Science.gov

Sample records for air incinerator cai

  1. The Controlled-Air Incinerator at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Newmyer, J.N.

    1994-04-01

    The Controlled-Air Incinerator (CAI) at Los Alamos is being modified and upgraded to begin routine operations treating low-level mixed waste (LLMW), radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes, low-level liquid wastes, and possibly transuranic (TRU) wastes. This paper describes those modifications. Routine waste operations should begin in late FY95.

  2. Ready, set,...quit! A review of the controlled-air incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, G.E.

    1996-05-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Controlled-Air Incinerator (CAI) has had a long and productive past as a research and development tool. It now appears that use of the CAI to treat LANL legacy and other wastes under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act is no longer viable due to numerous programmatic problems. This paper will review the history of the CAI. Various aspects associated with the CAI and how those aspects resulted in the loss of this Department of Energy asset as a viable waste treatment option will also be discussed. Included are past missions and tests-CAI capabilities, emissions, and permits; Federal Facility Compliance Act and associated Agreement; National Environmental Policy Act coverage; cost; budget impacts; public perception; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Combustion Strategy; Independent Technical Review {open_quotes}Red{close_quotes} Team review; waste treatment alternative technologies; the New Mexico Environment Department; and future options and issues.

  3. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  4. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  5. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  6. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  7. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.3061 Section 60.3061... Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.3061 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? Your incinerator or...

  8. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume I. Rationale, process, equipment, performance, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Neuls, A.S.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawing, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  9. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-10-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  10. Incinerator air emissions: Inhalation exposure perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, H.W.

    1995-12-01

    Incineration is often proposed as the treatment of choice for processing diverse wastes, particularly hazardous wastes. Where such treatment is proposed, people are often fearful that it will adversely affect their health. Unfortunately, information presented to the public about incinerators often does not include any criteria or benchmarks for evaluating such facilities. This article describes a review of air emission data from regulatory trial burns in a large prototype incinerator, operated at design capacity by the US Army to destroy chemical warfare materials. It uses several sets of criteria to gauge the threat that these emissions pose to public health. Incinerator air emission levels are evaluated with respect to various toxicity screening levels and ambient air levels of the same pollutants. Also, emission levels of chlorinated dioxins and furans are compared with emission levels of two common combustion sources. Such comparisons can add to a community`s understanding of health risks associated with an incinerator. This article focuses only on the air exposure/inhalation pathway as related to human health. It does not address other potential human exposure pathways or the possible effects of emissions on the local ecology, both of which should also be examined during a complete analysis of any major new facility.

  11. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.2969 Section 60.2969... Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Temporary-Use Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.2969 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.2969 Section 60.2969... Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Temporary-Use Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.2969 What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2245 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2245 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2245 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2245 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.2969 Section 60.2969... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Operator Training and Qualification Temporary-Use Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.2969 What are the requirements for...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.2969 Section 60.2969... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Operator Training and Qualification Temporary-Use Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.2969 What are the requirements for...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in disaster recovery? 60.2969 Section 60.2969... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Operator Training and Qualification Temporary-Use Incinerators and Air Curtain Incinerators Used in Disaster Recovery § 60.2969 What are the requirements for...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2810 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2810 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2810 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2810 What is an air curtain incinerator? (a) An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1910 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1910 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open pit in...

  1. Performance assessment of refractory samples in the Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, D.A.; Borduin, L.C.; Koenig, R.A.; Vavruska, J.S.; Warner, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    A refractory evaluation project was initiated in 1979 to study the performance of six selected refractory materials within the Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI). Determining refractory resistance to thermal shock, chemical attack, and plutonium uptake was of particular interest. The experimental refractories were subjected to a variety of waste materials, including transuranic (TRU) contaminated wastes, highly chlorinated compounds and alkaline metal salts of perchlorate, chlorate, nitrate and oxylate, over the six year period of this study. Results of this study to date indicate that the use of high alumina, and possibly specialty plastic refractories, is advisable for the lining of incinerators used for the thermal destruction of diverse chemical compounds. 12 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. 40 CFR 62.15365 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 62..., 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15365 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an...

  3. 40 CFR 62.15365 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 62..., 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15365 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an...

  4. 40 CFR 62.15365 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 62..., 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15365 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an...

  5. 40 CFR 62.15365 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 62..., 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15365 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an...

  6. Electric controlled air incinerator for radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Warren, Jeffery H.; Hootman, Harry E.

    1981-01-01

    A two-stage incinerator is provided which includes a primary combustion chamber and an afterburner chamber for off-gases. The latter is formed by a plurality of vertical tubes in combination with associated manifolds which connect the tubes together to form a continuous tortuous path. Electrically-controlled heaters surround the tubes while electrically-controlled plate heaters heat the manifolds. A gravity-type ash removal system is located at the bottom of the first afterburner tube while an air mixer is disposed in that same tube just above the outlet from the primary chamber. A ram injector in combination with rotary magazine feeds waste to a horizontal tube forming the primary combustion chamber.

  7. 40 CFR 60.1435 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1435 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1435 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1435 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1910 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1910 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open pit in...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1910 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1910 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open pit in...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1435 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1435 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1435 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1435 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1910 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1910 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open pit in...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1910 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1910 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open pit in...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2260 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2260 Section 60.2260 Protection of Environment... Incinerators § 60.2260 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a) Prior to commencing construction on your air curtain incinerator, submit the three items described...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? Within 60 days after your...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2260 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2260 Section 60.2260 Protection of Environment... Incinerators § 60.2260 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a) Prior to commencing construction on your air curtain incinerator, submit the three items described...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) After... for air curtain incinerators? After the date the initial stack test is required or...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? Within 60 days after your...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of this...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of this...

  9. Combustion Technology for Incinerating Wastes from Air Force Industrial Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    Conservation and Recovery Act and are properly disposed at cost to the Air Force. Onsite incineration with heat recovery is being considered as a...the heat released during thermal processing could reduce the costs of waste incineration. 0 * Normally, relatively small amounts of individual wastes...wastes. Task 3: Combustion Analysis. Determine and quantify the essential combustion parameters of industrial process wastes with respect to heat

  10. 40 CFR 60.2260 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2260 Section 60.2260 Protection of Environment... or After June 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2260 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a) Prior to commencing construction on your air curtain...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2260 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2260 Section 60.2260 Protection of Environment... or After June 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2260 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a) Prior to commencing construction on your air curtain...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2260 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2260 Section 60.2260 Protection of Environment... or After June 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2260 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a) Prior to commencing construction on your air curtain...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15365 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15365 What is an air curtain... chamber or open pit in which combustion occurs. Incinerators of this type can be constructed above...

  14. Microbiological evaluation of a large-volume air incinerator.

    PubMed

    Barbeito, M S; Taylor, L A; Seiders, R W

    1968-03-01

    Two semiportable metal air incinerators, each with a capacity of 1,000 to 2,200 standard ft(3) of air per min, were constructed to sterilize infectious aerosols created for investigative work in a microbiological laboratory. Each unit has about the same air-handling capacity as a conventional air incinerator with a brick stack but costs only about one-third as much. The units are unique in that the burner housing and combustion chamber are air-tight and utilize a portion of the contaminated air stream to support combustion of fuel oil. Operation is continuous. Aerosols of liquid and dry suspensions of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores and dry vegetative cells of Serratia marcescens were disseminated into the two incinerators to determine the conditions required for sterilization of contaminated air. With the latter organisms (concentration 2.03 x 10(7) cells/ft(3) of air), a temperature of 525 F (274 C), measured at the firebox in front of the heat exchanger, was sufficient for sterilization. To sterilize 1.74 x 10(7) and 1.74 x 10(9) wet spores of B. subtilis per ft(3), the required temperature ranged from 525 to 675 F (274 to 357 C) and 625 to 700 F (329 to 371 C), respectively. Air-sterilization temperature varied with each incinerator. This was because of innate differences of fabrication, different spore concentrations, and use of one or two burners With dry B. subtilis spores (1.86 x 10(8)/ft(3)), a temperature of 700 F was required for sterilization. With dry spores, no difference was noted in the sterilization temperature for the two incinerators.

  15. 40 CFR 62.14765 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14765 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain...

  16. 40 CFR 62.14765 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14765 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain...

  17. 40 CFR 62.14765 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14765 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain...

  18. 40 CFR 62.14765 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14765 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain...

  19. 40 CFR 62.14765 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14765 What is an air curtain incinerator? An air curtain...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  1. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  2. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2870 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2870 Section 60.2870 Protection of Environment... Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2870 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a) Keep records of results of all initial and annual opacity...

  5. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) After the date the initial stack test is required or...

  7. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2870 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2870 Section 60.2870 Protection of Environment... Units that Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2870 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  10. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2870 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2870 Section 60.2870 Protection of Environment... Units that Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2870 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  13. 40 CFR 60.56b - Standards for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for air curtain incinerators... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 19, 1996 § 60.56b Standards for air curtain incinerators... completed under § 60.8 of subpart A of this part, the owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator...

  14. 40 CFR 60.56b - Standards for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for air curtain incinerators... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 19, 1996 § 60.56b Standards for air curtain incinerators... completed under § 60.8 of subpart A of this part, the owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) After the date the initial stack test is required or...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2870 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2870 Section 60.2870 Protection of Environment... Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2870 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a) Keep records of results of all initial and annual opacity...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2255 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2255 Section 60.2255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2255 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2870 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2870 Section 60.2870 Protection of Environment... Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2870 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? (a) Keep records of results of all initial and annual opacity...

  2. Incinerator apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, J.P.

    1992-10-06

    This patent describes an incinerator apparatus. It comprises: a primary incinerator chamber; a secondary incinerator chamber coupled to the primary incinerator chamber by a passageway; a primary air input into the incinerator chamber; a secondary air input into the secondary incinerator chamber; a plurality of flame detector ports opening into the secondary incinerator chamber and each flame detector port being spaced in a predetermined relationship to each other; and a plurality of ultraviolet flame detectors.

  3. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of this part to determine...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  5. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method...

  9. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? After...

  11. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of this part to determine...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? After...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2865 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? 60.2865 Section 60.2865 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2865 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators? (a) Use Method...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2970 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... across an open, integrated combustion chamber (fire box) or open pit or trench (trench burner) in which... incinerators include both firebox and trench burner units. (b) Air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2970 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... across an open, integrated combustion chamber (fire box) or open pit or trench (trench burner) in which... incinerators include both firebox and trench burner units. (b) Air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2850 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator and then restart it? 60.2850 Section 60.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2850 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it? (a) If you close your incinerator but will reopen it prior to the final compliance date...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2850 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator and then restart it? 60.2850 Section 60.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2850 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it? (a) If you close your incinerator but will reopen it prior to the final compliance date...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2850 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator and then restart it? 60.2850 Section 60.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2850 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it? (a) If you close your incinerator but will reopen it prior to the final compliance date...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2810 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator operates by forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open pit... conventional combustion devices with enclosed fireboxes and controlled air technology such as mass burn, modular, and fluidized bed combustors.) (b) Air curtain incinerators that burn only the materials...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2245 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open pit in which combustion occurs. Incinerators of... and controlled air technology such as mass burn, modular, and fluidized bed combustors.) (b) Air curtain incinerators that burn only the materials listed in paragraphs (b)(1) through (3) of this...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2810 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air technology such as mass burn, modular, and fluidized bed combustors.) (b) Air curtain incinerators... to meet the requirements under “Air Curtain Incinerators” (§§ 60.2810 through 60.2870). (1)...

  3. A case study of air enrichment in rotary kiln incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, G.F.; Lacava, P.T.; Carvalho, J.A. Jr.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a case study of air enrichment in an industrial rotary kiln type incineration unit. The study is based on mass and energy balances, considering the combustion reaction of a mixture composed by the residue and the auxiliary fuel with air enriched with oxygen. The steps are shown for the primary chamber (rotary kiln) and secondary chamber (afterburner). The residence times in the primary and secondary chamber are 2.0 and 3.2 sec, respectively. The pressure is atmospheric in both chambers. Based on constant chamber gas residence time and gas temperature, it is shown that the residue input rates can be increased by one order of magnitude as air is substituted by pure oxygen. As the residue consumption rate in the rotary kiln is also dependent on residue physical characteristics (mainly size), the study was also carried out for different percentages of oxygen in the oxidizer gas.

  4. 40 CFR 60.2970 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is an air curtain incinerator? 60.2970 Section 60.2970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2970 What is an...

  5. 40 CFR 62.14805 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator and then restart it? 62.14805 Section 62.14805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... air curtain incinerator and then restart it? (a) If you close your incinerator but will reopen it.... (b) If you close your incinerator but will restart it after October 4, 2004, you must have...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14805 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator and then restart it? 62.14805 Section 62.14805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... air curtain incinerator and then restart it? (a) If you close your incinerator but will reopen it.... (b) If you close your incinerator but will restart it after October 4, 2004, you must have...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1435 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent... forcefully projecting a curtain of air across an open chamber or open pit in which combustion...

  10. 40 CFR 60.3062 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3062 What is... this subpart. (1) 100 percent wood waste. (2) 100 percent clean lumber. (3) 100 percent yard waste....

  11. 40 CFR 60.3062 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3062 What is... this subpart. (1) 100 percent wood waste. (2) 100 percent clean lumber. (3) 100 percent yard waste....

  12. 40 CFR 60.3062 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3062 What is... this subpart. (1) 100 percent wood waste. (2) 100 percent clean lumber. (3) 100 percent yard waste....

  13. 40 CFR 60.3062 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3062 What is... this subpart. (1) 100 percent wood waste. (2) 100 percent clean lumber. (3) 100 percent yard waste....

  14. 40 CFR 60.3062 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3062 What is... this subpart. (1) 100 percent wood waste. (2) 100 percent clean lumber. (3) 100 percent yard waste....

  15. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste?...

  16. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste?...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1930 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1930 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1930 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Provide a notice of...

  18. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15380 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15380 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1930 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1930 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1930 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Provide a notice of...

  5. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  7. 40 CFR 62.15385 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15385 Section 62... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15385 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Provide a notice of...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 62.15385 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15385 Section 62... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15385 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Provide a notice of...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 62.15385 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15385 Section 62... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15385 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Provide a notice of...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1930 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1930 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1930 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Provide a notice of...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15380 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  19. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  20. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15380 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  1. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15380 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1930 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1930 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1930 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Provide a notice of...

  3. 40 CFR 62.15385 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15385 Section 62... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15385 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Provide a notice of...

  4. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  6. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  7. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section...

  8. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste?...

  9. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  10. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section...

  11. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  12. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section...

  13. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste?...

  14. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste?...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section...

  18. 40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2970 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combustion chamber (fire box) or open pit or trench (trench burner) in which combustion occurs. For the... and trench burner units. (b) Air curtain incinerators that burn only the materials listed...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2970 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... combustion chamber (fire box) or open pit or trench (trench burner) in which combustion occurs. For the... and trench burner units. (b) Air curtain incinerators that burn only the materials listed...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... and Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2855 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? 60.2855 Section 60.2855 Protection of Environment... Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2855 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? If you plan to close your incinerator rather than comply with...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2855 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? 60.2855 Section 60.2855 Protection of Environment... Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2855 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? If you plan to close your incinerator rather than comply with...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2855 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? 60.2855 Section 60.2855 Protection of Environment... Units Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2855 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? If you plan to close your incinerator rather than comply with...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and... and Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2850 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator and then restart it? 60.2850 Section 60.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it? (a) If you close your incinerator but will reopen it prior to the final compliance date in your State plan, you must meet the...

  8. Technology documentation for selected radwaste incineration systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-12-01

    Several incineration systems have been developed and demonstrated on a production scale for combustion of radioactive waste from contractor operated Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Demonstrated operating information and engineered design information is documented in this report on four of these systems; the Cyclone Incinerator (CI), Fluidized Bed Incinerator (FBI), Controlled-Air Incinerator (CAI) and Electric Controlled Air Incinerator (ECAI). The CI, FBI and CAI have been demonstrated with actual contaminated plant waste and the ECAI has been demonstrated with simulated waste using dysprosium oxide as a stand-in for plutonium oxide. The weight and volume reduction that can be obtained by each system processing typical solid plant transuranic (TRU) waste has been presented. Where a given system has been tested for other applications, such as combustion of resins, TBP-solvent mixtures, organic liquids, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), resuts of these experiments have been included. This document is a compilation of reports prepared by the operating contractor personnel responsible for development of each of the systems. In addition, as a part of the program management responsibility, the Transuranic Waste System Office (TWSO) has provided an overview of the contractor supplied information.

  9. 40 CFR 60.1455 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... annual reporting dates (see § 60.19(c)). (h) Keep a copy of all reports onsite for a period of 5 years... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1455 Section 60....1455 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2855 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? 60.2855 Section 60.2855 Protection of Environment... Units that Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2855 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2855 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it? 60.2855 Section 60.2855 Protection of Environment... Units that Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2855 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart...

  12. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14825 Section 62.14825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  13. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14825 Section 62.14825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  14. 40 CFR 62.14805 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14805 What must I do if I close...

