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Sample records for air humidity rh

  1. The aging correlation (RH + t): Relative humidity (%) + temperature (deg C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    An aging correlation between corrosion lifetime, and relative humidity RH (%) and temperature t (C) has been reported in the literature. This aging correlation is a semi-log plot of corrosion lifetime on the log scale versus the interesting summation term RH(%) + t(C) on the linear scale. This empirical correlation was derived from observation of experimental data trends and has been referred to as an experimental law. Using electrical resistivity data of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) measured as a function of relative humidity and temperature, it was found that the electrical resistivity could be expressed as a function of the term RH(%) t(C). Thus, if corrosion is related to leakage current through an organic insulator, which, in turn, is a function of RH and t, then some partial theoretical validity for the correlation is indicated. This article describes the derivation of the term RH(%) t(C) from PVB electrical resistivity data.

  2. Relative Humidity and its Effect on Sampling and Analysis of Agricultural Odorants in Air

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Source and ambient air sampling techniques used in agricultural air quality studies are seldom validated for the variability in the air matrix (temperature, dust levels, and relative humidity). In particular, relative humidity (RH) affects both field sampling and analysis of air samples. The objec...

  3. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...

  4. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...

  5. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...

  6. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...

  7. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...

  8. Significance of air humidity and air velocity for fungal spore release into the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Pasanen, P.; Jantunen, M. J.; Kalliokoski, P.

    Our previous field studies have shown that the presence of molds in buildings does not necessarily mean elevated airborne spore counts. Therefore, we investigated the release of fungal spores from cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. at different air velocities and air humidities. Spores of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were released from conidiophores already at air velocity of 0.5 ms -1, whereas Cladosporium spores required at least a velocity of 1.0 ms -1. Airborne spore counts of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were usually higher in dry than moist air, being minimal at relative humidities (r.h.) above 70%, while the effect of r.h. on the release of Cladosporium sp. was ambivalent. The geometric mean diameter of released spores increased when the r.h. exceeded a certain level which depends on fungal genus. Thus, spores of all three fungi were hygroscopic but the hygroscopicity of various spores appeared at different r.h.-ranges. This study indicates that spore release is controlled by external factors and depends on fungal genus which can be one reason for considerable variation of airborne spore counts in buildings with mold problems.

  9. Effect of post-inoculation relative humidity (RH) on peanut infection by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stems of six-week-old plants of the cv Okrun (susceptible to Sclerotinia blight) were inoculated with S. sclerotiorum, isolated from pumpkin. Two post-inoculation humidity regimes of 100% RH were used. In the first RH regime, one inoculation chamber was kept open for the duration of experiment (DO...

  10. High accuracy acoustic relative humidity measurement in duct flow with air.

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Wilhelm; Grooten, Mart; Wernaart, Twan; van der Geld, Cees

    2010-01-01

    An acoustic relative humidity sensor for air-steam mixtures in duct flow is designed and tested. Theory, construction, calibration, considerations on dynamic response and results are presented. The measurement device is capable of measuring line averaged values of gas velocity, temperature and relative humidity (RH) instantaneously, by applying two ultrasonic transducers and an array of four temperature sensors. Measurement ranges are: gas velocity of 0-12 m/s with an error of ± 0.13 m/s, temperature 0-100 °C with an error of ± 0.07 °C and relative humidity 0-100% with accuracy better than 2 % RH above 50 °C. Main advantage over conventional humidity sensors is the high sensitivity at high RH at temperatures exceeding 50 °C, with accuracy increasing with increasing temperature. The sensors are non-intrusive and resist highly humid environments. PMID:22163610

  11. High Accuracy Acoustic Relative Humidity Measurement in Duct Flow with Air

    PubMed Central

    van Schaik, Wilhelm; Grooten, Mart; Wernaart, Twan; van der Geld, Cees

    2010-01-01

    An acoustic relative humidity sensor for air-steam mixtures in duct flow is designed and tested. Theory, construction, calibration, considerations on dynamic response and results are presented. The measurement device is capable of measuring line averaged values of gas velocity, temperature and relative humidity (RH) instantaneously, by applying two ultrasonic transducers and an array of four temperature sensors. Measurement ranges are: gas velocity of 0–12 m/s with an error of ±0.13 m/s, temperature 0–100 °C with an error of ±0.07 °C and relative humidity 0–100% with accuracy better than 2 % RH above 50 °C. Main advantage over conventional humidity sensors is the high sensitivity at high RH at temperatures exceeding 50 °C, with accuracy increasing with increasing temperature. The sensors are non-intrusive and resist highly humid environments. PMID:22163610

  12. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  13. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  14. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  15. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  16. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  17. An ultrasonic air temperature measurement system with self-correction function for humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Hsin-Chieh; Liao, Teh-Lu

    2005-02-01

    This paper proposes an ultrasonic measurement system for air temperature with high accuracy and instant response. It can measure the average temperature of the environmental air by detecting the changes of the speed of the ultrasound in the air. The changes of speed of sound are computed from combining variations of time-of-flight (TOF) from a binary frequency shift-keyed (BFSK) ultrasonic signal and phase shift from continuous waves [11]. In addition, another proposed technique for the ultrasonic air temperature measurement is the self-correction functionality within a highly humid environment. It utilizes a relative humidity/water vapour sensor and applies the theory of how sound speed changes in a humid environment. The proposed new ultrasonic air temperature measurement has the capability of self-correction for the environment variable of humidity. Especially under the operational environment with high fluctuations of various humidity levels, the proposed system can accurately self-correct the errors on the conventional ultrasonic thermometer caused by the changing density of the vapours in the air. Including the high humidity effect, a proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates that in dry air (relative humidity, RH = 10%) without humidity correction, it is accurate to ±0.4 °C from 0 °C to 80 °C, while in highly humid air (relative humidity, RH = 90%) with self-correction functionality, it is accurate to ±0.3 °C from 0 °C to 80 °C with 0.05% resolution and temperature changes are instantly reflected within 100 ms.

  18. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  3. The (RH+t) aging correlation. Electrical resistivity of PVB at various temperatures and relative humidities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.

    1985-01-01

    Electrical products having organic materials functioning as pottants, encapsulants, and insulation coatings are commonly exposed to elevated conditions of temperature and humidity. In order to assess service life potential from this method of accelerated aging, it was empirically observed that service life seems proportional to an aging correlation which is the sum of temperature in degrees Celsius (t), and the relative humidity (RH) expressed in percent. Specifically, the correlation involves a plot of time-to-failure on a log scale versus the variable RH + T plotted on a linear scale. A theoretical foundation is provided for this empirically observed correlation by pointing out that the correlation actually involves a relationship between the electrical resistivity (or conductivity) of the organic material, and the variable RH + t. If time-to-failure is a result of total number of coulombs conducted through the organic material, then the correlation of resistivity versus RH + t is synonymous with the empirical correlation of time-to-failure versus RH + t.

  4. Effect of relative humidity and air temperature on survival of hepatitis A virus on environmental surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Mbithi, J N; Springthorpe, V S; Sattar, S A

    1991-01-01

    Stainless steel disks (diameter, 1 cm) were contaminated with fecally suspended hepatitis A virus (HAV; strain HM-175) and held at low (25% +/- 5%), medium (55% +/- 5%), high (80% +/- 5%), or ultrahigh (95% +/- 5%) relative humidity (RH) at an air temperature of 5,20, or 35 degrees C. HAV survival was inversely proportional to the level of RH and temperature, and the half-lives of the virus ranged from greater than 7 days at the low RH and 5 degrees C to about 2 h at the ultrahigh RH and 35 degrees C. In parallel tests with fecally suspended Sabin poliovirus (PV) type 1 at the low and ultrahigh RH, all PV activity was lost within 4 h at the low RH whereas at the ultrahigh RH it remained detectable up to 12 h. HAV could therefore survive much better than PV on nonporous environmental surfaces. Moreover, the ability of HAV to survive better at low levels of RH is in direct contrast to the behavior of other enteroviruses. These findings should help in understanding the genesis of HAV outbreaks more clearly and in designing better measures for their control and prevention. PMID:1649579

  5. Acoustic method for measuring air temperature and humidity in rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanev, N. G.

    2014-05-01

    A method is proposed to determine air temperature and humidity in rooms with a system of sound sources and receivers, making it possible to find the sound velocity and reverberation time. Nomograms for determining the air temperature and relative air humidity are constructed from the found sound velocity and time reverberation values. The required accuracy of measuring these parameters is estimated.

  6. Season and humidity dependence of the effects of air pollution on COPD hospitalizations in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hong; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Wang, Xiaorong; Tian, Linwei; Tse, Lap Ah; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-09-01

    Associations between ambient pollution and respiratory morbidity including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been confirmed. Weather factors, such as temperature, season and relative humidity (RH), may modify the effects of air pollution. This time series study was conducted to examine whether the effects of air pollution on emergency COPD hospital admissions in Hong Kong varied across seasons and RH levels, and explore the possible joint modification of season and RH on the effects of pollution. Data of daily air pollution concentrations mean temperature and RH, and COPD hospital admissions from 1998 to 2007 were collected. Generalized additive Poisson models with interaction terms were used to estimate the effects of pollution across seasons and RH levels. We observed an increase in the detrimental effects of air pollution in the cool season and on low humidity days. On the cool and dry days, a 10 μg m-3 increment of lag03 exposure was associated with an increase in emergency COPD admissions by 1.76% (95%CI: 1.19-2.34%), 3.43% (95%CI: 2.80-4.07%), and 1.99% (95%CI: 0.90-3.09%) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), respectively, all of which were statistically significantly higher than those on the other days. No consistent modification of weather factors was found for the effects of particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10). The results suggested that season and RH jointly modified the effects of gaseous pollutants, resulting in increased emergency COPD hospitalizations on the cool and dry days.

  7. Elevated air movement enhances stomatal sensitivity to abscisic acid in leaves developed at high relative air humidity

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Dália R. A.; Torre, Sissel; Kraniotis, Dimitrios; Almeida, Domingos P. F.; Heuvelink, Ep; Carvalho, Susana M. P.

    2015-01-01

    High relative air humidity (RH ≥ 85%) during growth leads to stomata malfunctioning, resulting in water stress when plants are transferred to conditions of high evaporative demand. In this study, we hypothesized that an elevated air movement (MOV) 24 h per day, during the whole period of leaf development would increase abscisic acid concentration ([ABA]) enhancing stomatal functioning. Pot rose ‘Toril’ was grown at moderate (61%) or high (92%) RH combined with a continuous low (0.08 m s-1) or high (0.92 m s-1) MOV. High MOV reduced stomatal pore length and aperture in plants developed at high RH. Moreover, stomatal function improved when high MOV-treated plants were subjected to leaflet desiccation and ABA feeding. Endogenous concentration of ABA and its metabolites in the leaves was reduced by 35% in high RH, but contrary to our hypothesis this concentration was not significantly affected by high MOV. Interestingly, in detached leaflets grown at high RH, high MOV increased stomatal sensitivity to ABA since the amount of exogenous ABA required to decrease the transpiration rate was significantly reduced. This is the first study to show that high MOV increases stomatal functionality in leaves developed at high RH by reducing the stomatal pore length and aperture and enhancing stomatal sensitivity to ABA rather than increasing leaf [ABA]. PMID:26074943

  8. Effects of Temperature, Humidity and Air Flow on Fungal Growth Rate on Loaded Ventilation Filters.

    PubMed

    Tang, W; Kuehn, T H; Simcik, Matt F

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the fungal growth ratio on loaded ventilation filters under various temperature, relative humidity (RH), and air flow conditions in a controlled laboratory setting. A new full-size commercial building ventilation filter was loaded with malt extract nutrients and conidia of Cladosporium sphaerospermum in an ASHRAE Standard 52.2 filter test facility. Small sections cut from this filter were incubated under the following conditions: constant room temperature and a high RH of 97%; sinusoidal temperature (with an amplitude of 10°C, an average of 23°C, and a period of 24 hr) and a mean RH of 97%; room temperature and step changes between 97% and 75% RH, 97% and 43% RH, and 97% and 11% RH every 12 hr. The biomass on the filter sections was measured using both an elution-culture method and by ergosterol assay immediately after loading and every 2 days up to 10 days after loading. Fungal growth was detected earlier using ergosterol content than with the elution-culture method. A student's t-test indicated that Cladosporium sphaerospermum grew better at the constant room temperature condition than at the sinusoidal temperature condition. By part-time exposure to dry environments, the fungal growth was reduced (75% and 43% RH) or even inhibited (11% RH). Additional loaded filters were installed in the wind tunnel at room temperature and an RH greater than 95% under one of two air flow test conditions: continuous air flow or air flow only 9 hr/day with a flow rate of 0.7 m(3)/s (filter media velocity 0.15 m/s). Swab tests and a tease mount method were used to detect fungal growth on the filters at day 0, 5, and 10. Fungal growth was detected for both test conditions, which indicates that when temperature and relative humidity are optimum, controlling the air flow alone cannot prevent fungal growth. In real applications where nutrients are less sufficient than in this laboratory study, fungal growth rate may be reduced under the same operating conditions

  9. INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY, AIR VELOCITY, AND AMPLIFICATION ON THE EMISSION RATES OF FUNGAL SPORES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the impact of relative humidity (RH), air velocity, and surface growth on the emission rates of fungal spores from the surface of contaminated material. Although the results show a complex interaction of factors, we have determined, for this limited data set,...

  10. Air humidity as key determinant of morphogenesis and productivity of the rare temperate woodland fern Polystichum braunii.

    PubMed

    Schwerbrock, R; Leuschner, C

    2016-07-01

    (1) Most ferns are restricted to moist and shady habitats, but it is not known whether soil moisture or atmospheric water status are decisive limiting factors, or if both are equally important. (2) Using the rare temperate woodland fern Polystichum braunii, we conducted a three-factorial climate chamber experiment (soil moisture (SM) × air humidity (RH) × air temperature (T)) to test the hypotheses that: (i) atmospheric water status (RH) exerts a similarly large influence on the fern's biology as soil moisture, and (ii) both a reduction in RH and an increase in air temperature reduce vigour and growth. (3) Nine of 11 morphological, physiological and growth-related traits were significantly influenced by an increase in RH from 65% to 95%, leading to higher leaf conductance, increased above- and belowground productivity, higher fertility, more epidermal trichomes and fewer leaf deformities under high air humidity. In contrast, soil moisture variation (from 66% to 70% in the moist to ca. 42% in the dry treatment) influenced only one trait (specific leaf area), and temperature variation (15 °C versus 19 °C during daytime) only three traits (leaf conductance, root/shoot ratio, specific leaf area); RH was the only factor affecting productivity. (4) This study is the first experimental proof for a soil moisture-independent air humidity effect on the growth of terrestrial woodland ferns. P. braunii appears to be an air humidity hygrophyte that, whithin the range of realistic environmental conditions set in this study, suffers more from a reduction in RH than in soil moisture. A climate warming-related increase in summer temperatures, however, seems not to directly threaten this endangered species. PMID:26891763

  11. The Relationship between Relative Humidity and the Dewpoint Temperature in Moist Air: A Simple Conversion and Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Mark G.

    2005-02-01

    The relative humidity (RH) and the dewpoint temperature (td) are two widely used indicators of the amount of moisture in air. The exact conversion from RH to td, as well as highly accurate approximations, are too complex to be done easily without the help of a calculator or computer. However, there is a very simple rule of thumb that can be very useful for approximating the conversion for moist air (RH > 50%) which does not appear to be widely known by the meteorological community: td decreases by about 1°C for every 5% decrease in RH (starting at td = t, the dry bulb temperature, when RH = 100%). This article examines the mathematical basis and accuracy of this and other relationships between the dewpoint and relative humidity. Several useful applications of the simple conversion are presented, in particular the computation of the cumulus cloud-base level (or lifting condensation level) as zLCL (20 + t/5) (100 - RH), where zLCL is in meters when t is in degrees Celcius and RH in percent. Finally, a historical perspective is given with anecdotes about some of the early work in this field.

  12. HUMID AIR TURBINE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Tuthill

    2002-07-18

    The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Technology Development Program focused on obtaining HAT cycle combustor technology that will be the foundation of future products. The work carried out under the auspices of the HAT Program built on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work performed in the past by Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This Program is an integral part of technology base development within the Advanced Turbine Systems Program at the Department of Energy (DOE) and its experiments stretched over 5 years. The goal of the project was to fill in technological data gaps in the development of the HAT cycle and identify a combustor configuration that would efficiently burn high moisture, high-pressure gaseous fuels with low emissions. The major emphasis will be on the development of kinetic data, computer modeling, and evaluations of combustor configurations. The Program commenced during the 4th Quarter of 1996 and closed in the 4th Quarter of 2001. It teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) with P&W, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, kraftWork Systems Inc. The execution of the program started with bench-top experiments that were conducted at UTRC for extending kinetic mechanisms to HAT cycle temperature, pressure, and moisture conditions. The fundamental data generated in the bench-top experiments was incorporated into the analytical tools available at P&W to design the fuel injectors and combustors. The NETL then used the hardware to conduct combustion rig experiments to evaluate the performance of the combustion systems at elevated pressure and temperature conditions representative of the HAT cycle. The results were integrated into systems analysis done by kraftWork to verify that sufficient understanding of the technology had been achieved and that large-scale technological application and demonstration could be undertaken as follow-on activity. An optional program extended the

  13. Effects of 6-h exposure to low relative humidity and low air pressure on body fluid loss and blood viscosity.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, N; Takeda, A; Yasuyama, Y; Chishaki, A; Tochihara, Y

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-h exposure to low relative humidity (RH) and low air pressure in a simulated air cabin environment on body fluid loss (BFL) and blood viscosity. Fourteen young healthy male subjects were exposed to four conditions, which combined RH (10% RH or 60% RH) and air pressure (NP: sea level or LP: equivalent to an altitude of 2000 m). Subjects remained seated on a chair in the chamber for 6 h. Their diet and water intake were restricted before and during the experiment. Insensible water loss (IWL) in LP10% condition was significantly greater than in NP60% condition; thus, combined 10%RH and LP conditions promoted a greater amount of IWL. The BFL under the LP condition was significantly greater than that under the NP condition. Blood viscosity significantly increased under LP conditions. Increases in red blood cell counts (RBCs) and BFL likely contributed to the increased blood viscosity. These findings suggest that hypobaric-induced hypoxia, similar to the conditions in the air cabin environment, may cause increased blood viscosity and that the combined low humidity and hypobaric hypoxia conditions increase IWL. PMID:23464811

  14. Characteristics of dielectric barrier discharge plasmas in atmospheric humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Y.; Fukui, K.; Iwami, R.; Matsuoka, Y.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2012-10-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasmas have a great advantage for industrial applications such as surface modifications, sterilization and film preparation. In particular, reactive plasmas including OH radicals can be generated in humid air. On the other hand, it is known that dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas in air are strongly affected by humidity. In this study, a twisted pair sample is used as a DBD electrode. The twisted pair consists of two enameled wires, and it is installed in a climate chamber to control ambient temperature and humidity. Repetitive impulse voltage pulses were applied to the twisted pair to produce DBD plasmas. Light emission, electromagnetic wave and current pulses were used to detect discharge activities. The discharge inception voltage (DIV) is basically determined by Paschen curve in air, however, the DIV was decreased by increasing the humidity. In addition, it was found that there were largely scattered data of DIV at the low humidity condition. After the pre-discharges, the DIV reached to the steady state value. On the other hand, there was no scattering of the observed DIV at the high humidity condition. Measurements of surface potential of the sample after the discharge show these behaviors could be explained by surface charge accumulation on the enameled wire. It is noted that there was no fluctuation in the DIV data in the case of unipolar voltage pulse.

  15. Humidity effects on photochemical aerosol formation in the SO 2-NO-C 3H 6-air system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Katsuyuki; Mizuochi, Motoyuki; Murano, Kentaro; Fukuyama, Tsutomu

    In order to investigate the effects of humidity on the gas-phase oxidation of SO 2 in polluted air and on the subsequent aerosol formation process, photoirradiation experiments were carried out by means of a 4-m 3 chamber, in which mixtures containing SO 2, NO and C 3H 6 with concentrations in the ppm range were exposed to simulated solar radiation in different relative humidity (r.h.) conditions. The total amount of oxidized SO 2 was quantified from the SO 42- yield determined by the chemical analysis of the aerosol product, and a part due to the oxidation by the OH radical was evaluated by estimating the OH concentration from the decay rate of C 3H 6. The remaining part was assigned to the oxidation by the Criegee intermediate, as it had a good correlation with the progress of the O 3 + C 3H 6 reaction. The contributions of the two oxidizing species to the total conversion and the oxidation rate of SO 2 were measured as functions of r.h. As a result, experimental evidence was obtained for the prediction of Calvert and Stockwell's (1983, Envir. Sci. Technol. 17, 428A-443A) simulation that the oxidation due to the Criegee intermediate was retarded by the increase in humidity. The OH contribution, on the other hand, was almost independent of r.h. It was observed consequently that the total oxidized amount of SO 2 considerably decreased as r.h. was higher. The humidity effect on the aerosol formation process was found to be more complicated than the effect on the gas-phase chemistry. The maximum rate of increase in the particle number concentration rose linearly with increasing r.h., but the number concentration itself measured at its maximum or at the end of the irradiation reached a ceiling value around r.h. = 30% and went down for higher r.h. The average panicle size in the final stage of the reaction showed a minimum around the same r.h. at which the number concentration was maximum. The H 2SO 4 concentration in the mist particles, however, decreased

  16. Utilization of rice husk silica as adsorbent for BTEX passive air sampler under high humidity condition.

    PubMed

    Areerob, Thanita; Grisdanurak, Nurak; Chiarakorn, Siriluk

    2016-03-01

    Selective adsorbent of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) was developed based on mesoporous silica materials, RH-MCM-41. It was synthesized from rice husk silica and modified by silane reagents. The silane reagents used in this study were trimethylchlorosilane (TMS), triisopropylchlorosilane (TIPS), and phenyldimethylchlorosilane (PDMS). Physiochemical properties of synthesized materials were characterized by small-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and surface area analysis. Materials packed in passive air sampler were tested for BTEX uptake capacity. The tests were carried out under an influence of relative humidity (25 to 99 %). Overall, RH-MCM-41 modified by TMS outperformed compared to those modified by other silane agents. The comparative BTEX adsorption on this material and commercial graphitized carbon black was reported. PMID:26573315

  17. Ambient humidity and the skin: the impact of air humidity in healthy and diseased states.

    PubMed

    Goad, N; Gawkrodger, D J

    2016-08-01

    Humidity, along with other climatic factors such as temperature and ultraviolet radiation, can have an important impact on the skin. Limited data suggest that external humidity influences the water content of the stratum corneum. An online literature search was conducted through Pub-Med using combinations of the following keywords: skin, skin disease, humidity, dermatoses, dermatitis, eczema, and mist. Publications included in this review were limited to (i) studies in humans or animals, (ii) publications showing relevance to the field of dermatology, (iii) studies published in English and (iv) publications discussing humidity as an independent influence on skin function. Studies examining environmental factors as composite influences on skin health are only included where the impact of humidity on the skin is also explored in isolation of other environmental factors. A formal systematic review was not feasible for this topic due to the heterogeneity of the available research. Epidemiological studies indicated an increase in eczema with low internal (indoors) humidity and an increase in eczema with external high humidity. Other studies suggest that symptoms of dry skin appear with low humidity internal air-conditioned environments. Murine studies determined that low humidity caused a number of changes in the skin, including the impairment of the desquamation process. Studies in humans demonstrated a reduction in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) (a measure of the integrity of the skin's barrier function) with low humidity, alterations in the water content in the stratum corneum, decreased skin elasticity and increased roughness. Intervention with a humidifying mist increased the water content of the stratum corneum. Conversely, there is some evidence that low humidity conditions can actually improve the barrier function of the skin. Ambient relative humidity has an impact on a range of parameters involved in skin health but the literature is inconclusive. Further

  18. Elevated air humidity affects hydraulic traits and tree size but not biomass allocation in young silver birches (Betula pendula)

    PubMed Central

    Sellin, Arne; Rosenvald, Katrin; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Tullus, Arvo; Ostonen, Ivika; Lõhmus, Krista

    2015-01-01

    As changes in air temperature, precipitation, and air humidity are expected in the coming decades, studies on the impact of these environmental shifts on plant growth and functioning are of major importance. Greatly understudied aspects of climate change include consequences of increasing air humidity on forest ecosystems, predicted for high latitudes. The main objective of this study was to find a link between hydraulic acclimation and shifts in trees’ resource allocation in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) in response to elevated air relative humidity (RH). A second question was whether the changes in hydraulic architecture depend on tree size. Two years of application of increased RH decreased the biomass accumulation in birch saplings, but the biomass partitioning among aboveground parts (leaves, branches, and stems) remained unaffected. Increased stem Huber values (xylem cross-sectional area to leaf area ratio) observed in trees under elevated RH did not entail changes in the ratio of non-photosynthetic to photosynthetic tissues. The reduction of stem–wood density is attributable to diminished mechanical load imposed on the stem, since humidified trees had relatively shorter crowns. Growing under higher RH caused hydraulic conductance of the root system (KR) to increase, while KR (expressed per unit leaf area) decreased and leaf hydraulic conductance increased with tree size. Saplings of silver birch acclimate to increasing air humidity by adjusting plant morphology (live crown length, slenderness, specific leaf area, and fine-root traits) and wood density rather than biomass distribution among aboveground organs. The treatment had a significant effect on several hydraulic properties of the trees, while the shifts were largely associated with changes in tree size but not in biomass allocation. PMID:26528318

  19. Air motion determination by tracking humidity patterns in isentropic layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancuso, R. L.; Hall, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Determining air motions by tracking humidity patterns in isentropic layers was investigated. Upper-air rawinsonde data from the NSSL network and from the AVE-II pilot experiment were used to simulate temperature and humidity profile data that will eventually be available from geosynchronous satellites. Polynomial surfaces that move with time were fitted to the mixing-ratio values of the different isentropic layers. The velocity components of the polynomial surfaces are part of the coefficients that are determined in order to give an optimum fitting of the data. In the mid-troposphere, the derived humidity motions were in good agreement with the winds measured by rawinsondes so long as there were few or no clouds and the lapse rate was relatively stable. In the lower troposphere, the humidity motions were unreliable primarily because of nonadiabatic processes and unstable lapse rates. In the upper troposphere, the humidity amounts were too low to be measured with sufficient accuracy to give reliable results. However, it appears that humidity motions could be used to provide mid-tropospheric wind data over large regions of the globe.

  20. Effect of humidity on the adsorption kinetics of lung surfactant at air-water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yi Y; Gitiafroz, Roya; Acosta, Edgar; Policova, Zdenka; Cox, Peter N; Hair, Michael L; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2005-11-01

    The in vitro adsorption kinetics of lung surfactant at air-water interfaces is affected by both the composition of the surfactant preparations and the conditions under which the assessment is conducted. Relevant experimental conditions are surfactant concentration, temperature, subphase pH, electrolyte concentration, humidity, and gas composition of the atmosphere exposed to the interface. The effect of humidity on the adsorption kinetics of a therapeutic lung surfactant preparation, bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES), was studied by measuring the dynamic surface tension (DST). Axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) was used in conjunction with three different experimental methodologies, i.e., captive bubble (CB), pendant drop (PD), and constrained sessile drop (CSD), to measure the DST. The experimental results obtained from these three methodologies show that for 100% relative humidity (RH) at 37 degrees C the rate of adsorption of BLES at an air-water interface is substantially slower than for low humidity. It is also found that there is a difference in the rate of surface tension decrease measured from the PD and CB/CSD methods. These experimental results agree well with an adsorption model that considers the combined effects of entropic force, electrostatic interaction, and gravity. These findings have implications for the development and evaluation of new formulations for surfactant replacement therapy. PMID:16262325

  1. Control of Relative Air Humidity as a Potential Means to Improve Hygiene on Surfaces: A Preliminary Approach with Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Zoz, Fiona; Iaconelli, Cyril; Lang, Emilie; Iddir, Hayet; Guyot, Stéphane; Grandvalet, Cosette; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Relative air humidity fluctuations could potentially affect the development and persistence of pathogenic microorganisms in their environments. This study aimed to characterize the impact of relative air humidity (RH) variations on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium persisting on food processing plant surfaces. To assess conditions leading to the lowest survival rate, four strains of L. monocytogenes (EGDe, CCL500, CCL128, and LO28) were exposed to different RH conditions (75%, 68%, 43% and 11%) with different drying kinetics and then rehydrated either progressively or instantaneously. The main factors that affected the survival of L. monocytogenes were RH level and rehydration kinetics. Lowest survival rates between 1% and 0.001% were obtained after 3 hours of treatment under optimal conditions (68% RH and instantaneous rehydration). The survival rate was decreased under 0.001% after prolonged exposure (16h) of cells under optimal conditions. Application of two successive dehydration and rehydration cycles led to an additional decrease in survival rate. This preliminary study, performed in model conditions with L. monocytogenes, showed that controlled ambient RH fluctuations could offer new possibilities to control foodborne pathogens in food processing environments and improve food safety. PMID:26840373

  2. A physically based analytical spatial air temperature and humidity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Endreny, Theodore A.; Nowak, David J.

    2013-09-01

    Spatial variation of urban surface air temperature and humidity influences human thermal comfort, the settling rate of atmospheric pollutants, and plant physiology and growth. Given the lack of observations, we developed a Physically based Analytical Spatial Air Temperature and Humidity (PASATH) model. The PASATH model calculates spatial solar radiation and heat storage based on semiempirical functions and generates spatially distributed estimates based on inputs of topography, land cover, and the weather data measured at a reference site. The model assumes that for all grids under the same mesoscale climate, grid air temperature and humidity are modified by local variation in absorbed solar radiation and the partitioning of sensible and latent heat. The model uses a reference grid site for time series meteorological data and the air temperature and humidity of any other grid can be obtained by solving the heat flux network equations. PASATH was coupled with the USDA iTree-Hydro water balance model to obtain evapotranspiration terms and run from 20 to 29 August 2010 at a 360 m by 360 m grid scale and hourly time step across a 285 km2 watershed including the urban area of Syracuse, NY. PASATH predictions were tested at nine urban weather stations representing variability in urban topography and land cover. The PASATH model predictive efficiency R2 ranged from 0.81 to 0.99 for air temperature and 0.77 to 0.97 for dew point temperature. PASATH is expected to have broad applications on environmental and ecological models.

  3. National Interlaboratory Comparison in Scope of Relative Humidity in the Range from 11 %rh to 95 %rh at 23° C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytekin, S. Oğuz; Kalemci, M.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of interlaboratory comparisons is to verify the competence of accredited or non-accredited laboratories, including verification of the reported measurement uncertainties, whenever possible. An interlaboratory comparison consists of measurement results of a laboratory and a reference laboratory which is competent to run the comparison and provides traceability at the required uncertainty level. In Turkey, the demand for an interlaboratory comparison in the humidity field increased drastically in parallel to an increasing number of accredited laboratories in this field. Therefore, a national interlaboratory comparison in the scope of relative humidity in the range between 11 %rh and 95 %rh at 23° C was initiated by TUBITAK UME in 2011. Two hygrometers were calibrated at TUBITAK UME in the above-mentioned range and characterized in terms of long-term stability, temperature dependence, and hysteresis. One of the hygrometers is used throughout this comparison. The second one was kept aside as a backup device in case of a malfunction of the first device. Organization and evaluation of the interlaboratory comparison in the scope of relative humidity were performed according to the EN ISO/IEC 17043:2010 "Conformity assessment—general requirements for proficiency testing" among thirteen national laboratories. Evaluation of comparison results are performed by normalized error analysis. It was found that among the 95 realized points of comparison, 85 (89 %) had En ≤ 1 and only 10 (11 %) had E >1.

  4. Energy impact of various inside air temperatures and humidities in a museum when located in five U. S. cities

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, J.M.; Lau, H.; Haiad, J.C. )

    1990-01-01

    The art conservation literature presents a wide range of recommended temperatures and relative humidities required to protect the safety of collections in museums, but the operating energy costs for specific criteria have not been identified. The Scott Gallery at the Huntington Library and Art Gallery in San Marino, CA, was selected for a detailed study of energy costs associated with recommended environmental levels for museums. The results of computer simulations of the Scott Gallery when located in Albuquerque, NM; Burbank, CA; Minneapolis, MN; New Orleans, LA; and New York, NY are presented. The simulations were performed suing the DOE-2 building energy analysis computer program. The peak heating and cooling load components are identified, thermal zone loads quantified, and psychrometric analysis of the annual energy requirements with fixed and variable inside air temperature and relative humidity (RH) setpoints are presented. In all five climate regions the minimum energy consumption occurred with a 70 {degree} F and 50% RH setpoint.

  5. Evaluation of the response of tritium-in-air instrumentation to HT in dry and humid conditions and to HTO vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, H.; Dean, J.; Privas, E.

    2015-03-15

    Nuclear plant operators (power generation, decommissioning and reprocessing operations) are required to monitor releases of tritium species for regulatory compliance and radiation protection purposes. Tritium monitoring is performed using tritium-in-air gas monitoring instrumentation based either on flow-through ion chambers or proportional counting systems. Tritium-in-air monitors are typically calibrated in dry conditions but in service may operate at elevated levels of relative humidity. The NPL (National Physical Laboratory) radioactive gas-in-air calibration system has been used to study the effect of humidity on the response to tritium of two tritium-in-air ion chamber based monitors and one proportional counting system which uses a P10/air gas mixture. The response of these instruments to HTO vapour has also been evaluated. In each case, instrument responses were obtained for HT in dry conditions (relative humidity (RH) about 2%), HT in 45% RH, and finally HTO at 45% RH. Instrumentation response to HT in humid conditions has been found to slightly exceed that in dry conditions. (authors)

  6. Biphilic Surfaces for Enhanced Water Collection from Humid Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkoski, Jason; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Luedeman, William

    Surface wettability plays an important role in water recovery, distillation, dehumidification, and heat transfer. The efficiency of each process depends on the rate of droplet nucleation, droplet growth, and mass transfer. Unfortunately, hydrophilic surfaces are good at nucleation but poor at shedding. Hydrophobic surfaces are the reverse. Many plants and animals overcome this tradeoff through biphilic surfaces with patterned wettability. For example, the Stenocara beetle uses hydrophilic patches on a superhydrophobic background to collect fog from air. Cribellate spiders similarly collect fog on their webs through periodic spindle-knot structures. In this study, we investigate the effects of wettability patterns on the rate of water collection from humid air. The steady state rate of water collection per unit area is measured as a function of undercooling, angle of inclination, water contact angle, hydrophilic patch size, patch spacing, area fraction, and patch height relative to the hydrophobic background. We then model each pattern by comparing the potential and kinetic energy of a droplet as it rolls downwards at a fixed angle. The results indicate that the design rules for collecting fog differ from those for condensation from humid air. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Office of Naval Research for financial support through Grant Number N00014-15-1-2107.

  7. Equipment for Measuring Air Flow, Air Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bruce W.

    Information on equipment and techniques that school facility personnel may use to evaluate IAQ conditions are discussed. Focus is placed on the IAQ parameters of air flow, air temperature, relative humidity, as well as carbon dioxide and the equipment used to measure these factors. Reasons for measurement and for when the measurement of these…

  8. Effects of Ambient Humidity on Plant Growth Enhancement by Atmospheric Air Plasma Irradiation to Plant Seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarinont, Thapanut; Amano, Takaaki; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Humidity is an important factor for plasma-bio applications because composition of species generated by atmospheric pressure plasmas significantly depends on the humidity. Here we have examined effects of humidity on the growth enhancement to study the mechanism. Experiments were carried out with a scalable DBD device. 10 seeds of Raphanus sativus L. were set for x = 5 mm and y = 3 mm below the electrodes. The humidity Hair was 10 - 90 %Rh. The ratio of length of plants with plasma irradiation to that of control increases from 1.2 for Hair = 10 %Rh to 2.5 for Hair = 50 %Rh. The ratio is 2.5 for Hair = 50-90 %Rh. This humidity dependence is similar to the humidity dependence of O2+-H2O,H3O*, NO2--H2Oand NO3--H2Odensities, whereas it is different from that of other species such as O3, NO, and so on. The similarity gives information on key species for the growth enhancement.

  9. D-Zero Instrument Air System Humidity Transmitter Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Serges, T.J.; /Fermilab

    1988-07-15

    This report shows the findings that resulted in the purchase of the optimum dew point hygrometer for use in the D-Zero instrument air system (see diagram 2 on page 9). The hygrometer will monitor the air syste m to insure that the dew point level does not go above the normal operating output of the driers (this precise value will be determined during initial system start-up). The following criteria was used in the evaluation: (1) Long term durability; (2) Minimum calibration; (3) Indicate a dew point level down to -40 C accurately; (4) Designed to work in a low humidity region; (5) Minimum maintenance; (6) Fast response time; and (7) Lowest cost provided all other criteria is met.

  10. Temperature-modulated graphene oxide resistive humidity sensor for indoor air quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luca, A.; Santra, S.; Ghosh, R.; Ali, S. Z.; Gardner, J. W.; Guha, P. K.; Udrea, F.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present a temperature-modulated graphene oxide (GO) resistive humidity sensor that employs complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) micro-hotplate technology for the monitoring and control of indoor air quality (IAQ). GO powder is obtained by chemical exfoliation, dispersed in water and deposited via ink-jet printing onto a low power micro-hotplate. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show the typical layered and wrinkled morphology of the GO. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy indicate that the GO flakes possess a significant number of oxygen containing functional groups (epoxy, carbonyl, hydroxyl) extremely attractive for humidity detection. Electro-thermal characterisation of the micro-hotplates shows a thermal efficiency of 0.11 mW per °C, resulting in a sensor DC power consumption of only 2.75 mW at 50 °C. When operated in an isothermal mode, the sensor response is detrimentally affected by significant drift, hysteretic behaviour, slow response/recovery times and hence poor RH level discrimination. Conversely, a temperature modulation technique coupled with a differential readout methodology results in a significant reduction of the sensor drift, improved linear response with a sensitivity of 0.14 mV per %, resolution below 5%, and a maximum hysteresis of +/-5% response and recovery times equal to 189 +/- 49 s and 89 +/- 5 s, respectively. These performance parameters satisfy current IAQ monitoring requirements. We have thus demonstrated the effectiveness of integrating GO on a micro-hotplate CMOS-compatible platform enabling temperature modulation schemes to be easily applied in order to achieve compact, low power, low cost humidity IAQ monitoring.In this paper we present a temperature-modulated graphene oxide (GO) resistive humidity sensor that employs complementary

  11. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  16. 40 CFR 1066.615 - NOX intake-air humidity correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity correction. 1066.615 Section 1066.615 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations § 1066.615 NOX intake-air humidity...

  17. Temperature-modulated graphene oxide resistive humidity sensor for indoor air quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    De Luca, A; Santra, S; Ghosh, R; Ali, S Z; Gardner, J W; Guha, P K; Udrea, F

    2016-02-28

    In this paper we present a temperature-modulated graphene oxide (GO) resistive humidity sensor that employs complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) micro-hotplate technology for the monitoring and control of indoor air quality (IAQ). GO powder is obtained by chemical exfoliation, dispersed in water and deposited via ink-jet printing onto a low power micro-hotplate. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show the typical layered and wrinkled morphology of the GO. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy indicate that the GO flakes possess a significant number of oxygen containing functional groups (epoxy, carbonyl, hydroxyl) extremely attractive for humidity detection. Electro-thermal characterisation of the micro-hotplates shows a thermal efficiency of 0.11 mW per °C, resulting in a sensor DC power consumption of only 2.75 mW at 50 °C. When operated in an isothermal mode, the sensor response is detrimentally affected by significant drift, hysteretic behaviour, slow response/recovery times and hence poor RH level discrimination. Conversely, a temperature modulation technique coupled with a differential readout methodology results in a significant reduction of the sensor drift, improved linear response with a sensitivity of 0.14 mV per %, resolution below 5%, and a maximum hysteresis of ±5%; response and recovery times equal to 189 ± 49 s and 89 ± 5 s, respectively. These performance parameters satisfy current IAQ monitoring requirements. We have thus demonstrated the effectiveness of integrating GO on a micro-hotplate CMOS-compatible platform enabling temperature modulation schemes to be easily applied in order to achieve compact, low power, low cost humidity IAQ monitoring. PMID:26842731

  18. Influence of humidity on the characteristics of negative corona discharge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Bo; He, Jinliang; Chen, Shuiming

    2015-09-01

    Detailed negative corona discharge characteristics, such as the pulse amplitude, repetition frequency, average corona current, rise time, and half-wave time, are systematically studied under various air humidities with a single artificial defect electrode. The experimental result reveals that the pulse amplitude increases with the increase of air humidity; meanwhile, the repetition frequency deceases as the air humidity increases. Empirical formulae are first established for the pulse amplitude and repetition frequency with the humidity factor taken into consideration. The effective ionization integral is calculated and a positive correlation is found between the integral and the pulse amplitude. Furthermore, a simplified negative-ion cloud model is built up to investigate the mechanism of the humidity's influence on negative corona discharge. Based on the theoretical analyses, the correlation between pulse amplitude, repetition frequency, and air humidity is well explained.

  19. Influence of humidity on the characteristics of negative corona discharge in air

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Pengfei Zhang, Bo He, Jinliang Chen, Shuiming

    2015-09-15

    Detailed negative corona discharge characteristics, such as the pulse amplitude, repetition frequency, average corona current, rise time, and half-wave time, are systematically studied under various air humidities with a single artificial defect electrode. The experimental result reveals that the pulse amplitude increases with the increase of air humidity; meanwhile, the repetition frequency deceases as the air humidity increases. Empirical formulae are first established for the pulse amplitude and repetition frequency with the humidity factor taken into consideration. The effective ionization integral is calculated and a positive correlation is found between the integral and the pulse amplitude. Furthermore, a simplified negative-ion cloud model is built up to investigate the mechanism of the humidity's influence on negative corona discharge. Based on the theoretical analyses, the correlation between pulse amplitude, repetition frequency, and air humidity is well explained.

  20. Differences between water permeability of astomatous and stomatous cuticular membranes: effects of air humidity in two species of contrasting drought-resistance strategy

    PubMed Central

    Karbulková, Jana; Schreiber, Lukas; Macek, Petr; Šantrůček, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Cuticular water permeabilities of adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces and their dependence on relative air humidity (RH) applied in long-term and short-term regimes have been analysed for Hedera helix, native in a temperate climate, and Zamioculcas zamiifolia, native in subtropical regions. The water permeability of cuticular membranes (CM) isolated from the adaxial (astomatous) and abaxial (stomatous) leaf sides was measured using a method which allowed the separation of water diffusion through the remnants of the original stomatal pores from water diffusion through the solid cuticle. The long-term effects of low (20–40%) or high (60–80%) RH applied during plant growth and leaf ontogeny (‘growth RH’) and the short-term effects of applying 2% or 100% RH while measuring permeability (‘measurement RH’) were investigated. With both species, water permeability of the solid stomatous CM was significantly higher than the permeability of the astomatous CM. Adaxial cuticles of plants grown in humid air were more permeable to water than those from dry air. The adaxial CM of the drought-tolerant H. helix was more permeable and more sensitive to growth RH than the adaxial CM of Z. zamiifolia, a species avoiding water stress. However, permeability of the solid abaxial CM was similar in both species and independent of growth RH. The lack of a humidity response in the abaxial CM is attributed to a higher degree of cuticular hydration resulting from stomatal transpiration. The ecophysiological significance of higher permeability of the solid stomatous CM compared to the astomatous CM is discussed. PMID:18836141

  1. ABA induces H2O2 production in guard cells, but does not close the stomata on Vicia faba leaves developed at high air humidity

    PubMed Central

    Arve, Louise E; Carvalho, Dália RA; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    Plants developed under constant high (> 85%) relative air humidity (RH) have larger stomata that are unable to close completely. One of the hypotheses for the less responsive stomata is that the plants have reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Both ABA and darkness are signals for stomatal closure and induce the production of the secondary messenger hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, the ability of Vicia faba plants developed in moderate or high RH to close the stomata in response to darkness, ABA and H2O2 was investigated. Moreover, the ability of the plants to produce H2O2 when treated with ABA or transferred to darkness was also assessed. Our results show that the ABA concentration in moderate RH is not increased during darkness even though the stomata are closing. This indicates that stomatal closure in V. faba during darkness is independent of ABA production. ABA induced both H2O2 production and stomatal closure in stomata formed at moderate RH. H2O2 production, as a result of treatment with ABA, was also observed in stomata formed at high RH, though the closing response was considerably smaller as compared with moderate RH. In either RH, leaf ABA concentration was not affected by darkness. Similarly to ABA treatment, darkness elicited both H2O2 production and stomatal closure following plant cultivation at moderate RH. Contrary to this, neither H2O2 production nor stomatal closure took place when stomata were formed at high RH. These results suggest that the reduced stomatal response in plants developed in continuous high RH is caused by one or more factors downstream of H2O2 in the signaling pathway toward stomatal closure. PMID:25763494

  2. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14°C, 0006 kgw/kgda in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system. PMID:25250390

  3. High relative air humidity influences mineral accumulation and growth in iron deficient soybean plants

    PubMed Central

    Roriz, Mariana; Carvalho, Susana M. P.; Vasconcelos, Marta W.

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis (IDC) in soybean results in severe yield losses. Cultivar selection is the most commonly used strategy to avoid IDC but there is a clear interaction between genotype and the environment; therefore, the search for quick and reliable tools to control this nutrient deficiency is essential. Several studies showed that relative humidity (RH) may influence the long distance transport of mineral elements and the nutrient status of plants. Thus, we decided to analyze the response of an “Fe-efficient” (EF) and an “Fe-inefficient” (INF) soybean accession grown under Fe-sufficient and deficient conditions under low (60%) and high (90%) RH, evaluating morphological, and physiological parameters. Furthermore, the mineral content of different plant organs was analyzed. Our results showed beneficial effects of high RH in alleviating IDC symptoms as seen by increased SPAD values, higher plant dry weight (DW), increased plant height, root length, and leaf area. This positive effect of RH in reducing IDC symptoms was more pronounced in the EF accession. Also, Fe content in the different plant organs of the EF accession grown under deficient conditions increased with RH. The lower partitioning of Fe to roots and stems of the EF accessions relative to dry matter also supported our hypothesis, suggesting a greater capacity of this accession in Fe translocation to the aerial parts under Fe deficient conditions, when grown under high RH. PMID:25566297

  4. Influence of humidity on the characteristics of positive corona discharge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Shuiming; He, Jinliang

    2016-06-01

    Detailed positive corona discharge characteristics, such as the corona onset voltage, pulse amplitude, repetition frequency, average corona current, rise time, and half-wave time, are systematically studied under different air humidity with a single artificial defect electrode. The experimental results indicate that the pulse amplitude decreases with the increase of air humidity; meanwhile, the repetition frequency increases as the air humidity increases. This phenomenon is different from that of negative corona discharge. Therefore, to have an insight into the mechanism of humidity influence on positive corona discharge, a positive corona discharge model based on the continuity equations is utilized. The simulations present a dynamic development of positive corona discharge and, meanwhile, reveal the humidity influence on positive corona discharge.

  5. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    produced at relatively low cost. Therefore, they find wide use in lots of applications. However, the method requires a material that possesses some conflicting properties: stable and reproducible relations between air humidity, moisture uptake and a specific property (for instance the length of a hair, the electrical impedance of the material), fast absorption and desorption of the water vapour (to obtain a short response time), small hysteresis, wide range of relative humidity (RH) and temperature-independent output (only responsive to RH). For these reasons, much research is done and is still going on to find suitable materials that combine high performance and low price. In this special feature, three of the four papers report on absorption sensors, all with different focus. Aziz et al describe experiments with newly developed materials. The surface structure is extensively studied, in view of its ability to rapidly absorb water vapour and exhibit a reproducible change in the resistance and capacitance of the device. Sanchez et al employ optical fibres coated with a thin moisture-absorbing layer as a sensitive humidity sensor. They have studied various coating materials and investigated the possibility of using changes in optical properties of the fibre (here the lossy mode resonance) due to a change in humidity of the surrounding air. The third paper, by Weremczuk et al, focuses on a cheap fabrication method for absorption-based humidity sensors. The inkjet technology appears to be suitable for mass fabrication of such sensors, which is demonstrated by extensive measurements of the electrical properties (resistance and capacitance) of the absorbing layers. Moreover, they have developed a model that describes the relation between humidity and the electrical parameters of the moisture-sensitive layer. Despite intensive research, absorption sensors still do not meet the requirements for high accuracy applications. The dew-point temperature method is more appropriate

  6. Effect of production microclimate on female thermal state with increased temperature and air humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machablishvili, O. G.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal state of women during the effect of high air temperature and relative humidity with a varying degree of physical loads was studied. Parameters for air temperature, relative humidity, and air movement were established. It was established that in women the thermo-regulatory stress occurs at lower air temperatures and with lower physical loads than in men. The accumulation of heat in women was revealed with lower air temperature than in men. It is concluded that to preserve the normal physiological state of the female organism it is necessary to create more favorable microclimate conditions and decrease the physical loads.

  7. Insect hygroreceptor responses to continuous changes in humidity and air pressure

    PubMed Central

    Tichy, H.; Kallina, W.

    2011-01-01

    The most favored model of humidity transduction views the cuticular wall of insect hygroreceptive sensilla as a hygromechanical transducer. Hygroscopic swelling or shrinking alters the geometry of the wall, deforming the dendritic membranes of the moist and dry cells. The small size the sensilla and their position surrounded by elevated structures creates technical difficulties to mechanically stimulate them by direct contact. The present study investigated hygroreceptors on the antennae of the cockroach and the stick insect. Accurately controlled, homogeneous mechanical input was delivered by modulating air pressure. Both the moist and dry cells responded not only to changes in air pressure, but also in the opposite direction, as observed during changes in air humidity. The moist-cell’s excitatory response to increasing humidity and increasing air pressure implies that swelling of the hygroscopic cuticle compresses the dendrites, and the dry-cell’s excitatory response to decreasing humidity and decreasing air pressure implies that shrinking of the hygroscopic cuticle expands the dendrites. The moist and dry cells of the stick insect are more sensitive to pressure changes than those of the cockroach, but the responses to air pressure are generally weaker than to humidity. Therefore, the hygroreceptive sensilla differ in their physical properties and constitutions. Furthermore, the mechanical parameters associated with homogeneous changes in air pressure on the sensillum surface can only partially account for the responses of the moist and dry cells of both species to humidity stimulation. PMID:20375249

  8. Insect hygroreceptor responses to continuous changes in humidity and air pressure.

    PubMed

    Tichy, H; Kallina, W

    2010-06-01

    The most favored model of humidity transduction views the cuticular wall of insect hygroreceptive sensilla as a hygromechanical transducer. Hygroscopic swelling or shrinking alters the geometry of the wall, deforming the dendritic membranes of the moist and dry cells. The small size the sensilla and their position surrounded by elevated structures creates technical difficulties to mechanically stimulate them by direct contact. The present study investigated hygroreceptors on the antennae of the cockroach and the stick insect. Accurately controlled, homogeneous mechanical input was delivered by modulating air pressure. Both the moist and dry cells responded not only to changes in air pressure but also in the opposite direction, as observed during changes in air humidity. The moist cell's excitatory response to increasing humidity and increasing air pressure implies that swelling of the hygroscopic cuticle compresses the dendrites, and the dry cell's excitatory response to decreasing humidity and decreasing air pressure implies that shrinking of the hygroscopic cuticle expands the dendrites. The moist and dry cells of the stick insect are more sensitive to pressure changes than those of the cockroach, but the responses to air pressure are generally weaker than to humidity. Therefore the hygroreceptive sensilla differ in their physical properties and constitutions. Furthermore, the mechanical parameters associated with homogeneous changes in air pressure on the sensillum surface can only partially account for the responses of the moist and dry cells of both species to humidity stimulation. PMID:20375249

  9. Clinical observations made in nonheat acclimated horses performing treadmill exercise in cool (20 degrees C/40%RH), hot, dry (30 degrees C/40%RH) or hot, humid (30 degrees C/80%RH) conditions.

    PubMed

    Harris, P A; Marlin, D J; Mills, P C; Roberts, C A; Scott, C M; Harris, R C; Orme, C E; Schroter, R C; Marr, C M; Barrelet, F

    1995-11-01

    Four horses (H, J, N and M) undertook a treadmill competition exercise test (CET), designed to simulate the physiological and metabolic stresses of the Speed and Endurance phase of a 3-day-event, under 3 different environmental conditions: 20 degrees C/40% relative humidity (RH) (cool, dry [CD]: 2 sessions); 30 degrees C/40%RH (hot, dry [HD]) and 30 degrees C/80%RH (hot, humid [HH]) (Marlin et al. 1995). A number of subjective clinical observations were made at designated time points throughout the exercise test and initial recovery period including buccal mucous membrane colouration, capillary refill time, neck and point of shoulder skin pinch recovery time, grade of abdominal sounds; anal sphincter tone as well as the presence or absence of fatigue and ataxia. The aim was to investigate their value in predicting performance in the final canter phase of the CET equivalent to the cross-country or Phase D of a field competition. In addition, the use of a more objective assessment, the cardiac recovery index (CRI), was investigated together with the heart rate, rectal temperature and respiratory frequency at the end of Phase C and at the 8 min point of the 10 Minute Box (8'X). The CRI was calculated according to the formula CRI = P2-P1 where P2 = the heart rate in beats/min at the 8 min point of the '10 Minute Box' (Phase X) of the CET. P1 = the heart rate (beats/min) at the 7 min point just before the horse was made to trot over a distance of 80 m at a speed of 3.7 m/s (at a 3 degrees incline) before returning to a walk. The study suggested that the subjective tests carried out at the 'End-C' and/or '8'X' time points were not useful in predicting subsequent performance in the final canter phase (Phase D) and neither were heart rate, rectal temperature or respiratory frequency. However, the only horse (Horse H) to complete the full CET under HH conditions was the only animal to show a decrease in respiratory frequency between the End-C and 8'X time points. All others

  10. Simulating Tree and Topography Effects on Urban Air temperature and Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Endreny, T. A.; Nowak, D. J.; Kroll, C.; Heisler, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Microclimate, especially air temperature and humidity, significantly affect human thermal comfort, ecosystem services, and building energy use. Air temperature and humidity measurements are generally recorded at fixed-location meteorology stations, which do not represent the spatial variations encountered in these parameters across the landscape. We developed a spatial air temperature and humidity model to simulate local air temperature and humidity over a region where the mesoscale climate is presumed homogeneous. The model assumes that under the same mesoscale climate, microclimate is modified by local topography and land cover, which are two critical factors determining the absorbed solar radiation and the partitioning of sensible and latent heat. Therefore, the difference in microclimates among local clusters can be determined by the differences in local topography and land cover. Given a reference site where the meteorological data are collected, the microclimate of any other local cluster can be obtained by comparing the topography and land cover of the reference site and the local cluster. The model was tested at 11 locations in Syracuse, NY, where the hourly air temperature and humidity were measured from July 15, 2010 through September 15, 2010. The simulation results showed the model has high efficiency in estimating local cluster air temperature and humidity. The model can be applied on strategic urban reforestation designs, urban heat island mitigation, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and ecosystem interaction research.

  11. Air temperature and humidity diversity in the Hornsund fjord area (Spitsbergen) in the period 1 July 2014 - 30 June 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybylak, Rajmund; Araźny, Andrzej; Wyszyński, Przemysław; Budzik, Tomasz; Wawrzyniak, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    FUG. The highest temperature was recorded at all the sites in July, when its highest mean values were observed at GAS and HYT (6.1°C and 6.0°C, respectively), while the lowest occurred at FUG (2.4°C) and HG4 (3.1°C). The other meteorological element considered was relative humidity, which positively correlates with the course of air temperature. During the year, the most humid sites were those located at the mountain top (FUG) and on the Treskelen peninsula (TRE), towards the end of the fjord (94% and 91%, respectively). The lowest RH values were measured at HOR and HYT (80% in both). In the annual course, the lowest RH was observed in February with the lowest mean monthly values (74%) at HOR and HYT, and the highest at FUG (88%) and TRE (87%). As with air temperature, the highest relative humidity occurred in July. Its lowest mean values were recorded at HOR (87%), and the highest - at FUG (96%).

  12. Influence of Air Temperature and Humidity on Dehydration Equilibria and Kinetics of Theophylline

    PubMed Central

    Touil, Amira; Peczalski, Roman; Timoumi, Souad; Zagrouba, Fethi

    2013-01-01

    The effect of hygrothermal conditions (air temperature and relative humidity) on the dehydration of theophylline monohydrate was investigated. Firstly, the equilibrium states of theophylline were investigated. The data from gravimetric analysis at constant temperature and humidity were reported as desorption isotherms. The PXRD analysis was used to identify the different polymorphic forms of theophylline: the monohydrate, the metastable anhydrate, and the stable anhydrate. Solid-solid phase diagrams for two processing times were proposed. Secondly, the dehydration kinetics were studied. The water content evolutions with time were recorded at several temperatures from 20°C to 80°C and several relative humidities from 4% to 50%. Different mathematical models were used to fit the experimental data. The spatially averaged solution of 2D Fickian transient diffusion equation best represented the water mass loss versus time experimental relationship. The dehydration rate constant was found to increase exponentially with air temperature and to decrease exponentially with air relative humidity. PMID:26556000

  13. Influence of Air Temperature and Humidity on Dehydration Equilibria and Kinetics of Theophylline.

    PubMed

    Touil, Amira; Peczalski, Roman; Timoumi, Souad; Zagrouba, Fethi

    2013-01-01

    The effect of hygrothermal conditions (air temperature and relative humidity) on the dehydration of theophylline monohydrate was investigated. Firstly, the equilibrium states of theophylline were investigated. The data from gravimetric analysis at constant temperature and humidity were reported as desorption isotherms. The PXRD analysis was used to identify the different polymorphic forms of theophylline: the monohydrate, the metastable anhydrate, and the stable anhydrate. Solid-solid phase diagrams for two processing times were proposed. Secondly, the dehydration kinetics were studied. The water content evolutions with time were recorded at several temperatures from 20°C to 80°C and several relative humidities from 4% to 50%. Different mathematical models were used to fit the experimental data. The spatially averaged solution of 2D Fickian transient diffusion equation best represented the water mass loss versus time experimental relationship. The dehydration rate constant was found to increase exponentially with air temperature and to decrease exponentially with air relative humidity. PMID:26556000

  14. The impact of humidity on evaporative cooling in small desert birds exposed to high air temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Alexander R; Smith, Eric Krabbe; Smit, Ben; McKechnie, Andrew E; Wolf, Blair O

    2014-01-01

    Environmental temperatures that exceed body temperature (Tb) force endothermic animals to rely solely on evaporative cooling to dissipate heat. However, evaporative heat dissipation can be drastically reduced by environmental humidity, imposing a thermoregulatory challenge. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of humidity on the thermoregulation of desert birds and to compare the sensitivity of cutaneous and respiratory evaporation to reduced vapor density gradients. Rates of evaporative water loss, metabolic rate, and Tb were measured in birds exposed to humidities ranging from ∼2 to 30 g H2O m(-3) (0%-100% relative humidity at 30°C) at air temperatures between 44° and 56°C. In sociable weavers, a species that dissipates heat primarily through panting, rates of evaporative water loss were inhibited by as much as 36% by high humidity at 48°C, and these birds showed a high degree of hyperthermia. At lower temperatures (40°-44°C), evaporative water loss was largely unaffected by humidity in this species. In Namaqua doves, which primarily use cutaneous evaporation, increasing humidity reduced rates of evaporative water loss, but overall rates of water loss were lower than those observed in sociable weavers. Our data suggest that cutaneous evaporation is more efficient than panting, requiring less water to maintain Tb at a given temperature, but panting appears less sensitive to humidity over the air temperature range investigated here. PMID:25461643

  15. High-speed sterilization technique using dielectric barrier discharge plasmas in atmospheric humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamae, M.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2010-11-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus spores by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma produced by an ac voltage application of 1 kHz in atmospheric humid air was investigated in order to develop low-temperature, low-cost and high-speed plasma sterilization technique. The biological indicators covered with a Tyvek sheet were set just outside the DBD plasma region, where the air temperature and humidity as a discharge gas were precisely controlled by an environmental test chamber. The results show that the inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus spores was found to be dependent strongly on the humidity, and was completed within 15 min at a relative humidity of 90 % and a temperature of 30 C. The treatment time for sterilization is shorter than those of conventional sterilization methods using ethylene oxide gas and dry heat treatment. It is considered that reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals that are effective for the inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus spores could be produced by the DBD plasma in the humid air. Repetitive micro-pulsed discharge plasmas in the humid air will be applied for the sterilization experiment to enhance the sterilization efficiency.

  16. Effects of Humidity Swings on Adsorption Columns for Air Revitalization: Modeling and Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVan, M. Douglas; Finn, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Air purification systems are necessary to provide clean air in the closed environments aboard spacecraft. Trace contaminants are removed using adsorption. One major factor concerning the removal of trace contaminants is relative humidity. Water can reduce adsorption capacity and, due to constant fluctuations, its presence is difficult to incorporate into adsorption column designs. The purpose of the research was to allow for better design techniques in trace contaminant adsorption systems, especially for feeds with water present. Experiments and mathematical modeling research on effects of humidity swings on adsorption columns for air revitalization were carried out.

  17. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  18. Hydrochloric acid aerosol formation by the interaction of hydrogen chloride with humid air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhein, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The conditions in which hydrochloric acid aerosol is predicted by the interaction of hydrogen chloride gas with the water vapor in humid air are analyzed. The liquid gas phase equilibrium for the HCL-H2O system is expressed in terms of relative humidity and hydrogen chloride concentration as parts per million, units commonly used in pollution studies. Presented are the concentration (wt %) of HC1 in the aerosol and the concentration of aerosol (ppm) predicted.

