) scenarios, determining requirements and functions (including gaps), investigating technical and business issues for air, ground, & air-to-ground interactions, and reporting on the results. The project was conducted under technical direction from NASA and in collaboration with XCELAR's partner, National Institute of Aerospace, and NASA technical representatives. Parallel efforts were initiated to define the information exchange functional needs of the future NAS, and specific communication link technologies to potentially serve those needs. Those efforts converged with the mapping of each identified future NAS function to potential enabling communication solutions; those solutions were then compared with, and ranked relative to, each other on a technical basis in a structured analysis process. The technical solutions emerging from that process were then assessed from a business case perspective to determine their viability from a real-world adoption and deployment standpoint. The results of that analysis produced a proposed set of future solutions and most promising candidate technologies. Gap analyses were conducted at two points in the process, the first examining technical factors, and the second as part of the business case analysis. In each case, no gaps or unmet needs were identified in applying the solutions evaluated to the requirements identified. The future communication solutions identified in the research comprise both specific link technologies and two enabling technologies that apply to most or all specific links. As a result, the research resulted in a new analysis approach, viewing the

  10. AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH (AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fundamental and applied combustion research has been conducted by the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB)and its predecessors since EPA's inception. APTB has been instrumental in the development and successful application of flue...

  11. PUBLICATIONS (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division produces and publishes highly specialized technical and scientific documents related to APTB's research. Areas of research covered include artificial intelligence, CFC destruction,...

  12. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) is always interested in the potential for cooperative research if overlap occurs between the research goals of external organizations and APTB's research goals.APTB has participated i...

  13. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  14. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  15. 73. SECOND FLOOR, HEATER ROOM, BAY 31/5 SOUTH, WITH FANFORCED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. SECOND FLOOR, HEATER ROOM, BAY 31/5 SOUTH, WITH FAN-FORCED HOT AIR HEATER; TO SOUTHEAST - Ford Motor Company Edgewater Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 309 River Road, Edgewater, Bergen County, NJ

  16. Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor AirDistribution (UFAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Tom

    2004-06-01

    Recent trends in today's office environment make it increasingly more difficult for conventional centralized HVAC systems to satisfy the environmental preferences of individual officer workers using the standardized approach of providing a single uniform thermal and ventilation environment. Since its original introduction in West Germany during the 1950s, the open plan office containing modular workstation furniture and partitions is now the norm. Thermostatically controlled zones in open plan offices typically encompass relatively large numbers of workstations in which a diverse work population having a wide range of preferred temperatures must be accommodated. Modern office buildings are also being impacted by a large influx of heat-generating equipment (computers, printers, etc.) whose loads may vary considerably from workstation to workstation. Offices are often reconfigured during the building's lifetime to respond to changing tenant needs, affecting the distribution of within-space loads and the ventilation pathways among and over office partitions. Compounding this problem, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of the comfort, health, and productivity of individual office workers, giving rise to an increased demand among employers and employees for a high-quality work environment. During recent years an increasing amount of attention has been paid to air distribution systems that individually condition the immediate environments of office workers within their workstations to address the issues outlined above. As with task/ambient lighting systems, the controls for the ''task'' components of these systems are partially or entirely decentralized and under the control of the occupants. Typically, the occupant has control over the speed and direction, and in some cases the temperature, of the incoming air supply. Variously called ''task/ambient conditioning,'' ''localized thermal distribution,'' and ''personalized air conditioning'' systems, these

  17. Rapid evolution of air sensor technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor air pollution measurement approaches have historically been conducted using stationary shelters that require significant space, power, and expertise to operate. The cost and logistical requirements to conduct monitoring have limited the number of locations with continuou...

  18. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) The heat exchanger temperature exceeds safe limits. (ii) The ventilating air temperature exceeds safe... might accumulate within the combustion chamber or the heat exchanger. In addition— (1) Each part of any... for any individual heater must— (i) Be independent of components serving any other heater whose...

  19. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) The heat exchanger temperature exceeds safe limits. (ii) The ventilating air temperature exceeds safe... might accumulate within the combustion chamber or the heat exchanger. In addition— (1) Each part of any... for any individual heater must— (i) Be independent of components serving any other heater whose...

  20. An Innovative Reactor Technology to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Rempel, Jane

    2013-03-30

    As residential buildings achieve tighter envelopes in order to minimize energy used for space heating and cooling, accumulation of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), becomes a major concern causing poor air quality and increased health risks. Current VOC removal methods include sorbents, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO), and increased ventilation, but these methods do not capture or destroy all VOCs or are prohibitively expensive to implement. TIAX's objective in this program was to develop a new VOC removal technology for residential buildings. This novel air purification technology is based on an innovative reactor and light source design along with UVPCO properties of the chosen catalyst to purify indoor air and enhance indoor air quality (IAQ). During the program we designed, fabricated and tested a prototype air purifier to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. We also measured kinetics of VOC destruction on photocatalysts, providing deep insight into reactor design.

  1. VERIFICATION TESTING OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the basis for quality assurance for the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center (APCT Center) operated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It describes the policies, organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, and qualit...

  2. IMPROVING AIR QUALITY THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program in 1995 as a means of working with the private sector to establish a market-based verification process available to all environmental technologies. Under EPA's Office of R...

  3. PUBLICATIONS - AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division (APPCD)publishes highly scientific and technical information developed through its four research branches. A list of key publications produced by the individual branches can be viewed by visiting the website for the respective bra...

  4. Explosives tester with heater

    DOEpatents

    Del Eckels, Joel; Nunes, Peter J.; Simpson, Randall L.; Whipple, Richard E.; Carter, J. Chance; Reynolds, John G.

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  5. An assessment of lighter than air technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F., Jr. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The workshop on LTA is summarized. The history and background are reviewed. The workshop reports for the following working groups are presented: policy, market analysis, economics, operations, and technology.

  6. AIRS-Light instrument concept and critical technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maschhoff, Kevin R.

    2002-12-01

    Understanding Earth's climate, atmospheric transport mechanisms, and the hydrologic cycle requires a precise knowledge of global atmospheric circulation, temperature profiles, and water vapor distribution. The accuracy of advanced sounders such as AIRS/AMSU/HSB on NASA's Aqua spacecraft can match radiosonde accuracy. It is essential to fold those capabilities fully into the NPOESS, enabling soundings of radiosonde accuracy every 6 hours around the globe on an operational basis. However, the size, mass, power demands, and thermal characteristics of the Aqua sounding instrument suite cannot be accommodated on the NPOESS spacecraft. AIRS-Light is an instrument concept, developed under the Instrument Incubator Program, which provides IR sounding performance identical to the AIRS instrument but uses advances in HgCdTe FPA technology and pulse tube cooler technology, as well as design changes, to dramatically reduce the size, mass, and power demand, allowing AIRS-Light to meet all NPOESS spacecraft interface requirements. The AIRS-Light Instrument Incubator program fostered the development of photovoltaic-mode HgCdTe detector array technology for the 13.5-15.4 μm band covered by photoconductive-mode HgCdTe arrays in AIRS, achieved state of the art results in this band, and substantially reduced the development risk for this last new technology needed for AIRS-Light implementation.

  7. AIR Technology: A Step Towards ARINC 653 in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufino, J.; Craveiro, J.; Schoofs, T.; Tatibana, C.; Windsor, J.

    2009-05-01

    The Integrated Modular Avionics and the ARINC 653 specifications are assuming a key role in the provision of a standard operating system interface for safety-critical applications in both the aeronautic and space markets. The AIR Technology, designed within the scope of an ESA initiative to develop a proof of concept, implements the notion of robust temporal and spatial partitioning. A different operating system kernel may be used per partition, furnishing the bare services to build the ARINC 653 application programming interface. This paper describes the advances done during AIR-II, an initiative to evolve the AIR Technology proof of concept towards an industrial product. Current prototype activities are based on RTEMS and on the SPARC V8 LEON3 processor and work is being done on the integration of Linux in the AIR Technology.

  8. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM (IAPCS) COST MODEL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL) Integrated Air Pollution Control System Cost Model is a compiled model written in FORTRAN and C language that is designed to be used on an IBM or compatible PC with 640K or lower RAM and at least 1.5 Mb of hard drive space. It ...

  9. ORIMULSION(R) RESEARCH STUDY (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to a 1998 Congressional request, the Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division began research as part of a study to evaluate the environmental impacts of Orimulsion(R). Orimulsion(R)is a fossil fuel composed of 70%...

  10. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  11. RESEARCH AREA -- CHLOROFLUOROCARBON (CFC) DESTRUCTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six thermal oxidation (incineration) processes were approved by the Montreal Protocol for the disposal of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances. The Air Pollution Technology Branch of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has eva...

  12. Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  13. 75 FR 80833 - Shipboard Air Emission Reduction Technology Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose The U.S. implemented the Clean... SECURITY Coast Guard Shipboard Air Emission Reduction Technology Report AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION..., in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency, on Ship Emission Reduction Technology...

  14. 53. THRUST SECTION HEATER AND GASEOUS NITROGEN PURGE CONTROLS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. THRUST SECTION HEATER AND GASEOUS NITROGEN PURGE CONTROLS ON EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK. LAUNCHER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive use of a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives data base, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented in 1986. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings relating the status of air liquefaction technology are presented both as a singular technical area, and also as that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; Heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; Para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; Hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; Hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sinks; Liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket type combustion devices; Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES); and Technically related engine concepts.

  16. Control Technologies for Room Air-conditioner and Packaged Air-conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Nobuhisa

    Trends of control technologies about air-conditioning machineries, especially room or packaged air conditioners, are presented in this paper. Multiple air conditioning systems for office buildings are mainly described as one application of the refrigeration cycle control technologies including sensors for thermal comfort and heating/ cooling loads are also described as one of the system control technologies. Inverter systems and related technologies for driving variable speed compressors are described in both case of including induction motors and brushless DC motors. Technologies for more accurate control to meet various kind of regulations such as ozone layer destruction, energy saving and global warming, and for eliminating harmonic distortion of power source current, as a typical EMC problem, will be urgently desired.

  17. Air Force space power technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, R.; Mahefkey, T.; Hebblewaite, T.

    1980-01-01

    The military spacecraft power subsystem design requirements, developments goals, and planned technology efforts are summarized. The mission drivers of performance (weight and volume), hardening (survivability), autonomy, reliability, and miniaturization influence space mission effectiveness are outlined. The anticipated performance versus power level trends for reactor static conversion systems are illustrated. A conceptual design for a space based radar system is also given.

  18. AIRS-Light Instrument Concept and Critical Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maschhoff, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    Understanding Earth's climate, atmospheric transport mechanisms, and the hydrologic cycle requires a precise knowledge of global atmospheric circulation, temperature profiles, and water vapor distribution. The accuracy of advanced sounders such as AIRS/AMSU/HSB on NASA's Aqua spacecraft can match radiosonde accuracy. It is essential to fold those capabilities fully into the NPOESS, enabling soundings of radiosonde accuracy, every 6 hours around the globe on an operational basis. However, the size, mass, power demands, and thermal characteristics of the Aqua sounding instrument suite cannot be accommodated on the NPOESS spacecraft. AIRS-Light is an instrument concept, developed under the Instrument Incubator Program, which provides IR sounding performance identical to the AIRS instrument, but uses advances in HgCdTe FPA technology and pulse tube cooler technology, as well as design changes to dramatically reduce the size, mass, and power demand, allowing AIRS-Light to meet all NPOESS spacecraft interface requirements. The instrument concept includes substantial re-use of AIRS component designs, including the complex AIRS FPA, to reduce development risk and cost. The AIRS-Light Instrument Incubator program fostered the development of photovoltaic-mode HgCdTe detector array technology for the 13.5-15.4 micron band covered by photoconductive-mode HgCdTe arrays in AIRS, achieved state of the art results in this band, and substantially reduced the development risk for this last new technology needed for AIRS-Light implementation, A demonstration of a prototype 14.5-15.4 micron band IRFPA in a reduced heat-load dewar together with the IMAS pulse tube cryocooler is in progress.

  19. Comparison of absolute and relative air humidity sensors fabricated with inkjet printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selma, R.; Tarapata, G.; Marzecki, M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes design, manufacturing and testing of novelty humidity sensors manufactured in inkjet printing technology. Two types of sensors were produced - sensor for dew point hygrometer, along with heater and thermistor, and a relative humidity sensor. Both were tested and proven to be functional, with both advantages and disadvantages described further in the article.

  20. Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

  1. RESEARCH AREA -- FLUE GAS CLEANING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL)flue gas cleaning program supports New Source Performance Standards regulations development and has fostered the development of technologies that today are considered industry standards. These include both dry and wet flue gas d...

  2. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  3. Coaxial Electric Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Coaxial electric heaters have been conceived for use in highly sensitive instruments in which there are requirements for compact heaters but stray magnetic fields associated with heater electric currents would adversely affect operation. Such instruments include atomic clocks and magnetometers that utilize heated atomic-sample cells, wherein stray magnetic fields at picotesla levels could introduce systematic errors into instrument readings. A coaxial electric heater is essentially an axisymmetric coaxial cable, the outer conductor of which is deliberately made highly electrically resistive so that it can serve as a heating element. As in the cases of other axisymmetric coaxial cables, the equal magnitude electric currents flowing in opposite directions along the inner and outer conductors give rise to zero net magnetic field outside the outer conductor. Hence, a coaxial electric heater can be placed near an atomic-sample cell or other sensitive device. A coaxial electric heater can be fabricated from an insulated copper wire, the copper core of which serves as the inner conductor. For example, in one approach, the insulated wire is dipped in a colloidal graphite emulsion, then the emulsion-coated wire is dried to form a thin, uniform, highly electrically resistive film that serves as the outer conductor. Then the film is coated with a protective layer of high-temperature epoxy except at the end to be electrically connected to the power supply. Next, the insulation is stripped from the wire at that end. Finally, electrical leads from the heater power supply are attached to the exposed portions of the wire and the resistive film. The resistance of the graphite film can be tailored via its thickness. Alternatively, the film can be made from an electrically conductive paint, other than a colloidal graphite emulsion, chosen to impart the desired resistance. Yet another alternative is to tailor the resistance of a graphite film by exploiting the fact that its resistance

  4. Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

  5. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  6. Advanced Process Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Briselden, Chris Parrish

    2005-03-07

    The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: Improved performance of high temperature materials; Improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; Heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer. This Category I award entitled ''Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future'' met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) Doubling the heat transfer rates (2) Improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) Improving temperature uniformity by 100 degrees F and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH address EERE's mission priority of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. One component of the APH, the SpyroCorTM, was commercialized by STORM Development's partner, Spinworks LLC. Over 2000 SpyrCorsTM were sold in 2004 resulting in 480 million BTU's of energy savings, 20% reduction in NOx and CO2 levels, and 9 jobs in N.W. Pennsylvania. A second component, the HeatCorTM, a low-cost high-temperature heat exchanger will be demonstrated by Spinworks in 2005 in preparation for commercial sales in 2006. The project occurred in the 21st Congressional District of Pennsylvania. Once fully commercialized, the APH energy savings potential is 339 trillion BTUs annually in the U.S. and will process 1.5 million more tons annually without major capital equipment expenditures. Spinworks will commercialize the APH and add over 100 U.S. workers. To accomplish the objective, STORM Development LLC teamed with Penn State University, SyCore, Inc, Spinworks LLC, and Schunk-INEX, Inc. The project consisted of component engineering and integration of the APH followed by parametric testing. All components of the system were tested in a lab furnace that simulates a full scale industrial installation. The target areas for development include: (1) Scale up STORM

  7. Hot gas engine heater head

    DOEpatents

    Berntell, John O.

    1983-01-01

    A heater head for a multi-cylinder double acting hot gas engine in which each cylinder is surrounded by an annular regenerator unit, and in which the tops of each cylinder and its surrounding regenerator are interconnected by a multiplicity of heater tubes. A manifold for the heater tubes has a centrally disposed duct connected to the top of the cylinder and surrounded by a wider duct connecting the other ends of the heater tubes with the regenerator unit.

  8. The use of speech technology in air traffic control simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, J. A.; Hobbs, G. R.; Howes, J. R.; Cope, N.

    The advantages of applying speech technology to air traffic control (ATC) simulators are discussed with emphasis placed on the simulation of the pilot end of the pilot-controller dialog. Speech I/O in an ATC simulator is described as well as technology capability, and research on an electronic blip driver. It is found that the system is easier to use and performs better for less experienced controllers.

  9. Trend of Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technology in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hoo-Kyu; Papk, Ki-Won

    It can be said that refrigeration and air-conditioning technology in Korea dates back to the ancient dynasty, all the way up to the Sokkuram(700s) and Seokbinggo(1700s), But modern refrigeration and air-conditioning technology was first developed in and introduced to Korea in the1960swith the modernization of Korea, Today it is at a level which meets that of advanced countries in both the industrial and domestic fields. As of 2003, there were about 700 companies that owned cold storage/freezing/refrigeration facilities, with cold storage capacity of about 2,000, 000tons and capacity per company of about 3,000 tons. These facilities most are continuously expanding and automating their facilities. 62 million units of refrigeration and air-conditioning machinery and equipment were produced in 2003, worth a total of 7.7 trillion won(about 7.7 thousand million US). On the academic side there are 9 universities and 12 junior colleges with courses in either refrigeration and air-conditioning or architectural equipment. Academic societies such as the Society of Air-conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers of Korea(SAREK), and industrial societies like the Korean Association of Refrigeration(KAR) are active members of the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry. The1eare also national/government-established research institutions such as the Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST), the Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), the Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER), and the Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH).

  10. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  11. New Hypothesis about Hypersonic Technological Demonstrators based on Standard Air to Air Missiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiesa, S.; Corpino, S.; Sembenini, G.; Viola, N.

    2002-01-01

    The present paper is based on an extreme interest in technological demonstrators of future hypersonic transatmospheric planes. Technological demonstrators provide a good set of information with a high benefit to cost ratio. This fact is confirmed by the increasing number of technological demonstrators and by the study and development of smaller technological demonstrators conceived to carry out bigger ones. Affordability is certainly an important key in new demonstrators' development but many times the target of affordability is reached only if new, unconventional concepts are developed and applied. Our Research Group has developed a first idea concerning the use of a standard air to air missile as basis element of a demonstrators' family. In this way two goals can be reached: (1) thanks to a modular conception, which allows to investigate several aerodynamic configurations by simply (2) the utilization of existing items, like the basic element of the demonstrator, the air-to-air missile which holds In order to minimize the development effort, that is the modification of the missile internal layout to accomplish the new and unusual role, another interesting idea has been conceived. It concerns the study of a smaller not powered technological demonstrator attached to the air to air missile in central position, being the missile now used as a big booster. The poorer aerodynamic characteristics and the practical impossibility of reusing the missile have to be evaluated and compared with the easier development. Many different configurations of both concepts have been investigated. The simulations' outcomes are attractive and both projects seem to be feasible. At the moment these ideas are considered for a pre-demonstrator of a future demonstrator of considerable size which is now under development by Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA) and Aerospace Industry.

  12. Arkansas Solar Retrofit Guide. Greenhouses, Air Heaters and Water Heaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skiles, Albert; Rose, Mary Jo

    Solar retrofits are devices of structures designed to be attached to existing buildings to augment their existing heating sources with solar energy. An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is the subject of this report. Following an introduction (section 1), section 2 focuses on…

  13. POINTS-OF-CONTACT (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APTB) Point-of-Contact page lists APTB research areas along with the name, telephone number, and e-mail address for each responsible person. APTB's research areas include NOx Control, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Municipal Waste Combustion,...

  14. NASA technology program for future civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, H. T.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is undertaken of the development status of technology, applicable to future civil air transport design, which is currently undergoing conceptual study or testing at NASA facilities. The NASA civil air transport effort emphasizes advanced aerodynamic computational capabilities, fuel-efficient engines, advanced turboprops, composite primary structure materials, advanced aerodynamic concepts in boundary layer laminarization and aircraft configuration, refined control, guidance and flight management systems, and the integration of all these design elements into optimal systems. Attention is given to such novel transport aircraft design concepts as forward swept wings, twin fuselages, sandwich composite structures, and swept blade propfans.

  15. Solar Water Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Skylab derived Heating System offers computerized control with an innovative voice synthesizer that literally allows the control unit to talk to the system user. It reports time of day, outside temperature and system temperature, and asks questions as to how the user wants the system programmed. Master Module collects energy from the Sun and either transfers it directly to the home water heater or stores it until needed.

  16. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; White, Tim; Cespedes, Ernesto; Bowerman, Biays; Bush, John

    2010-11-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three explosive

  17. Thin, Light, Flexible Heaters Save Time and Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Icing Branch at NASA's Glenn Research Center uses the Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) and Icing Research Aircraft to research methods for evaluating and simulating the growth of ice on aircraft, the effects that ice may have on aircraft in flight, and the development and effectiveness of various ice protection and detection systems. EGC Enterprises Inc. (EGC), of Chardon, Ohio, used the IRT to develop thermoelectric thin-film heater technology to address in-flight icing on aircraft wings. Working with researchers at Glenn and the original equipment manufacturers of aircraft parts, the company tested various thin, flexible, durable, lightweight, and efficient heaters. Development yielded a thin-film heater technology that can be used in many applications in addition to being an effective deicer for aircraft. This new thermoelectric heater was dubbed the QoFoil Rapid Response Thin-Film Heater, or QoFoil, for short. The product meets all criteria for in-flight use and promises great advances in thin-film, rapid response heater technology for a broad range of industrial applications. Primary advantages include time savings, increased efficiency, and improved temperature uniformity. In addition to wing deicing, EGC has begun looking at the material's usefulness for applications including cooking griddles, small cabinet heaters, and several laboratory uses.

  18. Technological change and productivity growth in the air transport industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, N.; Thompson, A.; Belsley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the civil air transport industry in the United States was examined in the light of a proposal of Enos who, after examining the growth of the petroleum industry, divided that phenomenon into two phases, the alpha and the beta; that is, the invention, first development and production, and the improvement phase. The civil air transport industry developed along similar lines with the technological progress coming in waves; each wave encompassing several new technological advances while retaining the best of the old ones. At the same time the productivity of the transport aircraft as expressed by the product of the aircraft velocity and the passenger capacity increased sufficiently to allow the direct operating cost in cents per passenger mile to continually decrease with each successive aircraft development.

  19. The promise of advanced technology for future air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in all weather 4-D navigation and wake vortex attenuation research is discussed and the concept of time based metering of aircraft is recommended for increased emphasis. The far term advances in aircraft efficiency were shown to be skin friction reduction and advanced configuration types. The promise of very large aircraft, possibly all wing aircraft is discussed, as is an advanced concept for an aerial relay transportation system. Very significant technological developments were identified that can improve supersonic transport performance and reduce noise. The hypersonic transport was proposed as the ultimate step in air transportation in the atmosphere. Progress in the key technology areas of propulsion and structures was reviewed. Finally, the impact of alternate fuels on future air transports was considered and shown not to be a growth constraint.

  20. Air Pollution Studies in Metromanila and Catalysis Technology Towards Clean Air Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, S. M.

    - Considerable air quality and emission data gathered in Metropolitan Manila (MM) led to the development of automobile exhaust treatment catalysts as well as their continued improvement. Findings of a 5-year (1993-1998) collaborative work on the development of base metal oxide catalysts for automobile exhaust are summarized here. One study in 1991 reveals an average 16% increase in the number of motor vehicles in MM where 16% are new and the rest are old ones. Another study in 1992 shows the CO and hydrocarbon emission levels from different types of motor vehicles in MM as a function of the age of the vehicle, type of fuel, and the operating condition. Reports of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and other related studies also provided data showing the quality of air in MM. Currently, there are several requirements to further improve the catalyst performance towards the reduction of NOX and to develop catalyst-sorbent for simultaneous NOX-SOX removal. This is so because of the present condition of rain acidification that is found in certain places in MM. These air quality and emission data are needed not only to establish practical emission standards for motor vehicles and the stationary industries and power plants but also in the development of technologies for air pollution control and other clean technologies for cleaner air in the country.

  1. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton proceeded along four avenues: Guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear; Application of artificial intelligence in flight control systems; Computer aided control system design; and Effects of control saturation on closed loop stability and response of open loop unstable aircraft. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is a subject of prime concern.

  2. High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckes, John

    2006-04-15

    R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature

  3. LOW EMISSION AND HIGH EFFICIENCY RESIDENTIAL PELLET-FIRED HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of air emissions testing and efficiency testing on new commercially available under-feed and top-feed residential heaters burning hardwood- and softwood-based pellets. The results were compared with data from earlier models. Reductions in air emissions w...

  4. Qualification of improved joint heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Qualification testing of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor improved igniter-to-case joint and field joint heaters was conducted on the fired TEM-04 static test motor and was completed on 7 Sep. 1989. The purpose of the test was to certify the installation and performance of the improved joint heaters for use on flight motors. The changes incorporated in the improved heaters improve durability and should reduce handling damage. The igniter-to-case joint and field joint primary heater circuits were subjected to five 20-hr ON cycles. The heater redundant circuits were then subjected to one 20-hr ON cycle. Voltage, current, and temperature set point values were maintained within the specified limits for both heaters during each ON cycle. When testing was complete, both heaters were removed and inspected. No discolorations or any other anomalies were found on either of the heaters. Based on the successful completion of this test, it is recommended that the improved igniter-to-case joint and field joint heaters be used on future flight motors.