  15. 40 CFR 62.14805 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14805 What must I do if I close...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1930 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... media. (g) If the Administrator agrees, you may change the annual reporting dates (see § 60.19(c)). (h... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1930 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1930 What are the recordkeeping and reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 62.15385 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... media. (g) If the Administrator agrees, you may change the annual reporting dates (see § 60.19(c) in... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15385 Section 62... Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15385 What are the recordkeeping and reporting...

  18. IMPACTS OF DIOXIN EMISSIONS FROM THE SHINKAMPO INCINERATOR TO THE U.S. NAVAL AIR FACILITY AT ATSUGI, JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Naval Air Facility at Atsugi, Japan (NAF Atsugi) is located in the Kanto Plain area on the island of Honshu, Japan. Directly to the south of the facility, in the Tade River Valley, was the Shinkampo Incinerator Complex (SIC). The Incinerator is no longer in op...

  19. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14825 Section 62.14825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction is Commenced After December 9, 2004, or for Which... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for...

  5. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14825 Section 62.14825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction is Commenced After December 9, 2004, or for Which... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste... Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the recordkeeping and...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for...

  12. 40 CFR 62.14805 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14805 What must I do if I close...

  13. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14825 Section 62.14825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction is Commenced After December 9, 2004, or for Which Modification...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction is Commenced After December 9, 2004, or for Which Modification...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and...

  18. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and...

  19. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and...

  20. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and...

  1. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and...

  2. 40 CFR 62.14810 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14810 What must I do if...

  3. 40 CFR 62.14810 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14810 What must I do if...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14810 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14810 What must I do if...

  5. 40 CFR 62.14810 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14810 What must I do if...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14810 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator and not restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14810 What must I do if...

  7. Incinerator performance: effects of changes in waste input and furnace operation on air emissions and residues.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Thomas; Riber, Christian; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2011-10-01

    Waste incineration can be considered a robust technology for energy recovery from mixed waste. Modern incinerators are generally able to maintain relatively stable performance, but changes in waste input and furnace operation may affect emissions. This study investigated how inorganic air emissions and residue composition at a full-scale incinerator were affected by known additions of specific waste materials to the normal municipal solid waste (MSW) input. Six individual experiments were carried out (% ww of total waste input): NaCl (0.5%), shoes (1.6%), automobile shredder waste (14%), batteries (0.5%), poly(vinyl chloride) (5.5%) and chromate-cupper-arsenate impregnated wood (11%). Materials were selected based on chemical composition and potential for being included or excluded from the waste mix. Critical elements in the waste materials were identified based on comparison with six experiments including 'as-large-as-possible' changes in furnace operation (oxygen levels, air supply and burnout level) only using normal MSW as input. The experiments showed that effects from the added waste materials were significant in relation to: air emissions (in particular As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb), element transfer coefficients, and residue composition (As, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Zn). Changes in furnace operation could not be directly linked to changes in emissions and residues. The results outlined important elements in waste which should be addressed in relation to waste incinerator performance. Likely ranges of element transfer coefficients were provided as the basis for sensitivity analysis of life-cycle assessment (LCA) results involving waste incinerator technologies.

  8. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820...

  9. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Operator Training and Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn... incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of...

  11. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820...

  12. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it?...

  13. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators...

  14. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it?...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it?...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it?...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators...

  18. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators...

  19. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820...

  20. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it?...

  1. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators...

  2. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820...

  3. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators...

  4. Air Curtain Incinerators and Title V Operating Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. Recycling of air pollution control residues from municipal solid waste incineration into lightweight aggregates.

    PubMed

    Quina, Margarida J; Bordado, João M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2014-02-01

    This work focuses on the assessment of technological properties and on the leaching behavior of lightweight aggregates (LWA) produced by incorporating different quantities of air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration. Currently this hazardous waste has been mostly landfilled after stabilization/solidification. The LWA were produced by pelletizing natural clay, APC residues as-received from incineration plant, or after a washing treatment, a small amount of oil and water. The pellets were fired in a laboratory chamber furnace over calcium carbonate. The main technological properties of the LWA were evaluated, mainly concerning morphology, bulk and particle densities, compressive strength, bloating index, water adsorption and porosity. Given that APC residues do not own expansive (bloating) properties, the incorporation into LWA is only possible in moderate quantities, such as 3% as received or 5% after pre-washing treatment. The leaching behavior of heavy metals from sintered LWA using water or acid solutions was investigated, and despite the low acid neutralization capacity of the synthetic aggregates, the released quantities were low over a wide pH range. In conclusion, after a washing pre-treatment and if the percentage of incorporation is low, these residues may be incorporated into LWA. However, the recycling of APC residues from MSW incineration into LWA does not revealed any technical advantage.

  6. Testing cleanable/reuseable HEPA prefilters for mixed waste incinerator air pollution control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.B.; Wong, A.; Walker, B.W.; Paul, J.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at the US DOE Savannah River Site is undergoing preoperational testing. The CIF is designed to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes from site operations and clean-up activities. The technologies selected for use in the air pollution control system (APCS) were based on reviews of existing incinerators, air pollution control experience, and recommendations from consultants. This approach resulted in a facility design using experience from other operating hazardous/radioactive incinerators. In order to study the CIF APCS prior to operation, a 1/10 scale pilot facility, the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), was constructed and has been in operation since late 1994. Its mission is to demonstrate the design integrity of the CIF APCS and optimize equipment/instrument performance of the full scale production facility. Operation of the pilot facility has provided long-term performance data of integrated systems and critical facility components. This has reduced facility startup problems and helped ensure compliance with facility performance requirements. Technical support programs assist in assuring all stakeholders the CIF can properly treat combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive wastes. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used to remove hazardous and radioactive particulates from the exhaust gas strewn before being released into the atmosphere. The HEPA filter change-out frequency has been a potential issue and was the first technical issue to be studied at the OCTF. Tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of HEPA filters under different operating conditions. These tests included evaluating the impact on HEPA life of scrubber operating parameters and the type of HEPA prefilter used. This pilot-scale testing demonstrated satisfactory HEPA filter life when using cleanable metal prefilters and high flows of steam and water in the offgas scrubber. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60.2971 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  8. National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants compliance verification plan for the K-1435 Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, M.L.

    1986-07-28

    This documentation was prepared for submittal to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in order to meet the requirements of the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). This document will emphasize the control of radioactive emissions from the K-1435 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. The TSCA Incinerator is a dual purpose solid/liquid incinerator that is under construction at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant to destroy radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other hazardous organic wastes in compliance with the TSCA and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). These wastes are generated at the facilities managed by the Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations (DOE-ORO). Destruction of the PCBs and the hazardous organic wastes will be accomplished in a rotary kiln incinerator with an afterburner. The incinerator will thermally destroy the organic constituents of the liquids, solids, and sludges to produce an organically inert ash. In addition to the incinerator, an extensive off-gas treatment facility is being constructed to remove particulate and acidic gas air emissions.

  9. Cotton gin trash incinerator-air heat project. Consultant report (final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The California Energy Commission has funded the final phase of a four year project resulting in development of a successful system for burning cotton gin trash as a fuel providing the heat for ginning. The incinerator - air heater system installed in Corcoran, California operates continuously throughout the ginning season. Trash feeding and burning rate is automatically controlled from the combustion temperature, hot air temperature is controlled by the drying needs, and ashes are automatically removed from the system and pneumatically conveyed to the disposal site. The system complies with state and county air pollution codes by means of baghouse collectors. Savings in fossil fuel and trash disposal costs have demonstrated the equipment system is feasible for a four year payback at large, well utilized gins.

  10. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, Christian; Fruergaard, Thilde; Hulgaard, Tore; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2010-07-15

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85-174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control technologies of today (2010). The importance of efficient energy recovery was studied through seven different combinations of heat and electricity recovery, which were modelled to substitute energy produced from either coal or natural gas. The best air pollution control technology was used at the incinerator. It was found that when substituting coal based energy production total net savings were obtained in both the standard and toxic impact categories. However, if the substituted energy production was based on natural gas, only the most efficient recovery options yielded net savings with respect to the standard impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during the last 35 years and that these impacts can be partly or fully offset by recovering energy which otherwise should have been produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas.

  11. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, Christian; Fruergaard, Thilde; Hulgaard, Tore; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-07-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85-174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control technologies of today (2010). The importance of efficient energy recovery was studied through seven different combinations of heat and electricity recovery, which were modelled to substitute energy produced from either coal or natural gas. The best air pollution control technology was used at the incinerator. It was found that when substituting coal based energy production total net savings were obtained in both the standard and toxic impact categories. However, if the substituted energy production was based on natural gas, only the most efficient recovery options yielded net savings with respect to the standard impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during the last 35 years and that these impacts can be partly or fully offset by recovering energy which otherwise should have been produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas.

  12. A COMPARISON: ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS VERSUS THE 1990 TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY AIR RELEASES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste, and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition `to hazardous waste' incineration HWI). One of the reasons cited for...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1455 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... percent yard waste? (a) Provide a notice of construction that includes four items: (1) Your intent to... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1455 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1455 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... percent yard waste? (a) Provide a notice of construction that includes four items: (1) Your intent to... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1455 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1455 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... percent yard waste? (a) Provide a notice of construction that includes four items: (1) Your intent to... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1455 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1455 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... percent yard waste? (a) Provide a notice of construction that includes four items: (1) Your intent to... reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1455 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2973 Section 60.2973 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  18. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3069 Section 60.3069 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  19. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air...

  20. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3069 Section 60.3069 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Performance for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction is Commenced After December 9... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2974 Section 60.2974 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  2. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air...

  3. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air...

  4. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air...

  5. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3069 Section 60.3069 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  6. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3069 Section 60.3069 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  7. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3069 Section 60.3069 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Performance for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction is Commenced After December 9... title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2974 Section 60.2974 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  9. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2972 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of...

  11. Life-cycle assessment of selected management options for air pollution control residues from waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2010-09-15

    Based on available technology and emission data seven selected management options for air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incineration were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE model. Scenarios were evaluated with respect to both non-toxicity impact categories (e.g. global warming) and toxicity related impact categories (e.g. ecotoxicity and human toxicity). The assessment addressed treatment and final placement of 1 tonne of APC residue in seven scenarios: 1) direct landfilling without treatment (baseline), 2) backfilling in salt mines, 3) neutralization of waste acid, 4) filler material in asphalt, 5) Ferrox stabilization, 6) vitrification, and 7) melting with automobile shredder residues (ASR). The management scenarios were selected as examples of the wide range of different technologies available worldwide while at the same time using realistic technology data. Results from the LCA were discussed with respect to importance of: energy consumption/substitution, material substitution, leaching, air emissions, time horizon aspects for the assessment, and transportation distances. The LCA modeling showed that thermal processes were associated with the highest loads in the non-toxicity categories (energy consumption), while differences between the remaining alternatives were small and generally considered insignificant. In the toxicity categories, all treatment/utilization options were significantly better than direct landfilling without treatment (lower leaching), although the thermal processes had somewhat higher impacts than the others options (air emissions). Transportation distances did not affect the overall ranking of the management alternatives.

  12. Statistical estimate of mercury removal efficiencies for air pollution control devices of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumitake; Kida, Akiko; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2010-10-15

    Although representative removal efficiencies of gaseous mercury for air pollution control devices (APCDs) are important to prepare more reliable atmospheric emission inventories of mercury, they have been still uncertain because they depend sensitively on many factors like the type of APCDs, gas temperature, and mercury speciation. In this study, representative removal efficiencies of gaseous mercury for several types of APCDs of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) were offered using a statistical method. 534 data of mercury removal efficiencies for APCDs used in MSWI were collected. APCDs were categorized as fixed-bed absorber (FA), wet scrubber (WS), electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and fabric filter (FF), and their hybrid systems. Data series of all APCD types had Gaussian log-normality. The average removal efficiency with a 95% confidence interval for each APCD was estimated. The FA, WS, and FF with carbon and/or dry sorbent injection systems had 75% to 82% average removal efficiencies. On the other hand, the ESP with/without dry sorbent injection had lower removal efficiencies of up to 22%. The type of dry sorbent injection in the FF system, dry or semi-dry, did not make more than 1% difference to the removal efficiency. The injection of activated carbon and carbon-containing fly ash in the FF system made less than 3% difference. Estimation errors of removal efficiency were especially high for the ESP. The national average of removal efficiency of APCDs in Japanese MSWI plants was estimated on the basis of incineration capacity. Owing to the replacement of old APCDs for dioxin control, the national average removal efficiency increased from 34.5% in 1991 to 92.5% in 2003. This resulted in an additional reduction of about 0.86Mg emission in 2003. Further study using the methodology in this study to other important emission sources like coal-fired power plants will contribute to better emission inventories.

  13. Forward Operating Base Sharana: Poor Planning and Construction Resulted in $5.4 Million Spent for Inoperable Incinerators and Continued Use of Open-Air Burn Pits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Forward Operating Base Sharana: Poor Planning and Construction Resulted in $5.4 Million Spent for Inoperable Incinerators and Continued Use of Open-Air...Burn Pits SIGAR 14-13-IP/Forward Operating Base Sharana Incinerators SIGAR DECEMBER 2 0 1 3 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704... Incinerators and Continued Use of Open-Air Burn Pits 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  14. Effect of municipal solid waste incinerator types on characteristics of ashes from different air pollution control devices.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chien-Hsing; Chuang, Kui-Hao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of fly and bottom ashes sampled from both fluidized bed (FB) and mass-burning (MB) municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), respectively. Fly ashes from different locations at FB and MB MSWIs equipped with a cyclone, a semi-dry scrubber, and a bag filter as air pollution control devices were examined to provide the baseline information between physicochemical properties and leaching ability. Experimental results of leachability indicated that the bag filter fly ash (FB-FA(B)) from the FB incinerator meets Taiwan regulatory standards set through the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. X-ray diffraction results revealed the presence of Cr5O12 and Pb2O3 in the cyclone fly ash (MB-FA(C)) and bag filter fly ash (MB-FA(B)), respectively, from the MB incinerator. To observe lead incorporation mechanism, mixture of simulate lead-laden waste with bed material were fired between 600 °C and 900 °C in a laboratory scale FB reactor. The results clearly demonstrate a substantial decrease in lead leaching ratio for products with an appropriate temperature. The concentration of Pb in the MB-FA(B) was 250 times that in the FB-FA(B), suggesting that incineration of MSW in FB is a good strategy for stabilizing hazardous metals.

  15. Chemical stabilization of air pollution control residues from municipal solid waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Quina, Margarida J; Bordado, João C M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2010-07-15

    The by-products of the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) generally contain hazardous pollutants, with particular relevance to air pollution control (APC) residues. This waste may be harmful to health and detrimental to the environmental condition, mainly due to soluble salts, toxic heavy metals and trace organic compounds. Solidification/stabilization (S/S) with binders is a common industrial technology for treating such residues, involving however, a significant increase in the final mass that is landfilled. In our work, the chemical stabilization of APC residues by using NaHS x xH(2)O, H(3)PO(4), Na(2)CO(3), C(5)H(10)NNaS(2) x 3 H(2)O, Na(2)O x SiO(2) was investigated, and it was possible to conclude that all these additives lead to an improvement of the stabilization process of the most problematic heavy metals. Indeed, compliance leaching tests showed that after the stabilization treatment the waste becomes non-hazardous with respect to heavy metals. Chromium revealed to be a problematic metal, mainly when H(3)PO(4), Na(2)CO(3) and Na(2)O x SiO(2) were used for stabilization. Nevertheless, soluble phosphates are the most efficient additives for stabilizing the overall metals. The effect of the additives tested on the elements associated with soluble salts (K, Na, Cl(-)) is almost negligible, and therefore, the soluble fraction is hardly reduced without further treatment, such as pre-washing.

  16. Skinner and CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Harry N.

    1984-01-01

    The author cites comments of B.F. Skinner supporting the benefits of carefully constructed computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs. Preliminary studies on military populations suggesting the value of CAI are discussed, as is the collection of information about software. (CL)

  17. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  18. Competition in Individualized CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines the effects of competition and cooperation on learning through computer-assisted instruction (CAI). A questionnaire was administered to 457 Israeli fourth graders who used two CAI arithmetic systems. The characteristics of the systems are discussed, and the results of the survey are correlated to students' gender and achievement levels.…

  19. A Modular CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Mast, Charles

    The experimental CAI system which is being tested at Delft University of Technology is structured in a modular manner to account for high changeability. The concept formulated for this project was the outcome of research into technological, organizational, and educational developments in CAI, and the enumeration of the common aspects of the…

  20. Chemical-Stockpile Disposal Program. Evaluation of multiple-incinerator air-quality impacts, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Final report, November 1986-May 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term additive ambient impact of certain toxic air pollutants that will potentially be emitted from the Chemical Agent Incinerator (AI) proposed for the Edgewood Area (EA) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland and from three additional planned or existing incinerators also located on the EA. This impact was determined in consideration of the existence and operation of three additional planned or existing incinerators also located on EA. Based on air-dispersion modeling conducted as part of an original analysis, emissions were estimated of chlorinated organics from the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center Decontamination/Detoxification Municipal Waste Incinerator (MWI), for downwind distances as great as the distance to the nearest boundary of the EA. Consequently, for this evaluation, only the MWI is considered to emit chlorinated organics.