  19. Measurement of the radon diffusion through a nylon foil for different air humidities

    SciTech Connect

    Mamedov, Fadahat; Štekl, Ivan; Smolek, Karel

    2015-08-17

    The dependency of the radon penetration through a nylon foil on air humidity was measured. Such information is needed for the tracking part of the SuperNEMO detector, which is planned to be shielded against radon by nylon foil and in which the air humidity is not negligible. The long term measurements of radon penetration through nylon foils for different air humidities were performed with the radon diffusion setup constructed at the IEAP, CTU in Prague. The setup consists of two stainless steel hemispheres with Si detector in each of them. Both hemispheres are separated by the tested foil. While the left hemisphere contains high Rn activity, the right part contains only activity caused by the radon penetration through the tested foil. Obtained results of this study with a nylon foil with the thickness of 50 µm are presented.

  20. Measurement of the radon diffusion through a nylon foil for different air humidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, Fadahat; Štekl, Ivan; Smolek, Karel

    2015-08-01

    The dependency of the radon penetration through a nylon foil on air humidity was measured. Such information is needed for the tracking part of the SuperNEMO detector, which is planned to be shielded against radon by nylon foil and in which the air humidity is not negligible. The long term measurements of radon penetration through nylon foils for different air humidities were performed with the radon diffusion setup constructed at the IEAP, CTU in Prague. The setup consists of two stainless steel hemispheres with Si detector in each of them. Both hemispheres are separated by the tested foil. While the left hemisphere contains high Rn activity, the right part contains only activity caused by the radon penetration through the tested foil. Obtained results of this study with a nylon foil with the thickness of 50 µm are presented.

  1. DYNAMICS of optical-microphysical properties of atmospheric haze at stepwise change of air humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhimov, Rustam F.; Kozlov, Valerii S.; Shmargunov, Vladimir P.

    2015-11-01

    The three-day cycle of spectronephelometric measurements of the angular aerosol scattering coefficients of the near-ground aerosol at the stepwise increase/decrease of the relative air humidity of 50, 65, 75, 85, and 90% has been conducted in the Large Aerosol Chamber of IAO SB RAS filled with the atmospheric air. The results of solution of the inverse problem have shown that the condensation coarsening of particles at the simultaneous decrease of their refractive index and the imaginary part of the complex refraction index (absorption index) is stably observed with an increase of the relative air humidity for ultrafine (with radii of 30-100 nm) and fine (100-370 nm) particles. However, for the coarse particles (370-600 nm), the increase of humidity leads to the effect of increase of the refractive index from 1.60 to 1.66, while the values of the absorption index are low (˜10-5) and vary only slightly at the aerosol humidification. The effective radius of particles (165-195 nm) and the single scattering albedo (0.71-0.83) increase synchronously with an increase of the air humidity. For two days of aerosol evolution in the closed volume of the chamber, the total extinction and absorption coefficients also vary synchronously with the variation of humidity, but at the third day the influence of humidity on the absorption coefficient was not observed. A possible reason for appearance of specific condensation peculiarities is the influence of humidity variations on the inflow/outflow of particles smaller than 30 nm and larger than 600 nm having various physical-chemical composition into the optically active size range.

  2. Calculating osmotic pressure of xylitol solutions from molality according to UNIFAC model and measuring it with air humidity osmometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lan; Zhan, Tingting; Zhan, Xiancheng; Wei, Guocui; Tan, Xiaoying; Wang, Xiaolan; Li, Chengrong

    2014-11-01

    The osmotic pressure of xylitol solution at a wide concentration range was calculated according to the UNIFAC model and experimentally determined by our newly reported air humidity osmometry. The measurements from air humidity osmometry were compared with UNIFAC model calculations from dilute to saturated solution. Results indicate that air humidity osmometry measurements are comparable to UNIFAC model calculations at a wide concentration range by two one-sided test and multiple testing corrections. The air humidity osmometry is applicable to measure the osmotic pressure and the osmotic pressure can be calculated from the concentration. PMID:24032449

  3. The sensitivity of latent heat flux to the air humidity approximations used in ocean circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Niiler, Pearn P.

    1990-01-01

    In deriving the surface latent heat flux with the bulk formula for the thermal forcing of some ocean circulation models, two approximations are commonly made to bypass the use of atmospheric humidity in the formula. The first assumes a constant relative humidity, and the second supposes that the sea-air humidity difference varies linearly with the saturation humidity at sea surface temperature. Using climatological fields derived from the Marine Deck and long time series from ocean weather stations, the errors introduced by these two assumptions are examined. It is shown that the errors reach above 100 W/sq m over western boundary currents and 50 W/sq m over the tropical ocean. The two approximations also introduce erroneous seasonal and spatial variabilities with magnitudes over 50 percent of the observed variabilities.

  4. Preventing Indoor Air Quality Problems in Educational Facilities: Guidelines for Hot, Humid Climates. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, J. David; DuBose, George

    This manual addresses the errors that occur during new construction that subsequently contribute to indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in newly constructed buildings in hot and humid climates, and offers guidelines for preventing them during the design and construction phases. It defines the roles and responsibilities of the design team, the…

  5. STS-32 OV-102 air revitalization system (ARS) humidity separator problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During STS-32, onboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, a leakage problem at environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) air revitalization system (ARS) humidity separator A below the middeck is solved with a plastic bag and a towel. The towel inserted inside a plastic bag absorbed the water that had collected at the separator inlet.

  6. Storage corrosion of materials and equipment: Temperature-humidity and aerochemical regimes indoors and in the open air

    SciTech Connect

    Strekalov, P.V.

    1994-07-01

    The following storage factors are considered: (1) the temperature-humidity complex (THC) in the open air at representative sites with cold, moderate, and subtropical humid climate; (2) the temperature and humidity differences between the open air and an atmospheric of semiclosed spaces; (3) the THC inside storage-spaces in a humid tropical climate; (4) the concentration of SO{sub 2} and Cl{sup -} in the open air and in different storage-spaces; (5) the categories of corrosivity of the atmosphere and methods for its evaluation indoors and outdoors.

  7. Effect of inlet-air humidity on the formation of oxides of nitrogen in a gas-turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of inlet-air humidity on the formation of oxides of nitrogen from a gas-turbine combustor. Combustor inlet-air temperature ranged from 450 F to 1050 F. The tests were run at a constant pressure of 6 atmospheres and reference Mach number of 0.065. The NO sub x emission index was found to decrease with increasing inlet-air humidity at a constant exponential rate of 19 percent per mass percent water vapor in the air. This decrease of NO sub x emission index with increasing humidity was found to be independent of inlet-air temperature.

  8. Sterilization of soybean powder with plasma treatment in atmospheric humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwami, R.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Nakayama, A.; Nakagawa, K.

    2013-10-01

    Sterilization of foods has been performed by conventional methods such as heat, steam and chemical solutions. However, these sterilization techniques could cause damages to the food material. It is considered that plasma sterilization at atmospheric pressure is one of the promising alternative methods because of the low temperature process. In our previous study, the inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeusspores by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma produced in atmospheric humid air was investigated in order to develop low-temperature, low-cost and high-speed plasma sterilization technique. The results showed that the inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeusspores was found to be dependent strongly on the humidity. In the present study, the plasma treatment technique in humid air is applied to sterilization of soybean powder. Effects of plasma sterilization were successfully confirmed by a colony counting method. It was found that the sterilization efficiency was increased by using the humid air as the discharge gas. In the conference, an improvement of the plasma treatment system to enhance the sterilization efficiency will be shown.

  9. Electro-Hydrodynamics and Kinetic Modeling of Dry and Humid Air Flows Activated by Corona Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P. Sarrette, J.; Eichwald, O.; Marchal, F.; Ducasse, O.; Yousfi, M.

    2016-05-01

    The present work is devoted to the 2D simulation of a point-to-plane Atmospheric Corona Discharge Reactor (ACDR) powered by a DC high voltage supply. The corona reactor is periodically crossed by thin mono filamentary streamers with a natural repetition frequency of some tens of kHz. The study compares the results obtained in dry air and in air mixed with a small amount of water vapour (humid air). The simulation involves the electro-dynamics, chemical kinetics and neutral gas hydrodynamics phenomena that influence the kinetics of the chemical species transformation. Each discharge lasts about one hundred of a nanosecond while the post-discharge occurring between two successive discharges lasts one hundred of a microsecond. The ACDR is crossed by a lateral dry or humid air flow initially polluted with 400 ppm of NO. After 5 ms, the time corresponding to the occurrence of 50 successive discharge/post-discharge phases, a higher NO removal rate and a lower ozone production rate are found in humid air. This change is due to the presence of the HO2 species formed from the H primary radical in the discharge zone.

  10. Humidity and aggregate content correction factors for air-coupled ultrasonic evaluation of concrete.

    PubMed

    Berriman, J; Purnell, P; Hutchins, D A; Neild, A

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes the use of non-contact ultrasound for the evaluation of concrete. Micromachined capacitance transducers are used to transmit ultrasonic longitudinal chirp signals through concrete samples using air as the coupling medium, and a pulse compression technique is then employed for measurement of time of flight through the sample. The effect on the ultrasonic wave speed of storing concrete samples, made with the same water/cement ratio, at different humidity levels is investigated. It is shown that there is a correlation between humidity and speed of sound, allowing a correction factor for humidity to be derived. A strong positive linear correlation between aggregate content and speed of sound was then observed; there was no obvious correlation between compressive strength and speed of sound. The results from the non-contact system are compared with that from a contact system, and conclusions drawn concerning coupling of energy into the samples. PMID:15567195

  11. The effect of increased air humidity on northern deciduous forest ecosystem - a FAHM study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostonen, Ivika; Rosenvald, Katrin; Tullus, Arvo; Parts, Kaarin; Sellin, Arne; Kupper, Priit; Sõber, Jaak; Sõber, Anu; Uri, Veiko; Aosaar, Jürgen; Varik, Mats; Lõhmus, Krista

    2013-04-01

    At northern latitudes a rise in atmospheric humidity and precipitation is predicted as a consequence of global climate change. In 2006 an unique experimental facility for free air humidity manipulation (FAHM) was established in Estonia to study the functioning of deciduous forest ecosystem under altered humidity conditions. The experimental site contains humidified and control plots, each includes four types of forest ecosystem: two overstorey species (planted hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.)) both split into two types according to understorey vegetation (diverse "forest" understory and early successional grasses). We investigated the productivity, biomass allocation and functioning of silver birch forest ecosystem in response to elevated atmospheric humidity (on average 7% over the ambient level) during four growing seasons (2008-2011). We hypothesized that elevated air humidity facilitates both above- and below-ground growth and accumulation of plant biomass. During the first three experimental seasons height, stem diameter, and stem volume (D2H) increments of trees, biomass of understory in aboveground and fine root biomass in belowground were similar or significantly reduced in humidified plots. Only the fine root and rhizome biomass of the understory was twice higher in humidified plots. However, fine root turnover speeded up for both tree and understory roots. The trends in above-ground growth changed in 2011, when current annual increments of trees height, diameter, stem volume and fine root biomass were higher in humidified plots. Functionally, trees hydraulic conductance was significantly higher and stem sap flux lower for humidified trees coinciding with significantly higher biomass of primary (in majority ectomycorrhizal) roots, morphologically thinner and longer root tips and higher specific root length. Humidification caused a shift in the root tips colonizing fungal community towards the

  12. Effect of humidity on fretting wear of several pure metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goto, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Fretting wear experiments with several pure metals were conducted in air at various relative humidity levels. The materials used were iron, aluminum, copper, silver, chromium, titanium, and nickel. Each pure metal had a maximum fretting wear volume at a specific humidity level RH sub max that was not dependent on mechanical factors such as contact load, fretting amplitude, and frequency in the ranges studied. The weight loss due to fretting wear at RH sub max for each pure metal decreased with increasing heat of oxygen adsorption on the metal, indicating that adhesive wear dominated at RH sub max.

  13. Megha-Tropiques/SAPHIR measurements of humidity profiles: validation with AIRS and global radiosonde network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. V.; Kumar, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical profiles of humidity measured by SAPHIR (Sondeur Atmospherique du Profil d' Humidité Intropicale par Radiométrie) on-board Megha-Tropiques satellite are validated using Atmosphere Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and ground based radiosonde observations during July-September 2012. SAPHIR provides humidity profiles at six pressure layers viz., 1000-850 (level 1), 850-700 (level 2), 700-550 (level 3), 550-400 (level 4) 400-250 (level 5) and 250-100(level 6) hPa. Segregated AIRS observations over land and oceanic regions are used to assess the performance of SAPHIR quantitatively. The regression analysis over oceanic region (125° W-180° W; 30° S-30° N) reveal that the SAPHIR measurements agrees very well with the AIRS measurements at levels 3, 4, 5 and 6 with correlation coefficients 0.79, 0.88, 0.87 and 0.78 respectively. However, at level 6 SAPHIR seems to be systematically underestimating the AIRS measurements. At level 2, the agreement is reasonably good with correlation coefficient of 0.52 and at level 1 the agreement is very poor with correlation coefficient 0.17. The regression analysis over land region (10° W-30° E; 8° N-30° N) revealed an excellent correlation between AIRS and SAPHIR at all the six levels with 0.80, 0.78, 0.84, 0.84, 0.86 and 0.65 respectively. However, again at levels 5 and 6, SAPHIR seems to be underestimating the AIRS measurements. After carrying out the quantitative comparison between SAPHIR and AIRS separately over land and ocean, the ground based global radiosonde network observations of humidity profiles over three distinct geographical locations (East Asia, tropical belt of South and North America and South Pacific) are then used to further validate the SAPHIR observations as AIRS has its own limitations. The SAPHIR observations within a radius of 50 km around the radiosonde stations are averaged and then the regression analysis is carried out at the first five levels of SAPHIR. The comparison is not carried out at sixth

  14. Average Tropical Relative Humidity from AIRS, Dec-Feb 2002-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The average tropospheric relative humidity from AIRS for the four December-February periods during 2002 through 2005.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Instructions for observing air temperature, humidity, and direction and force of wind

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1892-01-01

    Description of instruments.-The temperature and humidity of the air are obtained from the simultaneous observation of a pair of mercurial thermometers termed the dry and the wet bulb. The air temperature is given by the dry-bulb thermometer, and the humidity is obtained from the combined readings of both. The wet-bulb thermometer differs from the dry-bulb thermometer only in having its bulb covered with thin muslin, which is wetted in pure water at each observation.The two thermometers are fastened in a light metal 'or wooden frame. To this frame is to be attached a stout cord for the whirling of the thermometers, which is an essential part of every observation.

  16. STS-32 OV-102 air revitalization system (ARS) humidity separator problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During STS-32, onboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, a leakage problem at environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) air revitalization system (ARS) humidity separator A below the middeck is documented in this closeup view. Note the many bubbles around the separator. The crew cleared out stowage bags, lithium hydroxide (LiOH) cannisters and other materials to get at the problem. It was eventually repaired.

  17. Evolution of arched roofs in salt caves: Role of gravity-induced stress and relative air humidity and temperature changes (Zagros Mts., Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruthans, Jiri; Filippi, Michal; Zare, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    In salt caves in the halite karst in SE Iran the disintegration of rock salt into individual grains can be observed. Highly disintegrated blocks and individual grains form a major volume of debris in many caves on islands in the Persian Gulf. Larger cave rooms have often perfectly arched roof. The perfect geometry of rooms and interlocking of salt grains indicate that evolution of room cross-sections in these caves is controlled by feedback between gravity-induced stress and rock salt disintegration in similar way as in evolution of sandstone landforms (Bruthans et al. 2014). Those portions of rock salt, which are under compressional stress, disintegrate much slower than portions under tensile stress. Important question is the kind of weathering mechanism responsible for intergranular disintegration of rock salt. The relationship between disintegration, its rate and cave climate was studied. Clearly the fastest disintegration rate was found in caves with strong air circulation (i.e, short caves with large cross-sections, open on both ends). Temperature and air humidity changes are considerable in these caves. On the other hand the disintegration is very slow in the inner parts of long caves with slow air circulation or caves with one entrance. The best example of such caves is the inner part of 3N Cave on Namakdan salt diapir with nearly no air circulation and stable temperature and humidity, where disintegration of rock salt into grains is missing. Strong effect of cave climate on disintegration rate can be explained by deliquescence properties of halite. Halite is absorbing air moisture forming NaCl solution if relative humidity (RH) exceeds 75 % (at 20-30 oC). In the Persian Gulf region the RH of the air is passing the 75 % threshold in case of 91% days (Qeshm Island, years 2002-2005), while in mountainous areas in mainland this threshold is less commonly reached. In most of nights (91 %) in Persian Gulf the air with RH >75 % is entering the salt caves and air

  18. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity.

    PubMed

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L W; Yan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Poor stability of organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3-x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere. PMID:27033249

  19. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Poor stability of organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3-x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere.

  20. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Poor stability of organic–inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3−x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere. PMID:27033249

  1. Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Profiles of Temperature and Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Bradley; Blackwell, William

    2014-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity. AIRS retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to extreme precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 AIRS retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 AIRS Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved temperature and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. Forecasts are against ERA reanalyses.

  2. Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Profiles of Temperature and Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Brad; Blackwell, William

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity. AIRS retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to extreme precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 AIRS retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 AIRS Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved temperature and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. This paper will describe the bias correction technique and results from forecasts evaluated by validation against a Total Precipitable Water (TPW) product from CIRA and against Global Forecast System (GFS) analyses.

  3. A Humidity Control System with an Adsorption Material and Indoor Air Quality Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Yoshifumi; Ishii, Noriaki

    The present study introduces a humidity control apparatus which can hygienically and automatically maintain the appropriate humidity level of indoor air without either a water supply or drainage system. In humidification, the desiccant takes up water vapor from the outdoor air in the adsorption process, and release it indoors by desorption. Therefore, no water supply is required to humidify. An apparatus having no water supply is more hygienic, because it does not propagate bacteria and does not scatter the calcium and magnesium salts found in the water. In dehumidification, water vapor is removed from the indoor air by the desiccant and is released outdoors by desorption, eliminating the need for a drainage system. The absence of a drainage system also eliminates problems such as water leakage and installation. The performance of a system based on this new method was compared with that of conventional products, whereby the modes of dehumidification, humidification and humidification with ventilation were evaluated. In addition, the new system was tested to reveal the time-dependent charaeteristics of the concentration of indoor odor and the dust collection efficiency.

  4. Afterglow chemistry of atmospheric-pressure helium-oxygen plasmas with humid air impurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Niemi, Kari; Gans, Timo; O'Connell, Deborah; Graham, William G.

    2014-04-01

    The formation of reactive species in the afterglow of a radio-frequency-driven atmospheric-pressure plasma in a fixed helium-oxygen feed gas mixture (He+0.5%O2) with humid air impurity (a few hundred ppm) is investigated by means of an extensive global plasma chemical kinetics model. As an original objective, we explore the effects of humid air impurity on the biologically relevant reactive species in an oxygen-dependent system. After a few milliseconds in the afterglow environment, the densities of atomic oxygen (O) decreases from 1015 to 1013 cm-3 and singlet delta molecular oxygen (O2(1D)) of the order of 1015 cm-3 decreases by a factor of two, while the ozone (O3) density increases from 1014 to 1015 cm-3. Electrons and oxygen ionic species, initially of the order of 1011 cm-3, recombine much faster on the time scale of some microseconds. The formation of atomic hydrogen (H), hydroxyl radical (OH), hydroperoxyl (HO2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO) and nitric acid (HNO3) resulting from the humid air impurity as well as the influence on the afterglow chemistry is clarified with particular emphasis on the formation of dominant reactive oxygen species (ROS). The model suggests that the reactive species predominantly formed in the afterglow are major ROS O2(1D) and O3 (of the order of 1015 cm-3) and rather minor hydrogen- and nitrogen-based reactive species OH, H2O2, HNO3 and NO2/NO3, of which densities are comparable to the O-atom density (of the order of 1013 cm-3). Furthermore, the model quantitatively reproduces the experimental results of independent O and O3 density measurements.

  5. Recent improvements in retrieving near-surface air temperature and humidity using microwave remote sensing (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    Detailed studies of the energy and water cycles require accurate estimation of the turbulent fluxes of moisture and heat across the atmosphere-ocean interface at regional to basin scale. Providing estimates of these latent and sensible heat fluxes over the global ocean necessitates the use of satellite or reanalysis-based estimates of near surface variables. Recent studies have shown that errors in the surface (10 meter) estimates of humidity and temperature are currently the largest sources of uncertainty in the production of turbulent fluxes from satellite observations. Therefore, emphasis has been placed on reducing the systematic errors in the retrieval of these parameters from microwave radiometers. This study discusses recent improvements in the retrieval of air temperature and humidity through improvements in the choice of algorithms (linear vs. nonlinear) and the choice of microwave sensors. Particular focus is placed on improvements using a neural network approach with a single sensor (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) and the use of combined sensors from the NASA AQUA satellite platform. The latter algorithm utilizes the unique sampling available on AQUA from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A). Current estimates of uncertainty in the near-surface humidity and temperature from single and multi-sensor approaches are discussed and used to estimate errors in the turbulent fluxes.

  6. Recent Improvements in Retrieving Near-Surface Air Temperature and Humidity Using Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent

    2010-01-01

    Detailed studies of the energy and water cycles require accurate estimation of the turbulent fluxes of moisture and heat across the atmosphere-ocean interface at regional to basin scale. Providing estimates of these latent and sensible heat fluxes over the global ocean necessitates the use of satellite or reanalysis-based estimates of near surface variables. Recent studies have shown that errors in the surface (10 meter)estimates of humidity and temperature are currently the largest sources of uncertainty in the production of turbulent fluxes from satellite observations. Therefore, emphasis has been placed on reducing the systematic errors in the retrieval of these parameters from microwave radiometers. This study discusses recent improvements in the retrieval of air temperature and humidity through improvements in the choice of algorithms (linear vs. nonlinear) and the choice of microwave sensors. Particular focus is placed on improvements using a neural network approach with a single sensor (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) and the use of combined sensors from the NASA AQUA satellite platform. The latter algorithm utilizes the unique sampling available on AQUA from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A). Current estimates of uncertainty in the near-surface humidity and temperature from single and multi-sensor approaches are discussed and used to estimate errors in the turbulent fluxes.

  7. Air Pressure, Humidity and Stroke Occurrence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yongjun; Wang, Xia; Zheng, Danni; Robinson, Thompson; Hong, Daqing; Richtering, Sarah; Leong, Tzen Hugh; Salam, Abdul; Anderson, Craig; Hackett, Maree L.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: An influence of climate upon stroke risk is biologically plausible and supported by epidemiological evidence. We aimed to determine whether air pressure (AP) and humidity are associated with hospital stroke admission. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and GEOBASE, from inception to 16 October 2015 to identify relevant population-based observational studies. Where possible, data were pooled for meta-analysis with odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) by means of the random-effect method. Results: We included 11 studies with a total of 314,385 patients. The effect of AP was varied across studies for ischemic stroke (IS) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Pooled ORs (95%CI) associated with 1 hPa increase in AP for the risk of IS, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and SAH were 1.00 (0.99–1.01), 1.01 (0.99–1.02) and 1.02 (0.97–1.07) respectively. The pooled ORs (95%CI) associated with 1 percent increase in humidity for the risk of IS and ICH were 1.00 (1.00–1.01) and 1.00 (0.99–1.01) respectively. Conclusion: This review shows that there is no evidence of a relationship between AP or humidity and the occurrence of hospital admission for stroke. Further research is needed to clarify the extent and nature of any relationship between AP, humidity and stroke in different geographical areas. PMID:27399733

  8. One-dimensional variational (1D-Var) retrieval of middle to upper tropospheric humidity using AIRS radiance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Kozo; Okamoto, Hajime; Sato, Kaori

    2014-06-01

    A one-dimensional variational analysis (1D-Var retrieval) of tropospheric humidity was conducted using hyper-spectral radiance data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). For the vertical range of the atmosphere between 200 and 600 hPa, the same high-resolution retrieval of humidity profiles as for clear-sky conditions was possible over low clouds if the cloud height was lower than 800 hPa. Global analyses from a global data assimilation system were used for initial profiles, and clear conditions over 800 hPa height were determined from AIRS radiance data. Results of analyses for 50 days of global radiosonde matchup data from 21 December 2008 to 8 February 2009 revealed that our 1D-Var calculations derived humidity profiles were closer to the sonde profiles than those of a global analysis at a height over 600 hPa. Furthermore, the results of 1D-Var retrieval often represented high and supersaturated relative humidity around the supposed ice clouds. The altitudes of the high humidity region agreed with the height of ice clouds that had been detected by CloudSat/CALIPSO. As well as possibly improving the humidity profiles in a numerical model by data assimilation, it is expected that these humidity analyses using AIRS radiance data will provide additional information for the study of ice clouds in the middle to upper troposphere.

  9. Effect of air temperature and humidity on ingestive behaviour of sheep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranhos da Costa, Mateus J. R.; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; de Souza, Roberto Carlos

    1992-12-01

    Thirty-two Polwarth ewes, of ages up to 1 year, were observed in a climatic chamber (24 to 45° C) for eight periods of 5 h each. The observations were made through a window in the chamber wall. All animals were observed four times, then shorn and observed four times again. The animals were given weighed quantities of water and feed consisting of commercial concentrate plus Rhodes grass ( Chloris gayana) hay. The water and feed remaining after 5 h of observation were weighed. The following traits were analysed: time eating hay (TEH), time eating concentrate (TEC), time drinking water (TDW), weight of hay eaten (WHE), weight of concentrate eaten (WCE), volume of ingested water (VIW), ruminating time standing up (RTS), ruminating time lying down (RTL), idling time standing up (ITS), and idling time lying down (ITL). Shearing had a significant effect for all traits except ITS. Shearing resulted in higher values for all traits except for ITS and ITL. Ingestion of hay (TEH and WHE) decreased with increased air temperature and humidity, while the ingestion of concentrate (TEC) and WHE) and water (TDW and VIW) increased. Rumination decreased with increased air temperature and humidity, and was higher in shorn than in unshorn sheep.

  10. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

  11. Cloud-induced uncertainties in AIRS and ECMWF temperature and specific humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Sun; Fetzer, Eric J.; Schreier, Mathias; Manipon, Gerald; Fishbein, Evan F.; Kahn, Brian H.; Yue, Qing; Irion, Fredrick W.

    2015-03-01

    The uncertainties of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Level 2 version 6 specific humidity (q) and temperature (T) retrievals are quantified as functions of cloud types by comparison against Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive radiosonde measurements. The cloud types contained in an AIRS/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit footprint are identified by collocated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer retrieved cloud optical depth (COD) and cloud top pressure. We also report results of similar validation of q and T from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecasts (EC) and retrievals from the AIRS Neural Network (NNW), which are used as the initial state for AIRS V6 physical retrievals. Differences caused by the variation in the measurement locations and times are estimated using EC, and all the comparisons of data sets against radiosonde measurements are corrected by these estimated differences. We report in detail the validation results for AIRS GOOD quality control, which is used for the AIRS Level 3 climate products. AIRS GOOD quality q reduces the dry biases inherited from the NNW in the middle troposphere under thin clouds but enhances dry biases in thick clouds throughout the troposphere (reaching -30% at 850 hPa near deep convective clouds), likely because the information contained in AIRS retrievals is obtained in cloud-cleared areas or above clouds within the field of regard. EC has small moist biases (~5-10%), which are within the uncertainty of radiosonde measurements, in thin and high clouds. Temperature biases of all data are within ±1 K at altitudes above the 700 hPa level but increase with decreasing altitude. Cloud-cleared retrievals lead to large AIRS cold biases (reaching about -2 K) in the lower troposphere for large COD, enhancing the cold biases inherited from the NNW. Consequently, AIRS GOOD quality T root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) are slightly smaller than the NNW errors in thin clouds (1.5-2.5 K) but

  12. Interaction of temperature, humidity, driver preferences, and refrigerant type on air conditioning compressor usage.

    PubMed

    Levine, C; Younglove, T; Barth, M

    2000-10-01

    Recent studies have shown large increases in vehicle emissions when the air conditioner (AC) compressor is engaged. Factors that affect the compressor-on percentage can have a significant impact on vehicle emissions and can also lead to prediction errors in current emissions models if not accounted for properly. During 1996 and 1997, the University of California, Riverside, College of Engineering-Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) conducted a vehicle activity study for the California Air Resources Board (CARB) in the Sacramento, CA, region. The vehicles were randomly selected from all registered vehicles in the region. As part of this study, ten vehicles were instrumented to collect AC compressor on/off data on a second-by-second basis in the summer of 1997. Temperature and humidity data were obtained and averaged on an hourly basis. The ten drivers were asked to complete a short survey about AC operational preferences. This paper examines the effects of temperature, humidity, refrigerant type, and driver preferences on air conditioning compressor activity. Overall, AC was in use in 69.1% of the trips monitored. The compressor was on an average of 64% of the time during the trips. The personal preference settings had a significant effect on the AC compressor-on percentage but did not interact with temperature. The refrigerant types, however, exhibited a differential response across temperature, which may necessitate separate modeling of the R12 refrigerant-equipped vehicles from the R134A-equipped vehicles. It should be noted that some older vehicles do get retrofitted with new compressors that use R134A; however, none of the vehicles in this study had been retrofitted. PMID:11288304

  13. All-Optical Graphene Oxide Humidity Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Weng Hong; Yap, Yuen Kiat; Chong, Wu Yi; Ahmad, Harith

    2014-01-01

    The optical characteristics of graphene oxide (GO) were explored to design and fabricate a GO-based optical humidity sensor. GO film was coated onto a SU8 polymer channel waveguide using the drop-casting technique. The proposed sensor shows a high TE-mode absorption at 1550 nm. Due to the dependence of the dielectric properties of the GO film on water content, this high TE-mode absorption decreases when the ambient relative humidity increases. The proposed sensor shows a rapid response (<1 s) to periodically interrupted humid air flow. The transmission of the proposed sensor shows a linear response of 0.553 dB/% RH in the range of 60% to 100% RH. PMID:25526358

  14. Repetitively pulsed atmospheric pressure discharge treatment of rough polymer surfaces: I. Humid air discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoj, Ananth N.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2008-08-01

    Plasmas generated at atmospheric pressure are used to functionalize the surfaces of polymers by creating new surface-resident chemical groups. The polymers used in textiles and biomedical applications often have non-planar surfaces whose functionalization requires penetration of plasma generated species into sometimes complex surface features. In this regard, the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of a rough polypropylene surface was computationally investigated using a two-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics model integrated with a surface kinetics model. Repetitively pulsed discharges produced in a dielectric barrier-corona configuration in humid air were considered to affix O. Macroscopic non-uniformities in treatment result from the spatial variations in radical densities which depend on the polarity of the discharge. Microscopic non-uniformities arise due to the higher reactivity of plasma produced species, such as OH radicals, which are consumed before they can diffuse deeper into surface features. The consequences of applied voltage magnitude and polarity, and the relative humidity on discharge dynamics and radical generation leading to surface functionalization, are discussed.

  15. Emissions of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320-DIAD air cooled light aircraft engine as a function of fuel-air ratio, timing, and air temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions to establish the exhaust levels over the EPA seven-mode emissions cycle. Baseline (full rich production limit) exhaust emissions at an induction air temperature of 59 F and near zero relative humidity were 90 percent of the EPA standard for HC, 35 percent for NOx, and 161 percent for CO. Changes in ignition timing around the standard 25 deg BTDC from 30 deg BTDC to 20 deg BTDC had little effect on the exhaust emissions. Retarding the timing to 15 deg BTDC increased both the HC and CO emissions and decreased NOx emissions. HC and CO emissions decreased as the carburetor was leaned out, while NOx emissions increased. The EPA emission standards were marginally achieved at two leanout conditions. Variations in the quantity of cooling air flow over the engine had no effect on exhaust emissions. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased.

  16. Dependence on material choice of degradation of organic solar cells following exposure to humid air

    PubMed Central

    Glen, Tom S.; Scarratt, Nicholas W.; Yi, Hunan; Iraqi, Ahmed; Wang, Tao; Kingsley, James; Buckley, Alastair R.; Lidzey, David G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Electron microscopy has been used to study the degradation of organic solar cells when exposed to humid air. Devices with various different combinations of commonly used organic solar cell hole transport layers and cathode materials have been investigated. In this way the ingress of water and the effect it has on devices could be studied. It was found that calcium and aluminum in the cathode both react with water, causing voids and delamination within the device. The use of poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) was found to increase the degradation by easing water ingress into the device. Replacing these materials removed these degradation features. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2016, 54, 216–224 PMID:27594763

  17. Indoor air quality assessment of daycare facilities with carbon dioxide, temperature, and humidity as indicators.

    PubMed

    Ferng, Shiaw-Fen; Lee, Li-Wen

    2002-11-01

    Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in daycare facilities affects both attending children and care providers. Incident rates of upper-respiratory-tract infections have been reported to be higher in children who attend daycare. Excessive carbon dioxide (CO2) exposure can cause several health effects and even sudden infant death. For this study, 26 facilities were randomly selected in a Midwestern county of the United States. CO2, room temperature, and relative humidity were used as indicators for IAQ and comfort levels. These IAQ parameters were continuously monitored for eight hours at each facility by a direct-reading instrument that was calibrated before each measurement. More than 50 percent of the facilities had an average CO2 level over the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard of 1,000 parts per million (ppm). For temperature and relative humidity, respectively, 42.3 percent and 15.4 percent of facilities were outside of the ASHRAE-recommended comfort zones. The nap-time average CO2 level was about 117 ppm higher than the non-nap-time level. The increment of the nap-time CO2 level in the sleeping-only room over the level in multipurpose rooms was statistically significant (p < .05). According to stepwise multiple regression analysis, nap-time CO2 level was predicted by CO2 level before occupancy, nap-time average temperature, carbon monoxide, and child density (R2 = .83). It is recommended that an appropriate IAQ standard for daycare facilities be established and that children should not be placed in a completely isolated room during nap time. PMID:12415886

  18. Effects of Environmental Humidity and Temperature on Sterilization Efficiency of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasmas in Atmospheric Pressure Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Yusuke; Miyamae, Masanori; Nagata, Masayoshi; Fukumoto, Naoyuki

    2011-01-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus spores by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in atmospheric humid air was investigated in order to develop a low-temperature, low-cost, and high-speed plasma sterilization technique. The biological indicators covered with a Tyvek sheet were set just outside the DBD plasma region, where air temperature and humidity as a discharge gas were precisely controlled by an environmental test chamber. The results show that the inactivation of B. atrophaeus spores was found to be dependent strongly on humidity, and was completed within 15 min at a relative humidity of 90% and a temperature of 30 °C. The treatment time for sterilization is shorter than those of conventional sterilization methods using ethylene oxide gas and dry heat treatment. The inactivation rates depend on not only relative humidity but also temperature, so that water content in air could determine the generation of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals that are effective for the inactivation of B. atrophaeus spores.

  19. Interaction of humidity and air pollutants on vegetation. Final report, 16 July 1986-30 April 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.R.; Olszyk, D.M.

    1988-03-01

    This study used a humidification system that adds dry steam to open-top field chambers to determine how relative-humidity affects plant responses to air pollutants in the field. There was a definite interaction between humidity and air pollution on leaf injury, with increasing humidity greatly increasing the amount of visible leaf necrosis and senescence from ozone. However, the injury interaction was not associated with any general interaction in terms of crop yield. Ozone caused visible injury to tomatoes, almonds, beans, and melons; reduced yield, growth, and biomass production for tomatoes and beans; and reduced physiological processes for tomatoes, beans, and almonds. Sulfur dioxide reduced growth and biomass production in wheat and lettuce, and yield for wheat. Humidification increased biomass production for tomatoes, carrots, onions, and beans, yield for carrots, onions, and lettuce, but decreased yields in beans.

  20. Near Decade Long Tropospheric Air Temperature and Specific Humidity Records from AIRS for CMIP5 Model Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, B.; Fetzer, E.; Kahn, B. H.; Teixeira, J.; Manning, E.; Hearty, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    The peer-reviewed analyses of multi-model outputs from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) experiments will be the most important basis for the next Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report (AR5). To increase the fidelity of the IPCC AR5, an Obs4MIPs project has been initiated to collect some well-established and well-documented datasets, to organize them according to the CMIP5 model output requirements, and makes them available to the science community for CMIP5 model evaluation. The NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) project has produced monthly mean tropospheric air temperature (ta, K) and specific humidity (hus, kg/kg) products as part of the Obs4MIPS project. In this paper, we first describe these two AIRS datasets in terms of data description, origin, validation and caveats for model-observation comparison. We then document the climatological mean features of these two AIRS datasets and compare them to those from NASA's Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for AIRS data validation and CMIP5 model simulations for CMIP5 model evaluation. As expected, the 9-year AIRS data show several well-known climatological features of tropospheric ta and hus, such as the strong meridional and vertical gradients of tropospheric ta and hus and strong zonal gradient of tropospheric hus. AIRS data also show the strong connections between the tropospheric hus, atmospheric circulation and deep convection. In comparison to MERRA, AIRS seems to be colder in the free troposphere but warmer in the boundary layer with differences typically less than 1 K. AIRS is wetter (~10%) in the tropical boundary layer but drier (around 30%) in the tropical free troposphere and the extratropical troposphere. In particular, the large AIRS-MERRA hus differences are mainly located in the cloudy regions, such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) and the

  1. Crystallization of spray-dried lactose/protein mixtures in humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawqi Barham, A.; Kamrul Haque, Md.; Roos, Yrjö H.; Kieran Hodnett, B.

    2006-10-01

    An in situ crystallization technique with X-ray diffraction analysis complemented by ex situ scanning electron microscopy and chromatographic analysis of the α/( α+ β) solid-state anomeric ratios has been developed to study the crystallization of lactose/protein mixtures in humid air. This technique was used to determine changes in phase composition and morphology during crystallization. Following an induction period during which water is sorbed, crystallization is rapid and the predominant phase observed using the in situ method in spray-dried lactose/sodium-caseinate, albumin and gelatin is α-lactose monohydrate. However, in the case of spray-dried lactose/whey protein isolate (WPI) the predominant phase that appears is the α/ β mixed phase with smaller amounts of α-lactose monohydrate. With pure lactose the α/ β mixed phase appears as a transient shortly after the onset of crystallization and α-lactose monohydrate and β-lactose both appear as stable crystalline phases at longer times. Another transient phase with 2 θ=12.2°, 20.7° and 21.8° was observed in spray-dried lactose/albumin. This phase decomposed as α-lactose monohydrate developed. Three phases seem to persist in the case of spray-dried lactose/gelatin, namely the phase with peaks at 2 θ=12.2°, 20.7° and 21.8°, α-lactose monohydrate and β-lactose for the duration of the in situ experiment.

  2. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-01-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface. PMID:27445272

  3. Stress response of Escherichia coli induced by surface streamer discharge in humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doležalová, Eva; Prukner, Václav; Lukeš, Petr; Šimek, Milan

    2016-02-01

    Inactivation of Escherichia coli by means of surface streamer discharge has been investigated to obtain new insights into the key mechanisms involved, with a particular emphasis placed on the microbial response to plasma-induced stress. The surface streamer discharge was produced in coplanar dielectric barrier discharge electrode geometry, and was driven by an amplitude-modulated ac high voltage in humid synthetic air at atmospheric pressure. The response to plasma-induced stress was evaluated by using conventional cultivation, sublethal injury and resazurin assay and the LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ Bacterial Viability kit. Compared to conventional cultivation, the LIVE/DEAD® test labels bacteria with damaged membranes, while resazurin assay tracks their metabolic activity. Our results clearly demonstrate that the treated bacteria partly lost their ability to grow properly, i.e. they became injured and culturable, or even viable but nonculturable (VBNC). The ability to develop colonies could have been lost due to damage of the bacterial membrane. Damage of the membranes was mainly caused by the lipid peroxidation, evidencing the key role of oxygen reactive species, in particular ozone. We conclude that the conventional cultivation method overestimates the decontamination efficiency of various plasma sources, and must therefore be complemented by alternative techniques capable of resolving viable but nonculturable bacteria.

  4. Energy-Efficient Supermarket Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning in Humid Climates in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.

    2015-03-01

    Supermarkets are energy-intensive buildings that consume the greatest amount of electricity per square foot of building of any building type in the United States and represent 5% of total U.S. commercial building primary energy use (EIA 2005). Refrigeration and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are responsible for a large proportion of supermarkets’ total energy use. These two systems sometimes work together and sometimes compete, but the performance of one system always affects the performance of the other. To better understand these challenges and opportunities, the Commercial Buildings team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory investigated several of the most promising strategies for providing energy-efficient HVAC for supermarkets and quantified the resulting energy use and costs using detailed simulations. This research effort was conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) (Baechler et al. 2012; Parrish et al. 2013; Antonopoulos et al. 2014; Hirsch et al. 2014). The goal of CBP was to reduce energy use in the commercial building sector by creating, testing, and validating design concepts on the pathway to net zero energy commercial buildings. Several CBP partners owned or operated buildings containing supermarkets and were interested in optimizing the energy efficiency of supermarket HVAC systems in hot-humid climates. These partners included Walmart, Target, Whole Foods Market, SUPERVALU, and the Defense Commissary Agency.

  5. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-07-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface.

  6. Effect of single silica gel particle adsorption on the transport processes in a humid air stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanyal, Apratim; Basu, Saptarshi; Kumar, Pramod

    2013-11-01

    The effect of adsorption due to a single silica gel particle on a convective field consisting of humid air has been investigated numerically. The adsorption is incorporated as a sink term in the transport equation for species (water vapor) and has been modeled using Linear Driving Force model, while the heat released due to adsorption is taken as source term in the energy equation and proportional to the amount of water vapor adsorbed. The heat released creates a coupling between the species and the temperature field as the adsorption characteristics are directly influenced by particle temperature. The extent of species and temperature boundary layer show the diffusion of the adsorption effects into the free stream. Surface adsorption is found to decrease with Reynolds no. The particle surface temperature increases from forward stagnation point till downstream. This work provides a model for understanding the adsorption kinetics in convective stream for other adsorbate-adsorbent pair. Further more complex scenarios can be modeled such as presence of multiple adsorbent particles, the interaction of species and temperature boundary layers setup due to individual particles and their influence on the overall adsorption characteristics.

  7. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B S; Said, Syed A M; Al-Aqeeli, N; Matin, Asif

    2016-01-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface. PMID:27445272

  8. A comparison of humid air turbine (HAT) cycle and combined-cycle power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, A.D.; Francuz, V.J.; Shen, J.C.; West, E.W. )

    1991-03-01

    The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) cycle is a combustion turbine-based power generating cycle that provides an alternative to combined-cycle power generation. The HAT cycle differs from combined cycles in that it eliminates the steam turbine bottoming cycle by vaporizing water into the turbine's combustion air with heat obtained from the combustion turbine exhaust and other heat sources. This report presents the results of a study conducted by Fluor Daniel, Inc. for EPRI in which the HAT cycle was compared with combined-cycle plants in integration with the Texaco coal gasification process, and in natural gas-fired plants. The comparison of the coal gasification-based power plants utilizing the HAT cycle with Texaco coal gasification-based combined-cycle plants indicate that HAT cycle-based plants are less expensive and produce less environmental emissions. Whereas the combined-cycle plants require the use of expensive syngas coolers to achieve high efficiencies, the HAT cycle plants can achieve similar high efficiencies without the use of such equipment, resulting in a significant savings in capital cost and a reduction in levelized cost of electricity of up to 15%. In addition, HAT cycle plants produce very low levels of NO{sub x} emissions, possibly as little as 6 ppmv (dry, 15% O{sub 2} basis) without requiring the use of control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. In natural gas-fired plants, the HAT cycle was calculated to have as much as a 4 percentage point gain in efficiency over the combined cycle and a potential for substantial reductions in NO{sub x} emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and water consumption. 71 figs., 74 tabs.

  9. Temperature, humidity and air flow in the emplacement drifts using convection and dispersion transport models

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, G.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Bahrami, D.; Halecky, N.

    2009-10-01

    A coupled thermal-hydrologic-airflow model is developed, solving for the transport processes within a waste emplacement drift and the surrounding rockmass together at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Natural, convective air flow as well as heat and mass transport in a representative emplacement drift during post-closure are explicitly simulated, using the MULTIFLUX model. The conjugate, thermal-hydrologic transport processes in the rockmass are solved with the TOUGH2 porous-media simulator in a coupled way to the in-drift processes. The new simulation results show that large-eddy turbulent flow, as opposed to small-eddy flow, dominate the drift air space for at least 5000 years following waste emplacement. The size of the largest, longitudinal eddy is equal to half of the drift length, providing a strong axial heat and moisture transport mechanism from the hot to the cold drift sections. The in-drift results are compared to those from simplified models using a surrogate, dispersive model with an equivalent dispersion coefficient for heat and moisture transport. Results from the explicit, convective velocity simulation model provide higher axial heat and moisture fluxes than those estimated from the previously published, simpler, equivalent-dispersion models, in addition to showing differences in temperature, humidity and condensation rate distributions along the drift length. A new dispersive model is also formulated, giving a time- and location-variable function that runs generally about ten times higher in value than the highest dispersion coefficient currently used in the Yucca Mountain Project as an estimate for the equivalent dispersion coefficient in the emplacement drift. The new dispersion coefficient variation, back-calculated from the convective model, can adequately describe the heat and mass transport processes in the emplacement drift example.

  10. Comparison of absolute and relative air humidity sensors fabricated with inkjet printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selma, R.; Tarapata, G.; Marzecki, M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes design, manufacturing and testing of novelty humidity sensors manufactured in inkjet printing technology. Two types of sensors were produced - sensor for dew point hygrometer, along with heater and thermistor, and a relative humidity sensor. Both were tested and proven to be functional, with both advantages and disadvantages described further in the article.

  11. Degradation mechanism of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite materials upon exposure to humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirayama, Masaki; Kato, Masato; Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Sugita, Takeshi; Fujiseki, Takemasa; Hara, Shota; Kadowaki, Hideyuki; Murata, Daisuke; Chikamatsu, Masayuki; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    Low stability of organic-inorganic perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) solar cells in humid air environments is a serious drawback which could limit practical application of this material severely. In this study, from real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization, the degradation mechanism of ultra-smooth CH3NH3PbI3 layers prepared by a laser evaporation technique is studied. We present evidence that the CH3NH3PbI3 degradation in humid air proceeds by two competing reactions of (i) the PbI2 formation by the desorption of CH3NH3I species and (ii) the generation of a CH3NH3PbI3 hydrate phase by H2O incorporation. In particular, rapid phase change occurs in the near-surface region and the CH3NH3PbI3 layer thickness reduces rapidly in the initial 1 h air exposure even at a low relative humidity of 40%. After the prolonged air exposure, the CH3NH3PbI3 layer is converted completely to hexagonal platelet PbI2/hydrate crystals that have a distinct atomic-scale multilayer structure with a period of 0.65 ± 0.05 nm. We find that conventional x-ray diffraction and optical characterization in the visible region, used commonly in earlier works, are quite insensitive to the surface phase change. Based on results obtained in this work, we discuss the degradation mechanism of CH3NH3PbI3 in humid air.

  12. Effect of air temperature and relative humidity at various fuel-air ratios on exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis of an Avco Lycoming 0-320 DIAD light aircraft engine. Volume 2: Individual data points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempke, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions included carburetor lean-out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel-air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity. Volume II contains the data taken at each of the individual test points.

  13. Effect of Air Temperature and Relative Humidity at Various Fuel-Air Ratios on Exhaust Emissions on a Per-Mode Basis of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320 Diad Light Aircraft Engine: Volume 1: Results and Plotted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempe, E. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions include carburetor lean out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity.

  14. Rainfall variations induced by the lunar gravitational atmospheric tide and their implications for the relationship between tropical rainfall and humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohyama, Tsubasa; Wallace, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Classical tidal theory predicts that the lunar gravitational semidiurnal tide (L2) should induce perturbations in relative humidity (RH). Adiabatic expansion in divergent flow in advance of the L2 pressure minimum cools the air and reduces its saturation vapor pressure, thereby increasing the rate of condensation in saturated air parcels and causing the relative humidity (RH) of unsaturated parcels to rise. Here we detect a statistically significant L2 signature in precipitation rate (P) in a 15 year, eight times daily, global precipitation data set acquired in the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. Consistent with tidal theory and with the notion that L2 modulates P mainly by perturbing RH, P varies out of phase with pressure, and it increases at a rate of about 10% per 1% increase in RH. These measurements thus provide a measure of the sensitivity of P to planetary-scale changes in RH. Analysis of solar semidiurnal (S2) tidal statistics yields similar results.

  15. Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve K-OMS-2 as catalyst in post plasma-catalysis for trichloroethylene degradation in humid air.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Dinh, M T; Giraudon, J-M; Vandenbroucke, A M; Morent, R; De Geyter, N; Lamonier, J-F

    2016-08-15

    The total oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in air at low relative humidity (RH=10%) in the presence of CO2 (520ppmv) was investigated in function of energy density using an atmospheric pressure negative DC luminescent glow discharge combined with a cryptomelane catalyst positioned downstream of the plasma reactor at a temperature of 150°C. When using Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP) alone, it is found a low COx (x=1-2) yield in agreement with the detection of gaseous polychlorinated by-products in the outlet stream as well as ozone which is an harmful pollutant. Introduction of cryptomelane enhanced trichloroethylene removal, totally inhibited plasma ozone formation and increased significantly the COx yield. The improved performances of the hybrid system were mainly ascribed to the total destruction of plasma generated ozone on cryptomelane surface to produce active oxygen species. Consequently these active oxygen species greatly enhanced the abatement of the plasma non-reacted TCE and completely destroyed the hazardous plasma generated polychlorinated intermediates. The facile redox of Mn species associated with oxygen vacancies and mobility as well as the textural properties of the catalyst might also contribute as a whole to the efficiency of the process. PMID:27107238

  16. Humidity effect on electrochemical performance of Li-O2 batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ziyang; Dong, Xiaoli; Yuan, Shouyi; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we compare the performance of Li-O2 batteries in pure/dry O2, pure O2 with a relative humidity (RH) of 15% and ambient air with an RH of 50%, and analyze the ambient humidity effect on the reactions in the carbon-based catalytic electrode. Electrochemical investigation indicates that discharge capacities of Li-O2 batteries increased with growth of RH value, but cyclic ability and rate performance are influenced in an opposite way. Ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations suggest that ambient humidity affects not only the Li2O2/O2 conversion, LiCO3/CO2 conversion and LiOH formation but also the morphology of discharge products in porous catalytic electrode over charge/discharge cycle. These results may be important for developing Li-air battery.

  17. ENERGY COSTS OF IAQ CONTROL THROUGH INCREASED VENTILATION IN A SMALL OFFICE IN A WARM, HUMID CLIMATE: PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS USING THE DOE-2 COMPUTER MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a series of computer runs using the DOE-2.1E building energy model, simulating a small office in a hot, humid climate (Miami). These simulations assessed the energy and relative humidity (RH) penalties when the outdoor air (OA) ventilation rate is inc...

  18. Measuring Relative Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkham, Chester A.; Barrett, Kristin Burrows

    1992-01-01

    Describes four experiments that enable students to explore the phenomena of evaporation and condensation and determine the relative humidity by measuring air temperature and dew point on warm September days. Provides tables to calculate saturation points and relative humidity. (MDH)

  19. The effect of increased air humidity on fine root and rhizome biomass and turnover of silver birch forest ecosystem - a FAHM study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostonen, I.; Kupper, P.; Sõber, J.; Aosaar, J.; Varik, M.; Lõhmus, K.

    2012-04-01

    A facility for free air humidity manipulation (FAHM) was established to investigate the effect of increased air humidity on belowground biomass and turnover in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) forest ecosystems with respect to rising air humidity predicted for Northern Europe. Fine root and rhizomes are short-lived and recognized as the most important component contributing to below-ground C fluxes in forests. The FAHM system enables air relative humidity to be increased on average 7 units (%) over the ambient level during mist fumigation. The experimental site contains humidified (H) and control (C) plots; each plot contains sectors with diverse "forest" understory and early successional grasses. The trees were planted in 2006, humidification started in spring 2008, and soil cores to study fine root and rhizome biomass and turnover were taken in 2007, 2009 and 2010. In July 2009, total fine root and rhizome biomass was 8 tons per ha in C and 16 tons per ha in H plots. The roots of understory formed 86% in C and 93% H plots, respectively. Our preliminary data suggest that the increased humidity affected more the roots of understory plants: fine root and rhizome biomass and production increased approximately twice by increasing air humidity. However, the tendency was similar for fine root biomass and production of silver birch. Fine root turnover speeded up for both silver birch and understory roots in H plots. Hence, changes in air humidity can significantly affect forest carbon cycling.

  20. Effect of low air velocities on thermal homeostasis and comfort during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beumer, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness of different low air velocities in maintaining thermal comfort and homeostasis during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity was investigated. Five male subjects exercised on a treadmill for successive ten minute periods at 60, 71, and 83 percent of maximum oxygen consumption at each of four air velocities, 30, 50, 80, and 120 ft/min, at 22 C and 62 percent relative humidity. No consistent trends or statistically significant differences between air velocities were found in body weight loss, sweat accumulation, or changes in rectal, skin, and body temperatures. Occurrence of the smallest body weight loss at 120 ft/min, the largest sweat accumulation at 30 ft/min, and the smallest rise in rectal temperature and the greatest drop in skin temperature at 120 ft/min all suggested more efficient evaporative cooling at the highest velocity. Heat storage at all velocities was evidenced by increased rectal and body temperatures; skin temperatures declined or increased only slightly. Body and rectal temperature increases corresponded with increased perception of warmth and slight thermal discomfort as exercise progressed. At all air velocities, mean thermal perception never exceeded warm and mean discomfort, greatest at 30 ft/min, was categorized at worst as uncomfortable; sensation of thermal neutrality and comfort returned rapidly after cessation of exercise. Suggestions for further elucidation of the effects of low air velocities on thermal comfort and homeostasis include larger numbers of subjects, more extensive skin temperature measurements and more rigorous analysis of the data from this study.

  1. Increased Air Velocity Reduces Thermal and Cardiovascular Strain in Young and Older Males during Humid Exertional Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Wright Beatty, Heather E; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Boulay, Pierre; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have been reported to have a lower evaporative heat loss capacity than younger adults during exercise when full sweat evaporation is permitted. However, it is unclear how conditions of restricted evaporative and convective heat loss (i.e., high humidity, clothing insulation) alter heat stress. to the purpose of this study was to examine the heat stress responses of young and older males during and following exercise in a warm/humid environment under two different levels of air velocity. Ten young (YOUNG: 24±2 yr) and 10 older (OLDER: 59±3 yr) males, matched for body surface area performed 4×15-min cycling bouts (15-min rest) at a fixed rate of heat production (400 W) in warm/humid conditions (35°C, 60% relative humidity) under 0.5 (Low) and 3.0 (High) m·s(-1) air velocity while wearing work coveralls. Rectal (Tre) and mean skin (MTsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), local sweat rate, % max skin blood flow (SkBF) (recovery only), and blood pressure (recovery only) were measured. High air velocity reduced core and skin temperatures (p < 0.05) equally in YOUNG and OLDER males (p > 0.05) but was more effective in reducing cardiovascular strain (absolute and % max HR; p < 0.05) in YOUNG males (p < 0.05). Greater increases in local dry heat loss responses (% max SkBF and cutaneous vascular conductance) were detected across time in OLDER than YOUNG males in both conditions (p < 0.05). Local dry heat loss responses and cardiovascular strain were attenuated during the High condition in YOUNG compared to OLDER (p < 0.05). High air velocity reduced the number of males surpassing the 38.0°C Tre threshold from 90% (Low) to 50% (High). Despite age-related local heat loss differences, YOUNG and OLDER males had similar levels of heat stress during intermittent exercise in warm and humid conditions while wearing work coveralls. Increased air velocity was effective in reducing heat stress equally, and cardiovascular strain to a greater extent, in YOUNG and OLDER

  2. Predicting Indian Summer Monsoon onset through variations of surface air temperature and relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolbova, Veronika; Surovyatkina, Elena; Kurths, Jurgen

    2015-04-01

    Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall has an enormous effect on Indian agriculture, economy, and, as a consequence, life and prosperity of more than one billion people. Variability of the monsoonal rainfall and its onset have a huge influence on food production, agricultural planning and GDP of the country, which on 22% is determined by agriculture. Consequently, successful forecasting of the ISM onset is a big challenge and large efforts are being put into it. Here, we propose a novel approach for predictability of the ISM onset, based on critical transition theory. The ISM onset is defined as an abrupt transition from sporadious rainfall to spatially organized and temporally sustained rainfall. Taking this into account, we consider the ISM onset as is a critical transition from pre-monsoon to monsoon, which take place in time and also in space. It allows us to suggest that before the onset of ISM on the Indian subcontinent should be areas of critical behavior where indicators of the critical transitions can be detected through an analysis of observational data. First, we identify areas with such critical behavior. Second, we use detected areas as reference points for observation locations for the ISM onset prediction. Third, we derive a precursor for the ISM onset based on the analysis of surface air temperature and relative humidity variations in these reference points. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of this precursor on two observational data sets. The proposed approach allows to determine ISM onset in advance in 67% of all considered years. Our proposed approach is less effective during the anomalous years, which are associated with weak/strong monsoons, e.g. El-Nino, La-Nina or positive Indian Ocean Dipole events. The ISM onset is predicted for 23 out of 27 normal monsoon years (85%) during the past 6 decades. In the anomalous years, we show that time series analysis in both areas during the pre-monsoon period reveals indicators whether the

  3. Effect of inlet-air humidity, temperature, pressure, and reference Mach number on the formation of oxides of nitrogen in a gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of inlet air humidity on the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from a gas turbine combustor. Combustor inlet air temperature ranged from 506 K (450 F) to 838 K (1050 F). The tests were primarily run at a constant pressure of 6 atmospheres and reference Mach number of 0.065. The NOx emission index was found to decrease with increasing inlet air humidity at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx0e-19H (where H is the humidity and the subscript 0 denotes the value at zero humidity). the emission index increased exponentially with increasing normalized inlet air temperature to the 1.14 power. Additional tests made to determine the effect of pressure and reference Mach number on NOx showed that the NOx emission index varies directly with pressure to the 0.5 power and inversely with reference Mach number.

  4. Thermal comfort in air-conditioned buildings in hot and humid climates--why are we not getting it right?

    PubMed

    Sekhar, S C

    2016-02-01

    While there are plenty of anecdotal experiences of overcooled buildings in summer, evidence from field studies suggests that there is indeed an issue of overcooling in tropical buildings. The findings suggest that overcooled buildings are not a consequence of occupant preference but more like an outcome of the HVAC system design and operation. Occupants' adaptation in overcooled indoor environments through additional clothing cannot be regarded as an effective mitigating strategy for cold thermal discomfort. In the last two decades or so, several field studies and field environmental chamber studies in the tropics provided evidence for occupants' preference for a warmer temperature with adaptation methods such as elevated air speeds. It is important to bear in mind that indoor humidity levels are not compromised as they could have an impact on the inhaled air condition that could eventually affect perceived air quality. This review article has attempted to track significant developments in our understanding of the thermal comfort issues in air-conditioned office and educational buildings in hot and humid climates in the last 25 years, primarily on occupant preference for thermal comfort in such climates. The issue of overcooled buildings, by design intent or otherwise, is discussed in some detail. Finally, the article has explored some viable adaptive thermal comfort options that show considerable promise for not only improving thermal comfort in tropical buildings but are also energy efficient and could be seen as sustainable solutions. PMID:25626476

  5. Induced Air Movement for Wide-Span Schools in Humid Asia. Educational Building Digest 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Schools in the hot and humid zones of the Asian region are narrow to ensure good ventilation. The purpose of this report is to show that it is possible, through appropriate design, to obtain sufficient breeze for thermal comfort in buildings as wide as 15 meters. Some of the conclusions of a study of the subject are summarized. The summary is…

  6. Membrane Dehumidifier: High-Efficiency, On-Line Membrane Air Dehumidifier Enabling Sensible Cooling for Warm and Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: ADMA Products is developing a foil-like membrane for air conditioners that efficiently removes moisture from humid air. ADMA Products’s metal foil-like membrane consists of a paper thin, porous metal sheet coated with a layer of water-loving molecules. This new membrane allows water vapor to permeate across the membrane at high fluxes and at the same time, blocks air penetration efficiently resulting in high selectivity. The high selectivity of the membrane translates to less energy use, while the high permeation fluxes result in a more compact device. The new materials and the flat foil-like nature of the membrane facilitate the mass production of a low-coast compact dehumidification device

  7. Determination of benzene, toluene and xylene concentration in humid air using differential ion mobility spectrometry and partial least squares regression.