  5. Development of a Test Facility for Air Revitalization Technology Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Sao-Dung; Lin, Amy; Campbell, Melissa; Smith, Frederick; Curley, Su

    2007-01-01

    Development of new air revitalization system (ARS) technology can initially be performed in a subscale laboratory environment, but in order to advance the maturity level, the technology must be tested in an end-to-end integrated environment. The Air Revitalization Technology Evaluation Facility (ARTEF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center serves as a ground test bed for evaluating emerging ARS technologies in an environment representative of spacecraft atmospheres. At the center of the ARTEF is a hypobaric chamber which serves as a sealed atmospheric chamber for closed loop testing. A Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS) was custom-built to simulate the consumption of oxygen, and production of carbon dioxide, moisture and heat of up to eight persons. A multitude of gas analyzers and dew point sensors are used to monitor the chamber atmosphere upstream and downstream of a test article. A robust vacuum system is needed to simulate the vacuum of space. A reliable data acquisition and control system is required to connect all the subsystems together. This paper presents the capabilities of the integrated test facility and some of the issues encountered during the integration.

  6. Air Evaporation closed cycle water recovery technology - Advanced energy saving designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morasko, Gwyndolyn; Putnam, David F.; Bagdigian, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Air Evaporation water recovery system is a visible candidate for Space Station application. A four-man Air Evaporation open cycle system has been successfully demonstrated for waste water recovery in manned chamber tests. The design improvements described in this paper greatly enhance the system operation and energy efficiency of the air evaporation process. A state-of-the-art wick feed design which results in reduced logistics requirements is presented. In addition, several design concepts that incorporate regenerative features to minimize the energy input to the system are discussed. These include a recuperative heat exchanger, a heat pump for energy transfer to the air heater, and solar collectors for evaporative heat. The addition of the energy recovery devices will result in an energy reduction of more than 80 percent over the systems used in earlier manned chamber tests.

  7. Water heater control module

    DOEpatents

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  8. Experimental investigation of the effect of variously-shaped ribs on local heat transfer on the outer wall of the turning portion of a U-channel inside solar air heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Tareq; Alami, Abdul Hai; Sunden, Bengt

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, an experimental investigation of convective heat transfer and pressure drop was carried out for the turning portion of a U-channel where the outer wall was equipped with ribs. The shape of the ribs was varied. The investigation aims to give guidelines for improving the thermo-hydraulic performance of a solar air heater at the turning portion of a U-channel. Both the U-channel and the ribs were made in acrylic material to allow optical access for measuring the surface temperature by using a high-resolution technique based on narrow band thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC R35C5 W) and a CCD camera placed to face the turning portion of the U-channel. The uncertainties were estimated to 5 and 7 % for the Nusselt number and friction factor, respectively. The pressure drop was approximately the same for all the considered shapes of the ribs while the dimpled rib case gave the highest heat transfer coefficient while the grooved rib presented the highest performance index.

  9. Compressed air energy storage technology program. Annual report for 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Loscutoff, W.V.

    1980-06-01

    The objectives of the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) program are to establish stability criteria for large underground reservoirs in salt domes, hard rock, and porous rock used for air storage in utility applications, and to develop second-generation CAES technologies that have minimal or no dependence on petroleum fuels. During the year reported reports have been issued on field studies on CAES on aquifers and in salt, stability, and design criteria for CAES and for pumped hydro-storage caverns, laboratory studies of CAES in porous rock reservoris have continued. Research has continued on combined CAES/Thermal Energy Storage, CAES/Solar systems, coal-fired fluidized bed combustors for CAES, and two-reservoir advanced CAES concepts. (LCL)

  10. Improving estimates of air pollution exposure through ubiquitous sensing technologies.

    PubMed

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Seto, Edmund; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Mendez, Michelle; Matamala, Jaume; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Jerrett, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Traditional methods of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies often fail to integrate important information on activity patterns, which may lead to bias, loss of statistical power, or both in health effects estimates. Novel sensing technologies integrated with mobile phones offer potential to reduce exposure measurement error. We sought to demonstrate the usability and relevance of the CalFit smartphone technology to track person-level time, geographic location, and physical activity patterns for improved air pollution exposure assessment. We deployed CalFit-equipped smartphones in a free-living population of 36 subjects in Barcelona, Spain. Information obtained on physical activity and geographic location was linked to space-time air pollution mapping. We found that information from CalFit could substantially alter exposure estimates. For instance, on average travel activities accounted for 6% of people's time and 24% of their daily inhaled NO2. Due to the large number of mobile phone users, this technology potentially provides an unobtrusive means of enhancing epidemiologic exposure data at low cost. PMID:23416743

  11. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Jackson, Roderick K; Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C; Lyne, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  12. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University, a program emphasizing graduate and undergraduate student research, proceeded along four avenues during 1984: (1) guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear; (2) application of artificial intelligence in flight control systems; (3) effects of control saturation on closed loop stability; and (4) response of open loop unstable aircraft. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as to general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is a subject of principle concern. These areas of investigation are briefly discussed.

  13. Compressed-air energy-storage technology: Program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannberg, L. D.

    1981-07-01

    A new technology designed to reduce the consumption of oil in the generation of electric power was developed. The program has two major elements: reservoir stability studies and second generation concepts studies. The reservoir stability studies are aimed at developing stability criteria for long term operation of large underground reservoirs used for compressed air storage. The second generation concepts studies are aimed at developing new concepts that will require little or no petroleum fuels for operation. The program efforts are outlined and major accomplishments towards the objectives of the program are identified.

  14. Compressed air energy storage technology program. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1981-06-01

    All of the major research funded under the Compressed Air Energy Storage Technology Program during the period March 1980 to March 1981 is described. This annual report is divided into two segments: Reservoir Stability Studies and Second-Generation Concepts Studies. The first represents research performed to establish stability criteria for CAES reservoirs while the second reports progress on research performed on second-generation CAES concepts. The report consists of project reports authored by research engineers and scientists from PNL and numerous subcontractors including universities, architect-engineering, and other private firms.

  15. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    SciTech Connect

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  16. Investigation of air transportation technology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Several technological aspects governing air transportation at major airports were investigated. Three major areas were emphasized: (1) development of automated decision making for dynamic scheduling of runway operations at a major airport; (2) flight evaluation of the performance of low cost Loran C receivers; and (3) design of microcomputer based electronic flight displays for general aviation aircraft.

  17. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  18. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  19. Visibly Transparent Heaters.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ritu; Rao, K D M; Kiruthika, S; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2016-05-25

    Heater plates or sheets that are visibly transparent have many interesting applications in optoelectronic devices such as displays, as well as in defrosting, defogging, gas sensing and point-of-care disposable devices. In recent years, there have been many advances in this area with the advent of next generation transparent conducting electrodes (TCE) based on a wide range of materials such as oxide nanoparticles, CNTs, graphene, metal nanowires, metal meshes and their hybrids. The challenge has been to obtain uniform and stable temperature distribution over large areas, fast heating and cooling rates at low enough input power yet not sacrificing the visible transmittance. This review provides topical coverage of this important research field paying due attention to all the issues mentioned above. PMID:27176472

  20. Biobriefcase aerosol collector heater

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Perry M.; Christian, Allen T.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Willis, Ladona; Masquelier, Donald A.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2009-03-17

    A system for sampling air and collecting particles potentially including bioagents entrained in the air for detection. The system comprises collecting a sample of the air with the particles entrained in the air, directing the sample to a receiving surface, directing a liquid to the receiving surface thereby producing a liquid surface, wherein the particles potentially including bioagents become captured in the liquid, and heating the liquid wherein the particles potentially including bioagents become heated to lysis the bioagents.

  1. Modern air protection technologies at thermal power plants (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.

    2016-07-01

    Realization of the ecologically safe technologies for fuel combustion in the steam boiler furnaces and the effective ways for treatment of flue gases at modern thermal power plants have been analyzed. The administrative and legal measures to stimulate introduction of the technologies for air protection at TPPs have been considered. It has been shown that both the primary intrafurnace measures for nitrogen oxide suppression and the secondary flue gas treatment methods are needed to meet the modern ecological standards. Examples of the environmentally safe methods for flame combustion of gas-oil and solid fuels in the boiler furnaces have been provided. The effective methods and units to treat flue gases from nitrogen and sulfur oxides and flue ash have been considered. It has been demonstrated that realization of the measures for air protection should be accompanied by introduction of the systems for continuous instrumentation control of the composition of combustion products in the gas path of boiler units and for monitoring of atmospheric emissions.

  2. Dynamic heater for display elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehmlow, Brian P.; Bishop, Gary D.; Steffensmeier, Martin J.; Sampica, James D.; Skarohlid, Mark C.

    1997-07-01

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) deliver optimal performance when the entire display surface is isothermal and at a controllable temperature. This condition creates uniform electro-optical properties within the liquid crystal layer. This paper describes a dynamic, multicontact heater system that actively compensates for uneven heat loads, thereby creating the desired isothermal condition. The heater system includes a uniform resistive sheet, with multiple electrical contacts around the perimeter. A switch network connects each heater contact to a power supply, ground potential, or a high impedance. A microprocessor monitors the display temperature, and detects non-uniformity, and selectively applies heat to cold areas of the display. The dynamic heater system employs a variety of heating patterns to create the desired isothermal condition.Heating patterns vary in duration, power applied, and location on the display face. The microprocessor control loop can also detect and isolate faulty drive elements, and compensate for non- uniformity in the heater itself. The heater prevents stress- induced delaminations, mechanical distortions, and stress- induced birefringence in optical components. Test results indicate that a dynamic heater can be beneficial in the thermal design of LCD products.

  3. Tuning The Laser Heater Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zackary

    2010-12-03

    The laser heater undulator for the LCLS requires different tuning techniques than the main undulators. It is a pure permanent magnet (PPM) undulator, rather than the hybrid design of the main undulators. The PPM design allows analytic calculation of the undulator fields. The calculations let errors be introduced and correction techniques be derived. This note describes how the undulator was modelled, and the methods which were found to correct potential errors in the undulator. The laser heater undulator for the LCLS is a pure permanent magnet device requiring different tuning techniques than the main undulators. In this note, the laser heater undulator is modelled and tuning techniques to compensate various errors are derived.

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: Sealed Air-Return Plenum Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-08-01

    In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers greatly improved indoor air quality and HVAC performance by replacing an old, leaky air handler with a new air handler with an air-sealed return plenum with filter; they also sealed the ducts, and added a fresh air intake.

  5. Fixed Wing Project: Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Richard A.; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The presentation will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  6. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  7. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  8. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  9. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  10. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  11. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... charcoal. Any stove or other heater employing solid fuel except wood charcoal. (6) Portable heaters... the vehicle or burning occupants by direct radiation. Wood charcoal heaters shall be enclosed within a... or on which it is mounted. Wood charcoal heaters shall be secured against relative motion within...

  12. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... charcoal. Any stove or other heater employing solid fuel except wood charcoal. (6) Portable heaters... the vehicle or burning occupants by direct radiation. Wood charcoal heaters shall be enclosed within a... or on which it is mounted. Wood charcoal heaters shall be secured against relative motion within...

  13. Methods for forming long subsurface heaters

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Dong Sub

    2013-09-17

    A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

  14. Recent developments on Air Liquide advanced technologies turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcayre, Franck; Gondrand, Cecile; Drevard, Luc; Durand, Fabien; Marot, Gerard

    2012-06-01

    Air Liquide Advanced Technologies has developed for more than 40 years turboexpanders mainly for hydrogen and helium liquefiers and refrigerators and has in total more than 600 references of cryogenic turbo-expanders and cold compressors. The latest developments are presented in this paper. The key motivation of these developments is to improve the efficiency of the machines, and also to widen the range of operation. New impellers have been designed for low and high powers, the operation range is now between 200W and 200kW. The thrust bearings have been characterized in order to maximize the load which can be withstood and to increase the turbo-expander cold power. Considering low power machines, 3D open wheels have been designed and machined in order to increase the adiabatic efficiencies. A new type of machine, a turbobooster for methane liquefaction has been designed, manufactured and tested at AL-AT test facility.

  15. Heater head for stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  16. An investigation of air transportation technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1992-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    An investigation of air transportation technology at MIT during 1992 - 1993 is presented. One completed project and two continuing research activities are under the sponsorship of the FAA/NASA Joint University Program. The completed project was on tracking aircraft around a turn with wind effects. Active research projects are on ASLOTS - an interactive adaptive system of automated approach spacing of aircraft and alerting in automated and datalink capable cockpits.

  17. Solar Hot Water Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  18. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM AIR STREAMS BY MEMBRANES SEPARATION MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This membrane separation technology developed by Membrane Technology and Research (MTR), Incorporated, is designed to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated air streams. In the process, organic vapor-laden air contacts one side of a membrane that is permeable ...

  19. ASSESSMENT OF NOX EMISSION FACTORS FOR DIRECT-FIRED HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a review of available data on emission factors for major categories of direct-fired heaters. Systematic studies were analyzed to develop emission factors for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) at various levels of combustion air preheat used in major energy-cons...

  20. Impact of kerosene heater usage on indoor NO/sub 2/ exposures in 50 East Tennessee homes

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, C.S.; Hawthorne, A.R.; Monar, K.P.; Cohen, M.A.; Spengler, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    As part of a study of indoor air quality in 300 houses in Roane County, Tennessee, a special study was made on kerosene heater usage and indoor pollutant levels, with emphasis on NO/sub 2/. Owners of 45 homes with kerosene heaters deployed pairs of passive NO/sub 2/ monitors on a weekly basis for ten weeks and recorded the weekly amount of heater use. Without correcting for house-specific factors, such as air exchange rate, indoor NO/sub 2/ levels were found to increase about 0.3 ppB per h/week of homeowner-reported heater use. In the absence of heater use, NO/sub 2/ levels were about 10 ppB in houses with and without kerosene heaters. In four houses with kerosene heaters and one house without, continuous measurements were made of NO, NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, and CO. CO and SO/sub 2/ levels increased threefold and tenfold, respectively, when the heater was operated compared to when it was off. Mean SO/sub 2/ levels during heater operation were 57, 46, and 110 ppB in three houses with radiant heaters and 13.5 ppB in one house with a convective heater. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Gravity and Heater Size Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jungho; Raj, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    The current work is based on observations of boiling heat transfer over a continuous range of gravity levels between 0g to 1.8g and varying heater sizes with a fluorinert as the test liquid (FC-72/n-perfluorohexane). Variable gravity pool boiling heat transfer measurements over a wide range of gravity levels were made during parabolic flight campaigns as well as onboard the International Space Station. For large heaters and-or higher gravity conditions, buoyancy dominated boiling and heat transfer results were heater size independent. The power law coefficient for gravity in the heat transfer equation was found to be a function of wall temperature under these conditions. Under low gravity conditions and-or for smaller heaters, surface tension forces dominated and heat transfer results were heater size dependent. A pool boiling regime map differentiating buoyancy and surface tension dominated regimes was developed along with a unified framework that allowed for scaling of pool boiling over a wide range of gravity levels and heater sizes. The scaling laws developed in this study are expected to allow performance quantification of phase change based technologies under variable gravity environments eventually leading to their implementation in space based applications.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION--GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR BIOLOGICAL AND AEROSOL TESTING OF GENERAL VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program, Research Triangle Institute (RTI) will operate the Air Pollution Control Technology Center to verify the filtration efficiency and bioaerosol inactivation efficiency of heating, ventilation and air conditioning air cleane...

  3. Impact of new technology weapons on SAC (Strategic Air Command) conventional air operations. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodenheimer, C.E.

    1983-06-01

    Chapter I introduces the issue of conventional-response capability. The point stressed first is that the strategic bomber's primary mission is in support of the single integrated operations plan (SIOP) as a nuclear weapons delivery vehicle. However, as cited by Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, we must have a rapid deployment conventional capability to areas where there are small if any U.S. forces present. The SAC strategic projection force (SPF) is available but with gravity weapons of World War II vintage. New technology can provide answers to the problem by providing highly accurate long-range conventional standoff weapons. Chapter II gives a basic historical perspective on the use of the strategic bomber in past wars. It discusses the development of strategy, weapons, and targets in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Chapter III presents a very brief look at current US policy, strategy, and guidance. Chapter IV covers the aircraft attrition issue in today's highly lethal defensive environment. Chapter V describes the development of air-to-ground weapons. Chapter VI addresses the potential for the future in the shifting balance of Soviet and US technology. The final chapter makes the point that a decision must be made on weapons-acquisition programs and bomber force structure. New technology-standoff conventional weapons could make AAA and SAM defenses a modern Maginot Line.

  4. Nextgen Technologies for Mid-Term and Far-Term Air Traffic Control Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes technologies for mid-term and far-term air traffic control operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The technologies were developed and evaluated with human-in-the-loop simulations in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. The simulations were funded by several research focus areas within NASA's Airspace Systems program and some were co-funded by the FAA's Air Traffic Organization for Planning, Research and Technology.

  5. Innovative technology summary report: in situ air stripping using horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In situ air stripping (ISAS) technology was developed to remediate soils and ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) both above and below the water table. ISAS employs horizontal wells to inject (sparge) air into the ground water and vacuum extract VOCs from vadose zone soils. The innovation is creation of a system that combines two somewhat innovative technologies, air sparging and horizontal wells, with a baseline technology, soil vapor extraction, to produce a more efficient in situ remediation system.

  6. Porous absorber for solar air heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, J.A.

    1980-09-10

    A general discussion of the factors affecting solar collector performance is presented. Bench scale tests done to try to determine the heat transfer characteristics of various screen materials are explained. The design, performance, and evaluation of a crude collector with a simple screen stack absorber is treated. The more sophisticated absorber concept, and its first experimental approximation is examined. A short summary of future plans for the collector concept is included. (MHR)

  7. New technology revolutionizing how we understand the air around us

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation covers various technologies that I have been involved with, that have increased the spatial resolution possible for air pollution measurements. This includes the GMAP, Village Green Project, and emerging sensor technology.

  8. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - AIR PURATOR CORPORATION HUYGLAS 1405M FILTER SAMPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  10. An Evaluation of the Water Heater Load Potential for Providing Regulation Service

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, Junji; Lu, Ning; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2011-08-31

    This paper investigates the possibility of providing aggregated regulation services with small loads, such as water heaters or air conditioners. A direct-load control algorithm is presented to aggregate the water heater load for the purpose of regulation. A dual-element electric water heater model is developed, which accounts for both thermal dynamics and users’ water consumptions. A realistic regulation signal was used to evaluate the number of water heaters needed and the operational characteristics of a water heater when providing 2-MW regulation service. Modeling results suggest that approximately 33,333 water heaters are needed to provide a 2-MW regulation service 24 hours a day. However, if water heaters only provide regulation from 6:00 to 24:00, approximately 20,000 will be needed. Because the control algorithm has considered the thermal setting of the water heater, the customer comfort is obstructed little. Therefore, the aggregated regulation service provided by water heater loads can become a major source of revenue for load-service entities when the smart grid enables the direct load control.

  11. High Performance Diesel Fueled Cabin Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, Tom

    2001-08-05

    Recent DOE-OHVT studies show that diesel emissions and fuel consumption can be greatly reduced at truck stops by switching from engine idle to auxiliary-fired heaters. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has studied high performance diesel burner designs that address the shortcomings of current low fire-rate burners. Initial test results suggest a real opportunity for the development of a truly advanced truck heating system. The BNL approach is to use a low pressure, air-atomized burner derived form burner designs used commonly in gas turbine combustors. This paper reviews the design and test results of the BNL diesel fueled cabin heater. The burner design is covered by U.S. Patent 6,102,687 and was issued to U.S. DOE on August 15, 2000.The development of several novel oil burner applications based on low-pressure air atomization is described. The atomizer used is a pre-filming, air blast nozzle of the type commonly used in gas turbine combustion. The air pressure used can b e as low as 1300 Pa and such pressure can be easily achieved with a fan. Advantages over conventional, pressure-atomized nozzles include ability to operate at low input rates without very small passages and much lower fuel pressure requirements. At very low firing rates the small passage sizes in pressure swirl nozzles lead to poor reliability and this factor has practically constrained these burners to firing rates over 14 kW. Air atomization can be used very effectively at low firing rates to overcome this concern. However, many air atomizer designs require pressures that can be achieved only with a compressor, greatly complicating the burner package and increasing cost. The work described in this paper has been aimed at the practical adaptation of low-pressure air atomization to low input oil burners. The objective of this work is the development of burners that can achieve the benefits of air atomization with air pressures practically achievable with a simple burner fan.

  12. TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION AND AIR SPARGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging, also called "in situ air stripping and in situ volatilization" injects air into the saturated zone to strip away volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dissolved in groundwater and adsorbed to soil. hese volatile contaminants transfer in a vapor phase to the unsaturated ...

  13. A Program in Air Transportation Technology (Joint University Program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1996-01-01

    The Joint University Program on Air Transportation Technology was conducted at Princeton University from 1971 to 1995. Our vision was to further understanding of the design and operation of transport aircraft, of the effects of atmospheric environment on aircraft flight, and of the development and utilization of the National Airspace System. As an adjunct, the program emphasized the independent research of both graduate and undergraduate students. Recent principal goals were to develop and verify new methods for design and analysis of intelligent flight control systems, aircraft guidance logic for recovery from wake vortex encounter, and robust flight control systems. Our research scope subsumed problems associated with multidisciplinary aircraft design synthesis and analysis based on flight physics, providing a theoretical basis for developing innovative control concepts that enhance aircraft performance and safety. Our research focus was of direct interest not only to NASA but to manufacturers of aircraft and their associated systems. Our approach, metrics, and future directions described in the remainder of the report.

  14. An investigation of air transportation technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1990-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    Brief summaries are given of research activities at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under the sponsorship of the FAA/NASA Joint University Program. Topics covered include hazard assessment and cockpit presentation issues for microburst alerting systems; the situational awareness effect of automated air traffic control (ATC) datalink clearance amendments; a graphical simulation system for adaptive, automated approach spacing; an expert system for temporal planning with application to runway configuration management; deterministic multi-zone ice accretion modeling; alert generation and cockpit presentation for an integrated microburst alerting system; and passive infrared ice detection for helicopter applications.

  15. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS PROGRAM (HAP-PRO): AUTOMATED HAP AND VOC CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the Hazardous Air Pollutant Program (HAP-PRO), version 1.0, automated hazardous air pollutant (HAP) and volatile organic compound (VOC) control technology assessment software, designed to assist permit engineers in reviewing applications for control of air tox...

  16. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  17. EMERGING AIR QUALITY MODELING TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATION ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To demonstrate applications of the HPCC technologies in air quality models, we organized the Specialty Evening Session 1, "Emerging Air Quality Modeling Technologies for High Performance Computing and Communication Environment" as a part of the Twenty First NATO/CCMS Internationa...

  18. Herbert Easterly auxiliary truck heater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-09

    The objective of this work was to continue the development of the Herbert Easterly heater apparatus for vehicles, such as semi-trailer tractors in order to fully establish its technical feasibility and provide the basis for its commercialization. This heater is auxiliary to the vehicle's primary heating system. With the engine off it heats both the vehicle engine to a temperature at which it starts easily and the vehicle passenger compartment. Specifically, this heater is automatically ignitable, operates directly from the vehicle diesel fuel supply and preheats the vehicle engine fuel prior to combustion. During the course of this work nine different versions of prototype heaters were designed, constructed and tested. All designs were based on the ideas and principles outlined in the Easterly patent. Each successive version incorporated design and fabrication improvements relative to the previous version. The final version, Prototype 9, utilized a multiple water jacket design to capture additional heat from the combustion gases prior to exhausting to the atmosphere. This final prototype exceeded the performance of a commercially available Webasto DBW-2010 using the same commercial burner as the one used in the Webasto unit. The time required to raise the heater fluid temperature by 120{degree}F was 23% less (20 minutes compared to 26 minutes) for Prototype 9 compared to the commercially available unit. In addition a prototype heat exchanger for preheating engine fuel was designed, fabricated and tested. It was also determined that the Prototype 9 auxiliary heater could operate at 85{degree}F for approximately 6 hours on a fully charged 12 volt marine battery rated to deliver 500 cold cranking amps.

  19. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union's Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  20. Solar heater for swimming pools

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, H.W.

    1984-12-04

    A solar heater for swimming pools is provided having one or more heating panels installable on a roof or the like and arranged to discharge into a pool equipped with an apron without need for disturbing or obstructing the apron. This is accomplished by the provision of an elevated bistable dumper adjacent the perimeter of the apron having a dispensing spout normally inclined upwardly but pivoting at intervals to discharge into the pool across the apron without obstructing it. Water to be heated is diverted from the pool filtering system to the solar heater via a pressure regulator and a solar responsive flow control.

  1. Engineering solutions for polymer composites solar water heaters production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frid, S. E.; Arsatov, A. V.; Oshchepkov, M. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of engineering solutions aimed at a considerable decrease of solar water heaters cost via the use of polymer composites in heaters construction and solar collector and heat storage integration into a single device representing an integrated unit results are considered. Possibilities of creating solar water heaters of only three components and changing welding, soldering, mechanical treatment, and assembly of a complicate construction for large components molding of polymer composites and their gluing are demonstrated. Materials of unit components and engineering solutions for their manufacturing are analyzed with consideration for construction requirements of solar water heaters. Optimal materials are fiber glass and carbon-filled plastics based on hot-cure thermosets, and an optimal molding technology is hot molding. It is necessary to manufacture the absorbing panel as corrugated and to use a special paint as its selective coating. Parameters of the unit have been optimized by calculation. Developed two-dimensional numerical model of the unit demonstrates good agreement with the experiment. Optimal ratio of daily load to receiving surface area of a solar water heater operating on a clear summer day in the midland of Russia is 130‒150 L/m2. Storage tank volume and load schedule have a slight effect on solar water heater output. A thermal insulation layer of 35‒40 mm is sufficient to provide an efficient thermal insulation of the back and side walls. An experimental model layout representing a solar water heater prototype of a prime cost of 70‒90/(m2 receiving surface) has been developed for a manufacturing volume of no less than 5000 pieces per year.