  1. Characterization of air pollution control residues produced in a municipal solid waste incinerator in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Quina, Margarida J; Santos, Regina C; Bordado, João C; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2008-04-01

    This study is mainly related with the physical and chemical characterization of a solid waste, produced in a municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration process, which is usually referred as air pollution control (APC) residue. The moisture content, loss on ignition (LOI), particle size distribution, density, porosity, specific surface area and morphology were the physical properties addressed here. At the chemical level, total elemental content (TC), total availability (TA) and the leaching behaviour with compliance tests were determined, as well as the acid neutralization capacity (ANC). The main mineralogical crystalline phases were identified, and the thermal behaviour of the APC residues is also shown. The experimental work involves several techniques such as laser diffraction spectrometry, mercury porosimetry, helium pycnometry, gas adsorption, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), ion chromatography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and simultaneous thermal analysis (STA). The results point out that the APC residues do not comply with regulations in force at the developed countries, and therefore the waste should be considered hazardous. Among the considered heavy metals, lead, zinc and chromium were identified as the most problematic ones, and their total elemental quantities are similar for several samples collected in an industrial plant at different times. Moreover, the high amount of soluble salts (NaCl, KCl, calcium compounds) may constitute a major problem and should be taken into account for all management strategies. The solubility in water is very high (more than 24% for a solid/liquid ratio of 10) and thus the possible utilizations of this residue are very limited, creating difficulties also in the ordinary treatments, such as in solidification/stabilization with binders.

  2. Experience with the CAIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tighe, Michael F.

    1986-01-01

    Intermetrics' experience is that the Ada package construct, which allows separation of specification and implementation allows specification of a CAIS that is transportable across varying hardware and software bases. Additionally, the CAIS is an excellent basis for providing operating system functionality to Ada applications. By allowing the Byron APSE to be moved easily from system to system, and allowing significant re-writes of underlying code. Ada and the CAIS provide portability as well as transparency to change at the application operating system interface level.

  3. Carbon, CAIs and chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. D.; Russell, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown that C is present in CAI's and chondrules. It can be distinguished from matrix C both by its thermal stability and isotopic composition, which implies that it was not introduced after parent body accretion. It is concluded that C must have been present in the chondrule and CAI precursor material. Therefore any models of chondrule and CAI formation and inferences drawn about solar system conditions during these events must take into account the consequences of the presence of C on inclusion chemistry, mineralogy, and oxidation state.

  4. The CAIS 2 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue; Thall, Richard

    1986-01-01

    The Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS) is a proposed MIL-STD intended to promote the portability of Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) tools written in Ada. The standardized interfaces define a virtual operating system, from which portable tools derive their basic services, e.g., file management, input/output, communications, and process control. In the Ada world, such a virtual operating system is called a Kernel Ada Programming Support Environment (KAPSE). The CAIS is a standardized interface between KAPSEs and tools. The CAIS has been proposed as a starting point for standard interfaces to be used in the NASA Software Support Environment (SSE) for the Space Station Program. The status of the CAIS standardization effort and plans for further development are described.

  5. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS...

  6. Comparative Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution Exposure from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, Danielle C.; Fuller, Gary W.; Toledano, Mireille B.; Font, Anna; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L.; de Hoogh, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Background. Research to date on health effects associated with incineration has found limited evidence of health risks, but many previous studies have been constrained by poor exposure assessment. This paper provides a comparative assessment of atmospheric dispersion modelling and distance from source (a commonly used proxy for exposure) as exposure assessment methods for pollutants released from incinerators. Methods. Distance from source and the atmospheric dispersion model ADMS-Urban were used to characterise ambient exposures to particulates from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in the UK. Additionally an exploration of the sensitivity of the dispersion model simulations to input parameters was performed. Results. The model output indicated extremely low ground level concentrations of PM10, with maximum concentrations of <0.01 μg/m3. Proximity and modelled PM10 concentrations for both MSWIs at postcode level were highly correlated when using continuous measures (Spearman correlation coefficients ~ 0.7) but showed poor agreement for categorical measures (deciles or quintiles, Cohen's kappa coefficients ≤ 0.5). Conclusion. To provide the most appropriate estimate of ambient exposure from MSWIs, it is essential that incinerator characteristics, magnitude of emissions, and surrounding meteorological and topographical conditions are considered. Reducing exposure misclassification is particularly important in environmental epidemiology to aid detection of low-level risks. PMID:23935644

  7. A Field Investigation and Facility Review of Eight Modular Starved-Air Heat Recovery Incinerator Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    automatic feeder and York-Shipley waste heat boiler. Design Capacity: 1,000 lb/hr (each incinerator) Fuel Characteristics: Main feedstock : s...Manufacturing wastes from automobile components--plastic, fiber, trim, cardboard, and wood waste (hardboard, particle board, and plywood). Secondary feedstock ...Actual Capacity: 1,400 lb/hr Fuel Characteristics: Main feedstock * Industrial plant waste from the Glass Works, including wooden pallets, cardboard

  8. A Comparison of Organic Emissions from Hazardous Waste Incinerators Versus the 1990 Toxics Release Inventory Air Releases

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition to hazardous waste incineration (HWI). One of the reasons cited for t...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2974 Section 60.2974 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  10. The Ontario CAI Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, W. P.

    The evolution and current operation of the Ontario Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Network are described. Sponsored by the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education and including 11 community colleges in Ontario, the network has computer installations and access devices throughout the province. Initial development work was done using a…

  11. Municipal waste incinerators: air and biological monitoring of workers for exposure to particles, metals, and organic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Maitre, A; Collot-Fertey, D; Anzivino, L; Marques, M; Hours, M; Stoklov, M

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate occupational exposure to toxic pollutants at municipal waste incinerators (MWIs). Methods: Twenty nine male subjects working near the furnaces in two MWIs, and 17 subjects not occupationally exposed to combustion generated pollutants were studied. Individual air samples were taken throughout the shift; urine samples were collected before and after. Stationary air samples were taken near potential sources of emission. Results: Occupational exposure did not result in the infringement of any occupational threshold limit value. Atmospheric exposure levels to particles and metals were 10–100 times higher in MWIs than at the control site. The main sources were cleaning operations for particles, and residue transfer and disposal operations for metals. MWI workers were not exposed to higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons than workers who are routinely in contact with vehicle exhaust. The air concentrations of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes were low and did not appear to pose any significant threat to human health. Only the measurement of chlorinated hydrocarbon levels would seem to be a reliable marker for the combustion of plastics. Urine metal levels were significantly higher at plant 1 than at plant 2 because of high levels of pollutants emanating from one old furnace. Conclusion: While biological monitoring is an easy way of acquiring data on long term personal exposure, air monitoring remains the only method that makes it possible to identify the primary sources of pollutant emission which need to be controlled if occupational exposure and environmental pollution are to be reduced. PMID:12883016

  12. Study of air pollution in the proximity of a waste incinerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, V.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Giannoni, M.; Becagli, S.; Frosini, D.

    2015-11-01

    Montale is a small town in Tuscany characterised by high PM10 levels. Close to the town there is a waste incinerator plant. There are many concerns in the population and in the press about the causes of the high levels of pollution in this area. Daily PM10 samples were collected for 1 year by the FAI Hydra Dual sampler and analysed by different techniques in order to obtain a complete chemical speciation (elements by PIXE and ICP-MS, ions by Ion Chromatography, elemental and organic carbon by a thermo-optical instrument); hourly fine (<2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5-10 μm) PM samples were collected for shorter periods by the Streaker sampler and hourly elemental concentrations were obtained by PIXE analysis. Positive Matrix Factorization identified and quantified the major aerosol sources. Biomass burning turned out to be the most important source with an average percentage contribution to PM10 of 27% of and even higher percentages during the winter period when there are the highest PM10 concentrations. The contribution of the incinerator source has been estimated as about 6% of PM10.

  13. 40 CFR 60.2245 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and controlled air technology such as mass burn, modular, and fluidized bed combustors.) (b) Air... are only required to meet the requirements under “Air Curtain Incinerators” (§§ 60.2245 through...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2245 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and controlled air technology such as mass burn, modular, and fluidized bed combustors.) (b) Air... are only required to meet the requirements under “Air Curtain Incinerators” (§§ 60.2245 through...

  15. Health risk assessment of air emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant--a case study.

    PubMed

    Cangialosi, Federico; Intini, Gianluca; Liberti, Lorenzo; Notarnicola, Michele; Stellacci, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    A health risk assessment of long-term emissions of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic air pollutants has been carried out for the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) of the city of Taranto, Italy. Ground level air concentrations and soil deposition of carcinogenic (Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins/Furans and Cd) and non-carcinogenic (Pb and Hg) pollutants have been estimated using a well documented atmospheric dispersion model. Health risk values for air inhalation, dermal contact, soil and food ingestion have been calculated based on a combination of these concentrations and a matrix of environmental exposure factors. Exposure of the surrounding population has been addressed for different release scenarios based on four pollutants, four exposure pathways and two receptor groups (children and adults). Spatial risk distribution and cancer excess cases projected from plant emissions have been compared with background mortality records. Estimated results based on the MSWI emissions show: (1) individual risks well below maximum acceptable levels, (2) very small incremental cancer risk compared with background level.

  16. Incineration: health and environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, M

    1995-10-01

    Incineration is considered one of the four primary ways to manage solid wastes, in conjunction with source reduction and reuse, recycling-composting, and landfilling. Incineration is currently used to destroy household and institutional solid waste, hazardous chemical waste, and medical and biological waste by reducing volume and destroying some harmful constituents. The process of incineration induces chemical changes that may produce harmful products that can escape through the stack, causing air pollution, or that can remain in the bottom ash, eventually finding a way into landfills. Although sound engineering design and operation can theoretically eliminate most harmful pollutants, strong institutional controls are required to assure that incinerators are maintained and operated according to specifications. Incineration is often viewed as a "cop-out," avoiding the socioeconomically complex changes required to reduce the generation of solid waste. Incineration should be incorporated on a limited basis into a context of comprehensive approaches to source reduction, recycling, and reuse.

  17. 40 CFR 60.2850 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units that... final compliance date, you must complete emission control retrofits and meet the emission limitations...

  18. Thermal treatment of stabilized air pollution control residues in a waste incinerator pilot plant. Part 1: Fate of elements and dioxins.

    PubMed

    Bergfeldt, Brita; Jay, Klaus; Seifert, Helmuth; Vehlow, Jürgen; Christensen, Thomas H; Baun, Dorthe L; Mogensen, Erhardt P B

    2004-02-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerator plants that are treated by means of the Ferrox process can be more safely disposed of due to reduction of soluble salts and stabilization of heavy metals in an iron oxide matrix. Further stabilization can be obtained by thermal treatment inside a combustion chamber of a municipal solid waste incinerator. The influence of the Ferrox products on the combustion process, the quality of the residues, and the partitioning of heavy metals between the various solids and the gas have been investigated in the Karlsruhe TAM-ARA pilot plant for waste incineration. During the experiments only few parameters were influenced. An increase in the SO2 concentration in the raw gas and slightly lower temperatures in the fuel bed could be observed compared with reference tests. Higher contents of Fe and volatile heavy metals such as Zn, Cd, Pb and partly Hg in the Ferrox products lead to increased concentration of these elements in the solid residues of the co-feeding tests. Neither the burnout nor the PCDD/F formation was altered by the addition of the Ferrox products. Co-feeding of treated APC residues seems to be a feasible approach for obtaining a single solid residue from waste incineration.

  19. Incineration and incinerator ash processing

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Parallel small-scale studies on the dissolution and anion exchange recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash were conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and at the Rocky Flats Plant. Results from these two studies are discussed in context with incinerator design considerations that might help to mitigate ash processing related problems. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Treatment and use of air pollution control residues from MSW incineration: an overview.

    PubMed

    Quina, Margarida J; Bordado, João C; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2008-11-01

    This work reviews strategies for the management of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues, particularly solid particles collected from flue gases. These tiny particles may be retained by different equipment, with or without additives (lime, activated carbon, etc.), and depending on the different possible combinations, their properties may vary. In industrial plants, the most commonly used equipment for heat recovery and the cleaning of gas emissions are: heat recovery devices (boiler, superheater and economiser); dry, semidry or wet scrubbers; electrostatic precipitators; bag filters; fabric filters, and cyclones. In accordance with the stringent regulations in force in developed countries, these residues are considered hazardous, and therefore must be treated before being disposed of in landfills. Nowadays, research is being conducted into specific applications for these residues in order to prevent landfill practices. There are basically two possible ways of handling these residues: landfill after adequate treatment or recycling as a secondary material. The different types of treatment may be grouped into three categories: separation processes, solidification/stabilization, and thermal methods. These residues generally have limited applications, mainly due to the fact that they tend to contain large quantities of soluble salts (NaCl, KCl, calcium compounds), significant amounts of toxic heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Cd) in forms that may easily leach out, and trace quantities of very toxic organic compounds (dioxin, furans). The most promising materials for recycling this residue are ceramics and glass-ceramic materials. The main purpose of the present paper is to review the published literature in this field. A range of studies have been summarized in a series of tables focusing upon management strategies used in various countries, waste composition, treatment processes and possible applications.

  1. Maxi CAI with a Micro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhold, George; And Others

    This paper describes an effective microprocessor-based CAI system which has been repeatedly tested by a large number of students and edited accordingly. Tasks not suitable for microprocessor based systems (authoring, testing, and debugging) were handled on larger multi-terminal systems. This approach requires that the CAI language used on the…

  2. Incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a laboratory incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Z.; Mcintosh, M.J.; Demirgian, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports experimental results on the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a small laboratory incinerator. Temperature of the incinerator, excess air ratio and mean residence time were varied to simulate both complete and incomplete combustion conditions. The flue gas was monitored on line using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupling with a heated long path cell (LPC). Methane, toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide in the flue gas were simultaneously analyzed. Experimental results indicate that benzene is a major product of incomplete combustion (PIC) besides carbon monoxide in the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene, and is very sensitive to combustion conditions. This suggests that benzene is a target analyle to be monitored in full-scale incinerators.

  3. 40 CFR 60.2810 - What is an air curtain incinerator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conventional combustion devices with enclosed fireboxes and controlled air technology such as mass burn... in paragraphs (b)(1) through (3) of this section are only required to meet the requirements...

  4. Treatment of waste incinerator air-pollution-control residues with FeSO4: laboratory investigation of design parameters.

    PubMed

    Jensen, D L; Christensen, T H; Lundtorp, K

    2002-02-01

    The key design parameters of a new process for treatment of air-pollution-control (APC) residues (the Ferrox-process) were investigated in the laboratory. The optimisation involved two different APC-residues from actual incinerator plants. The design parameters considered were: amount of iron oxide supplied, the liquid-to-solid ratio of the process, the separation of solids and wastewater, the sequence of material mixing, the possibilities of reuse of water, the feasibility of using secondary (brackish) water, and simple means to improve the wastewater quality. The investigation showed that an optimum process configuration could be obtained yielding a stabilised solid product with low leaching of heavy metals and a dischargable wastewater with high contents of salts (in order to remove salts from the solid product) and low concentrations of heavy metals. The amount of iron added to the APC-residues must be optimised for each residue. The overall water use can be limited to a L/S-ratio of 3 l kg(-1) including water used for washing of the treated products.

  5. [Modeling research on impact of pH on metals leaching behavior of air pollution control residues from MSW incinerator].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; He, Pin-Jing; Li, Xin-Jie; Shao, Li-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Metals leaching behavior of air pollution control residues (APC residues) from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) is greatly dependent on the leachate pH. pH-varying leaching tests and Visual MINTEQ modeling were conducted to investigate the mechanism of pH effect on the metals leaching characteristics from MSWI APC residues. Results show that, under acidic environment (for Cd, Zn, and Ni, pH < 8; for Pb, Cu, and Cr, pH < 6; for Al, pH < 4), leaching concentrations of metals increase greatly with the decrease of pH. Release of amphoteric metals, Pb and Zn, can be induced in strong alkaline leachate, reaching to 42 and 2.4 mg x L(-1) at pH 12.5 respectively. The equilibrium modeling results are well in agreement with the analyzed leaching concentrations. Variation of leachate pH changes the metals speciation in the leaching system, thus influencing their leaching concentrations. Speciation and leaching behavior of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ca, and Al mainly depend on their dissolution/precipitation reactions under different leachate pH. Leachability of Cd, Cr, and Ni can be lowered under acidic and neutral leachate pH due to HFO adsorption, while under alkaline conditions, the effect of adsorption is not significant and dissolution/precipitation becomes the major reactions controlling the leaching toxicity of these heavy metals.