    PubMed

    Maziejuk, M; Szczurek, A; Maciejewska, M; Pietrucha, T; Szyposzyńska, M

    2016-05-15

    Benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX compounds) are chemicals of greatest concern due to their impact on humans and the environment. In many cases, quantitative information about each of these compounds is required. Continuous, fast-response analysis, performed on site would be desired for this purpose. Several methods have been developed to detect and quantify these compounds in this way. Methods vary considerably in sensitivity, accuracy, ease of use and cost-effectiveness. The aim of this work is to show that differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) may be applied for determining concentration of BTX compounds in humid air. We demonstrate, this goal is achievable by applying multivariate analysis of the measurement data using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The approach was tested at low concentrations of these compounds in the range of 5-20ppm and for air humidity in a range 0-12g/kg. These conditions correspond to the foreseeable application of the developed approach in occupational health and safety measurements. The average concentration assessment error was about 1ppm for each: benzene, toluene and xylene. We also successfully determined water vapor content in air. The error achieved was 0.2g/kg. The obtained results are very promising regarding further development of DMS technique as well as its application. PMID:26992504

  8. Within-Crop Air Temperature and Humidity Outcomes on Spatio-Temporal Distribution of the Key Rose Pest Frankliniella occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Fatnassi, Hicham; Pizzol, Jeannine; Senoussi, Rachid; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Poncet, Christine; Boulard, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is a key pest of various crops worldwide. In this study, we analyse the dependence of the infestation of this pest on spatially distributed micro climatic factors in a rose greenhouse. Despite the importance of this subject, the few existing studies have been realized in laboratory rather than in greenhouse conditions. However, recent progress on greenhouse microclimate characterisation has highlighted the strong indoor climate heterogeneity that may influence the within-crop pest distribution. In this study, both microclimate (air temperature and humidity) and thrips distribution were simultaneously mapped in a rose greenhouse. The measurements were sensed in a horizontal plane situated at mid-height of the rose crop inside the greenhouse. Simultaneously, thrips population dynamics were assessed after an artificial and homogeneous infestation of the rose crop. The spatio-temporal distribution of climate and thrips within the greenhouse were compared, and links between thrips infestation and climatic conditions were investigated. A statistical model was used to define the favourable climate conditions for thrips adults and larvae. Our results showed that (i) the air temperature and air humidity were very heterogeneously distributed within the crop, (ii) pest populations aggregated in the most favourable climatic areas and (iii) the highest population density of thrips adults and larvae were recorded at 27°C and 22°C for temperature and 63% and 86% for humidity, respectively. These findings confirm, in real rose cropping conditions, previous laboratory studies on the F. occidentalis climatic optimum and provide a solid scientific support for climatic-based control methods against this pest. PMID:26011275

  9. Within-Crop Air Temperature and Humidity Outcomes on Spatio-Temporal Distribution of the Key Rose Pest Frankliniella occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Fatnassi, Hicham; Pizzol, Jeannine; Senoussi, Rachid; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Poncet, Christine; Boulard, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is a key pest of various crops worldwide. In this study, we analyse the dependence of the infestation of this pest on spatially distributed micro climatic factors in a rose greenhouse. Despite the importance of this subject, the few existing studies have been realized in laboratory rather than in greenhouse conditions. However, recent progress on greenhouse microclimate characterisation has highlighted the strong indoor climate heterogeneity that may influence the within-crop pest distribution. In this study, both microclimate (air temperature and humidity) and thrips distribution were simultaneously mapped in a rose greenhouse. The measurements were sensed in a horizontal plane situated at mid-height of the rose crop inside the greenhouse. Simultaneously, thrips population dynamics were assessed after an artificial and homogeneous infestation of the rose crop. The spatio-temporal distribution of climate and thrips within the greenhouse were compared, and links between thrips infestation and climatic conditions were investigated. A statistical model was used to define the favourable climate conditions for thrips adults and larvae. Our results showed that (i) the air temperature and air humidity were very heterogeneously distributed within the crop, (ii) pest populations aggregated in the most favourable climatic areas and (iii) the highest population density of thrips adults and larvae were recorded at 27°C and 22°C for temperature and 63% and 86% for humidity, respectively. These findings confirm, in real rose cropping conditions, previous laboratory studies on the F. occidentalis climatic optimum and provide a solid scientific support for climatic-based control methods against this pest. PMID:26011275

  10. Laboratory study of SO2 dry deposition on limestone and marble: Effects of humidity and surface variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spiker, E. C.; Hosker, R.P., Jr.; Weintraub, V.C.; Sherwood, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    The dry deposition of gaseous air pollutants on stone and other materials is influenced by atmospheric processes and the chemical characteristics of the deposited gas species and of the specific receptor material. Previous studies have shown that relative humidity, surface moisture, and acid buffering capability of the receptor surface are very important factors. To better quantify this behavior, a special recirculating wind tunnel/environmental chamber was constructed, in which wind speed, turbulence, air temperature, relative humidity, and concentrations of several pollutants (SO2, O3, nitrogen oxides) can be held constant. An airfoil sample holder holds up to eight stone samples (3.8 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick) in nearly identical exposure conditions. SO2 deposition on limestone was found to increase exponentially with increasing relative humidity (RH). Marble behaves similarly, but with a much lower deposition rate. Trends indicate there is little deposition below 20% RH on clean limestone and below 60% RH on clean marble. This large difference is due to the limestone's greater porosity, surface roughness, and effective surface area. These results indicate surface variables generally limit SO2 deposition below about 70% RH on limestone and below at least 95% RH on marble. Aerodynamic variables generally limit deposition at higher relative humidity or when the surface is wet.The dry deposition of gaseous air pollutants on stone and other materials is influenced by atmospheric processes and the chemical characteristics of the deposited gas species and of the specific receptor material. Previous studies have shown that relative humidity, surface moisture, and acid buffering capability of the receptor surface are very important factors. To better quantify this behavior, a special recirculating wind tunnel/environmental chamber was constructed, in which wind speed, turbulence, air temperature, relative humidity, and concentrations of several pollutants (SO2, O3

  11. Unexpected luminescent and quenching properties of metalloporphyrins in Langmuir-Blodgett structures: application to relative air-humidity sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papkovsky, Dmitry B.; Ponomarev, Gely V.; Chernov, Sergey F.; Kurochkin, Ilya N.

    1993-05-01

    Monomolecular thin solid films containing water-soluble Pt- and Pd-porphyrins were prepared and transferred onto solid supports. Surface active charged polymer on the basis of alkylated polyethyleneimine was used to improve extraction of the dye from aqueous solution to the interface. The solid-state materials obtained which showed intense long-decay luminescence were studied by optical methods with emphasis to luminescence quenching and lifetime measurements. The results were applied to quenched-luminescence lifetime-based sensing of relative air humidity. A corresponding fiber-optic prototype device was developed.

  12. Correlation formulas for the frost thickness and heat transfer coefficient on a cylinder in humid air cross flow

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.; Sherif, S.A.; Wong, K.V.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports on results of an experimental investigation where the emphasis was placed on obtaining empirical correlations for the frost thickness-time history and the heat transfer coefficient-time history for a cylinder in humid air cross flow. The facility employed for the investigation consisted of a low velocity wind tunnel comprised of a rectangular test section, a transition section and a honeycomb placed at the tunnel entrance. An external refrigerator was used to cool an antifreeze solution having a mixture of 90% methanol and 10% ethylene glycol. Measured parameters included, among other things, the heat transfer coefficient as well as the frost thickness.

  13. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall on annual survival of adult little penguins Eudyptula minor in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Ganendran, L B; Sidhu, L A; Catchpole, E A; Chambers, L E; Dann, P

    2016-08-01

    Seabirds are subject to the influences of local climate variables during periods of land-based activities such as breeding and, for some species, moult; particularly if they undergo a catastrophic moult (complete simultaneous moult) as do penguins. We investigated potential relationships between adult penguin survival and land-based climate variables (ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall) using 46 years of mark-recapture data of little penguins Eudyptula minor gathered at a breeding colony on Phillip Island in southeastern Australia. Our results showed that adult penguin survival had a stronger association with land-based climate variables during the moult period, when birds were unable to go to sea for up to 3 weeks, than during the breeding period, when birds could sacrifice breeding success in favour of survival. Annual adult survival probability was positively associated with humidity during moult and negatively associated with rainfall during moult. Prolonged heat during breeding and moult had a negative association with annual adult survival. Local climate projections suggest increasing days of high temperatures, fewer days of rainfall which will result in more droughts (and by implication, lower humidity) and more extreme rainfall events. All of these predicted climate changes are expected to have a negative impact on adult penguin survival. PMID:26698160

  14. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall on annual survival of adult little penguins Eudyptula minor in southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganendran, L. B.; Sidhu, L. A.; Catchpole, E. A.; Chambers, L. E.; Dann, P.

    2015-12-01

    Seabirds are subject to the influences of local climate variables during periods of land-based activities such as breeding and, for some species, moult; particularly if they undergo a catastrophic moult (complete simultaneous moult) as do penguins. We investigated potential relationships between adult penguin survival and land-based climate variables (ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall) using 46 years of mark-recapture data of little penguins Eudyptula minor gathered at a breeding colony on Phillip Island in southeastern Australia. Our results showed that adult penguin survival had a stronger association with land-based climate variables during the moult period, when birds were unable to go to sea for up to 3 weeks, than during the breeding period, when birds could sacrifice breeding success in favour of survival. Annual adult survival probability was positively associated with humidity during moult and negatively associated with rainfall during moult. Prolonged heat during breeding and moult had a negative association with annual adult survival. Local climate projections suggest increasing days of high temperatures, fewer days of rainfall which will result in more droughts (and by implication, lower humidity) and more extreme rainfall events. All of these predicted climate changes are expected to have a negative impact on adult penguin survival.

  15. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall on annual survival of adult little penguins Eudyptula minor in southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganendran, L. B.; Sidhu, L. A.; Catchpole, E. A.; Chambers, L. E.; Dann, P.

    2016-08-01

    Seabirds are subject to the influences of local climate variables during periods of land-based activities such as breeding and, for some species, moult; particularly if they undergo a catastrophic moult (complete simultaneous moult) as do penguins. We investigated potential relationships between adult penguin survival and land-based climate variables (ambient air temperature, humidity and rainfall) using 46 years of mark-recapture data of little penguins Eudyptula minor gathered at a breeding colony on Phillip Island in southeastern Australia. Our results showed that adult penguin survival had a stronger association with land-based climate variables during the moult period, when birds were unable to go to sea for up to 3 weeks, than during the breeding period, when birds could sacrifice breeding success in favour of survival. Annual adult survival probability was positively associated with humidity during moult and negatively associated with rainfall during moult. Prolonged heat during breeding and moult had a negative association with annual adult survival. Local climate projections suggest increasing days of high temperatures, fewer days of rainfall which will result in more droughts (and by implication, lower humidity) and more extreme rainfall events. All of these predicted climate changes are expected to have a negative impact on adult penguin survival.

  16. Quantitative Ethylene Measurements with MOx Chemiresistive Sensors at Different Relative Air Humidities

    PubMed Central

    Krivec, Matic; Mc Gunnigle, Gerald; Abram, Anže; Maier, Dieter; Waldner, Roland; Gostner, Johanna M.; Überall, Florian; Leitner, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of two commercial metal oxide (MOx) sensors to ethylene is tested at different relative humidities. One sensor (MiCS-5914) is based on tungsten oxide, the other (MQ-3) on tin oxide. Both sensors were found to be sensitive to ethylene concentrations down to 10 ppm. Both sensors have significant response times; however, the tungsten sensor is the faster one. Sensor models are developed that predict the concentration of ethylene given the sensor output and the relative humidity. The MQ-3 sensor model achieves an accuracy of ±9.2 ppm and the MiCS-5914 sensor model predicts concentration to ±7.0 ppm. Both sensors are more accurate for concentrations below 50 ppm, achieving ±6.7 ppm (MQ-3) and 5.7 ppm (MiCS-5914). PMID:26561812

  17. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    Building Science Corporation (BSC) worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to develop a cost-effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. This research project addressed the following questions: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost?

  18. Quantitative Ethylene Measurements with MOx Chemiresistive Sensors at Different Relative Air Humidities.

    PubMed

    Krivec, Matic; Mc Gunnigle, Gerald; Abram, Anže; Maier, Dieter; Waldner, Roland; Gostner, Johanna M; Überall, Florian; Leitner, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of two commercial metal oxide (MOx) sensors to ethylene is tested at different relative humidities. One sensor (MiCS-5914) is based on tungsten oxide, the other (MQ-3) on tin oxide. Both sensors were found to be sensitive to ethylene concentrations down to 10 ppm. Both sensors have significant response times; however, the tungsten sensor is the faster one. Sensor models are developed that predict the concentration of ethylene given the sensor output and the relative humidity. The MQ-3 sensor model achieves an accuracy of ±9.2 ppm and the MiCS-5914 sensor model predicts concentration to ±7.0 ppm. Both sensors are more accurate for concentrations below 50 ppm, achieving ±6.7 ppm (MQ-3) and 5.7 ppm (MiCS-5914). PMID:26561812

  19. Imaging of Biological Macromolecules on Mica in Humid Air by Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Fu-Ren F.; Bard, Allen J.

    1999-12-01

    Imaging of DNA, keyhole limpet hemocyanin, mouse monoclonal IgG, and glucose oxidase on a mica substrate has been accomplished by scanning electrochemical microscopy with a tungsten tip. The technique requires the use of a high relative humidity to form a thin film of water on the mica surface that allows electrochemical reactions to take place at the tip and produce a faradaic current (≈ 1\\ pA) that can be used to control tip position. The effect of relative humidity and surface pretreatment with buffer solutions on the ionic conductivity of a mica surface was investigated to find appropriate conditions for imaging. Resolution of the order of 1 nm was obtained.

  20. Imaging of biological macromolecules on mica in humid air by scanning electrochemical microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fu-Ren F.; Bard, Allen J.

    1999-01-01

    Imaging of DNA, keyhole limpet hemocyanin, mouse monoclonal IgG, and glucose oxidase on a mica substrate has been accomplished by scanning electrochemical microscopy with a tungsten tip. The technique requires the use of a high relative humidity to form a thin film of water on the mica surface that allows electrochemical reactions to take place at the tip and produce a faradaic current (≈1 pA) that can be used to control tip position. The effect of relative humidity and surface pretreatment with buffer solutions on the ionic conductivity of a mica surface was investigated to find appropriate conditions for imaging. Resolution of the order of 1 nm was obtained. PMID:10588687

  1. Investigating In-cloud Relative Humidity and Thin Cirrus in the Upper Tropical Atmosphere Using AIRS, CALIPSO, and MLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C. K.; Kahn, B. H.; Eldering, A.; Fetzer, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    We investigate vertical and horizontal distributions of tropical oceanic thin cirrus optical and microphysical properties observed by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). These properties are related to thermodynamic quantities, i.e., relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi), and cloud top temperature derived from the AIRS Level 2 operational soundings. Differences between all sky and in-cloud RHi are explored and possible mechanisms that explain these anomalies are discussed. Furthermore, we evaluate the hypothesis that many of the observed clouds are physically much thinner than the nominal resolution of AIRS, which may lead to dry biases of in-cloud RHi. To test this we exploit the co-located AIRS RHi and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) cloud thickness. Finally, we diagnose the ability of AIRS to measure water vapor in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) using co- located observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). From this, a combined AIRS-MLS RHi product is used to investigate joint distributions of cirrus microphysical and optical properties, and RHi in the TTL.

  2. Interconversion of chromium species during air sampling: effects of O3, NO2, SO2, particle matrices, temperature, and humidity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihui; Fan, Zhihua Tina; Yu, Chang Ho; Hopke, Philip K; Lioy, Paul J; Buckley, Brian T; Lin, Lin; Ma, Yingjun

    2013-05-01

    The interconversion between Cr(VI), a pulmonary carcinogen, and Cr(III), an essential human nutrient, poses challenges to the measurement of Cr(VI) in airborne particles. Chamber and field tests were conducted to identify the factors affecting Cr(VI)-Cr(III) interconversion in the basic filter medium under typical sampling conditions. In the chamber tests, isotopically enriched (53)Cr(VI) and (50)Cr(III) were spiked on diesel particulate matter (DPM) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that were precollected on a basic MCE filter. The filter samples were then exposed to clean air or the air containing SO2 (50 and 160 ppb), 100 ppb O3, or 150 ppb NO2 for 24 h at 16.7 LPM flow rate at designated temperature (20 and 31 °C) and RH (40% and 70%) conditions. Exposure to 160 ppb SO2 had the greatest effect on (53)Cr(VI) reduction, with (53)Cr(VI) recovery of 31.7 ± 15.8% (DPM) and 42.0 ± 7.9% (SOA). DPM and SOA matrix induced (53)Cr(VI) reduction when exposed to clean air while reactive oxygen species in SOA could promote (50)Cr(III) oxidation. Deliquescence when RH increased from 40% to 70% led to conversion of Cr(III) in SOA, whereas oxidized organics in DPM and SOA enhanced hygroscopicity and thus facilitated Cr(VI) reduction. Field tests showed seasonal variation of Cr(VI)-Cr(III) interconversion during sampling. Correction of the interconversion using USEPA method 6800 is recommended to improve accuracy of ambient Cr(VI) measurements. PMID:23550818

  3. Apparatus for supplying conditioned air at a substantially constant temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The apparatus includes a supply duct coupled to a source of supply air for carrying the supply air therethrough. A return duct is coupled to the supply duct for carrying return conditioned air therethrough. A temperature reducing device is coupled to the supply duct for decreasing the temperature of the supply and return conditioned air. A by-pass duct is coupled to the supply duct for selectively directing portions of the supply and return conditioned air around the temperature reducing device. Another by-pass duct is coupled to the return duct for selectively directing portions of the return conditioned air around the supply duct and the temperature reduction device. Controller devices selectively control the flow and amount of mixing of the supply and return conditioned air.

  4. Raman diagnostic of the reactivity between ZnSO4 and CaCO3 particles in humid air relevant to heterogeneous zinc chemistry in atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgayrac, Guillaume; Sobanska, Sophie; Brémard, Claude

    2014-03-01

    Laboratory experiments using Raman imaging demonstrated the behaviour of ZnSO4·7H2O (goslarite) microparticles in contact with a {101bar4} CaCO3 (calcite) surface under three different experimental conditions representative of remote atmosphere. Contact between the ZnSO4·7H2O particles and the CaCO3 surface in humid air (RH ∼40-80%) did not induce any deliquescence and chemical phenomena. In contrast, condensation of a water drop at the ZnSO4·7H2O-CaCO3 interface caused free dissolution of the ZnSO4·7H2O particle and rapid precipitation of Zn4SO4(OH)6 onto the CaCO3 surface. This coating inhibited the surface reaction and subsequent drying resulted in the deposition of residual ZnSO4·7H2O, then ZnSO4·H2O (gunningite) and CaSO4·2H2O (gypsum) superimposed onto the Zn4SO4(OH)6 layer. The deposition of ZnSO4·7H2O particles in a water drop, previously in contact with a CaCO3 particle for a long time, resulted in the coprecipitation of Zn4SO4(OH)6 and Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 (hydrozincite). Subsequent drying caused the deposition of residual ZnSO4·7H2O, ZnSO4·H2O and CaSO4·2H2O as small particles. These results indicated the possible fates of ZnSO4 particles in a humid atmosphere, when externally mixed with CaCO3 mineral dust after atmospheric events such as aggregation, water condensation and evaporation. This study indicated the fundamental role of water that typically existed on the surface of aerosol particles in the troposphere. These heterogeneous chemical processes have substantial consequences on particle size and solubility, and thus on bioavailability and toxicity of metal-rich particles.

  5. Cost benefit analysis and energy savings of using compression and absorption chillers for air conditioners in hot and humid climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekarchian, M.; Moghavvemi, M.; Motasemi, F.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2012-06-01

    The electricity consumption growth has increased steadily in the recent decade which is a great concern for the environment. Increasing the number of high-rise air-conditioned buildings and the rapid use of electrical appliances in residential and commercial sectors are two important factors for high electricity consumption. This paper investigates the annual energy required for cooling per unit area and the total energy cost per unit area for each type of air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates. The effects of changing the coefficient of performance (COP) of absorption chillers on cost saving was also investigated in this study. The results showed that using absorption chillers for cooling will increase the amount of energy consumption per unit area; however the energy cost per unit area will decrease. In addition this research indicates that for each 0.1 increment in COP of absorption chillers, there is about 500 USD/m2 saved cost.

  6. An integrated evaluation of thirteen modelling solutions for the generation of hourly values of air relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bregaglio, Simone; Donatelli, Marcello; Confalonieri, Roberto; Acutis, Marco; Orlandini, Simone

    2010-11-01

    The availability of hourly air relative humidity (HARH) data is a key requirement for the estimation of epidemic dynamics of plant fungal pathogens, in particular for the simulation of both the germination of the spores and the infection process. Most of the existing epidemic forecasting models require these data as input directly or indirectly, in the latter case for the estimation of leaf wetness duration. In many cases, HARH must be generated because it is not available in historical series and when there is the need to simulate epidemics either on a wide scale or with different climate scenarios. Thirteen modelling solutions (MS) for the generation of this variable were evaluated, with different input requirements and alternative approaches, on a large dataset including several sites and years. A composite indicator was developed using fuzzy logic to compare and to evaluate the performances of the models. The indicator consists of four modules: Accuracy, Correlation, Pattern and Robustness. Results showed that when available, daily maximum and minimum air relative humidity data substantially improved the estimation of HARH. When such data are not available, the choice of the MS is crucial, given the difference in predicting skills obtained during the analysis, which allowed a clear detection of the best performing MS. This study represents the first step of the creation of a robust modelling chain coupling the MS for the generation of HARH and disease forecasting models, including the systematic validation of each step of the simulation.

  7. [Impact of canopy structural characteristics on inner air temperature and relative humidity of Koelreuteria paniculata community in summer].

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhong; Li, Zhan-dong; Cheng, Fang-yun; Sha, Hai-feng

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the diurnal variation of the correlations between the cooling and humidifying effects and canopy structural characteristics of the Koelreuteria paniculata community, the measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, canopy density, leaf area index (LAI) and mean leaf angle (MLA) were performed on calm sunny summer days in the community in Beijing Olympic Forest Park, China. There were significant correlations between the canopy density, LAI and MLA, which affected the cooling and humidifying effects together. The cooling effect reached its maximum by 12:00, whereas the humidifying effect reached its peak at 10:00. Compared with the control open space site, the community appeared to lower the air temperature by 0.43 to 7.53 °C and to increase the relative humidity by 1%-22% during the daytime. However, the cooling and humidifying effects seem to be not effective during the night. The canopy density and LAI were better for determining the cooling and humidifying effects from 9:00 to 12:00. However, these effects were largely controlled only by the canopy density from 12:00 to 14:00 and were significantly correlated with the canopy density and LAI afterwards until 18:00. PMID:26572013

  8. [Effect of air humidity on traditional Chinese medicine extract of spray drying process and prediction of its powder stability].

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Xie, Yin; Zheng, Long-jin; Liu, Wei; Rao, Xiao-yong; Luo, Xiao-jian

    2015-02-01

    In order to solve the adhesion and the softening problems of traditional Chinese medicine extract during spray drying, a new method of adding dehumidified air into spray drying process was proposed, and the storage stability conditions of extract powder could be predicted. Kouyanqing extract was taken as model drug to investigate on the wet air (RH = 70%) and dry air conditions of spray drying. Under the dry air condition, the influence of the spray drying result with different air compression ratio and the spray-dried powder properties (extract powder recovery rate, adhesion percentage, water content, angle of repose, compression ratio, particle size and distribution) with 100, 110, 120, 130, 140 °C inlet temperature were studied. The hygroscopic investigation and Tg value with different moisture content of ideal powder were determined. The water activity-equilibrium moisture content (aw-EMC) and the equilibrium moisture content-Tg (EMC-Tg) relationships were fitted by GAB equation and Gordon-Taylor model respectively, and the state diagram of kouyanqing powder was obtained to guide the rational storage conditions. The study found that in the condition of dry air, the extract powder water content decreased with the increase of air compression ratio and the spray drying effect with air compression ratio of 100% was the best performance; in the condition of wet air, the extract powder with high water content and low yield, and the value were 4.26% and 16.73 °C, while, in the dry air condition the values were 2.43% and 24.86 °C with the same other instru- ment parameters. From the analysis of kouyanqing powder state diagram, in order to keep the stability, the critical water content of 3.42% and the critical water content of 0.188. As the water decreased Tg value of extract powder is the major problem of causing adhesion and softening during spray drying, it is meaningful to aid dehumidified air during the process. PMID:26084164

  9. Resistive graphene humidity sensors with rapid and direct electrical readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anderson D.; Elgammal, Karim; Niklaus, Frank; Delin, Anna; Fischer, Andreas C.; Vaziri, Sam; Forsberg, Fredrik; Råsander, Mikael; Hugosson, Håkan; Bergqvist, Lars; Schröder, Stephan; Kataria, Satender; Östling, Mikael; Lemme, Max C.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate humidity sensing using a change of the electrical resistance of single-layer chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene that is placed on top of a SiO2 layer on a Si wafer. To investigate the selectivity of the sensor towards the most common constituents in air, its signal response was characterized individually for water vapor (H2O), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar). In order to assess the humidity sensing effect for a range from 1% relative humidity (RH) to 96% RH, the devices were characterized both in a vacuum chamber and in a humidity chamber at atmospheric pressure. The measured response and recovery times of the graphene humidity sensors are on the order of several hundred milliseconds. Density functional theory simulations are employed to further investigate the sensitivity of the graphene devices towards water vapor. The interaction between the electrostatic dipole moment of the water and the impurity bands in the SiO2 substrate leads to electrostatic doping of the graphene layer. The proposed graphene sensor provides rapid response direct electrical readout and is compatible with back end of the line (BEOL) integration on top of CMOS-based integrated circuits.We demonstrate humidity sensing using a change of the electrical resistance of single-layer chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene that is placed on top of a SiO2 layer on a Si wafer. To investigate the selectivity of the sensor towards the most common constituents in air, its signal response was characterized individually for water vapor (H2O), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar). In order to assess the humidity sensing effect for a range from 1% relative humidity (RH) to 96% RH, the devices were characterized both in a vacuum chamber and in a humidity chamber at atmospheric pressure. The measured response and recovery times of the graphene humidity sensors are on the order of several hundred milliseconds. Density functional theory simulations are employed to further

  10. Effects of Humidity Swings on Adsorption Columns for Air Revitalization: Modeling and Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVan, M. Douglas; Finn, John E.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this research was to develop a dynamic model which can predict the effect of humidity swings on activated carbon adsorption beds used to remove trace contaminants from the atmosphere in spacecraft. Specifically, the model was to be incorporated into a computer simulation to predict contaminant concentrations exiting the bed as a function of time after a humidity swing occurs. Predicted breakthrough curves were to be compared to experimentally measured results. In all respects the research was successful. The two major aspects of this research were the mathematical model and the experiments. Experiments were conducted by Mr. Appel using a fixed-bed apparatus at NASA-Ames Research Center during the summers of 1994 and 1995 and during the first 8 months of 1996. Mr. Appel conducted most of his mathematical modeling work at the University of Virginia. The simulation code was used to predict breakthrough curves using adsorption equilibrium correlations developed previously by M. D. LeVan's research group at the University of Virginia. These predictions were compared with the experimental measurements, and this led to improvements in both the simulation code and the apparatus.

  11. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  12. Survival of bacterial and mold spores in air filter media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maus, R.; Goppelsröder, A.; Umhauer, H.

    The present study deals with the survival of bacterial and mold spores ( B. subtilis, A. niger) in new and used air filter media. In an filtration test unit samples of different filter media were challenged with specific microbial aerosols and the viability or survival of the microorganisms collected in the filter media was studied. No notable decline or increase in the viability of B. subtilis in new or used filter samples was observed within 5 days. No differences were observed when filter media were either continuously exposed to air flow or stored under static conditions. No influence of relative humidity (RH=30-85%) on the viability of B. subtilis spores was detected as well. Under ideal humidity conditions (RH>98%) no bacterial growth occurred within all the investigated filter media which is due to the lack of nutrients. Similar results were obtained when employing A. niger spores at low relative humidities (RH<35%). However, in two new filter media the viability declined notably at high relative humidity (RH>85%). This trend is attributed to the combined effect of spore rehydration and diffusion of fiber substances into the spores which rendered the spores prone to air flow and air toxics. Under static conditions in a climatic chamber (RH>98%) abundant mold growth occurred in two filter media. The results indicate that atmospheric dust deposited in air filters may serve as nutrient for molds if humidity is sufficient and filters are not exposed to an air flow.

  13. The simulation of temperature distribution and relative humidity with liquid concentration of 50% using computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohana, Eflita; Yulianto, Mohamad Endy; Kwang-Hwang, Choi; Putro, Bondantio; Yohanes Aditya W., A.

    2015-12-01

    The study of humidity distribution simulation inside a room has been widely conducted by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Here, the simulation was done by employing inputs in the experiment of air humidity reduction in a sample house. Liquid dessicant CaCl2was used in this study to absorb humidity in the air, so that the enormity of humidity reduction occured during the experiment could be obtained.The experiment was conducted in the morning at 8 with liquid desiccant concentration of 50%, nozzle dimension of 0.2 mms attached in dehumidifier, and the debit of air which entered the sample house was 2.35 m3/min. Both in inlet and outlet sides of the room, a DHT 11 censor was installed and used to note changes in humidity and temperature during the experiment. In normal condition without turning on the dehumidifier, the censor noted that the average temperature inside the room was 28°C and RH of 65%.The experiment result showed that the relative humidity inside a sample house was decreasing up to 52% in inlet position. Further, through the results obtained from CFD simulation, the temperature distribution and relative humidity inside the sample house could be seen. It showed that the concentration of liquid desiccant of 50% experienced a decrease while the relative humidity distribution was considerably good since the average RH was 55% followed by the increase in air temperature of 29.2° C inside the sample house.

  14. Influence of Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Soil Properties on the Soil-Air Partitioning of Semivolatile Pesticides: Laboratory Measurements and Predictive Models.

    PubMed

    Davie-Martin, Cleo L; Hageman, Kimberly J; Chin, Yu-Ping; Rougé, Valentin; Fujita, Yuki

    2015-09-01

    Soil-air partition coefficient (Ksoil-air) values are often employed to investigate the fate of organic contaminants in soils; however, these values have not been measured for many compounds of interest, including semivolatile current-use pesticides. Moreover, predictive equations for estimating Ksoil-air values for pesticides (other than the organochlorine pesticides) have not been robustly developed, due to a lack of measured data. In this work, a solid-phase fugacity meter was used to measure the Ksoil-air values of 22 semivolatile current- and historic-use pesticides and their degradation products. Ksoil-air values were determined for two soils (semiarid and volcanic) under a range of environmentally relevant temperature (10-30 °C) and relative humidity (30-100%) conditions, such that 943 Ksoil-air measurements were made. Measured values were used to derive a predictive equation for pesticide Ksoil-air values based on temperature, relative humidity, soil organic carbon content, and pesticide-specific octanol-air partition coefficients. Pesticide volatilization losses from soil, calculated with the newly derived Ksoil-air predictive equation and a previously described pesticide volatilization model, were compared to previous results and showed that the choice of Ksoil-air predictive equation mainly affected the more-volatile pesticides and that the way in which relative humidity was accounted for was the most critical difference. PMID:26258946

  15. Nanoporous Monolithic Microsphere Arrays Have Anti-Adhesive Properties Independent of Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler-Volf, Anna; Xue, Longjian; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Elena; Gorb, Stanislav; Steinhart, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Bioinspired artificial surfaces with tailored adhesive properties have attracted significant interest. While fibrillar adhesive pads mimicking gecko feet are optimized for strong reversible adhesion, monolithic microsphere arrays mimicking the slippery zone of the pitchers of carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes show anti-adhesive properties even against tacky counterpart surfaces. In contrast to the influence of topography, the influence of relative humidity (RH) on adhesion has been widely neglected. Some previous works deal with the influence of RH on the adhesive performance of fibrillar adhesive pads. Commonly, humidity-induced softening of the fibrils enhances adhesion. However, little is known on the influence of RH on solid anti-adhesive surfaces. We prepared polymeric nanoporous monolithic microsphere arrays (NMMAs) with microsphere diameters of a few 10 {\\mu}m to test their anti-adhesive properties at RHs of 2 % and 90 %. Despite the presence of continuous nanopore systems through which the inner nanopore walls were accessible to humid air, the topography-induced anti-adhesive properties of NMMAs on tacky counterpart surfaces were retained even at RH = 90 %. This RH-independent robustness of the anti-adhesive properties of NMMAs significantly contrasts the adhesion enhancement by humidity-induced softening on nanoporous fibrillar adhesive pads made of the same material.

  16. Spatial analysis of relative humidity during ungauged periods in a mountainous region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Yeonjoo

    2016-06-01

    Although atmospheric humidity influences environmental and agricultural conditions, thereby influencing plant growth, human health, and air pollution, efforts to develop spatial maps of atmospheric humidity using statistical approaches have thus far been limited. This study therefore aims to develop statistical approaches for inferring the spatial distribution of relative humidity (RH) for a mountainous island, for which data are not uniformly available across the region. A multiple regression analysis based on various mathematical models was used to identify the optimal model for estimating monthly RH by incorporating not only temperature but also location and elevation. Based on the regression analysis, we extended the monthly RH data from weather stations to cover the ungauged periods when no RH observations were available. Then, two different types of station-based data, the observational data and the data extended via the regression model, were used to form grid-based data with a resolution of 100 m. The grid-based data that used the extended station-based data captured the increasing RH trend along an elevation gradient. Furthermore, annual RH values averaged over the regions were examined. Decreasing temporal trends were found in most cases, with magnitudes varying based on the season and region.

  17. Potato growth in response to relative humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Fitzpatrick, A. H.

    1989-01-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs. Russet Burbank, Norland, and Denali) were grown for 56 days in controlled-environment rooms under continuous light at 20C and 50% or 85% RH. No significant differences in total plant dry weight were measured between the humidity treatments, but plants grown under 85% RH produced higher tuber yields. Leaf areas were greater under 50% RH and leaves tended to be larger and darker green than at 85% RH.

  18. Interaction of multiple atmospheric-pressure micro-plasma jets in small arrays: He/O2 into humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-02-01

    Arrays of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets are being considered as a means to increase the area being treated in surface modification and in plasma medicine in particular. A unique challenge of scaling plasma jet arrays is that individual plasma jets in an array tend to interact with each other, which can lead to quenching of some individual jets. To investigate these potential interactions, a computational study of one-, two- and three-tube arrays of micro-plasma jet arrays was performed. An atmospheric-pressure He/O2 = 99.8/0.2 mixture was flowed through the tubes into humid room air. We found that the jets interact through electrostatic, hydrodynamic and photolytic means. The hydrodynamic interactions result from the merging of individual He channels emerging from individual tubes as air diffuses into the extended gas jets. Ionization waves (IWs) or plasma bullets, which form the jets on the boundaries of an array, encounter higher mole fractions of air earlier compared with the center jet and so are slower or are quenched earlier. The close proximity of the jets produces electrostatic repulsion, which affects the trajectories of the IWs. If the jets are close enough, photoionizing radiation from their neighbors is an additional form of interaction. These interactions are sensitive to the spacing of the jets.

  19. Determination of partition and diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Jianshun S; Liu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Zhi

    2012-06-01

    The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50%, and 70% RH). The "green" materials contained recycled materials and were friendly to environment. A dynamic dual-chamber test method was used. Results showed that a higher relative humidity led to a larger effective diffusion coefficient for two kinds of wallboards and carpet. The carpet was also found to be very permeable resulting in an effective diffusion coefficient at the same order of magnitude with the formaldehyde diffusion coefficient in air. The partition coefficient (K(ma)) of formaldehyde in conventional wallboard was 1.52 times larger at 50% RH than at 20% RH, whereas it decreased slightly from 50% to 70% RH, presumably due to the combined effects of water solubility of formaldehyde and micro-pore blocking by condensed moisture at the high RH level. The partition coefficient of formaldehyde increased slightly with the increase of relative humidity in "green" wallboard and "green" carpet. At the same relative humidity level, the "green" wallboard had larger partition coefficient and effective diffusion coefficient than the conventional wallboard, presumably due to the micro-pore structure differences between the two materials. The data generated could be used to assess the sorption effects of formaldehyde on building materials and to evaluate its impact on the formaldehyde concentration in buildings. PMID:22788105

  20. Combined effects of precipitation and air temperature on soil moisture in different land covers in a humid basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Huihui; Liu, Yuanbo

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable in hydrological processes. Although the combined effects of multiple climatic factors in different land cover conditions are highly valuable for water resource management, a complete understanding of these effects remains unclear. This study used a cluster analysis approach to investigate the combined effects of precipitation and air temperature, rather than a single factor, in different land covers for an area over the Poyang Lake Basin in China from 2003 to 2009. Specifically, monthly soil moisture was classified into eight clusters according to the change in precipitation and air temperature; the clusters describe a range of climates from the extreme of wet-hot to that of dry-cold. For an individual climate factor, our results showed that the contribution of air temperature to soil moisture is greater than that of precipitation, and the effect of air temperature is more sensitive in different land covers. When considering the combined effects of precipitation and air temperature, soil moisture varies with land cover; however, the variation in a normal climate cluster is greater than in an extreme climate cluster. This indicated that land cover is the dominant factor in soil moisture variation in normal climatic conditions, whereas climate is the dominant factor in extreme conditions. As climate shifts from the wet-hot to the dry-cold cluster, soil moisture decreases for all land covers, with the minimum rate occurring in forest conditions. Meanwhile, soil moisture deficit and saturation are more likely to occur in grassland and forest areas, indicating that forest cover might mitigate drought. The results of this study provide an effective approach to investigate the combined effects of climate factors on soil moisture for various land covers in humid areas. This study also supports the management of water resources in changing climates.

  1. Formaldehyde emissions from ventilation filters under different relative humidity conditions.

    PubMed

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Chen, Wenhao; Chang, Agatha; Miller, Robert; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas; Fisk, William J; Kumagai, Kazukiyo; Destaillats, Hugo

    2013-05-21

    Formaldehyde emissions from fiberglass and polyester filters used in building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems were measured in bench-scale tests using 10 and 17 cm(2) coupons over 24 to 720 h periods. Experiments were performed at room temperature and four different relative humidity settings (20, 50, 65, and 80% RH). Two different air flow velocities across the filters were explored: 0.013 and 0.5 m/s. Fiberglass filters emitted between 20 and 1000 times more formaldehyde than polyester filters under similar RH and airflow conditions. Emissions increased markedly with increasing humidity, up to 10 mg/h-m(2) at 80% RH. Formaldehyde emissions from fiberglass filters coated with tackifiers (impaction oils) were lower than those from uncoated fiberglass media, suggesting that hydrolysis of other polymeric constituents of the filter matrix, such as adhesives or binders was likely the main formaldehyde source. These laboratory results were further validated by performing a small field study in an unoccupied office. At 80% RH, indoor formaldehyde concentrations increased by 48-64%, from 9-12 μg/m(3) to 12-20 μg/m(3), when synthetic filters were replaced with fiberglass filtration media in the HVAC units. Better understanding of the reaction mechanisms and assessing their overall contributions to indoor formaldehyde levels will allow for efficient control of this pollution source. PMID:23597095

  2. Absolute Humidity Influences the Seasonal Persistence and Infectivity of Human Norovirus.

    PubMed

    Colas de la Noue, Alexandre; Estienney, Marie; Aho, Serge; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; de Rougemont, Alexis; Pothier, Pierre; Gervais, Patrick; Belliot, Gaël

    2014-12-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is one of the main causative agents of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In temperate climates, outbreaks peak during the winter season. The mechanism by which climatic factors influence the occurrence of NoV outbreaks is unknown. We hypothesized that humidity is linked to NoV seasonality. Human NoV is not cultivatable, so we used cultivatable murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate to study its persistence when exposed to various levels of relative humidity (RH) from low (10% RH) to saturated (100% RH) conditions at 9 and 25°C. In addition, we conducted similar experiments with virus-like particles (VLPs) from the predominant GII-4 norovirus and studied changes in binding patterns to A, B, and O group carbohydrates that might reflect capsid alterations. The responses of MNV and VLP to humidity were somewhat similar, with 10 and 100% RH exhibiting a strong conserving effect for both models, whereas 50% RH was detrimental for MNV infectivity and VLP binding capacity. The data analysis suggested that absolute humidity (AH) rather than RH is the critical factor for keeping NoV infectious, with an AH below 0.007 kg water/kg air being favorable to NoV survival. Retrospective surveys of the meteorological data in Paris for the last 14 years showed that AH average values have almost always been below 0.007 kg water/kg air during the winter (i.e., 0.0046 ± 0.0014 kg water/kg air), and this finding supports the fact that low AH provides an ideal condition for NoV persistence and transmission during cold months. PMID:25217015

  3. Absolute Humidity Influences the Seasonal Persistence and Infectivity of Human Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Colas de la Noue, Alexandre; Estienney, Marie; Aho, Serge; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; de Rougemont, Alexis; Pothier, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is one of the main causative agents of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In temperate climates, outbreaks peak during the winter season. The mechanism by which climatic factors influence the occurrence of NoV outbreaks is unknown. We hypothesized that humidity is linked to NoV seasonality. Human NoV is not cultivatable, so we used cultivatable murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate to study its persistence when exposed to various levels of relative humidity (RH) from low (10% RH) to saturated (100% RH) conditions at 9 and 25°C. In addition, we conducted similar experiments with virus-like particles (VLPs) from the predominant GII-4 norovirus and studied changes in binding patterns to A, B, and O group carbohydrates that might reflect capsid alterations. The responses of MNV and VLP to humidity were somewhat similar, with 10 and 100% RH exhibiting a strong conserving effect for both models, whereas 50% RH was detrimental for MNV infectivity and VLP binding capacity. The data analysis suggested that absolute humidity (AH) rather than RH is the critical factor for keeping NoV infectious, with an AH below 0.007 kg water/kg air being favorable to NoV survival. Retrospective surveys of the meteorological data in Paris for the last 14 years showed that AH average values have almost always been below 0.007 kg water/kg air during the winter (i.e., 0.0046 ± 0.0014 kg water/kg air), and this finding supports the fact that low AH provides an ideal condition for NoV persistence and transmission during cold months. PMID:25217015

  4. Evaporation kinetics of laboratory-generated secondary organic aerosols at elevated relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jacqueline; Imre, Dan; Beránek, Josef; Shrivastava, Manish; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2015-01-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) dominate atmospheric organic aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and health. Recent studies indicate that, contrary to previously held assumptions, at low relative humidity (RH) these particles are semisolid and evaporate orders of magnitude slower than expected. Elevated relative humidity has the potential to affect significantly formation, properties, and atmospheric evolution of SOA particles. Here we present a study of the effect of RH on the room-temperature evaporation kinetics of SOA particles formed by ozonolysis of α-pinene and limonene. Experiments were carried out on α-pinene SOA particles generated, evaporated, and aged at <5%, 50 and 90% RH, and on limonene SOA particles at <5% and 90% RH. We find that in all cases evaporation begins with a relatively fast phase, during which 30-70% of the particle mass evaporates in 2 h, followed by a much slower evaporation rate. Evaporation kinetics at <5% and 50% RH are nearly the same, while at 90% RH a slightly larger fraction evaporates. In all cases, aging the particles prior to inducing evaporation reduces the evaporative losses; with aging at elevated RH leading to a more significant effect. In all cases, the observed SOA evaporation is nearly size-independent. PMID:25494490

  5. Acoustic Humidity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Kwack, Eug Y.; Venkateshan, Shakkottai

    1990-01-01

    Industrial humidity sensor measures volume fraction of water in air via its effect on speed of sound. Only portion of sensor exposed to sensed atmosphere is pair of stainless-steel tubes, one containing dry air and other containing moist air. Counters measure intervals between reflected pulses. Sensor rugged enough for use in harsh environments like those used to control drying of paper in paper mills, where most humidity sensors do not survive.

  6. Summary report on effects at temperature, humidity, and fuel-air ratio on two air-cooled light aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Five different engine models were tested to experimentally characterize emissions and to determine the effects of variation in fuel-air ratio and spark timing on emissions levels and other operating characteristics such as cooling, misfiring, roughness, power acceleration, etc. The results are given of two NASA reports covering the Avco Lycoming 0-320-D engine testing and the recently obtained results on the Teledyne Continental TSIO-360-C engine.

  7. Formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by repetitive negatively pulsed helium atmospheric pressure plasma jets propagating into humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, Seth A.; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets have many beneficial effects in their use in surface treatment and, in particular, plasma medicine. One of these benefits is the controlled production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in the active discharge through the molecular gases added to the primary noble gas in the input mixture, and through the interaction of reactive species in the plasma effluent with the ambient air. In this computational investigation, a parametric study was performed on the production of RONS in a multiply pulsed atmospheric pressure plasma jet sustained in a He/O2 mixture and flowing into ambient humid air. The consequences of flow rate, O2 fraction, voltage, and repetition rate on reactant densities after a single discharge pulse, after 30 pulses, and after the same total elapsed time were investigated. At the end of the first discharge pulse, voltage has the greatest influence on RONS production. However, the systematic trends for production of RONS depend on repetition rate and flow rate in large part due to the residence time of RONS in the plasma zone. Short residence times result in reactive species produced by the previous pulse still being in the discharge tube or in the path of the ionization wave at the next pulse. The RONS therefore accumulate in the tube and in the near effluent on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This accumulation enables species requiring multiple reactions among the primary RONS species to be produced in greater numbers.

  8. Performance analysis of a bio-gasification based combined cycle power plant employing indirectly heated humid air turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Mondal, P.; Ghosh, S.

    2016-07-01

    Rapid depletion of fossil fuel has forced mankind to look into alternative fuel resources. In this context, biomass based power generation employing gas turbine appears to be a popular choice. Bio-gasification based combined cycle provides a feasible solution as far as grid-independent power generation is concerned for rural electrification projects. Indirectly heated gas turbine cycles are promising alternatives as they avoid downstream gas cleaning systems. Advanced thermodynamic cycles have become an interesting area of study to improve plant efficiency. Water injected system is one of the most attractive options in this field of applications. This paper presents a theoretical model of a biomass gasification based combined cycle that employs an indirectly heated humid air turbine (HAT) in the topping cycle. Maximum overall electrical efficiency is found to be around 41%. Gas turbine specific air consumption by mass is minimum when pressure ratio is 6. The study reveals that, incorporation of the humidification process helps to improve the overall performance of the plant.

  9. The effect of relative humidity on the detection of pyrrole by PTR-MS for OH reactivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, V.; Custer, T. G.; Kluepfel, T.; Williams, J.

    2009-04-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) is the most important atmospheric oxidant. Recently Sinha et al. [1] developed a new method to measure the total OH reactivity of ambient air (OH sink) employing a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) as a detector. The new method uses pyrrole (C4H4NH) as a reagent and for an OH reactivity measurement this species must be measured under both dry (~ 0% RH) and humid air ( > 30% RH). Here, we investigate the sensitivity dependence of the PTR-MS for pyrrole, as a function of relative humidity in the sampled air. Various normalizations with respect to the H3O+ ion and its different hydrated clusters ions H3O+(H2O)n=1,2,3 are compared. It is shown that both the primary ion signal (H3O+ ion m/z = 19) and the first water cluster ion H3O+(H2O) (m/z = 37) should be used for pyrrole quantification. However, in spite of using this normalization, the PTR-MS sensitivity for pyrrole changes by as much as 16 % between dry (~ 0% RH) and humid air (above 30 % RH), with higher sensitivity when the sampled air is humid. Thus, for accurate quantification of pyrrole using a PTR-MS, calibration factors appropriate to dry and humid air should be employed. We recommend that humidity dependence of the PTR-MS be taken into account when reactivity measurements are performed using the pyrrole based comparative reactivity method (CRM). [1]. V. Sinha, J. Williams, J.N. Crowley, and J. Lelieveld, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8 (2008) 2213-2227

  10. The effect of relative humidity on the detection of pyrrole by PTR-MS for OH reactivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, V.; Custer, T. G.; Kluepfel, T.; Williams, J.

    2009-05-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) is the most important atmospheric oxidant. Recently Sinha et al. [V. Sinha, J. Williams, J.N. Crowley, J. Lelieveld, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8 (2008) 2213] developed a new method to measure the total OH reactivity of ambient air (OH sink) employing a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) as a detector. The new method uses pyrrole (C4H4NH) as a reagent and for an OH reactivity measurement this species must be measured under both dry (~0% RH) and humid air (>30% RH). Here, we investigate the sensitivity dependence of the PTR-MS for pyrrole, as a function of relative humidity in the sampled air. Various normalizations with respect to the H3O+ ion and its different hydrated cluster ions H3O+(H2O)n=1,2,3 are compared. It is shown that both the primary ion signal (H3O+ ion m/z = 19) and the first water cluster ion H3O+(H2O) (m/z = 37) should be used for pyrrole quantification. However, in spite of using this normalization, the PTR-MS sensitivity for pyrrole changes by as much as 16% between dry (~0% RH) and humid air (above 30% RH), with higher sensitivity when the sampled air is humid. Thus, for accurate quantification of pyrrole using a PTR-MS, calibration factors appropriate to dry and humid air should be employed. We recommend that humidity dependence of the PTR-MS be taken into account when reactivity measurements are performed using the pyrrole based comparative reactivity method (CRM).

  11. The impact of temperature errors on perceived humidity supersaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, S. A.; Courcoux, N.

    2003-07-01

    A Monte Carlo method is used to study the propagation of temperature uncertainties into relative humidity with respect to ice (RH i ) calculated from specific humidity. For a flat specific humidity distribution and Gaussian temperature uncertainties the resulting RH i distribution drops exponentially at high RH i values-much slower than a Gaussian. This agrees well with the RH i distribution measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), which means that such remotely measured RH i distributions can be explained, at least partly, by temperature uncertainties.

  12. Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results

    PubMed Central

    Harri, A-M; Genzer, M; Kemppinen, O; Gomez-Elvira, J; Haberle, R; Polkko, J; Savijärvi, H; Rennó, N; Rodriguez-Manfredi, JA; Schmidt, W; Richardson, M; Siili, T; Paton, M; Torre-Juarez, M De La; Mäkinen, T; Newman, C; Rafkin, S; Mischna, M; Merikallio, S; Haukka, H; Martin-Torres, J; Komu, M; Zorzano, M-P; Peinado, V; Vazquez, L; Urqui, R

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers. Key Points Atmospheric water mixing ratio at Gale crater varies from 30 to 140 ppm MSL relative humidity observation provides good data Highest detected relative humidity reading during first MSL 100 sols is RH75% PMID:26213667

  13. Long-period humidity variability in the Arctic atmosphere from upper-air observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agurenko, A.; Khokhlova, A.

    2014-12-01

    Under climate change, atmospheric water content also tends to change. This gives rise to changes in the amount of moisture transferred, clouds and precipitation, as well as in hydrological regime. This work analyzes seasonal climatic characteristics of precipitated water in the Arctic atmosphere, by using 1972-2011 data from 55 upper-air stations located north of 60°N. Regions of maximum and minimum mean values and variability trends are determined. In the summer, water amount is shown to increase in nearly the whole of the latitudinal zone. The comparison with the similar characteristics of reanalysis obtained by the other authors shows a good agreement. Time variation in the atmosphere moisture transport crossing 70°N, which is calculated from observation data, is presented and compared with model results. The work is supported by the joint EC ERA.Net RUS and Russian Fundamental Research Fund Project "Arctic Climate Processes Linked Through the Circulation of the Atmosphere" (ACPCA) (project 12-05-91656-ЭРА_а).

  14. Temperature and Humidity Profiles in the "TqJoint" Data Group of AIRS Version 6 Product for the Climate Model Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, F.; Fang, F.; Hearty, T. J., III; Theobald, M.; Vollmer, B.; Lynnes, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mission is entering its 13th year of global observations of the atmospheric state, including temperature and humidity profiles, outgoing longwave radiation, cloud properties, and trace gases. Thus AIRS data have been widely used, among other things, for short-term climate research and observational component for model evaluation. One instance is the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) which uses AIRS version 5 data (Tian et al. 2013) in the climate model evaluation. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is the home of processing, archiving, and distribution services for data from the AIRS mission. The GES DISC, in collaboration with the AIRS Project, released data from the version 6 algorithm in early 2013. The new algorithm represents a significant improvement over previous versions in terms of greater stability, yield, and quality of products. The ongoing Earth System Grid for next generation climate model research project, a collaborative effort of GES DISC and NASA JPL, will bring temperature and humidity profiles from AIRS version 6. The AIRS version 6 product adds a new "TqJoint" data group, which contains data for a common set of observations across water vapor and temperature at all atmospheric levels and is suitable for climate process studies. How different may the monthly temperature and humidity profiles in "TqJoint" group be from the standard group where temperature and water vapor are not always valid at the same time? This study aims to answer the question by comprehensively comparing the temperature and humidity profiles from the TqJoint group and the standard group. The comparison includes absolute and relative differences, systematic trends at different levels, over land/sea and different latitude regions. We will also use MERRA data to examine the sampling differences between the "TqJoint" and standard group. The detail statistical

  15. Temperature and Humidity Profiles in the TqJoint Data Group of AIRS Version 6 Product for the Climate Model Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Feng; Fang, Fan; Hearty, Thomas J.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Lynnes, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mission is entering its 13th year of global observations of the atmospheric state, including temperature and humidity profiles, outgoing long-wave radiation, cloud properties, and trace gases. Thus AIRS data have been widely used, among other things, for short-term climate research and observational component for model evaluation. One instance is the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) which uses AIRS version 5 data in the climate model evaluation. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is the home of processing, archiving, and distribution services for data from the AIRS mission. The GES DISC, in collaboration with the AIRS Project, released data from the version 6 algorithm in early 2013. The new algorithm represents a significant improvement over previous versions in terms of greater stability, yield, and quality of products. The ongoing Earth System Grid for next generation climate model research project, a collaborative effort of GES DISC and NASA JPL, will bring temperature and humidity profiles from AIRS version 6. The AIRS version 6 product adds a new "TqJoint" data group, which contains data for a common set of observations across water vapor and temperature at all atmospheric levels and is suitable for climate process studies. How different may the monthly temperature and humidity profiles in "TqJoint" group be from the "Standard" group where temperature and water vapor are not always valid at the same time? This study aims to answer the question by comprehensively comparing the temperature and humidity profiles from the "TqJoint" group and the "Standard" group. The comparison includes mean differences at different levels globally and over land and ocean. We are also working on examining the sampling differences between the "TqJoint" and "Standard" group using MERRA data.

  16. Effects of humid heat exposure in later sleep segments on sleep stages and body temperature in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Mizuno, Koh

    2005-03-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of humid heat exposure in later sleep segments on sleep stages and body temperature in humans. The subjects were eight healthy males, from whom informed consent had been obtained. The experiments were carried out under three different sets of conditions: a control climate [air temperature (Ta)=26°C, relative humidity (RH)=50%] (C); a humid heat climate (Ta=32°C, RH=80%) (H); and a humid heat exposure in later sleep segments (C for the first 3 h 45 min, followed by a 30-min transition to H, which was then maintained for the last 3 h 45 min) (C H). Electroencephalogram, EOG, and mental electromyogram, rectal temperature (Tre), and skin temperature (Tsk) were continuously measured. The total amount of wakefulness was significantly increased in H compared to C H or C. Compared to C, wakefulness in C H and H was significantly increased during later sleep segments. Tre and mean Tsk were significantly higher in H than in C H or C. In C H, Tsk and Tre increased to levels equal to those observed in H after Ta and RH increase. Whole body sweat loss was significantly lower in C H and C than in H. These results suggest that humid heat exposure in the later sleep segment reduces thermal load as compared to full-night humid heat exposure. In daily life, the use of air conditioning in the initial sleep hours can protect sleep and thermoregulation.

  17. Simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements in a mechanical ventilator using an optical fibre sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, F. U.; Correia, R.; Morgan, S. P.; Hayes-Gill, B.; Evans, D.; Sinha, R.; Norris, A.; Harvey, D.; Hardman, J. G.; Korposh, S.

    2016-05-01

    An optical fibre sensor for simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements consisting of one fibre Bragg grating (FBG) to measure temperature and a mesoporous film of bilayers of Poly(allylamine hydrochloride)(PAH) and silica (SiO2) nanoparticles deposited onto the tip of the same fibre to measure humidity is reported. The hygroscopic film was created using the layer-by-layer (LbL) method and the optical reflection spectra were measured up to a maximum of 23 bilayers. The temperature sensitivity of the FBG was 10 pm/°C while the sensitivity to humidity was (-1.4x10-12 W / %RH) using 23 bilayers. The developed sensor was tested in the mechanical ventilator and temperature and humidity of the delivered artificial air was simultaneously measured. Once calibrated, the optical fibre sensor has the potential to control the absolute humidity as an essential part of critical respiratory care.

  18. Modeling the effect of relative humidity on nitrous acid formation in the Houston area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Lijun; Roy, Anirban; Czader, Beata; Pan, Shuai; Jeon, Wonbae; Souri, Amir Hossein; Choi, Yunsoo

    2016-04-01

    The field and laboratory based relative humidity (RH) impact on nitrous acid (HONO) heterogeneous reaction has not been considered in chemical transport models. This study parameterized this dependency into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. In view of the positive linear correlation between the reaction rate and RH, the HONO heterogeneous reaction rate constants were respectively scaled by the factors of RH/30 and RH/40. Two corresponding sensitivity tests were carried out in the period of September 2013 in Houston. Both tests significantly improved modeled HONO concentrations and reduced the bias for NO2 in comparison with observations. However, the model is still not capable of reproducing the high HONO concentrations in the morning rush hours. Further work is needed to explore the underlying mechanisms for the early morning HONO formation.

  19. Evaporation Kinetics of Laboratory Generated Secondary Organic Aerosols at Elevated Relative Humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Imre, D.; Beranek, Josef; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2015-01-06

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) dominate atmospheric organic aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and health. Recent studies indicate that, contrary to previously held assumptions, at low relative humidity (RH) these particles are semi-solid and evaporate orders of magnitude slower than expected. Elevated relative humidity has the potential to affect significantly formation, properties, and atmospheric evolution of SOA particles. Here we present a study of the effect of RH on the room-temperature evaporation kinetics of SOA particles formed by ozonolysis of α-pinene and limonene. Experiments were carried out on SOA particles generated, evaporated, and aged at 0%, 50% and 90% RH. We find that in all cases evaporation begins with a relatively fast phase, during which 30% to 70% of the particle mass evaporates in 2 hours, followed by a much slower evaporation rate. Evaporation kinetics at 0% and 50% RH are nearly the same, while at 90% RH a slightly larger fraction evaporates. In all cases, aging the particles prior to inducing evaporation reduces the evaporative losses, with aging at elevated RH leading to more significant effect. In all cases, SOA evaporation is nearly size-independent, providing direct evidence that oligomers play a crucial role in determining the evaporation kinetics.

  20. Restoration of an inner-city stream and its impact on air temperature and humidity based on long-term monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyu Rang; Kwon, Tae Heon; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Koo, Hae-Jung; Choi, Byoung-Cheol; Choi, Chee-Young

    2009-03-01

    Spatiotemporal changes in air temperature and humidity associated with the restoration of an innercity stream in Seoul, Korea, are investigated based on long-term monitoring data. The Cheonggye stream, covered under a concrete structure for 46 years, was restored in 2005 and runs 5.8 km eastward through a central region of Seoul. Long-term monitoring of the air temperature and relative humidity was made along the stream throughout the restoration and across the stream after the restoration. The area along the stream had a higher air temperature than the entire metropolitan area. The temperature anomaly between the monitoring area and the surrounding metropolitan area was 0.13°C lower on average at the center of the stream after the restoration. The stream’s effect on the air temperature was also evident in the temperature distribution along a street traversing the stream. The relative and specific humidities were increased due to the restoration. The restored stream modified the nearby urban climate in the opposite direction compared to urbanization. The results could be used as a model case in mitigating urban climate by a stream in future urban planning practices.

  1. A New Method for Deriving Ocean Surface Specific Humidity and Air Temperature: An Artificial Neural Network Approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Charles; Peterson, Pete; Gautier, Catherine

    1999-08-01

    A new methodology for deriving monthly averages of surface specific humidity (Qa) and air temperature (Ta) is described. Two main aspects characterize the new approach. First, remotely sensed parameters, total precipitable water (W), and sea surface temperature (SST) are used to derive Qa and Ta. Second, artificial neural networks (ANN) are employed to find transfer functions relating the input (W, SST) and output (Qa and Ta) parameters. Input data consist of nearly six years (January 1988-November 1993) of monthly averages of total precipitable water from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager data and sea surface temperature analysis from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. Surface marine observations of Qa and Ta are used to develop and evaluate the new methodology.The performance of the algorithm is measured with surface marine observations not used in the development phase. Higher seasonally dependent discrepancies between Qa and Ta derived from the new method and in situ data are observed in regions such as the Kuroshio and Gulf Stream currents. After removal of systematic biases, the new method indicates that the combination of W and SST as input parameters and the ANN algorithm provides an interesting alternative for deriving monthly averaged surface parameters. The global mean bias in Qa is 0.010 ± 0.23 g kg1 over most oceanic areas, whereas root-mean-square (rms) differences are 0.77 ± 0.39 g kg1. Likewise, the global mean bias and rms in Ta are on the order of 7.3 × 105 ± 0.27°C and 0.72 ± 0.38°C, respectively.

  2. Measured Cooling Season Results Relating the Impact of Mechanical Ventilation on Energy, Comfort, and Indoor Air Quality in Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Eric; Amos, Bryan; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Widder, Sarah H.; Fonorow, Ken

    2014-08-22

    Conference Paper for ACEEE Summer Study in Buildings discussing results to date of a project evaluating the impact of ventialtion on energy use, comfort, durability, and cost in the hot humid climate.

  3. Apparatus for investigating the reactions of soft-bodied invertebrates to controlled humidity gradients

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Joshua; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T.