  2. Buildings sector demand-side efficiency technology summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, J.G.; Johnson, F.X.; Schuman, J.

    1994-03-01

    This report provides descriptions of the following energy efficiency technologies: energy management systems; electronic fluorescent ballasts; compact fluorescent lamps; lighting controls; room air conditioners; high albedo materials, coatings and paints; solar domestic water heaters; heat pump water heaters; energy-efficient motors; adjustable-speed drives; energy-efficient refrigerators; daylight control glazing; insulating glazing; solar control glazing; switchable glazing; tree planting; and advanced insulation. For each technology, the report provides a description of performance characteristics, consumer utility, development status, technology standards, equipment cost, installation, maintenance, conservation programs, and environmental impacts.

  3. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2011-09-01

    This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

  4. Can commonly-used fan-driven air cleaning technologies improve indoor air quality? A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinping; Mo, Jinhan; Li, Yuguo; Sundell, Jan; Wargocki, Pawel; Zhang, Jensen; Little, John C.; Corsi, Richard; Deng, Qihong; Leung, Michael H. K.; Fang, Lei; Chen, Wenhao; Li, Jinguang; Sun, Yuexia

    2011-08-01

    Air cleaning techniques have been applied worldwide with the goal of improving indoor air quality. The effectiveness of applying these techniques varies widely, and pollutant removal efficiency is usually determined in controlled laboratory environments which may not be realized in practice. Some air cleaners are largely ineffective, and some produce harmful by-products. To summarize what is known regarding the effectiveness of fan-driven air cleaning technologies, a state-of-the-art review of the scientific literature was undertaken by a multidisciplinary panel of experts from Europe, North America, and Asia with expertise in air cleaning, aerosol science, medicine, chemistry and ventilation. The effects on health were not examined. Over 26,000 articles were identified in major literature databases; 400 were selected as being relevant based on their titles and abstracts by the first two authors, who further reduced the number of articles to 160 based on the full texts. These articles were reviewed by the panel using predefined inclusion criteria during their first meeting. Additions were also made by the panel. Of these, 133 articles were finally selected for detailed review. Each article was assessed independently by two members of the panel and then judged by the entire panel during a consensus meeting. During this process 59 articles were deemed conclusive and their results were used for final reporting at their second meeting. The conclusions are that: (1) None of the reviewed technologies was able to effectively remove all indoor pollutants and many were found to generate undesirable by-products during operation. (2) Particle filtration and sorption of gaseous pollutants were among the most effective air cleaning technologies, but there is insufficient information regarding long-term performance and proper maintenance. (3) The existing data make it difficult to extract information such as Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR), which represents a common benchmark for

  5. IR Imaging Study on Heater Performamnce of Outside Rearview Mirrors for Automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin; England, Todd W

    2006-01-01

    Adhesive bonded electrical heaters have been used in outside rearview mirrors of automobiles in order to act as defrosters. Entrapment of air pockets between the heater and the mirror can affects the performance and structural integrity of the mirror assembly. Since painting over the mirror is not an option in the production environment, the biggest challenge for IR imaging is to minimize surface reflection. Looking through a smooth, highly reflective first-surface mirror and a 2 mm thick glass without picking up other heat sources in the room, such as people, electronics equipment and the camera itself, requires careful planning and effective shielding. In this paper, we present our method of avoiding mirror reflection and IR images of the heated mirror in operation. Production heaters and heaters with artificial defect were studied. The IR imaging method has shown to be an effective tool for heater quality control and performance studies.

  6. Structural Benchmark Testing for Stirling Converter Heater Heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, David L.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bowman, Randy R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified high efficiency Stirling technology for potential use on long duration Space Science missions such as Mars rovers, deep space missions, and lunar applications. For the long life times required, a structurally significant design limit for the Stirling convertor heater head is creep deformation induced even under relatively low stress levels at high material temperatures. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and much creep data is available for the proposed Inconel-718 (IN-718) and MarM-247 nickel-based superalloy materials of construction. However, very little experimental creep information is available that directly applies to the atypical thin walls, the specific microstructures, and the low stress levels. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply multiaxial stress states on the heater head components, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, experimental benchmark testing is underway to aid in accurately assessing the durability of Stirling heater heads. The investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head test articles at elevated temperatures and with stress levels ranging from one to seven times design stresses. This paper presents experimental methods, results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for both accelerated and non-accelerated tests. The Stirling projects use the results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the heater heads to predict their life times.

  7. Structural Benchmark Testing for Stirling Convertor Heater Heads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, David L.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bowman, Randy R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified high efficiency Stirling technology for potential use on long duration Space Science missions such as Mars rovers, deep space missions, and lunar applications. For the long life times required, a structurally significant design limit for the Stirling convertor heater head is creep deformation induced even under relatively low stress levels at high material temperatures. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and much creep data is available for the proposed Inconel-718 (IN-718) and MarM-247 nickel-based superalloy materials of construction. However, very little experimental creep information is available that directly applies to the atypical thin walls, the specific microstructures, and the low stress levels. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply multiaxial stress states on the heater head components, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, experimental benchmark testing is underway to aid in accurately assessing the durability of Stirling heater heads. The investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head test articles at elevated temperatures and with stress levels ranging from one to seven times design stresses. This paper presents experimental methods, results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for both accelerated and non-accelerated tests. The Stirling projects use the results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the heater heads to predict their life times.

  8. Solar water heater design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  9. Solar Water Heater Installation Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A 48-page report describes water-heating system, installation (covering collector orientation, mounting, plumbing and wiring), operating instructions and maintenance procedures. Commercial solar-powered water heater system consists of a solar collector, solar-heated-water tank, electrically heated water tank and controls. Analysis of possible hazards from pressure, electricity, toxicity, flammability, gas, hot water and steam are also included.

  10. Development of a cost effective microscope heater stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugre, Joshua; Prayaga, Chandra; Wade, Aaron

    Utilizing 3D printing technology, a heater stage has been developed and implemented for microscopic systems. Due to the flexibility of 3D printing,the heater stage can be easily modified to fit any sample size with only slight modifications to the heating element being required. The sample in contact with the heating element can also easily be secured in a thermal insulator, such as aluminum foil. The thermal gradient of the heater stage has been recorded to be less than 1°C and has been compared to more expensive designs, and the cost effectiveness of the system has been determined. The system has been tested with a sample of the liquid crystal 8CB in order to determine the exact temperatures of the phase transitions of the crystal to verify that the system is applicable to a wide range of experimental physics. UWF Quality Enhancement Plan Award.

  11. Sealed-in-quartz resistance heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    Electric resistance quartz heater operates at 1,400 F without developing excessively hot spots that can fail prematurely. Since resistance element is sealed in quartz, heater can be used in hostile environments. Sealed construction also keeps heater from contaminating heated object.

  12. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... listed under UL 174, UL 1453 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet...

  13. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... listed under UL 174, UL 1453 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet...

  14. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... listed under UL 174, UL 1453 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet...

  15. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... listed under UL 174, UL 1453 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet...

  16. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... listed under UL 174, UL 1453 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet...

  17. FIRED HEATERS: NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSIONS AND CONTROLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from, and controls for, fired heaters. The petroleum refining and chemical manufacturing industries account for most of fired-heater energy use with an estimated 4600 fired heaters in operation, in these two in...

  18. 14 CFR 27.833 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heaters. 27.833 Section 27.833 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Heaters. Each combustion heater must be approved. Fire Protection...

  19. 14 CFR 29.833 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heaters. 29.833 Section 29.833 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Heaters. Each combustion heater must be approved. Fire Protection...

  20. 14 CFR 27.833 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heaters. 27.833 Section 27.833 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Heaters. Each combustion heater must be approved. Fire Protection...

  1. 14 CFR 29.833 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heaters. 29.833 Section 29.833 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Heaters. Each combustion heater must be approved. Fire Protection...

  2. 21 CFR 884.5390 - Perineal heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Perineal heater. 884.5390 Section 884.5390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... Perineal heater. (a) Identification. A perineal heater is a device designed to apply heat directly...

  3. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  4. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Hemenway, A. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  5. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Hemenway, A.

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  6. Dynamic Resectorization and Coordination Technology: An Evaluation of Air Traffic Control Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, Christopher R.

    1996-01-01

    The work described in this report is done under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to support the Advanced Air Transportation Technology (AATR) program. The goal of this program is to contribute to and accelerate progress in Advanced Air Transportation Technologies. Wyndemere Incorporated is supporting this goal by studying the complexity of the Air Traffic Specialist's role in maintaining the safety of the Air Transportation system. It is envisioned that the implementation of Free Flight may significantly increase the complexity and difficulty of maintaining this safety. Wyndemere Incorporated is researching potential methods to reduce this complexity. This is the final report for the contract.

  7. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  8. FFTF reactor immersion heaters. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Romrell, D.M.

    1994-08-26

    This specification establishes requirements for design, testing, and quality assurance for electric heaters that will be used to maintain primary Sodium temperature in the Fast Test Facility (FFTF) reactor vessel. The Test Specification (WHC-SD-FF-SDS-003) has been revised to Rev. 1. This change modifies the fabrication of approximately 25 feet of the subject heater using ceramic insulators over the heater lead wire rather than compressed magnesium oxide. Also, 304 or 316 stainless steel can be used for the heater sheath. This change should simplify fabrication and improve the heater operational reliability.

  9. Incident-response monitoring technologies for aircraft cabin air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magoha, Paul W.

    Poor air quality in commercial aircraft cabins can be caused by volatile organophosphorus (OP) compounds emitted from the jet engine bleed air system during smoke/fume incidents. Tri-cresyl phosphate (TCP), a common anti-wear additive in turbine engine oils, is an important component in today's global aircraft operations. However, exposure to TCP increases risks of certain adverse health effects. This research analyzed used aircraft cabin air filters for jet engine oil contaminants and designed a jet engine bleed air simulator (BAS) to replicate smoke/fume incidents caused by pyrolysis of jet engine oil. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were used for elemental analysis of filters, and gas chromatography interfaced with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze used filters to determine TCP isomers. The filter analysis study involved 110 used and 90 incident filters. Clean air filter samples exposed to different bleed air conditions simulating cabin air contamination incidents were also analyzed by FESEM/EDS, NAA, and GC/MS. Experiments were conducted on a BAS at various bleed air conditions typical of an operating jet engine so that the effects of temperature and pressure variations on jet engine oil aerosol formation could be determined. The GC/MS analysis of both used and incident filters characterized tri- m-cresyl phosphate (TmCP) and tri-p-cresyl phosphate (TpCP) by a base peak of an m/z = 368, with corresponding retention times of 21.9 and 23.4 minutes. The hydrocarbons in jet oil were characterized in the filters by a base peak pattern of an m/z = 85, 113. Using retention times and hydrocarbon thermal conductivity peak (TCP) pattern obtained from jet engine oil standards, five out of 110 used filters tested had oil markers. Meanwhile 22 out of 77 incident filters tested positive for oil fingerprints. Probit analysis of jet engine oil aerosols obtained

  10. Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle Technology Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J.

    2003-01-01

    Of the technical factors that would contribute to lowering the cost of space access, reusability has high potential. The primary objective of the GTX program is to determine whether or not air-breathing propulsion can enable reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) operations. The approach is based on maturation of a reference vehicle design with focus on the integration and flight-weight construction of its air-breathing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system.

  11. Solar Water Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    As a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) scientist Dr. Eldon Haines studied the solar energy source and solar water heating. He concluded he could build a superior solar water heating system using the geyser pumping principle. He resigned from JPL to develop his system and later form Sage Advance Corporation to market the technology. Haines' Copper Cricket residential system has no moving parts, is immune to freeze damage, needs no roof-mounted tanks, and features low maintenance. It provides 50-90 percent of average hot water requirements. A larger system, the Copper Dragon, has been developed for commercial installations.

  12. Heater Development, Fabrication, and Testing: Analysis of Fabricated Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Dickens, R. E.; Farmer, J. T.; Davis, J. D.; Adams, M. R.; Martin, J. J.; Webster, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal simulators (highly designed heater elements) developed at the Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fission in a variety of reactor concepts. When inserted into the reactor geometry, the purpose of the thermal simulators is to deliver thermal power to the test article in the same fashion as if nuclear fuel were present. Considerable effort has been expended to mimic heat from fission as closely as possible. To accurately represent the fuel, the simulators should be capable of matching the overall properties of the nuclear fuel rather than simply matching the fuel temperatures. This includes matching thermal stresses in the pin, pin conductivities, total core power, and core power profile (axial and radial). This Technical Memorandum discusses the historical development of the thermal simulators used in nonnuclear testing at the EFF-TF and provides a basis for the development of the current series of thermal simulators. The status of current heater fabrication and testing is assessed, providing data and analyses for both successes and failures experienced in the heater development and testing program.

  13. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies for combined-cycle propulsion applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a technical assessment of the realization of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction technologies in a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process setting. The technical findings related to the status of air liquefaction technologies are reviewed. Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers, heat exchanger atmospheric constituent fouling alleviation measures, para/ortho-hydrogen shift-conversion catalysts, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps, hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as a heat sink, liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices, and technically related engine concepts are discussed. Much of the LACE work is related to aerospaceplane propulsion concepts that were developed in the 1960's. Emphasis is placed on the Liquid Air Cycle Engine (LACE).

  14. Welding shield for coupling heaters

    DOEpatents

    Menotti, James Louis

    2010-03-09

    Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

  15. Heater drain system transient monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Voll, B.J.; Farsaci, C.D.

    1995-12-01

    Feedwater heater drain systems are susceptible to unstable, two phase flow conditions. These instabilities are difficult to predict and are dependent on plant-specific system designs and operating conditions. Therefore, significant vibrations and transient events can occur that the systems are not specifically designed for. This paper describes how heater drain system responses due to unanticipated transient events at a nuclear plant were captured and quantified using a digital data acquisition system. The setup of the data acquisition system, including the determination of what parameters to monitor and how to effectively capture potential transient events, is discussed. This paper also discusses the monitoring results and their relevance to system modification evaluations and root cause evaluations.

  16. Space Station solar water heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  17. Silicon photonic heater-modulator

    DOEpatents

    Zortman, William A.; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-07-14

    Photonic modulators, methods of forming photonic modulators and methods of modulating an input optical signal are provided. A photonic modulator includes a disk resonator having a central axis extending along a thickness direction of the disk resonator. The disk resonator includes a modulator portion and a heater portion. The modulator portion extends in an arc around the central axis. A PN junction of the modulator portion is substantially normal to the central axis.

  18. Technology Solutions Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-01

    In this project, Building Science Corporation worked with production homebuilder K. Hovnanian to evaluate air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multipoint fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing measured the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  19. 77 FR 41930 - Bleed Air Cleaning and Monitoring Equipment and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478... industry developers, manufacturers, and the public related to effective air cleaning technology and...

  20. Improved Air-Treatment Canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed air-treatment canister integrates a heater-in-tube water evaporator into canister header. Improved design prevents water from condensing and contaminating chemicals that regenerate the air. Heater is evenly spiraled about the inlet header on the canister. Evaporator is brazed to the header.

  1. Environmental Technology Verification Report for Applikon MARGA Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The verification test was conducted oer a period of 30 days (October 1 to October 31, 2008) and involved the continuous operation of duplicate semi-continuous monitoring technologies at the Burdens Creek Air Monitoring Site, an existing ambient-air monitoring station located near...

  2. Precise time technology for selected Air Force systems: Present status and future requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yannoni, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    Precise time and time interval (PTTI) technology is becoming increasingly significant to Air Force operations as digital techniques find expanded utility in military missions. Timing has a key role in the function as well as in navigation. A survey of the PTTI needs of several Air Force systems is presented. Current technology supporting these needs was reviewed and new requirements are emphasized for systems as they transfer from initial development to final operational deployment.

  3. The impact of changing technology on the demand for air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1978-01-01

    Demand models for air transportation that are sensitive to the impact of changing technology were developed. The models are responsive to potential changes in technology, and to changing economic, social, and political factors as well. In addition to anticipating the wide differences in the factors influencing the demand for long haul and short haul air travel, the models were designed to clearly distinguish among the unique features of these markets.

  4. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 8 Air-Based Remediation Technology Selection Logic

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  5. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 7 Sustainable Remediation And Air-Based Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites, " the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Enviro...

  6. HAZARDOUS/TOXIC AIR POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes literature on hazardous/toxic air pollutant (HAP) sources and control techniques employed in their reduction and/or destruction. The information was abstracted from an extensive computerized and manual literature search and data base development study. The p...

  7. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  8. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate

  9. Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters

    DOEpatents

    Brady; Michael Patrick , Horton, Jr.; Joseph Arno , Vitek; John Michael

    2010-03-23

    Heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Such heaters can be obtained by using the systems and methods described herein. The heater includes a heater section including iron, cobalt, and carbon. The heater section has a Curie temperature less than a phase transformation temperature. The Curie temperature is at least 740.degree. C. The heater section provides, when time varying current is applied to the heater section, an electrical resistance.

  10. Development of Micro Air Vehicle Technology With In-Flight Adaptive-Wing Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R. (Technical Monitor); Shkarayev, Sergey; Null, William; Wagner, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This is a final report on the research studies, "Development of Micro Air Vehicle Technology with In-Flight Adaptrive-Wing Structure". This project involved the development of variable-camber technology to achieve efficient design of micro air vehicles. Specifically, it focused on the following topics: 1) Low Reynolds number wind tunnel testing of cambered-plate wings. 2) Theoretical performance analysis of micro air vehicles. 3) Design of a variable-camber MAV actuated by micro servos. 4) Test flights of a variable-camber MAV.

  11. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Progress is discussed for each of the following areas: voice recognition technology for flight control; guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear; application of artificial intelligence in flight control systems; and computer-aided aircraft design.

  12. Pyromat CSB{trademark} low emissions burner for boilers, steam generators and process heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Duret, M.J.; Minden, A.C.

    1995-08-01

    Alzeta has developed a low NO{sub x} burner for boiler and process heater applications that achieves very low emissions without complicated emissions controls such as flue gas recirculation or staged fuel and air. The Pyromat CSB burner is a semi-radiant, premixed, natural gas fired burner which uses a patented technique to form radiant and blue-flame zones adjacent to each other on a cylindrical porous metal surface. This new technology offers surface heat release rates that are 10 times greater than traditional surface combusters. Because the flame shape is constant over the entire range of operation, and is sized and shaped to meet the specific requirements of the heater, there is no change for flame impingement or nonuniform heating. In one application, thermally enhanced oil recovery, the Pyromat CSB burner is firing on low-Btu gas containing H{sub 2}S drawn from oil wells. Low NO{sub x} FGR burners cannot serve this application because the combustion products corrode the ducting. In addition, premixed burners can operate on low-Btu gases without supplemental natural gases which saves operating expenses. In another application, process heating of fragile fluids, flame impingement can overheat the heat transfer liquid and cause premature tube failure. The Pyromat CSB burner has a constant flame shape over its entire turndown ratio so there is no chance for flame impingement.

  13. Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Mortensen

    2009-06-30

    This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

  14. Investigation of air transportation technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1988-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    There are four areas of research being pursued in 1988 under sponsorship of the FAA/NASA Joint University Research Program, and one area which has been completed. The four active areas were: (1) Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) in Air Traffic Control. The purpose of this research effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of using ASR technology within the ATC environment and to address the problems involved, especially the relevant human factors issues. (2) A Rule-Based Planning and Scheduling System. Planning denotes the formulation of a detailed scheme, program, or method worked out beforehand for the accomplishment of a goal. It involves the analysis of the desired goal and its division into sub-goals which are subsequently treated in the same way until a set of primitive objectives is obtained. (3) Modeling of Ice Accretion on Aircraft in Glaze Icing Conditions. The work in aircraft icing over the past year has focused on the fundamental aspects of glaze ice accretion, with the goal of improving analytical ice accretion models. Over the past year, studies have been conducted on the generation of surface roughness on accreting ice surfaces with the goal of providing a deterministic surface roughness in the ice accretion models. (4) Cockpit Display of Hazardous Weather Information. Information transfer and display issues associated with the dissemination of hazardous weather warnings are studied in the context of windshear alerts.

  15. Joint used for coupling long heaters

    DOEpatents

    Menottie, James Louis

    2013-02-26

    Systems for coupling ends of elongated heaters and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include two elongated heaters with an end portion of one heater abutted or near to an end portion of the other heater and a core coupling material. The core coupling material may extend between the two elongated heaters. The elongated heaters may include cores and at least one conductor substantially concentrically surrounds the cores. The cores may have a lower melting point than the conductors. At least one end portion of the conductor may have a beveled edge. The gap formed by the beveled edge may be filled with a coupling material for coupling the one or more conductors. One end portion of at least one core may have a recessed opening and the core coupling material may be partially inside the recessed opening.

  16. The impact of European legislative and technology measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnock, S. T.; Butt, E. W.; Richardson, T. B.; Mann, G. W.; Reddington, C. L.; Forster, P. M.; Haywood, J.; Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Johnson, C. E.; Bellouin, N.; Carslaw, K. S.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2016-02-01

    European air quality legislation has reduced emissions of air pollutants across Europe since the 1970s, affecting air quality, human health and regional climate. We used a coupled composition-climate model to simulate the impacts of European air quality legislation and technology measures implemented between 1970 and 2010. We contrast simulations using two emission scenarios; one with actual emissions in 2010 and the other with emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of technological improvements and end-of-pipe treatment measures in the energy, industrial and road transport sectors. European emissions of sulphur dioxide, black carbon (BC) and organic carbon in 2010 are 53%, 59% and 32% lower respectively compared to emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of legislative and technology measures. These emission reductions decreased simulated European annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by 35%, sulphate by 44%, BC by 56% and particulate organic matter by 23%. The reduction in PM2.5 concentrations is calculated to have prevented 80 000 (37 000-116 000, at 95% confidence intervals) premature deaths annually across the European Union, resulting in a perceived financial benefit to society of US232 billion annually (1.4% of 2010 EU GDP). The reduction in aerosol concentrations due to legislative and technology measures caused a positive change in the aerosol radiative effect at the top of atmosphere, reduced atmospheric absorption and also increased the amount of solar radiation incident at the surface over Europe. We used an energy budget approximation to estimate that these changes in the radiative balance have increased European annual mean surface temperatures and precipitation by 0.45 ± 0.11 °C and by 13 ± 0.8 mm yr-1 respectively. Our results show that the implementation of European legislation and technological improvements to reduce the emission of air pollutants has improved air quality and human

  17. Technology assessment of vertical and horizontal air drilling potential in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carden, R.S.

    1993-08-18

    The objective of the research was to assess the potential for vertical, directional and horizontal air drilling in the United States and to evaluate the current technology used in air drilling. To accomplish the task, the continental United States was divided into drilling regions and provinces. The map in Appendix A shows the divisions. Air drilling data were accumulated for as many provinces as possible. The data were used to define the potential problems associated with air drilling, to determine the limitations of air drilling and to analyze the relative economics of drilling with air versus drilling mud. While gathering the drilling data, operators, drilling contractors, air drilling contractors, and service companies were contacted. Their opinion as to the advantages and limitations of air drilling were discussed. Each was specifically asked if they thought air drilling could be expanded within the continental United States and where that expansion could take place. The well data were collected and placed in a data base. Over 165 records were collected. Once in the data base, the information was analyzed to determine the economics of air drilling and to determine the limiting factors associated with air drilling.

  18. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Hancock, C. E.

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes the Mascot home, an abandoned property that was extensively renovated. Several efficiency upgrades were integrated into this home, of particular interest, a unique water heater (a Navien CR240-A). Field monitoring was performed to determine the in-use efficiency of the hybrid condensing water heater. The results were compared to the unit's rated efficiency. This unit is Energy Star qualified and one of the most efficient gas water heaters currently available on the market.

  20. Resistance Heater Helps Stirling-Engine Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Stirling engine heater head consists of 18 double-turn coils of tubing, each of which is tightly wrapped with resistance-heating element, through which working gas flows. Coils form a toroid about periphery of heater-head body. With new resistance heater, total circuit resistance can be selected independently of tube geometry by changing size of wires and/or number of wire wraps around each tube.

  1. Clearing the Air: The Impact of the Clean Air Act on Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, John C., Ed.; And Others

    This compendium has been prepared to summarize the notable aspects of the U. S. Clear Air Amendments of 1970 for members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and others. The work is not a complete explanation of the law and all of its ramifications; it is, rather, an expedient means to gain rapid insight into the more…

  2. RESEARCH AREA -- MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The municipal waste combustion (MWC) program supports the development of revised rules for air pollutant emissions from the MWC source category. Basic research is performed on MWC pollutant formation and control mechanisms for acid gas, trace organic, and trace metal emissions. T...

  3. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin; Karanikas, John Michael; Nguyen, Scott Vinh

    2011-10-25

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  4. The Air Force Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH): Technology transfer methodology as exemplified by the radar transmit/receive module program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houpt, Tracy; Ridgely, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Manufacturing Technology program is involved with the improvement of radar transmit/receive modules for use in active phased array radars for advanced fighter aircraft. Improvements in all areas of manufacture and test of these modules resulting in order of magnitude improvements in the cost of and the rate of production are addressed, as well as the ongoing transfer of this technology to the Navy.

  5. Environmentally sound thermal energy extraction from coal and wastes using high temperature air combustion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kunio

    1999-07-01

    High temperature air combustion is one of promising ways of burning relatively low BTU gas obtained from gasification of low grade coal or wastes. In this report, the author proposes a new power generation system coupled with high temperature air gasification of coal/wastes and high temperature air combustion of the syngas from coal/wastes. This system is realized by employing Multi-staged Enthalpy Extraction Technology (MEET). The basic idea of the MEET system is that coal or wastes are gasified with high temperature air of about 1,000 C, then the generated syngas is cooled in a heat recovery boiler to be cleaned-up in a gas cleanup system (desulfurization, desalinization and dust removal). Part of thermal energy contained in this cleaned-up syngas is used for high temperature air preheating, and the complete combustion of the fuel gas is done using also high temperature air for driving gas turbines or steam generation in a boiler.