  6. Distribution of PCDD/Fs in the fly ash and atmospheric air of two typical hazardous waste incinerators in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-Xiu; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Fu, Jian-Ying; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Li, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) in the fly ash and atmospheric air of one medical waste incinerator (MWI) and one industrial hazardous waste incinerator (IHWI) plants were characterized. The PCDD/F concentrations of the stack gas (fly ash) produced from MWI and IHWI were 17.7 and 0.7 ng international toxic equivalent (I-TEQ)/Nm(3) (4.1 and 2.5 ng I-TEQ/g), respectively. For workplace air, the total concentrations of PCDD/Fs were 11.32 and 0.28 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3) (819.5 and 15.3 pg/Nm(3)). We assumed that the large differences of PCDD/F concentrations in workplace air were due to the differences in chlorine content of the waste, combustion conditions, and other contamination sources. With respect to the homologue profiles, the concentrations of PCDFs decreased with the increase of the substituted chlorine number for each site. Among all of the PCDD/F congeners, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was the most important contributor to the I-TEQ value accounting for ca. 43 % of two sites. The gas/particle partition of PCDD/Fs in the atmosphere of the workplace in the MWI was also investigated, indicating that PCDD/Fs were more associated in the particle phase, especially for the higher chlorinated ones. Moreover, the ratio of the I-TEQ values in particle and gas phase of workplace air was 11.0. At last, the relationship between the distribution of PCDD/Fs in the workplace air and that from stack gas and fly ash was also analyzed and discussed. The high correlation coefficient might be a sign for diffuse gas emissions at transient periods of fumes escaping from the incinerator.

  7. Compliance Testing of Consumat Silver Reclamation Incinerator Number 4, Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    MONITORING ORGANIZATION AF Occupational and Environ- (If applicable) mental Health Laboratory. EC 6c. ADDRESS ( City , State, and ZIP Code) 7b ADDRESS... City , State. and ZIP Code) Brooks AFB TX 78235-5501 8a NAME OF FUNDING SPONSORING I So OFFICE SYMBOL 9 PROCUREMENT INSTRUMItNT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER...Supply Duct I ran’siti’)n Assermv1 Cas Prry z Control Box Cor 11is t io)n D Chcnnt’er L’ad~n D~~rPrirnarv Burner P orvtsBlve Asbest .-s Gui!ctGLi Air

  8. Characteristics of ashes from different locations at the MSW incinerator equipped with various air pollution control devices.

    PubMed

    Song, Geum-Ju; Kim, Ki-Heon; Seo, Yong-Chil; Kim, Sam-Cwan

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of ashes from different locations at a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) equipped with a water spray tower (WST) as a cooling system, and a spray dryer adsorber (SDA), a bag filter (BF) and a selective catalytic reactor (SCR) as air pollution control devices (APCD) was investigated to provide the basic data for further treatment of ashes. A commercial MSWI with a capacity of 100 tons per day was selected. Ash was sampled from different locations during the normal operation of the MSWI and was analyzed to obtain chemical composition, basicity, metal contents and leaching behavior of heavy metals. Basicity and pH of ash showed a broad range between 0.08-9.07 and 3.5-12.3, respectively. Some major inorganics in ash were identified and could affect the basicity. This could be one of the factors to determine further treatment means. Partitioning of hazardous heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Cr, Hg and Cd was investigated. Large portions of Hg and Cd were emitted from the furnace while over 90% of Pb, Cu and Cr remained in bottom ash. However 54% of Hg was captured by WST and 41% by SDA/BF and 3.6% was emitted through the stack, while 81.5% of Cd was captured by SDA/BF. From the analysis data of various metal contents in ash and leach analysis, such capturing of metal was confirmed and some heavy metals found to be easily released from ash. Based on the overall characteristics of ash in different locations at the MSWI during the investigation, some considerations and suggestions for determining the appropriate treatment methods of ash were made as conclusions.

  9. Characteristics of ashes from different locations at the MSW incinerator equipped with various air pollution control devices

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Geum-Ju; Kim, Ki-Heon; Seo, Yong-Chil; Kim, Sam-Cwan

    2004-07-01

    The characteristics of ashes from different locations at a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) equipped with a water spray tower (WST) as a cooling system, and a spray dryer adsorber (SDA), a bag filter (BF) and a selective catalytic reactor (SCR) as air pollution control devices (APCD) was investigated to provide the basic data for further treatment of ashes. A commercial MSWI with a capacity of 100 tons per day was selected. Ash was sampled from different locations during the normal operation of the MSWI and was analyzed to obtain chemical composition, basicity, metal contents and leaching behavior of heavy metals. Basicity and pH of ash showed a broad range between 0.08-9.07 and 3.5-12.3, respectively. Some major inorganics in ash were identified and could affect the basicity. This could be one of the factors to determine further treatment means. Partitioning of hazardous heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Cr, Hg and Cd was investigated. Large portions of Hg and Cd were emitted from the furnace while over 90% of Pb, Cu and Cr remained in bottom ash. However 54% of Hg was captured by WST and 41% by SDA/BF and 3.6% was emitted through the stack, while 81.5% of Cd was captured by SDA/BF. From the analysis data of various metal contents in ash and leach analysis, such capturing of metal was confirmed and some heavy metals found to be easily released from ash. Based on the overall characteristics of ash in different locations at the MSWI during the investigation, some considerations and suggestions for determining the appropriate treatment methods of ash were made as conclusions.

  10. Teacher's Handbook for CAI Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    The handbooks for the most widely used computer-assisted instruction (CAI) courses now available on computer terminals at the Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences at Stanford University are presented. Handbooks are included for the following courses: Strands Drill-and-practice (arithmetic fundamentals for fourth grade), Logic…

  11. Timing Students' Answers in CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of limiting response time for students' answers focuses on a study of Israeli elementary students that investigated the effects on their performance of increasing the response time in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for arithmetic drill and practice. Effects on high- versus low-aptitude students, and younger versus older, are…

  12. CAI in Advanced Literature Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Norman

    1981-01-01

    Ways that computer assisted instruction (CAI) can be useful in teaching English at upperclass and graduate levels are considered, with illustrations from PLATO lessons that have been composed and programmed. One lesson takes advantage of PLATO's graphic design capabilities, which enabled the teacher to design the runic figures and to show them in…

  13. Incinerator for the high speed combustion of waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.F.

    1988-06-07

    A high speed burning furnace and incinerator, is described wherein the incinerator comprises a burner which includes a fuel tank, a mixer, and a controller for controlling the amount of the fuel and the air flow; a burner furnace, an incinerator means which includes mainly an outer pipe, an intermediate pipe, and an inner pipe which are all of transverse cylindrical shape. A neck portion on the right side of the inner pipe is of a truncated conical shape and is connected to the burning furnace; a preheating chamber located on the outer pipe of the incinerator means the incinerator being characterized in that the incinerator is provided with an endless ash conveyor with the incinerator, the ash conveyor to rotate the ash conveyor, the gears having as axis that is mounted within the incinerator and two partition plates inside the ash conveyor, the partition plates being located between the two transmitting gears.

  14. Numerical simulation and validation of SI-CAI hybrid combustion in a CAI/HCCI gasoline engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyan; Xie, Hui; Xie, Liyan; Zhang, Lianfang; Li, Le; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Hua

    2013-02-01

    SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In this study, a SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) has been constructed on the basis of the 3-Zones Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM3Z). An ignition model is included to initiate the ECFM3Z calculation and induce the flame propagation. In order to precisely depict the subsequent auto-ignition process of the unburned fuel and air mixture independently after the initiation of flame propagation, the tabulated chemistry concept is adopted to describe the auto-ignition chemistry. The methodology for extracting tabulated parameters from the chemical kinetics calculations is developed so that both cool flame reactions and main auto-ignition combustion can be well captured under a wider range of thermodynamic conditions. The SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) is then applied in the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) engine simulation. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data obtained from a single cylinder VVA engine. The detailed analysis of the simulations demonstrates that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process is characterised with the early flame propagation and subsequent multi-site auto-ignition around the main flame front, which is consistent with the optical results reported by other researchers. Besides, the systematic study of the in-cylinder condition reveals the influence mechanism of the early flame propagation on the subsequent auto-ignition.

  15. Spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls around a municipal solid waste incinerator, determined using polyurethane foam passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lirong; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lidan; Li, Changliang; Wang, Yiwen

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-six ambient air samples were collected around a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in the summer and winter using polyurethane foam passive air samplers, and analyzed to assess the spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Three stack gas samples were also collected and analyzed to determine PCDD/F (971 pg m(-3) in average) and PCB (2,671 pg m(-3) in average) emissions from the MSWI and to help identify the sources of the pollutants in the ambient air. The total PCDD/F concentrations in the ambient air samples were lower in the summer (472-1,223 fg m(-3)) than the winter (561-3913 fg m(-3)). In contrast, the atmospheric total PCB concentrations were higher in the summer (716-4,902 fg m(-3)) than the winter (489-2,298 fg m(-3)). Principal component analysis showed that, besides emissions from the MSWI, the domestic burning of coal and wood also contributed to the presence of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air. The PCDD/F and PCB spatial distributions were analyzed using ordinary Kriging Interpolation and limited effect was found to be caused by emissions from the MSWI. Higher PCDD/F and PCB concentrations were observed downwind of the MSWI than in the other directions, but the highest concentrations were not to be found in the direction with the greatest wind frequency which might be caused by emissions from domestic coal and wood burning. We used a systemic method including sampling and data analysis method which can provide pioneering information for characterizing risks and assessing uncertainty of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air around MSWIs in China.

  16. Alloy 45TM in waste incineration applications

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, D.C.; Kloewer, J.; Grossmann, G.K.

    1997-08-01

    Industrial and municipal wastes produced in the western society are being increasingly destroyed and managed by controlled high temperature incineration. Depending on the chemical make-up of the waste stream and operational parameters of the incinerator, a variety of high temperature corrosive environments are generated. Typically most of the modern incineration systems consist of a high temperature incinerator chamber, a heat recovery system, a quench section to further reduce the temperature of the flue gas stream and a host of air pollution control equipment to scrub acidic gases and control the particulate emissions. This paper describes the development of a new nickel-base high chromium-high silicon alloy, which has shown good resistance to high temperature corrosion in incinerator environments. Some field test data are also presented.

  17. Auxiliary incinerator apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, J.P.

    1987-08-11

    An auxiliary incinerator apparatus is described for an incinerator comprising: a main incinerator having primary and secondary chambers formed with a plurality of refractory walls, the main incinerator having a main door into the primary chamber, and the main incinerator having an outer framework and walls spaced from the refractory walls, and one refractory wall having an opening therethrough; a refractory passageway extending from the opening in the main incinerator wall to the outer wall and having an opening through the outer wall; an auxiliary incinerator attached to one side of the main incinerator adjacent to the opening from the refractory passageway through the outer wall, the auxiliary incinerator having an incineration chamber formed therein with an opening thereinto; and auxiliary door means for opening and closing over the opening from the refractory passageway through the outer wall and for opening and closing over the opening into the auxiliary incinerator, whereby partially incinerated materials can be moved from the main incinerator to the auxiliary incinerator for further combustion.

  18. Method and apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Korenberg, Jacob

    1990-01-01

    An incineration apparatus and method for disposal of infectious hazardous waste including a fluidized bed reactor containing a bed of granular material. The reactor includes a first chamber, a second chamber, and a vertical partition separating the first and second chambers. A pressurized stream of air is supplied to the reactor at a sufficient velocity to fluidize the granular material in both the first and second chambers. Waste materials to be incinerated are fed into the first chamber of the fluidized bed, the fine waste materials being initially incinerated in the first chamber and subsequently circulated over the partition to the second chamber wherein further incineration occurs. Coarse waste materials are removed from the first chamber, comminuted, and recirculated to the second chamber for further incineration. Any partially incinerated waste materials and ash from the bottom of the second chamber are removed and recirculated to the second chamber for further incineration. This process is repeated until all infectious hazardous waste has been completely incinerated.

  19. Source emission testing of the classified waste incinerator, griffiss Air Force Base, New York. Final report, 10-14 August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvia, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    Source emission testing for particulate matter and hydrogen chloride was conducted on the classified waste incinerator located in Bldg 13, Griffiss AFB NY. Compliance standards are found in Codes, Rules, and Regulations of the State of New York, Title 6. Test results indicate incinerator emissions are above the state standard for particulate matter. No hydrogen chloride standards are applicable to this incinerator. Recommendations are made to reduce particulate emissions and to retest.... Particulate matter, Hydrogen chloride, Griffiss AFB, Classified waste incinerator, Source emission testing.

  20. Mutagenicity of combustion emissions from a biomedical-waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, J.H.; Rogers, H.W.; Claxton, L.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Ames Salmonella typhimurium (TA98) assay was used to determine the mutagenicity of stack fly ash from a medical/pathological waste incinerator. Stack fly ash also collected from a boiler plant adjacent to the incinerator and ambient air particles (upwind and downwind of the incinerator and boiler facilities) were collected and bioassayed. Downwind particulate mutagenicity (revertants per cubic meter of air) was significantly greater than upwind particulate mutagenicity. Mutagenic emission-rate estimates (revertants per kilogram waste feed) for the incinerator and boiler were less than estimates for ash and downwind ambient-air particulate samples collected during incinerator auxiliary burner failure and demonstrated significant increase in mutagenicity compared to samples collected during routine incinerator operation.

  1. Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.

  2. Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.

  3. Incinerator system

    SciTech Connect

    Rathmell, R.K.

    1986-10-07

    An incineration system is described which consists of: combustion chamber structure having an inlet, an outlet, and burner structure in the combustion chamber, heat exchanger structure defining a chamber, divider structure between the heat exchanger chamber and the combustion chamber, an array of tubes extending through the heat exchanger chamber to the inlet of the combustion chamber at the divider structure. The heat exchanger chamber has an inlet coupled to the outlet of the combustion chamber for flow of the combustion products discharged from the combustion chamber through the heat exchanger chamber over the tubes in heat exchange relation, and an outlet for discharge of products from the heat exchanger chamber, aspirator sleeve structure secured to the divider structure between the heat exchanger chamber and the combustion chamber. Each aspirator sleeve receives the outlet end of a heat exchanger tube in slip fit relation so that the heat exchanger tubes are free to thermally expand longitudinally within the aspirator sleeves, and means for flowing vapor through the heat exchanger tubes into the combustion chamber at sufficiently high velocity to produce a reduced pressure effect in the aspirator sleeves in the heat exchanger chamber to draw a minor fraction of combustion products through the aspirator sleeves into the combustion chamber for reincineration.

  4. Energy and mass balance calculations for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.C.; Huffman, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    Calculation of energy and mass balance within an incinerator is a very important part of designing and/or evaluating the incineration process. This article describes a simple computer model used to calculate an energy and mass balance for a rotary kiln incinerator. The main purpose of the model is to assist US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) permit writers in evaluating the adequacy of the data submitted by applicants seeking incinerator permits. The calculation is based on the assumption that a thermodynamic equilibrium condition exits within the combustion chamber. Key parameters that the model can calculate include theoretical combustion air, excess air needed for actual combustion cases, flue gas flow rate, and exit temperature.

  5. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction is Commenced After December 9, 2004, or for Which Modification or Reconstruction...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction is Commenced After December 9, 2004, or for Which Modification or Reconstruction...

  7. Evaluating CAI Material for the Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, Timothy M.

    The relative worth of any evaluation instrument depends on user needs and the material being evaluated. Potential users of a good computer assisted instruction (CAI) instrument include purchasers, authors, reviewers, and publishers of CAI materials. Although each user has unique needs, a good instrument will serve both to educate and discriminate,…

  8. Some "Facts" about CAI: 1976 in Depth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This report presents information about the state of the art in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in 1976. This information takes the form of quantitative data (mostly frequency distributions), on the number and average completion time of CAI programs according to subject matter, author, language, instructional strategies, sources, and central…

  9. The Screen Display Syntax for CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Boyd F.; Salisbury, David F.

    1987-01-01

    Describes four storyboard techniques frequently used in designing computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs, and explains screen display syntax (SDS), a new technique combining the major advantages of the storyboard techniques. SDS was developed to facilitate communication among designers, programmers, and editors working on a large CAI basic…

  10. A unified framework for producing CAI melting, Wark-Lovering rims and bowl-shaped CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liffman, Kurt; Cuello, Nicolas; Paterson, David A.

    2016-10-01

    Calcium-Aluminium inclusions (CAIs) formed in the Solar system, some 4567 million years ago. CAIs are almost always surrounded by Wark-Lovering rims (WLRs), which are a sequence of thin, mono/bi-mineralic layers of refractory minerals, with a total thickness in the range of 1-100 microns. Recently, some CAIs have been found that have tektite-like bowl-shapes. To form such shapes, the CAI must have travelled through a rarefied gas at hypersonic speeds. We show how CAIs may have been ejected from the inner solar accretion disc via the centrifugal interaction between the solar magnetosphere and the inner disc rim. They subsequently punched through the hot, inner disc rim wall at hypersonic speeds. This re-entry heating partially or completely evaporated the CAIs. Such evaporation could have significantly increased the metal abundances of the inner disc rim. High speed movement through the inner disc produced WLRs. To match the observed thickness of WLRs required metal abundances at the inner disc wall that are of order 10 times that of standard solar abundances. The CAIs cooled as they moved away from the protosun, the deduced CAI cooling rates are consistent with the CAI cooling rates obtained from experiment and observation. The speeds and gas densities required to form bowl-shaped CAIs are also consistent with the expected speeds and gas densities for larger, ˜1 cm, CAIs punching through an inner accretion disc wall.