    2015-01-01

    Background While many studies have assayed behavioral responses of animals to chemical, temperature and light gradients, fewer studies have assayed how animals respond to humidity gradients. Our novel humidity chamber has allowed us to study the neuromolecular basis of humidity sensation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Russell et al. 2014). New Method We describe an easy-to-construct, low-cost humidity chamber to assay the behavior of small animals, including soft-bodied invertebrates, in controlled humidity gradients. Results We show that our humidity-chamber design is amenable to soft-bodied invertebrates and can produce reliable gradients ranging 0.3–8% RH/cm across a 9-cm long x 7.5-cm wide gel-covered arena. Comparison with Existing Method(s) Previous humidity chambers relied on circulating dry and moist air to produce a steep humidity gradient in a small arena (e.g. Sayeed & Benzer, 1996). To remove the confound of moving air that may elicit mechanical responses independent of humidity responses, our chamber controlled the humidity gradient using reservoirs of hygroscopic materials. Additionally, to better observe the behavioral mechanisms for humidity responses, our chamber provided a larger arena. Although similar chambers have been described previously, these approaches were not suitable for soft-bodied invertebrates or for easy imaging of behavior because they required that animals move across wire or fabric mesh. Conclusion The general applicability of our humidity chamber overcomes limitations of previous designs and opens the door to observe the behavioral responses of soft-bodied invertebrates, including genetically powerful C. elegans and Drosophila larvae. PMID:25176025

  4. Nectar production of Epilobium angustifolium L. at different air humidities; nectar sugar in individual flowers and the optimal foraging theory.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, A

    1983-08-01

    The nectar production of Epilobium angustifolium L. was investigated at 20°C and 50%, 78% and 94% ambient humidity in the climatic test chamber. By means of permanent pipettes, freshly produced nectar was sucked off immediately after secretion, and nectar samples were also taken at 10-h and 48-h intervals to investigate the postsecretory influence of ambient humidity. Volume and sugar concentration of samples from individual flowers were measured and the sugar contained was calculated. The rate of sugar production remains constant for all ambient humidities and extraction intervals investigated; the mean value for all 180 samples is 1.55 mg sucrose equivalents/24h. Sugar concentration of secretion nectar is linearly dependent on ambient humidity over the range investigated, and nectar volume and sugar concentration change according to the theoretically expected curve for solutions with a sugar content of 1.55 mg sucrose. The response of secretion nectar to steplike changes in ambient humidity was investigated and the transient function described. The nectaries respond immediately to changes in ambient humidity. The consequences of the results for nectar production and nectar reward of individual flowers in the field and for the optimal foraging of pollinators are discussed. Discussion concentrates particularly on the following questions: what influence the variability of nectar reward in individual flowers may have on flower-visiting bumble-bees; whether these animals have the sensory capabilities to measure sugar exactly; and whether the water relations of pollinators may also influence foraging behaviour. PMID:25024144

  5. Humidity sensing by carbon nanocones.

    PubMed

    Svåsand, Eldrid; Häberle, Patricio

    2014-05-01

    Carbon nano-structures, mainly nanotubes, have been explored in the past as sensing devices. In this report we have considered cones and discs (CNCs) subjected to acid treatment, dry oxidation and high temperature annealing, to study the modifications induced as they are used as sensing elements of varying relative humidity (RH). The relative humidity was varied in cycles of 30 min between 36% and 75%. Not strangely, the acid treated films displayed a much larger variation in resistance for the same difference in RH (16%). In the as-grown material, very small variations were detected among cycles under similar conditions. The changes induced in the sensors structures by the different preparation procedures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman reflexion. These results were used to model their behaviour as RH sensors. PMID:24734591

  6. Rh incompatibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cross into the mother's blood through the placenta. If the mother is Rh-negative, her immune ... cells. These antibodies may cross back through the placenta into the developing baby. They destroy the baby's ...

  7. Humidity Dependence of Tribochemical Wear of Monocrystalline Silicon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Kim, Seong H; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Lei; He, Hongtu; Qian, Linmao

    2015-07-15

    The nanowear tests of monocrystalline silicon against a SiO2 microsphere were performed using an atomic force microscope in air as a function of relative humidity (RH=0%-90%) and in liquid water at a contact pressure of about 1.20 GPa. The experimental results indicated that RH played an important role in the nanowear of the Si/SiO2 interface. In dry air, a hillock-like wear scar with a height of ∼0.4 nm was formed on the silicon surface. However, with the increase of RH, the wear depth on the silicon surface first increased to a maximum value of ∼14 nm at 50% RH and then decreased below the detection limit at RH above 85% or in water. The transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the serious wear on the silicon surface at low and medium RHs occurred without subsurface damage, indicating that the wear was due to tribochemical reactions between the Si substrate and the SiO2 counter surface, rather than mechanical damages. The RH dependence of the tribochemical wear could be explained with a model involving the formation of "Si-O-Si" chemical bonds (bridges) between two solid surfaces. The suppression of tribochemical wear at high RHs or in liquid water might be attributed to the fact that the thickness of the interfacial water layer is thick enough to prevent the solid surfaces from making chemical bridges. The results may help us understand the nanowear mechanism of silicon that is an important material for dynamic microelectromechanical systems. PMID:26098989

  8. Effects of aerosols and relative humidity on cumulus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiwen; Zhang, Renyi; Li, Guohui; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2007-07-01

    The influences of the aerosol type and concentration and relative humidity (RH) on cumulus clouds have been investigated using a two-dimensional spectral-bin cloud model. Three simulations are conducted to represent the polluted continental, clean continental, and marine aerosol types. Under the same initial dynamic and thermodynamic conditions, the maritime aerosol case results in more intensive radar reflectivity in both developing and mature stages than the continental aerosol cases, because of enhanced warm rain by collisions and ice processes by deposition growth due to larger droplet sizes and higher supersaturation, respectively. The considerable delay in convective development due to reduced droplet condensation is responsible for the longer cloud lifetime in the marine aerosol case. For the continental case, the most noticeable effects of increasing aerosol number concentrations (with 15 different initial values) are the increases of the cloud droplet number concentration and cloud water content but a decrease in the effective droplet radius. More latent heat release from increasing condensation results in stronger convection and more melting precipitation at the higher aerosol concentrations. Melting precipitation and secondary clouds primarily contribute to enhanced precipitation with increasing aerosols. The precipitation, however, decreases with increasing aerosol in the extremely high aerosol cases (over 5 × 104 cm-3) due to suppression of convection from depleted water vapor and inefficient coalescence. When the initial aerosol concentration exceeds a critical level, most of the cloud properties become less sensitive to aerosols, implying that the aerosol effect on deep convection is more pronounced in relatively clean air than in heavily polluted air. The aerosol effect on the cloud properties is strongly dependent on RH. As the surface RH increases from 40 to 70%, the cloud changes from shallow warm to deep convective types due to a significant

  9. Application of Artificial Neural Networks to the Development of Improved Multi-Sensor Retrievals of Near-Surface Air Temperature and Humidity Over Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Clayson, Carol Anne

    2012-01-01

    Improved estimates of near-surface air temperature and air humidity are critical to the development of more accurate turbulent surface heat fluxes over the ocean. Recent progress in retrieving these parameters has been made through the application of artificial neural networks (ANN) and the use of multi-sensor passive microwave observations. Details are provided on the development of an improved retrieval algorithm that applies the nonlinear statistical ANN methodology to a set of observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) that are currently available from the NASA AQUA satellite platform. Statistical inversion techniques require an adequate training dataset to properly capture embedded physical relationships. The development of multiple training datasets containing only in-situ observations, only synthetic observations produced using the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM), or a mixture of each is discussed. An intercomparison of results using each training dataset is provided to highlight the relative advantages and disadvantages of each methodology. Particular emphasis will be placed on the development of retrievals in cloudy versus clear-sky conditions. Near-surface air temperature and humidity retrievals using the multi-sensor ANN algorithms are compared to previous linear and non-linear retrieval schemes.

  10. Radiosondes Corrected for Inaccuracy in RH Measurements

    DOE Data Explorer

    Miloshevich, Larry

    2008-01-15

    Corrections for inaccuracy in Vaisala radiosonde RH measurements have been applied to ARM SGP radiosonde soundings. The magnitude of the corrections can vary considerably between soundings. The radiosonde measurement accuracy, and therefore the correction magnitude, is a function of atmospheric conditions, mainly T, RH, and dRH/dt (humidity gradient). The corrections are also very sensitive to the RH sensor type, and there are 3 Vaisala sensor types represented in this dataset (RS80-H, RS90, and RS92). Depending on the sensor type and the radiosonde production date, one or more of the following three corrections were applied to the RH data: Temperature-Dependence correction (TD), Contamination-Dry Bias correction (C), Time Lag correction (TL). The estimated absolute accuracy of NIGHTTIME corrected and uncorrected Vaisala RH measurements, as determined by comparison to simultaneous reference-quality measurements from Holger Voemel's (CU/CIRES) cryogenic frostpoint hygrometer (CFH), is given by Miloshevich et al. (2006).

  11. Stable and Selective Humidity Sensing Using Stacked Black Phosphorus Flakes.

    PubMed

    Yasaei, Poya; Behranginia, Amirhossein; Foroozan, Tara; Asadi, Mohammad; Kim, Kibum; Khalili-Araghi, Fatemeh; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-10-27

    Black phosphorus (BP) atomic layers are known to undergo chemical degradation in humid air. Yet in more robust configurations such as films, composites, and embedded structures, BP can potentially be utilized in a large number of practical applications. In this study, we explored the sensing characteristics of BP films and observed an ultrasensitive and selective response toward humid air with a trace-level detection capability and a very minor drift over time. Our experiments show that the drain current of the BP sensor increases by ∼4 orders of magnitude as the relative humidity (RH) varies from 10% to 85%, which ranks it among the highest ever reported values for humidity detection. The mechanistic studies indicate that the operation principle of the BP film sensors is based on the modulation in the leakage ionic current caused by autoionization of water molecules and ionic solvation of the phosphorus oxoacids produced on moist BP surfaces. Our stability tests reveal that the response of the BP film sensors remains nearly unchanged after prolonged exposures (up to 3 months) to ambient conditions. This study opens up the route for utilizing BP stacked films in many potential applications such as energy generation/storage systems, electrocatalysis, and chemical/biosensing. PMID:26401950

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of a CMOS-MEMS Humidity Sensor.

    PubMed

    Dennis, John-Ojur; Ahmed, Abdelaziz-Yousif; Khir, Mohd-Haris

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Microelectromechanical System (CMOS-MEMS) device with embedded microheater operated at relatively elevated temperatures (40 °C to 80 °C) for the purpose of relative humidity measurement. The sensing principle is based on the change in amplitude of the device due to adsorption or desorption of humidity on the active material layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles deposited on the moving plate, which results in changes in the mass of the device. The sensor has been designed and fabricated through a standard 0.35 µm CMOS process technology and post-CMOS micromachining technique has been successfully implemented to release the MEMS structures. The sensor is operated in the dynamic mode using electrothermal actuation and the output signal measured using a piezoresistive (PZR) sensor connected in a Wheatstone bridge circuit. The output voltage of the humidity sensor increases from 0.585 mV to 30.580 mV as the humidity increases from 35% RH to 95% RH. The output voltage is found to be linear from 0.585 mV to 3.250 mV as the humidity increased from 35% RH to 60% RH, with sensitivity of 0.107 mV/% RH; and again linear from 3.250 mV to 30.580 mV as the humidity level increases from 60% RH to 95% RH, with higher sensitivity of 0.781 mV/% RH. On the other hand, the sensitivity of the humidity sensor increases linearly from 0.102 mV/% RH to 0.501 mV/% RH with increase in the temperature from 40 °C to 80 °C and a maximum hysteresis of 0.87% RH is found at a relative humidity of 80%. The sensitivity is also frequency dependent, increasing from 0.500 mV/% RH at 2 Hz to reach a maximum value of 1.634 mV/% RH at a frequency of 12 Hz, then decreasing to 1.110 mV/% RH at a frequency of 20 Hz. Finally, the CMOS-MEMS humidity sensor showed comparable response, recovery, and repeatability of measurements in three cycles as compared to a standard sensor that directly

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of a CMOS-MEMS Humidity Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, John-Ojur; Ahmed, Abdelaziz-Yousif; Khir, Mohd-Haris

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Microelectromechanical System (CMOS-MEMS) device with embedded microheater operated at relatively elevated temperatures (40 °C to 80 °C) for the purpose of relative humidity measurement. The sensing principle is based on the change in amplitude of the device due to adsorption or desorption of humidity on the active material layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles deposited on the moving plate, which results in changes in the mass of the device. The sensor has been designed and fabricated through a standard 0.35 µm CMOS process technology and post-CMOS micromachining technique has been successfully implemented to release the MEMS structures. The sensor is operated in the dynamic mode using electrothermal actuation and the output signal measured using a piezoresistive (PZR) sensor connected in a Wheatstone bridge circuit. The output voltage of the humidity sensor increases from 0.585 mV to 30.580 mV as the humidity increases from 35% RH to 95% RH. The output voltage is found to be linear from 0.585 mV to 3.250 mV as the humidity increased from 35% RH to 60% RH, with sensitivity of 0.107 mV/% RH; and again linear from 3.250 mV to 30.580 mV as the humidity level increases from 60% RH to 95% RH, with higher sensitivity of 0.781 mV/% RH. On the other hand, the sensitivity of the humidity sensor increases linearly from 0.102 mV/% RH to 0.501 mV/% RH with increase in the temperature from 40 °C to 80 °C and a maximum hysteresis of 0.87% RH is found at a relative humidity of 80%. The sensitivity is also frequency dependent, increasing from 0.500 mV/% RH at 2 Hz to reach a maximum value of 1.634 mV/% RH at a frequency of 12 Hz, then decreasing to 1.110 mV/% RH at a frequency of 20 Hz. Finally, the CMOS-MEMS humidity sensor showed comparable response, recovery, and repeatability of measurements in three cycles as compared to a standard sensor that directly

  14. Humidity coefficient correction in the calculation equations of air refractive index by He-Ne laser based on phase step interferometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qianghua; Liu, Jinghai; He, Yongxi; Luo, Huifu; Luo, Jun; Wang, Feng

    2015-02-10

    The refractive index of air (RIA) is an important parameter in precision measurement. The revisions to Edlen's equations by Boensch and Potulski [Metrologia 35, 133 (1998)] are mostly used to calculate the RIA at present. Since the humidity correction coefficients in the formulas were performed with four wavelengths of a Cd(114) lamp (644.0, 508.7, 480.1, and 467.9 nm) and at the temperature range of 19.6°C-20.1°C, the application is restricted when an He-Ne laser is used as the light source, which is mostly applied in optical precision measurement, and the environmental temperature is far away from 20°C as well. To solve this problem, a measurement system based on phase step interferometry for measuring the effect of the humidity to the RIA is presented, and a corresponding humidity correction equation is derived. The analysis and comparison results show that the uncertainty of the presented equation is better than that of Boensch and Potulski's. It is more suitable in present precision measurements by He-Ne laser, and the application temperature range extends to 14.6°C-24.0°C as well. PMID:25968028

  15. Response surface modeling for hot, humid air decontamination of materials contaminated with Bacillus anthracis ∆Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology using a face-centered cube design was used to describe and predict spore inactivation of Bacillus anthracis ∆Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores after exposure of six spore-contaminated materials to hot, humid air. For each strain/material pair, an attempt was made to fit a first or second order model. All three independent predictor variables (temperature, relative humidity, and time) were significant in the models except that time was not significant for B. thuringiensis Al Hakam on nylon. Modeling was unsuccessful for wiring insulation and wet spores because there was complete spore inactivation in the majority of the experimental space. In cases where a predictive equation could be fit, response surface plots with time set to four days were generated. The survival of highly purified Bacillus spores can be predicted for most materials tested when given the settings for temperature, relative humidity, and time. These predictions were cross-checked with spore inactivation measurements. PMID:24949256

  16. Rh Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... does not affect the mother’s health. How many people are Rh-negative? In the United States, about 15 percent of the white population, 5 to 8 percent of the African-American and Hispanic populations, and 1 to 2 percent ...

  17. Inter-conversion of Chromium Species During Air Sampling: Effects of O3, NO2, SO2, Particle Matrices, Temperature and Humidity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihui; Fan, Zhihua (Tina); Yu, Chang Ho; Hopke, Philip K.; Lioy, Paul J.; Buckley, Brian T.; Lin, Lin; Ma, Yingjun

    2013-01-01

    The inter-conversion between Cr(VI), a pulmonary carcinogen, and Cr(III), an essential human nutrient, poses challenges to the measurement of Cr(VI) in airborne particles. Chamber and field tests were conducted to identify the factors affecting Cr(VI)-Cr(III) inter-conversion in the basic filter medium under typical sampling conditions. In the chamber tests, isotopically enriched 53Cr(VI) and 50Cr(III) were spiked on diesel particulate matter (DPM) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that were pre-collected on a basic MCE filter. The filter samples were then exposed to clean air or the air containing SO2 (50 and 160 ppb), 100 ppb O3, or 150 ppb NO2 for 24 hours at 16.7 LPM flow rate at designated temperature (20 and 31°C) and RH (40% and 70%) conditions. Exposure to 160 ppb SO2 had the greatest effect on 53Cr(VI) reduction, with 53Cr(VI) recovery of 31.7 ± 15.8% (DPM) and 42.0 ± 7.9% (SOA). DPM and SOA matrix induced 53Cr(VI) reduction when exposed to clean air while reactive oxygen species in SOA could promote 50Cr(III) oxidation. Deliquescence when RH increased from 40% to 70% led to conversion of Cr(III) in SOA, whereas oxidized organics in DPM and SOA enhanced hygroscopicity and thus facilitated Cr(VI) reduction. Field tests showed seasonal variation of Cr(VI)-Cr(III) inter-conversion during sampling. Correction of the inter-conversion using USEPA method 6800 is recommended to improve accuracy of ambient Cr(VI) measurements. PMID:23550818

  18. Field sampling method for quantifying odorants in humid environments.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven L; Scoggin, Kenwood D; Li, Hong; Burns, Robert; Xin, Hongwei

    2008-05-15

    Most air quality studies in agricultural environments use thermal desorption analysis for quantifying semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) associated with odor. The objective of this study was to develop a robust sampling technique for measuring SVOCs in humid environments. Test atmospheres were generated at ambient temperatures (23 +/- 1.5 degrees C) and 25, 50, and 80% relative humidity (RH). Sorbent material used included Tenax, graphitized carbon, and carbon molecular sieve (CMS). Sorbent tubes were challenged with 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 L of air at various RHs. Sorbent tubes with CMS material performed poorly at both 50 and 80% RH dueto excessive sorption of water. Heating of CMS tubes during sampling or dry-purging of CMS tubes post sampling effectively reduced water sorption with heating of tubes being preferred due to the higher recovery and reproducibility. Tenaxtubes had breakthrough of the more volatile compounds and tended to form artifacts with increasing volumes of air sampled. Graphitized carbon sorbent tubes containing Carbopack X and Carbopack C performed best with quantitative recovery of all compounds at all RHs and sampling volumes tested. The graphitized carbon tubes were taken to the field for further testing. Field samples taken from inside swine feeding operations showed that butanoic acid, 4-methylphenol, 4-ethylphenol, indole, and 3-methylindole were the compounds detected most often above their odor threshold values. Field samples taken from a poultry facility demonstrated that butanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 4-methylphenol were the compounds above their odor threshold values detected most often, relative humidity, CAFO, VOC, SVOC, thermal desorption, swine, poultry, air quality, odor. PMID:18546717

  19. Indoor air quality in two urban elementary schools--measurements of airborne fungi, carpet allergens, CO2, temperature, and relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Adgate, John L; Banerjee, Sudipto; Church, Timothy R; Jones, David; Fredrickson, Ann; Sexton, Ken

    2005-11-01

    This article presents measurements of biological contaminants in two elementary schools that serve inner city minority populations. One of the schools is an older building; the other is newer and was designed to minimize indoor air quality problems. Measurements were obtained for airborne fungi, carpet loadings of dust mite allergens, cockroach allergens, cat allergens, and carpet fungi. Carbon dioxide concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity were also measured. Each of these measurements was made in five classrooms in each school over three seasons--fall, winter, and spring. We compared the indoor environments at the two schools and examined the variability in measured parameters between and within schools and across seasons. A fixed-effects, nested analysis was performed to determine the effect of school, season, and room-within-school, as well as CO2, temperature and relative humidity. The levels of all measured parameters were comparable for the two schools. Carpet culturable fungal concentrations and cat allergen levels in the newer school started and remained higher than in the older school over the study period. Cockroach allergen levels in some areas were very high in the newer school and declined over the study period to levels lower than the older school. Dust mite allergen and culturable fungal concentrations in both schools were relatively low compared with benchmark values. The daily averages for temperature and relative humidity frequently did not meet ASHRAE guidelines in either school, which suggests that proper HVAC and general building operation and maintenance procedures are at least as important as proper design and construction for adequate indoor air quality. The results show that for fungi and cat allergens, the school environment can be an important exposure source for children. PMID:16223714

  20. Measurements of VOC/SVOC emission factors from burning incenses in an environmental test chamber: influence of temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    PubMed

    Manoukian, A; Buiron, D; Temime-Roussel, B; Wortham, H; Quivet, E

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of three environmental indoor parameters (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate) on the emission of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) during incense burning. Experiments have been carried out using an environmental test chamber. Statistical results from a classical two-level full factorial design highlight the predominant effect of ventilation on emission factors. The higher the ventilation, the higher the emission factor. Moreover, thanks to these results, an estimation of the concentration range for the compounds under study can be calculated and allows a quick look of indoor pollution induced by incense combustion. Carcinogenic substances (i.e., benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, and formaldehyde) produced from the incense combustion would be predicted in typical living indoors conditions to reach instantaneous concentration levels close to or higher than air quality exposure threshold values. PMID:26614451

  1. Aerosol survival of Pasteurella tularensis and the influence of relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Cox, C S; Goldberg, L J

    1972-01-01

    The aerosol survival in air was determined for Pasteurella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) as a function of relative humidity (RH). Three different preparations of bacteria were used: (i) liquid suspension of P. tularensis LVS in spent culture medium; (ii) powders of P. tularensis LVS freeze-dried in spent culture fluid; (iii) P. tularensis LVS freeze-dried in spent culture fluid and then reconstituted with distilled water and disseminated as a liquid suspension. Preparation (i) gave greatest survival at high RH and lowest survival at intermediate RH. Preparation (ii), in contrast, gave greatest survival at low RH and minimum survival at 81% RH. Preparation (iii) was the same as preparation (i), i.e., the process of freeze-drying and reconstituting with distilled water before aerosol formation had little or no effect upon aerosol survival as a function of RH. Hence, control of aerosol survival appears to be through the water content of P. tularensis LVS at the moment of aerosol generation rather than the water content of the bacteria in the aerosol phase. PMID:4551041

  2. Understanding run-in behavior of diamond-like carbon friction and preventing diamond-like carbon wear in humid air.

    PubMed

    Marino, Matthew J; Hsiao, Erik; Chen, Yongsheng; Eryilmaz, Osman L; Erdemir, Ali; Kim, Seong H

    2011-10-18

    The friction behavior of diamond-like carbon (DLC) is very sensitive to the test environment. For hydrogen-rich DLC tested in dry argon and hydrogen, there was always an induction period, so-called "run-in" period, during which the friction coefficient was high and gradually decreased before DLC showed an ultralow friction coefficient (less than 0.01) behavior. Regardless of friction coefficients and hydrogen contents, small amounts of wear were observed in dry argon, hydrogen, oxygen, and humid argon environments. Surprisingly, there were no wear or rubbing scar on DLC surfaces tested in n-pentanol vapor conditions, although the friction coefficient was relatively high among the five test environments. Ex situ X-ray photoelectron and near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy analyses failed to reveal any differences in chemical composition attributable to the environment dependence of DLC friction and wear. The failure of getting chemical information of oxygenated surface species from the ex situ analysis was found to be due to facile oxidation of the DLC surface upon exposure to air. The removal or wear of this surface oxide layer is responsible for the run-in behavior of DLC. It was discovered that the alcohol vapor can also prevent the oxidized DLC surface from wear in humid air conditions. PMID:21888344

  3. Effect of High Temperature Storage in Vacuum, Air, and Humid Conditions on Degradation of Gold/Aluminum Wire Bonds in PEMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Microcircuits encapsulated in three plastic package styles were stored in different environments at temperatures varying from 130 C to 225 C for up to 4,000 hours in some cases. To assess the effect of oxygen, the parts were aged at high temperatures in air and in vacuum chambers. The effect of humidity was evaluated during long-term highly accelerated temperature and humidity stress testing (HAST) at temperatures of 130 C and 150 C. High temperature storage testing of decapsulated microcircuits in air, vacuum, and HAST chambers was carried out to evaluate the role of molding compounds in the environmentally-induced degradation and failure of wire bonds (WB). This paper reports on accelerating factors of environment and molding compound on WB failures. It has been shown that all environments, including oxygen, moisture, and the presence of molding compounds reduce time-to-failures compared to unencapsulated devices in vacuum conditions. The mechanism of the environmental effect on KB degradation is discussed.

  4. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  5. Temperature and humidity within the clothing microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P J; Mekjavić, I B

    1992-03-01

    The present study investigates clothing microenvironment conditions that may develop during prolonged exposure of workers to a hot environment. Five subjects were exposed to a linear increase in ambient temperature from 20-40 degrees C over a 90-min period, and then remained at 40 degrees C for an additional 90 min. During the exposures, subjects were clad in four types of helicopter personnel suits (Gore-Tex, Cotton Ventile, Nomex/Insulite, and Nomex/Neoprene), incorporating both dry-suit and wet-suit designs. Continuous assessment was made of skin temperature, rectal temperature, and of microenvironment temperature, relative humidity, and vapor pressure (T mu, RH mu, and VP mu) 8 mm from the surface of the skin. Results indicate that although microenvironment temperatures were similar among suits and slightly lower than that of the environment, the RH mu and VP mu were much greater than those of the ambient air. The Nomex/Insulite and Nomex/Neoprene suits showed the highest VP mu, of which only the Nomex/Insulite resulted in significantly greater increases in rectal temperature, likely due to complete covering of the body with the impermeable insulite component. The present study demonstrates the need to discern between the ambient conditions and the conditions encountered next to the skin when protective clothing is worn. PMID:1567319

  6. Report Card on Humidity Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, John C.; Bayer, Charlene

    2003-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62-1999 on outdoor ventilation rates and space humidity levels for schools. Examined conventional cooling versus desiccant-based systems designed to control indoor humidity levels. Discusses the effectiveness of systems…

  7. Effect of Relative Humidity on Formaldehyde Decontamination

    PubMed Central

    Spiner, David R.; Hoffman, Robert K.

    1971-01-01

    Death rate studies were conducted to determine the effect of varying the concentration, humidity, and type of surface on the sporicidal activity of formaldehyde gas. Washed and unwashed spores were similarly exposed to detect the influence of residual nutrient growth medium upon the rate of kill. The results indicated that the sporicidal activity of formaldehyde gas varies directly with its concentration. Relative humidities (RH) over 50% proved essential for sterility. Spores on a porous surface (cotton cloth) were more readily killed at lower RH than those on a nonporous surface (glass). The reverse occurred at very high RH. At 75% RH, the unwashed spores on glass were killed faster than the washed spores. Images PMID:5002898

  8. Validation of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) over the Antarctic Plateau: Low Radiance, Low Humidity, and Thin Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, David C.

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the project has been to use specialized measurements collected at the Antarctic Plateau to provide validation of the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) spectral radiances and some AIRS Level 2 products. As proposed, efforts conducted at the University of Wisconsin are focused on providing technical information, data, and software in support of the validation studies.

  9. Monitoring of cave air temperature and humidity in the Niedźwiedzia Cave system (Sudetes, Poland) - a key to understanding tourists activity impact to cave environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasiorowski, M.; Hercman, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Niedźwiedzia Cave is located in Śnieżnik Massif (the Easter Sudetes, SW Poland) at 800 m a.s.l. The length of known passages is ~3000 m and denivelation is 69 m. The system is composed of 3 levels of passages and chambers. It is a show cave with ~80,000 visitors every year. In 2010 we started monitoring program of cave air temperature and humidity, drip rate, stable isotopes and Uranium and Polonium content in water in selected sites inside the cave and in its vicinity. Changes in dropping rate in upper level are well correlated with precipitation. However, a response of dripping to rainfall depends on former precipitation frequency and intensity - during the humid period the dripping reacts immediately and after long dry period dripping responses with two-weeks delay. There is not so direct correlation between precipitation and dripping in lower level of the system. Air temperature inside the cave is almost stable in lower level (mean annual ~5.3 °C, and annual variation up to 0.7 °C) and more dynamic in the middle level (mean annual ~6.4 °C, and mean annual amplitude up to 4 °C). Daily and weekly measured changes of cave air temperature demonstrate extremely well correlation with number of visitors. In show cave passages (the middle level of the system) temperature increase 0.1-0.2 °C during every day when the cave is open for tourists and such changes is not observed during days without visitors and in lower level of the system closed for tourists. But even short visits of 3-4 cavers are recorded by temperature sensors exposed in the lower level (~0.02 °C increase). It proves very high sensitivity of cave environment to human activity. This study is funded by the National Science Centre and Higher Education grant no. N N306 131038.

  10. UV and humidity sensing properties of ZnO nanorods prepared by the arc discharge method.

    PubMed

    Fang, F; Futter, J; Markwitz, A; Kennedy, J

    2009-06-17

    The UV and humidity sensing properties of ZnO nanorods prepared by arc discharge have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy were carried out to analyze the morphology and optical properties of the as-synthesized ZnO nanorods. Proton induced x-ray emission was used to probe the impurities in the ZnO nanorods. A large quantity of high purity ZnO nanorod structures were obtained with lengths of 0.5-1 microm. The diameters of the as-synthesized ZnO nanorods were found to be between 40 and 400 nm. The nanorods interlace with each other, forming 3D networks which make them suitable for sensing application. The addition of a polymeric film-forming agent (BASF LUVISKOL VA 64) improved the conductivity, as it facilitates the construction of conducting networks. Ultrasonication helped to separate the ZnO nanorods and disperse them evenly through the polymeric agent. Improved photoconductivity was measured for a ZnO nanorod sensor annealed in air at 200 degrees C for 30 min. The ZnO nanorod sensors showed a UV-sensitive photoconduction, where the photocurrent increased by nearly four orders of magnitude from 2.7 x 10(-10) to 1.0 x 10(-6) A at 18 V under 340 nm UV illumination. High humidity sensitivity and good stability were also measured. The resistance of the ZnO nanorod sensor decreased almost linearly with increasing relative humidity (RH). The resistance of the ZnO nanorods changed by approximately five orders of magnitude from 4.35 x 10(11) Omega in dry air (7% RH) to about 4.95 x 10(6) Omega in 95% RH air. It is experimentally demonstrated that ZnO nanorods obtained by the arc discharge method show excellent performance and promise for applications in both UV and humidity sensors. PMID:19468159

  11. Humidity plays an important role in the PM₂.₅ pollution in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuan; He, Ke-bin; Du, Zhen-yu; Zheng, Mei; Duan, Feng-kui; Ma, Yong-liang

    2015-02-01

    Heavily-polluted PM₂.₅ (fine particulate matter) episodes frequently impacting Beijing, especially during winter, have become a substantial concern. We found that during winter, the daily variation of PM2.5 in Beijing tracked the pattern of relative humidity (RH). With the increase of PM₂.₅ (or RH), water-soluble components (especially inorganic ions) became more abundant, and the water-soluble organic carbon to organic carbon ratios increased. The nitrate to sulfate ratios also exhibited dependence on RH, and were higher than those measured about a decade ago, consistent with the increasing trend of nitrogen oxides emissions. Surprisingly, the ratios of water-insoluble organic carbon to elemental carbon showed significant increase at high RH levels, presumably indicating the formation of secondary organic aerosol that is not soluble in water. In addition, humid winters were occasionally identified during 1996-2013 which are expected to be favorable for the formation of air pollution episodes with high PM₂.₅ concentrations. PMID:25497308

  12. Comparison of Single-Point and Continuous Sampling Methods for Estimating Residential Indoor Temperature and Humidity.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Magnusson, Brianna M; Eggett, Dennis; Collingwood, Scott C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Residential temperature and humidity are associated with multiple health effects. Studies commonly use single-point measures to estimate indoor temperature and humidity exposures, but there is little evidence to support this sampling strategy. This study evaluated the relationship between single-point and continuous monitoring of air temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity over four exposure intervals (5-min, 30-min, 24-hr, and 12-days) in 9 northern Utah homes, from March-June 2012. Three homes were sampled twice, for a total of 12 observation periods. Continuous data-logged sampling was conducted in homes for 2-3 wks, and simultaneous single-point measures (n = 114) were collected using handheld thermo-hygrometers. Time-centered single-point measures were moderately correlated with short-term (30-min) data logger mean air temperature (r = 0.76, β = 0.74), apparent temperature (r = 0.79, β = 0.79), relative humidity (r = 0.70, β = 0.63), and absolute humidity (r = 0.80, β = 0.80). Data logger 12-day means were also moderately correlated with single-point air temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.43) and apparent temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.44), but were weakly correlated with single-point relative humidity (r = 0.53, β = 0.35) and absolute humidity (r = 0.52, β = 0.39). Of the single-point RH measures, 59 (51.8%) deviated more than ±5%, 21 (18.4%) deviated more than ±10%, and 6 (5.3%) deviated more than ±15% from data logger 12-day means. Where continuous indoor monitoring is not feasible, single-point sampling strategies should include multiple measures collected at prescribed time points based on local conditions. PMID:26030088

  13. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    SciTech Connect

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  14. Thermal comfort in the humid tropics: Field experiments in air conditioned and naturally ventilated buildings in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Dear, R. J.; Leow, K. G.; Foo, S. C.

    1991-12-01

    Thermal comfort field experiments were conducted in Singapore in both naturally ventilated highrise residential buildings and air conditioned office buildings. Each of the 818 questionnaire responses was made simultaneously with a detailed set of indoor climatic measurements, and estimates of clothing insulation and metabolic rate. Results for the air conditioned sample indicated that office buildings were overcooled, causing up to one-third of their occupants to experience cool thermal comfort sensations. These observations in air conditioned buildings were broadly consistent with the ISO, ASHRAE and Singapore indoor climatic standards. Indoor climates of the naturally ventilated apartments during the day and early evening were on average three degrees warmer than the ISO comfort standard prescriptions, but caused much less thermal discomfort than expected. Discrepancies between thermal comfort responses in apartment blocks and office buildings are discussed in terms of contemporary perceptual theory.

  15. A Simple Drought Product and Indicator Derived from Temperature and Relative Humidity Observed by the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, S. L.; Behrangi, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the United States, drought results in agricultural losses, impacts to industry, power and energy production, natural resources, municipal water supplies and human health making it one of the costliest natural hazards in the nation. Monitoring drought is therefore critical to help local governments, resource managers, and other groups make effective decisions, yet there is no single definition of drought, and because of the complex nature of drought there is no universal best drought indicator. Remote sensing applications in drought monitoring are advantageous due to the large spatial and temporal frequency of observations, leading to a better understanding of the spatial extent of drought and its duration, and in detecting the onset of drought and its intensity. NASA Earth Observing System (EOS)-era data have potential for monitoring and assessing drought and many are already used either directly or indirectly for drought monitoring. Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensor are widely used for agricultural and environmental plant-stress monitoring via the USDM, the VegDRI project and FEWSNet. However there remain underutilized sources of information from NASA satellite observations that may have promise for characterizing and understanding meteorological drought. Once such sensor is NASA's Advanced Infra-Red Sounder (AIRS) aboard the Aqua satellite. AIRS and it's sister sensor the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) that together provide meteorological information of high relevance to meteorological drought, e.g., profiles of water vapor, surface air temperature, and precipitation. Recent work undertaken to develop simple indicators of drought based on temperature and relative humidity from the AIRS suite of instruments is promising. Although there are more sophisticated indicators developed through the application of a variety of

  16. Hybrid Type Humidity Control System Coupling a Desiccant Rotor in a Refrigeration Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horibe, Akihiko; Takaki, Sadao; Inaba, Hideo; Haruki, Naoto

    This paper describes a new hybrid humidity control system that combines a desiccant rotor with a vapor compression refrigerator. This rotor uses a kind of advanced sorbent and desorption at low temperature below 50°C is possible. Therefore the rotor can be recovered by exhaust heat of a condenser. Applying the new hybrid system, we installed an experimental prototype and investigated its performance. As a result, dehumidification can be achieved even if the absolute humidity of the processing air is less than 0.002 kg/kg'. This suggests that water can be taken out from the exhausting air to humidify the returning air in winter. Furthermore, dehumidification efficiency is 4.1kg/kWh, system COP1.8 for the processing air 30°C, 62%RH. That corresponds with the summer weather condition. If it is winter, the dehumidification efficiency is 1.9kg/kWh, system COP0.97 for the processing air 22°C, 50%RH.

  17. Radiative-dynamical and microphysical processes of thin cirrus clouds controlling humidity of air entering the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Tra; Fueglistaler, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Thin cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) are of great interest due to their role in the control of water vapor and temperature in the TTL. Previous research on TTL cirrus clouds has focussed mainly on microphysical processes, specifically the ice nucleation mechanism and dehydration efficiency. Here, we use a cloud resolving model to analyse the sensitivity of TTL cirrus characteristics and impacts with respect to microphysical and radiative processes. A steady-state TTL cirrus cloud field is obtained in the model forced with dynamical conditions typical for the TTL (2-dimensional setup with a Kelvin-wave temperature perturbation). Our model results show that the dehydration efficiency (as given by the domain average relative humidity in the layer of cloud occurrence) is relatively insensitive to the ice nucleation mechanism, i.e. homogeneous versus heterogeneous nucleation. Rather, TTL cirrus affect the water vapor entering the stratosphere via an indirect effect associated with the cloud radiative heating and dynamics. Resolving the cloud radiative heating and the radiatively induced circulations approximately doubles the domain average ice mass. The cloud radiative heating is proportional to the domain average ice mass, and the observed increase in domain average ice mass induces a domain average temperature increase of a few Kelvin. The corresponding increase in water vapor entering the stratosphere is estimated to be about 30 to 40%.

  18. Swelling of polyelectrolyte and polyzwitterion brushes by humid vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzer, Jan; Galvin, Casey; Dimitriou, Michael; Satija, Sushil

    2015-03-01

    Swelling behavior of polyelectrolyte and polyzwitterion brushes derived from poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) in water vapor is investigated using a combination of neutron and X-ray reflectivity and spectroscopic ellipsometry over a wide range of relative humidity (RH) levels. The extent of swelling depends strongly on the nature of the side-chain chemistry. For parent PDMAEMA, there is an apparent enrichment of vapor at the polymer/air interface. Despite extensive swelling at high humidity level, no evidence of charge repulsion is found in weak or strong polyelectrolyte brushes. Polyzwitterionic brushes swell to a greater extent than the quaternized brushes studied. However, for RH levels beyond 70%, the polyzwitterionic brushes start to exclude water molecules, leading to a decline in water volume fraction from the maximum of 0.30 down to 0.10. Using a gradient in polymer chain grafting density, we provide evidence that this behavior stems from the formation of inter- and intramolecular zwitterionic complexes.

  19. A 400 year reconstruction of July relative air humidity for the region Vienna (eastern Austria) based on carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios in tree-ring latewood cellulose of oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, M.; Boettger, T.; Weigl, M.; Grabner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Stable isotope chronologies and correlation to climate. We present the stable isotope chronologies of carbon (^13Clw) and oxygen (^18Olw) for the period from 1600 to 2003 respectively of non-exchangeable hydrogen (^2Hlw) for the last century constructed base upon tree-ring latewood cellulose from oaks (Quercus petraea Matt. Liebl.) grown in the region Vienna (Austria). The stable isotope ratios correspond mainly to the summer climate conditions. For the calibration period (1900-2003) we found high significant correlations (p < 0.001) between ^13Clw and relative air humidity (RH) of July (-0.66), between ^18Olw and RHV I-V II (-0.61) and between ^2Hlw and RHV I-V III(-0.56). In the case of temperatures high significant correlations between the growing season temperature and ^13Clw (0.55), between the annual mean temperatures and ^18Olw ratios (0.45) and between summer mean temperatures (June to August) and ^2Hlw values (0.49) were estimated. Modeling. Various univariate and multivariate linear regressions models were proved for the reconstruction of summer relative air humidity and temperature. We found that establishing of robust models had several uncertainties: - using common linear transfer functions which oversimplify the complexity of relations; - using of pooled material and neglecting of different reactions from individual trees to climate; - high-order autocorrelations in the isotope time series; - climatic trends in the investigated region which are different in the first and in the second half of 20th century; - temporal instability of climate signals in the isotope ratios of tree ring cellulose. In the case of temperature no valid model could be estimated caused by temporal instabilities of signal strength. For relative air humidity two bivariate models RHV II = (-4.3 ± 0.7) * ^13Clw + (-2.8 ± 0.5) * ^18Olw + 44 [1] and RHV II = (-4.7 ± 0.7) * ^13Clw + (-0.35 ± 0.07) * ^2Hlw - 68 [2] were found as verifiable and applicable to reconstruct RHV II

  20. A 400 year reconstruction of July relative air humidity for the region Vienna (eastern Austria) based on carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios in tree-ring latewood cellulose of oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, M.; Boettger, T.; Weigl, M.; Grabner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Stable isotope chronologies and correlation to climate. We present the stable isotope chronologies of carbon (^13Clw) and oxygen (^18Olw) for the period from 1600 to 2003 respectively of non-exchangeable hydrogen (^2Hlw) for the last century constructed base upon tree-ring latewood cellulose from oaks (Quercus petraea Matt. Liebl.) grown in the region Vienna (Austria). The stable isotope ratios correspond mainly to the summer climate conditions. For the calibration period (1900-2003) we found high significant correlations (p < 0.001) between ^13Clw and relative air humidity (RH) of July (-0.66), between ^18Olw and RHV I-V II (-0.61) and between ^2Hlw and RHV I-V III(-0.56). In the case of temperatures high significant correlations between the growing season temperature and ^13Clw (0.55), between the annual mean temperatures and ^18Olw ratios (0.45) and between summer mean temperatures (June to August) and ^2Hlw values (0.49) were estimated. Modeling. Various univariate and multivariate linear regressions models were proved for the reconstruction of summer relative air humidity and temperature. We found that establishing of robust models had several uncertainties: - using common linear transfer functions which oversimplify the complexity of relations; - using of pooled material and neglecting of different reactions from individual trees to climate; - high-order autocorrelations in the isotope time series; - climatic trends in the investigated region which are different in the first and in the second half of 20th century; - temporal instability of climate signals in the isotope ratios of tree ring cellulose. In the case of temperature no valid model could be estimated caused by temporal instabilities of signal strength. For relative air humidity two bivariate models RHV II = (-4.3 ± 0.7) * ^13Clw + (-2.8 ± 0.5) * ^18Olw + 44 [1] and RHV II = (-4.7 ± 0.7) * ^13Clw + (-0.35 ± 0.07) * ^2Hlw - 68 [2] were found as verifiable and applicable to reconstruct RHV II

  1. Determination of partition and diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity (journal)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50% and 70% RH). A dynamic dual-chamber test meth...

  2. Determination of partition and diffusion coefficient of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50% and 70% RH). A dynamic dual-chamber test meth...

  3. Rh Incompatibility (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this information early in your pregnancy. About the Rh Factor People with different blood types have proteins specific ... on the surface of RBCs that indicates the Rh factor. If you carry this protein, you are Rh ...

  4. Novel polyimide coated fiber Bragg grating sensing network for relative humidity measurements.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wei; Yang, Minghong; Dai, Jixiang; Yu, Haihu; Wang, Gaopeng; Qi, Chongjie

    2016-02-22

    A novel relative humidity (RH) sensing network based on ultra-weak fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is proposed and demonstrated. Experiment is demonstrated on a 5 serial ultra-weak FBGs sensing network chopped from a fiber array with 1124 FBGs. Experimental results show that the corresponding RH sensitivity varies from 1.134 to 1.832 pm/%RH when ambient environmental RH changes from 23.8%RH to 83.4%RH. The low-reflectance FBGs and time-division multiplexing (TDM) technology makes it possible to multiplex thousands of RH sensors in single optical fiber. PMID:26906986

  5. Characterization of a Sulfonated Polycarbonate Resistive Humidity Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Rubinger, Carla P.L.; Calado, Hallen D.R.; Rubinger, Rero M.; Oliveira, Henrique; Donnici, Claudio L.

    2013-01-01

    In this work; resistive moisture sensors were obtained by dip coating sulfonated polycarbonate (SPC) onto silver interdigitated electrodes. Commercial polycarbonate was sulfonated with acetyl sulphate at two different sulfonation degrees corresponding to 9.0 and 18.0 mole %. Impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the humidity sensing properties at controlled relative humidity (RH%) environments generated from standard saline solutions in the range of 11–90 RH%. For the highest sulfonated sample; in the RH% range investigated (11 to 90%); the sensor impedance changed from 4.7 MΩ to 18 kΩ. Humidity sensors made from sulfonated polycarbonate showed exponential decay behavior of the impedance at constant frequency with the environmental relative humidity. Sample 9SPC presented dielectric relaxation response for environmental humidity between 58 and 90 RH% while sample 18SPC presented dielectric relaxation response for the entire measured range between 11 and 90 RH%. Sulfonated polycarbonate could be a promising material for the fabrication of simple and cheap humidity-sensing sensors for the assessment of relative humidity of the surrounding environment, as suggested by experimental results. PMID:23385415

  6. The Russian National Standard of Gases Humidity and Traceability System of Humidity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovikov, N. I.; Podmurnaya, O. A.; Skryabikov, N. P.; Sokov, I. A.; Vinge, A. F.

    2016-05-01

    The Russian national humidity standard of gases has been modernized in order to increase the number of reproducible quantities of humidity (relative humidity, dew/frost-point temperature, mole fraction) and to extend the humidity and operating temperature ranges. The basis of the standard comprises two humidity generators with operating temperature ranges from 5 ^{circ }hbox {C} to 90 ^{circ }hbox {C} and from -60 ^{circ }hbox {C} to 15 ^{circ }hbox {C}. The common working range (from 5 ^{circ }hbox {C} to 15 ^{circ }hbox {C}) allows comparison of the generators. The generators use the two-pressure method to generate humid gas defined in terms of the relative humidity (from 5 %rh to 98 %rh at temperatures from 90 ^{circ }hbox {C} to -60 ^{circ }hbox {C}) and the one-pressure (or phase equilibrium) method to generate humid gas defined in terms of the vapor mole fraction (from 0.6 ppm to 700× 103 ppm) and dew/frost-point temperature (from -79 ^{circ }hbox {C} to 90 ^{circ }hbox {C}). The expanded uncertainty in the relative humidity is no more than 0.2 %rh, no more than 1.2 % in the vapor mole fraction, and no more than 0.12 ^{circ }hbox {C} in the dew/frost-point temperature. The ordinary hygrometers are traceable to the national primary standard in accordance with the state hierarchical chain for measuring means of gas humidity. The state hierarchical chain consists of three branches for means of measurements: (a) mole fraction, (b) dew/frost-point temperature, and (c) relative humidity with each branch represented as the scheme: primary standard-secondary standard-working standard-ordinary hygrometer. Calibration and verification of working standards and ordinary hygrometers, and their traceability to the primary standard use methods of (i) direct measurements, (ii) direct comparison, or (iii) comparison with a comparator.

  7. Relative humidity preference and survival of starved Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) at various temperature and relative humidity conditions.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Bal K; Henderson, Gregg

    2011-10-01

    Foraging groups of Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were tested for their relative humidity (RH) preference in a humidity gradient arena in the laboratory at a constant temperature of 26°C. Five RH levels (9%, 33%, 53%, 75%, and 98%) were maintained in the test arena comprising of a series of closed containers by using dry silica gel, saturated salt solutions, or distilled water alone. Termites gradually aggregated to the highest RH chamber in the arena. After 1 h, a significantly greater percentage of termites (≈46%) aggregated to the highest RH chamber (98%) than to the lower RH chambers (≤75%). After 12 h, > 97% of the termites aggregated to the 98% RH chamber. In survival tests, where termites were exposed to 15 combinatorial treatments of five RH levels (9%, 33%, 53%, 75%, and 98%) and three temperatures (20°C, 28°C, and 36°C) for a week, the survival was significantly influenced by RH, temperature, and their interaction. A significantly higher mortality was observed on termites exposed to ≤75% RH chambers than to 98% RH chamber at the three temperatures and significantly lower survival was found at 36°C than at 28°C or 20°C. The combination of temperature and RH plays an important role in the survival of C. formosanus. PMID:22251734

  8. Effect of humidity on lung surfactant films subjected to dynamic compression/expansion cycles.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Edgar J; Gitiafroz, Roya; Zuo, Yi Y; Policova, Zdenka; Cox, Peter N; Hair, Michael L; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2007-03-15

    The surface activity of bovine lipid extracted surfactant (BLES) preparations used in surfactant replacement therapy is studied in dynamic film compression/expansion cycles as a function of relative humidity, surfactant concentration, compression rate, and compression periodicity. BLES droplets were formed in a constrained sessile droplet configuration (CSD). Images obtained during cycling were analyzed using axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) to yield surface tension, surface area, and drop volume data. The experiments were conducted in a chamber that allowed both humid (100% RH), and "dry" air (i.e. less than 20% RH) environments. It was observed that in humid environments BLES films are not stable and tend to have poor surface activity compared to BLES films exposed to dry air. Further analysis of the data reveal that if BLES films are compressed fast enough (i.e. at physiological conditions) to avoid film hydration, lower minimum surface tensions are achieved. A film hydration-relaxation mechanism is proposed to explain these observations. PMID:16877051

  9. Effects of Thermal Mass, Window Size, and Night-Time Ventilation on Peak Indoor Air Temperature in the Warm-Humid Climate of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Amos-Abanyie, S.; Akuffo, F. O.; Kutin-Sanwu, V.

    2013-01-01

    Most office buildings in the warm-humid sub-Saharan countries experience high cooling load because of the predominant use of sandcrete blocks which are of low thermal mass in construction and extensive use of glazing. Relatively, low night-time temperatures are not harnessed in cooling buildings because office openings remain closed after work hours. An optimization was performed through a sensitivity analysis-based simulation, using the Energy Plus (E+) simulation software to assess the effects of thermal mass, window size, and night ventilation on peak indoor air temperature (PIAT). An experimental system was designed based on the features of the most promising simulation model, constructed and monitored, and the experimental data used to validate the simulation model. The results show that an optimization of thermal mass and window size coupled with activation of night-time ventilation provides a synergistic effect to obtain reduced peak indoor air temperature. An expression that predicts, indoor maximum temperature has been derived for models of various thermal masses. PMID:23878528

  10. A logical extension of the ASTM Standard E96 to determine the dependence of water vapor transmission on relative humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Lackey, J.C.; Marchand, R.G.; Kumaran, M.K.

    1997-11-01

    It is well known that the water vapor transmission properties of hygroscopic building materials depend on the local relative humidities(rh). Traditionally, the ASTM Standard E96 specifies only two conditions of rh. The dry cup method in the standard corresponds to a mean rh of 25% and the wet cup to 75%. This information is not enough to describe the behavior of the material through the entire range of rh. European Standards have already proposed an extension of the existing standard to address this issue. ASTM standard should follow this change. A logical extension of the E96 standard to include the effect of rh on water vapor transmission properties has been proposed and is being discussed by one of the C16 Committee Task Groups. This paper presents the application of the proposed extension to several common building materials. The details include the operating principles of a constant temperature-rh chamber and the effects on the test results, of the vapor resistance offered by still air inside the cup, the surface resistances and buoyancy. The experimental data were used to critically assess the above effects. The data as well as the analyses of the data are expected to provide guidance to refine the existing ASTM Standard.

  11. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity, and wind speed on seminal traits in Braford and Nellore bulls at the Brazilian Pantanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegassi, Silvio Renato Oliveira; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Bremm, Carolina; Koetz, Celso; Lopes, Flávio Guiselli; Fiorentini, Eduardo Custódio; McManus, Concepta; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; da Rocha, Marcela Kuczynski; Lopes, Rubia Branco; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioclimatic thermal stress assessed by Equivalent Temperature Index (ETI) and Temperature Humidity Index (THI) on Braford and Nellore bulls sperm quality during the reproductive seasons at the tropical region in the Brazilian Pantanal. We used 20 bulls aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Five ejaculates per animal were collected using an electroejaculator. Temperature, air humidity, and wind speed data were collected every hour from the automatic weather station at the National Institute of Meteorology. Infrared thermography images data were collected to assess the testicular temperature gradient in each animal. Data were analyzed with ANOVA using MIXED procedure of SAS and means were compared using Tukey's HSD test. The THI and ETI at 12 days (epididymal transit) were higher in January (89.7 and 28.5, respectively) and February (90.0 and 29.0, respectively) compared to other months (P < 0.01). Total seminal defects differ only in Bradford bulls between the months of November and February. Nellore bulls had lower major defects (MaD) and total defects (TD) compared to Braford. Nellore bulls showed correlation between minor defects (MiD) and THI for 30 days (0.90) and 18 days (0.88; P < 0.05). Braford bulls showed correlation for MaD (0.89) in ETI for 12 days (P < 0.05). Infrared thermography showed no difference between animals. Reproductive response to environmental changes is a consequence of Nellore and Braford adaptation to climate stress conditions. Both THI and ETI environmental indexes can be used to evaluate the morphological changes in the seminal parameters in Nellore or Braford bulls; however, more experiments should be performed focusing on larger sample numbers and also in reproductive assessment during the consecutive years to assess fertility potential.

  12. Nanocomposite polyacrylamide based open cavity fiber Fabry-Perot humidity sensor.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Zhu, Tao; Duan, De-Wen; Deng, Ming

    2012-11-01

    A humidity sensor with a low temperature sensitivity is proposed and demonstrated by coating a nanocomposite hygrometer polyacrylamide in an open interferometric cavity of a fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer. In this paper the Fabry-Perot structure is formed by splicing one short section of single mode fiber between two sections of single mode fiber with a larger offset fusing method. Experimental results show that relative humidity (RH) sensitivity of the sensor is ∼0.1 nm/(1% RH) in the range of 38% to 78% RH and ∼5.868 nm/(1%RH) in the range of 88% to 98% RH, respectively. PMID:23128715

  13. Humidity response of the Eberline model PAC-7 alpha instrument

    SciTech Connect

    McAtee, J.L.

    1981-04-01

    Response of the Eberline Model PAC-7 alpha instrument under varying relative humidity (RH) and temperature conditions was studied in an environmental chamber. Electric discharges resulting in spurious counts or in instrument paralysis occurred at 35 to 50% RH. Improvement in the RH level tolerated by the PAC-7 alpha instrument was obtained by conformal coating of the high-voltage region of the printed circuit (PC) board. Following this treatment, electric discharges occurred only at relatively high humidity levels and then as a result of high-voltage breakdown within the AC-24C probe rather than within the PC board.

  14. Effects of Humidity on Aerosols in Southern Africa during the Biomass Burning Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magi, Brian I.; Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the aerosol total light scattering coefficient, asp, and the aerosol hemispheric backscatter ratio, p(1), as functions of relative humidity (RH in %) (so-called humidographs) at three wavelengths (450,550, and 700 nm) were obtained in the dry season in southern Africa (1) in ambient air in South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique and Zambia, (2) at various distances downwind in identifiable smoke plumes from biomass fires, and (3) along the southwest coast of Africa. The ratio of sigma(sub sp) at an RH of 80% to that at 30% provides a measure of the effects of RH on sigma(sub sp), and similarly for Beta(1). For the three broad sampling categories given above, and at a wavelength of 550 nm, these ratios varied from 1.42 +/- 0.05 to 2.07 +/- 0.03 for sigma(sub sp), and from 0.69 +/- 0.05 to 0.99 +/- 0.14 for Beta(1). In general, humidographs for the ambient air samples showed a greater dependence on RH than those for smoke from identifiable biomass fires. During a period when dense, aged smoke was transported to the region from the north, the humidographs for sigma(sub sp) for ambient air samples were similar to those for identifiable smoke plume samples just approximately 10- to 50-min old. This suggests that as far as the effects of RH on sigma(sub sp) are concerned the effects of aging of smoke and its mixing with ambient air are realized within less than about an hour.

  15. Indoor humidity and human health. Part 1: Literature review of health effects of humidity-influenced indoor pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Baughman, A.V.; Arens, E.A.

    1996-11-01

    Standards for indoor thermal conditions and ventilation include upper limits for relative humidity (RH) that typically are in the range of 60% to 80% RH. Although the reasons for the limits are often not explicitly stated, it is generally known that they were set out of concern for the health effects that might occur should the humidity become too high. The primary health effects of high humidity are caused by the growth and spread of biotic agents, although humidity interactions with nonbiotic pollutants, such as formaldehyde, may also cause adverse effects. This literature review identifies the most important health issues associated with high humidities and presents humidity requirements, typical contamination sites within buildings, and remediation measures for each pollutant. Part two of the paper addresses the physical causes of moisture-related problems in buildings.

  16. Improving Comfort in Hot-Humid Climates with a Whole-House Dehumidifier, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Maintaining comfort in a home can be challenging in hot-humid climates. At the common summer temperature set point of 75 degrees F, the perceived air temperature can vary by 11 degrees F because higher indoor humidity reduces comfort. Often the air conditioner (AC) thermostat set point is lower than the desirable cooling level to try to increase moisture removal so that the interior air is not humid or "muggy." However, this method is not always effective in maintaining indoor relative humidity (RH) or comfort. In order to quantify the performance of a combined whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) AC system, researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America team Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored the operation of two Lennox AC systems coupled with a Honeywell DH150 TrueDRY whole-house dehumidifier for a six-month period. By using a WHD to control moisture levels (latent cooling) and optimizing a central AC to control temperature (sensible cooling), improvements in comfort can be achieved while reducing utility costs. Indoor comfort for this study was defined as maintaining indoor conditions at below 60% RH and a humidity ratio of 0.012 lbm/lbm while at common dry bulb set point temperatures of 74 degrees -80 degrees F. In addition to enhanced comfort, controlling moisture to these levels can reduce the risk of other potential issues such as mold growth, pests, and building component degradation. Because a standard AC must also reduce dry bulb air temperature in order to remove moisture, a WHD is typically needed to support these latent loads when sensible heat removal is not desired.

  17. Influence of air pressure, humidity, solar radiation, temperature, and wind speed on ambulatory visits due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Bavaria, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Uta; Exner, Teresa; Wanka, Eva R.; Bergemann, Christoph; Meyer-Arnek, Julian; Hildenbrand, Beate; Tufman, Amanda; Heumann, Christian; Huber, Rudolf M.; Bittner, Michael; Fischer, Rainald

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. The disease is often aggravated by periods of increased symptoms requiring medical attention. Among the possible triggers for these exacerbations, meteorological factors are under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of various meteorological factors on the health status of patients with COPD. For this purpose, the daily number of ambulatory care visits due to COPD was analysed in Bavaria, Germany, for the years 2006 and 2007. The meteorological factors were provided by the model at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). For the multivariate analysis, a generalised linear model was used. In Bavaria, an increase of 1% of daily consultations (about 103 visits per day) was found to be associated with a change of 0.72 K temperature, 209.55 of log air surface pressure in Pa, and a decrease of 1% of daily consultations with 1,453,763 Ws m2 of solar radiation. There also seem to be regional differences between north and south Bavaria; for instance, the effect of wind speed and specific humidity with a lag of 1 day were only significant in the north. This study could contribute to a tool for the prevention of exacerbations. It also serves as a model for the further evaluation of the impact of meteorological factors on health, and could easily be applied to other diseases or other regions.

  18. A theoretical model for {sup 222}Rn adsorption on activated charcoal canisters in humid air based on Polanyi`s potential theory

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpitta, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Water vapor interferes with adsorption {sup 222}Rn gas by passive activated charcoal devices used to estimate indoor air concentrations. The {sup 222}Rn adsorption coefficient is the fundamental parameter characterizing charcoal`s ability to adsorb {sup 222}Rn. The Dubinin-Radushkevich equation, based on Polanyi`s potential theory, was modified to include two terms quantifying the effect of both water vapor and sampling time on the {sup 222}Rn adsorption coefficient of passive charcoal devices. A single equation was derived that quantities the {sup 222}Rn adsorption coefficients at any temperature, humidity and exposure time using six experimentally determined physical constants that are unique for a particular passive charcoal device. The theoretical model was verified with published experimental data, and it showed a good correlation between theory and experiment. The model proved to be consistent with experimental data, provided that the amount of water vapor adsorbed by the charcoal device during sampling remains below a critical level, termed the breakpoint. 44 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Influence of air pressure, humidity, solar radiation, temperature, and wind speed on ambulatory visits due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Bavaria, Germany.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Uta; Exner, Teresa; Wanka, Eva R; Bergemann, Christoph; Meyer-Arnek, Julian; Hildenbrand, Beate; Tufman, Amanda; Heumann, Christian; Huber, Rudolf M; Bittner, Michael; Fischer, Rainald

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. The disease is often aggravated by periods of increased symptoms requiring medical attention. Among the possible triggers for these exacerbations, meteorological factors are under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of various meteorological factors on the health status of patients with COPD. For this purpose, the daily number of ambulatory care visits due to COPD was analysed in Bavaria, Germany, for the years 2006 and 2007. The meteorological factors were provided by the model at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). For the multivariate analysis, a generalised linear model was used. In Bavaria, an increase of 1% of daily consultations (about 103 visits per day) was found to be associated with a change of 0.72 K temperature, 209.55 of log air surface pressure in Pa, and a decrease of 1% of daily consultations with 1,453,763 Ws m(2) of solar radiation. There also seem to be regional differences between north and south Bavaria; for instance, the effect of wind speed and specific humidity with a lag of 1 day were only significant in the north. This study could contribute to a tool for the prevention of exacerbations. It also serves as a model for the further evaluation of the impact of meteorological factors on health, and could easily be applied to other diseases or other regions. PMID:21301889

  20. Energy and economic assessment of desiccant cooling systems coupled with single glazed air and hybrid PV/thermal solar collectors for applications in hot and humid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Beccali, Marco; Finocchiaro, Pietro; Nocke, Bettina

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the energy and economic performance of desiccant cooling systems (DEC) equipped with both single glazed standard air and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/t) collectors for applications in hot and humid climates. The use of 'solar cogeneration' by means of PV/t hybrid collectors enables the simultaneous production of electricity and heat, which can be directly used by desiccant air handling units, thereby making it possible to achieve very energy savings. The present work shows the results of detailed simulations conducted for a set of desiccant cooling systems operating without any heat storage. System performance was investigated through hourly simulations for different systems and load combinations. Three configurations of DEC systems were considered: standard DEC, DEC with an integrated heat pump and DEC with an enthalpy wheel. Two kinds of building occupations were considered: office and lecture room. Moreover, three configurations of solar-assisted air handling units (AHU) equipped with desiccant wheels were considered and compared with standard AHUs, focusing on achievable primary energy savings. The relationship between the solar collector's area and the specific primary energy consumption for different system configurations and building occupation patterns is described. For both occupation patterns, sensitivity analysis on system performance was performed for different solar collector areas. Also, this work presents an economic assessment of the systems. The cost of conserved energy and the payback time were calculated, with and without public incentives for solar cooling systems. It is worth noting that the use of photovoltaics, and thus the exploitation of related available incentives in many European countries, could positively influence the spread of solar air cooling technologies (SAC). An outcome of this work is that SAC systems equipped with PV/t collectors are shown to have better performance in terms of

  1. Hygroscopic properties and extinction of aerosol particles at ambient relative humidity in South-Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, H.; Cheng, Y. F.; Birmili, W.; Nowak, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Herrmann, H.; Althausen, D.; Ansmann, A.; Engelmann, R.; Tesche, M.; Wendisch, M.; Zhang, Y. H.; Hu, M.; Liu, S.; Zeng, L. M.