  6. Modeling Air Traffic Management Technologies with a Queuing Network Model of the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Dou; Lee, David; Johnson, Jesse; Gaier, Eric; Kostiuk, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This report describes an integrated model of air traffic management (ATM) tools under development in two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs -Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) and Advanced Air Transport Technologies (AATT). The model is made by adjusting parameters of LMINET, a queuing network model of the National Airspace System (NAS), which the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) developed for NASA. Operating LMINET with models of various combinations of TAP and AATT will give quantitative information about the effects of the tools on operations of the NAS. The costs of delays under different scenarios are calculated. An extension of Air Carrier Investment Model (ACIM) under ASAC developed by the Institute for NASA maps the technologies' impacts on NASA operations into cross-comparable benefits estimates for technologies and sets of technologies.

  7. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  8. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.; Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  9. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between

  10. USING WET AIR OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY TO DESTROY TETRAPHENYLBORATE

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K; Daniel McCabe, D; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-04-04

    A bench-scale feasibility study on the use of a Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) process to destroy a slurry laden with tetraphenylborate (TPB) compounds has been undertaken. WAO is an aqueous phase process in which soluble and/or insoluble waste constituents are oxidized using oxygen or oxygen in air at elevated temperatures and pressures ranging from 150 C and 1 MPa to 320 C and 22 MPa. The products of the reaction are CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and low molecular weight oxygenated organics (e.g. acetate, oxalate). Test results indicate WAO is a feasible process for destroying TPB, its primary daughter products [triphenylborane (3PB), diphenylborinic acid (2PB), and phenylboronic acid (1PB)], phenol, and most of the biphenyl byproduct. The required conditions are a temperature of 300 C, a reaction time of 3 hours, 1:1 feed slurry dilution with 2M NaOH solution, the addition of CuSO{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O solution (500 mg/L Cu) as catalyst, and the addition of 2000 mL/L of antifoam. However, for the destruction of TPB, its daughter compounds (3PB, 2PB, and 1PB), and phenol without consideration for biphenyl destruction, less severe conditions (280 C and 1-hour reaction time with similar remaining above conditions) are adequate.

  11. Technology Needs Assessment of an Atmospheric Observation System for Multidisciplinary Air Quality/Meteorology Missions, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarado, U. R.; Bortner, M. H.; Grenda, R. N.; Brehm, W. F.; Frippel, G. G.; Alyea, F.; Kraiman, H.; Folder, P.; Krowitz, L.

    1982-01-01

    The technology advancements that will be necessary to implement the atmospheric observation systems are considered. Upper and lower atmospheric air quality and meteorological parameters necessary to support the air quality investigations were included. The technology needs were found predominantly in areas related to sensors and measurements of air quality and meteorological measurements.

  12. Fluid bed solids heater. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Preuit, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    A solids heater which operates at up to 2000 F was designed, fabricated, installed and operated through checkout at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center at Morgantown, West Virginia. The system, designated the 2000 F Fluid Bed Solids Heater (FBSH) uses a fluidized bed to heat limestone to 600 F and aluminium oxide or silicon carbide to 2000 F and discharges heated solids upon demand. The FBSH with added valve handling and pressurization equipment is known as the Valve Hot Solids Test Unit and is intended for use by the US Department of Energy for testing of valves for severe service applications in coal conversion and utilization processes. The FBSH as designed and supplied by Combustion Power Company includes process equipment, controls, the enclosing building and other associated equipment. In the 600 F range of operation it can circulate limestone through two valve test trains simultaneously on a continuous basis. Only one valve test train is used for 2000 F solids and operation in that range is also continuous. Limestone, crushed to minus 5/16 size, is heated, discharged, and recycled at a maximum average rate of 250 lb/min while aluminum oxide or silicon carbide, No. 8 grit, is circulated at rates up to 167 lb/min. The FBSH control system is designed for automatic operation, and capability is included for external computerized data acquisition and/or supervisory control. An operating and maintenance manual and as-built drawings have been submitted. This report describes the FBSH equipment, its design basis, and its operation. It has been prepared and submitted in fulfillment of Contract Number DIAC05-77ET10499.

  13. Development of a Market Optimized Condensing Gas Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pescatore

    2006-01-11

    This program covered the development of a market optimized condensing gas water heater for residential applications. The intent of the program was to develop a condensing design that minimized the large initial cost premium associated with traditional condensing water heater designs. Equally important was that the considered approach utilizes design and construction methods that deliver the desired efficiency without compromising product reliability. Standard condensing water heater approaches in the marketplace utilize high cost materials such as stainless steel tanks and heat exchangers as well as expensive burner systems to achieve the higher efficiencies. The key in this program was to develop a water heater design that uses low-cost, available components and technologies to achieve higher efficiency at a modest cost premium. By doing this, the design can reduce the payback to a more reasonable length, increasing the appeal of the product to the marketplace. Condensing water heaters have been in existence for years, but have not been able to significantly penetrate the market. The issue has typically been cost. The high purchase price associated with existing condensing water heaters, sometimes as much as $2000, has been a very difficult hurdle to overcome in the marketplace. The design developed under this program has the potential to reduce the purchase price of this condensing design by as much as $1000 as compared to traditional condensing units. The condensing water heater design developed over the course of this program led to an approach that delivered the following performance attributes: 90%+ thermal efficiency; 76,000 Btu/hr input rate in a 50 gallon tank; First hour rating greater than 180 gph; Rapid recovery time; and Overall operating condition well matched to combination heat and hot water applications. Over the final three years of the program, TIAX worked very closely with A.O. Smith Water Products Company as our commercial partner to optimize

  14. SELECTED ORGANIC POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM UNVENTED KEROSENE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An exploratory study was performed to assess the semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emission rates from unvented kerosene space heaters. A well-tuned radiant heater and maltuned convective heater were tested for semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emiss...

  15. The role of technology as air transportation faces the fuel situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, C.

    1980-01-01

    Perspectives on the air transportation fuel stituation are discussed including intercity air traffic, airline fuel consumption, fuel price effects on ticket price, and projected traffic and fuel useage between now and the year 2000. Actions taken by the airlines to reduce consumption are reviewed, as well as efforts currently underway to improve fuel consumption. Longer range technology payoffs resulting from NASA research programs are reviewed and results from studies on the use of alternate fuels are discussed.

  16. Air and Water System (AWS) Design and Technology Selection for the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Kliss, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers technology selection for the crew air and water recycling systems to be used in long duration human space exploration. The specific objectives are to identify the most probable air and water technologies for the vision for space exploration and to identify the alternate technologies that might be developed. The approach is to conduct a preliminary first cut systems engineering analysis, beginning with the Air and Water System (AWS) requirements and the system mass balance, and then define the functional architecture, review the International Space Station (ISS) technologies, and discuss alternate technologies. The life support requirements for air and water are well known. The results of the mass flow and mass balance analysis help define the system architectural concept. The AWS includes five subsystems: Oxygen Supply, Condensate Purification, Urine Purification, Hygiene Water Purification, and Clothes Wash Purification. AWS technologies have been evaluated in the life support design for ISS node 3, and in earlier space station design studies, in proposals for the upgrade or evolution of the space station, and in studies of potential lunar or Mars missions. The leading candidate technologies for the vision for space exploration are those planned for Node 3 of the ISS. The ISS life support was designed to utilize Space Station Freedom (SSF) hardware to the maximum extent possible. The SSF final technology selection process, criteria, and results are discussed. Would it be cost-effective for the vision for space exploration to develop alternate technology? This paper will examine this and other questions associated with AWS design and technology selection.

  17. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  18. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  19. "Starfish" Heater Head For Stirling Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitale, N.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed "starfish" heater head for Stirling engine enables safe use of liquid sodium as heat-transfer fluid. Sodium makes direct contact with heater head but does not come in contact with any structural welds. Design concept minimizes number of, and simplifies nonstructural thermal welds and facilitates inspection of such welds.

  20. Heater for Combustible-Gas Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingle, Walter B.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed heater for pressurizing hydrogen, oxygen, or another combustible liquid or gas sealed in immersion cup in pressurized tank. Firmly supported in finned cup, coiled rod transfers heat through liquid metal to gas tank. Heater assembly welded or bolted to tank flange.

  1. Electric arc heater is self starting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. D.

    1966-01-01

    Remote method initiates an electric arc over a large range of gaps between two water-cooled electrodes of an arc-heated wind tunnel without disassembling the arc unit. This type of starting system can be used on both three-phase ac arc heaters and dc arc heaters.

  2. Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Bass, Ronald Marshall; Kim, Dong Sub; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Stegemeier, George Leo; Keltner, Thomas Joseph; Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon

    2010-12-28

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

  3. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve Advances in Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hollomon, Brad

    2003-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Defense Logistics Agency, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently conducted a technology procurement to increase the availability of energy-efficient, packaged unitary ''rooftop'' air conditioners. The procurement encouraged air conditioner manufacturers to produce equipment that exceeded US energy efficiency standards by at least 25% at a lower life-cycle cost. An outgrowth of the project, a web-based cost estimator tool is now available to help consumers determine the cost-effectiveness of purchasing energy-efficient air conditioners based on climate conditions and other factors at their own locations.

  4. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  5. D-Zero End Cap Calorimeter Inner Vessel Heater Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1990-06-15

    There will be 48 finned strip heaters installed in each end cap calorimeter vessel. The strip heaters were specified and the lowest bid vendor submitted a sample heater which was tested. This engineering note will document specifications of the heater, test procedure used, and results of the test. The finned strip heaters were of stainless steel construction. The lowest bid was $45.00 per heater from TEMPCO Electric Heater Corporation. A sample heater from TEMPCO was inspected, cold shocked tested to -320 F, and found to be acceptable.

  6. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project: Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard; Green, Steve; Ballin, Mark

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of active Distributed Air Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) work and reported on its overall progress to date. It does not include details on the concept elements (CEs).The DAG-TM research project is defined as a concept development and definition project and no tools will be delivered. Of the 14 CEs, three are being explored actively: CE-5, CE-6, and CE-11. Overviews of CE-5 (Free Maneuvering for User-Preferred Separation Assurance and Local TFM Conformance), CE-6 (En Route and Transition Trajectory Negotiation for User-Preferred Separation and Local TFM Conformance) and CE-11 (Self-Spacing for Merging and In-Trail Separation) are presented.

  7. Extended range tankless water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.A.

    1993-04-18

    In this research program, a laboratory test facility was built for the purpose of testing a gas-fired water heating appliance. This test facility can be used to examine the important performance characteristics of efficiency, dynamic response, and quality of combustion. An innovative design for a tankless water heater was built and then tested to determine its performance characteristics. This unit was tested over a 5:1 range in input (20,000 to 100,000 btuh heat input). The unit was then configured as a circulating hot water boiler, and a specially designed heat exchanger was used with it to generate domestic hot water. This unit was also tested, and was found to offer performance advantages with regard to low flow and temperature stability.

  8. CO2 Capture from the Air: Technology Assessment and Implications for Climate Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, D. W.

    2002-05-01

    It is physically possible to capture CO2 directly from the air and immobilize it in geological structures. Today, there are no large-scale technologies that achieve air capture at reasonable cost. Yet, strong arguments suggest that it will comparatively easy to develop practical air capture technologies on the timescales relevant to climate policy [1]. This paper first analyzes the cost of air capture and then assesses the implications for climate policy. We first analyze the lower bound on the cost needed for air capture, describing the thermodynamic and physical limits to the use of energy and land. We then compare the costs of air capture to the cost of capture from combustion exhaust streams. While the intrinsic minimum energy requirement is larger for air capture, we argue that air capture has important structural advantages, such as the reduction of transport costs and the larger potential for economies of scale. These advantages suggest that, in the long-run air capture be competitive with other methods of achieving deep emissions reductions. We provide a preliminary engineering-economic analysis of an air capture system based on CaO to CaCO3 chemical looping [1]. We analyze the possibility of doing the calcination in a modified pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) burning coal in a CO2 rich atmosphere with oxygen supplied by an air separation unit. The CaCO3-to-coal ratio would be ~2:1 and the system would be nearly thermally neutral. PFBC systems have been demonstrated at capacities of over 100 MW. Such systems already include CaCO3 injection for sulfur control, and operate at suitable temperatures and pressures for calcination. We assess the potential to recover heat from the dissolution of CaO in order to reduce the overall energy requirements. We analyze the possibility of adapting existing large water/air heat exchangers for use as contacting systems to capture CO2 from the air using the calcium hydroxide solution. The implications of air capture

  9. Progress in aeronautical research and technology applicable to civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in the aeronautical research and technology program being conducted by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration is discussed. Emphasis is on computational capability, new testing facilities, drag reduction, turbofan and turboprop propulsion, noise, composite materials, active controls, integrated avionics, cockpit displays, flight management, and operating problems. It is shown that this technology is significantly impacting the efficiency of the new civil air transports. The excitement of emerging research promises even greater benefits to future aircraft developments.

  10. Helium heater design for the helium direct cycle component test facility. [for gas-cooled nuclear reactor power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, V. R.; Gunn, S. V.; Lee, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes a helium heater to be used to conduct non-nuclear demonstration tests of the complete power conversion loop for a direct-cycle gas-cooled nuclear reactor power plant. Requirements for the heater include: heating the helium to a 1500 F temperature, operating at a 1000 psia helium pressure, providing a thermal response capability and helium volume similar to that of the nuclear reactor, and a total heater system helium pressure drop of not more than 15 psi. The unique compact heater system design proposed consists of 18 heater modules; air preheaters, compressors, and compressor drive systems; an integral control system; piping; and auxiliary equipment. The heater modules incorporate the dual-concentric-tube 'Variflux' heat exchanger design which provides a controlled heat flux along the entire length of the tube element. The heater design as proposed will meet all system requirements. The heater uses pressurized combustion (50 psia) to provide intensive heat transfer, and to minimize furnace volume and heat storage mass.

  11. Temperature measurements from a horizontal heater test in G-Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wunan; Ramirez, A.L.; Watwood, D.

    1991-10-01

    A horizontal heater test was conducted in G-Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, to study the hydrothermal response of the rock mass due to a thermal loading. The results of the temperature measurements are reported here. The measured temperatures agree well with a scoping calculation that was performed using a model which investigates the transport of water, vapor, air, and heat in fractured porous media. Our results indicate that the temperature field might be affected by the initial moisture content of the rock, the fractures in the rock, the distance from the free surface of the alcove wall, and the temperature distribution on the heater surface. Higher initial moisture content, higher fracture density, and cooling from the alcove wall tend to decrease the measured temperature. The temperature on top of the horizontal heater can was about 30{degrees}C greater than at the bottom throughout most of the heating phase, causing the rock temperatures above the heater to be greater than those below. Along a radius from the center of the heater, the heating created a dry zone, followed by a boiling zone and condensation zone. Gravity drainage of the condensed water in the condensation zone had a strong effect on the boiling process in the test region. The temperatures below and to the side of the heater indicated a region receiving liquid drainage from an overlying region of condensation. We verified that a thermocouple in a thin-wall tubing measures the same temperature as one grouted in a borehole.

  12. The Citizen Science Toolbox: A One-Stop Resource for Air Sensor Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The air sensor technology market is exploding with new sensors in all kinds of forms. Developers are putting sensors in wristbands, headphones, and cell phone add-ons. Small, portable and lower-cost measurement devices using sensors are coming on the market with a wide variety of...

  13. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1990-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University is a program that emphasizes graduate and undergraduate student research. The program proceeded along six avenues during the past year: microburst hazards to aircraft, intelligent failure tolerant control, computer-aided heuristics for piloted flight, stochastic robustness of flight control systems, neural networks for flight control, and computer-aided control system design.

  14. APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: TOXIC TREATMENTS, IN-SITU STEAM/HOT-AIR STRIPPING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Toxic Treatments (USA), Inc., (TTUSA) in situ steam/hot-air stripping technology and its applicability as an on-site treatment technique for hazardous waste site soil cleanup of volatile and semivolatile contaminants. Both ...

  15. Evaluating the Air Quality, Climate Change, and Economic Impacts of Biogas Management Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an abstract for a presentation that describes a project to evaluate economic and environmental performance of several biogas management technologies. It will analyze various criteria air pollutants, greenhouse gas emissions, and costs associated with the use of biogas. Th...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, PUROLATOR PRODUCTS AIR FILTRATION COMPANY, DMK804404 AND PB2424

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paint overspray arrestors (POAs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the particle filtration efficiency as a function of size for particles smaller than...

  17. Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ashdown, BG

    2005-01-11

    This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance

  18. A Distributed Simulation Facility to Support Human Factors Research in Advanced Air Transportation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith; Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Ladik, John F.; Sherer, Dana Z.

    1998-01-01

    A distributed real-time simulation of the civil air traffic environment developed to support human factors research in advanced air transportation technology is presented. The distributed environment is based on a custom simulation architecture designed for simplicity and flexibility in human experiments. Standard Internet protocols are used to create the distributed environment, linking all advanced cockpit simulator, all Air Traffic Control simulator, and a pseudo-aircraft control and simulation management station. The pseudo-aircraft control station also functions as a scenario design tool for coordinating human factors experiments. This station incorporates a pseudo-pilot interface designed to reduce workload for human operators piloting multiple aircraft simultaneously in real time. The application of this distributed simulation facility to support a study of the effect of shared information (via air-ground datalink) on pilot/controller shared situation awareness and re-route negotiation is also presented.

  19. Soil-based filtration technology for air purification: potentials for environmental and space life support application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Bohn, Hinrich

    Soil biofiltration, also known as Soil bed reactor (SBR), technology was originally developed in Germany to take advantage of the diversity in microbial mechanisms to control gases producing malodor in industrial processes. The approach has since gained wider international acceptance and seen numerous improvements, for example, by the use of high-organic compost beds to maximize microbial processes. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms which underlay soil processes involved in air purification, advantages and limitations of the technology and the cur-rent research status of the approach. Soil biofiltration has lower capital and operating/energetic costs than conventional technologies and is well adapted to handle contaminants in moderate concentrations. The systems can be engineered to optimize efficiency though manipulation of temperature, pH, moisture content, soil organic matter and airflow rates. SBR technology was modified for application in the Biosphere 2 project, which demonstrated in preparatory research with a number of closed system testbeds that soil could also support crop plants while also serving as soil filters with air pumps to push air through the soil. This Biosphere 2 research demonstrated in several closed system testbeds that a number of important trace gases could be kept under control and led to the engineering of the entire agricultural soil of Biosphere 2 to serve as a soil filtration unit for the facility. Soil biofiltration, coupled with food crop produc-tion, as a component of bioregenerative space life support systems has the advantages of lower energy use and avoidance of the consumables required for other air purification approaches. Expanding use of soil biofiltration can aid a number of environmental applications, from the mitigation of indoor air pollution, improvement of industrial air emissions and prevention of accidental release of toxic gases.

  20. Generic aspects of the airborne spread of human pathogens indoors and emerging air decontamination technologies.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, M Khalid; Zargar, Bahram; Wright, Kathryn E; Rubino, Joseph R; Sattar, Syed A

    2016-09-01

    Indoor air can be an important vehicle for a variety of human pathogens. This review provides examples of airborne transmission of infectious agents from experimental and field studies and discusses how airborne pathogens can contaminate other parts of the environment to give rise to secondary vehicles leading air-surface-air nexus with possible transmission to susceptible hosts. The following groups of human pathogens are covered because of their known or potential airborne spread: vegetative bacteria (staphylococci and legionellae), fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium spp and Stachybotrys chartarum), enteric viruses (noro- and rotaviruses), respiratory viruses (influenza and coronaviruses), mycobacteria (tuberculous and nontuberculous), and bacterial spore formers (Clostridium difficile and Bacillus anthracis). An overview of methods for experimentally generating and recovering airborne human pathogens is included, along with a discussion of factors that influence microbial survival in indoor air. Available guidelines from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other global regulatory bodies for the study of airborne pathogens are critically reviewed with particular reference to microbial surrogates that are recommended. Recent developments in experimental facilities to contaminate indoor air with microbial aerosols are presented, along with emerging technologies to decontaminate indoor air under field-relevant conditions. Furthermore, the role that air decontamination may play in reducing the contamination of environmental surfaces and its combined impact on interrupting the risk of pathogen spread in both domestic and institutional settings is discussed. PMID:27590695

  1. A review of wet air oxidation and Thermal Hydrolysis technologies in sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Hii, Kevin; Baroutian, Saeid; Parthasarathy, Raj; Gapes, Daniel J; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2014-03-01

    With rapid world population growth and strict environmental regulations, increasingly large volumes of sludge are being produced in today's wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) with limited disposal routes. Sludge treatment has become an essential process in WWTP, representing 50% of operational costs. Sludge destruction and resource recovery technologies are therefore of great ongoing interest. Hydrothermal processing uses unique characteristics of water at elevated temperatures and pressures to deconstruct organic and inorganic components of sludge. It can be broadly categorized into wet oxidation (oxidative) and thermal hydrolysis (non-oxidative). While wet air oxidation (WAO) can be used for the final sludge destruction and also potentially producing industrially useful by-products such as acetic acid, thermal hydrolysis (TH) is mainly used as a pre-treatment method to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion. This paper reviews current hydrothermal technologies, roles of wet air oxidation and thermal hydrolysis in sludge treatment, and challenges faced by these technologies. PMID:24457302

  2. An Introduction to Intelligent Processing Programs Developed by the Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Paul G.; Sny, Linda C.

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force has numerous on-going manufacturing and integration development programs (machine tools, composites, metals, assembly, and electronics) which are instrumental in improving productivity in the aerospace industry, but more importantly, have identified strategies and technologies required for the integration of advanced processing equipment. An introduction to four current Air Force Manufacturing Technology Directorate (ManTech) manufacturing areas is provided. Research is being carried out in the following areas: (1) machining initiatives for aerospace subcontractors which provide for advanced technology and innovative manufacturing strategies to increase the capabilities of small shops; (2) innovative approaches to advance machine tool products and manufacturing processes; (3) innovative approaches to advance sensors for process control in machine tools; and (4) efforts currently underway to develop, with the support of industry, the Next Generation Workstation/Machine Controller (Low-End Controller Task).

  3. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  4. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  5. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  6. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  7. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  8. 49 CFR 179.12 - Interior heater systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior heater systems. 179.12 Section 179.12... Design Requirements § 179.12 Interior heater systems. (a) Interior heater systems shall be of approved... each compartment. (b) Each interior heater system shall be hydrostatically tested at not less than...

  9. 49 CFR 179.12 - Interior heater systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interior heater systems. 179.12 Section 179.12... § 179.12 Interior heater systems. (a) Interior heater systems shall be of approved design and materials...) Each interior heater system shall be hydrostatically tested at not less than 13.79 bar (200 psig)...

  10. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 23.859... Construction Fire Protection § 23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire regions. The following combustion heater fire regions must be protected from fire in accordance with...

  11. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 23.859... Construction Fire Protection § 23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire regions. The following combustion heater fire regions must be protected from fire in accordance with...

  12. 46 CFR 52.25-15 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 52.25-15 Section 52.25-15... Boiler Types § 52.25-15 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Fired thermal fluid heaters shall be designed...) Each fired thermal fluid heater must be fitted with a control which prevents the heat transfer...

  13. 46 CFR 52.25-15 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 52.25-15 Section 52.25-15... Boiler Types § 52.25-15 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Fired thermal fluid heaters shall be designed...) Each fired thermal fluid heater must be fitted with a control which prevents the heat transfer...

  14. 46 CFR 52.25-15 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 52.25-15 Section 52.25-15... Boiler Types § 52.25-15 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Fired thermal fluid heaters shall be designed...) Each fired thermal fluid heater must be fitted with a control which prevents the heat transfer...

  15. 46 CFR 52.25-15 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 52.25-15 Section 52.25-15... Boiler Types § 52.25-15 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Fired thermal fluid heaters shall be designed...) Each fired thermal fluid heater must be fitted with a control which prevents the heat transfer...

  16. 46 CFR 52.25-15 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 52.25-15 Section 52.25-15... Boiler Types § 52.25-15 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Fired thermal fluid heaters shall be designed...) Each fired thermal fluid heater must be fitted with a control which prevents the heat transfer...

  17. Heater head for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Darooka, D.K.

    1988-09-06

    A heater head is described for a compound Stirling engine modules, each including a displacer cylinder coaxially aligned with the displacer cylinder of the other of the engine modules, a displacer piston mounted for reciprocation in the displacer cylinder.

  18. High-temperature MEMS Heater Platforms: Long-term Performance of Metal and Semiconductor Heater Materials

    PubMed Central

    Spannhake, Jan; Schulz, Olaf; Helwig, Andreas; Krenkow, Angelika; Müller, Gerhard; Doll, Theodor

    2006-01-01

    Micromachined thermal heater platforms offer low electrical power consumption and high modulation speed, i.e. properties which are advantageous for realizing non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas- and liquid monitoring systems. In this paper, we report on investigations on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based infrared (IR) emitter devices heated by employing different kinds of metallic and semiconductor heater materials. Our results clearly reveal the superior high-temperature performance of semiconductor over metallic heater materials. Long-term stable emitter operation in the vicinity of 1300 K could be attained using heavily antimony-doped tin dioxide (SnO2:Sb) heater elements.