  11. Incinerator technology overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoleri, Joseph J.

    1991-04-01

    In the 1960's, much effort was expended on cleaning up the air and water. Air Quality and Water Quality Acts were written and inpleinented in many states and coninunities. New products such as unleaded gasoline and water base paints were developed to aid in minimizing pollution. Conversion from oil fired combustion systems to natural gas fired for comfort and industrial heating was the normal practice. In 1970, the Clean Air Act was passed. There was concern on how to safely dispose of hazardous wastes. Indiscriminate dumping of chemical process wastes had been the practice since the birth of the chemical industry in the USA. Land dumping, inadequate landfills, and river-ocean dumping were the most economical ways to dispose of chemical wastes. Processes that would have reduced or eliminated wastes were disregarded as being too costly. Many of the major chemical companies who regarded a safe environment as their responsibility installed waste treatment and disposal facilities on their plant sites. Many of these plants elected to use incinerators as the treatment process. This was not always the most economical method, but in many cases it was the only method of disposal that provided a safe and sure method of maximum destruction. Environmental concern over contamination from uncontrolled land disposal sites, and the emergence of tougher regulations for land disposal provide incentives for industry to employ a wide variety of traditional and advanced technologies for managing hazardous wastes. Incineration systems utilizing proper design, operation, and maintenance provides the safest and in the long run, the most economical avenue to the maximum level of destruction of organic hazardous wastes.

  12. Sludge incineration in a spinning fluidized bed incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Swithenbank, J.; Basire, S.; Wong, W.Y.; Lu, Y.; Nasserzadeh, V.

    1999-07-01

    At the present time, the sewage treatment plants in the UK produce about 25 million tonnes of sewage sludge each year at a concentration of 4% solids. New regulations forbid sea dumping and in the near future new incinerators will be required to dispose of about five million tonnes per year. Bubbling fluidized bed incinerators are widely used to burn sewage sludge at a typical consumption rate of about 0.02 kg(dry)/s/m{sup 2}, and it follows that over 300 conventional fluidized bed incinerators of 3 meters bed diameter could be required to cope with the increased demand. At Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC) research work is being carried out to develop a novel spinning fluidized bed incinerator. The key factor to note is that when air flows up through a bed of near mono-sized particles, it fluidizes when the pressure drop across the bed is equal to the weight of the bed. Normally, the weight of the bed is determined by gravity. However, if the bed is contained by a cylindrical air distributor plate that is rotating rapidly about its axis, then the effective weight of the bed can be increased dramatically. The airflow passing through the bed can be increased proportionally to the g level produced by the rotation and it follows that the process has been intensified. In exploratory tests with a spinning fluidized bed the authors have achieved combustion intensities with coal combustion as high as 100 MW/m{sup 3}. A problem with burning coal is that it was difficult to remove the heat and rotating water seals had to be used to transfer cooling water into the bed. In the case of sewage and other sludges, this problem does not exist since the flue gases can remove the small amount of heat released. The rotating fluidized bed sludge incinerator is a novel device, which is very compact. It is able to solve the turndown problem encountered with conventional fluidized beds by simply changing the rotation speed. Bearing in mind that a centrifugal sludge

  13. A risk management approach to CAIS development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Hal; Kerner, Judy; Alden, Tony; Belz, Frank; Tadman, Frank

    1986-01-01

    The proposed DoD standard Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS) was developed as a framework set of interfaces that will support the transportability and interoperability of tools in the support environments of the future. While the current CAIS version is a promising start toward fulfilling those goals and current prototypes provide adequate testbeds for investigations in support of completing specifications for a full CAIS, there are many reasons why the proposed CAIS might fail to become a usable product and the foundation of next-generation (1990'S) project support environments such as NASA's Space Station software support environment. The most critical threats to the viability and acceptance of the CAIS include performance issues (especially in piggybacked implementations), transportability, and security requirements. To make the situation worse, the solution to some of these threats appears to be at conflict with the solutions to others.

  14. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  15. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  16. Influence of a municipal solid waste incinerator on ambient air PCDD/F levels: a comparison of running and non-running periods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Manwen; Zhang, Sukun; Zhang, Zhengquan; Xu, Zhengcheng; Feng, Guixian; Ren, Mingzhong

    2014-09-01

    The concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the ambient air of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) during its running and non-running periods was monitored in this study to investigate the contribution of the MSWI to PCDD/F pollution in the vicinal environment. Results show that the PCDD/F levels for the normal MSWI running period and after shut-down ranged 0.156-1.44 pg I-TEQ/m(3) (0.514 pg I-TEQ/m(3)) and 0.158-0.648 pg I-TEQ/m(3) (0.345 pg I-TEQ/m(3)), respectively. Significant differences were found between the results of the two surveys in 2011 and 2012. High PCDD/F levels were observed in two of the seven study sites in 2011, and these levels directly declined in 2012. A dramatic increase in PCDD/F concentrations was observed in two sites in 2012. Comparison of congener and homologue fingerprint characteristics in the two surveys, together with principal component analysis, revealed that the PCDD/F levels in all of the samples collected in 2012 and in three of the samples collected in 2011 are mainly influenced by heavy traffic. MSWI is the primary PCDD/F emission sources of the PCDD/Fs detected in the remaining samples collected in 2011.

  17. CAIS. Condition Assessment Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Oak, J.C.

    1996-09-30

    CAIS is used by Architects and Engineers to gather facility condition assessment data. This data consist of architectural, civil, structural, electrical, and mechanical systems and components that are a part of the inspected facility. Data is collected using a hand-held, pen-based computer system which is preprogrammed for detailed inventories of individual components. The program is deficiency based for collecting data for repair and replacement observations. Observations are recorded on checklists preformatted to individual site needs, allowing for comments on unusual conditions to be documented on site. Data is transferred to a central database, where it can be reviewed, costed, and reported on using different scenarios. Information can be transferred to the DOE operations offices as well as to the DOE FIMS database for each site.

  18. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials.

  19. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration.

    PubMed

    Holder, Amara L; Vejerano, Eric P; Zhou, Xinzhe; Marr, Linsey C

    2013-09-01

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which nanomaterials may enter incinerator waste streams and the fate of these nanomaterials during the incineration process. Although the literature on incineration of nanomaterials is scarce, results from studies of their behavior at high temperature or in combustion environments for other applications can help predict their fate within an incinerator. Preliminary evidence suggests nanomaterials may catalyze the formation or destruction of combustion by-products. Depending on their composition, nanomaterials may undergo physical and chemical transformations within the incinerator, impacting their partitioning within the incineration system (e.g., bottom ash, fly ash) and the effectiveness of control technology for removing them. These transformations may also drastically affect nanomaterial transport and impacts in the environment. Current regulations on incinerator emissions do not specifically address nanomaterials, but limits on particle and metal emissions may prove somewhat effective at reducing the release of nanomaterials in incinerator effluent. Control technology used to meet these regulations, such as fabric filters, electrostatic precipitators, and wet electrostatic scrubbers, are expected to be at least partially effective at removing nanomaterials from incinerator flue gas.

  20. A full-scale study on thermal degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and its secondary air pollution control in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xingbao; Ji, Bingjing; Yan, Dahai; Huang, Qifei; Zhu, Xuemei

    2017-04-01

    Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash is beneficial to its risk control. Fly ash was treated in a full-scale thermal degradation system (capacity 1 t d(-1)) to remove polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Apart from the confirmation of the polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran decomposition efficiency, we focused on two major issues that are the major obstacles for commercialising this decomposition technology in China, desorption and regeneration of dioxins and control of secondary air pollution. The toxic equivalent quantity values of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans decreased to <6 ng kg(-1) and the detoxification rate was ⩾97% after treatment for 1 h at 400 °C under oxygen-deficient conditions. About 8.49% of the polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) of the original fly ash were desorbed or regenerated. The extreme high polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran levels and dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran congener profiles in the dust of the flue gas showed that desorption was the main reason, rather than de novo synthesis of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the exhaust pipe. Degradation furnace flue gas was introduced to the municipal solid waste incinerator economiser, and then co-processed in the air pollution control system. The degradation furnace released relatively large amounts of cadmium, lead and polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans compared with the municipal solid waste incinerator, but the amounts emitted to the atmosphere did not exceed the Chinese national emission limits. Thermal degradation can therefore be used as a polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran abatement method for municipal solid waste incinerator source in China.

  1. 17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  2. Incinerator for the high speed combustion of waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.F.

    1986-12-30

    A high speed combustion incinerator is described comprising: a burner which includes a fuel tank, a mixer, and a controller for controlling the amount of the fuel and the air flow; a burner furnace; an incinerator means which includes mainly an outer pipe, an intermediate pipe, and an inner pipe which are all of transverse cylindrical shape. A neck portion on the right side of the inner pipe is of a truncated conical shape and is connected to the burning furnace; a preheating chamber located on the outer pipe of the incinerator means; and a conveyor located in the preheating chamber for conveying waste product to be burned into the incinerator means.

  3. INCINERATION RESEARCH FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cincinnati-based Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA operates the Incineration Research Facility *IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas. This facility's pilot-scale experimental incineration systems include a Rotary Kiln System and a Liquid Injection System. Each syste...

  4. Ohio incinerator battle continues

    SciTech Connect

    Melody, M.

    1993-05-01

    Waste Technologies Industries (WTI; East Liverpool, Ohio) is trying to wing what it hopes will be its final battle in a 13-year, $160 million war with the government, and community and environmental groups. The company since 1980 has sought EPA approval to operate a hazardous waste incinerator in East Liverpool, Ohio. WTI late last year conducted a pre-test burn, or shakedown, during which the incinerator burned certain types of hazardous waste. The test demonstrates the incinerator's performance under normal operating conditions, Regulatory authorities, including EPA and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA), monitored activity during the shakedown, which was limited to 720 hours of operation. In accordance with RCRA requirements, the company in March conducted a trial burn to demonstrate that the incinerator meets permit standards. WTI's permit specifies three performance parameters the incinerator must meet -- particulate and hydrogen chloride emissions limits, and destruction removal efficiencies (DREs).

  5. Evaluation of emissions from medical waste incinerators in Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Adel; Labib, Osama

    2003-01-01

    The emissions from medical waste incinerators might perform a threat to the environment and the Public Health, the aim of the present work is to evaluate the emissions of six medical waste incinerators in six hospitals in Alexandria, Namely; Gamal Abd El-Naser, Sharq El-Madina, Central Blood Bank, Fever, Medical Research Institute, and Al-Mo'asat, ordered serially from 1 to 6. Five air pollutants were sampled and analyzed in the emissions comprising smoke, lead, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results of the present study have revealed that all the average values of gases in the six incinerators were within the limits stated in Egyptian environmental law, where as carbonaceous particulate (smoke) averages of the six incinerators have exceeded the maximum allowable limit in the law. On the other hand, lead concentration in emissions were far below the maximum allowable limit in the law. Al-Mo'asat incinerator emissions have been significantly higher in CO, NO2, SO2 and smoke concentration than the other five incinerators P < 0.001, P < 0.0006, P < 0.0001, and P < 0.002 respectively. The main recommendations of the present work are to reassess the limits of emissions in the Egyptian law and to state specific limits for medical wast incinerators and to relocate the medical waste incinerators away from residential areas or to substitute them all by a central incinerator in a proper place out of the city.

  6. CAIs in Semarkona (LL3.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishra, R. K.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.; Marhas, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the first forming solids of the Solar system. Their observed abundance, mean size, and mineralogy vary quite significantly between different groups of chondrites. These differences may reflect the dynamics and distinct cosmochemical conditions present in the region(s) of the protoplanetary disk from which each type likely accreted. Only about 11 such objects have been found in L and LL type while another 57 have been found in H type ordinary chondrites, compared to thousands in carbonaceous chondrites. At issue is whether the rare CAIs contained in ordinary chondrites truly reflect a distinct population from the inclusions commonly found in other chondrite types. Semarkona (LL3.00) (fall, 691 g) is the most pristine chondrite available in our meteorite collection. Here we report petrography and mineralogy of 3 CAIs from Semarkona

  7. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-07-15

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance.

  8. Incineration: Tested and true

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.E. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    Hazardous-waste incineration has gotten a bad name over the years--so much so that its preferred euphemism today is thermal oxidation. Bad reputation aside, this technology confers many benefits on operators of on-site incinerators, such as requiring small land area, providing heat and product recovery, and eliminating waste-transport risk. Best of all, waste is gone forever. The main disadvantages, beyond difficulties in getting a permit from the state, and public misunderstanding, are high capital and operating costs. Incineration contributes but a small portion of the total emissions to the atmosphere, compared with recycling programs, which often use tanks--the number-one emission culprit. In addition, incinerators are low on the list for emitting carcinogens. Unfortunately the US government seems decidedly anti-incineration. Recently the US EPA approved a major oil company`s plans for landfarming toxic organic waste that otherwise would have been incinerated. This landfarm emitted over 100 lb of benzene annually--more than all the US incinerators produce in one year.

  9. Re-Os Systematics in the Allende CAI: Big AL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1999-03-01

    A sample of coarse-grained Allende CAI, Big Al analyzed using reverse aqua regia, plots on the IIA iron meteorite reference isochron, suggesting a very small time difference between the formation of CAIs, chondrites, and iron.

  10. Flow field simulation for a corncob incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.

    1999-02-01

    This article utilizes the standard k-{epsilon} turbulent model to simulate a corncob incinerator using the PISO algorithm with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The flow patterns of the incinerator equipped with secondary air inlets are predicted and compared for the various geometrical layouts. It is demonstrated that a wider recirculation zone can be found while the inclined angles of inlets increased, so a longer residence time and higher combustion efficiency will be expected. The longer distance between primary and secondary inlets will facilitate the formation of recirculation zone in this bigger space. The more the number of the secondary air inlets, the less the resident air in the top recirculation zone near the exit of the furnace. By using the CFD technique, the flow field of the incinerator can be understood more precisely, and it can serve as an excellent design tool. Furthermore, the computational program can be composed with FORTRAN and set up on a PC, and can easily be analyzed to get the flow field of the corncob incinerator.

  11. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  12. CAI Use by Developmental Studies Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumb, Glenn H.; Monroe, Eula Ewing

    This study, conducted with college developmental studies students, explored possible relationships between individualized computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in basic mathematics skills and each of two variables; mathematics knowledge and anxiety toward mathematics. Both experimental (N=5) and control (N=12) groups made significant gains in…

  13. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Robert C. W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluidtight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC (about 1" WC) higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes.

  14. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  15. Carbon monoxide formation and emissions during waste incineration in a grate-circulating fluidized bed incinerator.

    PubMed

    Yanguo Zhang; Qinghai Li; Aihong Meng; Changhe Chen

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of carbon monoxide (CO) formation and emissions in both grate drying bed incinerators and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerators to simulate the two key parts of a combined grate and circulating fluidized bed (grate-CFB) incinerator in order to investigate pollutant emission control in municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion that occurs in a grate-CFB incinerator utilizing a patented technology. Polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, kitchen waste, paper, textile, etc. were chosen to simulate the MSW. The effects of temperature, air staging, and moisture on the CO formation and emissions were analysed for both the grate drying bed combustion and the CFB combustion. In the grate drying bed, the low temperatures increased the carbon to CO conversion rate which also increased slightly with the moisture content. Industrial field tests in a commercial grate-CFB incinerator showed that the CO concentration at the grate drying bed exit was very high and decreased along furnace height. The carbon to CO conversion rates were 0-20% for the grate drying bed which exceeded the range of 0.8-16% measured in a grate drying bed exit of the commercial grate-CFB incinerator tests. In the commercial grate-CFB incinerator tests, at excess air ratios ranging from 1.5-2.0 or more, the CO emissions decreased to a low and stable level, whose corresponding carbon to CO conversion rates were far lower than 0-10%. The low CO emission is one of the factors enabling the polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran emissions to satisfy the Chinese national regulations.

  16. Electrochemical incineration of wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bockris, J. O. M.; Bhardwaj, R. C.; Tennakoon, C. L. K.

    1993-01-01

    There is an increasing concern regarding the disposal of human wastes in space vehicles. It is of utmost importance to convert such wastes into harmless products which can be recycled into an Environmental Life Support System (CELSS), which incorporates the growth of plants (e.g. wheat) and algae to supplement the diet of the astronauts. Chemical treatments have proven relatively unsatisfactory and tend to be increasingly so with increase of the mission duration. Similarly, the use of heat to destroy wastes and convert them to CO2 by the use of air or oxygen has the disadvantage and difficulty of dissipating heat in a space environment and to the inevitable presence of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide in the effluent gases. In particular, electrochemical techniques offer several advantages including low temperatures which may be used and the absence of any NO and CO in the evolved gases. Successful research has been carried out in the electrochemical oxidation of wastes over the last several years. The major task for 1992 was to conduct parametric studies in preparation for the building of a breadboard system, i.e., an actual practical device to consume the daily waste output of one astronaut in 24 hours, electrochemical incineration of human wastes in space vehicles. One of the main objectives was to decide on the type of three dimensional or other electrode system that would suit this purpose. The various types of electrode systems which were considered for this purpose included: rotating disc electrode, micro-electrode (an array), vibrating electrode, jet electrode, and packed bed electrode.