    During the "Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over Pearl River Delta 2004 (PRIDE-PRD2004)" hygroscopic properties of particles in the diameter range 22 nm to 10μm were determined. For that purpose, a Humidifying Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (H-DMPS) and a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposition Impactor (MOUDI) were operated. The derived size-dependent particle hygroscopic growth factors were interpolated to ambient relative humidity (RH) and used to calculate the particle number size distributions (PNSDs) at ambient conditions. A comparison between the modeled particle extinction coefficients (σ) and those observed with a Raman lidar was made. It is shown that the particle extinction coefficient ( σext) at ambient RH can be properly estimated with Mie-model calculations based on the in situ physico-chemical measurements of dry and humidified PNSD and chemical composition.

  2. The influence of relative humidity on iron corrosion under proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapuerta, S.; Bérerd, N.; Moncoffre, N.; Millard-Pinard, N.; Jaffrézic, H.; Crusset, D.; Féron, D.

    2008-03-01

    With regard to the storage for high-level radioactive waste and the reversible period of a geological repository, the influence of proton irradiation on the indoor atmospheric corrosion of iron has been investigated in relation to the relative humidity (RH) in the atmosphere. Irradiation experiments were performed using a 3-MeV extracted proton beam. Relative humidity varies from 0% to 85%. Before and after each irradiation, the surfaces of the sample were characterised by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in order to determine oxygen concentrations in the metal. The maximum oxidation rate was observed for 45% RH in air under proton irradiation and was compared with literature data without irradiation where the maximum oxidation rate was observed at 95% RH. The experimental results are discussed on the basis of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) model: they are explained by the contrast between the adsorption of O 2 and H 2O species on the active cathodic sites of the iron surface and by the formation of H +(H 2O) n.

  3. High Humidity Leads to Loss of Infectious Influenza Virus from Simulated Coughs

    PubMed Central

    Noti, John D.; Blachere, Francoise M.; McMillen, Cynthia M.; Lindsley, William G.; Kashon, Michael L.; Slaughter, Denzil R.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of relative humidity in the aerosol transmission of influenza was examined in a simulated examination room containing coughing and breathing manikins. Methods Nebulized influenza was coughed into the examination room and Bioaerosol samplers collected size-fractionated aerosols (<1 µM, 1–4 µM, and >4 µM aerodynamic diameters) adjacent to the breathing manikin’s mouth and also at other locations within the room. At constant temperature, the RH was varied from 7–73% and infectivity was assessed by the viral plaque assay. Results Total virus collected for 60 minutes retained 70.6–77.3% infectivity at relative humidity ≤23% but only 14.6–22.2% at relative humidity ≥43%. Analysis of the individual aerosol fractions showed a similar loss in infectivity among the fractions. Time interval analysis showed that most of the loss in infectivity within each aerosol fraction occurred 0–15 minutes after coughing. Thereafter, losses in infectivity continued up to 5 hours after coughing, however, the rate of decline at 45% relative humidity was not statistically different than that at 20% regardless of the aerosol fraction analyzed. Conclusion At low relative humidity, influenza retains maximal infectivity and inactivation of the virus at higher relative humidity occurs rapidly after coughing. Although virus carried on aerosol particles <4 µM have the potential for remaining suspended in air currents longer and traveling further distances than those on larger particles, their rapid inactivation at high humidity tempers this concern. Maintaining indoor relative humidity >40% will significantly reduce the infectivity of aerosolized virus. PMID:23460865

  4. Humidity-dependent compression-induced glass transition of the air-water interfacial Langmuir films of poly(D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid) (PLGA).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Chang; Lee, Hoyoung; Jung, Hyunjung; Choi, Yun Hwa; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Bang, Joona; Won, You-Yeon

    2015-07-28

    Constant rate compression isotherms of the air-water interfacial Langmuir films of poly(D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid) (PLGA) show a distinct feature of an exponential increase in surface pressure in the high surface polymer concentration regime. We have previously demonstrated that this abrupt increase in surface pressure is linked to the glass transition of the polymer film, but the detailed mechanism of this process is not fully understood. In order to obtain a molecular-level understanding of this behavior, we performed extensive characterizations of the surface mechanical, structural and rheological properties of Langmuir PLGA films at the air-water interface, using combined experimental techniques including the Langmuir film balance, X-ray reflectivity and double-wall-ring interfacial rheometry methods. We observed that the mechanical and structural responses of the Langmuir PLGA films are significantly dependent on the rate of film compression; the glass transition was induced in the PLGA film only at fast compression rates. Surprisingly, we found that this deformation rate dependence is also dependent on the humidity of the environment. With water acting as a plasticizer for the PLGA material, the diffusion of water molecules through the PLGA film seems to be the key factor in the determination of the glass transformation properties and thus the mechanical response of the PLGA film against lateral compression. Based on our combined results, we hypothesize the following mechanism for the compression-induced glass transformation of the Langmuir PLGA film; (1) initially, a humidified/non-glassy PLGA film is formed in the full surface-coverage region (where the surface pressure shows a plateau) during compression; (2) further compression leads to the collapse of the PLGA chains and the formation of new surfaces on the air side of the film, and this newly formed top layer of the PLGA film is transiently glassy in character because the water evaporation rate

  5. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, J L; Schwartz, J; Dockery, D W

    2014-02-01

    Many studies report an association between outdoor ambient weather and health. Outdoor conditions may be a poor indicator of personal exposure because people spend most of their time indoors. Few studies have examined how indoor conditions relate to outdoor ambient weather. The average indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity (RH), and absolute humidity (AH) measured in 16 homes in Greater Boston, Massachusetts, from May 2011 to April 2012 was compared to measurements taken at Boston Logan airport. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperatures is nonlinear. At warmer outdoor temperatures, there is a strong correlation between indoor and outdoor temperature (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.91, slope, β = 0.41), but at cooler temperatures, the association is weak (r = 0.40, β = 0.04). Results were similar for outdoor apparent temperature. The relationships were linear for RH and AH. The correlation for RH was modest (r = 0.55, β = 0.39). Absolute humidity exhibited the strongest indoor-to-outdoor correlation (r = 0.96, β = 0.69). Indoor and outdoor temperatures correlate well only at warmer outdoor temperatures. Outdoor RH is a poor indicator of indoor RH, while indoor AH has a strong correlation with outdoor AH year-round. PMID:23710826

  6. Assessing the re-crystallization behaviour of amorphous lactose using the RH-perfusion cell.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Inga-Lis; Steckel, Hartwig; Trunk, Michael

    2006-08-01

    Many different reports have studied the crystallization behaviour of lactose, e.g., by exposing samples of amorphous lactose to different relative humidity at constant temperatures. However, only few reports are available investigating the formation of alpha-lactose monohydrate and beta-lactose during re-crystallization. Applying the static ampoule method in the microcalorimeter, the enthalpies of amorphous lactose were reported to be constantly 32 and 48 J/g, respectively, considering the mutarotation of lactose at 25 degrees C and 58% RH, 75% RH and 100% RH. In this study, an alternative microcalorimetric technique, the relative humidity-perfusion cell (RH-perfusion cell) was chosen. The RH-perfusion cell is able to deliver a constant and controlled flow of humidified air to the sample. Investigated compounds were purely amorphous lactose and different powder mixtures of lactose. They consisted of alpha-lactose monohydrate (Pharmatose 325M), beta-lactose (Pharmatose DCL21) or a combination (1:1) thereof as carriers, and different concentrations of amorphous lactose. The determination of the enthalpy of desorption of the just re-crystallization lactose by the RH-perfusion cell was used to discriminate whether the monohydrate or the anhydrous form of lactose was produced. Differences in the re-crystallization behaviour of lactose at 25 degrees C and 58-100% RH were found. At 60-80% RH purely amorphous lactose showed a high heat of desorption which can be attributed to a very high content of formed beta-lactose. Powder mixtures containing high contents of amorphous lactose (8% and 15%, respectively) blended with alpha-lactose monohydrate as a carrier resulted in similar results at the same RH ranges. The high amount of beta-lactose can be due to the equilibrium anomeric composition. Whereas powder mixtures containing beta-lactose as a carrier and amorphous lactose in a concentration of 1%, 8% and 15%, respectively, formed less beta-lactose than the mixtures

  7. Technical Note: Reanalysis of upper troposphere humidity data from the MOZAIC programme for the period 1994 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, H. G. J.; Rohs, S.; Neis, P.; Boulanger, D.; Krämer, M.; Wahner, A.; Petzold, A.

    2014-12-01

    In situ observational data on the relative humidity (RH) in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UT/LS), or tropopause region, collected aboard civil passenger aircraft in the MOZAIC (Measurements of OZone, water vapour, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides by in-service AIrbus airCraft) programme were reanalysed for the period 2000 to 2009. Previous analyses of probability distribution functions (PDFs) of upper troposphere humidity (UTH) data from MOZAIC observations from year 2000 and later indicated a bias of UTH data towards higher RH values compared to data of the period 1994 to 1999. As a result, the PDF of UTH data show a substantial fraction of observations above 100% relative humidity with respect to liquid water. Such supersaturations, however, do not occur in the atmosphere because there is always a sufficient number of condensation nuclei available, that trigger condensation as soon as liquid saturation is slightly exceeded. An in-depth reanalysis of the data set identified a coding error in the calibration procedure from year 2000 on. The error did not affect earlier data from 1994 to 1999. The full data set for 2000-2009 was reanalysed applying the corrected calibration procedure. Applied correction schemes and a revised error analysis are presented along with the reanalysed PDF of relative humidity with respect to liquid water (RHliquid) and ice (RHice).

  8. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  9. A humidity controlled Nephelometer system to study the hygroscopic properties of aerosols in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaishya, Aditya; O'Dowd, Colin; Jennings, S. Gerard

    2010-05-01

    A Humidograph system has been designed to study the hygroscopic properties of aerosols for different air-masses and for different seasons in the marine environment. Since ambient marine aerosols are likely to be found in a metastable state, and in accordance with recommendations of WMO/GAW to sample dry aerosol, a drying unit (Nafion based) is placed just after the inlet to dry the aerosols to a relative humidity (RH) < 40% so as not to misinterpret the optical properties of hygroscopic aerosols if they are on the descending branch of the hysteresis curve. The flow after the dryer is split into two, one going to a 3-wavelength TSI-3563 Integrating Nephelometer, and the other to a Gore-Tex based humidifier followed by a single-wavelength TSI-3561 Integrating Nephelometer. The humidifier is used to vary the RH from 40% to 90%. While the TSI-3563 Integrating Nephelometer will operate at RH < 40%, the TSI-3561 Integrating Nephelometer will operate under varying RH conditions. Software developed in LabVIEW is used to control the hardware components and to log the data in a predefined format. Results of the performance of the Humidograph system in the laboratory and at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station are presented.

  10. Relative Humidity Controls Ammonia Loss from Urea Applied to Loblolly Pine

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera, Miguel L.; Kissel, David E.; Craig, J. R.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Vaio, N.; Rema, John A.; Morris, Larry A.

    2010-04-01

    In the United States of America, approximately 600,000 ha of southern pine are fertilized with urea each year, with NH3 volatilization losses ranging from <1% to >50% depending on environmental conditions. Previous work showed that timing of rainfall after urea application plays a significant role in controlling NH3 loss, but the effect of other environmental variables is not well understood. We conducted ten 29-d studies under different environmental conditions during two years to identify important variables controlling NH3 loss from urea applied to loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) at 200 kg N ha-1. Ammonia loss was measured with dynamic chambers that adjusted the rate of air flow through the system based on wind speed at 1 cm above the soil surface. Regression analysis indicated that a variable related to initial water content of the forest floor and a variable related to relative humidity (RH) during the study explained 85 to 94% of the observed variability in NH3 loss. Relatively high initial water content followed by consistently high RH led to large NH3 losses. In contrast, low initial water contents resulted in slow rates of NH3 loss, which increased when elevated RH led to an increase in the water content of the forest floor. These results indicate that RH can play a significant role in NH3 loss by accelerating urea dissolution and by increasing or decreasing the water content of the forest floor, which in turn can affect the rate of urea hydrolysis.

  11. Predictability of the Indian Summer Monsoon onset through an analysis of variations in surface air temperature and relative humidity during the pre-monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolbova, V.; Surovyatkina, E.; Bookhagen, B.; Kurths, J.

    2014-12-01

    The prediction of the Indian Summer monsoon (ISM) onset is one of the vital questions for the Indian subcontinent, as well as for areas directly or indirectly affected by the ISM. In previous studies, the areas used for ISM-onset prediction were often too large (or too small), or did not include all necessary information for the ISM-onset forecasting. Here, we present recent findings that suggest that a climate network approach may help to provide better definitions for areas used for ISM-onset prediction and an overall better ISM-onset prediction. Our analysis focuses on the following domains: North West Pakistan (NP) and the Eastern Ghats (EG) as they have been identified to include important pre-monsoon information for predicting ISM onset dates. Specifically, we focus on the analysis of surface air temperature and relative humidity in both areas that allows us to derive temporal trends and to estimate the ISM onset. We propose an approach, which allows to determine ISM onset in advance in 67% of all considered years. Our proposed approach is less effective during the anomalous years, which are associated with weak/strong monsoons, e.g. El-Nino, La-Nina or positive Indian Ocean Dipole events. ISM onset is predicted for 23 out of 27 normal monsoon years (85%) during the past 6 decades. In addition, we show that time series analysis in both areas during the pre-monsoon period reveals indicators whether the forthcoming ISM will be normal or weaker/stronger.

  12. High-performance CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells fabricated under ambient conditions with high relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Binglong; Obiozo Eze, Vincent; Mori, Tatsuo

    2015-10-01

    Hygroscopic perovskite solar cells are commonly fabricated under conditions of inert atmosphere or low relative humidity (RH). To generate high-performance perovskite light-absorbing layers for super power conversion efficiency (PCE), we fabricated CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells under ambient conditions (RH = 42-48%) by a flowing gas directly from high-RH air. The primary advantage of this technique, together with the casting of a hot solution and quick conduction, enabled us to achieve the highest and average PCEs of 16.32 and 14.27% respectively, with an extremely small deviation of 0.49%. Our research will be of significance for fabricating highly efficient and reproducible perovskite photovoltaics.

  13. Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air - Part 2: The library routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. G.; Feistel, R.; Reissmann, J. H.; Miyagawa, K.; Jackett, D. R.; Wagner, W.; Overhoff, U.; Guder, C.; Feistel, A.; Marion, G. M.

    2010-07-01

    The SCOR/IAPSO1 Working Group 127 on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater has prepared recommendations for new methods and algorithms for numerical estimation of the the thermophysical properties of seawater. As an outcome of this work, a new International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater (TEOS-10) was endorsed by IOC/UNESCO2 in June 2009 as the official replacement and extension of the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. As part of this new standard a source code package has been prepared that is now made freely available to users via the World Wide Web. This package includes two libraries referred to as the SIA (Sea-Ice-Air) library and the GSW (Gibbs SeaWater) library. Information on the GSW library may be found on the TEOS-10 web site (http://www.TEOS-10.org). This publication provides an introduction to the SIA library which contains routines to calculate various thermodynamic properties as discussed in the companion paper. The SIA library is very comprehensive, including routines to deal with fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air as well as equilibrium states involving various combinations of these, with equivalent code developed in different languages. The code is hierachically structured in modules that support (i) almost unlimited extension with respect to additional properties or relations, (ii) an extraction of self-contained sub-libraries, (iii) separate updating of the empirical thermodynamic potentials, and (iv) code verification on different platforms and between different languages. Error trapping is implemented to identify when one or more of the primary routines are accessed significantly beyond their established range of validity. The initial version of the SIA library is available in Visual Basic and FORTRAN as a supplement to this publication and updates will be maintained on the TEOS-10 web site. 1SCOR/IAPSO: Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research

  14. Future humidity trends over the western United States in the CMIP5 global climate models and variable infiltration capacity hydrological modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, D. W.; Westerling, A. L.; Oyler, J.

    2013-05-01

    Global climate models predict relative humidity (RH) in the western US will decrease at a rate of about 0.1-0.6 percentage points per decade, albeit with seasonal differences (most drying in spring and summer), geographical variability (greater declines in the interior), stronger reductions for greater anthropogenic radiative forcing, and notable spread among the models. Although atmospheric moisture content increases, this is more than compensated for by higher air temperatures, leading to declining RH. Fine-scale hydrological simulations driven by the global model results should reproduce these trends. It is shown that the MT-CLIM meteorological algorithms used by the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model, when driven by daily Tmin, Tmax, and precipitation (a configuration used in numerous published studies), do not preserve the original global model's humidity trends. Trends are biased positive in the interior western US, so that strong RH decreases are changed to weak decreases, and weak decreases are changed to increases. This happens because the MT-CLIM algorithms VIC incorporates infer an overly large positive trend in atmospheric moisture content in this region, likely due to an underestimate of the effect of increasing aridity on RH. The result could downplay the effects of decreasing RH on plants and wildfire. RH trends along the coast have a weak negative bias due to neglect of the ocean's moderating influence. A numerical experiment where the values of Tdew are altered to compensate for the RH error suggests that eliminating the atmospheric moisture bias could, in and of itself, decrease runoff up to 14% in high-altitude regions east of the Sierra Nevada and Cascades, and reduce estimated Colorado River runoff at Lees Ferry up to 4% by the end of the century. It could also increase the probability of large fires in the northern and central US Rocky Mountains by 13 to 60%.

  15. Effect of humidity on aerosolization of micronized drugs.

    PubMed

    Young, Paul M; Price, Robert; Tobyn, Michael J; Buttrum, Mark; Dey, Fiona

    2003-10-01

    The variation of aerosolization with humidity for three micronized drugs used in the treatment of asthma was evaluated by using in vitro methods. Micronized samples of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), salbutamol sulphate, and triamcinolone acetonide (TAA) were stored for 12hr at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75% relative humidity (RH). A suitable "reservoir" dry powder inhaler was loaded and tested by using a twin-stage impinger at each specific humidity. The aerosolization efficiency of all three micronized drugs was affected by variations in humidity. The percentage of the delivered dose and the fine particle fraction of the loaded dose (FPFLD) for both DSCG and salbutamol sulphate decreased with increasing humidity; with the largest decrease in FPFLD occurring between 45% and 60% RH for DSCG and 60% to 75% RH for salbutamol sulphate. These observations suggest that the adhesion properties for both DSCG and salbutamol sulphate, which govern the aerosolization efficiency, are predominately influenced by capillary interactions. In contrast, the FPFLD for TAA significantly increased as the humidity increased over the range 15% to 75% RH, suggesting that triboelectric forces predominate particle-particle interactions. These variations in drug particulate behavior highlight the importance of an individual formulation approach when developing dry powder inhalation systems. PMID:14606660

  16. Optical fiber relative-humidity sensor with evaporated dielectric coatings on fiber end-face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Weijing; Yang, Minghong; Cheng, Yun; Li, Dongwen; Zhang, Yi; Zhuang, Zhi

    2014-08-01

    An optical fiber relative-humidity sensor (OFRHS) with evaporated dielectric coatings is proposed and demonstrated. The sensitive coatings, composed of multilayers of Ti3O5 and SiO2, form an extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity on the distal end of the multimode fiber. As the effective refractive index of the porous coatings were correlated with the change of ambient Relative-humidity (RH), which will at last result in the shift of interference fringe. By monitoring the drift of reflected interference fringe under different RH levels, the information about RH of the environment under test can be extracted. Experimental results show that the average sensitivity is 0.43 nm/% RH when environmental RH changes from 1.8% RH to 74.7% RH. The proposed sensor was proved to be high repeatability, little hysteresis and especially highly sensitive to lower moisture measure.

  17. Observations of relative humidity effects on aerosol light scattering in the Yangtze River Delta of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Sun, J. Y.; Shen, X. J.; Zhang, Y. M.; Che, H. C.; Ma, Q. L.; Zhang, Y. W.; Zhang, X. Y.; Ogren, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Scattering of solar radiation by aerosol particles is highly dependent on relative humidity (RH) as hygroscopic particles take up water with increasing RH. To achieve a better understanding of the effect of aerosol hygroscopic growth on light scattering properties and radiative forcing, a field campaign was carried out in the Yangtze River Delta of China in March 2013. During the observation period, the mean and standard deviation of enhancement factors at RH=85% for the scattering coefficient (f(85%)), backscattering coefficient (fb(85%)) and hemispheric backscatter fraction (fβ(85%)) were 1.58 ± 0.12, 1.25 ± 0.07 and 0.79 ± 0.04, respectively, i.e. aerosol scattering coefficient and backscattering coefficient increased by 58 and 25% as the RH increased from 40 to 85%. Meanwhile, the aerosol hemispheric backscatter fraction decreased by 21%. The relative amount of organic matter (OM) and inorganics in PM1 was found to be a main factor determining the magnitude of f(RH), the highest values of f(RH) corresponded to the aerosols with a small fraction of organic matter (OM), and vice versa. The relative amount of NO3- in fine particles was strongly correlated to f(85%), which suggests NO3- played a vital role in aerosol hygroscopic growth during this study. The mass percentage of nitrate also had a close relation to the curvature of humidograms, namely, the higher the nitrate concentration is, the straighter the humidogram will be. Air masses that arrived at LinAn in March can be classified into northerly-polluted, locally-polluted and dust-influenced types, the scattering enhancement factors at 85% RH were 1.52 ± 0.10, 1.64 ± 0.09 and 1.48 ± 0.05, respectively. The sensitivity of the aerosol radiative forcing to f(RH) at the measured mean ambient RH 67% for various aerosol types was also estimated. The direct radiative forcing increased by 11.8, 19.5, and 10.5%, respectively, for locally-polluted, northerly-polluted and dust-influenced aerosols due to aerosol

  18. How Is Rh Compatibility Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... learn whether you're Rh-positive or Rh-negative. If you're Rh-negative, you also may have another blood test called ... risk for Rh incompatibility. If you're Rh-negative and you don't have Rh antibodies, your ...

  19. Evaluation of Humidity Control Options in Hot-Humid Climate Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    dehumidification is needed to maintain space relative humidity (RH) below 60% in a hot-humid climate home. Researchers also concluded that while all the active dehumidification options included in the study successfully controlled space relative humidity excursions, the increase in whole-house energy consumption was much more sensitive to the humidity set point than the chosen technology option. In the high-performance home, supplemental dehumidification equipment results in a significant source energy consumption penalty at 50% RH set point (12.6%-22.4%) compared to the consumption at 60% RH set point (1.5%-2.7%). At 50% and 55% RH set points, A/C with desiccant wheel dehumidifier and A/C with ERV and high-efficiency DX dehumidifier stand out as the two cases resulting in the smallest increase of source energy consumption. At an RH set point of 60%, all explicit dehumidification technologies result in similar insignificant increases in source energy consumption and thus are equally competitive.

  20. Tungsten disulfide (WS2) based all-fiber-optic humidity sensor.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yunhan; Chen, Chaoying; Xia, Kai; Peng, Shuihua; Guan, Heyuan; Tang, Jieyuan; Lu, Huiui; Yu, Jianhui; Zhang, Jun; Xiao, Yi; Chen, Zhe

    2016-04-18

    We demonstrate a novel all-fiber-optic humidity sensor comprised of a WS2 film overlay on a side polished fiber (SPF). This sensor can achieve optical power variation of up to 6 dB in a relative humidity (RH) range of 35%-85%. In particular, this novel humidity fiber sensor has a linear correlation coefficient of 99.39%, sensitivity of 0.1213 dB/%RH, and a humidity resolution of 0.475%RH. Furthermore, this sensor shows good repeatability and reversibility, and fast response to breath stimulus. This WS2 based all-fiber optic humidity sensor is easy to fabricate, is compatible with pre-established fiber optic systems, and holds great potential in photonics applications such as in all-fiber optic humidity sensing networks. PMID:27137326

  1. Ambient Observations of Sub-1.0 Hygroscopic Growth Factor and f(RH) Values: Case Studies from Surface and Airborne Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, A. M.; Shingler, T.; Crosbie, E.; Wonaschutz, A.; Froyd, K. D.; Adler, G.; Gao, R. S.; Schwarz, J. P.; Perring, A. E.; Brock, C. A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Wisthaler, A.; Sorooshian, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hygroscopic growth occurs when particles take up water vapor and grow when exposed to elevated relative humidity (RH), and is controlled largely by chemical composition. Previous laboratory studies of biomass burning and combustion particles observed particle size shrinkage as soot aerosols, especially those with coatings, were exposed to increasing RH levels, which resulted in sub-1.0 hygroscopicity parameter values (i.e., ratio of humidified-to-dry diameter g(RH) and ratio of humidified-to-dry scattering coefficients f(RH)). To investigate the potential for sub-1.0 hygroscopicity in ambient aerosol, we utilized data from (i) a ship-board HTDMA during E-PEACE 2011, (ii) multiple instruments on the DC8 during SEAC4RS-2013, as well as (iii) the DASH-SP during measurement intensives in Summer 2014 and Winter 2015 in Tucson, Arizona. Suppressed hygroscopicity, including sub-1.0 g(RH), was observed during smoke-influenced periods in SEAC4RS, episodic events in the winter season in Arizona, and smoke-influenced air during E-PEACE. Across the range of RH investigated (75-95%), sub-1.0 g(RH) was lowest at the highest RH values probed (~95%). These sub-1.0 g(RH) observations are consistent with elevated black carbon and organic aerosol concentration in both E-PEACE and SEAC4RS. Collocated measurements during SEAC4RS indicate elevated spikes in black carbon concentrations are coincident with both sub-1.0 f(RH) and g(RH) observations, as well as elevated organic aerosol- and gas-phase fire tracers such as AMS f60 and PTR-MS acetonitrile concentration. This is the first set of ambient observations of sub-1.0 hygroscopicity factors g(RH) and f(RH), with consistency across different instruments, regions, and platforms. Although particle restructuring has been demonstrated in laboratory experiments, field observations are complex as soot coating, secondary chemistry, and heterogeneous processing can occur on the same time scale as measurements. This work motivates continued

  2. Volatile Compounds Originating from Mixed Microbial Cultures on Building Materials under Various Humidity Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Korpi, Anne; Pasanen, Anna-Liisa; Pasanen, Pertti

    1998-01-01

    We examined growth of mixed microbial cultures (13 fungal species and one actinomycete species) and production of volatile compounds (VOCs) in typical building materials in outside walls, separating walls, and bathroom floors at various relative humidities (RHs) of air. Air samples from incubation chambers were adsorbed on Tenax TA and dinitrophenylhydrazine cartridges and were analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Metabolic activity was measured by determining CO2 production, and microbial concentrations were determined by a dilution plate method. At 80 to 82% RH, CO2 production did not indicate that microbial activity occurred, and only 10% of the spores germinated, while slight increases in the concentrations of some VOCs were detected. All of the parameters showed that microbial activity occurred at 90 to 99% RH. The microbiological analyses revealed weak microbial growth even under drying conditions (32 to 33% RH). The main VOCs produced on the building materials studied were 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, and 1-octen-3-ol. In some cases fungal growth decreased aldehyde emissions. We found that various VOCs accompany microbial activity but that no single VOC is a reliable indicator of biocontamination in building materials. PMID:9687450

  3. Atmospheric corrosion effects of HNO 3—Influence of temperature and relative humidity on laboratory-exposed copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samie, Farid; Tidblad, Johan; Kucera, Vladimir; Leygraf, Christofer

    The effect of HNO 3 on the atmospheric corrosion of copper has been investigated at varied temperature (15-35 °C) and relative humidity (0-85% RH). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the existence of cuprite and gerhardtite as the two main corrosion products on the exposed copper surface. For determination of the corrosion rate and for estimation of the deposition velocity ( Vd) of HNO 3 on copper, gravimetry and ion chromatography has been employed. Temperature had a low effect on the corrosion of copper. A minor decrease in the mass gain was observed as the temperature was increased to 35 °C, possibly as an effect of lower amount of cuprite due to a thinner adlayer on the metal surface at 35 °C. The Vd of HNO 3 on copper, however, was unaffected by temperature. The corrosion rate and Vd of HNO 3 on copper was the lowest at 0% RH, i. e. dry condition, and increased considerably when changing to 40% RH. A maximum was reached at 65% RH and the mass gain remained constant when the RH was increased to 85% RH. The Vd of HNO 3 on copper at ⩾65% RH, 25 °C and 0.03 cm s -1 air velocity was as high as 0.15±0.03 cm s -1 to be compared with the value obtained for an ideal absorbent, 0.19±0.02 cm s -1. At sub-ppm levels of HNO 3, the corrosion rate of copper decreased after 14 d and the growth of the oxide levelled off after 7 d of exposure.

  4. Enlarged-taper tailored Fiber Bragg grating with polyvinyl alcohol coating for humidity sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yanhong; Yan, Guofeng; He, Sailing

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a novel optical fiber sensor based on an enlarged-taper tailored fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the measurement of relative humidity. The enlarged-taper works as a multifunctional joint that not only excites cladding modes but also recouples the cladding modes reflected by the FBG back into the leading single mode fiber. Due to the fact that cladding modes have a strong evanescent field penetrating into the ambient medium, the intensity of the reflected cladding modes is greatly influenced by the refractive index (RI) of the ambient medium. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film is plated on the fiber surface by dip-coating technique, as a humidity-to-refractive index transducer, whose RI variance from 1.49 to 1.34 when the ambient humidity increases from 20%RH to 95%RH. The relative humidity response of the sensing structure is investigated in our home-made humidity chamber with a commercial hygrometer. By monitoring the intensity of the reflected cladding modes, the RH variance can be demodulated. Experimental results show that RH sensitivity depends on the RH value, and a sensitivity up to 1.2 dB/%RH can be achieved within the RH range of 30-90%. A fast and reversible time response has also been investigated. Such a probe-type and reusable fiber-optic RH sensor is a very promising technology for biochemical sensing applications, e.g., breath analysis, chemical reaction monitoring.

  5. Evaluation of various activated carbons for air cleaning - Towards design of immune and sustainable buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghighat, Fariborz; Lee, Chang-Seo; Pant, Bhuvan; Bolourani, Golnoush; Lakdawala, Ness; Bastani, Arash

    There are increased demands for security, sustainability and indoor air quality in today's building design, construction, operation and maintenance. Installation of air cleaning systems can improve the indoor air quality by reducing the air pollution levels, and enhance the building security against sudden release of chemical and/or biological agents. At the same time, air cleaning techniques may reduce the building energy consumption by reducing the outdoor air supply rate, hence lowering the needs for conditioning of outdoor air. While the air filtration of particulate matter is well standardized, the standards against which the performance of air cleaning for gaseous contaminants is measured or classified are still under development. This study examined the performance of various granular activated carbons (GACs) for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from mechanically ventilated buildings. Eight different GACs (three virgin and five impregnated) were tested against toluene using a dynamic test system. The virgin GACs showed better performance than impregnated ones, the percentage and the type of impregnation affected the removal efficiencies. Tests were also conducted with selected GACs against toluene, cyclohexane and ethyl acetate at relative humidity (RH) values of 30%, 50% and 70%. The effect of humidity was dependant on the VOC used. Both for toluene and cyclohexane, the removal efficiency decreased as RH increased. However, higher humidity showed a positive impact on the removal of ethyl acetate.

  6. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Schwartz, Joel; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many studies report an association between outdoor ambient weather and health. Outdoor conditions may be a poor indicator of personal exposure because people spend most of their time indoors. Few studies have examined how indoor conditions relate to outdoor ambient weather. Methods and Results The average indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity (RH), and absolute humidity (AH) measured in 16 homes in Greater Boston, Massachusetts, from May 2011 - April 2012 was compared to measurements taken at Boston Logan airport. The relationship between indoor and outdoor temperatures is non-linear. At warmer outdoor temperatures, there is a strong correlation between indoor and outdoor temperature (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.91, slope, β = 0.41), but at cooler temperatures, the association is weak (r = 0.40, β = 0.04). Results were similar for outdoor apparent temperature. The relationships were linear for RH and AH. The correlation for RH was modest (r = 0.55, β = 0.39). AH exhibited the strongest indoor-to-outdoor correlation (r = 0.96, β = 0.69). Conclusions Indoor and outdoor temperatures correlate well only at warmer outdoor temperatures. Outdoor RH is a poor indicator of indoor RH, while indoor AH has a strong correlation with outdoor AH year-round. PMID:23710826

  7. Improvement of proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance in low-humidity conditions by adding hygroscopic agarose powder to the catalyst layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Sanying; Liao, Shijun; Xiong, Ziang; Zou, Haobin; Dang, Dai; Zheng, Ruiping; Shu, Ting; Liang, Zhenxing; Li, Xiuhua; Li, Yingwei

    2015-01-01

    A high-performance membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with agarose added to the anodic catalyst layer (CL) was successfully prepared. The MEA exhibited excellent performance at low relative humidity (RH) in an air/hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell. The effects of agarose content, RH, cell temperature, and back pressure on the low-humidity performance of this MEA were investigated. The results of water contact angles and water uptake measurements reveal that the hydrophilicity of the anode is significantly improved with the addition of agarose. With a low RH of 20% and a cell temperature of 60 °C, the optimal MEA (MEA-4), containing 4 wt.% agarose in the anode CL, achieves excellent low-humidity performance: the current density reaches 960 mA cm-2 at 0.6 V and 500 mA cm-2 at 0.7 V. After 10 h of continuous operation under the same conditions, the current density decreases just slightly, from 960 to 840 mA cm-2, whereas the current density of a blank MEA without added agarose degrades sharply.

  8. Ultrafast response humidity sensor using supramolecular nanofibre and its application in monitoring breath humidity and flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogera, Umesha; Sagade, Abhay A.; George, Subi J.; Kulkarni, Giridhar U.

    2014-02-01

    Measuring humidity in dynamic situations calls for highly sensitive fast response sensors. Here we report, a humidity sensor fabricated using solution processed supramolecular nanofibres as active resistive sensing material. The nanofibres are built via self- assembly of donor and acceptor molecules (coronene tetracarboxylate and dodecyl methyl viologen respectively) involved in charge transfer interactions. The conductivity of the nanofibre varied sensitively over a wide range of relative humidity (RH) with unprecedented fast response and recovery times. Based on UV-vis, XRD and AFM measurements, it is found that the stacking distance in the nanofibre decreases slightly while the charge transfer band intensity increases, all observations implying enhanced charge transfer interaction and hence the conductivity. It is demonstrated to be as a novel breath sensor which can monitor the respiration rate. Using two humidity sensors, a breath flow sensor was made which could simultaneously measure RH and flow rate of exhaled nasal breath. The integrated device was used for monitoring RH in the exhaled breath from volunteers undergoing exercise and alcohol induced dehydration.

  9. Ultrafast response humidity sensor using supramolecular nanofibre and its application in monitoring breath humidity and flow

    PubMed Central

    Mogera, Umesha; Sagade, Abhay A.; George, Subi J.; Kulkarni, Giridhar U.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring humidity in dynamic situations calls for highly sensitive fast response sensors. Here we report, a humidity sensor fabricated using solution processed supramolecular nanofibres as active resistive sensing material. The nanofibres are built via self- assembly of donor and acceptor molecules (coronene tetracarboxylate and dodecyl methyl viologen respectively) involved in charge transfer interactions. The conductivity of the nanofibre varied sensitively over a wide range of relative humidity (RH) with unprecedented fast response and recovery times. Based on UV-vis, XRD and AFM measurements, it is found that the stacking distance in the nanofibre decreases slightly while the charge transfer band intensity increases, all observations implying enhanced charge transfer interaction and hence the conductivity. It is demonstrated to be as a novel breath sensor which can monitor the respiration rate. Using two humidity sensors, a breath flow sensor was made which could simultaneously measure RH and flow rate of exhaled nasal breath. The integrated device was used for monitoring RH in the exhaled breath from volunteers undergoing exercise and alcohol induced dehydration. PMID:24531132

  10. Sensor drift and predicted calibration intervals of handheld temperature and relative humidity meters under residential field-use conditions.

    PubMed

    Johnston James D; Magnusson, Brianna M; Eggett, Dennis; Mumford, Kyle; Collingwood, Scott C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2014-10-01

    Handheld temperature and relative humidity (T/RH) meters are commonly used in residential indoor air surveys. Although popular, T/RH meters are prone to sensor drift and consequent loss of accuracy, and thus instrument manufacturers often recommend annual calibration and adjustment. Field-use conditions, however, have been shown to accelerate electronic sensor drift in outdoor applications, resulting in out-of-tolerance measurements in less than one year. In the study described in this article, sensor drift was evaluated under residential field use for 30 handheld T/RH meters to predict needed calibration intervals based on hierarchical linear modeling. Instruments were used in 43 home visits over a 93-day period and were calibrated (without adjustment) 49 times over the study period with a laboratory standard. Analysis of covariance showed significant drift among temperature sensors for all three instrument types (p < .0001) and among humidity sensors in two instruments. The authors' study suggests calibration frequency should be based on instrument performance under specific sampling conditions rather than on predetermined time intervals. PMID:25603651

  11. An investigation of thermal comfort at high humidities

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, M.E.; Arens, E. Xu, T.; Bauman, F.S.; Oguru, Masayuki

    1999-07-01

    Climate chamber experiments were performed to investigate thermal comfort at high humidities. Subjective reports were recorded for a total of 411 subjects at frequent intervals during the three-hour experiments with 65 selected subjects equipped with instrumentation to record skin wettedness and skin temperature. The exposures ranged from 20 C/60% RH to 26 C/90% RH with two clothing levels, 0.5 and 0.9 clo, and three levels of metabolic activity, 1.2, 1.6, and 4 met. Clear differences in humidity response were not found for sedentary subjects; however, non-sedentary activities produced differences on several subjective scales. These differences, though, are dictated via heat balance and thermoregulation and cannot be separated from humidity-related effects. For metabolic rates 1.6 met and above, these data suggest that no practical limit on humidity will lower the percent dissatisfied below 25%.

  12. The effect of the relative humidity and the specific humidity on the determination of the climate regions in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Sinan; Cigizoglu, H. Kerem

    2013-05-01

    All elements of climate that affect climatic events must be taken into account such that the climate regions are determined with exactitude. To this end, data on maximum temperature (Tx), minimum temperature (Tn), mean temperature (Tm), and precipitation (Pt) as well as local pressure (Ps), mean wind (WN), relative humidity (RH), and specific humidity (SH) have been investigated statistically and graphically. The specific humidity data calculated using Tm, Ps, and RH data and statistical comparisons have shown that there are no drawbacks to using SH in climatologic studies. According to principal component analysis, it was concluded that RH and SH should be used together with Tx, Tm, Tn, and Pt for the determination of the climate regions. Two cluster analysis methods, Ward's method and Kohonen neural network technique, were used to show the effect of RH and SH. A comparison of the cluster's stability between the limited and high number of stations shows that Ward's method and Kohonen neural network are very stable in both cases. It was also determined that RH does not change the outline of climate regions but that it affects the zones of climate transition. It was observed that clusters determined by using Tm, Pt, and RH provide relatively more distinctive clusters in the data space than clusters determined by using Tm, Pt, and SH.

  13. Effects of Humidity On the Flow Characteristics of PS304 Plasma Spray Feedstock Powder Blend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    The effects of environmental humidity on the flow characteristics of PS304 feedstock have been investigated. Angular and spherical BaF2-CaF2 powder was fabricated by comminution and by atomization, respectively. The fluorides were added incrementally to the nichrome, chromia, and silver powders to produce PS304 feedstock. The powders were dried in a vacuum oven and cooled to a Tom temperature under dry nitrogen. The flow of the powder was studied from 2 to 100 percent relative humidity (RH) The results suggest that the feedstock flow is slightly degraded with increasing humidity below 66 percent RH and is more affected above 66 percent RH. There was no flow above 88 percent RH. Narrower particle size distributions of the angular fluorides allowed flow up to 95 percent RH. These results offer guidance that enhances the commercial potential for this material system.

  14. A microscopy study of hyphal growth of Penicillium rubens on gypsum under dynamic humidity conditions.

    PubMed

    van Laarhoven, Karel A; Huinink, Hendrik P; Adan, Olaf C G

    2016-05-01

    To remediate indoor fungal growth, understanding the moisture relations of common indoor fungi is crucial. Indoor moisture conditions are commonly quantified by the relative humidity (RH). RH is a major determinant of the availability of water in porous indoor surfaces that fungi grow on. The influence of steady-state RH on growth is well understood. Typically, however, the indoor RH constantly changes so that fungi have to endure frequent periods of alternating low and high RH. Knowledge of how common indoor fungi survive and are affected by the low-RH periods is limited. In particular, the specific effects of a drop in RH on the growth of the mycelium remain unclear. In this work, video microscopy was used to monitor hyphal growth of Penicillium rubens on gypsum substrates under controlled dynamic humidity conditions. The effect of a single period of low RH (RH = 50-90%) interrupting favourable conditions (RH = 97%) was tested. It was found that hyphal tips ceased to extend when exposed to any tested decrease in RH. However, new hyphal growth always emerges, seemingly from the old mycelium, suggesting that this indoor fungus does not rely only on conidia to survive the humidity patterns considered. These findings are a fundamental step in unravelling the effect of RH on indoor fungal growth. PMID:26996401

  15. Sampling at controlled relative humidity with a cascade impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliou, Joseph G.; Sorensen, Diana; McMurry, Peter H.

    The design and function of a device that regulates the relative humidity of an ambient aerosol sample is described. We use this RH controller upstream of MOUDI impactors to permit sampling at relative humidities in the 70-80% range. Humidity control is achieved by allowing the aerosol to approach equilibrium with a saturated salt solution. Benefits to sampling with impactors in this relative humidity range include greatly reduced bounce of fine, hygroscopic particles, minimal flow-induced sizing errors, and minimization of uncertainties in measured size distributions due to diurnal variations in relative humidity during sampling. Data from field measurements in a humid environment (Look Rock, TN) and arid environments (Las Vegas, NV and Meadview, AZ) are discussed.

  16. Physiological responses to temperature and humidity compared to the assessment by UTCI, WGBT and PHS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampmann, Bernhard; Bröde, Peter; Fiala, Dusan

    2012-05-01

    In COST Action 730, a multi-segmental thermophysiological model was used to describe physiological strain reactions for different climatic conditions in order to develop a 'Universal Thermal Climate Index' (UTCI). UTCI predictions for warm climates were compared with empirical data from the laboratory tests. The comparison was performed by means of equivalence lines within a psychrometric chart so that the combined influence of air temperature and humidity on physiological strain may be assessed. Within a reasonable regime of air temperatures and relative humidities (RH), the differences between simulated and measured values were as follows: for rectal temperatures below 0.3°C, for skin temperatures below 1.5°C, for sweat rates below 200 g/h and for heart rates (estimated from relative cardiac output) below 30 min-1. This characterises the validity of the model with respect to the description of the influence of heat and humidity on physiological strain. The same comparison to physiological data was also conducted for the equivalent temperature calculated for UTCI. In order to compare UTCI with other thermal indices used in occupational health, the physiological data have also been compared to equivalence lines of WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature) and PHS (Predicted Heat Strain) indices.

  17. Tribochemistry of Carbon Films in Oxygen and Humid Environments: Oxidative Wear and Galvanic Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Alazizi, Ala; Draskovics, Andrew; Ramirez, Giovanni; Erdemir, Ali; Kim, Seong H

    2016-03-01

    The effects of oxidation on wear of carbon/steel tribological interfaces were studied. When mechanical wear was small, the oxidation behavior of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (H-DLC) and stainless steel (SS) sliding interface varied depending on the nature of the oxidizing environment. In dry air or oxygen, both H-DLC and SS wore readily. The wear debris of SS did not form iron oxide in dry air and oxygen. In humid nitrogen, however, the wear of H-DLC diminished with increasing humidity, and the SS surface showed mild wear and iron oxide debris accumulated around the sliding contact region. These results revealed that different tribochemical reactions occur in dry oxygen and humid environments. In the absence of water, oxygen oxidizes the H-DLC surface, making it susceptible to wear, creating debris, and inducing wear on both H-DLC and SS. In contrast, adsorbed water molecules at less than 40% RH act as a molecular lubricant of the oxidized DLC surface, while multiwater layers adsorbed at near-saturation act as electrolyte inducing electrochemical galvanic corrosion reactions on the SS surface. When hydrogen-free amorphous carbon (a-C) was used in tribo-tests, severe wear of the SS surface occurs, in addition to the tribochemical wear observed for H-DLC, due to the high hardness of the a-C film. PMID:26844949

  18. Effects of humidity on the mechanical properties of gecko setae.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Michael S; Wilkinson, Matt; Puthoff, Jonathan B; Mayer, George; Autumn, Kellar

    2011-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an increase in relative humidity (RH) causes changes in the mechanical properties of the keratin of adhesive gecko foot hairs (setae). We measured the effect of RH on the tensile deformation properties, fracture, and dynamic mechanical response of single isolated tokay gecko setae and strips of the smooth lamellar epidermal layer. The mechanical properties of gecko setae were strongly affected by RH. The complex elastic modulus (measured at 5 Hz) of a single seta at 80% RH was 1.2 GPa, only 39% of the value when dry. An increase in RH reduced the stiffness and increased the strain to failure. The loss tangent increased significantly with humidity, suggesting that water absorption produces a transition to a more viscous type of deformation. The influence of RH on the properties of the smooth epidermal layer was comparable with that of isolated seta, with the exception of stress at rupture. These values were two to four times greater for the setae than for the smooth layer. The changes in mechanical properties of setal keratin were consistent with previously reported increases in contact forces, supporting the hypothesis that an increase in RH softens setal keratin, which increases adhesion and friction. PMID:20920615

  19. Humidity Dependent Extinction of Clay Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, M. E.; Attwood, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the Earth’s radiative balance by directly scattering and absorbing radiation. The magnitude of aerosol forcing can be altered by changes in relative humidity which cause aerosol size, shape and refractive index to vary. To quantify these effects, a custom cavity ring down instrument operated at 532 nm with two sample channels measures aerosols extinction under dry conditions and at elevated humidity. The optical growth, fRH(ext), is determined as a ratio of the extinction cross section at high relative humidity to that under dry conditions. Three key clay components of mineral dust and mixtures of clay components with ammonium sulfate are investigated using this method. Experimentally obtained optical growth is compared with physical growth factors from the literature and our work determined using several different techniques. Further, Mie theory calculations based on published optical constants are compared with experimental results. Differences between theory and experiment will be discussed.

  20. Fast Response and High Sensitivity ZnO/glass Surface Acoustic Wave Humidity Sensors Using Graphene Oxide Sensing Layer

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Weipeng; He, Mei; Meng, Nan; He, Xingli; Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Jinkai; Shi, Tianjin; Hasan, Tawfique; Xu, Zhen; Xu, Yang; Luo, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    We report ZnO/glass surface acoustic wave (SAW) humidity sensors with high sensitivity and fast response using graphene oxide sensing layer. The frequency shift of the sensors is exponentially correlated to the humidity change, induced mainly by mass loading effect rather than the complex impedance change of the sensing layer. The SAW sensors show high sensitivity at a broad humidity range from 0.5%RH to 85%RH with < 1 sec rise time. The simple design and excellent stability of our GO-based SAW humidity sensors, complemented with full humidity range measurement, highlights their potential in a wide range of applications. PMID:25425458

  1. Temperature and relative humidity distributions in a medium-size administrative town in southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinbode, O M; Eludoyin, A O; Fashae, O A

    2008-04-01

    This study was carried out in one of the medium-sized public administrative towns in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to highlight the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socio-economic activities on urban air temperature and humidity in the town. Temperature and relative humidity data from 1992 to 2001 were obtained from three meteorological stations in Akure, the Administrative Capital of Ondo State, Nigeria. The stations are located within the Federal Ministry of Aviation, Akure Airport (FMA), Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and Federal School of Agriculture (SOA). Air temperature and relative humidity measurements were also obtained from 27 points, which were cited to include road junctions, markets, built up areas, etc., using sling psychrometer. The data were subsequently analysed for spatial and temporal variations using statistical packages (SPSS and Microsoft Excel) and isolines. Actual vapour pressure and dew point temperature were computed using Magnus conversion formulae. The results obtained showed that spatial variation was insignificant, in terms of the temperature and humidity variables. The annual mean temperature (Tmean) ranged between 21.9 and 30.4 degrees C while minimum (Tmin) and maximum (Tmax) temperatures varied from 13 to 26 and 21.5-39.6 degrees C, respectively. Relative humidity (RH), actual vapour pressure (Es) and dew point temperature (Td) values also varied from 39.1% to 98.2%, 19.7-20.8 gm(-3), and 17.3-17.8 degrees C, respectively. A significant relationship (p>0.6; r<0.05) between Tmin, Es and Td was observed while the daytime 'urban heat island' intensity (UHI) ranged between 0.5 and 2.5 degrees C within the study period. The study concluded that there is influence of urban canopy on the microclimate of Akure, and hypothesizes that the urban dwellers may be subjected to some levels of weather related physiological disorderliness. PMID:17482750

  2. Technical Note: Reanalysis of upper troposphere humidity data from the MOZAIC programme for the period 1994 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, H. G. J.; Rohs, S.; Neis, P.; Boulanger, D.; Krämer, M.; Wahner, A.; Petzold, A.

    2014-07-01

    In-situ observational data on the relative humidity (RH) in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UT/LS), or tropopause region, respectively, collected aboard civil passenger aircraft in the MOZAIC (Measurements of OZone, water vapour, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides by in-service AIrbus airCraft) programme were reanalysed for the period 2000 to 2009. Previous analyses of probability distribution functions (PDF) of upper troposphere humidity (UTH) data from MOZAIC observations from year 2000 and later indicated a bias of UTH data towards higher RH values compared to data of the period 1994 to 1999. As a result, PDF of UTH data show a substantial fraction of observations above 100% relative humidity with respect to liquid water (RHliquid), which is not possible from thermodynamical principles. An in-depth reanalysis of the data set recovered a calibration artefact from year 2000 on, while data of the previous period from 1994 to 1999 were found to be correct. The full data set for 2000-2009 was reanalysed applying the adjusted calibration procedure. Applied correction schemes and a revised error analysis are presented along with the reanalysed PDF of RHliquid and RHice.

  3. Phenophysiological variation of a bee that regulates hive humidity, but not hive temperature.

    PubMed

    Ayton, Sasha; Tomlinson, Sean; Phillips, Ryan D; Dixon, Kingsley W; Withers, Philip C

    2016-05-15

    Seasonal acclimatisation of thermal tolerance, evaporative water loss and metabolic rate, along with regulation of the hive environment, are key ways whereby hive-based social insects mediate climatic challenges throughout the year, but the relative importance of these traits remains poorly understood. Here, we examined seasonal variation in metabolic rate and evaporative water loss of worker bees, and seasonal variation of hive temperature and relative humidity (RH), for the stingless bee Austroplebeia essingtoni (Apidae: Meliponini) in arid tropical Australia. Both water loss and metabolic rate were lower in the cooler, dry winter than in the hot, wet summer at most ambient temperatures between 20°C and 45°C. Contrary to expectation, thermal tolerance thresholds were higher in the winter than in the summer. Hives were cooler in the cooler, dry winter than in the hot, wet summer, linked to an apparent lack of hive thermoregulation. The RH of hives was regulated at approximately 65% in both seasons, which is higher than unoccupied control hives in the dry season, but less than unoccupied control hives in the wet season. Although adaptations to promote water balance appear more important for survival of A. essingtoni than traits related to temperature regulation, their capacity for water conservation is coincident with increased thermal tolerance. For these small, eusocial stingless bees in the arid tropics, where air temperatures are relatively high and stable compared with temperate areas, regulation of hive humidity appears to be of more importance than temperature for maintaining hive health. PMID:26994173

  4. Evaluation of ANSI N42-17A by investigating the effects of temperature and humidity on the response of radiological instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N42.17A-1989 standard`s performance criteria and test methods has been evaluated by investigating the effects of temperature and humidity on the response of 105 portable direct-reading radiological instruments (45 beta-gamma survey meters, 32 neutron rem meters, 1O alpha contamination and 18 tritium-in-air monitors). The US Department of Energy (DOE) mandates the use of ANSI standards for the calibration and performance testing of radiological instruments, and requires that instruments be appropriate for existing environmental conditions. Random tests conducted in an environmental chamber determined the effects of temperatures ranging from {minus}10{degree}C to 50{degree}C and humidity at levels of 40% RH and 95% RH on the response of a cross section of instruments used in routine health physics operations at Los Alamos. The following instruments were tested: Eberline RO-2 and RO-C ionization chambers, Eberline E-530 survey meter with the Model HP-C stainless steel Geiger-Muller (G) wall probe, Eberline PIC-6A and PIC-6B ion chambers, Eberline ESP-1 survey meter with the Model HP-260 pancake G detector, Ludlum 3 survey meter with the Model 44-6 stainless steel G wall probe, Eberline ESP-1, ESP-2 and PAR-4 survey meters with the neutron rem detector, Health Physics Instruments 2080 survey meter with the moderator detector, Ludlum 139 survey meter with the Model 43-32 air-proportional alpha detector, and the Overhoff 394-C, Johnston J-111 and J-110 tritium monitors. Experimental results encompass 1128 temperature tests (1269-hours exposure in the chamber) and 735 humidity tests (1890-hours exposure in the chamber). The study shows the standard`s test requirement for temperature at or near the extreme conditions, and the standard`s test requirement for humidity at 95% RH may be too restrictive for instruments used in the work environment.

  5. Elevated relative humidity increases the incidence of boron deficiency in bedding plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High relative humidity (RH) can cause lower concentrations of B accumulating in plants. The common greenhouse practice of controlling excess temperatures by applying mist irrigation to youngplants (plugs) results in elevated RH levels. Reports of boron (B) deficiency have become more prevalent ove...

  6. Effect of post-inoculation relative humidity on peanut infection by Sclerotinia minor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stems of six-week-old plants of the cv Okrun (susceptible to Sclerotinia blight) were inoculated with S. minor. Two post-inoculation humidity regimes of 100% RH were used. In the first RH regime, one inoculation chamber was kept open for the duration of experiment (DOE), and five were closed for d...

  7. Drying characteristics and modeling of yam slices under different relative humidity conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The drying characteristics of yam slices under different 23 constant relative humidity (RH) and step-down RH levels were studied. A mass transfer model was developed based on Bi-Di correlations containing a drying coefficient and a lag factor to describe the drying process. It was validated using ex...

  8. Investigation of the sensitivity to humidity of an acrylamide-based photopolymer containing N-phenylglycine as a photoinitiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulchyk, Tatsiana; Martin, Suzanne; Naydenova, Izabela

    2014-11-01

    Sensitivity of holographic recording materials to the relative humidity (RH) of the environment often restricts their use in fabrication of holographic optical elements and other applications. It is important to develop materials with little or no sensitivity to humidity. In this paper the humidity response of transmission gratings recorded in an acrylamide-based photopolymer containing N-phenylglycine (NPG) as a photoinitiator is studied at RH = 20-90%. The hologram is found to be completely insensitive to humidity at RH below 70% and its diffraction efficiency remains constant. A decrease in diffraction efficiency is observed at RH = 80-90% but this decrease is fully reversible, demonstrating quantitatively the NPG photopolymer's excellent resistance to humidity.

  9. [Alchemists' humid radical].

    PubMed

    Lafont, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    The term radical has been used by chemists since the beginnings and even when they still were alchemists. The term "humid radical" is present in numerous alchemists' texts. It was used to represent a kind of "humid", which was considered as different from what is nowadays called "humid", but was a sort of principle necessary for life. PMID:17575839

  10. Humidity sensing property of polyaniline - cromium oxide nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajjan, K. C.; Faisal, Muhammad; Vijaya Kumari, S. C.; Ravikiran, Y. T.; Khasim, Syed

    2013-06-01

    New type of conducting polyamine-cromium oxide (PANI-Cr2O3) nanocomposites have been synthesized by in situ deposition technique by placing fine grade powder of cromium Oxide during in situ polymerization of aniline. The composites formed were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The SEM image confirmed uniform distribution of Cr2O3 particles in the PAni matrix. The humidity sensing mechanism of the PAni-Cr2O3 composites was studied and change in resistance with relative humidity(RH) ranging from 20% to 95% were recorded. It was found that Cr2O3 after making composite with PANI, exhibits good humidity sensing property.

  11. Evaporation of Pesticide Droplets under Various Relative Humidity Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaporation characteristics of five droplet sizes (246, 343, 575, 762 and 886 µm) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (30%, 60% and 90%) were studied in a laboratory. Sequential images of evaporating droplets placed inside a small environmental-controlled chamber were obtained using a ster...

  12. Evaluation of hair humidity resistance/moisturization from hair elasticity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Average water regain and hair elasticity (Young's modulus) of virgin dark brown and bleached hair fibers under different relative humidity (RH) were determined. It is observed that hair water regain increases linearly with an increase in RH in the range of 40-85%; and the remaining percent of hair elasticity decreases linearly with an increase in RH in the range of 50-80%. Therefore, measurements of average hair elasticity at 50% and 80% RH, respectively, under various equilibrium times before and after cosmetic treatments can be used to evaluate effects of cosmetic treatments on water adsorption behavior of hair-improvement in hair humidity resistance or enhancement in hair moisture uptake. A Hair Humidity Resistance Factor (H(2)RF) has been defined. If R(2)HF > 1, the product improves hair humidity resistance-anti-frizz; if R(2)HF < 1, the product enhances hair water adsorption; when R(2)HF approximately 1, the product has no significant effect on hair water adsorption behavior. This method was applied to evaluate anti-frizz performance of several shampoo formulations containing Polyquaternium-10, or Polyquaternium-70, or Polyquaternium-67, or Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride. It was found PQ-70 shampoo showed the highest H(2)RF value and the best anti-frizz performance among these tested shampoos. The results were consistent with those obtained from Image Analysis. PMID:17728940

  13. Whey protein concentrate storage at elevated temperature and humidity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy processors are finding new export markets for whey protein concentrate (WPC), a byproduct of cheesemaking, but they need to know if full-sized bags of this powder will withstand high temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels during unrefrigerated storage under tropical conditions. To answ...

  14. The effect of relative humidity on germination of Sporangia of Phytophthora ramorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sporangia of three isolates of P. ramorum representing three different clonal lineages were subjected to relative humidity (RH) levels between 80 and 100% for exposure periods ranging from 1 to 24 h at 20°C in darkness. Airtight snap-lid plastic containers (21.5 x 14.5 x 5 cm) were used as humidity ...

  15. Effect of Relative Humidity on the Penetrability and Sporicidal Activity of Formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Robert K.; Spiner, David R.

    1970-01-01

    The effect of relative humidity (RH) on formaldehyde penetration of paper, glassine, and cotton was determined by the death rate of bacterial spores in glass tubes covered with these materials. The data show that paper is readily penetrated regardless of RH, but the RH greatly affects the penetration rate of glassine and cotton. A comparison was also made of the effect of RH on the penetrability of formaldehyde generated from Formalin and paraformaldehyde. At low RH, all three closures were penetrated more readily by formaldehyde from paraformaldehyde than from Formalin, but no difference in the two was observed at high RH. It is felt that the difference at low RH is primarily due to the condensation of the vaporized Formalin. Images PMID:4993359

  16. Why HVAC commissioning procedures do not work in humid climates

    SciTech Connect

    DuBose, G.H.; Odom, J.D. III; Fairey, P.W.

    1993-12-01

    This article discusses ways to avoid moisture damage to buildings caused by improper commissioning of HVAC systems during periods of high humidity. The topics of the article include moisture control strategies, air leakage in hot, humid climates, commissioning HVAC systems, and case studies covering central exhaust systems, building chases being used as air distribution systems, and leakage at guest room fan coil units.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and humidity sensing of metallophtalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakane, Sanjay D. S.; Jain, Shilpa; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2001-03-01

    Metallophthalocyanines synthesized for different metals such as Ni, Cr, Ag, Mg, Cu, Cd, Al, etc by chemical methods were characterized with FTIR, UV etc. Sensing of humidity and different gases such as Nox, H2, O2, CO2, N2, ammonia, alcohol vapours etc were checked with 2-probe technique with monitoring change in resistance change. These samples have excellent stability against heat, light, air, and hence it has considerable attention for environmentally stable gas sensor. The electrical property of these samples were investigated at room temperature and at normal atmospheric pressure from low to 98% relative Humidity. It was observed that these samples shows good response and recovery for humidity sensing.

  18. Instrument uncertainty effect on calculation of absolute humidity using dewpoint, wet-bulb, and relative humidity sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Slayzak, S.J.; Ryan, J.P.