  19. Slat Heater Boxes for Thermal Vacuum Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    Slat heater boxes have been invented for controlling the sink temperatures of objects under test in a thermal vacuum chamber, the walls of which are cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. A slat heater box (see Figure 1) includes a framework of struts that support electrically heated slats that are coated with a high-emissivity optically gray paint. The slats can be grouped together into heater zones for the purpose of maintaining an even temperature within each side. The sink temperature of an object under test is defined as the steady-state temperature of the object in the vacuum/ radiative environment during the absence of any internal heat source or sink. The slat heater box makes it possible to closely control the radiation environment to obtain a desired sink temperature. The slat heater box is placed inside the cold thermal vacuum chamber, and the object under test is placed inside (but not in contact with) the slat heater box. The slat heaters occupy about a third of the field of view from any point on the surface of the object under test, the remainder of the field of view being occupied by the cold chamber wall. Thus, the radiation environment is established by the combined effects of the slat heater box and the cold chamber wall. Given (1) the temperature of the chamber wall, (2) the fractions of the field of view occupied by the chamber wall and the slat heater box, and (3) the emissivities of the slats, chamber wall, and the surface of object under test, the slat temperature required to maintain a desired sink temperature can be calculated by solving the equations of gray-body radiation for the steady-state adiabatic case (equal absorption and emission by the object under test). Slat heater boxes offer an important advantage over the infrared lamps that have been previously used to obtain desired sink temperatures: In comparison with an infrared lamp, a slat heater box provides a greater degree of sink temperature uniformity for a test

  20. Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Xie, Xueying; Miller, David Scott; Ginestra, Jean Charles

    2011-07-26

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes an elongated heater in an opening in the formation. The elongated heater includes two or more portions along the length of the heater that have different power outputs. At least one portion of the elongated heater includes at least one temperature limited portion with at least one selected temperature at which the portion provides a reduced heat output. The heater is configured to provide heat to the formation with the different power outputs. The heater is configured so that the heater heats one or more portions of the formation at one or more selected heating rates.

  1. Phase change material storage heater

    DOEpatents

    Goswami, D. Yogi; Hsieh, Chung K.; Jotshi, Chand K.; Klausner, James F.

    1997-01-01

    A storage heater for storing heat and for heating a fluid, such as water, has an enclosure defining a chamber therein. The chamber has a lower portion and an upper portion with a heating element being disposed within the enclosure. A tube through which the fluid flows has an inlet and an outlet, both being disposed outside of the enclosure, and has a portion interconnecting the inlet and the outlet that passes through the enclosure. A densely packed bed of phase change material pellets is disposed within the enclosure and is surrounded by a viscous liquid, such as propylene glycol. The viscous liquid is in thermal communication with the heating element, the phase change material pellets, and the tube and transfers heat from the heating element to the pellets and from the pellets to the tube. The viscous fluid has a viscosity so that the frictional pressure drop of the fluid in contact with the phase change material pellets substantially reduces vertical thermal convection in the fluid. As the fluid flows through the tube heat is transferred from the viscous liquid to the fluid flowing through the tube, thereby heating the fluid.

  2. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  3. Investigation of air transportation technology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    There were three areas of research sponsored in the Flight Transportation Lab. at MIT under the Joint University Research Program during 1986. The first was the completion of efforts investigating the possibility of using Loran-C for final approach guidance to a runway; the second is a preliminary exploration of the application of automated speech recognition in Air Traffic Control; the third is a continuation of a series of research topics into aircraft icing problems.

  4. Key Metrics and Goals for NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Bruce; Lee, David

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) program is developing a set of decision support tools to aid air traffic service providers, pilots, and airline operations centers in improving operations of the National Airspace System (NAS). NASA needs a set of unifying metrics to tie these efforts together, which it can use to track the progress of the AATT program and communicate program objectives and status within NASA and to stakeholders in the NAS. This report documents the results of our efforts and the four unifying metrics we recommend for the AATT program. They are: airport peak capacity, on-route sector capacity, block time and fuel, and free flight-enabling.

  5. PARTICULATE AND ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM UNVENTED KEROSENE HEATERS, TEST HOUSE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a study of particulate and organic emissions from unvented kerosene heaters in a test house. Results from the test house are compared with those from large (room size) chambers, using EPA's indoor air quality (IAQ) model. In the test house, unvented kerosene h...

  6. JPS heater and sensor lightning qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Simulated lightning strike testing of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) field joint protection system heater assembly was performed at Thiokol Corp., Wendover Lightning Facility. Testing consisted of subjecting the lightning evaluation test article to simulated lightning strikes and evaluating the effects of heater cable transients on cables within the systems tunnel. The maximum short circuit current coupled onto a United Space Boosters, Inc. operational flight cable within the systems tunnel, induced by transients from all cables external to the systems tunnel, was 92 amperes. The maximum open-circuit voltage coupled was 316 volts. The maximum short circuit current coupled onto a United Space Boosters, Inc. operational flight cable within the systems tunnel, induced by heater power cable transients only, was 2.7 amperes; the maximum open-circuit voltage coupled was 39 volts. All heater power cable induced coupling was due to simulated lightning discharges only, no heater operating power was applied during the test. The results showed that, for a worst-case lightning discharge, the heater power cable is responsible for a 3.9 decibel increase in voltage coupling to operational flight cables within the systems tunnel. Testing also showed that current and voltage levels coupled onto cables within the systems tunnel are partially dependant on the relative locations of the cables within the systems tunnel.

  7. Intelligent annunciator for solar water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao

    2009-07-01

    The solar water heater has advantages of low cost, no pollution, safety, energy conservation and is very suitable for users in rural area. But many now used solar water heater has no alarm device resulting water and resource wasting because of forgetting to turn off the valve after water sailing upstream. To overcome this defect, an intelligent annunciator for solar water heater installed at the end of the return pipe is presented and designed in order to remind the user. Firstly, the advantages and disadvantages of automatic and manual sailing upstream are compared concluding that manual sailing upstream is more trustiness. Then an annunciator for solar water heater is studied and ameliorated. Its principle, parameters index and functions are introduced. The annunciator uses CD4069 chip as the core circuit with very little assistant circuit. It can provide sound and light alarm at the same time. This annunciator for solar water heater water is very simple in production, low cost, the use of safe and convenient. The annunciator is applicable to all solar power products, including various types of early installation of solar power water heaters and water tanks without changing their structures. It can meet family and industrial environmental applications.

  8. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  9. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  10. Controlling air pollution from passenger ferries: cost-effectiveness of seven technological options.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Alexander E; Corbett, James J; Winebrake, James J

    2002-12-01

    Continued interest in improving air quality in the United States along with renewed interest in the expansion of urban passenger ferry service has created concern about air pollution from ferry vessels. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the air pollution emissions from passenger ferries and the costs of emissions control strategies. The methodology is used to estimate the emissions and costs of retrofitting or re-powering ferries with seven technological options (combinations of propulsion and emission control systems) onto three vessels currently in service in San Francisco Bay. The technologies include improved engine design, cleaner fuels (including natural gas), and exhaust gas cleanup devices. The three vessels span a range of ages and technologies, from a 25-year-old monohull to a modern, high-speed catamaran built only four years ago. By looking at a range of technologies, vessel designs, and service conditions, a sense of the broader implications of controlling emissions from passenger ferries across a range of vessels and service profiles is provided. Tier 2-certified engines are the most cost-effective choice, but all options are cost-effective relative to other emission control strategies already in place in the transportation system. PMID:12540045

  11. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California

    SciTech Connect

    Ganji, A. . Div. of Engineering)

    1992-07-01

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California's and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  12. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ganji, A.

    1992-07-01

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California`s and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  13. Heater test 1, Climax Stock granite, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Montan, D.N.; Bradkin, W.E.

    1984-10-01

    We conducted a series of in-situ tests in the Climax Stock, an intrusive granite formation at the Nevada Test Site, to validate the concept of housing a nuclear waste repository in granitic crystalline rock. The thermal properties of the granite were measured with resistance heaters and thermocouple frames that had been emplaced in drilled holes in the floor of a drift 420 m below the surface. Data analysis was performed primarily by comparing the measured and calculated temperature histories, varying conductivity and diffusivity in the calculations until reasonable agreement was achieved. The best-fit value for in-situ conductivity was approximately 3.1 W/m x K, and the deduced value for in-situ diffusivity was approximately 1.2 mm{sup 2}/s. Anisotropic effects in the thermal field were less than 10%. Permeability was determined by sealing off portions of the drilled holes, using inflatable rubber packers and an air-pressurization system. We then compared the resulting decay in pressure with analytic solutions of the pressure loss from a cylindrical source in an infinite isotropic medium, obtaining a permeability of approximately 1 nanodarcy (nD) at about 30{sup 0}C. As the temperature increased, the permeability decreased to about 0.2 nD at about 50{sup 0}C and became too small to measure (<0.02 nD) at higher temperatures. These tests provided new data on the in-situ properties of a granite typical of the Basin and Range province and significantly advanced our understanding of and ability to perform in-situ thermal and permeability measurements. This knowledge will be of considerable value for future spent-fuel tests.

  14. The impact of wood stove technology upgrades on indoor residential air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Ryan W.; Leckie, Sara; Millar, Gail; Brauer, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) air pollution has been linked to adverse health impacts, and combustion sources including residential wood-burning may play an important role in some regions. Recent evidence suggests that indoor air quality may improve in homes where older, non-certified wood stoves are exchanged for lower emissions EPA-certified alternatives. As part of a wood stove exchange program in northern British Columbia, Canada, we sampled outdoor and indoor air at 15 homes during 6-day sampling sessions both before and after non-certified wood stoves were exchanged. During each sampling session two consecutive 3-day PM 2.5 samples were collected onto Teflon filters, which were weighed and analyzed for the wood smoke tracer levoglucosan. Residential PM 2.5 infiltration efficiencies ( Finf) were estimated from continuous light scattering measurements made with nephelometers, and estimates of Finf were used to calculate the outdoor- and indoor-generated contributions to indoor air. There was not a consistent relationship between stove technology and outdoor or indoor concentrations of PM 2.5 or levoglucosan. Mean Finf estimates were low and similar during pre- and post-exchange periods (0.32 ± 0.17 and 0.33 ± 0.17, respectively). Indoor sources contributed the majority (˜65%) of the indoor PM 2.5 concentrations, independent of stove technology, although low indoor-outdoor levoglucosan ratios (median ≤ 0.19) and low indoor PM 2.5-levoglucosan correlations ( r ≤ 0.19) suggested that wood smoke was not a major indoor PM 2.5 source in most of these homes. In summary, despite the potential for extensive wood stove exchange programs to reduce outdoor PM 2.5 concentrations in wood smoke-impacted communities, we did not find a consistent relationship between stove technology upgrades and indoor air quality improvements in homes where stoves were exchanged.

  15. UDAF bioenvironmental noise data handbook. Volume 164: MD-1 heater, duct type, portable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, T. H.

    1982-05-01

    The MD-1 heater is an electric motor-driven, portable ground heater used primarily for cockpit and cabin temperature control. This report provides measured and extrapolated data defining the bioacoustic environments produced by this unit operating outdoors on a concrete apron at normal rated conditions. Near-field data are reported for 37 locations in a wide variety of physical and psychoacoustic measures: overall and band sound pressure levels, C-weighted and A-weighted sound levels, preferred speech interference level, perceived noise levels, and limiting times for total daily exposure of personnel with and without standard Air Force ear protectors.

  16. Human-Centered Technologies and Procedures for Future Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip; Woods, David; McCoy, Elaine; Billings, Charles; Sarter, Nadine; Denning, Rebecca; Dekker, Sidney

    1997-01-01

    The use of various methodologies to predict the impact of future Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts and technologies is explored. The emphasis has been on the importance of modeling coordination and cooperation among multiple agents within this system, and on understanding how the interactions among these agents will be influenced as new roles, responsibilities, procedures and technologies are introduced. To accomplish this, we have been collecting data on performance under the current air traffic management system, identifying critical problem areas and looking for examples suggestive of general approaches for solving such problems. Using the results of these field studies, we have developed a set of concrete scenarios centered around future designs, and have studied performance in these scenarios with a set of 40 controllers, dispatchers, pilots and traffic managers.

  17. A Review of Monitoring Technologies for Trace Air Contaminants in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2004-01-01

    NASA issued a Request For Information (RFI) to identify technologies that might be available to monitor a list of air pollutants in the ISS atmosphere. After NASA received responses to the RFI, an expert panel was assembled to hear presentations from 9 technology proponents. The goal of the panel was to identify technologies that might be suitable for replacement of the current Volatile Organics Analyzer (VOA) within several years. The panelists consisted of 8 experts in analytical chemistry without any links to NASA and 7 people with specific expertise because of their roles in NASA programs. Each technology was scored using a tool that enabled rating of many specific aspects of the technology on a 4-point system. The maturity of the technologies ranged from well-tested instrument packages that had been designed for space applications and were nearly ready for flight to technologies that were untested and speculative in nature. All but one technology involved the use of gas chromatography for separation, and there were various detectors proposed including several mass spectrometers and ion mobility spectrometers. In general there was a tradeoff between large systems with considerable capability to address the target list and smaller systems that had much more limited capability.

  18. An approach to monitoring HVAC (heating ventilating and air conditioning) technology developments in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.M.; Ashton, W.B.; McDonald, S.C.

    1987-12-01

    This paper presents a discussion of methods for periodicaly monitoring Japanese advanced technology developments for equipment and components in the heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) industry. The emphasis in the approach recommended is on evaluation of foreign literature - both technical and trade publications - because of both the increasing availability of these materials and the usefulness of information they present. Although not a comprehensive nor completely detailed source of information, HVAC technology literature is an important component of ''scanning the business/technical environmental'' for many purposes. Moreover, despite obstacles in obtaining and translating some important literature, useful knowledge can be obtained from many foreign literature sources for relatively modest costs.

  19. Investigation of Air Transportation Technology at Princeton University, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University proceeded along six avenues during the past year: microburst hazards to aircraft; machine-intelligent, fault tolerant flight control; computer aided heuristics for piloted flight; stochastic robustness for flight control systems; neural networks for flight control; and computer aided control system design. These topics are briefly discussed, and an annotated bibliography of publications that appeared between January 1989 and June 1990 is given.

  20. Air emissions and control technology for leather tanning and finishing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsch, B.F.; Howie, R.H.; McClintock, S.C.

    1993-06-01

    The document provides information for use in assessing appropriate measures to control volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from leather tanning and finishing facilities. It also provides a general description of the industry; describes the key processes employed in manufacturing leather; characterizes the emissions of VOC's and HAPs from the industry; describes applicable emission reduction technologies; and finally, discusses current State and local air pollution regulations affecting the industry.

  1. High efficiency power generation from coal and wastes utilizing high temperature air combustion technology (Part 2: Thermal performance of compact high temperature air preheater and MEET boiler)

    SciTech Connect

    Iwahashi, Takashi; Kosaka, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Nobuhiro

    1998-07-01

    The compact high temperature air preheater and the MEET boiler, which are critical components of the MEET system, are the direct evolutions of the high temperature air combustion technology. Innovative hardware concept for a compact high temperature air preheater has been proposed, and preliminary experiment using the MEET-I high temperature air preheater based on this concept successfully demonstrated continuous high temperature air generation with almost no temperature fluctuation. A preliminary heat transfer calculation for the MEET boiler showed that regenerative combustion using high temperature air is quite effective for radiative heat transfer augmentation in a boiler, which will lead to significant downsizing of a boiler. The heat transfer characteristics in the MEET boiler were experimentally measured and the heat transfer promotion effect and the uniform heat transfer field were confirmed. Moreover, it was understood that excellent combustion with the low BTU gas of about 3,000 kcal/m{sup 3} was done.

  2. Air Traffic Management Technology Demostration: 1 Research and Procedural Testing of Routes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Sara R.; Kibler, Jennifer L.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) will operationally demonstrate the feasibility of efficient arrival operations combining ground-based and airborne NASA technologies. The ATD-1 integrated system consists of the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering which generates precise time-based schedules to the runway and merge points; Controller Managed Spacing decision support tools which provide controllers with speed advisories and other information needed to meet the schedule; and Flight deck-based Interval Management avionics and procedures which allow flight crews to adjust their speed to achieve precise relative spacing. Initial studies identified air-ground challenges related to the integration of these three scheduling and spacing technologies, and NASA's airborne spacing algorithm was modified to address some of these challenges. The Research and Procedural Testing of Routes human-in-the-loop experiment was then conducted to assess the performance of the new spacing algorithm. The results of this experiment indicate that the algorithm performed as designed, and the pilot participants found the airborne spacing concept, air-ground procedures, and crew interface to be acceptable. However, the researchers concluded that the data revealed issues with the frequency of speed changes and speed reversals.

  3. Long-term impacts of air capture technologies on optimal climate strategies under economic uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, F.

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread attention to the consequences of climate change, tangible and concerted progress toward mitigation of the adverse effects of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions has yet to be coordinated among various national and international agents. The energy objectives set by such initiatives as 'Sustainable Energy for All' partially help slow down the global warming in short term, but the risks posed by GHG emissions would persist for a long time. This fact makes negative emission solutions more appealing as a part of the climate protection efforts. Here I use integrated assessment modeling to investigate the potential added value of air capture technologies as a complement for more conventional solutions such as carbon capture and storage, and the use of renewables. Thermodynamic limits of air capture technologies are used as a general guideline for the estimation of the performance of air capture technologies. Optimal long-run climate strategies are discussed taking into account the uncertainties in the impact of CO2 concentration on the Global Wealth Product, and possible scenarios that result in an overshoot beyond the 2°C warming limit.

  4. Results of the development of a solar accumulation-type water heater made of polymer and composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel', O. S.; Frid, S. E.; Mordynskii, A. V.; Suleimanov, M. Zh.; Arsatov, A. V.; Oschepkov, M. Yu.

    2013-04-01

    Results of the development and preliminary tests of a solar water heater completely made of polymer and composite materials are presented. The combination of a solar collector and storage tank into a united construction in combination with the application of modern fabrication technologies of bulk units made of polymer materials makes it possible to considerably decrease the expenses per area unit of the receiving surface of the heater with maintaining high-energy conversion characteristics of the solar energy into low-potential heat. This increases the competitiveness of such installations in comparison with conventional solar water heaters with separate solar collectors and a storage tank.

  5. New and Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; Churnetski, E.L.; Cooke, L.E.; Reed, J.J.; Howell, M.L.; Smith, V.D.

    2001-09-01

    In this study, five emerging technologies were identified for real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium: Microwave-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPS), Aerosol Beam-Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (ABFLIPS), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy, and Micro-Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec). Desired features of real-time air beryllium monitoring instrumentation were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies as well as their unique demonstrated capability to provide real-time monitoring of similar materials. However, best available technologies were considered, regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features. None of the five technologies have the capability to measure the particle size of airborne beryllium. Although reducing the total concentration of airborne beryllium is important, current literature suggests that reducing or eliminating the concentration of respirable beryllium is critical for worker health protection. Eight emerging technologies were identified for surface monitoring of beryllium. CalSpec, MIPS, SERS, LIBS, Laser Ablation, Absorptive Stripping Voltametry (ASV), Modified Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy, and Gamma BeAST. Desired features of real-time surface beryllium monitoring were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies. However, the best available technologies were considered regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features.

  6. Dielectric Heaters for Testing Spacecraft Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, William Herbert; Bitteker, Leo; Godfroy, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A document proposes the development of radio-frequency-(RF)-driven dielectric heaters for non-nuclear thermal testing of the cores of nuclear-fission reactors for spacecraft. Like the electrical-resistance heaters used heretofore for such testing, the dielectric heaters would be inserted in the reactors in place of nuclear fuel rods. A typical heater according to the proposal would consist of a rod of lossy dielectric material sized and shaped like a fuel rod and containing an electrically conductive rod along its center line. Exploiting the dielectric loss mechanism that is usually considered a nuisance in other applications, an RF signal, typically at a frequency .50 MHz and an amplitude between 2 and 5 kV, would be applied to the central conductor to heat the dielectric material. The main advantage of the proposal is that the wiring needed for the RF dielectric heating would be simpler and easier to fabricate than is the wiring needed for resistance heating. In some applications, it might be possible to eliminate all heater wiring and, instead, beam the RF heating power into the dielectric rods from external antennas.

  7. An investigation of air transportation technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    There are two completed projects and five new or continuing research activities under the sponsorship of the FAA/NASA Joint University Program as the 1991-92 period ends. A brief summary of some of the continuing research projects is provided. The active research projects are: (1) extensions for the FASA (Final Approach Spacing Advisory) System; (2) radar tracking around a turn; (3) impact of advanced technologies of single pilot IFR operations; (4) system and human limitations in millimeter wave and infrared synthetic vision systems; and (5) differences in party line information usage by operational user groups.

  8. Simulation of the introduction of new technologies in air traffic management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yliniemi, Logan; Agogino, Adrian K.; Tumer, Kagan

    2015-07-01

    Accurate simulation of the effects of integrating new technologies into a complex system is critical to the modernisation of large infrastructure problems. This is especially true in the modernisation of our antiquated air traffic system, where there exist many layers of interacting procedures, controls, and automation all designed to cooperate with human operators. Additions of even simple new technologies may result in unexpected emergent behaviour due to complex human/machine interactions. One approach is to create high-fidelity human models coming from the field of human factors that can simulate a rich set of behaviours. However, such models are difficult to produce, especially to show unexpected emergent behaviour coming from many human operators interacting simultaneously within a complex system. Instead, we introduce an alternate approach. Instead of engineering complex human models, we directly model the emergent behaviour with relatively simple goal-directed agents. In this model, each autonomous agent in a system pursues individual goals, and the high-level behaviour of the system emerges from the interactions, foreseen or unforeseen, between the agents/actors. We show that this method is capable of reflecting the integration of new technologies in a historical case, and apply the same methodology for a possible future technology. Finally, we show how these high-level simulated behaviours compare to actual deployed air traffic control mechanisms in use today.

  9. Energy and global warming impacts of next generation refrigeration and air conditioning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

    1996-10-01

    Significant developments have occurred in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and the application of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerant working fluids since the original TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) report in 1991. System operating and performance data on alternative refrigerants and refrigeration technologies justify and updated evaluation of these new alternative refrigerants and competing technologies in well-characterized applications. Analytical and experimental results are used to show quantitative comparisons between HFCS, HFC blends, hydrocarbons, and ammonia, used as refrigerants. An objective evaluation is presented for commercial and near commercial non-CFC refrigerants/blowing agents and alternative refrigeration technologies. This information is needed for objective and quantitative decisions on policies addressing greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. The evaluation assesses the energy use and global warming impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies that could be commercialized during the phase out of HCFCS. Quantitative comparison TEWI for two application areas are presented. Opportunities for significant reductions in TEWI are seen with currently known refrigerants through improved maintenance and servicing practices and improved product designs.

  10. Development of high temperature air combustion technology in pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hai Zhang; Guangxi Yue; Junfu Lu; Zhen Jia; Jiangxiong Mao; Toshiro Fujimori; Toshiyuki Suko; Takashi Kiga

    2007-07-01

    High temperature air combustion (HTAC) is a promising technology for energy saving, flame stability enhancement and NOx emission reduction. In a conventional HTAC system, the combustion air is highly preheated by using the recuperative or regenerative heat exchangers. However, such a preheating process is difficult to implement for pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers. In this paper, an alternative approach is proposed. In the proposed HTAC system, a special burner, named PRP burner is introduced to fulfill the preheating process. The PRP burner has a preheating chamber with one end connected with the primary air and the other end opened to the furnace. Inside the chamber, gas recirculation is effectively established such that hot flue gases in the furnace can be introduced. Combustible mixture instead of combustion air is highly preheated by the PRP burner. A series of experiments have been conducted in an industrial scale test facility, burning low volatile petroleum coke and an anthracite coal. Stable combustion was established for burning pure petroleum coke and anthracite coal, respectively. Inside the preheating chamber, the combustible mixture was rapidly heated up to a high temperature level close to that of the hot secondary air used in the conventional HTAC system. The rapid heating of the combustible mixture in the chamber facilitates pyrolysis, volatile matter release processes for the fuel particles, suppressing ignition delay and enhancing combustion stability. Moreover, compared with the results measured in the same facility but with a conventional low NOx burner, NOx concentration at the furnace exit was at the same level when petroleum coke was burnt and 50% less when anthracite was burnt. Practicability of the HTAC technology using the proposed approach was confirmed for efficiently and cleanly burning fossil fuels. 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Direct Air Capture of CO2 - an Overview of Carbon Engineering's Technology and Pilot Plant Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, G.; Corless, A.

    2014-12-01

    At Carbon Engineering, we are developing and commercializing technology to scrub CO2 directly from atmospheric air at industrial scale. By providing atmospheric CO2 for use in fuel production, we can enable production of transportation fuels with ultra-low carbon intensities, which command price premiums in the growing set of constrained fuels markets such as California's LCFS. We are a Calgary based startup founded in 2009 with 10 employees, and we are considered a global leader in the direct air capture (DAC) field. We will review CE's DAC technology, based on a wet-scrubbing "air contactor" which absorbs CO2 into aqueous solution, and a chemical looping "regeneration" component, which liberates pure CO2 from this aqueous solution while re-making the original absorption chemical. CE's DAC tecnology exports purified atmospheric CO2, combined with the combustion CO2 from plant energy usage, as the end product. We will also discuss CE's 2014-2015 end-to-end Pilot Demonstration Unit. This is a $7M technology demonstration plant that CE is building with the help of key industrial partners and equipment vendors. Vendor design and engineering requirements have been used to specify the pilot air contactor, pellet reactor, calciner, and slaker modules, as well as auxiliary systems. These modules will be run for several months to obtain the engineering and performance data needed for subsequent commercial plant design, as well as to test the residual integration risks associated with CE's process. By the time of the AGU conference, the pilot is expected to be in late stages of fabrication or early stages of site installation.