  17. Summary of DOE Incineration Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, M.

    1998-07-01

    This document summarizes and compares operating capacities, waste acceptance criteria, and permits pertaining to the U.S. Department of Energy's three mixed waste incinerators. The information will assist Department evaluation of the incinerators.

  18. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, B.H. ); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. ); Hunnum, W.H. ); Smith, D.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  19. Electrochemical Membrane Incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Dennis C.; Houk, Linda L.; Feng, Jianren

    1998-12-08

    Electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone was evaluated as a model for the mineralization of carbon in toxic aromatic compounds. A Ti or Pt anode was coated with a film of the oxides of Ti, Ru, Sn and Sb. This quaternary metal oxide film was stable; elemental analysis of the electrolyzed solution indicated the concentration of these metal ions to be 3 {micro}g/L or less. The anode showed good reactivity for the electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone. The use of a dissolved salt matrix as the so-called ''supporting electrolyte'' was eliminated in favor of a solid-state electrolyte sandwiched between the anode and cathode.

  20. Electrochemical membrane incinerator

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Dennis C.; Houk, Linda L.; Feng, Jianren

    2001-03-20

    Electrochemical incineration of p-benzoquinone was evaluated as a model for the mineralization of carbon in toxic aromatic compounds. A Ti or Pt anode was coated with a film of the oxides of Ti, Ru, Sn and Sb. This quaternary metal oxide film was stable; elemental analysis of the electrolyzed solution indicated the concentration of these metal ions to be 3 .mu.g/L or less. The anode showed good reactivity for the electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone. The use of a dissolved salt matrix as the so-called "supporting electrolyte" was eliminated in favor of a solid-state electrolyte sandwiched between the anode and cathode.

  1. Research on TRIZ and CAIs Application Problems for Technology Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangdong; Li, Qinghai; Bai, Zhonghang; Geng, Lixiao

    In order to realize application of invent problem solve theory (TRIZ) and computer aided innovation software (CAIs) , need to solve some key problems, such as the mode choice of technology innovation, establishment of technology innovation organization network(TION), and achievement of innovative process based on TRIZ and CAIs, etc.. This paper shows that the demands for TRIZ and CAIs according to the characteristics and existing problem of the manufacturing enterprises. Have explained that the manufacturing enterprises need to set up an open TION of enterprise leading type, and achieve the longitudinal cooperation innovation with institution of higher learning. The process of technology innovation based on TRIZ and CAIs has been set up from researching and developing point of view. Application of TRIZ and CAIs in FY Company has been summarized. The application effect of TRIZ and CAIs has been explained using technology innovation of the close goggle valve product.

  2. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    EPA Science Inventory

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  3. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  4. 3M corporate incinerator environmental monitoring study and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Pilney, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one-year multi-media environmental monitoring study was performed around the 3M Cottage Grove Facility. Particulate metals from the 3M Corporate hazardous waste incinerator were the focus of the study. Two environmental media were of primary interest: area soil sampling was conducted to investigate the impact of past incinerator emissions on the environment, and ambient air monitoring was conducted to address current impacts. Over 180 soil samples were taken from both agricultural and forested land in the vicinity of the Facility. More than 25 chemical parameters were then quantified in the samples. The potential impacts of past emissions from the incinerator were assessed by comparing chemical concentrations from locations where incinerator impacts were expected to be greatest (based on air dispersion modeling) to chemical concentrations in matched samples from sites expected to be least impacted. The ambient air monitoring network consisted of six stations. Source-receptor modeling was used to determine the most likely contribution of the incinerator and six additional major area sources for the air monitoring (i.e. filter) data at each station. The model provided a best-fit analysis regarding the likely contributions of each source to the sample results. The results of these evaluations lead to the conclusion that the current emissions from this Facility do not present an unacceptable risk to human health.

  5. Physical properties of CAI-rich asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, P.; Devogele, M.; Cellino, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Campins, H.; Bus, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Some L-type asteroids (collectively called "Barbarians") are known to exhibit an anomalous polarimetric behavior, whose origin - still to be elucidated - can be related to compositional and/or scattering effects. The fact that these asteroids belong to the same taxonomic class (following the De Meo 2009 classification, including NIR) implies that composition must play a role. Sunshine et al. 2008 showed that these asteroids contain high amounts of CAIs, possibly hinting to a formation in an early proto-planetary environment, very rich in refractory material. On the base of this evidence, we started an observational campaign to increase the data coverage of these objects, by obtaining new NIR spectra, photometric and polarimetric measurements. Our first results show that the peculiar features are not restricted to polarimetry. In particular we show the existence of an anomalous distribution of the rotation periods, and a possible relation between CAI abundance and albedos determined by WISE. We tentatively discuss a possible scenario justifying the different observed features.

  6. Oxygen Isotopes of CAIs from Unequilibrated Enstatite Chondrites: Characteristics and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guan, Y.; McKeegan, K. D.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2000-01-01

    Ion microprobe analyses of ten CAIs from enstatite chondrites show large O-16 excesses similar to CAIs in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites, supporting the idea that most CAIs formed in a restricted nebular locale.

  7. Closure of Building 624 incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ridley, M.N.; Hallisey, M.L.; Terusaki, S.; Steverson, M.

    1992-06-01

    The Building 624 incinerator was a Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) mixed waste incinerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This incinerator was in operation from 1978 to 1989. The incinerator was to be closed as a mixed waste incinerator, but was to continue burning classified nonhazardous solid waste. The decision was later made to discontinue all use of the incinerator. Closure activities were performed from June 15 to December 15, 1991, when a clean closure was completed. The main part of the closure was the characterization, which included 393 samples and 30 blanks. From these 393 samples, approximately 13 samples indicated the need for further investigation, such as an isotopic scan; however, none of the samples was concluded to be hazardous or radioactive.

  8. A CAI Study of Learning Geologic Time and Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, James P.; Stolurow, Lawrence M.

    Twenty-two college students in science education were given an adjunctive computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program by means of typewriter consoles and computer-controlled colored slide presentations of critical information. Students were pretested, told how to respond at the student console, taught by the Harvard CAI System, and posttested. The…

  9. Effect of CAI on Achievement of LD Students in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivaram, R. T.; Ramar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The present experimental study was undertaken with three objectives in view, (i) to identify students with language learning disabilities (ii) to develop CAI software to teach LD students through computer-assisted instruction and (iii) to measure the effectiveness of CAI with special reference to LD students. Two matched groups of LD students were…

  10. High School Students Participate in a CAI Study Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.

    A 10-module computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program on study skills was field tested to determine its effectiveness with high school students, using 50 advanced seniors in a large Texas high school as subjects. The program consisted of a study skills pretest, the CAI modules, a notebook on study skills, and a posttest. The modules were…

  11. Marshall McLuhan and the Case Against CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirvela, Alan

    1988-01-01

    Presents some of the conventional arguments against computer assisted instruction (CAI) in language education and explores humanistic concerns raised in the works of Marshall McLuhan. It is concluded that CAI is introduced into the instructional process before proper research has demonstrated that this method of teaching is not harmful for…

  12. Radioactive Waste Incineration: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Diederich, A.R.; Akins, M.J.

    2008-07-01

    Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. In some cases, the resulting ash may have high concentrations of materials such as Plutonium or Uranium that are valuable materials for recycling. Incineration can also be effective in treating waste that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Despite these advantages, the number of operating incinerators currently in the US currently appears to be small and potentially declining. This paper describes technical, regulatory, economic and political factors that affect the selection of incineration as a preferred method of treating radioactive waste. The history of incinerator use at commercial and DOE facilities is summarized, along with the factors that have affected each of the sectors, thus leading to the current set of active incinerator facilities. In summary: Incineration has had a long history of use in radioactive waste processing due to their ability to reduce the volume of the waste while destroying hazardous chemicals and biological material. However, combinations of technical, regulatory, economic and political factors have constrained the overall use of incineration. In both the Government and Private sectors, the trend is to have a limited number of larger incineration facilities that treat wastes from a multiple sites. Each of these sector is now served by only one or two incinerators. Increased use of incineration is not likely unless there is a change in the factors involved, such as a significant increase in the cost of disposal. Medical wastes with low levels of radioactive contamination are being treated effectively at small, local incineration facilities. No trend is expected in this group. (authors)

  13. Analysis of incinerator performance and metal emissions from recent trial and test burns

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, T.C.; Lee, H.T.; Kuo, T.H.

    1994-12-31

    Recent trial- and test-burn data from five rotary kiln incinerator facilities were analyzed for combustion performance and metal emissions. The incinerator facilities examined included: DuPont`s Gulf Coast Regional Waste Incinerator in Orange, Texas; Chemical Waste Management`s Incinerator in Port Arthur, Texas; Rollins Environmental Service`s Incinerator in Deer Park, Texas; Martin Marietta`s TSCA Incinerator in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; and EPA`s Incineration Research Facility in Jefferson, Arkansas. The analysis involved the use of a PC-based computer program capable of performing material and energy balance calculations and predicting equilibrium compositions based on the minimization of system free energy. For each analysis, the feed data of waste and fuel and the corresponding operating parameters associated with incinerator and/or afterburner operation were input to the program and the program simulated the combustion performance under equilibrium conditions. In the analysis, the field-recorded performance data were compared with the simulated equilibrium results and the incinerator performance, including the quality of the field data, the combustion efficiency, the percent excess air, the heat loss, and the amount of air inleakage, was evaluated. In addition, the field-obtained metal data were analyzed for emission rate and metal balance. 13 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Solvent vapors controlled by pre-concentration, incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Concentration of solvent vapors in ventilation air exhausted from the workplace often is too dilute for efficient destruction or recovery. Several techniques are being developed to pre-concentrate the vapors before treating them in a catalytic incinerator. Molnbacka Industri AB (Forshaga, Sweden) has developed a system to control volatile organic compound emissions by using activated carbon adsorbers to pre-concentrate the solvent vapors. The technology uses carbon adsorption and desorption to concentrate dilute solvent vapors to a much smaller air stream for efficient destruction in a catalytic incinerator.

  15. Alternatives to incineration: There's more than one way to remediate

    SciTech Connect

    Pellerin, C.

    1994-10-01

    Hazardous waste is everywhere. It comes from paints, motor oil, hair spray, household cleaners, automotive chemicals, and all kinds of toxic medical, industrial and military products. Most industrial processes - from which come cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, computers and garden pesticides - generate wastes that the EPA, acting under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), says can harm human health or the environment if not properly managed. As a waste-disposal technology, incineration has been around for about 500,000 years - an interesting spinoff of that timely Homo erectus discovery, fire. For millennia, incineration looked like a pretty good way to turn big piles of hazardous waste into air emissions, smaller piles of ash, and sometimes energy. And it's still a good idea. The EPA, for one, calls high-temperature incineration the best available technology for disposing of most hazardous waste. But incineration has drawbacks. When hazardous waste goes into an incinerator, it comes out as potentially harmful air emissions, although these emissions are strictly controlled, and ash ash that's treated to meet EPA standards and then disposed of in an authorized landfill. It doesn't just vanish into thin air.

  16. Real-time analysis of incinerator emissions: The missing link

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, J.

    1994-11-01

    Incineration has long been, and continues to be, one of the most cost-effective technologies for disposing of the world's growing volume of municipal and hazardous waste. Yet anyone who has been involved in an attempt to site an incinerator in recent years knows the political nightmare this process has become. The public has become extremely suspicious of the health and environmental impact of incinerators, and not without reason. Incinerators have been known to release unacceptably high levels of toxic substances into the air, including dioxins, furans, and other pollutants. Worse, there are no monitoring devices that can continuously measure trace gases in incinerator emissions to allow operators to know exactly what substances are being released and allow for quick corrective action. To address the problems, several teams of university scientists are developing techniques for real-time emissions monitoring that may simultaneously allow industry to operate incinerators in the most efficient manner and assure the public that their health is being protected.

  17. Emissions investigation for a novel medical waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rong; Li, Wei-jie; Li, Jie; Wu, Bo-liang; Yi, Jia-qiang

    2009-07-15

    Medical waste constitutes one of the waste streams that should be dealt with special priority due to its potential negative impact on public health and on the environment. Incineration is a process that is widely used for the treatment of medical waste. However, self-supporting combustion of medical waste cannot avoid releasing many hazardous pollutants into our environment. The most favored solutions are firing additional fuels of high calorific value and direct purification by air pollution control devices (APCD). This process entails not only large first time investment but also an increase in the operation cost. A novel incinerator is proposed for better utilization of energy of the incineration process. Its originality is essentially due to combining a feeder, a rotary grate, a cylindrical gasifier and a "coaxial" secondary combustion chamber into a unique unit. The structure of the incinerator as well as the principle of the incineration process is presented in this paper. A full-scale trial of the novel incinerator with APCD was carried out from March to May 2008 to investigate how the distinct configuration influenced the incineration process. Data on PM, CO, NO(X), O(2) were recorded by a continuous emission monitoring system during the study period. Heavy metals and PCCD/Fs were also sampled and measured. Measuring results were compared with the China and U.S. EPA guidelines. The concentrations of contaminants were below their respective limits in emission control standards. Results from testing the novel medical waste incinerator confirmed that this technology has a good suitability for neutralization of medical wastes and purification of flue gases.

  18. 41. BUILDINGS 2215, 2216, AND 2217, INCINERATORS. INCINERATORS AS MODIFIED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. BUILDINGS 2215, 2216, AND 2217, INCINERATORS. INCINERATORS AS MODIFIED WITH ENCLOSURES TO PREVENT GARBAGE FROM BEING BLOWN OFF THE PLATFORM WHEN UNLOADED, AND STEPS TO THE PLATFORM. Fort McCoy photograph, #57-13, October 1943. - Fort McCoy, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  19. Creation and Distribution of CAIs in the Protoplanetary Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Davis, S. S.; Dobrovolskis, A. R.

    2003-01-01

    CaAl rich refractory mineral inclusions (CAIs) found at 1 - 10% mass fraction in primitive chondrites appear to be several million years older than the dominant (chondrule) components in the same parent bodies. A prevalent concern is that it is difficult to retain CAIs for this long against gas-drag-induced radial drift into the sun. We assess a hot inner (turbulent) nebula context for CAI formation, using analytical models of nebula evolution and particle diffusion. We show that outward radial diffusion in a weakly turbulent nebula can prevent significant numbers of CAI-size particles from being lost into the sun for times of 1 - 3 x 10(exp 6) years. To match the CAI abundances quantitatively, we advocate an enhancement of the inner hot nebula in silicate-forming material, due to rapid inward migration of very primitive, silicate and carbon rich, meter-sized objects. 'Combustion' of the carbon into CO would make the CAI formation environment more reduced than solar, as certain observations imply. Abundant CO might also play a role in mass-independent chemical fractionation of oxygen isotopes as seen in CAIs and associated primitive, high-temperature condensates.

  20. Astrophysics of CAI formation as revealed by silicon isotope LA-MC-ICPMS of an igneous CAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahar, Anat; Young, Edward D.

    2007-05-01

    Silicon isotope ratios of a typical CAI from the Leoville carbonaceous chondrite, obtained in situ by laser ablation MC-ICPMS, together with existing 25Mg/ 24Mg data, reveal a detailed picture of the astrophysical setting of CAI melting and subsequent heating. Models for the chemical and isotopic effects of evaporation of the molten CAI are used to produce a univariant relationship between PH 2 and time during melting. The result shows that this CAI was molten for a cumulative time of no more than 70 days and probably less than 15 days depending on temperature. The object could have been molten for an integrated time of just a few hours if isotope ratio zoning was eliminated after melting by high subsolidus temperatures (e.g., > 1300 K) for ˜ 500 yr. In all cases subsolidus heating sufficient to produce diffusion-limited isotope fractionation at the margin of the solidified CAI is required. These stable isotope data point to a two-stage history for this igneous CAI involving melting for a cumulative timescale of hours to months followed by subsolidus heating for years to hundreds of years. The thermobarometric history deduced from combining Si and Mg isotope ratio data implicates thermal processing in the disk, perhaps by passage through shockwaves, following melting. This study underscores the direct link between the meaning of stable isotope ratio zoning, or lack thereof, and the inferred astrophysical setting of melting and subsequent processing of CAIs.

  1. 40 CFR 65.148 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incinerators. 65.148 Section 65.148....148 Incinerators. (a) Incinerator equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators to meet the 98 weight-percent emission reduction or 20 parts per million by volume...

  2. 40 CFR 65.148 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incinerators. 65.148 Section 65.148....148 Incinerators. (a) Incinerator equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators to meet the 98 weight-percent emission reduction or 20 parts per million by volume...

  3. 40 CFR 65.148 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incinerators. 65.148 Section 65.148....148 Incinerators. (a) Incinerator equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators to meet the 98 weight-percent emission reduction or 20 parts per million by volume...