    1998-04-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy`s Advanced Desiccant Technology Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is characterizing the state-of-the-art in desiccant dehumidifiers, the key component of desiccant cooling systems. The experimental data will provide industry and end users with independent performance evaluation and help researchers assess the energy savings potential of the technology. Accurate determination of humidity ratio is critical to this work and an understanding of the capabilities of the available instrumentation is central to its proper application. This paper compares the minimum theoretical random error in humidity ratio calculation for three common measurement methods to give a sense of the relative maximum accuracy possible for each method assuming systematic errors can be made negligible. A series of experiments conducted also illustrate the capabilities of relative humidity sensors as compared to dewpoint sensors in measuring the grain depression of desiccant dehumidifiers. These tests support the results of the uncertainty analysis. At generally available instrument accuracies, uncertainty in calculated humidity ratio for dewpoint sensors is determined to be constant at approximately 2%. Wet-bulb sensors range between 2% and 6% above 10 g/kg (4%--15% below), and relative humidity sensors vary between 4% above 90% rh and 15% at 20% rh. Below 20% rh, uncertainty for rh sensors increases dramatically. Highest currently attainable accuracies bring dewpoint instruments down to 1% uncertainty, wet bulb to a range of 1%--3% above 10 g/kg (1.5%--8% below), and rh sensors between 1% and 5%.

  19. Highly sensitive and stable relative humidity sensors based on WO3 modified mesoporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomer, Vijay K.; Duhan, Surender

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of using WO3 loaded mesoporous silica nanocomposite developed using one step hydrothermal method for measuring relative humidity (RH) at room temperature. On measuring the sensing response, the nanocomposite sensor exhibits excellent linearity, negligible hysteresis, swift response and recovery time, good repeatability, and outstanding stability in 11%-98% RH range. The complex impedance spectra of the sensor at different RHs were used to explore the humidity sensing mechanism. This work could encourage a right approach to blueprint practical humidity sensors with high sensitivity, long stability and fast response/recovery time.

  20. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  1. Roller compaction: Effect of relative humidity of lactose powder.

    PubMed

    Omar, Chalak S; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Palzer, Stefan; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2016-09-01

    The effect of storage at different relative humidity conditions, for various types of lactose, on roller compaction behaviour was investigated. Three types of lactose were used in this study: anhydrous lactose (SuperTab21AN), spray dried lactose (SuperTab11SD) and α-lactose monohydrate 200M. These powders differ in their amorphous contents, due to different manufacturing processes. The powders were stored in a climatic chamber at different relative humidity values ranging from 10% to 80% RH. It was found that the roller compaction behaviour and ribbon properties were different for powders conditioned to different relative humidities. The amount of fines produced, which is undesirable in roller compaction, was found to be different at different relative humidity. The minimum amount of fines produced was found to be for powders conditioned at 20-40% RH. The maximum amount of fines was produced for powders conditioned at 80% RH. This was attributed to the decrease in powder flowability, as indicated by the flow function coefficient ffc and the angle of repose. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was also applied to determine the velocity of primary particles during ribbon production, and it was found that the velocity of the powder during the roller compaction decreased with powders stored at high RH. This resulted in less powder being present in the compaction zone at the edges of the rollers, which resulted in ribbons with a smaller overall width. The relative humidity for the storage of powders has shown to have minimal effect on the ribbon tensile strength at low RH conditions (10-20%). The lowest tensile strength of ribbons produced from lactose 200M and SD was for powders conditioned at 80% RH, whereas, ribbons produced from lactose 21AN at the same condition of 80% RH showed the highest tensile strength. The storage RH range 20-40% was found to be an optimum condition for roll compacting three lactose powders, as it resulted in a minimum amount of fines in the

  2. Desiccant-assisted air conditioner improves IAQ and comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Meckler, M. )

    1994-10-01

    This article describes a system which offers the advantage of downsizing the evaporator coil and condensing unit capacities for comparable design loads, which in turn provides numerous benefits. Airborne microorganisms, which are responsible for many acute diseases, infections, and allergies, are well protected indoors by the moisture surrounding them. While the human body is generally the host for various bacteria and viruses, fungi can grow in moist places. It has been concluded that an optimum relative humidity (RH) range of 40 to 60 percent is necessary to minimize or eliminate the bacterial, viral, and fungal growth. In addition, humidity also has an effect on air cleanliness--it reduces the presence of dust particles--and on the deterioration of the building structure and its contents. Therefore, controlling humidity is a very important factor to human comfort in minimizing adverse health effects and maximizing the structural longevity of the building.

  3. Properties of air mass mixing and humidity in the subtropics from measurements of the D/H isotope ratio of water vapor at the Mauna Loa Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noone, David; Galewsky, Joseph; Sharp, Zachary D.; Worden, John; Barnes, John; Baer, Doug; Bailey, Adriana; Brown, Derek P.; Christensen, Lance; Crosson, Eric; Dong, Feng; Hurley, John V.; Johnson, Leah R.; Strong, Mel; Toohey, Darin; van Pelt, Aaron; Wright, Jonathon S.

    2011-11-01

    Water vapor in the subtropical troposphere plays an important role in the radiative balance, the distribution of precipitation, and the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere. Measurements of the water vapor mixing ratio paired with stable isotope ratios provide unique information on transport processes and moisture sources that is not available with mixing ratio data alone. Measurements of the D/H isotope ratio of water vapor from Mauna Loa Observatory over 4 weeks in October-November 2008 were used to identify components of the regional hydrological cycle. A mixing model exploits the isotope information to identify water fluxes from time series data. Mixing is associated with exchange between marine boundary layer air and tropospheric air on diurnal time scales and between different tropospheric air masses with characteristics that evolve on the synoptic time scale. Diurnal variations are associated with upslope flow and the transition from nighttime air above the marine trade inversion to marine boundary layer air during daytime. During easterly trade wind conditions, growth and decay of the boundary layer are largely conservative in a regional context but contribute ˜12% of the nighttime water vapor at Mauna Loa. Tropospheric moisture is associated with convective outflow and exchange with drier air originating from higher latitude or higher altitude. During the passage of a moist filament, boundary layer exchange is enhanced. Isotopic data reflect the combination of processes that control the water balance, which highlights the utility for baseline measurements of water vapor isotopologues in monitoring the response of the hydrological cycle to climate change.

  4. Aerosol influenza transmission risk contours: A study of humid tropics versus winter temperate zone

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years, much attention has been given to the spread of influenza around the world. With the continuing human outbreak of H5N1 beginning in 2003 and the H1N1 pandemic in 2009, focus on influenza and other respiratory viruses has been increased. It has been accepted for decades that international travel via jet aircraft is a major vector for global spread of influenza, and epidemiological differences between tropical and temperate regions observed. Thus we wanted to study how indoor environmental conditions (enclosed locations) in the tropics and winter temperate zones contribute to the aerosol spread of influenza by travelers. To this end, a survey consisting of 632 readings of temperature (T) versus relative humidity (RH) in 389 different enclosed locations air travelers are likely to visit in 8 tropical nations were compared to 102 such readings in 2 Australian cities, including ground transport, hotels, shops, offices and other publicly accessible locations, along with 586 time course readings from aircraft. Results An influenza transmission risk contour map was developed for T versus RH. Empirical equations were created for estimating: 1. risk relative to temperature and RH, and 2. time parameterized influenza transmission risk. Using the transmission risk contours and equations, transmission risk for each country's locations was compared with influenza reports from the countries. Higher risk enclosed locations in the tropics included new automobile transport, luxury buses, luxury hotels, and bank branches. Most temperate locations were high risk. Conclusion Environmental control is recommended for public health mitigation focused on higher risk enclosed locations. Public health can make use of the methods developed to track potential vulnerability to aerosol influenza. The methods presented can also be used in influenza modeling. Accounting for differential aerosol transmission using T and RH can potentially explain anomalies of influenza

  5. Multipoint side illuminated absorption based optical fiber sensor for relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egalon, Claudio O.

    2013-09-01

    A side illuminated optical fiber sensor with three sensing points and an absorption-based indicator in the cladding was demonstrated for the first time. This device is easy to manufacture, uses leaky modes as the signal carrier and can measure RH in air, soil, concrete and other environments. So far, only side illuminated fluorescence sensors have been reported. They were thought, erroneously, to have their entire signal generated by evanescent wave coupling when, in fact, leaky modes also play an important role. This, coupled to the prevailing misconception that leaky modes propagate for very short lengths of fiber, prevented the earlier discovery of this absorption-based configuration. A 25 cm long fiber, with a cladding doped with an absorption dye sensitive to Relative Humidity (RH), was used in this demonstration. The fiber was side illuminated by a broadband LED, a fraction of this light was absorbed by the cladding and the remaining light guided to the fiber tip as low loss leaky modes. A total of three sensors, two with three sensing points and one with two, were calibrated using a low cost photometer. The signal was linear, stable, increased with RH and had resolutions between 0.11% and 0.25% in RH. With 5 mm diameter LEDs, devices with at least two sensing points per centimeter of fiber can be easily fabricated resulting in sensors with a very high density of sensing points. Compared to the prevailing axial illumination approach, the side illuminated sensor was found to be far simpler and inexpensive.

  6. A Fully Integrated Humidity Sensor System-on-Chip Fabricated by Micro-Stamping Technology

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Che-Wei; Huang, Yu-Jie; Lu, Shey-Shi; Lin, Chih-Ting

    2012-01-01

    A fully integrated humidity sensor chip was designed, implemented, and tested. Utilizing the micro-stamping technology, the pseudo-3D sensor system-on-chip (SSoC) architecture can be implemented by stacking sensing materials directly on the top of a CMOS-fabricated chip. The fabricated sensor system-on-chip (2.28 mm × 2.48 mm) integrated a humidity sensor, an interface circuit, a digital controller, and an On-Off Keying (OOK) wireless transceiver. With low power consumption, i.e., 750 μW without RF operation, the sensitivity of developed sensor chip was experimentally verified in the relative humidity (RH) range from 32% to 60%. The response time of the chip was also experimentally verified to be within 5 seconds from RH 36% to RH 64%. As a consequence, the implemented humidity SSoC paves the way toward the an ultra-small sensor system for various applications.

  7. Influence of humidity on hot-wire measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, Franz; Noppenberger, Stefan; Still, Martin; Venzke, Holger

    1996-10-01

    When applying hot-wire anemometry to velocity measurements in air, it is standard practice to neglect the effect of humidity. In this paper the influence of the thermodynamic and transport properties of humid air on hot-wire measurements is examined on the basis of the correlations for Nusselt number proposed previously by other researchers. Experimental results at controlled levels of relative humidity between 30% and 90% at 0957-0233/7/10/021/img1, 0957-0233/7/10/021/img2 and 0957-0233/7/10/021/img3 are reproduced satisfactorily by the theoretical approaches of two of these equations. A corrective term is defined to expand formulae designed for dry air to work in a humid environment. The error in velocity by omitting the influence of humidity is estimated in terms of temperature and relative humidity.

  8. A CMOS Smart Temperature and Humidity Sensor with Combined Readout

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Clemens; Valente, Virgilio; Donaldson, Nick; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A fully-integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor for combined temperature and humidity measurements is presented. The main purpose of the device is to monitor the hermeticity of micro-packages for implanted integrated circuits and to ensure their safe operation by monitoring the operating temperature and humidity on-chip. The smart sensor has two modes of operation, in which either the temperature or humidity is converted into a digital code representing a frequency ratio between two oscillators. This ratio is determined by the ratios of the timing capacitances and bias currents in both oscillators. The reference oscillator is biased by a current whose temperature dependency is complementary to the proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) current. For the temperature measurement, this results in an exceptional normalized sensitivity of about 0.77%/°C at the accepted expense of reduced linearity. The humidity sensor is a capacitor, whose value varies linearly with relative humidity (RH) with a normalized sensitivity of 0.055%/% RH. For comparison, two versions of the humidity sensor with an area of either 0.2 mm2 or 1.2 mm2 were fabricated in a commercial 0.18 μm CMOS process. The on-chip readout electronics operate from a 5 V power supply and consume a current of approximately 85 μA. PMID:25230305

  9. A CMOS smart temperature and humidity sensor with combined readout.

    PubMed

    Eder, Clemens; Valente, Virgilio; Donaldson, Nick; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A fully-integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor for combined temperature and humidity measurements is presented. The main purpose of the device is to monitor the hermeticity of micro-packages for implanted integrated circuits and to ensure their safe operation by monitoring the operating temperature and humidity on-chip. The smart sensor has two modes of operation, in which either the temperature or humidity is converted into a digital code representing a frequency ratio between two oscillators. This ratio is determined by the ratios of the timing capacitances and bias currents in both oscillators. The reference oscillator is biased by a current whose temperature dependency is complementary to the proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) current. For the temperature measurement, this results in an exceptional normalized sensitivity of about 0.77%/°C at the accepted expense of reduced linearity. The humidity sensor is a capacitor, whose value varies linearly with relative humidity (RH) with a normalized sensitivity of 0.055%/% RH. For comparison, two versions of the humidity sensor with an area of either 0.2 mm2 or 1.2 mm2 were fabricated in a commercial 0.18 μm CMOS process. The on-chip readout electronics operate from a 5 V power supply and consume a current of approximately 85 µA. PMID:25230305

  10. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE HOUSE DUST MITES, DERMATOPHAGOIDES FARINAE, D. PTERONYSSINUS, AND EUROGLYPHUS MAYNEI (ACARI: PYROGLYPHIDAE), AT SPECIFIC RELATIVE HUMIDITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of relative humidity (RH) on the population dynamics of single and mixed species of Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes), D. pteronyssinus (Trouessart), and Euroglyphus maynei (Cooreman) at specific RHs, , and unlimited food. Sin...

  11. Long-distance recording of the humidity over the sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buklanov, V. V.; Klaptsov, V. M.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure is developed for long distance recording of humidity over the sea that uses humidity detectors of the sorption type, whose electrical properties depend on the relative humidity of the air. The moisture sensitive material of the hygristor is the organic polymer polyacrylonitryl, deposited on silver electrodes and thermally treated. In the measurements of the relative humidity from 60% to 95%, the resistance of the hygristor varies from several hundred kiloohms to a few kiloohms, and is an essentially nonlinear function of the humidity.

  12. Humidity Dependence of Adhesion for Silane Coated Microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect

    DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; MAYER,THOMAS M.; CARPICK,ROBERT W.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; SRINIVASAN,U.; MABOUDIAN,R.

    1999-11-09

    This study examines adhesion between silane-coated micromachined surfaces that are exposed to humid conditions. Our quantitative values for interfacial adhesion energies are determined from an in-situ optical measurement of deformations in partly-adhered cantilever beams. We coated micromachined cantilevers with either ODTS (C{sub 18}H{sub 37}SiCl{sub 3}) or FDTS (C{sub 8}F{sub 17}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}SiCl{sub 3}) with the objective of creating hydrophobic surfaces whose adhesion would be independent of humidity. In both cases, the adhesion energy is significantly lower than for uncoated, hydrophilic surfaces. For relative humidities (RH) less than 95% (ODTS) and 80% (FDTS) the adhesion energy was extremely low and constant. In fact, ODTS-coated beams exposed to saturated humidity conditions and long (48 hour) exposures showed only a factor of two increase in adhesion energy. Surprisingly, FDTS coated beams, which initially have a higher contact angle (115{degree}) with water than do ODTS coated beams (112{degree}), proved to be much more sensitive to humidity. The FDTS coated surfaces showed a factor of one hundred increase in adhesion energy after a seven hour exposure to 90% RH. Atomic force microscopy revealed agglomerated coating material after exposed to high RH, suggesting a redistribution of the monolayer film. This agglomeration was more prominent for FDTS than ODTS. These findings suggest a new mechanism for uptake of moisture under high humidity conditions. At high humidities, the silane coatings can reconfigure from a surface to a bulk phase leaving behind locally hydrophilic sites which increase the average measured adhesion energy. In order for the adhesion increase to be observed, a significant fraction of the monolayer must be converted from the surface to the bulk phase.

  13. Interpolation Correlations for Fluid Properties of Humid Air in the Temperature Range 100 °C to 200 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melling, Adrian; Noppenberger, Stefan; Still, Martin; Venzke, Holger

    1997-07-01

    This paper provides simple analytical correlations for selected thermodynamic and fluid transport properties for the mixture dry air and water vapor. These correlations are derived from theory as well as from numerical fitting procedures and give expressions for density ϱ, viscosity μ, thermal conductivity k, specific heat cp, and Prandtl number Pr at a working pressure of p=1 bar and for a temperature range from 100 °C to 200 °C. The main purpose is to present a comparatively simple set of equations, as the correlations do not reflect in every case the underlying physical background. Since experimental data are scarce for the properties under investigation, it was in some cases necessary to extrapolate the available correlations to temperatures or water vapor contents where no experimental data could be found. The derived equations are compared with the pure component values for dry air and water vapor and, as far as possible, also for air-water vapor mixtures.

  14. Enhancing performance and uniformity of CH3NH3PbI3−xClx perovskite solar cells by air-heated-oven assisted annealing under various humidities

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing; Jin, Zhiwen; Li, Hui; Wang, Jizheng

    2016-01-01

    To fabricate high-performance metal-halide perovskite solar cells, a thermal annealing process is indispensable in preparing high quality perovskite film. And usually such annealing is performed on hot plate. However hot-plate annealing could cause problems such as inhomogeneous heating (induced by non-tight contact between the sample and the plate), it is also not fit for large scale manufactory. In this paper, we conduct the annealing process in air-heated oven under various humidity environments, and compared the resulted films (CH3NH3PbI3−xClx) and devices (Al/PC61BM/CH3NH3PbI3−xClx/PEDOT:PSS/ITO/glass) with that obtained via hot-plate annealing. It is found that the air-heated-oven annealing is superior to the hot-plate annealing: the annealing time is shorter, the films are more uniform, and the devices exhibit higher power conversion efficiency and better uniformity. The highest efficiencies achieved for the oven and hot-plate annealing processes are 14.9% and 13.5%, and the corresponding standard deviations are 0.5% and 0.8%, respectively. Our work here indicates that air-heated-oven annealing could be a more reliable and more efficient way for both lab research and large-scale production. PMID:26879260

  15. Enhancing performance and uniformity of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite solar cells by air-heated-oven assisted annealing under various humidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qing; Jin, Zhiwen; Li, Hui; Wang, Jizheng

    2016-02-01

    To fabricate high-performance metal-halide perovskite solar cells, a thermal annealing process is indispensable in preparing high quality perovskite film. And usually such annealing is performed on hot plate. However hot-plate annealing could cause problems such as inhomogeneous heating (induced by non-tight contact between the sample and the plate), it is also not fit for large scale manufactory. In this paper, we conduct the annealing process in air-heated oven under various humidity environments, and compared the resulted films (CH3NH3PbI3-xClx) and devices (Al/PC61BM/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx/PEDOT:PSS/ITO/glass) with that obtained via hot-plate annealing. It is found that the air-heated-oven annealing is superior to the hot-plate annealing: the annealing time is shorter, the films are more uniform, and the devices exhibit higher power conversion efficiency and better uniformity. The highest efficiencies achieved for the oven and hot-plate annealing processes are 14.9% and 13.5%, and the corresponding standard deviations are 0.5% and 0.8%, respectively. Our work here indicates that air-heated-oven annealing could be a more reliable and more efficient way for both lab research and large-scale production.

  16. Biogenic volatile organic compound analyses by PTR-TOF-MS: Calibration, humidity effect and reduced electric field dependency.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaobing

    2015-06-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) emitted by plants after stress or damage induction are a major part of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS) is a high-resolution and sensitive technique for in situ GLV analyses, while its performance is dramatically influenced by humidity, electric field, etc. In this study the influence of gas humidity and the effect of reduced field (E/N) were examined in addition to measuring calibration curves for the GLVs. Calibration curves measured for seven of the GLVs in dry air were linear, with sensitivities ranging from 5 to 10 ncps/ppbv (normalized counts per second/parts per billion by volume). The sensitivities for most GLV analyses were found to increase by between 20% and 35% when the humidity of the sample gas was raised from 0% to 70% relative humidity (RH) at 21°C, with the exception of (E)-2-hexenol. Product ion branching ratios were also affected by humidity, with the relative abundance of the protonated molecular ions and higher mass fragment ions increasing with humidity. The effect of reduced field (E/N) on the fragmentation of GLVs was examined in the drift tube of the PTR-TOF-MS. The structurally similar GLVs are acutely susceptible to fragmentation following ionization and the fragmentation patterns are highly dependent on E/N. Overall the measured fragmentation patterns contain sufficient information to permit at least partial separation and identification of the isomeric GLVs by looking at differences in their fragmentation patterns at high and low E/N. PMID:26040746

  17. Estimation of potential evapotranspiration from extraterrestrial radiation, air temperature and humidity to assess future climate change effects on the vegetation of the Northern Great Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, David A.; Bachelet, Dominique M.; Symstad, Amy J.; Ferschweiler, Ken; Hobbins, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The potential evapotranspiration (PET) that would occur with unlimited plant access to water is a central driver of simulated plant growth in many ecological models. PET is influenced by solar and longwave radiation, temperature, wind speed, and humidity, but it is often modeled as a function of temperature alone. This approach can cause biases in projections of future climate impacts in part because it confounds the effects of warming due to increased greenhouse gases with that which would be caused by increased radiation from the sun. We developed an algorithm for linking PET to extraterrestrial solar radiation (incoming top-of atmosphere solar radiation), as well as temperature and atmospheric water vapor pressure, and incorporated this algorithm into the dynamic global vegetation model MC1. We tested the new algorithm for the Northern Great Plains, USA, whose remaining grasslands are threatened by continuing woody encroachment. Both the new and the standard temperature-dependent MC1 algorithm adequately simulated current PET, as compared to the more rigorous PenPan model of Rotstayn et al. (2006). However, compared to the standard algorithm, the new algorithm projected a much more gradual increase in PET over the 21st century for three contrasting future climates. This difference led to lower simulated drought effects and hence greater woody encroachment with the new algorithm, illustrating the importance of more rigorous calculations of PET in ecological models dealing with climate change.

  18. Evaluation of the desiccation tolerance of blastospores of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomyces)using a lab- scale, air-drying chamber with controlled relative humidity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stabilization of living microbial agents for use as biological control agents is often accomplished through desiccation. The drying process must be conducive to the survival of the living microbial agent during desiccation and storage. Our air-drying studies with liquid culture-produced blasto...

  19. How factoring in humidity adds value

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, G. )

    1994-09-01

    Humidity plays a major role in health, comfort, and production. This article is a brief overview of the technologies available and a detailed explanation of how to calculate humidification loads. The problems caused by dry air vary from one building to another and from one area to another. But basically, there are three major problem types: static electricity, poor moisture stability, health and comfort problems. In today's business offices, static electricity can disrupt operations and increase operating costs. In printing facilities, low humidity causes poor ink registration. Also, sheets of paper stick together and jam machines, wasting time and paper. In computer rooms and data processing areas, dry air leads to static electric discharges that cause circuit board failure, dust buildup on heads, and storage tape breakage. Moisture stability impacts industrial processes and the materials they use. In many cases, product and material deterioration is directly related to moisture fluctuations and lack of humidity control. Books, antiques, paper, wood and wood products, and fruits and vegetables are a few items that can be ruined by low or changing humidity. The health impact of low humidity shows up in dry nasal and thread membranes, dry and itchy skin, and irritated eyes. For employees, this means greater susceptibility to colds and other viral infections. The results is higher absenteeism when humidity is low, which translates into lost productivity and profits.

  20. Optical fibre Fabry–Perot relative humidity sensor based on HCPCF and chitosan film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Jiang, Mingshun; Sui, Qingmei; Geng, Xiangyi

    2016-09-01

    An optical fibre Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) sensor for relative humidity (RH) measurement is proposed. The FPI is formed by splicing a short section of hollow-core photonic crystal fibre(HCPCF) to single mode fibre and covering a chitosan film at the end of HCPCF. The refractive index of chitosan and film thickness will change with ambient RH, leading to the change in the reflected interference spectrum of FPI. RH response of the FPI sensor is analysed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. It shows nonlinear response to RH values from 35 to 95%RH. The interference fringe shifts to shorter wavelength as RH increases with a maximum sensitivity of 0.28 nm/%RH at high RH level. And the fringe contrast also decreases as RH increases with an available maximum sensitivity of 0.5 dB/%RH. The sensor shows good stability and fast response time less than 1 min. With its advantages of compact structure, good performance, simple and safe fabrication, the proposed optical fibre FPI sensor has great potential for RH sensing.

  1. Physiological responses to changes in relative humidity under thermally neutral, warm and hot conditions.

    PubMed

    Kakitsuba, Naoshi

    2016-07-01

    Four hypothetical thermophysiological responses to changes in relative humidity (Rh) under thermally neutral, warm, and hot conditions were proposed for a person at rest. Under thermally neutral and warm conditions, the first hypothetical response to an increase in Rh was a decrease in mean skin temperature (T¯sk) due to increase in mean evaporation rate (E¯sk), and the second hypothetical response to a decrease in Rh was a decrease, an increase, or no change in T¯sk, depending on changes in the E¯sk. Under hot conditions, the third hypothetical response to an increase in the Rh was an increase in T¯sk or decrease in T¯sk upon decrease in the Rh due to changes in E¯sk, and the forth hypothetical response to an increase in Rh was an increase in T¯sk due to increase in the peripheral blood flow rate (SkBF). To test these hypotheses, the T¯sk and E¯sk of four young male volunteers were measured at 28°C, 30°C, or 32°C while the Rh was maintained at 40% or 80% Rh for 60min after 20min exposure at 60% Rh (control condition). In a second experiment, the T¯sk, E¯sk, and SkBF of five young male volunteers were measured at 34°C-40% Rh or 36°C-40% Rh, or 34°C-70% Rh or 36°C-70% Rh for 60min after 20min exposure at 28°C-60% Rh (control condition). The first hypothesis was partly supported by the findings that the T¯sk was lower than the control values at 28°C-80% Rh and the E¯sk was higher than the control values at 80% Rh at any tested temperature. The second hypothesis was partly supported by the findings that the T¯sk was lower than the control values at 28°C-40% Rh, and there were small changes in both T¯sk and E¯sk at 30°C-40% Rh. The third and fourth hypotheses were supported by the findings that the T¯sk at 36°C-70% Rh was significantly higher (p<0.01) than at 36°C-40% Rh, the E¯sk was significantly higher (p<0.01) at 70% Rh than at 40% Rh, and SkBF was positively correlated with T¯sk. PMID:27264893

  2. Population growth and development of the psocid Liposcelis brunnea Motschulsky (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) at constant temperatures and relative humidities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of temperature and relative humidity on population growth and development of the psocid Liposcelis brunnea Motschulsky. L. brunnea did not survive at 43% RH, while populations increased from 22.5-32.5°C and 55 -75% RH. Interestingly, we found L. brunnea population growth ...

  3. Intensity-modulated relative humidity sensing with polyvinyl alcohol coating and optical fiber gratings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingyi; Dong, Xinyong; Ni, Kai; Chan, Chi Chu; Shun, Perry Ping

    2015-04-01

    A relative humidity (RH) sensor in reflection mode is proposed and experimentally demonstrated by using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated tilted-fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) cascaded by a reflection-band-matched chirped-fiber Bragg grating (CFBG). The sensing principle is based on the RH-dependent refractive index of the PVA coating, which modulates the transmission function of the TFBG. The CFBG is properly designed to reflect a broadband of light spectrally suited at the cladding mode resonance region of the TFBG, thus the reflected optical signal passes through and is modulated by the TFBG again. As a result, RH measurements with enhanced sensitivity of ∼1.80  μW/%RH are realized and demodulated in the range from 20% RH to 85% RH. PMID:25967167

  4. Effect of temperature and humidity on pathogenicity of native Beauveria bassiana isolate against Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2015-12-01

    Beauveria bassiana HQ917687 virulence to housefly larvae and adult was assessed at different relative humidity, RH (50, 75, 90, and 100 %) and temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 °C) conditions at the fungal dose of 10(8) conidia/ml. Depending on the temperature and RH regime tested, difference in mortality rates of housefly adult and larvae were detected. During assay on adult housefly, 100 % mortality was achieved at RH, 90 and 100 % while the temperature of 30 °C showed maximum mortality at all the tested humidity conditions. Lethal time, LT50 was 2.9 days at 100 % RH. Larval mortality at different humidity conditions varied between 30 and 74 %, with maximum mortality at 100 % RH and 30 °C. Optimum temperature for B. bassiana virulence to housefly larvae was also found to be 30 °C. The interaction between temperature and RH revealed significant effect of RH at moderate temperature range (20-35 °C), while such an interaction was not observed at extreme temperatures. The results obtained in this study have useful implications in understanding the pathogen behavior under actual field conditions. This in turn may help devising suitable entomopathogen release schedules for maximum fungal infection. PMID:26688637

  5. How Ambient Humidity May Affect the Transmission of Viral Infectious Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wan; Marr, Linsey; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2013-04-01

    Viral infectious diseases such as influenza have been a great burden to public health. The airborne transmission route is an important venue for the spread of many respiratory viral diseases. Many airborne viruses have been shown to be sensitive to ambient humidity, yet the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain elusive. A thorough understanding of this phenomenon may provide insight into the temporal and spatial distribution of diseases. For instance, studies have repeatedly suggested ambient humidity as an important environmental determinant in the transmission of influenza in temperate regions. Further, knowing how to optimize humidity so as to minimize virus survival may have practical implications for disease prevention. In this talk, we will discuss multiple mechanisms that may account for the association between humidity and viability of viruses in aerosols, including water activity, surface inactivation, salt toxicity, and conformational changes to the virus in response to varying pH. As a case study, we will discuss our work on the effect of relative humidity (RH) on survival of influenza A virus (IAV) and how it may contribute to the transmission patterns of seasonal flu around the world. We measured the change in viability of IAV in droplets at various RHs. Results suggest three potential regimes defined by humidity: physiological (~100% RH) with high viability, concentrated (~50% to near 100% RH) with lower viability, and dry (<~50% RH) with high viability. Based on these results, we propose a mechanistic basis for the dependence of IAV's transmission on humidity. In temperate regions, the increase in influenza activity in winter may be due to enhanced transmission via the aerosol route thanks to IAV's higher viability in droplets at low RH. In tropical regions, transmission could be enhanced due to high viability of IAV at extremely high RH (rainy season), as observed in our study, possibly through both the aerosol route and the contact

  6. Humidity sensors printed on recycled paper and cardboard.

    PubMed

    Mraović, Matija; Muck, Tadeja; Pivar, Matej; Trontelj, Janez; Pleteršek, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Research, design, fabrication and results of various screen printed capacitive humidity sensors is presented in this paper. Two types of capacitive humidity sensors have been designed and fabricated via screen printing on recycled paper and cardboard, obtained from the regional paper and cardboard industry. As printing ink, commercially available silver nanoparticle-based conductive ink was used. A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the humidity measurement methods using paper as a dielectric material. Performances of different structures have been tested in a humidity chamber. Relative humidity in the chamber was varied in the range of 35%-80% relative humidity (RH) at a constant temperature of 23 °C. Parameters of interest were capacitance and conductance of each sensor material, as well as long term behaviour. Process reversibility has also been considered. The results obtained show a mainly logarithmic response of the paper sensors, with the only exception being cardboard-based sensors. Recycled paper-based sensors exhibit a change in value of three orders of magnitude, whereas cardboard-based sensors have a change in value of few 10s over the entire scope of relative humidity range (RH 35%-90%). Two different types of capacitor sensors have been investigated: lateral (comb) type sensors and modified, perforated flat plate type sensors. The objective of the present work was to identify the most important factors affecting the material performances with humidity, and to contribute to the development of a sensor system supported with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip directly on the material, for use in smart packaging applications. Therefore, the authors built a passive and a battery-supported wireless module based on SL900A smart sensory tag's IC to achieve UHF-RFID functionality with data logging capability. PMID:25072347

  7. Humidity Sensors Printed on Recycled Paper and Cardboard

    PubMed Central

    Mraović, Matija; Muck, Tadeja; Pivar, Matej; Trontelj, Janez; Pleteršek, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Research, design, fabrication and results of various screen printed capacitive humidity sensors is presented in this paper. Two types of capacitive humidity sensors have been designed and fabricated via screen printing on recycled paper and cardboard, obtained from the regional paper and cardboard industry. As printing ink, commercially available silver nanoparticle-based conductive ink was used. A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the humidity measurement methods using paper as a dielectric material. Performances of different structures have been tested in a humidity chamber. Relative humidity in the chamber was varied in the range of 35%–80% relative humidity (RH) at a constant temperature of 23 °C. Parameters of interest were capacitance and conductance of each sensor material, as well as long term behaviour. Process reversibility has also been considered. The results obtained show a mainly logarithmic response of the paper sensors, with the only exception being cardboard-based sensors. Recycled paper-based sensors exhibit a change in value of three orders of magnitude, whereas cardboard-based sensors have a change in value of few 10s over the entire scope of relative humidity range (RH 35%–90%). Two different types of capacitor sensors have been investigated: lateral (comb) type sensors and modified, perforated flat plate type sensors. The objective of the present work was to identify the most important factors affecting the material performances with humidity, and to contribute to the development of a sensor system supported with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip directly on the material, for use in smart packaging applications. Therefore, the authors built a passive and a battery-supported wireless module based on SL900A smart sensory tag's IC to achieve UHF-RFID functionality with data logging capability. PMID:25072347

  8. Academics explore humidity's benefits.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Dave

    2008-11-01

    The effects of humidification on hospital superbugs are being explored by some of the UK's top academics, in what Dave Mortimer, national sales manager for Vapac Humidity Control, explains are the UK's first such studies. PMID:19044148

  9. Humidity without Mystification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staver, Allen E.

    1977-01-01

    Demonstrates how a simple graph can be effectively used in teaching the concept, measurement, and use of humidity. Science activities for upper elementary, secondary, and higher education students are suggested and definitions of terms are presented. (Author/DB)

  10. Role of Temperature, Humidity and Rainfall on Influenza Transmission in Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Bonilla, Luis; Jara, Jorge; McCracken, John; Azziz?-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, seasonal influenza causes about 500,000 deaths and 5 million severe illnesses per year. The environmental drivers of influenza transmission are poorly understood especially in the tropics. We aimed to identify meteorological factors for influenza transmission in tropical Central America. We gathered laboratory-confirmed influenza case-counts by week from Guatemala City, San Salvador Department (El Salvador) and Panama Province from 2006 to 2010. The average total cases per year were: 390 (Guatemala), 99 (San Salvador) and 129 (Panama). Meteorological factors including daily air temperature, rainfall, relative and absolute humidity (RH, AH) were obtained from ground stations, NASA satellites and land models. For these factors, we computed weekly averages and their deviation from the 5-yr means. We assessed the relationship between the number of influenza case-counts and the meteorological factors, including effects lagged by 1 to 4 weeks, using Poisson regression for each site. Our results showed influenza in San Salvador would increase by 1 case within a week of every 1 day with RH>75% (Relative Risk (RR)= 1.32, p=.001) and every 1C increase in minimum temperature (RR=1.29, p=.007) but it would decrease by 1 case for every 1mm-above mean weekly rainfall (RR=0.93,p<.001) (model pseudo-R2=0.55). Within 2 weeks, influenza in Panama was increased by 1 case for every 1% increase in RH (RR=1.04, p=.003), and it was increased by 2 cases for every 1C increase of minimum temperature (RR=2.01, p<.001) (model pseudo-R2=0.4). Influenza counts in Guatemala had 1 case increase for every 1C increase in minimum temperature in the previous week (RR=1.21, p<.001), and for every 1mm/day-above normal increase of rainfall rate (RR=1.03, p=.03) (model pseudo-R2=0.54). Our findings that cases increase with temperature and humidity differ from some temperate-zone studies. But they indicate that climate parameters such as humidity and temperature could be predictive of influenza

  11. A Revised Calibration Function and Results for the Phoenix Mission TECP Relative Humidity Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zent, A.

    2014-12-01

    The original calibration function of the RH sensor on the Phoenix Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Sensor (TECP) has been revised in order to extend the range of the valid calibration, and to improve accuracy. The original function returned non-physical RH values at the lowest temperatures. To resolve this, and because the original calibration was performed against a pair of hygrometers that measured frost point (Tf), the revised calibration equation is also cast in terms of frost point. Because of the complexity of maintaining very low temperatures and high RH in the laboratory, no calibration data exists at T < 203K. However, sensor response duringf the mission was smooth and continuous down to 181 K. Therefore we have opted to include flight data in the calibration data set; selection was limited to data acquired during periods when the atmosphere is known to have been saturated. Tf remained below 210 K throughout the mission(P < 0.75 Pa). RH, conversely, ranged from 1 to well under 0.01 diurnally, due to ~50 K temperature variations. To first order, both vapor pressure and its variance are greater during daylight hours. Variance in overnight humidity is almost entirely explained by temperature, while atmospheric turbulence contributes substantial variance to daytime humidity. Likewise, data gathered with the TECP aloft reflect higher H2O abundances than at the surface, as well as greater variance. There is evidence for saturation of the atmosphere overnight throughout much of the mission. In virtually every overnight observation, once the atmosphere cooled to Tf, water vapor begins to decrease, and tracks air temperature. There is no evidence for substantial decreases in water vapor prior to saturation, as expected for adsorptive exchange. Likewise, there is no evidence of local control of vapor by phases such as perchlorate hydrates hydrated minerals. The daytime average H2O pressure does not change substantially over the course of the mission, although the

  12. Thermistors Used in Climatic Chamber at High Temperature and Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geel, J. L. W. A.; Bosma, R.; van Wensveen, J.; Peruzzi, A.

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, VSL initiated the development of a facility for a relative humidity between and for calibrating high-temperature relative humidity sensors at pressures other than atmospheric. The setup for calculating the relative humidity uses the dew-point temperature, measured by a chilled mirror hygrometer, and the temperature distribution in the chamber, measured by a series of thermistors. This paper describes the results of thermal tests performed on the thermistors to ensure that they meet the requirements of the humidity calibration facility. Different types of thermistors were evaluated up to , and the selected type showed a short-term drift of less than 2 mK. Exposure of these thermistors to temperatures up to gave an initial hysteresis of 40 mK, but after this initial hysteresis, the hysteresis, over the range from up to , was less than 10 mK. Use of a digital multimeter, with a low-power option, limited the self-heating of the thermistors, over the range from up to , to less than 5 mK. During use in the new setup, the thermistors were exposed to changing humidities between 1 %Rh and 90 %Rh and temperatures up to , showing drifts of less than 10 mK.

  13. Heat or humidity, which triggers tree phenology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, Julia; Sparks, Tim H.; Estrella, Nicole; Menzel, Annette

    2014-05-01

    An overwhelming number of studies confirm that temperature is the main driver for phenological events such as leafing, flowering or fruit ripening, which was first discovered by Réaumur in 1735. Since then, several additional factors which influence onset dates have been identified, such as length of the chilling period, photoperiod, temperature of the previous autumn, nutrient availability, precipitation, sunshine and genetics (local adaptations). Those are supposed to capture some of the remaining, unexplained variance. But our ability to predict onset dates remains imprecise, and our understanding of how plants sense temperature is vague. From a climate chamber experiment on cuttings of 9 tree species we present evidence that air humidity is an important, but previously overlooked, factor influencing the spring phenology of trees. The date of median leaf unfolding was 7 days earlier at 90% relative humidity compared to 40% relative humidity. A second experiment with cuttings shows that water uptake by above-ground tissue might be involved in the phenological development of trees. A third climate chamber experiment suggests that winter dormancy and chilling might be linked to dehydration processes. Analysis of climate data from several meteorological stations across Germany proves that the increase in air humidity after winter is a reliable signal of spring, i.e. less variable or susceptible to reversal compared to temperature. Finally, an analysis of long-term phenology data reveals that absolute air humidity can even be used as a reliable predictor of leafing dates. Current experimental work tries to elucidate the involved foliar uptake processes by using deuterium oxide marked water and Raman spectroscopy. We propose a new framework, wherein plants' chilling requirements and frost tolerance might be attributed to desiccation processes, while spring development is linked to re-humidification of plant tissue. The influence of air humidity on the spring

  14. Relationship of air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, photoperiod, wind speed and solar radiation with serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentration in Angus beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Sarko, T A; Bishop, M D; Davis, M E

    1994-07-01

    Eight paternal half-sib Angus calves born in late April and early May, 1988 were used to investigate the potential relationship of serum IGF-I concentration with photoperiod and various weather variables including minimum, maximum and average air temperatures, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed and solar radiation. To determine IGF-I concentration, blood samples were obtained at birth and then weekly until the calves reached 1 mo of age and bi-weekly thereafter. Blood sampling continued until the calves reached puberty as determined by progesterone and testosterone assays. Photoperiod and each weather variable were averaged over the 3 d prior to and including the day of blood sampling (4-d average). Data were divided into two periods: (1) birth through the end of the postweaning period and (2) postweaning period only. Serum IGF-I concentrations were analyzed using a model which included the fixed effects of sex and sample number, the random effect of calf nested within sex and the fixed interaction of sex x sample number, in addition to covariates for weight, photoperiod and weather variables. From birth through the end of the postweaning test, none of the weather variables or photoperiod had significant effects on serum IGF-I concentrations when each was fitted separately. For the postweaning period only, cubic regression coefficients for minimum and average temperatures were .0962 +/- .0325 ng/ml/degrees C3 and .0976 +/- .0272 ng/ml/degrees C3, respectively (P < .01). The quadratic regression coefficient for relative humidity during the postweaning period was -.2991 +/- .1142 ng/ml/%2 (P < .05). The quartic regression coefficient for wind speed during the postweaning period was -36.435 +/- 13.00 ng/ml/(km/hr)4 (P < .01). Maximum temperature, precipitation, solar radiation and photoperiod did not have significant effects on postweaning serum IGF-I concentrations. Based on these data, we conclude that temperature, humidity and wind speed were contributing

  15. Sensor Fabrication Method for in Situ Temperature and Humidity Monitoring of Light Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Su, Ay; Liu, Yin-Chieh; Chan, Pin-Cheng; Lin, Chia-Hung

    2010-01-01

    In this work micro temperature and humidity sensors are fabricated to measure the junction temperature and humidity of light emitting diodes (LED). The junction temperature is frequently measured using thermal resistance measurement technology. The weakness of this method is that the timing of data capture is not regulated by any standard. This investigation develops a device that can stably and continually measure temperature and humidity. The device is light-weight and can monitor junction temperature and humidity in real time. Using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), this study minimizes the size of the micro temperature and humidity sensors, which are constructed on a stainless steel foil substrate (40 μm-thick SS-304). The micro temperature and humidity sensors can be fixed between the LED chip and frame. The sensitivities of the micro temperature and humidity sensors are 0.06 ± 0.005 (Ω/°C) and 0.033 pF/%RH, respectively. PMID:22319303

  16. UV disinfection system for cabin air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soojung; Blatchley, Ernest R.

    2009-10-01

    The air of indoor cabin environments is susceptible to contamination by airborne microbial pathogens. A number of air treatment processes are available for inactivation or removal of airborne pathogens; included among these processes is ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The effectiveness of UV-based processes is known to be determined by the combined effects of UV dose delivery by the reactor and the UV dose-response behavior of the target microbe(s). To date, most UV system designs for air treatment have been based on empirical approaches, often involving crude representations of dose delivery and dose-response behavior. The objective of this research was to illustrate the development of a UV system for disinfection of cabin air based on well-defined methods of reactor and reaction characterization. UV dose-response behavior of a test microorganism was measured using a laboratory (bench-scale) system. Target microorganisms (bacterial spores) were first applied to membrane filters at sub-monolayer coverage. The filters were then transferred to a humidity chamber at fixed relative humidity (RH) and allowed to equilibrate with their surroundings. Microorganisms were then subjected to UV exposure under a collimated beam. The experiment was repeated at RH values ranging from 20% to 100%. UV dose-response behavior was observed to vary with RH. For example, at 100% RH, a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm 2 accomplished 99.7% (2.5 log10 U) of the Bacillus subtilis spore inactivation, whereas 99.94% (3.2 log10 U) inactivation was accomplished at this same UV dose under 20% RH conditions. To determine reactor behavior, UV dose-response behavior was combined with simulated results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and radiation intensity field models. This modeling approach allowed estimating the UV dose distribution delivered by the reactor. The advantage of this approach is that simulation of many reactor configurations can be done in a relatively short period of time. Moreover, by

  17. Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Pressure Sensors (THWAPS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-01-17

    The temperature, humidity, wind, and pressure system (THWAPS) provide surface reference values of these measurements for balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) launches. The THWAPS is located adjacent to the SONDE launch site at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility. The THWAPS system is a combination of calibration-quality instruments intended to provide accurate measurements of meteorological conditions near the surface. Although the primary use of the system is to provide accurate surface reference values of temperature, pressure, relative humidity (RH), and wind velocity for comparison with radiosonde readings, the system includes a data logger to record time series of the measured variables.

  18. Effect of relative humidity on fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation.

    PubMed Central

    Ezeonu, I M; Noble, J A; Simmons, R B; Price, D L; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    1994-01-01

    Fiberglass duct liners and fiberglass duct boards from eight buildings whose occupants complained of unacceptable or moldy odors in the air were found to be heavily colonized by fungi, particularly by Aspergillus versicolor. Unused fiberglass was found to be susceptible to fungal colonization in environmental chambers dependent upon relative humidity. No colonization was observed at relative humidities below 50%. Images PMID:8031101

  19. Temperature and humidity control of simulated human breath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    Subsystem was developed for breathing metabolic simulator which adjusts temperature and humidity of air to levels of human exhaled breath. Temperature-humidity subsystem is described, consisting of aluminum enclosure with 400 watt heat sheet glued to bottom, vertical separators, inlet connection, and check valve.

  20. 40 CFR 86.344-79 - Humidity calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Humidity calculations. 86.344-79 Section 86.344-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Humidity calculations. (a) The following abbreviations (and units) are used in this section:...

  1. Fiber optic relative humidity sensor based on the tilted fiber Bragg grating coated with graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youqing; Shen, Changyu; Lou, Weimin; Shentu, Fengying; Zhong, Chuan; Dong, Xinyong; Tong, Limin

    2016-07-01

    A fiber optic relative humidity (RH) sensor based on the tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) coated with graphene oxide (GO) film was presented. Amplitudes of the cladding mode resonances of the TFGB varies with the water sorption and desorption processes of the GO film, because of the strong interactions between the excited backward propagating cladding modes and the GO film. By detecting the transmission intensity changes of the cladding mode resonant dips at the wavelength of 1557 nm, the maximum sensitivity of 0.129 dB/%RH with a linear correlation coefficient of 99% under the RH range of 10-80% was obtained. The Bragg mode of TFBG can be used as power or wavelength references, since it is inherently insensitive to RH changes. In addition, the proposed humidity sensor shows a good performance in repeatability and stability.

  2. Why alite stops hydrating below 80% relative humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Flatt, Robert J.; Scherer, George W.; Bullard, Jeffrey W.

    2011-09-15

    It has been observed that the hydration of cement paste stops when the relative humidity drops below about 80%. A thermodynamic analysis shows that the capillary pressure exerted at that RH shifts the solubility of tricalcium silicate, so that it is in equilibrium with water. This is a reflection of the chemical shrinkage in this system: according to Le Chatelier's principle, since the volume of the products is less than that of the reactants, a negative (capillary) pressure opposes the reaction.

  3. Developmental acclimation to low or high humidity conditions affect starvation and heat resistance of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Ravi; Ranga, Poonam; Aggarwal, Dau Dayal

    2014-09-01

    Several Drosophila species originating from tropical humid localities are more resistant to starvation and heat stress than populations from high latitudes but mechanistic bases of such physiological changes are largely unknown. In order to test whether humidity levels affect starvation and heat resistance, we investigated developmental acclimation effects of low to high humidity conditions on the storage and utilization of energy resources, body mass, starvation survival, heat knockdown and heat survival of D. melanogaster. Isofemale lines reared under higher humidity (85% RH) stored significantly higher level of lipids and showed greater starvation survival hours but smaller in body size. In contrast, lines reared at low humidity evidenced reduced levels of body lipids and starvation resistance. Starvation resistance and lipid storage level were higher in females than males. However, the rate of utilization of lipids under starvation stress was lower for lines reared under higher humidity. Adult flies of lines reared at 65% RH and acclimated under high or low humidity condition for 200 hours also showed changes in resistance to starvation and heat but such effects were significantly lower as compared with developmental acclimation. Isofemale lines reared under higher humidity showed greater heat knockdown time and heat-shock survival. These laboratory observations on developmental and adult acclimation effects of low versus high humidity conditions have helped in explaining seasonal changes in resistance to starvation and heat of the wild-caught flies of D. melanogaster. Thus, we may suggest that wet versus drier conditions significantly affect starvation and heat resistance of D. melanogaster. PMID:24845200

  4. Observational Constraints of Humidity Climatology From GPS Radio Occultation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergados, P.; Jiang, J. H.; Su, H.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have shown large differences in the humidity climatology of the upper troposphere (UT) region between global models and observations. Such discrepancies can lead to large differences in the water vapor feedback estimations between models, reanalyses and satellite observations, and therefore climate projection uncertainties. Global Circulation Models (GCMs) could also mischaracterize the middle troposphere moist convection leading to erroneous conclusions about the water vapor vertical distribution and horizontal transport. We observationally constrain the UT humidity by employing high accuracy (<1.0%) and high vertical resolution (100-200 m) Global Positioning System Radio Occultation (GPSRO) refractivity measurements. Preliminary results from GPSRO reveal a significantly drier tropical boundary layer than both ECMWF and MERRA reanalyses. In the middle and upper troposphere, GPSRO is moister than ECMWF but drier than MERRA. These features are more pronounced at equatorial latitudes. These differences could have greater repercussions with regards to the water vapor feedback estimation. Also, zonally varying distributions of relative humidity (RH) from GPSRO, MERRA and ECMWF were also correlated with precipitation measurements from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). We found latitudinal differences between maxima of precipitation and RH, which could imply that large-scale horizontal transport in the boundary layer plays a critical role to governing the coupling strength between precipitation and RH. The application of GPSRO data in constraining the underlying model physics will be discussed.

  5. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply...

  6. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recommended practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air...

  7. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recommended practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air...

  8. Short communication: Little change takes place in Camembert-type cheese water activities throughout ripening in terms of relative humidity and salt.

    PubMed

    Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Hélias, A; Corrieu, G

    2013-01-01

    Water activity (a(w)) affects the growth and activity of ripening microorganisms. Moreover, it is generally accepted that a(w) depends on relative humidity (RH) and salt content; these 3 variables were usually measured on a given day in a cheese without the microorganism layer and without accounting for a distinction between the rind, the underrind, and the core. However, a(w) dynamics have never been thoroughly studied throughout cheese ripening. Experimental Camembert cheeses were ripened under controlled and aseptic conditions (temperature, gaseous atmosphere, and RH) for 14 d. In this study, only RH was varied. Samples were taken from the cheese (microorganism layer)-air interface, the rind, and the core. The aw of the cheese-air interface did not change over ripening when RH varied between 91 and 92% or between 97 and 98%. However, on d 5, we observed a small but significant increase in a(w), which coincided with the beginning of growth of Penicillium camemberti mycelia. After d 3, no significant differences were found between the a(w) of the cheese-air interface, the rind, and the core. From d 0 to 3, cheese rind a(w) increased from 0.94 to 0.97, which was probably due to the diffusion of salt from the rind to the core: NaCl content in the rind decreased from 3.7 to 1.6% and NaCl content in the core increased from 0.0 to 1.6%. Nevertheless, aw did not significantly vary in the core, raising questions about the real effect of salt on a(w). PMID:24404582

  9. Determination of O₂ Mass Transport at the Pt | PFSA Ionomer Interface under Reduced Relative Humidity.

    PubMed

    Novitski, David; Holdcroft, Steven

    2015-12-16

    Oxygen mass transport resistance through the ionomer component in the cathode catalyst layer is considered to contribute overpotential losses in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Whereas it is known that water uptake, water transport, and proton conductivity are reduced upon reducing relative humidity, the effect on oxygen mass transport remains unknown. We report a two-electrode approach to determine mass transport coefficients for the oxygen reduction reaction in air at the Pt/perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer membrane interface between 90 and 30% RH at 70 °C using a Pt microdisk in a solid state electrochemical cell. Potential-step chronoamperometry was performed at specific mass-transport limiting potentials to allow for the elucidation of the oxygen diffusion coefficient (D(bO2)) and oxygen concentration (c(bO2)). In our efforts, novel approaches in data acquisition, as well as analysis, were examined because of the dynamic nature of the membrane under lowered hydration conditions. Linear regression analysis reveals a decrease in oxygen permeability (D(bO2c(bO2)) by a factor of 1.7 and 3.4 from 90 to 30% RH for Nafion 211 membrane and membranes cast from Nafion DE2020 ionomer solutions, respectively. Additionally, nonlinear curve fitting by way of the Shoup-Szabo equation is employed to analyze the entire current transient during potential step controlled ORR. We also report on the presence of an RH dependence of our previously reported time-dependency measurements for O2 mass transport coefficients. PMID:26583742

  10. Changes in materials properties explain the effects of humidity on gecko adhesion.

    PubMed

    Puthoff, Jonathan B; Prowse, Michael S; Wilkinson, Matt; Autumn, Kellar

    2010-11-01

    Geckos owe their remarkable stickiness to millions of dry setae on their toes, and the mechanism of adhesion in gecko setae has been the topic of scientific scrutiny for over two centuries. Previously, we demonstrated that van der Waals forces are sufficient for strong adhesion and friction in gecko setae, and that water-based capillary adhesion is not required. However, recent studies demonstrated that adhesion increases with relative humidity (RH) and proposed that surface hydration and capillary water bridge formation is important or even necessary. In this study, we confirmed a significant effect of RH on gecko adhesion, but rejected the capillary adhesion hypothesis. While contact forces of isolated tokay gecko setal arrays increased with humidity, the increase was similar on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, inconsistent with a capillary mechanism. Contact forces increased with RH even at high shear rates, where capillary bridge formation is too slow to affect adhesion. How then can a humidity-related increase in adhesion and friction be explained? The effect of RH on the mechanical properties of setal β-keratin has escaped consideration until now. We discovered that an increase in RH softens setae and increases viscoelastic damping, which increases adhesion. Changes in setal materials properties, not capillary forces, fully explain humidity-enhanced adhesion, and van der Waals forces remain the only empirically supported mechanism of adhesion in geckos. PMID:20952618

  11. Sensitivity of a platinum-polyyne-based sensor to low relative humidity and chemical vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliendo, Cinzia; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Russo, Maria Vittoria

    2002-06-01

    The sensitivity to relative humidity (RH) variations in the range 0%-90% of a platinum polyyne, namely poly-[1,4-dihexadecyloxy-2,5-diethynylbenzene-bis(triphenylphosphine) platinum(II)] (Pt-P-HDOB) membrane was investigated by means of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) based sensor. A thin film of polymeric membrane was spin deposited on the free surface of the device and the resulting acoustic velocity and attenuation perturbations allowed the acoustic characterization of the membrane by means of the perturbation theory. The SAW sensor was able to reveal even very low (<10% RH) humidity conditions at room temperature, with high reproducibility, repeatability and stability.

  12. Optical humidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tarvin, J.A.

    1987-02-10

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor is disclosed which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors. 2 figs.

  13. Optical humidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tarvin, Jeffrey A.

    1987-01-01

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors.

  14. Study of Humidity Effect on Benzene Decomposition by the Dielectric Barrier Discharge Nonthermal Plasma Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tianpeng; Zhao, Qiong; Liu, Jianqi; Zhong, Fangchuan

    2016-06-01

    The humidity effects on the benzene decomposition process were investigated by the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor. The results showed that the water vapor played an important role in the benzene oxidation process. It was found that there was an optimum humidity value for the benzene removal efficiency, and at around 60% relative humidity (RH), the optimum benzene removal efficiency was achieved. At a SIE of 378 J/L, the removal efficiency was 66% at 0% RH, while the removal efficiency reached 75.3% at 60% RH and dropped to 69% at 80% RH. Furthermore, the addition of water inhibited the formation of ozone and NO2 remarkably. Both of the concentrations of ozone and NO2 decreased with increasing of the RH at the same specific input energy. At a SIE of 256 J/L, the concentrations of ozone and NO2 were 5.4 mg/L and 1791 ppm under dry conditions, whereas they were only 3.4 mg/L and 1119 ppm at 63.5% RH, respectively. Finally, the outlet gas after benzene degradation was qualitatively analyzed by FT-IR and GC-MS to determine possible intermediate byproducts. The results suggested that the byproducts in decomposition of benzene primarily consisted of phenol and substitutions of phenol. Based on these byproducts a benzene degradation mechanism was proposed. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11205007 and 11205029)

  15. Evaluation of Humidity Characteristic of Insulation Resistance Occurred between Output Terminals and Chassis on Some Zener Voltage Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishinaka, Hidefumi

    Four Zener voltage standards ( Fluke 732B ) belonging to National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), AIST have contained in a particularly designed box that is called an “up-graded box". This box need for enhancing the insulation resistance occurred between the 1.018 V output terminal and chassis of the Zener voltage standard, because the 1.018 V output voltages have 1kΩ output-resistance. Hence, affect refer to best measurement capability 4 nV (k=1) of the 1.018 V output voltage arises from load effect between the insulation resistance and 1kΩ output-resistance. Moreover, this insulation resistance has an effect on the environmental humidity-change of 40%RH, 50%RH, 60%RH, 65%RH and 70%RH. Therefore, this paper revealed type B standard uncertainty of the 1.018 V output voltages arose by the humidity characteristic of the insulation resistance.

  16. Relative humidity-dependent viscosities of isoprene-derived secondary organic material and atmospheric implications for isoprene-dominant forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, M.; Liu, P. F.; Hanna, S. J.; Li, Y. J.; Martin, S. T.; Bertram, A. K.

    2015-05-01

    Oxidation of isoprene is an important source of secondary organic material (SOM) in atmospheric particles, especially in areas such as the Amazon Basin. Information on the viscosities, diffusion rates, and mixing times within isoprene-derived SOM is needed for accurate predictions of air quality, visibility, and climate. Currently, however, this information is not available. Using a bead-mobility technique and a poke-flow technique combined with fluid simulations, the relative humidity (RH)-dependent viscosities of SOM produced from isoprene photo-oxidation were quantified for 20-60 μm particles at 295 ± 1 K. From 84.5 to 0% RH, the viscosities for isoprene-derived SOM varied from ~ 2 × 10-1 to ~ 3 × 105 Pa s, implying that isoprene-derived SOM ranges from a liquid to a semisolid over this RH range. These viscosities correspond to diffusion coefficients of ~ 2 × 10-8 to ~ 2 × 10-14 cm2 s-1 for large organic molecules that follow the Stokes-Einstein relation. Based on the diffusion coefficients, the mixing time of large organic molecules within 200 nm isoprene-derived SOM particles ranges from approximately 0.1 h to less than 1 s. To illustrate the atmospheric implications of this study's results, the Amazon Basin is used as a case study for an isoprene-dominant forest. Considering the RH and temperature range observed in the Amazon Basin and with some assumptions about the dominant chemical compositions of SOM particles in the region, it is likely that SOM particles in this area are liquid and reach equilibrium with large gas-phase organic molecules on short time scales, less than or equal to approximately 0.1 h.

  17. Effect of relative humidity on crystal growth, device performance and hysteresis in planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangishetty, Mahesh K.; Scott, Robert W. J.; Kelly, Timothy L.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the hygroscopic nature of organolead halide perovskites, humidity is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency and longevity of perovskite solar cells. Although humidity has a long term detrimental effect on device performance, it also plays a key role during the initial growth of perovskite crystals. Here we demonstrate that atmospheric relative humidity (RH) plays a key role during the formation of perovskite thin films via the sequential deposition technique. Our results indicate that the RH has a substantial impact on the crystallization process, and hence on device performance. SEM and pXRD analysis show an increase in crystallite size with increasing humidity. At low RH, the formation of small cubic crystallites with large gaps between them is observed. The presence of these voids adversely affects device performance and leads to substantial hysteresis in the device. At higher RH, the perovskite crystals are larger in size, with better connectivity between the crystallites. This produced efficient planar heterojunction solar cells with low hysteresis. By careful control of the RH during the cell fabrication process, efficiencies of up to 12.2% are reached using P3HT as the hole-transport material.Due to the hygroscopic nature of organolead halide perovskites, humidity is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency and longevity of perovskite solar cells. Although humidity has a long term detrimental effect on device performance, it also plays a key role during the initial growth of perovskite crystals. Here we demonstrate that atmospheric relative humidity (RH) plays a key role during the formation of perovskite thin films via the sequential deposition technique. Our results indicate that the RH has a substantial impact on the crystallization process, and hence on device performance. SEM and pXRD analysis show an increase in crystallite size with increasing humidity. At low RH, the formation of small cubic crystallites

  18. Seasonal changes in humidity impact drought resistance in tropical Drosophila leontia: testing developmental effects of thermal versus humidity changes.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Ravi; Ranga, Poonam

    2014-03-01

    Drosophila leontia is native to highly humid equatorial tropical habitats but its desiccation sensitivity (~10h) is not consistent with its abundance during the drier autumn season in the subtropical regions. We have tested the effects of developmental acclimation on desiccation resistance and water balance related traits of D. leontia collected during rainy and autumn seasons. The isofemale lines of seasonal populations were reared under ecologically relevant growth temperatures (18 or 26 °C) or humidity conditions (35 or 85% RH) but tested at different times under identical experimental conditions. The larvae as well as flies reared under two thermal conditions (18 or 26 °C) showed no effect on desiccation related traits as well as storage and utilization of energy metabolites. In contrast, for D. leontia reared under low humidity (35% RH), significant changes at larval as well adult stages include increase in the desiccation resistance as well as cuticular lipid quantity, reduced levels of rate of body water loss, higher storage of carbohydrates but lower rate of utilization of carbohydrates as compared with flies reared at high humidity (85% RH). D. leontia has responded to rearing under low humidity conditions by increasing its desiccation resistance but not due to changes in the growth temperatures. These laboratory observations on seasonal populations highlight differences due to rearing conditions but not due to seasons. Further, direct analysis of wild-caught seasonal populations has shown trends similar to developmental acclimation effects. For wild caught flies, there are significant seasonal differences i.e. higher desiccation resistance as well as cuticular lipid quantity but reduced rate of water loss for autumn than rainy season flies. Thus, our laboratory observations are relevant for understanding seasonal adaptations of natural populations of tropical D. leontia to wet-dry conditions in the wild. PMID:24345458

  19. Thermal conditions and perceived air quality in an air-conditioned auditorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polednik, Bernard; Guz, Łukasz; Skwarczyński, Mariusz; Dudzińska, Marzenna R.