  12. Applications of infrared thermography for petrochemical process heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigle, Robert K.

    2005-03-01

    Process heaters are a critical component in the refining of crude oil. Traditional means of monitoring these high temperature vessels have frequently been more art than science, often relying on highly subjective analyses and/or frequently inaccurate thermocouple data. By utilizing an imaging radiometer specifically designed for heater inspections, valuable performance information can be obtained for operating heaters. In the hands of a knowledgeable engineering team, accurate infrared data can be utilized to significantly increase heater throughput while helping to ensure safe operation of the heater. This paper discusses the use of infrared thermography for online monitoring of operating crude heaters and the special challenges associated with this application.

  13. Primary helium heater for propellant pressurization systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichmuth, D. M.; Nguyen, T. V.; Pieper, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The primary helium heater is a unique design that provides direct heating of pressurant gas for large pressure fed propulsion systems. It has been conceptually designed to supply a heated (800-1000 R) pressurization gas to both a liquid oxygen and an RP-1 propellant tank. This pressurization gas is generated within the heater by mixing super critical helium (40-300 R and 3000-1600 psi) with an appropriate amount of combustion products from a 4:1 throttling stoichiometric LO2/LH2 combustor. This simple, low cost and reliable mixer utilizes the large quantity of helium to provide stoichiometric combustor cooling, extend the throttling limits and enhance the combustion stability margin. Preliminary combustion, thermal, and CFD analyses confirm that this low-pressure-drop direct helium heater can provide the constant-temperature pressurant suitable for tank pressurization of both fuel and oxidizer tanks of large pressure fed vehicles.

  14. Bonded Invar Clip Removal Using Foil Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, James T.; Tuttle, James G.

    2009-01-01

    A new process uses local heating and temperature monitoring to soften the adhesive under Invar clips enough that they can be removed without damaging the composite underneath or other nearby bonds. Two 1x1 in. (approx.2.5x2.5 cm), 10-W/sq in. (approx.1.6-W/sq cm), 80-ohm resistive foil Kapton foil heaters, with pressure-sensitive acrylic adhesive backing, are wired in parallel to a 50-V, 1-A limited power supply. At 1 A, 40 W are applied to the heater pair. The temperature is monitored in the clip radius and inside the tube, using a dual thermocouple readout. Several layers of aluminum foil are used to speed the heat up, allowing clips to be removed in less than five minutes. The very local heating via the foil heaters allows good access for clip removal and protects all underlying and adjacent materials.

  15. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Steve R.

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  16. Electrical Resistive Heaters for Magnetically Sensitive Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael

    2014-05-01

    US Patent 8,138,760 ``Temperature System with Magnetic Field Suppression'' describes design concepts and examples for development of electrical resistive heaters and temperature detectors suitable for temperature control of the alkali vapor cells of magnetically sensitive atomic instruments such as spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF) magnetometers. This is achieved through careful manipulation of electromagnetic multi-pole moments in the design of these resistive heaters for substantial self-cancellation of electrically generated magnetic fields. The magnetic performance of electrical resistive heaters produced according to these design principles and directly attached to a rubidium vapor cell has been demonstrated to cause no measurable degradation of the performance of a SERF magnetometer exhibiting noise below 2 femto-Tesla per square root Hz.

  17. Economic analysis of residential solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-23

    A typical residential solar water heater, and typical cost and performance information are described briefly. The monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. Economic evaluations of solar water heaters are presented in increasingly complex levels of detail. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described. Methods for calculating the Payback Period for any non-typical solar water heater are described. This calculated Payback Period is then shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the puchaser of the system would receive for a typical set of economic conditions. A method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system would provide. (MHR)

  18. Fluid (Air/Water) Cushion Transportation Technology for Emplacing Heavy Canisters into Horizontal Disposal Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    Bosgiraud, J.M.; Seidler, W.K.; Londe, L.; Thurner, E.; Pettersson, S.

    2008-07-01

    The disposal of certain types of radioactive waste canisters in a deep repository involves handling and emplacement of very heavy loads. The weight of these particular canisters can be in the order of 20 to 50 metric tons. They generally have to be handled underground in openings that are not much larger than the canisters themselves as it is time consuming and expensive to excavate and backfill large openings in a repository. This therefore calls for the development of special technology that can meet the requirements for safe operation at an industrial scale in restrained operating spaces. Air/water cushion lifting systems are used world wide in the industry for moving heavy loads. However, until now the technology needed for emplacing heavy cylindrical radioactive waste packages in bored drifts (with narrow annular gaps) has not been previously developed or demonstrated. This paper describes the related R and D work carried out by ANDRA (for air cushion technology) and by SKB and Posiva (for water cushion technology) respectively, mainly within the framework of the European Commission (EC) funded Integrated Project called ESDRED (6. European Framework Programme). The background for both the air and the water cushion applications is presented. The specific characteristics of the two different emplacement concepts are also elaborated. Then the various phases of the Test Programmes (including the Prototype phases) are detailed and illustrated for the two lifting media. Conclusions are drawn for each system developed and evaluated. Finally, based on the R and D experience, improvements deemed necessary for an industrial application are listed. The tests performed so far have shown that the emplacement equipment developed is operating efficiently. However further tests are required to verify the availability and the reliability of the equipment over longer periods of time and to identify the modifications that would be needed for an industrial application in a

  19. Benchmarking, Research, Development, and Support for ORNL Automated Image and Signature Retrieval (AIR/ASR) Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W.

    2004-06-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Applied Materials, Inc. (AMAT) of Santa Clara, California. This project encompassed the continued development and integration of the ORNL Automated Image Retrieval (AIR) technology, and an extension of the technology denoted Automated Signature Retrieval (ASR), and other related technologies with the Defect Source Identification (DSI) software system that was under development by AMAT at the time this work was performed. In the semiconductor manufacturing environment, defect imagery is used to diagnose problems in the manufacturing line, train yield management engineers, and examine historical data for trends. Image management in semiconductor data systems is a growing cause of concern in the industry as fabricators are now collecting up to 20,000 images each week. In response to this concern, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a semiconductor-specific content-based image retrieval method and system, also known as AIR. The system uses an image-based query-by-example method to locate and retrieve similar imagery from a database of digital imagery using visual image characteristics. The query method is based on a unique architecture that takes advantage of the statistical, morphological, and structural characteristics of image data, generated by inspection equipment in industrial applications. The system improves the manufacturing process by allowing rapid access to historical records of similar events so that errant process equipment can be isolated and corrective actions can be quickly taken to improve yield. The combined ORNL and AMAT technology is referred to hereafter as DSI-AIR and DSI-ASR.

  20. Innovative pollution prevention program at Air Force owned Raytheon operated facility incorporating Russian technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stallings, J.H.; Cepeda-Calderon, S.

    1999-07-01

    Air Force Plant 44 in Tucson, Arizona is owned by the Air Force and operated by Raytheon Missile Systems Company. A joint Air Force/Raytheon Pollution Prevention Team operates at AFP 44 with the ultimate goal to minimize or eliminate the use of hazardous substances. The team works together to uncover new technologies and methods that will replace chemicals used in the plant's missile manufacturing facilities. The program maximizes pollution prevention by first eliminating hazardous material use, then chemical recycling, next hazardous waste reduction and finally wastewater treatment and recycling. From fiscal years 1994 through 1997, nine pollution prevention projects have been implemented, totaling $2.6 million, with a payback averaging less than two years. A unique wastewater treatment method has been demonstrated as part of this program. This is electroflotation, a Russian technology which removes dispersed particles from liquid with gas bubbles obtained during water electrolysis. A unit was built in the US which successfully removed organic emulsions from wastewater. Operational units are planned for the removal of waste from waterfall paint booths. The pollution prevention joint team continues to be very active with two projects underway in FY 98 and two more funded for FY 99.

  1. Hollow cathode heater development for the Space Station plasma contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    1993-01-01

    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor has been selected for use on the Space Station. During the operation of the plasma contactor, the hollow cathode heater will endure approximately 12000 thermal cycles. Since a hollow cathode heater failure would result in a plasma contactor failure, a hollow cathode heater development program was established to produce a reliable heater design. The development program includes the heater design, process documents for both heater fabrication and assembly, and heater testing. The heater design was a modification of a sheathed ion thruster cathode heater. Three heaters have been tested to date using direct current power supplies. Performance testing was conducted to determine input current and power requirements for achieving activation and ignition temperatures, single unit operational repeatability, and unit-to-unit operational repeatability. Comparisons of performance testing data at the ignition input current level for the three heaters show the unit-to-unit repeatability of input power and tube temperature near the cathode tip to be within 3.5 W and 44 degrees C, respectively. Cyclic testing was then conducted to evaluate reliability under thermal cycling. The first heater, although damaged during assembly, completed 5985 ignition cycles before failing. Two additional heaters were subsequently fabricated and have completed 3178 cycles to date in an on-going test.

  2. Analysis of the performance and space-conditioning impacts of dedicated heat-pump water heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, L.; Swisher, J.

    1980-12-01

    The operation of a newly marketed dedicated heat pump water heater (HPWH) which utilizes an air to water heat pump, costs about $1000 installed, and obtains a coefficient of performance (COP) of about 2.0 in laboratory and field tests, is a space conditioning benefit if an air conditioning load exists and a penalty if a space heating load exists. A simulation was developed to model the thermal performance of a residence with resistance baseboard heat, air conditioning, and either heat pump or resistance water heating. The building characteristics were adapted (Madison, Wisconsin; Washington, DC; and Ft. Worth, Texas) and the system was simulated for a year with typical weather data. For each city, HPWH COPs are calculated monthly and yearly. The water heating and space conditioning energy requirements of HPWH operation are compared with those of resistance water heater operation to determine the relative performance ratio of the HPWH.

  3. Solar Air Collectors: How Much Can You Save?

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Newburn, J. D.

    1985-04-01

    A collector efficiency curve is used to determine the output of solar air collectors based on the testing of seven solar collectors sold in Iowa. In this application the solar heater is being used as a space heater for a house. The performance of the solar air heater was analyzed and an 8% savings in energy was achieved over a one year period using two 4 x 8 collectors in a typical house.

  4. Integrated technologies to evaluate the impact of air emissions at a petroleum recovery Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Zarus, G.M.; Wagaman, S.A.; Trespalacios, M.J.; Turpin, R.D.; Forrester, T.; Wilder, L.; Meyer, J.; Hansen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Response Team (US EPA/ERT) was requested by US EPA Region 6 to verify or refute the presence of volatile organic air emissions at a petroleum recovery Superfund (PRS) site. Several environmental protection and public health organizations were involved with evaluating the air emissions at this PRS site, including: Region 6 of the US EPA, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the US EPA/ERT. Each group brought a unique expertise which helped in identifying sources, determining their emission rates, evaluating their impact, and monitoring during remedial activities. This report describes the technologies used at the PRS site and some of the results obtained. The compounds of concern included: benzene, bis(2-chloroethyl)ether, 1,2-dichloroethene, methylene chloride, styrene, toluene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and vinyl chloride.

  5. Flue gas treatment for SO2 removal with air-sparged hydrocyclone technology.

    PubMed

    Bokotko, Romuald P; Hupka, Jan; Miller, Jan D

    2005-02-15

    Laboratory results from an initial study on the removal of SO2 from gas mixtures are reported using air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) technology. Tap water and alkaline solutions were used for absorption, and the influence of gas flow rate, water flow rate, and length of the ASH unit were investigated. The research results indicate thatthe air-sparged hydrocyclone can be used as a highly efficient absorber for SO2 emissions. The ASH allows for 97% SO2 removal using water alone for sulfur dioxide content in the gas phase of 5 g/m3. All SO2 is removed in weakly alkaline solution (0.01 mol NaOH/dm3). PMID:15773494

  6. Silent Discharge Plasma Technology for the Treatment of Air Toxics and Other Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, Louis A.; Chase, Peter J.; Gross, Michael P.

    1998-09-21

    Under this CRADA, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and High Mesa Technologies, Inc. (HMT) carried out a joint project on the development of the silent discharge plasma (SDP) technology for the treatment of hazardous air pollutants and other hazardous or toxic chemicals. The project had two major components: a technology-demonstration part and a scale-up and commercialization part. In the first part, a small-scale, mobile SDP plasma processor, which was being developed under a CRADA with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was the mobile equipment was modified for higher capacity service and employed for an innovative remediation technologies demonstration on soil-vapor extraction off-gases at the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, CA. The performance of the SDP system for the variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) encountered at the McClellan site was sufficiently promising to the project HMT and LANL worked together to formulate a scale-up strategy and commercialization/manufacturing plan, and to design a prototype scaled-up SDP unit. HMT and LANL are now in the final stages of completing a licensing agreement for the technology and HMT is in the process of raising funds to engineer and manufacture commercial prototype SDP equipment focused on stack-gas emissions control and environmental remediation. HMT, in collaboration with another Northern New Mexico business, Coyote Aerospace, has also been successful in receiving a Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) award from the Army Research Office to develop, design, and construct a small non-thermal plasma reactor for laboratory studies ("Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor for Control of Fugitive Emissions of Toxic Gases")

  7. Stirling engine external heat system design with heat pipe heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godett, Ted M.; Ziph, Benjamin

    1986-01-01

    This final report presents the conceptual design of a liquid fueled external heating system (EHS) and the preliminary design of a heat pipe heater for the STM-4120 Stirling cycle engine, to meet the Air Force mobile electric power (MEP) requirement for units in the range of 20 to 60 kW. The EHS design had the following constraints: (1) Packaging requirements limited the overall system dimensions to about 330 mm x 250 mm x 100 mm; (2) Heat flux to the sodium heat pipe evaporator was limited to an average of 100 kW/m and a maximum of 550 kW/m based on previous experience; and (3) The heat pipe operating temperature was specified to be 800 C based on heat input requirements of the STM4-120. An analysis code was developed to optimize the EHS performance parameters and an analytical development of the sodium heat pipe heater was performed; both are presented and discussed. In addition, construction techniques were evaluated and scale model heat pipe testing performed.

  8. Measure Guideline. Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This measure guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters.

  9. EVALUATION OF EMISSIONS FROM MASONRY HEATERS AND MASONRY FIREPLACES IN HOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of the first in-home evaluation of emissions from masonry fireplaces and heaters. Five conventional masonry fireplaces and two advanced-technology Rosin masonry fireplaces were monitored for particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO), using the aut...

  10. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ..., electric resistance technologies. 74 FR 65852, 65680-81 (Dec. 11, 2009). As the December 2009 NOPR also... conservation standards for residential water heaters (other than tabletop and electric instantaneous models... Rated Storage x Rated Storage Volume in gallons). Volume in gallons). Electric Storage For tanks with...

  11. Semivolatile and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Wood-Fired Hydronic Heaters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four commercially available HH technologies were studied: a single-stage combustor with natural updraft, a three-stage downdraft combustion system, a bottom-fed pellet burner, and a two-stage heater with both a combustion and gasification chamber. The fuel consisted of three wood...

  12. Increasing reliability of system water heaters for steam-turbine installations at the design stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Brezgin, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    A system for designing water heaters of steam-turbine installations based on uniting standards, reference information, and some numerical procedures with design procedures via wide use of parameterization is considered. The developed design system is based on extensive application of modern information technologies.

  13. High Altitude Long Endurance Air Vehicle Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a variety of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) conceptual designs for two operationally useful missions (hurricane science and communications relay) and compare their performance and cost characteristics. Sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations were initially developed, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative (SR) propulsion systems. Through an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) down select process, the two leading consumable fuel configurations (one each from the HTA and LTA alternatives) and an HTA SR configuration were selected for further analysis. Cost effectiveness analysis of the consumable fuel configurations revealed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can lead to a sub-optimum system solution. An LTA concept with a hybrid propulsion system (solar arrays and a hydrogen-air proton exchange membrane fuel cell) was found to have the best mission performance; however, an HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred consumable fuel concept because of the large size and technical risk of the LTA concept. The baseline missions could not be performed by even the best HTA SR concept. Mission and SR technology trade studies were conducted to enhance understanding of the potential capabilities of such a vehicle. With near-term technology SR-powered HTA vehicles are limited to operation in favorable solar conditions, such as the long days and short nights of summer at higher latitudes. Energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency were found to be the key technology areas for enhancing HTA SR performance.

  14. Gaseous and air decontamination technologies for Clostridium difficile in the healthcare environment.

    PubMed

    Davies, A; Pottage, T; Bennett, A; Walker, J

    2011-03-01

    The recent data for hospital-acquired infections suggest that infection rates for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile are beginning to decrease. However, while there is still pressure to maintain this trend, the resistance of C. difficile spores to standard detergents continues to present a problem for many UK hospitals trying to prevent its spread or control outbreaks. Alternative disinfection technologies such as gaseous decontamination are currently being marketed to the healthcare sector as an alternative/supplement to manual disinfection, and have been shown to be effective in reducing environmental contamination. When used correctly, they offer a complementary technology to manual cleaning that increases the probability of an effective reduction in viability and provides a comparatively uniform distribution of disinfectant. Three gaseous decontamination technologies are examined for their suitability in reducing environmental contamination with C. difficile: gaseous hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide and ozone. Air decontamination and UV-based technologies are also briefly described. We conclude that while there is a role to play for these new technologies in the decontamination of ward surfaces contaminated with C. difficile, the requirement for both a preclean before use and the limited 'in vivo' evidence means that extensive field trials are necessary to determine their cost-effectiveness in a healthcare setting. PMID:21130521

  15. Waking the sleeping giant: Introducing new heat exchanger technology into the residential air-conditioning marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Chapp, T.; Voss, M.; Stephens, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Air Conditioning Industry has made tremendous strides in improvements to the energy efficiency and reliability of its product offerings over the past 40 years. These improvement can be attributed to enhancements of components, optimization of the energy cycle, and modernized and refined manufacturing techniques. During this same period, energy consumption for space cooling has grown significantly. In January of 1992, the minimum efficiency requirement for central air conditioning equipment was raised to 10 SEER. This efficiency level is likely to increase further under the auspices of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA). A new type of heat exchanger was developed for air conditioning equipment by Modine Manufacturing Company in the early 1990's. Despite significant advantages in terms of energy efficiency, dehumidification, durability, and refrigerant charge there has been little interest expressed by the air conditioning industry. A cooperative effort between Modine, various utilities, and several state energy offices has been organized to test and demonstrate the viability of this heat exchanger design throughout the nation. This paper will review the fundamentals of heat exchanger design and document this simple, yet novel technology. These experiences involving equipment retrofits have been documented with respect to the performance potential of air conditioning system constructed with PF{trademark} Heat Exchangers (generically referred to as microchannel heat exchangers) from both an energy efficiency as well as a comfort perspective. The paper will also detail the current plan to introduce 16 to 24 systems into an extended field test throughout the US which commenced in the Fall of 1997.

  16. System and technology considerations for space-based air traffic surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the system trade-offs examined in a recent study of space-based air traffic surveillance. Three system options, each satisfying a set of different constraints, were considered. The main difference in the technology needed to implement the three systems was determined to be the size of the spacecraft antenna aperture. It was found that essentially equivalent position location accuracy could be achieved with apertures from 50 meters down to less than a meter in diameter, depending on the choice of signal structure and on the desired user update rate.

  17. Gas-fired chiller-heaters as a central plant alternative for small office buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Thies, R.M.; Bahnfleth, W.

    1998-01-01

    Gas absorption chillers-heaters have been applied successfully in large projects where use of multiple chillers is feasible. Large facilities typically have a substantial base cooling load. If the base load is greater than 30% of the minimum capacity of the smallest chiller, chiller-heaters alone can be used as the building central plant. However, this study shows that a small office building presents part-load design difficulties that tend to favor the use of other technologies. The engineer can overcome these application problems by a variety of means, as has been illustrated. Manufacturers, too, are addressing the problems associated with low-load operation of direct-fired chiller heaters. A new generation of chiller-heaters that can unload down to 10% of design load will soon be available. If these new machines are capital-cost-competitive and perform up to expectations, the routine application of chiller-heaters in small commercial buildings may be just around the corner.

  18. 10 CFR 429.24 - Pool heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool heaters. 429.24 Section 429.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND... that any represented value of the thermal efficiency or other measure of energy consumption of a...

  19. 10 CFR 429.24 - Pool heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pool heaters. 429.24 Section 429.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND... that any represented value of the thermal efficiency or other measure of energy consumption of a...

  20. 10 CFR 429.24 - Pool heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool heaters. 429.24 Section 429.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND... that any represented value of the thermal efficiency or other measure of energy consumption of a...

  1. A programmable heater control circuit for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, D. D.; Owen, J. W.; Smith, D. A.; Lewter, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal control is accomplished for many components through use of multilayer insulation systems, electrical heaters, and radiator systems. The heaters are commanded to maintain component temperatures within design specifications. The programmable heater control circuit (PHCC) was designed to obtain an effective and efficient means of spacecraft thermal control. The hybrid circuit provides use of control instrumentation as temperature data, available to the spacecraft central data system, reprogramming capability of the local microprocessor during the spacecraft's mission, and the elimination of significant spacecraft wiring. The hybrid integrated circuit has a temperature sensing and conditioning circuit, a microprocessor, and a heater power and control circuit. The device is miniature and housed in a volume which allows physical integration with the component to be controlled. Applications might include alternate battery-powered logic-circuit configurations. A prototype unit with appropriate physical and functional interfaces was procured for testing. The physical functionality and the feasibility of fabrication of the hybrid integrated circuit were successfully verified. The remaining work to develop a flight-qualified device includes fabrication and testing of a Mil-certified part. An option for completing the PHCC flight qualification testing is to enter into a joint venture with industry.

  2. Materials for a Stirling engine heater head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, J. E.; Lehmann, G. A.; Emigh, S. G.

    1990-01-01

    Work done on the 25-kW advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) terrestrial solar program in establishing criteria and selecting materials for the engine heater head and heater tubes is described. Various mechanisms contributing to incompatibility between materials are identified and discussed. Large thermal gradients, coupled with requirements for long life (60,000 h at temperature) and a large number of heatup and cooldown cycles (20,000) drive the design from a structural standpoint. The pressurized cylinder is checked for creep rupture, localized yielding, reverse plasticity, creep and fatigue damage, and creep ratcheting, in addition to the basic requirements for bust and proof pressure. In general, creep rupture and creep and fatigue interaction are the dominant factors in the design. A wide range of materials for the heater head and tubes was evaluated. Factors involved in the assessment were strength and effect on engine efficiency, reliability, and cost. A preliminary selection of Inconel 713LC for the heater head is based on acceptable structural properties but driven mainly by low cost. The criteria for failure, the structural analysis, and the material characteristics with basis for selection are discussed.

  3. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Ying, David H. S.

    1984-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

  4. Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    David Yuill

    2008-06-30

    The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC design

  5. 46 CFR 111.70-5 - Heater circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... location of the heater circuit disconnect device. (c) Electric heaters installed within motor controllers... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... motor, master switch, or other equipment has an electric heater inside the enclosure that is...

  6. 46 CFR 111.70-5 - Heater circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... location of the heater circuit disconnect device. (c) Electric heaters installed within motor controllers... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... motor, master switch, or other equipment has an electric heater inside the enclosure that is...

  7. 46 CFR 111.70-5 - Heater circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... location of the heater circuit disconnect device. (c) Electric heaters installed within motor controllers... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... motor, master switch, or other equipment has an electric heater inside the enclosure that is...

  8. 46 CFR 111.70-5 - Heater circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... location of the heater circuit disconnect device. (c) Electric heaters installed within motor controllers... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... motor, master switch, or other equipment has an electric heater inside the enclosure that is...

  9. 46 CFR 111.70-5 - Heater circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... location of the heater circuit disconnect device. (c) Electric heaters installed within motor controllers... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... motor, master switch, or other equipment has an electric heater inside the enclosure that is...

  10. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... heater when any of the following occurs: (i) The heat exchanger temperature exceeds safe limits. (ii) The... that might accumulate in the combustion chamber or the heat exchanger. In addition— (1) Each part of... serving any other heater whose heat output is essential for safe operation; and (ii) Keep the heater...

  11. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... heater when any of the following occurs: (i) The heat exchanger temperature exceeds safe limits. (ii) The... that might accumulate in the combustion chamber or the heat exchanger. In addition— (1) Each part of... serving any other heater whose heat output is essential for safe operation; and (ii) Keep the heater...

  12. 7 CFR 58.215 - Pre-heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pre-heaters. 58.215 Section 58.215 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....215 Pre-heaters. The pre-heaters shall be of stainless steel or other equally corrosion...

  13. Infrared heater arrays for warming grazingland field plots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to study the likely effects of global warming on rangeland and other ecosystems in the future, we developed arrays of infrared heaters that can produce uniform warming across 3-m-diameter field plots. The efficiency of the heaters was higher than that of the heaters used in most previous in...

  14. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following...

  15. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following...

  16. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following...

  17. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following...

  18. 46 CFR 63.25-5 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 63.25-5 Section 63.25-5... BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-5 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Construction. Fired thermal fluid heaters must meet the requirements of part 52 of...

  19. 46 CFR 63.25-5 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 63.25-5 Section 63.25-5... BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-5 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Construction. Fired thermal fluid heaters must meet the requirements of part 52 of...

  20. 46 CFR 63.25-5 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 63.25-5 Section 63.25-5... BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-5 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Construction. Fired thermal fluid heaters must meet the requirements of part 52 of...

  1. 46 CFR 63.25-5 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 63.25-5 Section 63.25-5... BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-5 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Construction. Fired thermal fluid heaters must meet the requirements of part 52 of...