  4. 40 CFR 65.148 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incinerators. 65.148 Section 65.148....148 Incinerators. (a) Incinerator equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators to meet the 98 weight-percent emission reduction or 20 parts per million by volume...

  5. Hydrodynamics of a Multistage Wet Scrubber Incineration Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Said, M. M.; Manyele, S. V.; Raphael, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the hydrodynamics of the two stage counter-current cascade wet scrubbers used during incineration of medical waste. The dependence of the hydrodynamics on two main variables was studied: Inlet air flow rate and inlet liquid flow rate. This study introduces a new wet scrubber operating features, which are…

  6. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... bed. (3) Where a boiler or process heater of less than 44 megawatts (150 million British thermal units... heaters. 63.988 Section 63.988 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters....

  7. Evaluations of HRI (Heat Recovery Incinerators) at NS (Naval Station) Mayport and NAS (Naval Air Station) Jacksonville, Florida-Lessons Learned Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    primary chamber is lined with 2 in. of insulating mineral wool and 4 in. of castable refractory with a service temperature of 2500*F. 5.5.5.4...material. The refractory should be air cooled by circulating combustion air between it and the outer shell. A minimum of 2-in.-high density mineral wool or...passes through the roof. The 50-ft-high and 6-ft-4-in.-O.D. stack is constructed of steel and lined with 4 in. of refractory and 2 in. of mineral

  8. A CAI in the Ivuna CI1 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, David R.; Zolensky, M.; Martinez, J.; Mikouchi, T.; Ohsumi, K.; Hagiya, K.; Satake, W.; Le, L.; Ross, D.; Peslier, A.

    2011-01-01

    We have recently discovered the first well-preserved calcium aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) in a CI1 chondrite (Ivuna). Previously, all CI1 chondrites were thought to be devoid of preserved CAI and chondrules due to the near total aqueous alteration to which their parent body (bodies) have been subjected. The CAI is roughly spherical, but with a slight teardrop geometry and a maximum diameter of 170 microns (fig. 1). It lacks any Wark-Lovering Rim. Incipient aqueous alteration, and probably shock, have rendered large portions of the CAI poorly crystalline. It is extremely fine-grained, with only a few grains exceeding 10 microns. We have performed electron microprobe analyses (EPMA), FEG-SEM imaging and element mapping, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) in order to determine the fundamental characteristics of this apparently unique object.

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Chondrules and CAIs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Chondrules and CAI's" included the following reports:Metallic Chondrules in NWA 1390 (H3-6): Clues to Their History from Metallic Cu; Relationship Between Bulk Chemical Composition and Formation Age of Chondrules in Bishunpur and Krymka; Relict Forsterite in Chondrules: Implications for Cooling Rates; An Evaluation of Quantitative Methods of Determining the Degree of Melting Experienced by a Chondrule; Rare Earth Element Fractionation in Chondrules; Mineralogy and Petrology of Chondrules in Carbonaceous Chondrite NWA 770; Isotopic Cosmobarometry: A Synthesis of Concepts and Implications for Chondrule and CAI Formation Mechanisms; Further Investigations of Minor Element Distributions in Spinels in Type B CAIs; and Trace Element Compositions of the Sublayers Making Up W-L Rims on CAI .

  10. Forward Operating Base Salerno: Inadequate Planning Resulted in $5 Million Spent for Unused Incinerators and the Continued Use of Potentially Hazardous Open-Air Burn Pit Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    communications; paving and walkways; and security fencing .2 At the time the contract was awarded, the base was primarily using open-air burn pit...and the effects they may have on various organs and body systems such as the adrenal glands, lungs , liver, and stomach. See Epidemiological Studies...Construct storm drainage system $37,869 $0 $37,869 0013 Construct anti-terrorism measures and fencing $126,206 ($10,985) $115,221 0014 Defense Base

  11. The reduction of gas phase air toxics from combustion and incineration sources using the GE-MITSUI-BE activated coke process

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    The dry desulfurization, denitrification and air toxics removal process using activated coke (AC) was originally researched and developed during the 1960s by Bergbau Forschung (BF), now called Deutsche Montan Technologies. Mitsui Mining Company (MMC) signed a licensing agreement with BF in 1982 to investigate, test and adapt the system to the facilities in Japan. Japanese regulations are stricter than in the U.S. toward SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} pollutants, as well as flyash emissions from the utility industry, oil refineries and other industries. This process is installed on flour coal-fired boilers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC) units. These plants were constructed by MCC in Japan and Uhde GmbH in Germany. General Electric Environmental Systems, Inc. (GEESI) signed a license agreement in 1992 with MMC and Mitsui and Company, Ltd. of Tokyo. Under this agreement, GEESI will market, design, fabricate and install the Mitsui-BF press for flue gas cleaning applications in North America. MMC also developed a technology to produce AC used in the dry DeSO{sub x}/DeNO{sub x}/Air Toxics removal process based on their own metallurgical coke manufacturing technology. This paper provides information on the details of MMC`s AC used in the dry DeSO{sub x}/DeNO{sub x}/Air Toxics removal process.

  12. Geiselbullach refuse incineration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The vast diversity of wastes, heightened awareness of environmental problems, and unabating demand for power and raw materials, are making it imperative to minimize waste-dumping. Refuse incineration power plants present an ecologically and economically sound answer to this problem, since they also enable communities and large industrial facilities to convert their wastes into electricity and energy for district heating. The refuse produced each year by 1,000,000 people represents a resource equivalent to $30 million of fuel oil. This plant is now converting into energy the waste produced by a population of 280,000. The conversion and expansion were completed without any significant interruption to plant operation. The modernized plant complies fully with today's stringent legal requirements for obtaining an operating license in West Germany. Because landfill sites are becoming increasingly scarce everywhere, thermal processes that dispose of refuse and simultaneously generate electrical power and heat are creating a great deal of interest.

  13. Lessons learned from start-up testing of a mixed waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes Burns, H.; Burns, D.B.

    1997-05-01

    Start-up testing of a new mixed waste incinerator, the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF), has been completed at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS). The incinerator is equipped with an air pollution control system (APCS) that includes a wet quench and scrubber followed by dry air filtration using high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The system was designed with optimum materials to maximize reliability, runtime, and ease of maintenance. Changes to the CIF operation and materials have been made to maximize system performance and minimize corrosion. This paper presents a brief overview of the incinerator design philosophy, pilot-scale testing results, and some of the lessons learned during the start-up testing of the CIF.

  14. Incineration of different types of medical wastes: emission factors for gaseous emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Afonso, S. A. V.

    Previous research works showed that to protect public health, the hospital incinerators should be provided with air pollution control devices. As most hospital incinerators do not possess such equipment, efficient methodologies should be developed to evaluate the safety of incineration procedure. Emission factors (EF) can be used for an easy estimation of legal parameters. Nevertheless, the actual knowledge is yet very scarce, mainly because EF previously published do not include enough information about the incinerated waste composition, besides considering many different waste classifications. This paper reports the first EF estimated for CO, SO 2, NO x and HCl, associated to the incineration of medical waste, segregated in different types according to the classification of the Portuguese legislation. The results showed that those EF are strongly influenced by incinerated waste composition, directly affected by incinerated waste type, waste classification, segregation practice and management methodology. The correspondence between different waste classifications was analysed comparing the estimated EF with the sole results previously published for specific waste types, being observed that the correspondence is not always possible. The legal limit for pollutant concentrations could be obeyed for NO x, but concentrations were higher than the limit for CO (11-24 times), SO 2 (2-5 times), and HCl (9-200 times), confirming that air pollution control devices must be used to protect human health. The small heating value of medical wastes with compulsory incineration implied the requirement of a bigger amount of auxiliary fuel for their incineration, which affects the emitted amounts of CO, NO x and SO 2 (28, 20 and practically 100% of the respective values were related with fuel combustion). Nevertheless, the incineration of those wastes lead to the smallest amount of emitted pollutants, the emitted amount of SO 2 and NO x reducing to 93% and the emitted amount of CO

  15. Transportable incineration services approved for Superfund sites

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    WESTON submitted two thermal technologies for review by EPA, both of which have been approved for use at Superfund sites. The technologies are: Transportable Incineration System (TIS) - a high temperature rotary kiln incineration system which was utilized to clean-up a PCB-contaminated site in Beardstown, IL, and is currently being mobilized to perform a $6 million clean up at the Paxton Avenue Lagoon site in Chicago, IL. Low Temperature Thermal Treatment (LT{sup 3}) - a patented process for removal of volatile organic compounds from soil which is currently involved in a $1.4 million clean up at Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma City, OK. In addition to the two EPA-approved technologies, WSI also has exclusive license to a new patented process called In situ Radio-Frequency (IRF) decontamination. This technology treats the soil in place with excavation using a process similar to the heating accomplished within a microwave oven. WSI will perform a full-scale clean up using the IRF technology at a US Air Force Base in Texas in early 1990.

  16. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Llll of... - Summary of Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 5 Table 5 to Subpart LLLL of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60, Subpt. LLLL, Table...

  17. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Llll of... - Summary of Reporting Requirements for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 5 Table 5 to Subpart LLLL of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60, Subpt. LLLL, Table...

  18. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Llll of... - Operating Parameters for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sludge Incineration Units a 3 Table 3 to Subpart LLLL of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60, Subpt. LLLL, Table 3 Table 3...

  19. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Model Rule-Operating Parameters for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 4 Table 4 to Subpart MMMM of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt....

  20. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Model Rule-Operating Parameters for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a 4 Table 4 to Subpart MMMM of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Existing Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt....

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Llll of... - Operating Parameters for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sludge Incineration Units a 3 Table 3 to Subpart LLLL of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Pt. 60, Subpt. LLLL, Table 3 Table 3...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1203 - What are the standards for hazardous waste incinerators that are effective until compliance with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste incinerators that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1219? 63.1203...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Hazardous Waste Combustors Interim Emissions... What are the standards for hazardous waste incinerators that are effective until compliance with...

  3. 77 FR 24451 - Direct Final Approval of Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators State Plan for Designated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 62 Direct Final Approval of Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators State Plan...' revised State Plan to control air pollutants from Hazardous/ Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators...

  4. 77 FR 24451 - Direct Final Approval of Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators State Plan for Designated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 62 Direct Final Approval of Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators State Plan... revised State Plan to control air pollutants from Hazardous/ Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators...

  5. NEW TITANIUM ISOTOPE DATA FOR ALLENDE AND EFREMOVKA CAIs

    SciTech Connect

    Leya, Ingo; Schoenbaechler, Maria; Kraehenbuehl, Urs; Halliday, Alex N.

    2009-09-10

    We measured the titanium (Ti) isotope composition, i.e., {sup 50}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, {sup 48}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, and {sup 46}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, in five calcium-rich-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) from the oxidized CV3 chondrite Allende and in two CAIs from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka. Our data indicate that CAIs are enriched in {sup 50}Ti/{sup 47}Ti and {sup 46}Ti/{sup 47}Ti and are slightly depleted in {sup 48}Ti/{sup 47}Ti compared to normal Ti defined by ordinary chondrites, eucrites, ureilites, mesosiderites, Earth, Moon, and Mars. Some CAIs have an additional {sup 50}Ti excess of {approx}8{epsilon} relative to bulk carbonaceous chondrites, which are enriched in {sup 50}Ti by {approx}2{epsilon} relative to terrestrial values, leading to a total excess of {approx}10{epsilon}. This additional {sup 50}Ti excess is correlated with nucleosynthetic anomalies found in {sup 62}Ni and {sup 96}Zr, all indicating an origin from a neutron-rich stellar source. Bulk carbonaceous chondrites show a similar trend, however, the extent of the anomalies is either less than or similar to the smallest anomalies seen in CAIs. Mass balance calculations suggest that bulk Allende Ti possibly consists of a mixture of at least two Ti components, anomalous Ti located in CAIs and a normal component possibly for matrix and chondrules. This argues for a heterogeneous distribution of Ti isotopes in the solar system. The finding that anomalous Ti is concentrated in CAIs suggests that CAIs formed in a specific region of the solar system and were, after their formation, not homogeneously redistributed within the solar system. Combining the CAI data with improved model predictions for early solar system irradiation effects indicates that a local production scenario for the relatively short lived radionuclides can be excluded, because the production of, e.g., {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, and {sup 41}Ca, would result in a significant collateral shift in Ti isotopes, which is not seen in the

  6. Evaluation of the leachability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in raw and solidified air pollution control residues from municipal waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Yu, Tsung-Hsien

    2007-04-01

    Leachability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from raw and solidified air pollution control (APC) residues with selected solvents, including acetic acid, simulated acid rain, humic acid, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and n-hexane was investigated. High-chlorinated PCDD/F congeners were observed in all leachates of raw APC residue samples, with the largest total leaching concentration (61.60 ngm(-3); 0.30 ngI-TEQm(-3)) from treatment with humic acid. Low-chlorinated congeners were mainly leached with LAS and n-hexane. Solidification and stabilization (S/S) processes with cement and sulfur-containing chelating agent decreased the leachability of PCDD/Fs by up to 98% with humic acid and LAS as solvents. However, S/S processes enhanced the leachability of both high- and low-chlorinated PCDD/F congeners with n-hexane as the solvent, which largely increased the toxic equivalent quantity of leachates. These results suggest that conventional S/S processes may effectively restrain the release of PCDD/Fs when APC residues are leached with rain water or natural organic compounds (e.g., humic acid), but may have a deteriorated effect when APC residues are leached with nonpolar organic solvents (e.g., n-hexane) coexisting in the landfill sites.

  7. Coburning in institutional incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Green, A.; Prine, G.; Yost, R.; Green, B.; Williams, D.; Schwartz, J.; Wagner, J.; Clauson, D.; Proctor, B.; Feinberg, A.

    1987-01-01

    Our program, initiated in 1980, originally sought to replace imported oil by coburning coal and natural gas in oil designed boilers. Success came in 1986 with the co-combustion of coal water slurries (CWS) and natural gas (G) in a 20 MMBtu/hr watertube oil designed boiler. We achieved stable flames over broad load levels, good boiler efficiencies, low emissions, benign ash and--by increasing the G/CWS ratio--full power rating. Our biomass-waste co-combustion experiments will utilize a two chamber ram fed incinerator. Advanced analytical techniques will be used to measure available energy and stack emissions from various waste-biomass-fossil fuel combinations. Heating values, H/C ratios, percent moisture, emissions, prices and tipping fees are discussed. Locally grown annual dry biomass yields of napiergrass and leucaena, energetically equivalent to 30-50 barrels of oil per acre, are reported. Abundant local sources of waste biomass are identified. Together community waste and cultivated and waste biomass constitute a substantial source of renewable energy of use in forested and agricultural regions. Modular waste to energy systems are available in the 10-100 ton per day range. With aggressive recycling and hazardous waste reduction measures and good combustion management and emission controls, emissions should be maintained at low levels. The results from our system, a small modular waste-biomass to energy system, should be applicable to many institutions and small communities. 41 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-10-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250 kg of coal per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO(2) and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits in mitigating global warming, whereas incineration with a mass of coal can avoid more impacts to acidification, photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment because of increased electricity substitution and reduced emission from coal power plants. The "Emission standard of air pollutants for thermal power plants (GB13223-2011)" implemented in 2012 introduced stricter policies on controlling SO(2) and NO(x) emissions from coal power plants. Thus, increased use of auxiliary coal during incineration yields fewer avoided impacts on acidification and nutrient enrichment. When two-thirds of ash is source-separated and landfilled, the incineration of rest-waste presents better results on global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, and even ecotoxicity in soil. This process is considered a promising solution for MSW management in Shuozhou City. Weighted normalized environmental impacts were assessed based on Chinese political reduction targets. Results indicate that heavy metal and acidic gas emissions should be given more attention in waste incineration. This study provides scientific support for the management of MSW systems dominated by incineration with auxiliary coal in China.

  9. Assessment of incineration and melting treatment technologies for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Geimer, R.; Hertzler, T.; Gillins, R. ); Anderson, G.L. )

    1992-02-01

    This report provides an identification, description, and ranking evaluation of the available thermal treatment technologies potentially capable of treating the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried mixed waste. The ranking evaluation focused separately upon incinerators for treatment of combustible wastes and melters for noncombustible wastes. The highest rank incinerators are rotary kilns and controlled air furnaces, while the highest rank melters are the hearth configuration plasma torch, graphite electrode arc, and joule-heated melters. 4 refs.

  10. INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. The p...

  11. 46 CFR 63.25-9 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incinerators. 63.25-9 Section 63.25-9 Shipping COAST... Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-9 Incinerators. (a) General. Incinerators installed on or after March 26, 1998, must meet the requirements of IMO MEPC.76(40)...

  12. 46 CFR 63.25-9 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incinerators. 63.25-9 Section 63.25-9 Shipping COAST... Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-9 Incinerators. (a) General. Incinerators installed on or after March 26, 1998, must meet the requirements of IMO MEPC.76(40)...

  13. 46 CFR 63.25-9 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incinerators. 63.25-9 Section 63.25-9 Shipping COAST... Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-9 Incinerators. (a) General. Incinerators installed on or after March 26, 1998, must meet the requirements of IMO MEPC.76(40)...