    2016-07-01

    The study reports measurements of indoor air temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), perceived air quality (PAQ) and CO2, fine aerosol particle number (PN) and mass (PM1) concentrations in an air conditioned auditorium. The measurements of these air physical parameters have been carried out in the unoccupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off (AC off mode) and in the unoccupied and occupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off during the night and switched on during the day (AC on/off mode). The average indoor air thermal parameters, CO2 concentration and the PAQ value (in decipols) were elevated, while average PM1 concentration was lower in the AC on/off mode. A statistically significant (p < 0.001) positive correlation has been observed between T and PAQ values and CO2 concentrations (r = 0.66 and r = 0.59, respectively) in that AC mode. A significant negative correlation has been observed between T and PN and PM1 concentrations (r = -0.38 and r = -0.49, respectively). In the AC off mode the above relations between T and the particle concentrations were not that unequivocal. These findings may be of importance as they indicate that in certain AC operation modes the indoor air quality deteriorates along with the variation of the indoor air microclimate and room occupation. This, in turn, may adversely affect the comfort and productivity of the users of air conditioned premises.

  20. VAB Temperature and Humidity Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, John E.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Muktarian, Edward; Nurge, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, 17 data loggers were placed in the VAB to measure temperature and humidity at 10-minute intervals over a one-year period. In 2013, the data loggers were replaced with an upgraded model and slight adjustments to their locations were made to reduce direct solar heating effects. The data acquired by the data loggers was compared to temperature data provided by three wind towers located around the building. It was found that the VAB acts as a large thermal filter, delaying and reducing the thermal oscillations occurring outside of the building. This filtering is typically more pronounced at higher locations in the building, probably because these locations have less thermal connection with the outside. We surmise that the lower elevations respond more to outside temperature variations because of air flow through the doors. Temperatures inside the VAB rarely exceed outdoor temperatures, only doing so when measurements are made directly on a surface with connection to the outside (such as a door or wall) or when solar radiation falls directly on the sensor. A thermal model is presented to yield approximate filter response times for various locations in the building. Appendix A contains historical thermal and humidity data from 1994 to 2009.

  1. Silver Doped Titanium Dioxide Humidity Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooshiar Zare, Ali; Mohammadi, Somayye

    2011-02-01

    The effect of silver doping on the sensitivity, dynamic range and the response time of a titanium dioxide-based resistive humidity sensor is studied. Sample pallets were prepared by sintering the dry pressed samples at 900°C in air. Silver was added to the ceramic raw material in the form of AgNO3 which was decomposed during the sintering process. Large area silver electrodes were deposited on the sintered disks by paste printing. The resistance and the response time of the various pallets containing different additive levels were measured at relative humidity range of 4-100%. Silver doping, substantially increased the sensitivity to the ambient humidity. Moreover, it resulted in faster responses; the response time of the silver added pallets were about four times shorter than the pure ones.

  2. Lanthanide-halide based humidity indicators

    DOEpatents

    Beitz, James V.; Williams, Clayton W.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses a lanthanide-halide based humidity indicator and method of producing such indicator. The color of the present invention indicates the humidity of an atmosphere to which it is exposed. For example, impregnating an adsorbent support such as silica gel with an aqueous solution of the europium-containing reagent solution described herein, and dehydrating the support to dryness forms a substance with a yellow color. When this substance is exposed to a humid atmosphere the water vapor from the air is adsorbed into the coating on the pore surface of the silica gel. As the water content of the coating increases, the visual color of the coated silica gel changes from yellow to white. The color change is due to the water combining with the lanthanide-halide complex on the pores of the gel.

  3. Hands-on Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents five hands-on activities that allow students to detect, measure, reduce, and eliminate moisture. Students make a humidity detector and a hygrometer, examine the effects of moisture on different substances, calculate the percent of water in a given food, and examine the absorption potential of different desiccants. (MDH)

  4. Desiccant humidity control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amazeen, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A regenerable sorbent system was investigated for controlling the humidity and carbon dioxide concentration of the space shuttle cabin atmosphere. The sorbents considered for water and carbon dioxide removal were silica gel and molecular sieves. Bed optimization and preliminary system design are discussed along with system optimization studies and weight penalites.

  5. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  6. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH-TRUCON)

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-08-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  7. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH-TRUCON)

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2007-05-30

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  8. Effects of temperature and relative humidity on biological indicators used for ethylene oxide sterilization.

    PubMed Central

    Oxborrow, G S; Placencia, A M; Danielson, J W

    1983-01-01

    A study was made to determine the effects of temperature and moisture on the D-value of a common biological indicator. Relative humidity (RH) was varied between 10 and 70% in increments of 10%, and temperature was varied between 30 and 70 degrees C in increments of 10 degrees C. Temperature was found to have a pronounced effect on the D-value. At 60% RH, the D-value varied from 15.0 min at 30 degrees C to 1.1 min at 70 degrees C. When RH was plotted against the average D-value at the various temperatures, the temperature curves at or above 50 degrees C were more erratic and the RH had a significant effect. The study showed that temperature and RH must be controlled if biological indicators are to be properly calibrated for use in ethylene oxide sterilization. PMID:6402979

  9. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Humidity Microsensors Integrated with Circuitry on-a-Chip

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu-Chih; Dai, Ching-Liang; Hsu, Cheng-Chih

    2014-01-01

    A humidity microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) process was presented. The integrated sensor chip consists of a humidity sensor and a readout circuit. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is titanium dioxide prepared by the sol-gel method. The titanium dioxide is coated on the interdigitated electrodes. The humidity sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial layer and to coat the titanium dioxide. The resistance of the sensor changes as the sensitive film absorbs or desorbs vapor. The readout circuit is employed to convert the resistance variation of the sensor into the output voltage. The experimental results show that the integrated humidity sensor has a sensitivity of 4.5 mV/RH% (relative humidity) at room temperature. PMID:24594612

  10. Hygrothermal Properties of Cross Laminated Timber and Moisture Response of Wood at High Relative Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSayegh, George

    Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is a new wood-based material composed of cross laminated wood boards that form a structural panel. This study focuses on identifying the appropriate methods to determine the hygrothermal properties of CLTs fabricated with Canadian and European Lumber. The laboratory tests carried out in this study will help establish heat, air and moisture response properties to be used for hygrothermal simulation to assess the durability of CLTs in building envelope construction. Measurement of water vapour permeability, liquid water absorption, sorption isotherms, thermal conductivity, and air permeability were performed on three Canadian CLT specimens composed of Hem-Fir, Eastern Spruce-Pine-Fir, and Western Spruce-Pine-Fir and one European specimen composed of Spruce. The hygrothermal properties of CLT, considered in this study, appear to be similar to commonly used wood specimens reported in the literature. However, liquid water absorption coefficients of CLT were found to be generally lower than common wood species, possibly due to the presence of glue between the wood layers which limits the moisture movement across the specimen. On the other hand, the air permeability across the CLT specimens varied due to the glue discontinuity within the specimen which led some CLTs to be permeable, however all the European specimens were found to be impermeable. This study also critically analyzed the significance of equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood at high relative humidity, measured by means of a pressure plate apparatus and humidity chambers, on the moisture management performance of a wood-frame stucco wall, using the hygrothermal simulation tool hygIRC-2D. The simulation results indicate that the prediction of the moisture response of a wood-frame stucco wall assembly depends significantly on the method adopted to derive the EMC of wood at high RH.

  11. Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok

    2007-03-06

    Data centers require continuous air conditioning to address high internal heat loads (heat release from equipment) and maintain indoor temperatures within recommended operating levels for computers. Air economizer cycles, which bring in large amounts of outside air to cool internal loads when weather conditions are favorable, could save cooling energy. There is reluctance from many data center owners to use this common cooling technique, however, due to fear of introducing pollutants and potential loss of humidity control. Concerns about equipment failure from airborne pollutants lead to specifying as little outside air as permissible for human occupants. To investigate contamination levels, particle monitoring was conducted at 8 data centers in Northern California. Particle counters were placed at 3 to 4 different locations within and outside of each data center evaluated in this study. Humidity was also monitored at many of the sites to determine how economizers affect humidity control. Results from this study indicate that economizers do increase the outdoor concentration in data centers, but this concentration, when averaged annually, is still below current particle concentration limits. Study results are summarized below: (1) The average particle concentrations measured at each location, both outside and at the servers, are shown in Table 1. Measurements show low particle concentrations at all data centers without economizers, regardless of outdoor particle concentrations. Particle concentrations were typically an order of magnitude below both outside particle concentrations and recently published ASHRAE standards. (2) Economizer use caused sharp increases in particle concentrations when the economizer vents were open. The particle concentration in the data centers, however, quickly dropped back to pre-economizer levels when the vents closed. Since economizers only allow outside air part of the time, the annual average concentrations still met the ASHRAE

  12. Preliminary Investigations on the Effect of Humidity on the Reception of Visible Solar Radiation and the Effect of Humidity and Wind Speed on PV Module Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin, Hedzlin; Shaari, Sulaiman; Omar, Ahmad Maliki; Zain, Zainazlan Md.; Soumin, Jonson; Surat, Zainizam

    2010-07-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of methods currently used for characterizing the performance of photovoltaic (PV) arrays in their actual use environment, it is of importance to investigate the effect of ambient variables on the PV module output. Malaysia is a hot and humid country with relative humidity (RH) of 100% during rainfall and wind speed of greater than 4.0 ms-1 occurred about 8.4% in five years time. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to do a preliminary investigation on the effects of RH on the reception of solar radiation and the effect of humidity and wind speed on the PV module output. Outdoor field testing was conducted at Photovoltaic Monitoring Centre (PVMC), Universiti Teknologi MARA, of a BPSX-30U polycrystalline under variation of RH and wind speed separately. From the field testing, it was found that humidity reduced the amount of visible solar radiation reception, while humidity and wind speed both acts as cooling agents that increase the output of a PV module by reducing the module temperature.

  13. Humidity and temperature response of photopolymer-based holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulchyk, Tatsiana; Walshe, James; Cody, Dervil; Martin, Suzanne; Naydenova, Izabela

    2015-05-01

    Holographic sensors have significant potential in various applications ranging from in vitro diagnostics to optical security. They are capable of providing fast, real-time, reversible or irreversible, visual colorimetric or optical readouts. The main challenge in the development of holographic sensors is to improve their selectivity by functionalizing the holographic recording material and achieve a response to a specific analyte. This material should be permeable to the analyte and its properties should change under exposure to the analyte. This work explores the humidity and temperature response of volume phase gratings recorded in photopolymers containing acrylamide and diacetone acrylamide as monomers, and triethanolamine and N-phenylglycine as photoinitiators. Characterization of the humidity response of photopolymer-based gratings in the relative humidity (RH) range of 20-90 % was carried out by measuring the diffraction efficiency of slanted transmission gratings and the position of the maximum intensity in the spectral response of reflection gratings. A strong humidity dependence of the diffraction efficiency of diacetone acrylamide-based transmission gratings was observed at RH=20-90%. The humidity dependence of the spectral response of the reflection gratings showed that photopolymers containing triethanolamine are more hydrophilic than photopolymers containing N-phenylglycine. The temperature response of slanted transmission gratings was investigated in the temperature (T) range of 20-60 °C. Exposure of the photopolymer layers containing triethanolamine to elevated temperature showed that the observed Bragg angle shift was caused by layer shrinkage due to water evaporation. The application of a sealing technique allowed for the observation of the photopolymer layer swelling due to the layer's thermal expansion. The results demonstrate an effective approach to obtaining photopolymer-based gratings with tuneable temperature and humidity sensitivity.

  14. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. Cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air in older homes in warm-humid climates. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long-off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  15. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. In older homes in warm-humid climates, cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and some winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and avoids adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  16. Microstructural investigation of copper corrosion: Influence of humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campin, Michael J.

    2003-10-01

    Copper is a critical material in electrical components and is subject to atmospheric corrosion. This study characterized the corrosion products formed when copper is exposed to environments containing activated oxygen species or sulfur containing species. Investigation of the oxides formed when copper is exposed to an electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) O2 plasma has revealed the presence of both Cu2O and CuO. In addition, it was found that the presence of CuO on copper prevents sulfidation. Particular emphasis is placed on the product formed when Cu is exposed to a dilute (50--200 ppb) H2S atmosphere at low (0.5%) to high (80%) relative humidity (RH). An important observation was that the Cu2S growth rate is significantly higher for sulfides formed at low RH compared to high RH. In addition, it is found that for both low and high RH sulfidation, copper reacts to form the low chalcocite phase (Cu2S) as identified by X-ray and electron diffraction. Cross-section and plan-view TEM revealed that the Cu2S grains formed at high RH are 20--50 nm in size with a large amount of porosity, whereas the grains formed at low RH are 75--150+ nm and appear to undergo grain growth with little porosity. Finally, numerical modeling of an ideal diffusion process is used to demonstrate that point like sources can result in behavior similar to that observed for the rate of sulfidation at high RH.

  17. Effects of Temperature and Humidity on the Characterization of C-4 Explosive Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. J.; Yoder, T. S.

    2012-06-01

    Both the quantity and the amount of time that an explosive is present on the surface of a material is dependent upon the amount of explosive originally deposited on the surface, the adhesive forces, temperature and humidity, as well as other environmental factors. This laboratory study focused on evaluating RDX crystal morphology changes resulting from variations in temperature and humidity conditions of the sample. The temperature and humidity conditions were controlled using a Tenney THRJ environmental chamber and a Tenney T11RC-1.5 environmental chamber. These chambers allow the temperature and humidity to be held within ±3 °C and ±5 % RH. The temperature and humidity conditions used for this test series were: 4 °C/40 %RH, 21 °C/20 %RH (samples left on benchtop), 21 °C/70 %RH, 21 °C/95 %RH, 35 °C/40 %RH, 35 °C/70 %RH, and 35 °C/95 %RH. These temperature and humidity set points were chosen to represent a wide range of conditions that may be found in real world scenarios. C-4 (RDX crystals and binder material) was deposited on the surface of one of six substrates by placing a fingerprint from the explosive block onto the matrix surface. The substrates were chosen to provide a range of items that are commonly used. Six substrate types were used during these tests: 50 % cotton/50 % polyester as found in T-shirts, 100 % cotton with a smooth surface such as that found in a cotton dress shirt, 100 % cotton on a rough surface such as that found on canvas or denim, suede leather such as might be found on jackets, purses, or shoes, painted metal obtained from a car hood, and a computer diskette. The samples were not pre-cleaned prior to testing and contained sizing agents, and in the case of the metal: oil, dirt, scratches, and rust spots. The substrates were photographed at various stages of testing, using a Zeiss Discover V12 stereoscope with Axiocam ICc1 3 megapixel digital camera, to determine any changes in the crystalline morphology. Some of the samples

  18. Indirect health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Arundel, A.V.; Sterling, E.M.; Biggin, J.H.; Sterling, T.D.

    1986-03-01

    A review of the health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments suggests that relative humidity can affect the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Experimental studies on airborne-transmitted infectious bacteria and viruses have shown that the survival or infectivity of these organisms is minimized by exposure to relative humidities between 40 and 70%. Nine epidemiological studies examined the relationship between the number of respiratory infections or absenteeism and the relative humidity of the office, residence, or school. The incidence of absenteeism or respiratory infections was found to be lower among people working or living in environments with mid-range versus low or high relative humidities. The indoor size of allergenic mite and fungal populations is directly dependent upon the relative humidity. Mite populations are minimized when the relative humidity is below 50% and reach a maximum size at 80% relative humidity. Most species of fungi cannot grow unless the relative humidity exceeds 60%. Relative humidity also affects the rate of offgassing of formaldehyde from indoor building materials, the rate of formation of acids and salts from sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and the rate of formation of ozone. The influence of relative humidity on the abundance of allergens, pathogens, and noxious chemicals suggests that indoor relative humidity levels should be considered as a factor of indoor air quality. The majority of adverse health effects caused by relative humidity would be minimized by maintaining indoor levels between 40 and 60%. This would require humidification during winter in areas with cold winter climates. Humidification should preferably use evaporative or steam humidifiers, as cool mist humidifiers can disseminate aerosols contaminated with allergens.

  19. Indirect health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments.

    PubMed Central

    Arundel, A V; Sterling, E M; Biggin, J H; Sterling, T D

    1986-01-01

    A review of the health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments suggests that relative humidity can affect the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Experimental studies on airborne-transmitted infectious bacteria and viruses have shown that the survival or infectivity of these organisms is minimized by exposure to relative humidities between 40 and 70%. Nine epidemiological studies examined the relationship between the number of respiratory infections or absenteeism and the relative humidity of the office, residence, or school. The incidence of absenteeism or respiratory infections was found to be lower among people working or living in environments with mid-range versus low or high relative humidities. The indoor size of allergenic mite and fungal populations is directly dependent upon the relative humidity. Mite populations are minimized when the relative humidity is below 50% and reach a maximum size at 80% relative humidity. Most species of fungi cannot grow unless the relative humidity exceeds 60%. Relative humidity also affects the rate of offgassing of formaldehyde from indoor building materials, the rate of formation of acids and salts from sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and the rate of formation of ozone. The influence of relative humidity on the abundance of allergens, pathogens, and noxious chemicals suggests that indoor relative humidity levels should be considered as a factor of indoor air quality. The majority of adverse health effects caused by relative humidity would be minimized by maintaining indoor levels between 40 and 60%. This would require humidification during winter in areas with cold winter climates. Humidification should preferably use evaporative or steam humidifiers, as cool mist humidifiers can disseminate aerosols contaminated with allergens. PMID:3709462

  20. Effects of humidity during formation of zinc oxide electron contact layers from a diethylzinc precursor solution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mauger, Scott A.; Steirer, K. Xerxes; Boe, Jonas; Ostrowski, David P.; Olson, Dana C.; Hammond, Scott R.

    2016-01-19

    Here, this work focuses on the role of humidity in the formation of ZnO thin films from a reactive diethylzinc precursor solution for use as the electron contact layer (ECL) in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. This method is well suited for flexible devices because the films are annealed at 120 °C, making the process compatible with polymer substrates. ZnO films were prepared by spin coating and annealing at different relative humidity (RH) levels. It is found that RH during coating and annealing affects the chemical and physical properties of the ZnO films. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy it is found thatmore » increasing RH during the formation steps produces a more stoichiometric oxide and a higher Zn/O ratio. Spectroscopic ellipsometry data shows a small decrease in the optical band gap with increased humidity, consistent with a more stoichiometric oxide. Kelvin probe measurements show that increased RH during formation results in a larger work function (i.e. further from vacuum). Consistent with these data, but counter to what might be expected, when these ZnO films are used as ECLs in OPV devices those with ZnO ECLs processed in low RH (less stoichiometric) had higher power conversion efficiency than those with high-RH processed ZnO due to improved open-circuit voltage. The increase in open-circuit voltage with decreasing humidity was observed with two different donor polymers and fullerene acceptors, which shows the trend is due to changes in ZnO. The observed changes in open-circuit voltage follow the same trend as the ZnO work function indicating that the increase in open-circuit voltage with decreasing humidity is the result of improved energetics at the interface between the bulk-heterojunction and the ZnO layer due to a vacuum level shift.« less

  1. Plant Growth Environments with Programmable Relative Humidity and Homogeneous Nutrient Availability.

    PubMed

    Lind, Kara R; Lee, Nigel; Sizmur, Tom; Siemianowski, Oskar; Van Bruggen, Shawn; Ganapathysubramaniam, Baskar; Cademartiri, Ludovico

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design, characterization, and use of "programmable", sterile growth environments for individual (or small sets of) plants. The specific relative humidities and nutrient availability experienced by the plant is established (RH between 15% and 95%; nutrient concentration as desired) during the setup of the growth environment, which takes about 5 minutes and <1$ in disposable cost. These systems maintain these environmental parameters constant for at least 14 days with minimal intervention (one minute every two days). The design is composed entirely of off-the-shelf components (e.g., LEGO® bricks) and is characterized by (i) a separation of root and shoot environment (which is physiologically relevant and facilitates imposing specific conditions on the root system, e.g., darkness), (ii) the development of the root system on a flat surface, where the root enjoys constant contact with nutrient solution and air, (iii) a compatibility with root phenotyping. We demonstrate phenotyping by characterizing root systems of Brassica rapa plants growing in different relative humidities (55%, 75%, and 95%). While most phenotypes were found to be sensitive to these environmental changes, a phenotype tightly associated with root system topology-the size distribution of the areas encircled by roots-appeared to be remarkably and counterintuitively insensitive to humidity changes. These setups combine many of the advantages of hydroponics conditions (e.g., root phenotyping, complete control over nutrient composition, scalability) and soil conditions (e.g., aeration of roots, shading of roots), while being comparable in cost and setup time to Magenta® boxes. PMID:27304431

  2. Plant Growth Environments with Programmable Relative Humidity and Homogeneous Nutrient Availability

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Kara R.; Lee, Nigel; Sizmur, Tom; Siemianowski, Oskar; Van Bruggen, Shawn; Ganapathysubramaniam, Baskar

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design, characterization, and use of “programmable”, sterile growth environments for individual (or small sets of) plants. The specific relative humidities and nutrient availability experienced by the plant is established (RH between 15% and 95%; nutrient concentration as desired) during the setup of the growth environment, which takes about 5 minutes and <1$ in disposable cost. These systems maintain these environmental parameters constant for at least 14 days with minimal intervention (one minute every two days). The design is composed entirely of off-the-shelf components (e.g., LEGO® bricks) and is characterized by (i) a separation of root and shoot environment (which is physiologically relevant and facilitates imposing specific conditions on the root system, e.g., darkness), (ii) the development of the root system on a flat surface, where the root enjoys constant contact with nutrient solution and air, (iii) a compatibility with root phenotyping. We demonstrate phenotyping by characterizing root systems of Brassica rapa plants growing in different relative humidities (55%, 75%, and 95%). While most phenotypes were found to be sensitive to these environmental changes, a phenotype tightly associated with root system topology–the size distribution of the areas encircled by roots–appeared to be remarkably and counterintuitively insensitive to humidity changes. These setups combine many of the advantages of hydroponics conditions (e.g., root phenotyping, complete control over nutrient composition, scalability) and soil conditions (e.g., aeration of roots, shading of roots), while being comparable in cost and setup time to Magenta® boxes. PMID:27304431

  3. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

  4. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH TRUCON)

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2007-05-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  5. Effects of Airflow and Changing Humidity on the Aerosolization of Respirable Fungal Fragments and Conidia of Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the aerosolization of particles (micro- and macroconidia and fragments) from Botrytis cinerea cultures in relation to potential human inhalation in indoor environments. The influence of the following factors on the aerosolization of B. cinerea particles was studied: exposure to airflow, relative humidity (rh), changing rh, and plant or building materials. The aerodynamic diameter (da) and the respirable fraction of the aerosolized particles were determined. Conidia and fragments of B. cinerea were not aerosolized as a response to a decrease in the rh. In contrast, both micro- and macroconidia and fungal fragments were aerosolized when exposed to an airflow of 1.5 m s−1 or 0.5 m s−1. Significantly more particles of microconidial size and fragment size were aerosolized at a low rh (18 to 40% rh) than at a higher rh (60 to 80% rh) when cultures were exposed to airflow. The size of the respirable fraction of the aerosolized particles was dependent on the rh but not on the growth material. At high rh, about 30% of the aerosolized particles were of respirable size, while at low rh, about 70% were of respirable size. During low rh, more fungal (1→3)-β-d-glucan and chitinase were aerosolized than during high rh. In conclusion, exposure to external physical forces such as airflow is necessary for the aerosolization of particles from B. cinerea. The amount and size distribution are highly affected by the rh, and more particles of respirable sizes were aerosolized at low rh than at high rh. PMID:22447608

  6. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-08-25

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word

  7. Hydrophilic membrane-based humidity control.

    PubMed

    Scovazzo, P; Burgos, J; Hoehn, A; Todd, P

    1998-10-14

    A dehumidification system for low gravity plant growth experiments requires the generation of no free-liquid condensate and the recovery of water for reuse. In the systems discussed in this paper, the membrane is a barrier between the humid air phase and a liquid-coolant water phase. The coolant water temperature combined with a transmembrane pressure differential establishes a water flux from the humid air into the coolant water. Building on the work of others, we directly compared different hydrophilic membranes for humidity control. In a direct comparison of the hydrophilic membranes, hollow fiber cellulose ester membranes were superior to metal and ceramic membranes in the categories of condensation flux per surface area, ease of start-up, and stability. However, cellulose ester membranes were inferior to metal membranes in one significant category, durability. Dehumidification systems using mixed cellulose ester membranes failed after operational times of only hours to days. We propose that the ratio of fluid surface area to membrane material area (approximately = membrane porosity) controls the relative performances among membranes. In addition, we clarified design equations for operational parameters such as the transmembrane pressure differential. This technology has several potential benefits related to earth environmental issues including the minimization of airborne pathogen release and higher energy efficiency in air conditioning equipment. Utilizing these study results, we designed, constructed, and flew on the space shuttle missions a membrane-based dehumidification system for a plant growth chamber. PMID:11543067

  8. Life Table Parameters of Three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris) Species (Hemiptera: Miridae) under Contrasted Relative Humidity Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH). Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80%) were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH) had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproductive rate (R0) and the finite rate of increase (λ) for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests. PMID:25541705

  9. Secondary organic aerosol formation from the β-pinene+NO3 system: effect of humidity and peroxy radical fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, C. M.; Sanchez, J.; Xu, L.; Eugene, A. J.; Nah, T.; Tuet, W. Y.; Guzman, M. I.; Ng, N. L.

    2015-07-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the oxidation of β-pinene via nitrate radicals is investigated in the Georgia Tech Environmental Chamber (GTEC) facility. Aerosol yields are determined for experiments performed under both dry (relative humidity (RH) < 2 %) and humid (RH = 50 % and RH = 70 %) conditions. To probe the effects of peroxy radical (RO2) fate on aerosol formation, "RO2 + NO3 dominant" and "RO2 + HO2 dominant" experiments are performed. Gas-phase organic nitrate species (with molecular weights of 215, 229, 231, and 245 amu, which likely correspond to molecular formulas of C10H17NO4, C10H15NO5, C10H17NO5, and C10H15NO6, respectively) are detected by chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) and their formation mechanisms are proposed. The NO+ (at m/z 30) and NO2+ (at m/z 46) ions contribute about 11 % to the combined organics and nitrate signals in the typical aerosol mass spectrum, with the NO+ : NO2+ ratio ranging from 4.8 to 10.2 in all experiments conducted. The SOA yields in the "RO2 + NO3 dominant" and "RO2 + HO2 dominant" experiments are comparable. For a wide range of organic mass loadings (5.1-216.1 μg m-3), the aerosol mass yield is calculated to be 27.0-104.1 %. Although humidity does not appear to affect SOA yields, there is evidence of particle-phase hydrolysis of organic nitrates, which are estimated to compose 45-74 % of the organic aerosol. The extent of organic nitrate hydrolysis is significantly lower than that observed in previous studies on photooxidation of volatile organic compounds in the presence of NOx. It is estimated that about 90 and 10 % of the organic nitrates formed from the β-pinene+NO3 reaction are primary organic nitrates and tertiary organic nitrates, respectively. While the primary organic nitrates do not appear to hydrolyze, the tertiary organic nitrates undergo hydrolysis with a lifetime of 3-4.5 h. Results from this laboratory chamber study provide the fundamental data to evaluate the

  10. Preliminary examination of the effects of relative humidity on the fracture morphology of cotton flat bundles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of the relative humidity (RH) of testing conditions on stelometer cotton flat bundle strength and elongation measurements, and on the morphology of fiber fractures are presented herein. A trend is observed for stelometer strength and elongations measurements; testing in conditions with h...

  11. Cotton flowers: Pollen and petal humidity sensitivities determine reproductive competitiveness in diverse environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the abiotic stress tolerance of mature cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)] pollen and identified genetic variability among the six cotton lines studied. Genetic diversity in pollen viability was observed following a 6.5 h exposure to 25% relative humidity (RH). NM67, DP565, and...

  12. Cotton properties: relative humidity and its effect on flat bundle strength elongation and fracture morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of the relative humidity (RH) of testing conditions on stelometer cotton flat bundle strength and elongation measurements, and on the morphology of fiber fractures will be discussed in this talk. We observed a trend for stelometer strength and elongations measurements. Testing in conditi...

  13. Effect of temperature and humidity on survival of coptotermes formosanus and reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two subterranean termite species were subjected to combinations of six temperatures (10°, 15°, 20°, 25°, 30°, or 35°C) and five relative humidities (RH) (55, 65, 75, 85, or 99%) to determine optimum conditions for survival. When small groups of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanu...

  14. Cotton fiber properties relative humidity and its effect on flat bundle strength elongation and fracture morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is well known that cotton fibers readily exchange moisture content with their surrounding atmosphere. As moisture exchange progresses, several physical properties of the fiber are significantly affected. In this study, the effects of relative humidity (RH), a factor that affects the atmospheric m...

  15. Impact of Relative Humidity on Adult Weight and Size of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), sweetpotato whitefly, is a serious global sap-sucking insect pest that carries many infectious diseases when feeding on many types of crops. A study was conducted to determine the influence of relative humidity (RH) on body size and mass of B. tabaci. The B-biotype B. t...

  16. EFFECT OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND ADDITIVES ON THE REACTION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE WITH CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of the reaction of SO2 with Ca(OH)2 at conditions similar to those of commercial-scale bag filters: 19-74 percent relative humidity (RH), 30.4-95 C, and 300-4000 ppm SO2. The study was carried out in a bench-scale reactor with powder reagent Ca(...

  17. Fine powder flow under humid environmental conditions from the perspective of surface energy.

    PubMed

    Karde, Vikram; Ghoroi, Chinmay

    2015-05-15

    The influence of humidity on surface energetics and flow behavior of fine pharmaceutical powders was investigated. Amorphous and crystalline fine powders with hydrophilic (Corn starch and Avicel PH105) and hydrophobic (ibuprofen) nature were considered for this study. The surface energy was determined using surface energy analyzer and flow behavior was measured in terms of unconfined yield stress (UYS) using a shear tester. The study showed that unlike hydrophobic ibuprofen powder, surface energy and flow of hydrophilic excipient powders were affected by relative humidity (RH). The Lifshitz-van der Waals dispersive (γ(LW)) component of surface energy barely changed with varying RH for all pharmaceutical powders. For hydrophilic excipients, the specific component of surface energy (γ(SP)) was found to increase with increasing RH. Furthermore, for these excipients, flow deterioration at elevated RH was observed due to increased capillary bridge formation. Detailed analysis showed that γ(SP) component of surface energy can be an effective indicator for flow behavior of fine powders under varying humid conditions. The present study also brought out the existence of different regimes of probable interparticle forces which dictate the bulk flow behavior of fine hydrophilic powder under humid conditions. PMID:25772418

  18. Changes in volatile compounds in whey protein concentrate stored at elevated temperature and humidity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) has been recommended for use in emergency aid programs, but it is often stored overseas without temperature and relative humidity (RH) control, which may cause it to be rejected because of yellowing, off-flavors, or clumping. Therefore, the volatile compounds present ...

  19. Resistance of Aerosolized Bacterial Viruses to Relative Humidity and Temperature.

    PubMed

    Verreault, Daniel; Marcoux-Voiselle, Mélissa; Turgeon, Nathalie; Moineau, Sylvain; Duchaine, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    The use of aerosolized bacteriophages as surrogates for hazardous viruses might simplify and accelerate the discovery of links between viral components and their persistence in the airborne state under diverse environmental conditions. In this study, four structurally distinct lytic phages, MS2 (single-stranded RNA [ssRNA]), ϕ6 (double-stranded RNA [dsRNA]), ϕX174 (single-stranded DNA [ssDNA]), and PR772 (double-stranded DNA [dsDNA]), were nebulized into a rotating chamber and exposed to various levels of relative humidity (RH) and temperature as well as to germicidal UV radiation. The aerosolized viral particles were allowed to remain airborne for up to 14 h before being sampled for analysis by plaque assays and quantitative PCRs. Phages ϕ6 and MS2 were the most resistant at low levels of relative humidity, while ϕX174 was more resistant at 80% RH. Phage ϕ6 lost its infectivity immediately after exposure to 30°C and 80% RH. The infectivity of all tested phages rapidly declined as a function of the exposure time to UVC radiation, phage MS2 being the most resistant. Taken altogether, our data indicate that these aerosolized phages behave differently under various environmental conditions and highlight the necessity of carefully selecting viral simulants in bioaerosol studies. PMID:26253683

  20. Resistance of Aerosolized Bacterial Viruses to Relative Humidity and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Verreault, Daniel; Marcoux-Voiselle, Mélissa; Turgeon, Nathalie; Moineau, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The use of aerosolized bacteriophages as surrogates for hazardous viruses might simplify and accelerate the discovery of links between viral components and their persistence in the airborne state under diverse environmental conditions. In this study, four structurally distinct lytic phages, MS2 (single-stranded RNA [ssRNA]), ϕ6 (double-stranded RNA [dsRNA]), ϕX174 (single-stranded DNA [ssDNA]), and PR772 (double-stranded DNA [dsDNA]), were nebulized into a rotating chamber and exposed to various levels of relative humidity (RH) and temperature as well as to germicidal UV radiation. The aerosolized viral particles were allowed to remain airborne for up to 14 h before being sampled for analysis by plaque assays and quantitative PCRs. Phages ϕ6 and MS2 were the most resistant at low levels of relative humidity, while ϕX174 was more resistant at 80% RH. Phage ϕ6 lost its infectivity immediately after exposure to 30°C and 80% RH. The infectivity of all tested phages rapidly declined as a function of the exposure time to UVC radiation, phage MS2 being the most resistant. Taken altogether, our data indicate that these aerosolized phages behave differently under various environmental conditions and highlight the necessity of carefully selecting viral simulants in bioaerosol studies. PMID:26253683

  1. Effects of Temperature and Humidity on the Characterization of C-4 Explosive Threats

    SciTech Connect

    C. J. Miller

    2012-06-01

    The amount of time that an explosive is present on the surface of a material is dependent upon the original amount of explosive on the surface, adhesive forces, temperature and humidity, as well as other environmental factors. This laboratory study focused on evaluating RDX crystal morphology changes resulting from variations in temperature and humidity conditions of the sample. The temperature and humidity conditions were controlled using a Tenney THRJ environmental chamber and a Tenney T11RC-1.5 environmental chamber. These chambers allow the temperature and humidity to be held within ±3°C and ±5% RH. The temperature and humidity conditions used for this test series were: 40°F/40%RH, ~70°F/20%RH (samples left on benchtop), 70°F/70%RH, 70°F/95%RH, 95°F/40%RH, 95°F/70%RH, and 95°F/95%RH. These temperature and humidity set points were chosen to represent a wide range of conditions that may be found in real world scenarios. C-4 (RDX crystals and binder material) was deposited on the surface of one of six substrates by placing a fingerprint from the explosive block onto the matrix surface. The substrates were chosen to provide a range of items that are commonly used. Six substrate types were used during these tests: 50% cotton/50% polyester as found in T-shirts, 100% cotton with a smooth surface such as that found in a cotton dress shirt, 100% cotton on a rough surface such as that found on canvas or denim, suede leather such as might be found on jackets, purses, or shoes, painted metal obtained from a junked car hood, and a computer diskette. The samples were not pre-cleaned prior to testing and contained sizing agents, and in the case of the metal: oil, dirt, scratches, and rust spots. The substrates were photographed at various stages of testing, using a Zeiss Discover V12 stereoscope with Axiocam ICc1 3 megapixel digital camera, to determine any changes in the crystalline morphology. Some of the samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy

  2. Estimates of aerosol species scattering characteristics as a function of relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, William C.; Day, Derek E.

    The absorption of water by ambient aerosols can significantly increase the light scattering coefficient and thereby affect issues such as visibility and climate forcing. Although water absorption by inorganic compounds and mixtures of inorganic compounds can often be modeled with adequate certainty for most applications, modeling water uptake by organic aerosols at present is speculative. In this paper, we present data in the form of f (RH)=b scat(RH)/b scat,dry , where bscat(RH) is the scattering coefficient measured at some relative humidity (RH)>20% and bscat,dry is the scattering coefficient measured at RH <20%. The f(RH) has been measured at Great Smoky Mountains National Park in Tennessee and at Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona. The f(RH) curves obtained from these two sites, which show distinctly different aerosol composition and average RH values, are compared. We also present comparisons between the measured water uptake by ambient aerosol with modeled water uptake by inorganic compounds to estimate the water uptake by organic aerosol.

  3. An Interlaboratory Comparison of Relative Humidity and Temperature Probes Using Diverse Generation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, R. M.; Farley, R. S.; Sax, P.; Benyon, R.; Stevens, M.; Böse, N.

    2008-10-01

    An interlaboratory comparison using relative-humidity (RH) and temperature probes at three national measurement institutes and two accredited laboratories has been carried out. The work had three purposes: firstly, to establish the instruments’ level of reproducibility and suitability for use as transfer standards within their specified range of operation; secondly, to show the agreement of a method of RH generation utilizing certified non-saturated salt RH standards when compared with a method of RH calibration using a chilled-mirror reference and platinum-resistance thermometers; and finally, from the results obtained it is possible to establish the equivalence between the participating laboratories, to the level of uncertainty achievable with the transfer standards used. A total of six RH probes were tested in two groups. The instruments of the first group were calibrated in the range from 10 %rh to 90 %rh at a temperature of 23 °C. The second group of instruments was measured in the same RH range, but at the temperatures of 5 °C, 23 °C, and 50 °C. The objective of the tests on the second group of instruments was to determine the effect of a wider operating temperature range on performance. This article presents and discusses the results of the comparison in the context of an international collaboration that provides confidence in the measurements performed by the participants within their respective accredited scopes and the ILAC or the CIPM mutual recognition arrangements.

  4. Abnormal humidity-dependent electrical properties of amorphous carbon/silicon heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Xili; Zhang Xiaozhong; Wan Caihua; Zhang Xin; Wu Lihua; Tan Xinyu

    2010-11-22

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) film/n-Si heterojunctions have been fabricated by pulse laser deposition, and their current-voltage characteristics have been investigated. The results show that the atmosphere relative humidity (RH) has a significant effect on the reverse bias I-V characteristics of the heterojunctions. For the low bias voltages, the resistance of the a-C/Si heterojunction decreases with the increase of the RH. However, when the applied voltage is greater than a threshold, the resistance of the a-C/Si heterojunctions increases with the increase of the RH. This humidity-dependent phenomenon is attributed to the charge transfer from the absorbed H{sub 2}O molecular to a-C film.

  5. Fabrication and Evaluation of a Graphene Oxide-Based Capacitive Humidity Sensor †

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jinfeng; Kang, Xiaoxu; Zuo, Qingyun; Yuan, Chao; Wang, Weijun; Zhao, Yuhang; Zhu, Limin; Lu, Hanwei; Chen, Juying

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a CMOS compatible capacitive humidity sensor structure was designed and fabricated on a 200 mm CMOS BEOL Line. A top Al interconnect layer was used as an electrode with a comb/serpent structure, and graphene oxide (GO) was used as sensing material. XRD analysis was done which shows that GO sensing material has a strong and sharp (002) peak at about 10.278°, whereas graphite has (002) peak at about 26°. Device level CV and IV curves were measured in mini-environments at different relative humidity (RH) level, and saturated salt solutions were used to build these mini-environments. To evaluate the potential value of GO material in humidity sensor applications, a prototype humidity sensor was designed and fabricated by integrating the sensor with a dedicated readout ASIC and display/calibration module. Measurements in different mini-environments show that the GO-based humidity sensor has higher sensitivity, faster recovery time and good linearity performance. Compared with a standard humidity sensor, the measured RH data of our prototype humidity sensor can match well that of the standard product. PMID:26938538

  6. Fabrication and Evaluation of a Graphene Oxide-Based Capacitive Humidity Sensor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinfeng; Kang, Xiaoxu; Zuo, Qingyun; Yuan, Chao; Wang, Weijun; Zhao, Yuhang; Zhu, Limin; Lu, Hanwei; Chen, Juying

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a CMOS compatible capacitive humidity sensor structure was designed and fabricated on a 200 mm CMOS BEOL Line. A top Al interconnect layer was used as an electrode with a comb/serpent structure, and graphene oxide (GO) was used as sensing material. XRD analysis was done which shows that GO sensing material has a strong and sharp (002) peak at about 10.278°, whereas graphite has (002) peak at about 26°. Device level CV and IV curves were measured in mini-environments at different relative humidity (RH) level, and saturated salt solutions were used to build these mini-environments. To evaluate the potential value of GO material in humidity sensor applications, a prototype humidity sensor was designed and fabricated by integrating the sensor with a dedicated readout ASIC and display/calibration module. Measurements in different mini-environments show that the GO-based humidity sensor has higher sensitivity, faster recovery time and good linearity performance. Compared with a standard humidity sensor, the measured RH data of our prototype humidity sensor can match well that of the standard product. PMID:26938538

  7. The influence of relative humidity on the cohesion properties of micronized drugs used in inhalation therapy.

    PubMed

    Young, Paul M; Price, Robert; Tobyn, Michael J; Buttrum, Mark; Dey, Fiona

    2004-03-01

    The influence of relative humidity (RH) on the cohesion properties of three drugs: salbutamol sulphate (SS), triamcinolone acetonide (TAA), and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) was investigated using the atomic force microscope (AFM) colloidal probe technique. Micronized drug particles were mounted in heat-sensitive epoxy resin for immobilization. Multiple AFM force-distance curves were conducted between each drug probe and the immobilized drug particulates at 15, 45, and 75% RH using Force-Volume imaging. Clear variations in the cohesion profile with respect to RH were observed for all three micronized drugs. The calculated force and energy of cohesion to separate either micronized SS or DSCG increased as humidity was raised from 15 to 75% RH, suggesting capillary forces become a dominating factor at elevated RH. In comparison, the separation force and energy for micronized TAA particles decreased with increased RH. This behavior may be attributed to long-range attractive electrostatic interactions, which were observed in the approach cycle of the AFM force-distance curves. These observations correlated well with previous aerosolization studies of the three micronized drugs. PMID:14762913

  8. Coupled isotopes of plant wax and hemicellulose markers record information on relative humidity and isotopic composition of precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuthorn, M.; Zech, R.; Ruppenthal, M.; Oelmann, Y.; Kahmen, A.; del Valle, H. F.; Eglinton, T.; Zech, M.

    2015-02-01

    The δ2H isotopic composition of leaf waxes is used increasingly for paleohydrological and -climate reconstructions. However, it is challenging to disentangle past changes in the isotopic composition of precipitation and changes in evapotranspirative enrichment of leaf water. We analyzed δ2H on n-alkanes and fatty acids in topsoils along a climate transect in Argentina, for which we had previously measured δ18O on plant-derived sugars. Our results indicate that leaf wax biomarker δ2H values (δ2Hlipids) primarily reflect δ2Hsource water (precipitation), but are modulated by evapotranspirative enrichment. A mechanistic model is able to produce the main trends in δ2Hlipids along the transect, but seems to slightly underestimate evapotranspirative enrichment in arid regions and overestimate it in grass-dominated ecosystems. Furthermore, the (i) coupling of the δ2Hlipid and δ18Osugar biomarker results and (ii) application of biosynthetic fractionation factors allows calculating the δ2H-δ18O isotopic composition of leaf water along the transect. This also yields the deuterium excess (d excess) of leaf water, which mainly reflects evapotranspirative enrichment, and can be used to model relative air humidity (RH). The high correlation of modeled (reconstructed based on biomarker results) and measured RH, as well as the good agreement between modeled and actual δ2H and δ18O of precipitation along the transect lends support to the coupled δ2Hlipid and δ18Osugar biomarker approach for future paleoclimate research.

  9. Relative humidity-dependent viscosity of secondary organic material from toluene photo-oxidation and possible implications for organic particulate matter over megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mijung; Liu, Pengfei F.; Hanna, Sarah J.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Potter, Katie; You, Yuan; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2016-07-01

    To improve predictions of air quality, visibility, and climate change, knowledge of the viscosities and diffusion rates within organic particulate matter consisting of secondary organic material (SOM) is required. Most qualitative and quantitative measurements of viscosity and diffusion rates within organic particulate matter have focused on SOM particles generated from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as α-pinene and isoprene. In this study, we quantify the relative humidity (RH)-dependent viscosities at 295 ± 1 K of SOM produced by photo-oxidation of toluene, an anthropogenic VOC. The viscosities of toluene-derived SOM were 2 × 10-1 to ˜ 6 × 106 Pa s from 30 to 90 % RH, and greater than ˜ 2 × 108 Pa s (similar to or greater than the viscosity of tar pitch) for RH ≤ 17 %. These viscosities correspond to Stokes-Einstein-equivalent diffusion coefficients for large organic molecules of ˜ 2 × 10-15 cm2 s-1 for 30 % RH, and lower than ˜ 3 × 10-17 cm2 s-1 for RH ≤ 17 %. Based on these estimated diffusion coefficients, the mixing time of large organic molecules within 200 nm toluene-derived SOM particles is 0.1-5 h for 30 % RH, and higher than ˜ 100 h for RH ≤ 17 %. As a starting point for understanding the mixing times of large organic molecules in organic particulate matter over cities, we applied the mixing times determined for toluene-derived SOM particles to the world's top 15 most populous megacities. If the organic particulate matter in these megacities is similar to the toluene-derived SOM in this study, in Istanbul, Tokyo, Shanghai, and São Paulo, mixing times in organic particulate matter during certain periods of the year may be very short, and the particles may be well-mixed. On the other hand, the mixing times of large organic molecules in organic particulate matter in Beijing, Mexico City, Cairo, and Karachi may be long and the particles may not be well-mixed in the afternoon (15:00-17:00 LT) during certain times of the

  10. Responses of sap flow, leaf gas exchange and growth of hybrid aspen to elevated atmospheric humidity under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Niglas, Aigar; Kupper, Priit; Tullus, Arvo; Sellin, Arne

    2014-01-01

    An increase in average air temperature and frequency of rain events is predicted for higher latitudes by the end of the 21st century, accompanied by a probable rise in air humidity. We currently lack knowledge on how forest trees acclimate to rising air humidity in temperate climates. We analysed the leaf gas exchange, sap flow and growth characteristics of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) trees growing at ambient and artificially elevated air humidity in an experimental forest plantation situated in the hemiboreal vegetation zone. Humidification manipulation did not affect the photosynthetic capacity of plants, but did affect stomatal responses: trees growing at elevated air humidity had higher stomatal conductance at saturating photosynthetically active radiation (gs sat) and lower intrinsic water-use efficiency (IWUE). Reduced stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in trees grown at elevated air humidity allowed slightly higher net photosynthesis and relative current-year height increments than in trees at ambient air humidity. Tree responses suggest a mitigating effect of higher air humidity on trees under mild water stress. At the same time, trees at higher air humidity demonstrated a reduced sensitivity of IWUE to factors inducing stomatal closure and a steeper decline in canopy conductance in response to water deficit, implying higher dehydration risk. Despite the mitigating impact of increased air humidity under moderate drought, a future rise in atmospheric humidity at high latitudes may be disadvantageous for trees during weather extremes and represents a potential threat in hemiboreal forest ecosystems. PMID:24887000

  11. Responses of sap flow, leaf gas exchange and growth of hybrid aspen to elevated atmospheric humidity under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Niglas, Aigar; Kupper, Priit; Tullus, Arvo; Sellin, Arne

    2014-01-01

    An increase in average air temperature and frequency of rain events is predicted for higher latitudes by the end of the 21st century, accompanied by a probable rise in air humidity. We currently lack knowledge on how forest trees acclimate to rising air humidity in temperate climates. We analysed the leaf gas exchange, sap flow and growth characteristics of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) trees growing at ambient and artificially elevated air humidity in an experimental forest plantation situated in the hemiboreal vegetation zone. Humidification manipulation did not affect the photosynthetic capacity of plants, but did affect stomatal responses: trees growing at elevated air humidity had higher stomatal conductance at saturating photosynthetically active radiation (gs sat) and lower intrinsic water-use efficiency (IWUE). Reduced stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in trees grown at elevated air humidity allowed slightly higher net photosynthesis and relative current-year height increments than in trees at ambient air humidity. Tree responses suggest a mitigating effect of higher air humidity on trees under mild water stress. At the same time, trees at higher air humidity demonstrated a reduced sensitivity of IWUE to factors inducing stomatal closure and a steeper decline in canopy conductance in response to water deficit, implying higher dehydration risk. Despite the mitigating impact of increased air humidity under moderate drought, a future rise in atmospheric humidity at high latitudes may be disadvantageous for trees during weather extremes and represents a potential threat in hemiboreal forest ecosystems. PMID:24887000

  12. Spatially resolved resistance of NiO nanostructures under humid environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Christopher B; Ievlev, Anton; Collins, Liam F; Muckley, Eric S; Joshi, Pooran C; Ivanov, Ilia N

    2016-01-01

    The spatially resolved electrical response of polycrystalline NiO films composed of 40 nm crystallites was investigated under different relative humidity levels (RH). The topological and electrical properties (surface potential and resistance) were characterized with sub 25nm resolution using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and conductive scanning probe microscopy under argon atmosphere at 0%, 50%, and 80% relative humidity. The dimensionality of surface features obtained through autocorrelation analysis of topological maps increased linearly with increased relative humidity, as water was adsorbed onto the film surface. Surface potential decreased from about 280mV to about 100 mV and resistance decreased from about 5 G to about 3 G , in a nonlinear fashion when relative humidity was increased from 0% to 80%. Spatially resolved surface potential and resistance of the NiO films was found to be heterogeneous throughout the film, with distinct domains that grew in size from about 60 nm to 175 nm at 0% and 80% RH levels, respectively. The heterogeneous character of the topological, surface potential, and resistance properties of the polycrystalline NiO film observed under dry conditions decreased with increased relative humidity, yielding nearly homogeneous surface properties at 80% RH, suggesting that the nanoscale potential and resistance properties converge with the mesoscale properties as water is adsorbed onto the NiO film.

  13. Fabrication and humidity sensing performance studies of a fluorescent film based on a cholesteryl derivative of perylene bisimide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujuan; Zhou, Feng; Peng, Haonan; Liu, Taihong; Ding, Liping; Fang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    A fluorescent film based on a cholesteryl derivative of perylene bisimide (PTCDI-co-CholDEA) was fabricated via utilization of an electrostatic spinning technique on a glass plate surface. SEM studies revealed that the film was characterized by fibrous network structure. It is the structure and the chemical composition that make the fluorescence emission of the film sensitive to the variation of local environmental humidity. The sensitivity of the sensing is 0.1497 (×10(4)a.u. of the intensity)/1% RH, of which RH is the abbreviation of relative humidity. The maximum quenching efficiency of the film is 55.4% when humidity reaches 97% RH. Furthermore, the sensing process is fully reversible, and presence of other commonly found liquids shows little effect to the monitoring process. PMID:27131145

  14. Fabrication and humidity sensing performance studies of a fluorescent film based on a cholesteryl derivative of perylene bisimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Zhou, Feng; Peng, Haonan; Liu, Taihong; Ding, Liping; Fang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    A fluorescent film based on a cholesteryl derivative of perylene bisimide (PTCDI-co-CholDEA) was fabricated via utilization of an electrostatic spinning technique on a glass plate surface. SEM studies revealed that the film was characterized by fibrous network structure. It is the structure and the chemical composition that make the fluorescence emission of the film sensitive to the variation of local environmental humidity. The sensitivity of the sensing is 0.1497 (× 104 a.u. of the intensity)/1% RH, of which RH is the abbreviation of relative humidity. The maximum quenching efficiency of the film is 55.4% when humidity reaches 97% RH. Furthermore, the sensing process is fully reversible, and presence of other commonly found liquids shows little effect to the monitoring process.

  15. Synthesis and enhanced humidity detection response of nanoscale Au-particle-decorated ZnS spheres

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We successfully prepared Au-nanoparticle-decorated ZnS (ZnS-Au) spheres by sputtering Au ultrathin films on surfaces of hydrothermally synthesized ZnS spheres and subsequently postannealed the samples in a high-vacuum atmosphere. The Au nanoparticles were distributed on ZnS surfaces without substantial aggregation. The Au nanoparticle diameter range was 5 to 10 nm. Structural information showed that the surface of the annealed ZnS-Au spheres became more irregular and rough. A humidity sensor constructed using the Au-nanoparticle-decorated ZnS spheres demonstrated a substantially improved response to the cyclic change in humidity from 11% relative humidity (RH) to 33% to 95% RH at room temperature. The improved response was associated with the enhanced efficiency of water molecule adsorption onto the surfaces of the ZnS because of the surface modification of the ZnS spheres through noble-metal nanoparticle decoration. PMID:25520595

  16. Synthesis and Application of a Biopolymer/CNT Composite as a Flexible Humidity Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Manuel; Velazquez, Rafael; Li, Eric; Feng, Peter; Aldalbahi, Ali

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were dispersed into the biopolymer kappa-carrageenan (KC), respectively, to form flexible composites via evaporative casting method. The Glycerin was used as plasticizer to enhance the flexibility of the composite. The KC-CNTs was examined by using Scanning Electron Microscope, Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and then the humidity sensing properties of the samples were characterized under alternating current (AC). The purpose for using AC power supply is to avoid the possible polarization effect during measurements of the humidity sensitivity. Analyses of the obtained data indicate the fabricated sensors have high response to relative humidity (RH) with good repeatability, stability, and low hysteresis. A phenomenon that the impedance of the fabricated sensor decreases with ascending RH was also found and the basic sensing mechanisms are discussed.

  17. Effects of Humidity and Solution Viscosity on Electrospun Fiber Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Nezarati, Roya M.; Eifert, Michelle B.

    2013-01-01

    Electrospinning is a popular technique to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds due to the exceptional tunability of fiber morphology that can be used to control scaffold mechanical properties, degradation rate, and cell behavior. Although the effects of modulating processing or solution parameters on fiber morphology have been extensively studied, there remains limited understanding of the impact of environmental parameters such as humidity. To address this gap, three polymers (poly(ethylene glycol) [PEG], polycaprolactone [PCL], and poly(carbonate urethane) [PCU]) were electrospun at a range of relative humidities (RH=5%–75%) and the resulting fiber architecture characterized with scanning electron microscopy. Low relative humidity (<50%) resulted in fiber breakage for all three polymers due to decreased electrostatic discharge from the jet. At high relative humidity (>50%), three distinct effects were observed based on individual polymer properties. An increase in fiber breakage and loss of fiber morphology occurred in the PEG system as a result of increased water absorption at high relative humidity. In contrast, surface pores on PCL fibers were observed and hypothesized to have formed via vapor-induced phase separation. Finally, decreased PCU fiber collection occurred at high humidity likely due to increased electrostatic discharge. These findings highlight that the effects of relative humidity on electrospun fiber morphology are dependent on polymer hydrophobicity, solvent miscibility with water, and solvent volatility. An additional study was conducted to highlight that small changes in molecular weight can strongly influence solution viscosity and resulting fiber morphology. We propose that solution viscosity rather than concentration is a more useful parameter to report in electrospinning methodology to enable reproduction of findings. In summary, this study further elucidates key mechanisms in electrospun fiber formation that can be utilized to

  18. Frost Growth and Densification on a Flat Surface in Laminar Flow with Variable Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, M.

    2012-01-01

    Experiments are performed concerning frost growth and densification in laminar flow over a flat surface under conditions of constant and variable humidity. The flat plate test specimen is made of aluminum-6031, and has dimensions of 0.3 mx0.3 mx6.35 mm. Results for the first variable humidity case are obtained for a plate temperature of 255.4 K, air velocity of 1.77 m/s, air temperature of 295.1 K, and a relative humidity continuously ranging from 81 to 54%. The second variable humidity test case corresponds to plate temperature of 255.4 K, air velocity of 2.44 m/s, air temperature of 291.8 K, and a relative humidity ranging from 66 to 59%. Results for the constant humidity case are obtained for a plate temperature of 263.7 K, air velocity of 1.7 m/s, air temperature of 295 K, and a relative humidity of 71.6 %. Comparisons of the data with the author's frost model extended to accommodate variable humidity suggest satisfactory agreement between the theory and the data for both constant and variable humidity.

  19. Fiberboard Humidity Data for 9975 Shipping Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts

  20. Fiberboard humidity data for 9975 shipping packages

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis.Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts.

  1. Stability test for amorphous materials in humidity controlled 96-well plates by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Makoto; Tanabe, Hideaki

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to apply near infrared spectrometry (NIR) with chemoinformetrics to predict the change of crystalline properties of indomethacin (IMC) amorphous under various levels of relative humidity storage conditions. Stability test for amorphous and meta-stable polymorphic forms was performed in humidity controlled the modified 96-well quartz plates containing various kinds of saturated salt solutions (0-100% of relative humidity (RH)) by NIR spectroscopy. Amorphous form was obtained melt product to pour into liquid nitrogen and after then ground. Samples were stored at 25°C in the 6-well plates at various levels of RH. The spectra of the powder samples were measured by the reflectance FT-NIR spectrometer. The second derivative spectra of form α showed specific absorption peaks at 4980, 6036, 7296 and 8616 cm-1 and that of form γ showed those at 5020, 5028, 7344, 7428 and 8436 cm-1. After storage at less than 50% RH, the peak intensities at 5020, 5028, 7344, 7428 and 8436 cm-1 of the amorphous solid increased with increasing of storage time. However, the peak intensity at 4980, 6036 and 7296 cm-1 increased at more than 50% RH Please check and confirm the edit. The results suggested that at lower humidity, the IMC amorphous solid transformed into form γ, but it transformed into form α at more than high humidity. It is possible that crystalline stability of the pharmaceutical preparations could be predicted by using humidity controlled 96-well plates and reflectance NIR-chemoinformetric methods. PMID:21942281

  2. Optical Fiber Relative Humidity Sensor Based on a FBG with a Di-Ureasil Coating

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Sandra F. H.; Antunes, Paulo; Pecoraro, Edison; Lima, Patrícia P.; Varum, Humberto; Carlos, Luis D.; Ferreira, Rute A. S.; André, Paulo S.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we proposed a relative humidity (RH) sensor based on a Bragg grating written in an optical fiber, associated with a coating of organo-silica hybrid material prepared by the sol-gel method. The organo-silica-based coating has a strong adhesion to the optical fiber and its expansion is reversibly affected by the change in the RH values (15.0–95.0%) of the surrounding environment, allowing an increased sensitivity (22.2 pm/%RH) and durability due to the presence of a siliceous-based inorganic component. The developed sensor was tested in a real structure health monitoring essay, in which the RH inside two concrete blocks with different porosity values was measured over 1 year. The results demonstrated the potential of the proposed optical sensor in the monitoring of civil engineering structures. PMID:23012521

  3. Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on a FBG with a di-ureasil coating.

    PubMed

    Correia, Sandra F H; Antunes, Paulo; Pecoraro, Edison; Lima, Patrícia P; Varum, Humberto; Carlos, Luis D; Ferreira, Rute A S; André, Paulo S

    2012-01-01

    In this work we proposed a relative humidity (RH) sensor based on a Bragg grating written in an optical fiber, associated with a coating of organo-silica hybrid material prepared by the sol-gel method. The organo-silica-based coating has a strong adhesion to the optical fiber and its expansion is reversibly affected by the change in the RH values (15.0-95.0%) of the surrounding environment, allowing an increased sensitivity (22.2 pm/%RH) and durability due to the presence of a siliceous-based inorganic component. The developed sensor was tested in a real structure health monitoring essay, in which the RH inside two concrete blocks with different porosity values was measured over 1 year. The results demonstrated the potential of the proposed optical sensor in the monitoring of civil engineering structures. PMID:23012521

  4. Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on FBG incorporated thin-core fiber modal interferometer.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bobo; Yin, Mingjie; Zhang, A Ping; Qian, Jinwen; He, Sailing

    2011-02-28

    A new fiber-optic relative humidity (RH) sensor based on a thin-core fiber modal interferometer (TCFMI) with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in between is presented. Poly (N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium chloride) (P4VP·HCl) and poly (vinylsulfonic acid, sodium salt) (PVS) are layer-by-layer deposited on the side surface of the sensor for RH sensing. The fabrication of the sensing nanocoating is characterized by using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The incorporation of FBG in the middle of TCFMI can compensate the cross sensitivity of the sensor to temperature. The proposed sensor can detect the RH with resolution of 0.78% in a large RH range at different temperatures. A linear, fast and reversible response has been experimentally demonstrated. PMID:21369243

  5. Effect of relative humidity on crystal growth, device performance and hysteresis in planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gangishetty, Mahesh K; Scott, Robert W J; Kelly, Timothy L

    2016-03-17

    Due to the hygroscopic nature of organolead halide perovskites, humidity is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency and longevity of perovskite solar cells. Although humidity has a long term detrimental effect on device performance, it also plays a key role during the initial growth of perovskite crystals. Here we demonstrate that atmospheric relative humidity (RH) plays a key role during the formation of perovskite thin films via the sequential deposition technique. Our results indicate that the RH has a substantial impact on the crystallization process, and hence on device performance. SEM and pXRD analysis show an increase in crystallite size with increasing humidity. At low RH, the formation of small cubic crystallites with large gaps between them is observed. The presence of these voids adversely affects device performance and leads to substantial hysteresis in the device. At higher RH, the perovskite crystals are larger in size, with better connectivity between the crystallites. This produced efficient planar heterojunction solar cells with low hysteresis. By careful control of the RH during the cell fabrication process, efficiencies of up to 12.2% are reached using P3HT as the hole-transport material. PMID:26411485

  6. Crystal Microbalance Monitors Relative Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensor monitors water evaporation in industrial drying processes. Measured adsorption isotherm for instrument essentially linear over entire range of relative humidity. Testing at each temperature setting less than half hour for full relative-humidity range, with estimated frequency response time less than 10 seconds. Used to measure relative humidity of ambient atmosphere near drying paper, food textile fabrics and pulp to optimize water-drying portion of processing cycle.