  2. 46 CFR 63.25-5 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 63.25-5 Section 63.25-5... BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-5 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Construction. Fired thermal fluid heaters must meet the requirements of part 52 of...

  3. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (B) The boiler or process heater has certified compliance with...). If an owner or operator elects to use a boiler or process heater to replace an existing recovery... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters....

  4. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (B) The boiler or process heater has certified compliance with...). If an owner or operator elects to use a boiler or process heater to replace an existing recovery... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters....

  5. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (B) The boiler or process heater has certified compliance with...). If an owner or operator elects to use a boiler or process heater to replace an existing recovery... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters....

  6. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (B) The boiler or process heater has certified compliance with...). If an owner or operator elects to use a boiler or process heater to replace an existing recovery... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters....

  7. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart H; or (B) The boiler or process heater has certified compliance with...). If an owner or operator elects to use a boiler or process heater to replace an existing recovery... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters....

  8. Coupled Physical/Chemical and Biofiltration Technologies to Reduce Air Emissions from Forest Products Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. McGinnis

    2001-12-31

    The research is a laboratory and bench-scale investigation of a system to concentrate and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including hazardous air pollutants, formed from the drying of wood and the manufacture of wood board products (e.g., particle board and oriented strandboard). The approach that was investigated involved concentrating the dilute VOCs (<500 ppmv) with a physical/chemical adsorption unit, followed by the treatment of the concentrated voc stream (2,000 to 2,500 ppmv) with a biofiltration unit. The research program lasted three years, and involved three research organizations. Michigan Technological University was the primary recipient of the financial assistance, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and Mississippi State University (MSU) were subcontractors to MTU. The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a pilot-scale demonstration of the technology with sufficient data to provide for the design of an industrial system. No commercialization activities were included in this project.

  9. Better-Than-Visual Technologies for Next Generation Air Transportation System Terminal Maneuvering Area Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Jones, Denise R.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Williams, Steve P.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Ellis, Kyle E.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2011-01-01

    A consortium of industry, academia and government agencies are devising new concepts for future U.S. aviation operations under the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Many key capabilities are being identified to enable NextGen, including the concept of Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) replicating the capacity and safety of today's visual flight rules (VFR) in all-weather conditions. NASA is striving to develop the technologies and knowledge to enable EVO and to extend EVO towards a Better-Than-Visual (BTV) operational concept. The BTV operational concept uses an electronic means to provide sufficient visual references of the external world and other required flight references on flight deck displays that enable VFR-like operational tempos and maintain and improve the safety of VFR while using VFR-like procedures in all-weather conditions. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) research on technologies to enable the concept of BTV is described.

  10. Development of a cogenerating thermophotovoltaic powered combination hot water heater/hydronic boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushch, Aleksandr S.; Skinner, Steven M.; Brennan, Richard; Sarmiento, Pedro A.

    1997-03-01

    A cogenerating thermophotovoltaic (TPV) device for hot water, hydronic space heating, and electric power generation was developed, designed, fabricated, and tested under a Department of Energy contracted program. The device utilizes a cylindrical ytterbia superemissive ceramic fiber burner (SCFB) and is designed for a nominal capacity of 80 kBtu/hr. The burner is fired with premixed natural gas and air. Narrow band emission from the SCFB is converted to electricity by single crystal silicon (Si) photovoltaic (PV) arrays arranged concentrically around the burner. A three-way mixing valve is used to direct heated water to either the portable water storage tank, radiant baseboard heaters, or both. As part of this program, QGI developed a microprocessor-based control system to address the safety issues, as well as photovoltaic power management. Flame sensing is accomplished via the photovoltaics, a technology borrowed from QGI's Quantum Control™ safety shut-off system. Device testing demonstrated a nominal photovoltaic power output of 200 W. Power consumed during steady state operation was 33 W, with power drawn from the combustion air blower, hydronic system pump, three-way switching valve, and the control system, resulting in a net power surplus of 142 W. Power drawn during the ignition sequence was 55 W, and a battery recharge time of 1 minute 30 seconds was recorded. System efficiency was measured and found to be more than 83%. Pollutant emissions at determined operating conditions were below the South Coast Air Quality Management District's (California) limit of 40 ng/J for NOx, and carbon monoxide emissions were measured at less than 50 dppm.

  11. Air quality and climate impacts of alternative bus technologies in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Chong, Uven; Yim, Steve H L; Barrett, Steven R H; Boies, Adam M

    2014-04-15

    The environmental impact of diesel-fueled buses can potentially be reduced by the adoption of alternative propulsion technologies such as lean-burn compressed natural gas (LB-CNG) or hybrid electric buses (HEB), and emissions control strategies such as a continuously regenerating trap (CRT), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), or selective catalytic reduction with trap (SCRT). This study assessed the environmental costs and benefits of these bus technologies in Greater London relative to the existing fleet and characterized emissions changes due to alternative technologies. We found a >30% increase in CO2 equivalent (CO2e) emissions for CNG buses, a <5% change for exhaust treatment scenarios, and a 13% (90% confidence interval 3.8-20.9%) reduction for HEB relative to baseline CO2e emissions. A multiscale regional chemistry-transport model quantified the impact of alternative bus technologies on air quality, which was then related to premature mortality risk. We found the largest decrease in population exposure (about 83%) to particulate matter (PM2.5) occurred with LB-CNG buses. Monetized environmental and investment costs relative to the baseline gave estimated net present cost of LB-CNG or HEB conversion to be $187 million ($73 million to $301 million) or $36 million ($-25 million to $102 million), respectively, while EGR or SCRT estimated net present costs were $19 million ($7 million to $32 million) or $15 million ($8 million to $23 million), respectively. PMID:24654768

  12. Spacecraft environmental interactions: A joint Air Force and NASA research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, C. P.; Purvis, C. K.; Hudson, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    A joint Air Force/NASA comprehensive research and technology program on spacecraft environmental interactions to develop technology to control interactions between large spacecraft systems and the charged-particle environment of space is described. This technology will support NASA/Department of Defense operations of the shuttle/IUS, shuttle/Centaur, and the force application and surveillance and detection missions, planning for transatmospheric vehicles and the NASA space station, and the AFSC military space system technology model. The program consists of combined contractual and in-house efforts aimed at understanding spacecraft environmental interaction phenomena and relating results of ground-based tests to space conditions. A concerted effort is being made to identify project-related environmental interactions of concern. The basic properties of materials are being investigated to develop or modify the materials as needed. A group simulation investigation is evaluating basic plasma interaction phenomena to provide inputs to the analytical modeling investigation. Systems performance is being evaluated by both groundbased tests and analysis.

  13. Evolutionary Agent-Based Simulation of the Introduction of New Technologies in Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yliniemi, Logan; Agogino, Adrian K.; Tumer, Kagan

    2014-01-01

    Accurate simulation of the effects of integrating new technologies into a complex system is critical to the modernization of our antiquated air traffic system, where there exist many layers of interacting procedures, controls, and automation all designed to cooperate with human operators. Additions of even simple new technologies may result in unexpected emergent behavior due to complex human/ machine interactions. One approach is to create high-fidelity human models coming from the field of human factors that can simulate a rich set of behaviors. However, such models are difficult to produce, especially to show unexpected emergent behavior coming from many human operators interacting simultaneously within a complex system. Instead of engineering complex human models, we directly model the emergent behavior by evolving goal directed agents, representing human users. Using evolution we can predict how the agent representing the human user reacts given his/her goals. In this paradigm, each autonomous agent in a system pursues individual goals, and the behavior of the system emerges from the interactions, foreseen or unforeseen, between the agents/actors. We show that this method reflects the integration of new technologies in a historical case, and apply the same methodology for a possible future technology.

  14. JV Task 75 - Lignite Fuel Enhancement via Air-Jigging Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Lamb; Steven Benson; Joshua Stanislowski

    2007-03-01

    Several North Dakota lignite coals from the Falkirk Mine were processed in a 5-ton-per-hour dry coal-cleaning plant. The plant uses air-jigging technology to separate undesirable ash constituents as well as sulfur and mercury. The results of this study indicate average ash, sulfur, and mercury reductions on a weight basis of 15%, 22%, and 28%, respectively. The average heating value was increased by 2% on a Btu/lb basis. Two computer models were used to understand the impact of a cleaned fuel on boiler performance: PCQUEST{reg_sign} and Vista. The PCQUEST model indicated improvements in slagging and fouling potential when cleaned coals are used over feed coals. The Vista model was set up to simulate coal performance and economics at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station. In all cases, the cleaned fuel performed better than the original feed coal, with economic benefits being realized for all fuels tested. The model also indicated that one fuel considered to be unusable before cleaning was transformed into a potentially salable product. While these data indicate full-scale implementation of air-jigging technology may be beneficial to the mine and the plant, complete economic analysis, including payback period, is needed to make the final decision to implement.

  15. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Scardina, John; Shay, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the goals, benefits, technologies, and procedures of the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1), and provides an update to the previous versions of the document [ref 1 and ref 2].

  16. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative

  17. Evaluation of Tube Wall Thickness of Feed Water Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchikura, Takahisa; Morisaki, Koichi; Hamada, Seiichi

    With regard to the high pressure (HP) feed water heater of thermal power plant at Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) sites, inspection of feed water (FW) tubes wall thickness are conducted whenever required such that frequent tube leak occurs. As a standard inspection methodology, FW heater is disassembled during planned outage, tube wall thickness is measured by the ultrasonic pulse techique (UT), then plugs are installed at the both ends of FW tube if its measured wall thickness is found below calculated threshold. However, the root causes of wall thinning of FW tube are various such as erosion and corrosion, based on wall thinning condition, the above threshold is not applied but utilizing the other technically well-grounded evaluation method is sometimes more rational. Therefore, TEPCO classified wall-thinning condition based on inspection data and established technically well-grounded and rational evaluation methodologies of FW tube wall thickness to suite each wall thinning condition. Moreover, with recent improvement of inspection technique, technology enabled faster, larger amount, and more accurate data acquisition, TEPCO has developed the systematized evaluation methodology that can transact data acquisition and evaluation simultaneously. This article introduces the logic of evaluation methods and examined algorithms to make them systematized.

  18. A micro solar heater for portable energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Raúl; Morrison, Graham; The, Owen; Rosengarten, Gary

    2007-12-01

    This study presents a new concept that combines microtechnology with solar thermal energy to provide a free portable energy source. A water-methanol mixture flows through an array of parallel microchannels which are fabricated into a silicon matrix using conventional micro-fabrication techniques. A vacuum layer is interposed between the channels and the external surface to thermally insulate the channels from the ambient temperature. A selective coating is deposited on one of the vacuum walls to absorb the short wavelength incoming radiation and reduce the long wavelength radiation, hence reducing the heat losses. A geometry and material optimization is still being developed in order to obtain the highest possible efficiency for the micro-heater, while keeping a low pressure drop in the micro-channels. The methanol outlet temperature is predicted to be higher than 250°C. This temperature is required for hydrogen production in a methanol reforming micro-reactor. Therefore, it is envisaged that the micro-solar heater will supply the thermal energy needed for hydrogen generation, that can later be used as fuel for microfuel cells. Both technologies can be integrated in a portable device.

  19. Air Quality Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies in the Power Generation and Transportation Sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Kinnon, Michael

    Future efforts to mitigate the harmful impacts of climate change will include transitions to alternative technologies and fuels targeting reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Currently, economic sectors of greatest concern include transportation and power generation, which combined contribute over half of total U.S. GHG emissions. In addition to GHGs, displacement of conventional energy strategies will impact the emissions of various pollutant species with human health and environmental risks due to common generation processes and sources. In order to fully investigate the air quality (AQ) impacts of deploying various GHG mitigation technologies and fuels in coming decades, spatially and temporally resolved pollutant emissions fields are developed and utilized as input for simulations of atmospheric chemistry and transport via an advanced AQ model. Three areas of the U.S. are chosen for regional analyses in the year 2055. In order to characterize the evolution of regional energy sector emission drivers from current levels, a Base Case is developed that is representative of progression in the absence of aggressive GHG mitigation efforts. To facilitate comparison, alternative scenarios are developed to explore the effects of shifts in technologies, fuels, or behavior with the potential to mitigate GHG emissions. Scenarios are represented by generated spatially and temporally resolved emission fields and evaluated for impacts on primary and secondary air pollutant concentrations. Significant variation in energy profiles, demands, and constraints (e.g., regulatory statutes) between study domains yields significant differences in regional impacts. The magnitude of AQ improvements depends on baseline emission levels and spatial and temporal emission patterns. In addition, the current focus on reducing emissions from the targeted sectors increases the importance of emissions from other areas and sectors.

  20. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 1 Sampling And Analysis Revelant To Air-Based Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pursant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Force Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environme...

  1. Compressed air energy storage monitoring to support refrigerated mined rock cavern technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Moo Yul; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2004-06-01

    This document is the final report for the Compressed Air Energy Storage Monitoring to Support Refrigerated-Mined Rock Cavern Technology (CAES Monitoring to Support RMRCT) (DE-FC26-01NT40868) project to have been conducted by CAES Development Co., along with Sandia National Laboratories. This document provides a final report covering tasks 1.0 and subtasks 2.1, 2.2, and 2.5 of task 2.0 of the Statement of Project Objectives and constitutes the final project deliverable. The proposed work was to have provided physical measurements and analyses of large-scale rock mass response to pressure cycling. The goal was to develop proof-of-concept data for a previously developed and DOE sponsored technology (RMRCT or Refrigerated-Mined Rock Cavern Technology). In the RMRCT concept, a room and pillar mine developed in rock serves as a pressure vessel. That vessel will need to contain pressure of about 1370 psi (and cycle down to 300 psi). The measurements gathered in this study would have provided a means to determine directly rock mass response during cyclic loading on the same scale, under similar pressure conditions. The CAES project has been delayed due to national economic unrest in the energy sector.

  2. Single-heater test final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, S. C.; Buscheck, T. A.; DeLoach, L. D.; Lin, W.; Ramirez, A. I.

    1998-09-01

    The Single-Heater Test (SHT) was one phase of the field-scale thermal testing program of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The primary purpose of the SHT was to study the thermomechanical (TM) behavior of the densely welded, non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff at the Exploratory Studies Facility. The SHT was also used as a shake-down for testing thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical processes in situ, testing that will be conducted in the Drift-Scale Test. In the SHT, a line-heat source 5-m long was emplaced in a pillar and used to heat the pillar for approximately nine months. The thermal field was relatively cylindrical about the line-heat source. The heater was turned off after nine months of heating, and the rock mass was monitored during the cool-down for another nine months, until May 28, 1997, when the test was terminated.

  3. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  4. Electric heater for nuclear fuel rod simulators

    DOEpatents

    McCulloch, Reginald W.; Morgan, Jr., Chester S.; Dial, Ralph E.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an electric cartridge-type heater for use as a simulator for a nuclear fuel pin in reactor studies. The heater comprises an elongated cylindrical housing containing a longitudinally extending helically wound heating element with the heating element radially inwardly separated from the housing. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of boron nitride electrically insulate the heating element from the housing while providing good thermal conductivity. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of magnesia or a magnesia-15 percent boron nitride mixture are disposed in the cavity of the helical heating element. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the magnesia or the magnesia-boron nitride mixture is higher than that of the boron nitride disposed about the heating element for urging the boron nitride radially outwardly against the housing during elevated temperatures to assure adequate thermal contact between the housing and the boron nitride.

  5. Water heaters subject to new regulations.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Alan

    2014-06-01

    On 26 September 2015 the Ecodesign and Energy Labelling Directives for water heaters (Lot 2) come into force, meaning that water-heating products sold in the UK and other countries in the European Economic Area will need to meet minimum energy performance criteria in order to be legally placed on the market, and will require an energy label. Here Alan Clarke, technical support manager at Heatrae Sadia, explains more. PMID:25004554

  6. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, C. E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  7. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  8. Tubular electric heater with a thermocouple assembly

    DOEpatents

    House, R.K.; Williams, D.E.

    1975-08-01

    This patent relates to a thermocouple or other instrumentation which is installed within the walls of a tubular sheath surrounding a process device such as an electric heater. The sheath comprises two concentric tubes, one or both of which have a longitudinal, concave crease facing the other tube. The thermocouple is fixedly positioned within the crease and the outer tube is mechanically reduced to form an interference fit onto the inner tube. (auth)

  9. (''Breadbox'' solar water heater). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Shippee, P.

    1980-10-14

    Progress is reported on a project to study and construct a prototype bread box type solar water heater with movable insulation integral to a Trombe-Meinel cusp reflector. Performance tests were carried out to determine the all day heat gain, instantaneous efficiency at various tank temperatures, and heat loss coefficient of the cusp in the closed position. The same tank was tested with a black paint coating and then with a selective black coating of adhesive foil of etched nickel. (LEW)

  10. Cryostat including heater to heat a target

    DOEpatents

    Pehl, R.H.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.

    1990-09-11

    A cryostat is provided which comprises a vacuum vessel; a target disposed within the vacuum vessel; a heat sink disposed within the vacuum vessel for absorbing heat from the detector; a cooling mechanism for cooling the heat sink; a cryoabsorption mechanism for cryoabsorbing residual gas within the vacuum vessel; and a heater for maintaining the target above a temperature at which the residual gas is cryoabsorbed in the course of cryoabsorption of the residual gas by the cryoabsorption mechanism. 2 figs.

  11. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Ying, David H. S.; McDermott, Wayne T.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  12. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  13. Solar-Powered Cooler and Heater for an Automobile Interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    The apparatus would include a solar photovoltaic panel mounted on the roof and a panellike assembly mounted in a window opening. The window-mounted assembly would include a stack of thermoelectric devices sandwiched between two heat sinks. A fan would circulate interior air over one heat sink. Another fan would circulate exterior air over the other heat sink. The fans and the thermoelectric devices would be powered by the solar photovoltaic panel. By means of a double-pole, double-throw switch, the panel voltage fed to the thermoelectric stack would be set to the desired polarity: For cooling operation, the chosen polarity would be one in which the thermoelectric devices transport heat from the inside heat sink to the outside one; for heating operation, the opposite polarity would be chosen. Because thermoelectric devices are more efficient in heating than in cooling, this apparatus would be more effective as a heater than as a cooler. However, if the apparatus were to include means to circulate air between the outside and the inside without opening the windows, then its effectiveness as a cooler in a hot, sunny location would be increased.

  14. Enhanced heat transfer tubes for film absorbers of absorption chiller/heater

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Naoe; Nosetani, Tadashi; Furukawa, Masahiro; Kaneko, Toshiyuki

    1995-12-31

    Absorption chiller/heaters using non-CFC refrigerants are attracting attention as environmentally friendly energy systems. As the refrigerant/absorbent pair, the water/lithium bromide aqueous solution pair is preferably used for most absorption chiller/heaters in Japan. Absorption chiller/heaters, mainly used as water chillers and air-conditioners, are commercially available at least for unit cooling capacities above 60 kW. In absorption chiller/heaters, the absorber must be made compact, because the absorber has the largest heat transfer area of the four primary heat exchangers in the system: the evaporator, absorber, regenerator and condenser. Although a great amount of information is available on the evaporator and condenser, the same type of information concerning the absorber is lacking. This paper introduces two kinds of double fluted tubes called Arm tubs and Floral tubes for film absorbers. Arm tubes are manufactured using a two-pass drawbench process, while Floral tubes are made using a single pass drawbench process. The experiments using a lithium bromide aqueous solution with the addition of 250 ppm n-octyl alcohol as the surfactant showed that Arm tubes and Floral tubes had about 40% higher heat transfer performance than plain tubes. Therefore, Floral tubes are expected to realize a high performance at low cost. Furthermore, the optimization of the number of grooves on the outside of the tubes is also described here.

  15. Heater effects on cyclone performance for the separation of solids from high temperature and pressure effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Laspidou, C.S.; Lawler, D.F.; Gloyna, E.F.; Rittmann, B.E.

    1999-11-01

    A 25.4-mm diameter hydrocyclone with an underflow receiver was evaluated for its ability to achieve separation of fine particles from water at elevated temperatures and pressures relevant to supercritical oxidation. Temperature was varied from 25 C to 340 C, while pressure was maintained at 27.6 MPa. The particles studied were {alpha}-alumina. Particle-removal efficiency was affected by the separation capabilities of the hydrocyclone, deposition on the heater surface, and flocculation of the particles. Particle-size distributions and suspended solids analyses confirmed that cyclone, separation efficiency was controlled by the (density{sub particle}--density{sub water})/viscosity{sub water} ratio. Because this ratio is sensitive to temperature, especially in the neighborhood of the supercritical point, separation efficiencies sharply increased with temperature. Contrary to traditional air cyclone theory, removal efficiency was inversely correlated to flow rate. This result was caused by particle deposition and particle flocculation in the heater. Low flow rates increased heater detention times and, thus, opportunities for flocculation and particle deposition. Therefore, the performance of a hydrocyclone used in conjunction with supercritical oxidation depends on phenomena occurring in the heater and the hydrocyclone.

  16. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  17. Methods proposed to achieve air quality standards for mobile sources and technology surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1975-01-01

    The methods proposed to meet the 1975 Standards of the Clean Air Act for mobile sources are alternative antiknocks, exhaust emission control devices, and alternative engine designs. Technology surveillance analysis applied to this situation is an attempt to anticipate potential public and environmental health problems from these methods, before they happen. Components of this analysis are exhaust emission characterization, environmental transport and transformation, levels of public and environmental exposure, and the influence of economics on the selection of alternative methods. The purpose of this presentation is to show trends as a result of the interaction of these different components. In no manner can these trends be interpreted explicitly as to what will really happen. Such an analysis is necessary so that public and environmental health officials have the opportunity to act on potential problems before they become manifest. PMID:50944

  18. Introduction Analysis of Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Technologies in Micro Grid Type Food Industrial Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the refrigerating and air-conditioning technologies in cases of introducing both cogeneration system and energy network in food industrial park. The energy data of 14 factories were classified into steam, hot water, heating, cooling, refrigerating, freezing and electric power by interviews. The author developed a micro grid model based on linear programming so as to minimize the total system costs. The industrial park was divided into the 2,500 square meter mesh in order to take steam transport into consideration. Four cases were investigated. It was found that the electric power driven freezer was introduced compared with the ammonia absorption freezer. The ammonia absorption freezer was introduced in the factory that there is a little steam demand and large freezing demand at the same time.

  19. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushimaru, Kenji

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter-driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries, microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices, were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading U.S. variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales.

  20. Air-Sea Exchange Of CO2: A Multi-Technology Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tengberg, A.; Almroth, E.; Anderson, L.; Hall, P.; Hjalmarsson, S.; Lefevre, D.; Omstedt, A.; Rutgersson, A.; Sahlee, E.; Smedman, A.; Wesslander, K.

    2006-12-01

    We report on experiences and results from a multidisciplinary project in which we try to elucidate the complex processes involved in air-sea exchange of CO2. This study was performed in the Baltic Sea (off the Swedish island Gotland) and combined the following technologies: - Meteorological measurements of wind, turbulence, temperature, humidity, humidity flux, CO2 and CO2 flux at several levels from a fixed observation tower - Hourly PCO2 measurements with a moored automatic instrument - Collection of dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity and turbidity data at different levels in the water column at 1-minute intervals - Daily light (PAR) and primary production measurements obtained with a moored automatic incubator - Daily primary production measurements using manual methods - Use of an acoustic current profiler to collect water column information on currents, turbulence, water level and waves - Repetitive water column profiles, from a ship, of dissolved inorganic carbon, oxygen, nutrients, alkalinity, pH, PAR, Chlorophyll A, salinity and temperature

  1. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  2. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Operating Limits for Boilers and... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDDD, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart DDDDD of Part 63—Operating Limits for Boilers and...

  3. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating Limits for Boilers and... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDDD, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart DDDDD of Part 63—Operating Limits for Boilers and...

  4. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operating Limits for Boilers and... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDDD, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart DDDDD of Part 63—Operating Limits for Boilers and...

  5. Agent Based Modeling of Air Carrier Behavior for Evaluation of Technology Equipage and Adoption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, Brant M.; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Hasan, Shahab; Rosenbaum, Rebecca L.; Smith, Jeremy C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of ongoing research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and LMI developed a research framework to assist policymakers in identifying impacts on the U.S. air transportation system (ATS) of potential policies and technology related to the implementation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). This framework, called the Air Transportation System Evolutionary Simulation (ATS-EVOS), integrates multiple models into a single process flow to best simulate responses by U.S. commercial airlines and other ATS stakeholders to NextGen-related policies, and in turn, how those responses impact the ATS. Development of this framework required NASA and LMI to create an agent-based model of airline and passenger behavior. This Airline Evolutionary Simulation (AIRLINE-EVOS) models airline decisions about tactical airfare and schedule adjustments, and strategic decisions related to fleet assignments, market prices, and equipage. AIRLINE-EVOS models its own heterogeneous population of passenger agents that interact with airlines; this interaction allows the model to simulate the cycle of action-reaction as airlines compete with each other and engage passengers. We validated a baseline configuration of AIRLINE-EVOS against Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B) data and subject matter expert opinion, and we verified the ATS-EVOS framework and agent behavior logic through scenario-based experiments. These experiments demonstrated AIRLINE-EVOS's capabilities in responding to an input price shock in fuel prices, and to equipage challenges in a series of analyses based on potential incentive policies for best equipped best served, optimal-wind routing, and traffic management initiative exemption concepts..

  6. Final Technical Report: Science and technology reviews of FACE[Free Air Carbon Enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Strain, Boyd R.

    1998-03-23

    The purpose of this grant was to bring together the principals of all known facilities that had been developed, principals who had submitted proposals to develop FACE facilities, and principals who want to develop proposals for facilities. In addition, critical program personnel from potential funding agencies and a few high level science administrators were invited to observe the proceedings and to visit a working FACE facility. The objectives of this study are to conduct a three-day international meeting on scientific aspects of research with the new and developing free air carbon enrichment (FACE) technology. Immediately following the science meeting, conduct a two-day international meeting on experimental protocols to be applied in FACE research. To conduct a four day international meeting on the assessment of the responses of forest ecosystems to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. The three meetings supported by this grant were all highly successful meetings and resulted in the formation of an organized and identified working group with the acronym InterFACE (International Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) working group.

  7. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1988-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University, a program emphasizing graduate and undergraduate student research, proceeded along several avenues during the past year. A study of optimal trajectories for penetration of microbursts when encounter is unavoidable was conducted. The emphasis of current wind shear research is on developing an expert system for wind shear avoidance. A knowledge-based reconfigurable flight control system that is implemented with the Pascal programming language using parallel microprocessors was developed. This expert system could be considered a prototype for a failure-tolerant control system that can be constructed using existing hardware. Development of a real-time cockpit simulator continued during the year. The simulator provides a single-person crew station with both conventional and advanced control devices; it currently is programmed to simulate the Navion single-engine general aviation airplane. Alternatives for the air traffic control system giving particular attention to the institutional structure of the FAA are analyzed. A simple numerical procedure for estimating the stochastic robustness of control systems is being investigated. The revitalization of the general aviation industry is also discussed.

  8. Field demonstration and commercialization of silent discharge plasma hazardous air pollutant control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, L.A.; Coogan, J.J.; Korzekwa, R.A.; Secker, D.A.; Reimers, R.F.; Herrmann, P.G.; Chase, P.J.; Gross, M.P. |; Jones, M.R.

    1996-07-01

    Silent electrical discharge plasma (dielectric barrier) reactors can decompose gas-phase pollutants by free-radical attack or electron-induced fragmentation. The radicals or electrons are produced by the large average volume nonthermal plasmas generated in the reactor. In the past decade, the barrier configuration has attracted attention for destroying toxic chemical agents for the military, removing harmful greenhouse gases, and treating other environmentally- hazardous chemical compounds. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have been studying the silent discharge plasma (SDP) for processing gaseous-based hazardous chemicals for approximately five years. The key objective is to convert hazardous or toxic chemicals into non-hazardous compounds or into materials which are more easily managed. The main applications have been for treating off-gases from thermal treatment units, and for abating hazardous air-pollutant emissions (e.g., industrial air emissions, vapors extracted from contaminated soil or groundwater). In this paper, we will summarize the basic principles of SDP processing, discuss illustrative applications of the technology, and present results from small-scale field tests that are relevant to our commercialization effort.

  9. ABB`s LEBS technologies: Practical solutions for controlling air emissions and increasing efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Hein, R.J. von; Wesnor, J.D.

    1997-07-01

    When evaluating candidate technologies for controlling air emissions and increasing thermal efficiency the main criteria used by most utility and industrial decision makers are: (1) total installed cost of the system and (2) the impact the system may have on O&M costs, on unit forced outage rate/availability and on unit efficiency. Generally speaking, simpler is better. Designs which have fewer and simpler process steps and components will almost always have lower first cost, reduced maintenance cost, reduced operating labor cost, and fewer forced outages/higher availability. This paper describes technologies developed for the control of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions and for increased efficiency in the designs prepared by the ABB team for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project titled {open_quote}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quote} (LEBS). The primary objectives of the LEBS project are to reduce emissions to approximately one-fifth of current new source performance standards and to increase efficiency, all without increasing the cost of electricity. The project encompasses the use of Pulverized coal combustion and development of near-term technologies. The team selected an advanced low-NO{sub x} firing system and an advanced dry scrubber system to meet the emissions objectives and a Kalina cycle to achieve the efficiency and cost of electricity objectives. The development and design of these technologies, witch are suited to new or retrofit applications, are described in the paper.

  10. Air Force space power technology development at the Phillips research site

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, K.; Radzykewycz, D.; James, W.R.; Donet, C.; Mayberry, C.

    1998-07-01

    the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) have the potential to increase EPS specific power to 10 W/kg by FY2000 and 13 W/kg by FY2005. Examples of these technologies include multijunction solar cells with up to 1/3 higher efficiency of state-of-the-art (SOA) GaAs and GaInP2/GaAs/Ge cells, energy storage batteries and flywheels with three times the energy density of SOA batteries, high efficiency power electronics that reduce thermal control loads, and a solar thermal system with integrated (non-photovoltaic) energy generation and (non-electrochemical) energy storage.

  11. A Method for Making Cross-Comparable Estimates of the Benefits of Decision Support Technologies for Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David; Long, Dou; Etheridge, Mel; Plugge, Joana; Johnson, Jesse; Kostiuk, Peter

    1998-01-01

    We present a general method for making cross comparable estimates of the benefits of NASA-developed decision support technologies for air traffic management, and we apply a specific implementation of the method to estimate benefits of three decision support tools (DSTs) under development in NASA's advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program: Active Final Approach Spacing Tool (A-FAST), Expedite Departure Path (EDP), and Conflict Probe and Trial Planning Tool (CPTP). The report also reviews data about the present operation of the national airspace system (NAS) to identify opportunities for DST's to reduce delays and inefficiencies.

  12. Mississippi State University Center for Air Sea Technology FY95 Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeske, Lanny; Corbin, James H.

    1995-01-01

    The Mississippi State University (MSU) Center for Air Sea Technology (CAST) evolved from the Institute for Naval Oceanography's (INO) Experimental Center for Mesoscale Ocean Prediction (ECMOP) which was started in 1989. MSU CAST subsequently began operation on 1 October 1992 under an Office of Naval Research (ONR) two-year grant which ended on 30 September 1994. In FY95 MSU CAST was successful in obtaining five additional research grants from ONR, as well as several other research contracts from the Naval Oceanographic Office via NASA, the Naval Research Laboratory, the Army Corps of Engineers, and private industry. In the past, MSU CAST technical research and development has produced tools, systems, techniques, and procedures that improve efficiency and overcome deficiency for both the operational and research communities residing with the Department of Defense, private industry, and university ocean modeling community. We continued this effort with the following thrust areas: to develop advanced methodologies and tools for model evaluation, validation and visualization, both oceanographic and atmospheric; to develop a system-level capability for conducting temporally and ; spatially scaled ocean simulations driven by or are responsive to ocean models, and take into consideration coupling to atmospheric models; to continue the existing oceanographic/atmospheric data management task with emphasis on distributed databases in a network environment, with database optimization and standardization, including use of Mosaic and World Wide Web (WWW) access; and to implement a high performance parallel computing technology for CAST ocean models

  13. The research and development of an air pollutant monitoring system based on DOAS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Liu, Han-peng; Zheng, Ming; Meng, Xiao-feng

    2009-07-01

    This article illuminates a kind of sensor used in measuring the concentrations of the main pollutants in flue gas streams (Dust, SO2 and NOx) based on the UV-DOAS technology in air pollutant monitoring. Using the high-level embedded microprocessors and complex programmable logic device, the sensor completes system measurement, management and signal communication, and spectrum inversion and data saving are processed by PC at the same time. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technology is used in the flue gas pollutant factor analysis through the sensor construction. The absorption spectra of SO2, NOx and smoke dust are inverted to reduce the interference of other factors in flue gas streams. At the same time, the effect of light source fluctuation and optical transmission ratio is considered and removed in the measurement system. The result shows that the monitoring accuracy of concentration of sulfur dioxide and smoke dust achieves +/-2%, the concentration of nitrogen oxides accuracy achieves +/-3%, which meets the requirements of the national standard. The sensor can be directly installed in a flue. As a result, process of measuring is simplified and measurement accuracy is improved. Further more, this method increases the stability of the system and reduces the maintenance costs. Measurement data is transferred through data bus between the sensor and upper PC to realize remote control and real-time measurement. Considering the severe conditions in measuring the main pollutants in flue gas streams, applications of anti-interference and anti-corrosion etc. are taken in the system design.

  14. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost-effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads and found that the tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system, among other key findings.

  15. TREATMENT OF CYANIDE SOLUTIONS AND SLURRIES USING AIR-SPARGED HYDROCYCLONE (ASH) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Jan D. Miller; Terrence Chatwin; Jan Hupka; Doug Halbe; Tao Jiang; Bartosz Dabrowski; Lukasz Hupka

    2003-03-31

    The two-year Department of Energy (DOE) project ''Treatment of Cyanide Solutions and Slurries Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) Technology'' (ASH/CN) has been completed. This project was also sponsored by industrial partners, ZPM Inc., Elbow Creek Engineering, Solvay Minerals, EIMCO-Baker Process, Newmont Mining Corporation, Cherokee Chemical Co., Placer Dome Inc., Earthworks Technology, Dawson Laboratories and Kennecott Minerals. Development of a new technology using the air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) as a reactor for either cyanide recovery or destruction was the research objective. It was expected that the ASH could potentially replace the conventional stripping tower presently used for HCN stripping and absorption with reduced power costs. The project was carried out in two phases. The first phase included calculation of basic processing parameters for ASH technology, development of the flowsheet, and design/adaptation of the ASH mobile system for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) recovery from cyanide solutions. This was necessary because the ASH was previously used for volatile organics removal from contaminated water. The design and modification of the ASH were performed with the help from ZPM Inc. personnel. Among the modifications, the system was adapted for operation under negative pressure to assure safe operating conditions. The research staff was trained in the safe use of cyanide and in hazardous material regulations. Cyanide chemistry was reviewed resulting in identification of proper chemical dosages for cyanide destruction, after completion of each pilot plant run. The second phase of the research consisted of three field tests that were performed at the Newmont Mining Corporation gold cyanidation plant near Midas, Nevada. The first field test was run between July 26 and August 2, 2002, and the objective was to demonstrate continuous operation of the modified ASH mobile system. ASH units were applied for both stripping and absorption, to recover cyanide

  16. Real-time dissemination of air quality information using data streams and Web technologies: linking air quality to health risks in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Davila, Silvije; Ilić, Jadranka Pečar; Bešlić, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    This article presents a new, original application of modern information and communication technology to provide effective real-time dissemination of air quality information and related health risks to the general public. Our on-line subsystem for urban real-time air quality monitoring is a crucial component of a more comprehensive integrated information system, which has been developed by the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health. It relies on a StreamInsight data stream management system and service-oriented architecture to process data streamed from seven monitoring stations across Zagreb. Parameters that are monitored include gases (NO, NO2, CO, O3, H2S, SO2, benzene, NH3), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), and meteorological data (wind speed and direction, temperature and pressure). Streamed data are processed in real-time using complex continuous queries. They first go through automated validation, then hourly air quality index is calculated for every station, and a report sent to the Croatian Environment Agency. If the parameter values exceed the corresponding regulation limits for three consecutive hours, the web service generates an alert for population groups at risk. Coupled with the Common Air Quality Index model, our web application brings air pollution information closer to the general population and raises awareness about environmental and health issues. Soon we intend to expand the service to a mobile application that is being developed. PMID:26110480

  17. Emerging Fuel Cell Technology Being Developed: Offers Many Benefits to Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James F.; Civinskas, Kestutis C.

    2004-01-01

    Fuel cells, which have recently received considerable attention for terrestrial applications ranging from automobiles to stationary power generation, may enable new aerospace missions as well as offer fuel savings, quiet operations, and reduced emissions for current and future aircraft. NASA has extensive experience with fuel cells, having used them on manned space flight systems over four decades. Consequently, the NASA Glenn Research Center has initiated an effort to investigate and develop fuel cell technologies for multiple aerospace applications. Two promising fuel cell types are the proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). PEM technology, first used on the Gemini spacecraft in the sixties, remained unutilized thereafter until the automotive industry recently recognized the potential. PEM fuel cells are low-temperature devices offering quick startup time but requiring relatively pure hydrogen fuel. In contrast, SOFCs operate at high temperatures and tolerate higher levels of impurities. This flexibility allows SOFCs to use hydrocarbon fuels, which is an important factor considering our current liquid petroleum infrastructure. However, depending on the specific application, either PEM or SOFC can be attractive. As only NASA can, the Agency is pursuing fuel cell technology for civil uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) because it offers enhanced scientific capabilities, including enabling highaltitude, long-endurance missions. The NASA Helios aircraft demonstrated altitudes approaching 100,000 ft using solar power in 2001, and future plans include the development of a regenerative PEM fuel cell to provide nighttime power. Unique to NASA's mission, the high-altitude aircraft application requires the PEM fuel cell to operate on pure oxygen, instead of the air typical of terrestrial applications.

  18. Automated robotic equipment for ultrasonic inspection of pressurizer heater wells

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.; DeRossi, Raymond S.; Mullins, Lawrence E.

    1993-01-01

    A robotic device for remotely inspecting pressurizer heater wells is provided which has the advantages of quickly, precisely, and reliably acquiring data at reasonable cost while also reducing radiation exposure of an operator. The device comprises a prober assembly including a probe which enters a heater well, gathers data regarding the condition of the heater well and transmits a signal carrying that data; a mounting device for mounting the probe assembly at the opening of the heater well so that the probe can enter the heater well; a first motor mounted on the mounting device for providing movement of the probe assembly in an axial direction; and a second motor mounted on the mounting device for providing rotation of the probe assembly. This arrangement enables full inspection of the heater well to be carried out.

  19. Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Uherka, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications.

  20. NEXT GENERATION COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMPWATER HEATER USING CARBON DIOXIDE USING DIFFERENT IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES

    SciTech Connect

    Chad Bowers; Michael Petersen; Stefan Elbel; Pega Hrnjak

    2012-04-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82ºC, as required by sanitary codes in the U.S. (Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35 kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20 %.

  1. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS USING CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect

    BOWERS C.D.; ELBEL S.; PETERSEN M.; HRNJAK P.S.

    2011-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82ºC (180ºF), as required by sanitary codes in the U.S.(Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20%.

  2. Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Stanley Leroy

    2012-04-03

    A method for installing a horizontal or inclined subsurface heater includes placing a heating section of a heater in a horizontal or inclined section of a wellbore with an installation tool. The tool is uncoupled from the heating section. A lead in section is mechanically and electrically coupled to the heating section of the heater. The lead-in section is located in an angled or vertical section of the wellbore.

  3. Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Sandberg, Chester Ledlie

    2010-11-09

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

  4. Solar hot water systems for the southeastern United States: principles and construction of breadbox water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    1983-02-01

    The use of solar energy to provide hot water is among the easier solar technologies for homeowners to utilize. In the Southeastern United States, because of the mild climate and abundant sunshine, solar energy can be harnessed to provide a household's hot water needs during the non-freezing weather period mid-April and mid-October. This workbook contains detailed plans for building breadbox solar water heaters that can provide up to 65% of your hot water needs during warm weather. If fuel costs continue to rise, the annual savings obtained from a solar water heater will grow dramatically. The designs in this workbook use readily available materials and the construction costs are low. Although these designs may not be as efficient as some commercially available systems, most of a household's hot water needs can be met with them. The description of the breadbox water heater and other types of solar systems will help you make an informed decision between constructing a solar water heater or purchasing one. This workbook is intended for use in the southeastern United States and the designs may not be suitable for use in colder climates.

  5. Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

  6. Shipping device for heater unit assembly

    DOEpatents

    Blaushild, Ronald M.; Abbott, Stephan L.; Miller, Phillip E.; Shaffer, Robert

    1991-01-01

    A shipping device for a heater unit assembly (23), the heater unit assembly (23) including a cylindrical wall (25) and a top plate (31) secured to the cylindrical wall (25) and having a flange portion which projects radially beyond the outer surface of the cylindrical wall (25), and the shipping device including: a cylindrical container (3) having a closed bottom (13); a support member (47) secured to the container (3) and having an inwardly directed flange for supporting the flange portion of the top plate (31); a supplemental supporting system (1) for positioning the heater unit assembly (23) in the container (3) at a spaced relation from the inner surface and bottom wall (13) of the container (3); a cover (15) for closing the top of the container (3); and a container supporting structure (5,7,8) supporting the container (3) in a manner to permit the container (3) to be moved, relative to the supporting structure (5,7,8 ), between a vertical position for loading and unloading the assembly (23) and a horizontal position for transport of the assembly (23). A seal (57) is interposed between the container (3) and the cover (15) for sealing the interior of the container (3) from the environment. An abutment member (41) is mounted on the container supporting structure (5,7,8) for supporting the container bottom (13), when the container (3) is in the vertical position, to prevent the container (3) from moving past the vertical position in the direction away from the horizontal position, and a retainer member (55) is secured within the cover (15) for retaining the assembly top plate (31) in contact with the support member (47) when the cover (15) closes the top of the container (3).

  7. Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Moujaes, S.F.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

  8. Fast nanotopography imaging using a high speed cantilever with integrated heater-thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeonghee; Somnath, Suhas; King, William P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a high speed tapping cantilever with an integrated heater-thermometer for fast nanotopography imaging. The cantilever is much smaller and faster than previous heated cantilevers, with a length of 35 μm and a resonant frequency of 1.4 MHz. The mechanical response time is characterized by scanning over a backward-facing step of height 20 nm. The mechanical response time is 77 μs in air and 448 μs in water, which compares favorably to the fastest commercial cantilevers that do not have integrated heaters. The doped silicon cantilever is designed with an integrated heater that can heat and cool in about 10 μs and can operate in both air and water. We demonstrate standard laser-based topography imaging along with thermal topography imaging, when the cantilever is actuated via the piezoelectric shaker in an atomic force microscope system and when it is actuated by Lorentz forces. The cantilever can perform thermal topography imaging in tapping mode with an imaging resolution of 7 nm at a scan speed of 1.46 mm s-1.

  9. Assessing a novel contact heater as a new method of recovering explosives traces from porous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yu, Holly A; Lewis, Simon W; Beardah, Matthew S; NicDaeid, Niamh

    2016-02-01

    It can be very challenging to recover explosives traces from porous surfaces, such as clothing and car seats, compared to non-porous surfaces. The contact heater has been developed as a novel instrument designed to recover explosives traces from porous surfaces. Samples are taken by heating and drawing air across a surface, with the air flowing through a sampling cartridge containing adsorbent polymer beads, which act to trap any recovered explosive material. Any collected explosive can then be eluted from this cartridge using a solvent, prior to analysis. This paper outlines work performed to evaluate the usefulness of the contact heater with regards to the recovery of explosives traces from porous materials. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) were chosen as two representative explosives for this study. Quantification was performed using GC-MS for EGDN and LC-MS/MS for TATP. Different sampling temperatures, sampling times and elution solvents were investigated. Recovery was trialled from leather, carpet and denim. Recoveries of up to 71% were obtained following optimisation. It was also possible to recover TATP from fabrics exposed to TATP vapour in a vapour-laden jar up to two hours after exposure. The contact heater therefore appears to be a very useful tool for the recovery of explosives traces from porous materials. PMID:26653508

  10. Transfer and Use of Training Technology in Air Force Technical Training: A Model to Guide Training Development. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haverland, Edgar M.

    This guide describes the final stage in a project to develop an Air Force technical training development model and presents the model. Chapter 1 summarizes the total project and its objective to facilitate the effective use of training technology through the development of a model for matching training approaches or innovations with specific…

  11. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  12. Smart Warriors: A Rationale for Educating Air Force Academy Cadets in the History of Science, Technology, and Warfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astore, William J.

    2003-01-01

    Identifies enhancing the judgments of cadets through education at a military institution like the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) as a crucial pedagogical issue facing instructors of History of Science and Technology (HST). Discusses the experience of helping cadets to meet such challenges in learning HST in the context of professional…

  13. Static Characteristics of Absorption Chiller-Heater Supplying Cold and Hot Water Simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Irie, Tomoyoshi

    Absorption chiller-heaters which can supply both chilled water and hot water at the same time, are used for cooling and heating air conditioning systems. In this paper, we classified absorption cold and hot water generating cycles and control methods, studied these absorption cycles by cycle simulation. In economizer cycle, condensed refrigerant which heats hot water is transported to cooling cycle and used effectively for cooling chilled water, Concerning with transported condensed refrigerant, there are two methods, all condensed refrigerant or required refrigerant for cooling are transported to cooling cycle, and required refrigerant method is better for energy saving. Adding improvement of solution control to this economizer cycle, simultaneous cold and hot water supplying chiller-heaters have good characteristics of energy saving in the all region.

  14. USAF Bioenvironmental Noise Data Handbook. Volume 165: MC-1 heater, duct type, portable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, T. H.

    1982-06-01

    The MC-1 heater is a gasoline-motor driven, portable ground heater used primarily for cockpit and cabin temperature control. This report provides measured and extrapolated data defining the bioacoustic environments produced by this unit operating outdoors on a concrete apron at normal rated conditions. Near-field data are reported for 37 locations in a wide variety of physical and psychoacoustic measures: overall and band sound pressure levels, C-weighted and A-weighted sound levels, preferred speech interference level, perceived noise levels, and limiting times for total daily exposure of personnel with and without standard Air Force ear protectors. Far-field data measured at 36 locations are normalized to standard meteorological conditions and extrapolated from 10 1600 meters to derive sets of equal-value contours for these same seven acoustic measures as functions of angle and distance from the source.

  15. Saving energy and improving IAQ through application of advanced air cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J; Destaillats, H.; Sidheswaran, M.A.

    2011-03-01

    In the future, we may be able use air cleaning systems and reduce rates of ventilation (i.e., reduce rates of outdoor air supply) to save energy, with indoor air quality (IAQ) remaining constant or even improved. The opportunity is greatest for commercial buildings because they usually have a narrower range of indoor pollutant sources than homes. This article describes the types of air cleaning systems that will be needed in commercial buildings.

  16. Combined grate and hot water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Milano, E.

    1984-09-25

    A combined grate and hot water heater for a fireplace which can be easily fabricated using conventional parts, easily installed and easily used is disclosed. The combined grate and hot water heater includes a rectangular shaped cradle for holding combustible materials to be burned which is sized and configured to fit into the fire chamber of the fireplace and a set of supporting legs for supporting the cradle on the floor of the fire chamber in spaced apart relationship. The cradle is made of a plurality of longitudinally extending and laterally extending heavy duty cast iron pipes interconnected by suitable pipe couplings so as to be in fluid communication with one another. A water inlet pipe and a water outlet pipe are connected to and in fluid communication with the pipes in the cradle for supplying water to be heated into the pipes and then allowing exit of the water after it has circulated through the pipes and has been heated by the fire produced on burning of the combustible materials. An inverted U shaped pipe section also made of heavy duty cast iron is coupled in fluid communication with the pipes in the cradle and extends vertically upward into the flue of the fireplace to utilize the heat present in the flue to further heat the water circulated through the pipes.

  17. Radioisotopic heater units warm an interplanetary spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Ferreira, E.A.; Rinehart, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    The Cassini orbiter and Huygens probe, which were successfully launched on October 15, 1997, constitute NASA`s last grand-scale interplanetary mission of this century. The mission, which consists of a four-year, close-up study of Saturn and its moons, begins in July 2004 with Cassini`s 60 orbits of Saturn and about 33 fly-bys of the large moon Titan. The Huygens probe will descend and land on Titan. Investigations will include Saturn`s atmosphere, its rings and its magnetosphere. The atmosphere and surface of Titan and other icy moons also will be characterized. Because of the great distance of Saturn from the sun, some of the instruments and equipment on both the orbiter and the probe require external heaters to maintain their temperature within normal operating ranges. These requirements are met by Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) designed, fabricated and safety tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. An improved gas tungsten arc welding procedure lowered costs and decreased processing time for heat units for the Cassini spacecraft.

  18. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, Reg W.; Dial, Ralph E.; Finnell, Wilber K. R.

    1990-01-01

    A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocuple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

  19. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    DOEpatents

    McCulloch, Reginald W.; Dial, Ralph E.; Finnell, Wilber K. R.

    1988-01-01

    A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocouple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

  20. Simulated Altitude Investigation of Stewart-Warner Model 906-B Combustion Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebersbach, Frederick R.; Cervenka, Adolph J.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to determine thermal and pressure-drop performance and the operational characteristics of a Stewart-Warner model 906-B combustion heater. The performance tests covered a range of ventilating-air flows from 500 to 3185 pounds per hour, combustion-air pressure drops from 5 to 35 inches of water, and pressure altitudes from sea level to 41,000 feet. The operational characteristics investigated were the combustion-air flows for sustained combustion and for consistent ignition covering fuel-air ratios ranging from 0.033 to 0.10 and pressure altitudes from sea level to 45,000 feet. Rated heat output of 50,000 Btu per hour was obtained at pressure altitudes up to 27,000 feet for ventilating-air flows greater than 800 pounds per hour; rated output was not obtained at ventilating-air flow below 800 pounds per hour at any altitude. The maximum heater efficiency was found to be 60.7 percent at a fuel-air ratio of 0.050, a sea-level pressure altitude, a ventilating-air temperature of 0 F, combustion-air temperature of 14 F, a ventilating-air flow of 690 pounds per hour, and a combustion-air flow of 72.7 pounds per hour. The minimum combustion-air flow for sustained combustion at a pressure altitude of 25,000 feet was about 9 pounds per hour for fuel-air ratios between 0.037 and 0.099 and at a pressure altitude of 45,000 feet increased to 18 pounds per hour at a fuel-air ratio of 0.099 and 55 pounds per hour at a fuel-air ratio of 0.036. Combustion could be sustained at combustion-air flows above values of practical interest. The maximum flow was limited, however, by excessively high exhaust-gas temperature or high pressure drop. Both maximum and minimum combustion-air flows for consistent ignition decrease with increasing pressure altitude and the two curves intersect at a pressure altitude of approximately 25,000 feet and a combustion-air flow of approximately 28 pounds per hour.