  7. Accurate calibration and control of relative humidity close to 100% by X-raying a DOPC multilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yicong; Ghosh, Sajal K.; Bera, Sambhunath; Jiang, Zhang; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Lurio, Laurence B.; Sinha, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    Here in this study, we have designed a compact sample chamber that can achieve accurate and continuous control of the relative humidity (RH) in the vicinity of 100%. A 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) multilayer can be used as a humidity sensor by measuring its inter-layer repeat distance (d-spacing) via X-ray diffraction. We convert from DOPC d-spacing to RH according to a theory given in the literature and previously measured data of DOPC multilamellar vesicles in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solutions. This curve can be used for calibration of RH close to 100%, a regime where conventional sensors do not have sufficient accuracy. We demonstrate that this control method can provide RH accuracies of 0.1 to 0.01%, which is a factor of 10–100 improvement compared to existing methods of humidity control. Our method provides fine tuning capability of RH continuously for a single sample, whereas the PVP solution method requires new samples to be made for each PVP concentration. The use of this cell also potentially removes the need for an X-ray or neutron beam to pass through bulk water if one wishes to work close to biologically relevant conditions of nearly 100% RH.

  8. Accurate calibration and control of relative humidity close to 100% by X-raying a DOPC multilayer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ma, Yicong; Ghosh, Sajal K.; Bera, Sambhunath; Jiang, Zhang; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Lurio, Laurence B.; Sinha, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    Here in this study, we have designed a compact sample chamber that can achieve accurate and continuous control of the relative humidity (RH) in the vicinity of 100%. A 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) multilayer can be used as a humidity sensor by measuring its inter-layer repeat distance (d-spacing) via X-ray diffraction. We convert from DOPC d-spacing to RH according to a theory given in the literature and previously measured data of DOPC multilamellar vesicles in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solutions. This curve can be used for calibration of RH close to 100%, a regime where conventional sensors do not have sufficient accuracy. We demonstratemore » that this control method can provide RH accuracies of 0.1 to 0.01%, which is a factor of 10–100 improvement compared to existing methods of humidity control. Our method provides fine tuning capability of RH continuously for a single sample, whereas the PVP solution method requires new samples to be made for each PVP concentration. The use of this cell also potentially removes the need for an X-ray or neutron beam to pass through bulk water if one wishes to work close to biologically relevant conditions of nearly 100% RH.« less

  9. Impact of relative humidity on visibility degradation during a haze event: A case study.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hua; Tan, Haobo; Li, Fei; Cai, Mingfu; Chan, P W; Xu, Hanbing; Huang, Xiaoying; Wu, Dui

    2016-11-01

    Light scattering of aerosols depends on ambient relative humidity (RH) since hygroscopic particles absorb significant water at high RH, and this results in low visibility. This paper used custom-made parallel nephelometers (PNEPs) to measure aerosol light scattering enhancement factor ƒ(RH), and utilized data including visibility, PM2.5, black carbon, water-soluble ions mass concentrations and surface meteorological parameters, in conjunction with background weather conditions, to analyze a haze event in Guangzhou during 8th-15th Dec. 2013. Unfavorable weather conditions, such as high RH and low wind speed, were observed during the haze event. The hourly average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 127μg/m(3), with concentration of 192.4μg/m(3) on 9th and 196μg/m(3) on 13th. The ƒ(RH) did not exhibit significant changes during this haze process, with value of ƒ(80%)=1.58±0.07. Although the mass fraction of water-soluble ions to PM2.5 decreased after 12th Dec., the aerosol hygroscopicity might not have changed significantly since the mass fraction of nitrate became more dominant, which has stronger ability to take up water. The best-fitted parameterized function for ƒ(RH) is ƒ(RH)=0.731+0.1375∗(1-RH/100)(-1)+0.00719∗(1-RH/100)(-2). Combining the fixed parameterization of ƒ(RH) above, the visibility was calculated with the measured light scattering and absorption coefficient of particles and gas under dry condition, as well as ambient RH. The predicted visibility range agrees well with the measurements without precipitation. Using ISORROPIA II model, the calculated aerosol liquid water content (ALWC) at ambient RH varied consistently with the PM2.5 under lower RH, while it was more influenced by high RH. This work also show that high RH accompanied with precipitation will enhance aerosol hygroscopic growth effect, leading to further visibility degradation, even if PM2.5 mass decreased due to precipitation. PMID:27395081

  10. Coupling δ2H and δ18O biomarker results yields information on relative humidity and isotopic composition of precipitation - a climate transect validation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuthorn, M.; Zech, R.; Ruppenthal, M.; Oelmann, Y.; Kahmen, A.; del Valle, H. F.; Eglinton, T.; Rozanski, K.; Zech, M.

    2015-06-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition (δ2H) of leaf waxes, especially of n-alkanes (δ2Hn-alkanes), is increasingly used for paleohydrological and paleoclimate reconstructions. However, it is challenging to disentangle past changes in the isotopic composition of precipitation and changes in evapotranspirative enrichment of leaf water, which are both recorded in leaf wax δ2H values. In order to overcome this limitation, Zech M. et al. (2013) proposed a coupled δ2Hn-alkanes-δ18Osugar biomarker approach. This coupled approach allows for calculating (i) biomarker-based "reconstructed" δ2Hδ18O values of leaf water (δ2Hδ18Oleaf water), (ii) biomarker-based reconstructed deuterium excess (d-excess) of leaf water, which mainly reflects evapotranspirative enrichment and which can be used to reconstruct relative air humidity (RH) and (iii) biomarker-based reconstructed δ2Hδ18Oprecipitation values. Here we present a climate transect validation study by coupling new results from δ2H analyses of n-alkanes and fatty acids in topsoils along a climate transect in Argentina with previously measured δ18O results obtained for plant-derived sugars. Accordingly, both the reconstructed RH and δ2Hδ18Oprecipitation values correlate highly significantly with actual RH and δ2Hδ18Oprecipitation values. We conclude that compared to single δ2Hn-alkane or δ18Osugar records, the proposed coupled δ2Hn-alkane-δ18Osugar biomarker approach will allow more robust δ2Hδ18Oprecipitation reconstructions in future paleoclimate research. Additionally, the proposed coupled δ2Hn-alkane-δ18Osugar biomarker approach allows for the establishment of a "paleohygrometer", more specifically, the reconstruction of mean summer daytime RH changes/history.

  11. Propagation of biases in humidity in the estimation of global irrigation water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Y.; Hanasaki, N.; Takahashi, K.; Hijioka, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Future projections on irrigation water under a changing climate are highly dependent on meteorological data derived from general circulation models (GCMs). Since climate projections include biases, bias correction is widely used to adjust meteorological elements, such as the atmospheric temperature and precipitation, but less attention has been paid to biases in humidity. Hence, in many cases, uncorrected humidity data have been directly used to analyze the impact of future climate change. In this study, we examined how the biases remaining in the humidity data of five GCMs propagate into the estimation of irrigation water demand and consumption from rivers using the global hydrological model (GHM) H08. First, to determine the effects of humidity bias across GCMs, we ran H08 with GCM-based meteorological forcing data sets distributed by the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP). A state-of-the-art bias correction method was applied to the data sets without correcting biases in humidity. Differences in the monthly relative humidity amounted to 11.7 to 20.4 % RH (percentage relative humidity) across the GCMs and propagated into differences in the estimated irrigation water demand, resulting in a range between 1152.6 and 1435.5 km3 yr-1 for 1971-2000. Differences in humidity also propagated into future projections. Second, sensitivity analysis with hypothetical humidity biases of ±5 % RH added homogeneously worldwide revealed the large negative sensitivity of irrigation water abstraction in India and East China, which are heavily irrigated. Third, we performed another set of simulations with bias-corrected humidity data to examine whether bias correction of the humidity can reduce uncertainties in irrigation water across the GCMs. The results showed that bias correction, even with a primitive methodology that only adjusts the monthly climatological relative humidity, helped reduce uncertainties across the GCMs: by using bias-corrected humidity

  12. Microdosimetric characterisation of 28 kVp Mo/Mo, Rh/Rh, Rh/Al, W/Rh and Mo/Rh mammography X ray spectra.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, F; Castellano, I A

    2002-01-01

    Microdosimetric characteristics of 28 kVp mammography X ray spectra were studied for several target/added filtration combinations (Mo/Mo, Rh/Rh, Rh/Al, W/Rh, Mo/Rh). Monte Carlo techniques were used to model X ray production from mammography units and to calculate distributions of absorbed dose and energy imparted in breast tissue. The results show that the dose averaged lineal energy is about 5.0 keV.micron-1, about 25% higher than for general diagnostic imaging X ray spectra. Significant differences in lineal energy between the five X ray qualities were noted, with the highest value for the commonly used Mo/Mo combination. Spectral hardening with depth in the tissues causes a 5% decrease in lineal energy over 5 cm. No significant differences were found for the different tissue compositions. PMID:12194338

  13. Improving irrigation management for humid and sub-humid climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project includes studies led by both USDA-ARS and University of Missouri scientists, with a goal to develop solutions to broad water management problems with application to humid and sub-humid areas in the USA and the world. Our interdisciplinary team optimizes production systems for irrigated ...

  14. Improving irrigation management for humid and sub-humid climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project includes studies led by both USDA-ARS and University of Missouri scientists, with a goal to develop solutions to broad water management problems with application to humid and sub-humid areas in the USA and the world. Our interdisciplinary team evaluates and optimizes production systems ...

  15. Upper tropospheric humidity changes under constant relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierens, Klaus; Eleftheratos, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    Theoretical derivations are given on the change of upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) in a warming climate. The considered view is that the atmosphere, which is getting moister with increasing temperatures, will retain a constant relative humidity. In the present study, we show that the upper tropospheric humidity, a weighted mean over a relative humidity profile, will change in spite of constant relative humidity. The simple reason for this is that the weighting function that defines UTH changes in a moister atmosphere. Through analytical calculations using observations and through radiative transfer calculations, we demonstrate that two quantities that define the weighting function of UTH can change: the water vapour scale height and the peak emission altitude. Applying these changes to real profiles of relative humidity shows that absolute UTH changes typically do not exceed 1 %. If larger changes would be observed they would be an indication of climatological changes of relative humidity. As such, an increase in UTH between 1980 and 2009 in the northern midlatitudes, as shown by earlier studies using the High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) data, may be an indication of an increase in relative humidity as well.

  16. Upper-tropospheric humidity changes under constant relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierens, K.; Eleftheratos, K.

    2015-10-01

    Theoretical derivations are given on the change of upper-tropospheric humidity (UTH) in a warming climate. Considered view is that the atmosphere, getting moister with increasing temperatures, will retain a constant relative humidity. In the present study we show that the upper-tropospheric humidity, a weighted mean over a relative humidity profile, will change in spite of constant relative humidity. The simple reason for this is that the weighting function, that defines UTH, changes in a moister atmosphere. Through analytical calculations using observations and through radiative transfer calculations we demonstrate that two quantities that define the weighting function of UTH can change: the water vapour scale height and the peak emission altitude. Applying these changes to real profiles of relative humidity shows that absolute UTH changes typically do not exceed 1 %. If larger changes would be observed they would be an indication of climatological changes of relative humidity. As such, an increase in UTH between 1980 and 2009 in the northern midlatitudes as shown by earlier studies using HIRS data, may be an indication of an increase in relative humidity as well.

  17. Zinc oxide nanoparticle-doped nanoporous solgel fiber as a humidity sensor with enhanced sensitivity and large linear dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Aneesh, R; Khijwania, Sunil K

    2013-08-01

    An all-optical humidity sensor based on direct and exhaustive guided-mode attenuation in an in-house developed zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle-immobilized bare solgel fiber is reported. The main objective of the present work is to enhance the sensitivity considerably while realizing a throughout linear response over a wide dynamic range. The developed sensor is characterized and performance characteristics of the sensor are compared with an optical fiber humidity sensor employing an evanescent wave absorption scheme in a straight and uniform probe, with ZnO nanoparticles-immobilized solgel film as humidity sensing cladding. Sensor response is observed to be linear over a wide dynamic range of 5%-95% relative humidity (RH). The observed linear sensitivity is 0.0103/% RH, which is ~9 times higher than the sensor employing the evanescent wave absorption scheme. In addition, sensor response is observed to be very fast, highly reversible, and repeatable. PMID:23913070

  18. Water-resistive humidity sensor prepared by printing process using polyelectrolyte ink derived from new monomer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ji; Gong, Myoung-Seon

    2012-03-21

    A simple strategy was developed based on a new monomer containing both photocurable function and ammonium salt, N-(2-cinnamoyloxy)ethyl-N-(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl)-N,N-dimethyl ammonium bromide (CMDAB) to obtain photocurable polyelectrolyte ink and stable humidity-sensitive membranes by printing process. Humidity-sensitive membranes are photocrosslinked polyelectrolytes obtained from copolymers of [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] dimethyl propyl ammonium bromide (MEPAB), CMDAB and MMA. A flexible gold electrode/polyimide was pretreated with 2-(mercaptoethyl) cinnamamide (MEC) containing a thiol-coupling agent for the purpose of anchoring the humidity-sensitive polyelectrolyte to the gold electrode. The sensors using screen printing methods reduced the deflection of sensor characteristics showing humidity precision ±1%RH. The photocured copolymer MEPAB/CMDAB/MMA = 63/7/30 show good sensitivity (0.0586 logΩ/%RH) changing resistance approximately four orders of magnitude with relative humidity varying from 20% to 95% and fast response and recovery time. The resultant sensors showed acceptable linearity (Y = -0.04X + 7.0, R(2) = -0.9900) and small hysteresis. The reliability including water resistance and a long-term stability were estimated for the application of the flexible humidity sensor prepared by screen printing process. PMID:22314679

  19. Effect of temperature and humidity on formaldehyde emissions in temporary housing units.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L; Russell, Marion L; Apte, Michael G

    2011-06-01

    The effect of temperature and humidity on formaldehyde emissions from samples collected from temporary housing units (THUs) was studied. The THUs were supplied by the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) to families that lost their homes in Louisiana and Mississippi during the Hurricane Katrina and Rita disasters. On the basis of a previous study, four of the composite wood surface materials that dominated contributions to indoor formaldehyde were selected to analyze the effects of temperature and humidity on the emission factors. Humidity equilibration experiments were carried out on two of the samples to determine how long the samples take to equilibrate with the surrounding environmental conditions. Small chamber experiments were then conducted to measure emission factors for the four surface materials at various temperature and humidity conditions. The samples were analyzed for formaldehyde via high-performance liquid chromatography. The experiments showed that increases in temperature or humidity contributed to an increase in emission factors. A linear regression model was built using the natural log of the percent relative humidity (RH) and inverse of temperature (in K) as independent variables and the natural log of emission factors as the dependent variable. The coefficients for the inverse of temperature and log RH with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all of the samples at the 95% confidence level. This study should assist in retrospectively estimating indoor formaldehyde exposure of occupants of THUs. PMID:21751584

  20. Influence of relative humidity on direct sulfur dioxide damage to plant sexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Murdy, W.H.; Ragsdale, H.L.

    1980-07-01

    Results of in vivo experiments with Geranium carolinianum L. showed that sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) damaged sexual reproduction (in terms of decreased seed set) when relative humdity (RH) was 80% or above but not when RH was 70% or below. Relative humidity alone, if 80% or higher, damaged sexual reproduction; the addition of SO/sub 2/ increased the damage. A high SO/sub 2/ dosage of 1.5 ppM/7 hours at 50% RH caused leaf injury, but decreased percent seed set <5%, whereas a low SO/sub 2/ dosage of 0.2 ppM/7 hours at 90% RH decreased percent seed set by 32% without visible leaf injury. At an SO/sub 2/ dosage of 0.4 ppM/7 hours administered during anthesis, percent seed set was virtually identical with the control at 70% RH, 35% below the control at 80% RH, and 68% below the control at 90% RH.

  1. [A Surface Plasmon Micro-Ring Sensor Suitable for Humidity Sensing].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-quan; An, Dong-yang; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Ling-ling; Sha, Xiao-peng; Guo, Shi-liang; Li, Wen-chao

    2015-09-01

    Temperature is a very important parameter in scientific research, production and life. Almost all the properties of materials are related to temperature. The precise measurement of the temperature is a very important task, so the temperature sensor is widely used as a core part in the temperature measuring instrument. A novel surface plasmon micro-ring sensor suitable for humidity sensing is presented in this paper. The sensor uses a multi-layered surface plasmon waveguide structure and choosing Polyimide (Polyimide, PI) as the moisture material. We get the transfer function of surface plasmon micro-ring sensor by using transfer matrix method. Refractive indexes of Polyimide and the multilayer waveguide structure change as environment relative humidity changes, thus leading to an obvious peak drift of output spectrum. The paper mainly discusses the influence of the changes of the refractive index of humidity-sensing parts on the output spectrum, and the transmission characteristics of multilayer waveguide structure. Through the finite element method and the theoretical simulation of Matlab, We can draw: When the length between the two coupling points of the U-shaped waveguide is an integer multiple of circumference of the micro-ring, an obvious drift in the horizontal direction appears, the free spectral range (FSR) doubled and the sensitivity is 0.0005 μm/%RH; When the external environment relative humidity RH changes from 10% to 100% RH, scatter is change between including (including 0.005 m to 0.005 m, compared to other humidity sensor, the Sensitivity of sensor improves 10~50 times and the transmission is very stable. Results show that the design of surface plasma micro ring sensors has better sensitivity, stable performance and can be used in the humidity measurement, achieving a high sensitivity in the sense of humidity when the wide range of filter frequency selection is taken into account, and providing a theoretical basis for the preparation of micro

  2. Humidity sensing properties of CNT-OD-VETP nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, M.; Karimov, Kh. S.; Karieva, Z. M.; Mateen, A.

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the blend of orange dye (OD), C 17H 17N 5O 2 (5 wt%), vinyl-ethynyl-trimethyl-piperidole (VETP), C 12H 19NO, (5 wt%) and carbon nanotube (CNT) powder (10 wt%) in a mixture of distilled water (80 wt%) and spirit were drop-casted on glass substrates with pre-deposited surface-type silver electrodes to fabricate CNT-OD-VETP nanocomposite thin films. In the process of thin films deposition, 2 V DC was applied to Ag electrodes. The thicknesses of the CNT-OD-VETP films were in the range of 10-15 μm. The I-V characteristics of the surface-type Ag/CNT-OD-VETP/Ag samples showed rectification behavior. The effect of humidity on the electrical properties of the nanocomposite films was investigated by measurement of the capacitance and dissipation of the samples at two different frequencies of the applied voltage: 120 Hz and 1 kHz. The resistance of the samples was determined from values of dissipation. It was observed that at 120 Hz and 1 kHz, under humidity of up to 90% RH, the capacitance of the cell increased by 7.4×10 3 and 740 times and resistance decreased by 2.3×10 4 and 3.8×10 4 times, accordingly, with respect to 40% RH conditions. The average response and recovery times of the films were obtained by capacitance-time measurements to evaluate the dynamics of the water vapor absorption and desorption processes. The experimental results have been supported by the simulation of the capacitance-humidity relationship. It is assumed that the humidity response of the cell is associated with diffusion of water vapors and doping of the semiconductor nanocomposite by water molecules.

  3. High Performance Humidity Sensor Based on Electrospun Zr0.9Mg0.1O2-δ Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Mei-Ying; Wang, Jing; Yao, Peng-Jun; Du, Hai-Ying

    2012-11-01

    Zr0.9Mg0.1O2-δ nanofibers and ZrO2 nanofibers are synthesized using electrospinning and the calcination technique. The nanofibers are characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and a Brunauer—Emmett—Teller (BET) surface analyzer. The humidity sensing properties of Zr0.9Mg0.1O2-δ nanofiber sensors are analyzed and compared with those of ZrO2 nanofiber sensors. The Zr0.9Mg0.1O2-δ nanofiber humidity sensors exhibit a broader humidity range of 11-97% relative humidity (RH), good linearity, small humidity hysteresis, and rapid response and recovery times. The complex impedance plots of the Zr0.9Mg0.1O2-δ sensor at different RHs are drawn, and the humidity sensing mechanism is discussed via an equivalent circuit.

  4. Humidity Graphs for All Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esmael, F.

    1982-01-01

    In a previous article in this journal (Vol. 17, p358, 1979), a wet-bulb depression table was recommended for two simple experiments to determine relative humidity. However, the use of a graph is suggested because it gives the relative humidity directly from the wet and dry bulb readings. (JN)

  5. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) - First Results of Relative Humidity Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kemppinen, Osku; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Renno, Nilton; Savijärvi, Hannu; Schmidt, Walter; Polkko, Jouni; Rodríquez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Mischna, Michael; Martín-Torres, Javier; Haukka, Harri; Paz Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Rafkin, Scott; Paton, Mark; MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    The Mars Science laboratory (MSL) called Curiosity made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, and UV measurements. The REMS instrument suite is described at length in [1]. We concentrate on describing the first results from the REMS relative humidity observations and comparison of the measurements with modeling results. The REMS humidity device is provided by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. It is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc. The humidity device makes use of one transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three (3) humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom 2 providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The absolute accuracy of the humidity device is temperature dependent, and is of the order of 2% at the temperature range of -30 to -10 °C, and of the order of 10% at the temperature range of -80 to -60 °C. This enables the investigations of atmospheric humidity variations of both diurnal and seasonal scale. The humidity device measurements will have a lag, when a step-wise change in humidity is taking place. This lag effect is increasing with decreasing temperature, and it is of the order of a few hours at the temperature of -75 °C. To compensate for the lag effect we used an algorithm developed by Mäkinen [2]. The humidity observations were validated after tedious efforts. This was needed to compensate for the artifacts of the transducer electronics. The compensation process includes an assumption that the relative humidity at Mars in the temperature range of 0 to -30 °C is about zero. The

  6. Stability of polycyclic aromatic compounds in polyurethane foam-type passive air samplers upon O3 exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jariyasopit, Narumol; Liu, Yongchun; Liggio, John; Harner, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Stability of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in polyurethane foam (PUF) disks upon O3 exposure was studied in a flow tube. A wide range of PACs was evaluated by spiking PUF disks with PACs and exposing to O3 at concentrations that were equivalent to two months exposure, a typical deployment period for these passive air samplers. Ambient concentrations of O3 (∼50 ppb) at 0% and 50% relative humidity (RH) were applied. At 0% RH, 23 of 68 PACs yielded more than 50% loss after exposure. The mean percent loss was 30% with perylene and 9,10-dimethylanthracene the most reactive polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs, respectively. At 50% RH, 77% of the studied PACs was stable upon O3 exposure (PACexposed/PACunexposed > 0.7). The mean percent loss was 17% and only 7 of 68 PACs yielded greater than 50% loss. In general, the reactivity of most of the PACs decreased at higher RH, except for the reactive PAHs (acenaphthylene, 2,3-dimethylanthracene, 9,10-dimethylanthracene, dibenzothiophene, and 2-methyldibenzothiophene) which demonstrated lower RH dependence. The experimental conditions in this study represent a worst case scenario for the stability of PACs sorbed to PUF. In reality, the sampling of PACs in ambient air represents an 'aged' component of PACs where the most reactive species have already partially been removed. Also, PACs in ambient air will be associated with the particle phase to varying extents that will help to enhance their stability. Therefore, under regular operating conditions, over a 2-month exposure, we expect a minimal error in the measurement of total concentration of PACs in air using the PUF disk passive sampler.

  7. Humidity Sensors Principle, Mechanism, and Fabrication Technologies: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Hamid; Wagiran, Rahman; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar

    2014-01-01

    Humidity measurement is one of the most significant issues in various areas of applications such as instrumentation, automated systems, agriculture, climatology and GIS. Numerous sorts of humidity sensors fabricated and developed for industrial and laboratory applications are reviewed and presented in this article. The survey frequently concentrates on the RH sensors based upon their organic and inorganic functional materials, e.g., porous ceramics (semiconductors), polymers, ceramic/polymer and electrolytes, as well as conduction mechanism and fabrication technologies. A significant aim of this review is to provide a distinct categorization pursuant to state of the art humidity sensor types, principles of work, sensing substances, transduction mechanisms, and production technologies. Furthermore, performance characteristics of the different humidity sensors such as electrical and statistical data will be detailed and gives an added value to the report. By comparison of overall prospects of the sensors it was revealed that there are still drawbacks as to efficiency of sensing elements and conduction values. The flexibility offered by thick film and thin film processes either in the preparation of materials or in the choice of shape and size of the sensor structure provides advantages over other technologies. These ceramic sensors show faster response than other types. PMID:24784036

  8. Propagation of biases in humidity in the estimation of global irrigational water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Y.; Hanasaki, N.; Takahashi, K.; Hijioka, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Future projections on irrigational water under a changing climate are highly dependent on meteorological data derived from general circulation models (GCMs). Since climate projections include biases, bias correction is widely used to adjust meteorological elements, such as the atmospheric temperature and precipitation, but less attention has been paid to biases in humidity. Hence, in many cases, raw GCM outputs have been directly used to analyze the impact of future climate change. In this study, we examined how the biases remaining in the humidity data of five GCMs propagate into the estimation of irrigational water demand and abstraction from rivers using the global hydrological model (GHM) H08. First, to determine the effects of humidity bias across GCMs, we used meteorological data sets to which a state-of-the-art bias correction method was applied except to the humidity. Uncorrected GCM outputs were used for the humidity. We found that differences in the monthly relative humidity of 11.7 to 20.4% RH (percent used as the unit of relative humidity) from observations across the GCMs caused the estimated irrigational water abstraction from rivers to range between 1217.7 and 1341.3 km3 yr-1 for 1971-2000. Differences in humidity also propagate into future projections. Second, sensitivity analysis with hypothetical humidity biases of ±5% RH added homogeneously worldwide revealed the large negative sensitivity of irrigational water abstraction in India and East China, which have high areal fractions of irrigated cropland. Third, we performed another set of simulations with bias-corrected humidity data to examine whether bias correction of the humidity can reduce uncertainties in irrigational water across the GCMs. The results showed that bias correction, even with a primitive methodology that only adjusts the monthly climatological relative humidity, helped reduce uncertainties across the GCMs. Although the GHMs have different sensitivities to atmospheric humidity

  9. Entropy and Mixing : Titan's Humidity Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2003-05-01

    Determinations of the relative humidity of methane near Titan's surface range from 40-60 %. The rationale advanced by Lunine in the global ocean hypothesis was that a mixed ethane-methane ocean in thermodynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere would be unsaturated due to methane vapor pressure supression by involatile ethane (much as salt or sugar dissolved in water slows its evaporation). Here I explore a nonequilibrium explanation for the incomplete saturation - the reason why the terrestrial atmosphere is not saturated. Specifically, saturated near-surface air is mixed with downwelling dry air, a mixing driven by vertical convection. The more vigorous the mixing, the dryer the near-surface air should be. Flasar (1983) made a crude empirical evaluation of transport processes : here I adopt a more fundamental thermodynamic approach. In reality both the involatile solute and the mixing mechanisms probably play a part in regulating methane humidity, and the utility of global and annual averages must be compromised by latitudinal and seasonal dependences. Comparison with the Earth - where moist processes play a dominant role in the entropy budget - will be instructive.

  10. Temperature and relative humidity influence the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of Camembert-type cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Sicard, M; Trelea, I C; Picque, D; Corrieu, G

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on microbial and biochemical ripening kinetics, Camembert-type cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk seeded with Kluyveromyces marxianus, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. Microorganism growth and biochemical changes were studied under different ripening temperatures (8, 12, and 16°C) and RH (88, 92, and 98%). The central point runs (12°C, 92% RH) were both reproducible and repeatable, and for each microbial and biochemical parameter, 2 kinetic descriptors were defined. Temperature had significant effects on the growth of both K. marxianus and G. candidum, whereas RH did not affect it. Regardless of the temperature, at 98% RH the specific growth rate of P. camemberti spores was significantly higher [between 2 (8°C) and 106 times (16°C) higher]. However, at 16°C, the appearance of the rind was no longer suitable because mycelia were damaged. Brevibacterium aurantiacum growth depended on both temperature and RH. At 8°C under 88% RH, its growth was restricted (1.3 × 10(7) cfu/g), whereas at 16°C and 98% RH, its growth was favored, reaching 7.9 × 10(9) cfu/g, but the rind had a dark brown color after d 20. Temperature had a significant effect on carbon substrate consumption rates in the core as well as in the rind. In the rind, when temperature was 16°C rather than 8°C, the lactate consumption rate was approximately 2.9 times higher under 88% RH. Whatever the RH, temperature significantly affected the increase in rind pH (from 4.6 to 7.7 ± 0.2). At 8°C, an increase in rind pH was observed between d 6 and 9, whereas at 16°C, it was between d 2 and 3. Temperature and RH affected the increasing rate of the underrind thickness: at 16°C, half of the cheese thickness appeared ripened on d 14 (wrapping day). However, at 98% RH, the underrind was runny. In conclusion, some descriptors, such as yeast growth and the pH in the rind, depended solely on

  11. Reversible wetting of NaCl nanoparticles at relative humidities below deliquescence observed by environmental non-contact AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Bruzewicz, D.A.; Lewis, E.; Ocko, B. M.; McGraw, R. L.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2009-12-14

    The behavior of NaCl nanoparticles as a function of relative humidity (RH) was characterized by depositing particles on a prepared hydrophobic surface and measuring their height via non-contact environmental atomic force microscopy (AFM). Non-contact AFM allows greater sensitivity to changes in the size of particles than does contact AFM or scanning electron microscopy, and greater sensitivity to changes in shape than do mass-based techniques. Crystalline cubic NaCl nanoparticles with sides of 35 to 150 nm were found to reversibly take up water with increasing RH, and to form a liquid-like surface layer of thickness 2 to 4 nm at humidities well below the deliquescence point of 75.0% at 20°C. Measurable uptake begins at 70% RH. The maximum thickness of the layer increases with increasing RH for a given particle size and, for a given RH, increases with increasing particle size over the range studied. The liquid-like behavior of the layer is indicated by a reversible “rounding” at the tops of the particles, where the ratio of particle height to radius of curvature increases from zero (flat top) at 68% RH to 0.7 at 74% RH. These observations suggest that a reorganization of mass occurs on the solid NaCl nanoparticle, and hence that the behavior of NaCl aerosol nanoparticles at RH between 70 and 75% RH is more complex than an abrupt first-order phase transition. Theoretical treatments of the phase transition should therefore account for both the presence of a liquid-like layer prior to deliquescence, and the RH-dependent thickness of the layer.

  12. Effect of Relative Humidity on the Survival of Airborne Unicellular Algae

    PubMed Central

    Ehresmann, Douglas W.; Hatch, Melvin T.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described which is suitable for assessing the effects of relative humidity (RH) on the viability of two unicellular algae in experimental aerosols. Viable cells of Nannochloris atomus collected from the airborne state were detected by plating onto agar surfaces of an appropriate growth medium, whereas viable airborne cells of Synechococcus sp., because of unreliable growth on solid media, were determined by a liquid assay system. The assays were performed at intervals during short-term and prolonged storage of algal aerosols in chambers preconditioned to a selected RH and temperature. Both species showed the greatest loss in viability during the first minute after atomization, and the extent of this inactivation, as a function of RH, reflected the subsequent long-term survival. The airborne eukaryotic alga was unable to survive at an RH below 91%, whereas the airborne prokaryotic alga was comparatively stable over a wide humidity range. Initial inactivation was least and long-term survival best, for both species, at 94% RH. Images PMID:1115506

  13. The influence of relative humidity on structural and chemical changes during carbonation of hydraulic lime

    SciTech Connect

    El-Turki, A. E-mail: A.El-Turki@bristol.ac.uk; Ball, R.J.; Allen, G.C

    2007-08-15

    Studies monitoring the carbonation of NHL3.5 hydraulic lime are described. Weight-gain measurements, focused ion beam imaging, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to monitor changes in structure and composition occurring in lime pastes after exposure to 100% carbon dioxide at relative humidities of 65 and 97%. Lime paste exposed to a relative humidity (R.H.) of 97% indicated a higher carbonation rate compared to paste exposed to 65% R.H. Surface analysis showed that the sample exposed to a relative humidity of 97% was completely carbonated. No calcium hydroxide was detected. A small amount of calcium hydroxide was, however, present at the surface of the sample exposed to 65% R.H. These observations suggest that high humidity results in the formation of a thin layer of crystalline calcium carbonate covering silicate and hydroxide phases. The actual mass increase of the sample also indicated that uncarbonated calcium hydroxide remained beneath the surface.

  14. Viscosity controls humidity dependence of N2O5 uptake to citric acid aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gržinić, G.; Bartels-Rausch, T.; Berkemeier, T.; Türler, A.; Ammann, M.

    2015-12-01

    The heterogeneous loss of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) to aerosol particles has a significant impact on the night-time nitrogen oxide cycle and therefore the oxidative capacity in the troposphere. Using a 13N short-lived radioactive tracer method, we studied the uptake kinetics of N2O5 on citric acid aerosol particles as a function of relative humidity (RH). The results show that citric acid exhibits lower reactivity than similar dicarboxylic and polycarboxylic acids, with uptake coefficients between ∼ 3 × 10-4-∼ 3 × 10-3 depending on humidity (17-70 % RH). At RH above 50 %, the magnitude and the humidity dependence can be best explained by the viscosity of citric acid as compared to aqueous solutions of simpler organic and inorganic solutes and the variation of viscosity with RH and, hence, diffusivity in the organic matrix. Since the diffusion rates of N2O5 in highly concentrated citric acid solutions are not well established, we present four different parameterizations of N2O5 diffusivity based on the available literature data or estimates for viscosity and diffusivity of H2O. Above 50 % RH, uptake is consistent with the reacto-diffusive kinetic regime whereas below 50 % RH, the uptake coefficient is higher than expected from hydrolysis of N2O5 within the bulk of the particles, and the uptake kinetics is most likely limited by loss on the surface only. This study demonstrates the impact of viscosity in highly oxidized and highly functionalized secondary organic aerosol material on the heterogeneous chemistry of N2O5 and may explain some of the unexpectedly low loss rates to aerosol derived from field studies.

  15. The dependence of aerosol formation in a plant chamber on temperature, UV radiation and relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Maso, M.; Hohaus, T.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Mentel, Th. F.; Tillmann, R.; Wildt, J.

    2009-04-01

    The ongoing climate change is expected to raise air temperatures; this will have an effect on the vegetation and its emission pattern. Biogenic VOC emissions are temperature dependent, with increasing temperatures causing increasing emissions. Increased temperatures could also lead to increased occurrences of heat stress in plants, inducing changes in plant emission patterns. This has given rise to propositions for a feedback between vegetation and climate, with increasing temperatures causing increased aerosol loading, which in turn has a cooling effect. We have investigated the dependence on the aerosol production from plant emissions on various environmental factors, such as temperature, RH or UV intensity in the Jülich Aerosol Atmosphere Plant Chamber setup (JPAC). Higher temperatures in the plant chamber lead to higher emissions; this also lead to higher particle number production as well as increased growth rates. Relative humidity and UV irradiation were also shown to influence particle formation; the possible chemical and physical pathways causing this will be discussed. We will also discuss the relative roles of formation rate and growth rate enhancements in producing cloud condensation nuclei utilising a simple aerosol dynamics modelling approach.

  16. Indoor air quality in an automotive assembly plant in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Edimansyah, B A; Rusli, B N; Naing, L; Azwan, B A; Aziah, B D

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the indoor air quality (IAQ) status of an automotive assembly plant in Rawang, Selangor, Malaysia using selected IAQ parameters, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), temperature, relative humidity (RH) and respirable particulate matter (PM10). A cross-sectional study was conducted in the paint shop and body shop sections of the plant in March 2005. The Q-TRAK Plus IAQ Monitor was used to record the patterns of CO, CO2, RH and temperature; whilst PM10 was measured using DUSTTRAK Aerosol Monitor over an 8-hour time weight average (8-TWA). It was found that the average temperatures, RH and PM10 in the paint shop section and body shop sections exceeded the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH) standards. The average concentrations of RH and CO were slightly higher in the body shop section than in the paint shop section, while the average concentrations of temperature and CO2 were slightly higher in the paint shop section than in the body shop section. There was no difference in the average concentrations of PM10 between the two sections. PMID:19323052

  17. Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation from the β-pinene + NO3 system: effect of humidity and peroxy radical fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, C. M.; Sanchez, J.; Xu, L.; Eugene, A. J.; Nah, T.; Tuet, W. Y.; Guzman, M. I.; Ng, N. L.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the oxidation of β-pinene via nitrate radicals is investigated in the Georgia Tech Environmental Chamber facility (GTEC). Aerosol yields are determined for experiments performed under both dry (RH < 2%) and humid (RH = 50% and RH = 70%) conditions. To probe the effects of peroxy radical (RO2) fate on aerosol formation, "RO2 + NO3 dominant" and "RO2 + HO2 dominant" experiments are performed. Gas-phase organic nitrate species (with molecular weights of 215, 229, 231 and 245 amu) are detected by chemical ionization mass spectrometry and their formation mechanisms are proposed. The ions at m/z 30 (NO+) and m/z 46 (NO2+) contribute about 11% to the total organics signal in the typical aerosol mass spectrum, with NO+ : NO2+ ratio ranging from 6 to 9 in all experiments conducted. The SOA yields in the "RO2 + NO3 dominant" and "RO2 + HO2 dominant" experiments are comparable. For a wide range of organic mass loadings (5.1-216.1 μg m-3), the aerosol mass yield is calculated to be 27.0-104.1%. Although humidity does not appear to affect SOA yields, there is evidence of particle-phase hydrolysis of organic nitrates, which are estimated to compose 45-74% of the organic aerosol. The extent of organic nitrate hydrolysis is significantly lower than that observed in previous studies on photooxidation of volatile organic compounds in the presence of NOx. It is estimated that about 90 and 10% of the organic nitrates formed from the β-pinene + NO3 reaction are primary organic nitrates and tertiary organic nitrates, respectively. While the primary organic nitrates do not appear to hydrolyze, the tertiary organic nitrates undergo hydrolysis with a lifetime of 3-4.5 h. Results from this laboratory chamber study provide the fundamental data to evaluate the contributions of monoterpene + NO3 reaction to ambient organic aerosol measured in the southeastern United States, including the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) and the

  18. A relative humidity sensing probe based on etched thin-core fiber coated with polyvinyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Yang, Zaihang; Zhou, Libin; Liu, Nan; Gang, Tingting; Qiao, Xueguang; Hu, Manli

    2015-12-01

    A relative humidity (RH) sensing probe based on etched thin-core fiber (TCF) coated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated.This sensor is constructed by splicing a section of TCF with a single mode fiber (SMF), then part of the TCF's cladding is etched by hydrofluoric acid solution and finally the tip of TCF is coated with PVA. Experimental results demonstrate that this sensor can measure the ambient RH by demodulating the power variation of reflection spectrum. The power demodulation method make this sensor can ignore the temperature cross-sensitivity and have an extensive application prospect.

  19. ZrO2-ZnO composite thin films for humidity sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velumani, M.; Meher, S. R.; Balakrishnan, L.; Sivacoumar, R.; Alex, Z. C.

    2016-05-01

    ZrO2-ZnO composite thin films were grown by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the composite nature of the films with separate ZnO and ZrO2 phase. Scanning electron microscopy studies confirm the nanocrystalline structure of the films. The films were studied for their impedometric relative humidity (RH) sensing characteristics. The complex impedance plot was fitted with a standard equivalent circuit consisting of an inter-granular resistance and a capacitance in parallel. The DC resistance was found to be decreasing with increase in RH.

  20. Micro Humidity Sensor with High Sensitivity and Quick Response/Recovery Based on ZnO/TiO2 Composite Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Rui; Xiao, Qi; Zhang, Dan; Liu, Yong

    2011-07-01

    ZnO/TiO2 composite nanofibers are synthesized by an electrospinning method and characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. A micro humidity sensor is fabricated by spinning the precursors of these nanofibers on a ceramic substrate with Ag-Pd interdigitated electrodes. Humidity sensing investigation reveals that this micro sensor offers high sensitivity and quick response/recovery at an operating frequency of 100Hz. The corresponding impedance changes more than four orders of magnitude within the whole humidity range from 10% to 90% relative humidity (RH), and the response and recovery times are about 4 and 12 s, respectively. The maximum hysteresis is around 2% RH. The humidity sensing mechanism is also discussed based on the nanofiber structure and morphology.

  1. Role of Relative Humidity in Processing and Storage of Seeds and Assessment of Variability in Storage Behaviour in Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa

    PubMed Central

    Suma, A.; Sreenivasan, Kalyani; Singh, A. K.; Radhamani, J.

    2013-01-01

    The role of relative humidity (RH) while processing and storing seeds of Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa was investigated by creating different levels of relative humidity, namely, 75%, 50%, 32%, and 11% using different saturated salt solutions and 1% RH using concentrated sulphuric acid. The variability in seed storage behaviour of different species of Brassica was also evaluated. The samples were stored at 40 ± 2°C in sealed containers and various physiological parameters were assessed at different intervals up to three months. The seed viability and seedling vigour parameters were considerably reduced in all accessions at high relative humidity irrespective of the species. Storage at intermediate relative humidities caused minimal decline in viability. All the accessions performed better at relative humidity level of 32% maintaining seed moisture content of 3%. On analyzing the variability in storage behaviour, B. rapa and B. juncea were better performers than B. napus and Eruca sativa. PMID:24489504

  2. Thermal Comfort: An Index for Hot, Humid Asia. Educational Building Digest 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The sensation of thermal comfort is determined by a combination of air temperature, humidity of the air, rate of movement of the air, and radiant heat. This digest is intended to assist architects to design educational facilities that are as thermally comfortable as is possible without recourse to mechanical air conditioning. A nomogram is…

  3. Influence of relative humidity on the properties of examined materials by means of inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Strzemiecka, Beata; Kołodziejek, Joanna; Kasperkowiak, Małgorzata; Voelkel, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at infinite dilution was applied to evaluate the surface properties of sorbents and the effect of different carrier gas humidity. They were stored in different environmental humidity - 29%, 40%, and 80%. The dispersive components of the surface free energy of the zeolites and perlite were determined by Schulz-Lavielle method, whereas their tendency to undergo specific interactions was estimated basing on the electron donor-acceptor approach presented by Flour and Papirer. Surface parameters were used to monitor the changes of the properties caused by the humidity of the storage environment as well as of RH of carrier gas. The increase of humidity of storage environment caused a decrease of sorbents surface activity and increase the ability to specific interaction. PMID:23219027

  4. Polyaniline-lead titanate composites for humidity sensing and EMI shielding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manocha, Aarushi; Thomas, Jocelyn T.; Fathima, Hana; V, Suveetha; Faisal, Muhammad

    2015-06-01

    The present paper reports the humidity sensing and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties of synthesized polyaniline-lead titanate (PANi/PbTiO3) composites. The humidity sensing of the PAni/PbTiO3 composites was discussed in terms of change in direct current (DC) resistance with respect to percentage relative humidity (% RH) ranging from 20% to 90%. The EMI shielding properties of the composites were measured in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz (X-band), relevant for practical applications. The composites showed shielding effectiveness (SE) in the range -29 dB to -34 dB and the variations in the shielding effectiveness with the frequency was minimal at a fixed composition. The observed effective humidity sensing and EMI shielding properties highlights the prospects of multifunctional applications of these composites.

  5. Adapting wood hydrolysate barriers to high humidity conditions.

    PubMed

    Yaich, Anas Ibn; Edlund, Ulrica; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2014-01-16

    The incorporation of layered silicates in bio-based barrier films resulted in lower water vapor permeability, and significantly lowered oxygen permeability at a relative humidity (RH) as high as 80%, with reduced moisture sensitivity of the wood hydrolysate (WH) based films. The applicability of WH based films was accordingly extended over a wider relative humidity condition range. Crude aqueous process liquor, the WH, was extracted from hardwood and utilized as a feed-stock for films without any upgrading pretreatment, yet producing superior oxygen barrier performance compared to partially upgraded WH and highly purified hemicelluloses. Films composed of crude WH and either one of two types of naturally occurring layered silicates, montmorillonite (MMT) or talc, as mineral additives, were evaluated with respect to oxygen and water vapor permeability, morphological, tensile and dynamic thermo-mechanical properties. Films with an oxygen permeability as low as 1.5 (cm(3)μm)/(m(2)daykPa) at 80% RH was achieved. PMID:24188847

  6. Gas and humidity sensing element

    SciTech Connect

    Komine, Y.; Sawada, T.

    1984-06-26

    A gas and humidity sensing element in a single integral structure made of a base plate of apatite ceramics, on which a particular metal oxide such as tin oxide, zinc oxide, or composite oxide of titanium and niobium is provided. The sensing element has a function of sensing gas and humidity with outstanding sensitivity to bad smell gas and alcoholic gas, in which the humidity is sensed and measured by variations in electrical resistance of the apatite ceramic base plate and the bad smell gas such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, etc. is sensed and measured by variations in electrical resistance of the metal oxide.

  7. Observations of relative humidity effects on aerosol light scattering in the Yangtze River Delta of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Sun, J. Y.; Shen, X. J.; Zhang, Y. M.; Che, H.; Ma, Q. L.; Zhang, Y. W.; Zhang, X. Y.; Ogren, J. A.

    2015-07-01

    Scattering of solar radiation by aerosol particles is highly dependent on relative humidity (RH) as hygroscopic particles take up water with increasing RH. To achieve a better understanding of the effect of aerosol hygroscopic growth on light scattering properties and radiative forcing, the aerosol scattering coefficients at RH in the range of 40 to ~ 90 % were measured using a humidified nephelometer system in the Yangtze River Delta of China in March 2013. In addition, the aerosol size distribution and chemical composition were measured. During the observation period, the mean and standard deviation (SD) of enhancement factors at RH = 85 % for the scattering coefficient (f(85 %)), backscattering coefficient (fb(85 %)), and hemispheric backscatter fraction (fβ(85 %)) were 1.58 ± 0.12, 1.25 ± 0.07, and 0.79 ± 0.04, respectively, i.e., aerosol scattering coefficient and backscattering coefficient increased by 58 and 25 % as the RH increased from 40 to 85 %. Concurrently, the aerosol hemispheric backscatter fraction decreased by 21 %. The relative amount of organic matter (OM) or inorganics in PM1 was found to be a main factor determining the magnitude of f(RH). The highest values of f(RH) corresponded to the aerosols with a small fraction of OM, and vice versa. The relative amount of NO3- in fine particles was strongly correlated with f(85 %), which suggests that NO3- played a vital role in aerosol hygroscopic growth during this study. The mass fraction of nitrate also had a close relationship to the curvature of the humidograms; higher mass fractions of nitrate were associated with humidograms that had the least curvature. Aerosol hygroscopic growth caused a 47 % increase in the calculated aerosol direct radiative forcing at 85 % RH, compared to the forcing at 40 % RH.

  8. Reanalysis of upper tropospheric humidity data of the MOZAIC programme for the period 1994 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, Andreas; Smit, Herman; Rohs, Susanne; Neis, Patrick; Thomas, Karin; Thouret, Valerie; Nedelec, Philippe; Boulanger, Damien

    2014-05-01

    Water vapour plays a dominant role in the atmospheric energy budget and greenhouse effect. It is one of the key drivers for atmospheric transport and has a strong influence on the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Therefore, it takes a key position in the description of climate, chemistry and their interactions. Due to a range of small-scale dynamical and microphysical processes, the abundance of upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) is highly variable on spatial and temporal scales that cannot be resolved, neither by the global radiosondes network nor by satellites. Data with high spatial and temporal resolution for relative humidity are provided by the in-situ measurements aboard civil passenger aircraft from the MOZAIC/IAGOS-project (www.iagos.org) since 1994. The data set emerging from this long-term observation programme builds the backbone of climatologies and trend analyses of UTH. First analyses of MOZAIC measurements for the period 1994 to 1999 showed that the upper troposphere (9 to 13 km altitude, which corresponds to the aircraft cruise level) is much wetter than reflected in the model analyses of the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast). The MOZAIC data has also demonstrated that ice supersaturation is often large enough to let contrails develop into cirrus but not large enough to let cirrus clouds form naturally. In our study, the MOZAIC data set on relative humidity (RH) was reanalysed for the period 1994 to 2009. Previous analyses of probability distribution functions (PDF) of UTH data from MOZAIC observations from the year 2000 and later indicated a bias towards higher RH values. As a result, the PDF of UTH exhibits a maximum at RH over ice (RH_ice) of approx. 130% instead of the maximum at 100% RH_ice observed in the period 1994 to 1999. Since this bias towards higher RH_ice values is in contradiction to physical understanding and to observations made inside equilibrated cirrus clouds, an in-depth reanalysis of the MOZAIC data

  9. Thermal Comfort in the Hot Humid Tropics of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wyndham, C. H.

    1963-01-01

    Day and night comfort votes were recorded from Caucasian residents at Weipa, a mission station in the hot humid tropics of North Queensland, Australia. The limit of day comfort for more than 50% of the men was 81·5°F. (27·5°C.) “normal” corrected effective temperature; the night limit was 78·0°F. (25·5°C.). Day comfort limits correlated well with air conditions at which sweat was apparent: night limits correlated with the amount of bed covering. Evidence of a change over 14 days in day comfort limit was found. Limitations in the effective temperature scale for expressing the “oppressive nature” of night air conditions are pointed out. Criticism is voiced of the use of dry bulb temperature instead of the effective temperature scale in conditions of high wet bulb temperatures with high relative humidity, such as in the hot humid tropics. PMID:14002126

  10. Evaluate humidity sensing properties of novel TiO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wang-De; Lai, De-Sheng; Chen, Min-Hung; Wu, Ren-Jang; Chen, Fu-Chou

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: TiO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} (1:1) showed better humidity sensing properties than others within the range of 12–90% relative humidity (RH), the response and recovery time were about 20 s and 160 s, respectively. Compared to the previous studies, the prepared sensor exhibits higher sensitivity (S = 451) and the low hysteresis value was around 0.13% at 32% RH. - Highlights: • Novel TiO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} composite material was prepared for humidity sensor. • The sensor exhibits higher sensitivity (S = 451). • Low hysteresis value was around 0.13% at 32% RH. - Abstract: A novel TiO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} composite material was prepared using a different proportion of TiO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3} to that investigated in previous studies. The obtained mesoporous material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption techniques. The humidity-sensing properties were measured using an inductance, capacitance and resistance analyzer. The results demonstrated that the TiO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} sample with a ratio of 1:1 showed better humidity sensing properties. Compared to previous studies, the prepared sensor exhibited higher sensitivity (S = 451) and the lower hysteresis value was around 0.13% at 32% RH. Complex impedance analysis indicated that the enhanced humidity sensitivity was probably due to spherical Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area and the hetero-junction between TiO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} thin films, while the impedance varied about three orders of magnitude. Our results demonstrated the potential application of TiO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} composite for fabricating high performance humidity sensors.

  11. Egg Hatch and Survival and Development of Beet Webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Larvae at Different Combinations of Temperature and Relative Humidity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jihong; Cheng, Yunxia; Sappington, Thomas W; Jiang, Xingfu; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Lizhi

    2016-08-01

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatch, survival of first-fifth instars, survival of the full larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were investigated at combinations of four temperatures (18, 22, 26, and 30°C) and five relative humidities (RH; 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). We found that greatest egg hatch rate, survival rates of the first and second instars, and survival rate of the complete larval stage occurred at 22°C and 60-80% RH; the lowest values for these parameters were observed at 30°C and 20% RH. Survival of first instars was significantly affected by the interaction of temperature and relative humidity. However, survival of third and fourth instars was neither affected by temperature nor relative humidity, and that of fifth instars was significantly affected only by relative humidity level. The survival curve for larvae was well described by a type III Weibull distribution. Duration of larval stage decreased as temperature increased, but was not affected by relative humidity. We therefore conclude that eggs and early instars are the most critical stages for survival to the pupal stage, and 22-26°C and 60-80% RH are the optimum conditions for their survival and development. These findings confirm that temperature and relative humidity are the critical environmental factors affecting the population growth of L. sticticalis, with temperature being more important. PMID:27329620

  12. Interaction of absorbing aerosols with high relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, M.; Bluvshtein, N.; Abo Riziq, A.; Borrmann, S.; Rudich, Y.

    2011-12-01

    One of the major uncertainties in the understanding of Earth's climate system is the interaction between solar radiation and aerosols in the atmosphere. This interaction is dependent on the physical and chemical properties of the aerosols and on the wavelength of the incident light. Aerosols exposed to high humidity areas will change their chemical, physical, and optical properties. To model hydrated aerosols, atmospheric chemistry models use the volume weighted mixing rule to predict the complex refractive index (RI) of aerosols when they interact with high relative humidity areas, and, in general, assume homogeneous mixing. The validity of these assumptions is explored. The extinction coefficient and growth factor of humidified aerosols, at 80% and 90% RH, and at 532 nm and 355 nm wavelengths was measured for size-selected aerosols of ammonium sulfate, peat (a lightly absorbing humic-like substance proxy), nigrosine (a black dye to model highly absorbing substances), and a mixture of AS and nigrosine. The ratio of the humidified extinction coefficients to the dry (fRHext(%RH,Dry)) is explored. The measured fRHext(%RH,Dry) is compared to theoretical calculations based on Mie theory, and using the measured growth factors and assuming homogeneous mixing the expected RIs using the volume weighted mixing rule are compared to the RIs derived from the extinction measurements. Moreover, the differences between assuming a core-shell structure or a homogeneous mixing of the substances is examined. We found slightly linear to no dependency of fRH(%RH,Dry) with size for absorbing substances in contrast to the decreasing exponential behavior with size for purely scattering substances, but no discernable difference could be made between the two wavelengths used. Less than 5% differences were found between the real parts of the complex refractive indices derived and those calculated using the volume weighted mixing rule, and the imaginary parts had up to a 20% difference

  13. Some aspects of metal-support strong interactions in Rh/Al 2O 3 catalyst under oxidising and reducing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimowska, M.; Wagner, J. B.; Dziedzic, J.; Camra, J.; Borzęcka-Prokop, B.; Najbar, M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the Letter is to elucidate the nature of metal-support interaction in the 2 wt% Rh/Al 2O 3 catalyst obtained by annealing Rh-O-Al xerogel at 1113 K in air. XPS, HRTEM, and XRD results reveal that during the Rh-O-Al xerogel annealing in air, rhodium incorporates into forming alumina, which results mostly in Rh 4+/δ-Al 2O 3 solid solution formation. However, in the course of the catalyst reduction at 773 with H 2 and at 823 K with CH 4 the Rh 4+/δ-Al 2O 3 solid solution transforms into Rh-Al alloy. The islands of rhodium form on the surface of the Rh-Al alloy nanocrystallites if the reduction is slow enough.

  14. Twin-cuvette measurement technique for investigation of dry deposition of O3 and PAN to plant leaves under controlled humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shang; Moravek, Alexander; von der Heyden, Lisa; Held, Andreas; Sörgel, Matthias; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    We present a dynamic twin-cuvette system for quantifying the trace-gas exchange fluxes between plants and the atmosphere under controlled temperature, light, and humidity conditions. Compared with a single-cuvette system, the twin-cuvette system is insensitive to disturbing background effects such as wall deposition. In combination with a climate chamber, we can perform flux measurements under constant and controllable environmental conditions. With an Automatic Temperature Regulated Air Humidification System (ATRAHS), we are able to regulate the relative humidity inside both cuvettes between 40 and 90 % with a high precision of 0.3 %. Thus, we could demonstrate that for a cuvette system operated with a high flow rate (> 20 L min-1), a temperature-regulated humidification system such as ATRAHS is an accurate method for air humidification of the flushing air. Furthermore, the fully automatic progressive fill-up of ATRAHS based on a floating valve improved the performance of the entire measurement system and prevented data gaps. Two reactive gas species, ozone (O3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), were used to demonstrate the quality and performance of the twin-cuvette system. O3 and PAN exchange with Quercus ilex was investigated over a 14 day measurement period under controlled climate chamber conditions. By using O3 mixing ratios between 32 and 105 ppb and PAN mixing ratios between 100 and 350 ppt, a linear dependency of the O3 flux as well as the PAN flux in relation to its ambient mixing ratio could be observed. At relative humidity (RH) of 40 %, the deposition velocity ratio of O3 and PAN was determined to be 0.45. At that humidity, the deposition of O3 to the plant leaves was found to be only controlled by the leaf stomata. For PAN, an additional resistance inhibited the uptake of PAN by the leaves. Furthermore, the formation of water films on the leaf surface of plants inside the chamber could be continuously tracked with our custom built leaf wetness sensors

  15. Constraints on the Profiles of Total Water PDF in AGCMs from AIRS and a High-Resolution Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molod, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) cloud parameterizations generally include an assumption about the subgrid-scale probability distribution function (PDF) of total water and its vertical profile. In the present study, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) monthly-mean cloud amount and relative humidity fields are used to compute a proxy for the second moment of an AGCM total water PDF called the RH01 diagnostic, which is the AIRS mean relative humidity for cloud fractions of 0.1 or less. The dependence of the second moment on horizontal grid resolution is analyzed using results from a high-resolution global model simulation.The AIRS-derived RH01 diagnostic is generally larger near the surface than aloft, indicating a narrower PDF near the surface, and varies with the type of underlying surface. High-resolution model results show that the vertical structure of profiles of the AGCM PDF second moment is unchanged as the grid resolution changes from 200 to 100 to 50 km, and that the second-moment profiles shift toward higher values with decreasing grid spacing.Several Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5), AGCM simulations were performed with several choices for the profile of the PDF second moment. The resulting cloud and relative humidity fields were shown to be quite sensitive to the prescribed profile, and the use of a profile based on the AIRS-derived proxy results in improvements relative to observational estimates. The AIRS-guided total water PDF profiles, including their dependence on underlying surface type and on horizontal resolution, have been implemented in the version of the GEOS-5 AGCM used for publicly released simulations.

  16. Temperature, Humidity, And Polymer Aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, Edward F.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents analysis of experimental data on electrical resistivity of polymer (polyvinyl butyral) as function of temperature and relative humidity. Resulting theoretical expression for electrical resistivity resembles generally accepted empirical law for the corrosion rate.

  17. Humidity testing of bleached holograms.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, A J

    1971-04-01

    One of the proposed storage media for semipermanent optical stores is an array of bleached holograms fabricated on photographic plates. If a store utilizing this medium is to be operated in a field environment, the effect of humidity variation requires consideration. In this study holograms were made using either Burckhardt's potassium ferricyanide or Russo and Sottini's modified R-10 type bleach on Kodak 649F and Agfa 10E70 plates. Diffraction efficiency was measured as a function of relative humidity over the range 30-98%. For holograms fabricated and tested as described above it was found that relative humidity values above 75% caused a permanent loss in diffraction efficiency for potassium ferricyanide bleached plates; humidity above 90% produced a temporary loss in R-10 bleached plates. PMID:20094561

  18. Humidity sensing with doped polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Shilpa; Chakane, Sanjay D. S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Samui, A. B.; Krishnamurthy, V. N.

    2001-03-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) was doped with different dopants like camphosulphoric acid (CSA), diphenyl phosphate (DPPH), Sulphonic acid (S) and Maleic acid (MAC) by chemical method. The samples were prepared in the form of pellets as well as films. Polyaniline doped with Maleic acid was found to be mechanically and chemically stable as compared to other dopants and therefore the effect of humidity on conductivity was further investigated. Films prepared out of styrene buryl acrylate copolymer with different concentrations of PANI Maleic acid were used for sensing humidity ranging between 20% to 90% relative humidity. A maximum change in the conductivity of three to four orders of magnitude was obtained for the Maleic acid doped polyaniline pellet while two orders of magnitude change was obtained for the film samples over the range of humidity measured.

  19. Decontamination method using heat and relative humidity for radish seeds achieves a 7-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 without affecting product quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y B; Kim, H W; Song, M K; Rhee, M S

    2015-05-18

    We developed a novel decontamination method to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without adversely affecting seed germination or product quality. The use of heat (55, 60, and 65 °C) combined with relative humidity (RH; 25, 45, 65, 85, and 100%) for 24h was evaluated for effective microbial reduction and preservation of seed germination rates. A significant two-way interaction of heat and RH was observed for both microbial reduction and germination rate (P<0.0001). Increases in heat and RH were associated with corresponding reductions in E. coli O157:H7 and in germination rate (P<0.05). The order of lethality for the different treatments was generally as follows: no treatment <55 °C/25-65% RH ≒60 °C/25-45% RH ≒65 °C/25% RH <55 °C/85% RH =60 °C/65% RH <55 °C/100% RH =60 °C/85-100% RH =65 °C/45-100% RH. The most effective condition, 65 °C/45% RH, completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 on the seeds (7.0 log CFU/g reduction) and had no significant effect on the germination rate (85.4%; P>0.05) or product quality. The method uses only heat and relative humidity without chemicals, and is thus applicable as a general decontamination procedure in spout producing plants where the use of growth chambers is the norm. PMID:25732001

  20. Humidity profiles over the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. T.; Tang, Wenqing; Niiler, Pearn P.

    1991-01-01

    The variabilities of atmospheric humidity profile over oceans from daily to interannual time scales were examined using 9 years of daily and semidaily radiosonde soundings at island stations extending from the Arctic to the South Pacific. The relative humidity profiles were found to have considerable temporal and geographic variabilities, contrary to the prevalent assumption. Principal component analysis on the profiles of specific humidity were used to examine the applicability of a relation between the surface-level humidity and the integrated water vapor; this relation has been used to estimate large-scale evaporation from satellite data. The first principal component was found to correlate almost perfectly with the integrated water vapor. The fractional variance represented by this mode increases with increasing period. It reaches approximately 90 percent at two weeks and decreases sharply, below one week, down to approximately 60 percent at the daily period. At low frequencies, the integrated water vapor appeared to be an adequate estimator of the humidity profile and the surface-level humidity. At periods shorter than a week, more than one independent estimator is needed.