  14. 46 CFR 63.25-9 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incinerators. 63.25-9 Section 63.25-9 Shipping COAST... Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-9 Incinerators. (a) General. Incinerators installed on or after March 26, 1998, must meet the requirements of IMO MEPC.76(40)...

  15. Emission of ultrafine particles from the incineration of municipal solid waste: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alan M.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2016-09-01

    Ultrafine particles (diameter <100 nm) are of great topical interest because of concerns over possible enhanced toxicity relative to larger particles of the same composition. While combustion processes, and especially road traffic exhaust are a known major source of ultrafine particle emissions, relatively little is known of the magnitude of emissions from non-traffic sources. One such source is the incineration of municipal waste, and this article reviews studies carried out on the emissions from modern municipal waste incinerators. The effects of engineering controls upon particle emissions are considered, as well as the very limited information on the effects of changing waste composition. The results of measurements of incinerator flue gas, and of atmospheric sampling at ground level in the vicinity of incinerators, show that typical ultrafine particle concentrations in flue gas are broadly similar to those in urban air and that consequently, after the dispersion process dilutes incinerator exhaust with ambient air, ultrafine particle concentrations are typically indistinguishable from those that would occur in the absence of the incinerator. In some cases the ultrafine particle concentration in the flue gas may be below that in the local ambient air. This appears to be a consequence of the removal of semi-volatile vapours in the secondary combustion zone and abatement plant, and the high efficiency of fabric filters for ultrafine particle collection.

  16. Consolidated Incineration Facility model videotape

    SciTech Connect

    Krolewski, J F; Augsburger, S T

    1988-01-01

    A Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is in final design for construction at the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, South Carolina. The CIF will detoxify and volume reduce combustible radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste. A study model was constructed during scope development for project authorization to assist with equipment layout and insure sufficient maintenance access. To facilitate the Department of Energy Validation process, a videotape of the model was developed. This ten minute videotape includes general information about the incineration process and a tour of the study model with a discussion of activities in each area. The videotape will be shown and the current status and schedule for the CIF presented.

  17. New design incinerator being built

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    A $14 million garbage-burning facility is being built by Reedy Creek Utilities Co. in cooperation with DOE at Lake Buena Vista, Fla., on the edge of Walt Disney World. The nation's first large-volume slagging pyrolysis incinerator will burn municipal waste in a more beneficial way and supply 15% of the amusement park's energy demands. By studying the new incinerators slag-producing capabilities, engineers hope to design similar facilities for isolating low-level nuclear wastes in inert, rocklike slag.

  18. An experimental study of the combustion characteristics in SCCI and CAI based on direct-injection gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.

    2007-08-15

    Emissions remain a critical issue affecting engine design and operation, while energy conservation is becoming increasingly important. One approach to favorably address these issues is to achieve homogeneous charge combustion and stratified charge combustion at lower peak temperatures with a variable compression ratio, a variable intake temperature and a trapped rate of the EGR using NVO (negative valve overlap). This experiment was attempted to investigate the origins of these lower temperature auto-ignition phenomena with SCCI and CAI using gasoline fuel. In case of SCCI, the combustion and emission characteristics of gasoline-fueled stratified-charge compression ignition (SCCI) engine according to intake temperature and compression ratio was examined. We investigated the effects of air-fuel ratio, residual EGR rate and injection timing on the CAI combustion area. In addition, the effect of injection timing on combustion factors such as the start of combustion, its duration and its heat release rate was also investigated. (author)

  19. Using neural networks to predict incinerator emissions: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Heitz, M.W.; George, B.; Welp, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a case study applying a neural network to predict incinerator emissions. A neural network is a program which is used to develop relationships between process operating variables (input data) and emissions (output data). Recent Federal 503 Regulations for Sewage Sludge Incinerators have required the installation of total hydrocarbon (THC) or carbon monoxide (CO) continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) to assure emission compliance. These systems are expensive to install, operate, and maintain. An investigation was performed to develop a simulation model using an artificial intelligence program with the goal of improved operations and reduced air emissions. This paper presents methods used for data collection, data preprocessing, and network training, as well as the architecture and weights of the final network. The network application has improved incinerator operations and limited emissions by determining acceptable ranges of operating variables. Neural networks have been found to accurately predict incinerator emissions. Their use would reduce the burden of high monitoring and compliance costs associated with CEMS. Neural networks may be applied to other environmental monitoring and control processes.

  20. Effects of CAI on the Academic Performance and Attitudes of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyben, Paul D.; Hipworth, Kristin; Pappas, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Although computer-assisted instruction (CAI) favorably affects academic performance and attitudes toward instruction, most CAI programs target mastery but not fluency. This study used a within-subjects, crossover design to compare the effects of CAI that included fluency training with traditional study (TS) conditions on test performance and…

  1. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Clinical Education: A Roadmap to Increasing CAI Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Norman B.; Fall, Leslie H.; Maloney, Christopher G.; Levine, David A.

    2008-01-01

    This reflection is based on the premise that clinical education can be improved by more widespread use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and that a roadmap will enable more medical educators to begin using CAI. The rationale for CAI use includes many of its inherent features such as incorporation of multimedia and interactivity yet the use of…

  2. Development of CAI Presentations for Science Teaching and Overview of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Mridula D.

    2006-01-01

    Research suggests that information and communication technologies (ICT) used in the form of computer assisted instruction (CAI) may benefit student learning. There is, however, limited research about the application of CAI in non-Western educational contexts. Here I describe the use of CAI in the learning of science in India. Evaluation of student…

  3. Effectiveness of CAI Package on Achievement in Physics of IX Standard Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheswari, I. Uma; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an experimental one in nature, to find out the effectiveness of CAI package on in Physics of IX std. students. For this purpose a CAI package was developed and validated. The validated CAI package formed an independent variable of this study. The dependent variable is students' achievements in physics content. In order to find…

  4. MONIFORMS as Authoring Aids for the PLATO IV CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Russel E.

    An analysis of portions of the HumRRO (Human Resources Research Organization) developed computer-assisted instruction (CAI) course in COBOL programing, and a survey of representatives from Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) PLATO IV installations indicated a need for authoring aids that could be prepared and programed easily and quickly. The…

  5. An Intelligent CAI Monitor and Generative Tutor. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffman, Elliot B.; And Others

    Design techniques for generative computer-assisted-instructional (CAI) systems are described in this report. These are systems capable of generating problems for students and of deriving and monitoring solutions; problem difficulty, instructional pace, and depth of monitoring are all individually tailored and parts of the solution algorithms can…

  6. Focal Manual for CAI Coding on the TSS/8 System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirbs, H. Dewey; And Others

    Basic information is provided in this manual for coding drill-and-practice CAI (computer-assisted instruction) applications in the language FOCAL (Formulating On-line Calculations in Algebraic Language). This language is available on the Digital Equipment Corporation Time-Sharing 8 system (TSS/8). While FOCAL is oriented toward solution of…

  7. Conjunctival mucin deficiency in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS).

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Flavio; Moretti, Costanzo; Micera, Alessandra; Bonini, Stefano

    2007-06-01

    Sex steroid hormones are essential for a healthy ocular surface and the androgen receptor impairment found in patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) has been described to cause meibomian gland dysfunction and functional dry eye for lipid tear film layer instability. However, it has not been reported if the mucous layer is also affected. A 37-year-old CAIS patient with persistent symptoms of dry eye underwent ophthalmological examination and was evaluated for qualitative and quantitative tear function tests and conjunctival cytology. Samples obtained from the conjunctival epithelium were stained for histology and immunohistochemistry and compared with three age-matched female controls. Western blot and relative real-time RT-PCR for MUC1 and MUC5AC were also performed on these samples. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and relative real-time RT-PCR showed a decrease in the expression of MUC1 and MUC5AC in CAIS. Changes in the tear film mucous layer were accompanied by a reduction in the tear film break up time test. This is the first report describing mucous layer alteration associated with androgen receptor impairment. Decreased mucin levels contribute in explaining the tear film instability in CAIS and should be considered an additional cause of dry eye in sex steroid hormone pathology.

  8. CAISYS-8- A CAI Language Developed For A Minicomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Cheryl; And Others

    The University of Texas Medical Branch developed a minicomputer-based computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system which employed a teacher oriented software package called CAISYS-8, consisting of a highly modularized teaching compiler and operating system. CAISYS-8 used instructional quanta which generalized the flow of information to and from the…

  9. Distribution and Origin of 36Cl In Allende CAIs

    SciTech Connect

    Matzel, J P; Jacobsen, B; Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Nagashima, K; Yin, Q; Ramon, E C; Weber, P; Wasserburg, G J

    2009-12-11

    The abundance of short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in early solar system materials provide key information about their nucleosynthetic origin and can constrain the timing of early solar system events. Excesses of {sup 36}S ({sup 36}S*) correlated with {sup 35}Cl/{sup 34}S ratios provide direct evidence for in situ decay of {sup 36}Cl ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 0.3 Ma) and have been reported in sodalite (Na{sub 8}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}Cl{sub 2}) and wadalite (Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 5}Si{sub 2}O{sub 16}Cl{sub 3}) in CAIs and chondrules from the Allende and Ningqiang CV carbonaceous chondrites. While previous studies demonstrate unequivocally that {sup 36}Cl was extant in the early solar system, no consensus on the origin or initial abundance of {sup 36}Cl has emerged. Understanding the origin of {sup 36}Cl, as well as the reported variation in the initial {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio, requires addressing when, where and how chlorine was incorporated into CAIs and chondrules. These factors are key to distinguishing between stellar nucleosynthesis or energetic particle irradiation for the origin of {sup 36}Cl. Wadalite is a chlorine-rich secondary mineral with structural and chemical affinities to grossular. The high chlorine ({approx}12 wt%) and very low sulfur content (<<0.01 wt%) make wadalite ideal for studies of the {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S system. Wadalite is present in Allende CAIs exclusively in the interior regions either in veins crosscutting melilite or in zones between melilite and anorthite associated with intergrowths of grossular, monticellite, and wollastonite. Wadalite and sodalite most likely resulted from open-system alteration of primary minerals with a chlorine-rich fluid phase. We recently reported large {sup 36}S* correlated with {sup 35}Cl/{sup 34}S in wadalite in Allende Type B CAI AJEF, yielding a ({sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl){sub 0} ratio of (1.7 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -5}. This value is the highest reported {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio and is {approx}5 times

  10. Search for 41K Excess in Efremovka CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Ulyanov, A. A.; Goswami, J. N.

    1993-07-01

    We have used the ion microprobe to measure K isotopic composition of refractory phases in Efremovka CAIs to look for the possible presence of K excess from the decay of extinct radionuclide Ca (halflife = 0.13 Ma). The presence of Ca at the time of CAI formation, if established, will allow us to place a lower limit on the time interval between the last injection of freshly synthesized matter into the solar nebula and the formation of some of the first solid objects (CAIs) in the solar system. Several attempts have been made earlier to detect 41K excess in Allende CAIs [1-4]. We have further investigated this problem by analyzing the Efremovka CAIs for two reasons. First, both the petrographic and magnesium isotopic systematics suggest the Efremovka CAIs to be less altered compared to the Allende CAIs making them an ideal and perhaps better sample for this study. Second, the presence of large perovskite (~10 micrometers) allowed us to analyse this phase, which was not included in earlier studies. The major difficulty in accurately measuring 41K, which was identified in earlier studies, is the unresolvable (40Ca42Ca)++ interference, which was found to be matrix dependent [4]. In addition, one can also have interfernce from the (40CaH)+ peak. In our operating condition the interference from the hydride peak can be neglected (Fig. 1, which appears in the hard copy). We have analyzed terrestrial perovskite (K <= 20 ppm) to determine the (40Ca42Ca)++ correction term, and its equivalence with (40Ca43Ca)++ ion signal at mass 41.5 [4]. In perovskite, the (40Ca42Ca)++ signal constitutes ~80% of the signal at 41K and we could estimate this interference with confidence. A value of (2.7 +- 0.1) x 10^-5 was obtained for the ratio [(40Ca42Ca)++/42Ca+], which is similar to the measured [(40Ca43Ca)++/43Ca+] ratio of (2.4 +- 0.2) x 10^-5. We have therefore used the measured value for the latter ratio in the analyzed phases to correct for the doubly charged interference at mass 41

  11. Apparatus for feeding fluidized bed incinerator, and method of autogenic operation of same

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.F.

    1981-09-29

    This invention relates to an improved method and apparatus for continuous autogenic incineration of high-moisture easily friable combustible agglomerates in a fluidized-bed. The improvement comprises introducing the waste materials into the bed in a tube of air provided by supplemental air means which surrounds the in-bed feed means.

  12. Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-31

    INDIA ........................................ INTERNATIONAL S 392 388 38 120190 5134.50 1048 1.78 INDONESIA...TZ -A iCAI TRANS AIR ...................... DOMESTIC ... S 219 NS 946 AS 1165 UA . UNITED AIR LINES ............................ D ........... S

  13. Enviromental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow (Poland).

    PubMed

    Gielar, Agnieszka; Helios-Rybicka, Edeltrauda

    2013-07-01

    The environmental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow was investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the degree of environmental effect of the secondary solid waste generated during the incineration process of medical waste. The analysis of pollution of the air emissions and leaching test of ashes and slag were carried out. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that (i) the hospital waste incineration plant significantly solves the problems of medical waste treatment in Krakow; (ii) the detected contaminant concentrations were generally lower than the permissible values; (iii) the generated ashes and slag contained considerable concentrations of heavy metals, mainly zinc, and chloride and sulfate anions. Ashes and slag constituted 10-15% of the mass of incinerated wastes; they are more harmful for the environment when compared with untreated waste, and after solidification they can be deposited in the hazardous waste disposal.

  14. Observations from a prototype implementation of the Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclimens, M.; Bowerman, R.; Howell, C.; Gill, H.; Hutchison, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS), its purpose, and its history. The paper describes an internal research and development effort at the Mitre Corporation to implement a prototype version of the current CAIS specification and to rehost existing Ada software development tools onto the CAIS prototype. Based on this effort, observations are made on the maturity and functionality of the CAIS. These observations support the government's current policy of publicizing the CAIS specification as a baseline for public review in support of its evolution into a standard which can be mandated for use as Ada is today.

  15. Numerical Investigation Into Effect of Fuel Injection Timing on CAI/HCCI Combustion in a Four-Stroke GDI Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Li; Zhao, Hua; Jiang, Xi; Kalian, Navin

    2006-02-01

    The Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), was achieved by trapping residuals with early exhaust valve closure in conjunction with direct injection. Multi-cycle 3D engine simulations have been carried out for parametric study on four different injection timings in order to better understand the effects of injection timings on in-cylinder mixing and CAI combustion. The full engine cycle simulation including complete gas exchange and combustion processes was carried out over several cycles in order to obtain the stable cycle for analysis. The combustion models used in the present study are the Shell auto-ignition model and the characteristic-time combustion model, which were modified to take the high level of EGR into consideration. A liquid sheet breakup spray model was used for the droplet breakup processes. The analyses show that the injection timing plays an important role in affecting the in-cylinder air/fuel mixing and mixture temperature, which in turn affects the CAI combustion and engine performance.

  16. Oxygen Isotope Measurements of a Rare Murchison Type A CAI and Its Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, J. I.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Jacobsen, B.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2013-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from CV chondrites commonly show oxygen isotope heterogeneity among different mineral phases within individual inclusions reflecting the complex history of CAIs in both the solar nebula and/or parent bodies. The degree of isotopic exchange is typically mineral-specific, yielding O-16-rich spinel, hibonite and pyroxene and O-16-depleted melilite and anorthite. Recent work demonstrated large and systematic variations in oxygen isotope composition within the margin and Wark-Lovering rim of an Allende Type A CAI. These variations suggest that some CV CAIs formed from several oxygen reservoirs and may reflect transport between distinct regions of the solar nebula or varying gas composition near the proto-Sun. Oxygen isotope compositions of CAIs from other, less-altered chondrites show less intra-CAI variability and 16O-rich compositions. The record of intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability in CM chondrites, which commonly show evidence for low-temperature aqueous alteration, is less clear, in part because the most common CAIs found in CM chondrites are mineralogically simple (hibonite +/- spinel or spinel +/- pyroxene) and are composed of minerals less susceptible to O-isotopic exchange. No measurements of the oxygen isotope compositions of rims on CAIs in CM chondrites have been reported. Here, we present oxygen isotope data from a rare, Type A CAI from the Murchison meteorite, MUM-1. The data were collected from melilite, hibonite, perovskite and spinel in a traverse into the interior of the CAI and from pyroxene, melilite, anorthite, and spinel in the Wark-Lovering rim. Our objectives were to (1) document any evidence for intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability; (2) determine the isotopic composition of the rim minerals and compare their composition(s) to the CAI interior; and (3) compare the MUM-1 data to oxygen isotope zoning profiles measured from CAIs in other chondrites.

  17. Detection of radioactive accumulations within an incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenig, F.C. Jr.; Grossman, L.N.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes an incinerator for burning combustible material contaminated by radiation. This incinerator has a combustion chamber having containment walls of high density refractory brick provided with at least one window opening through the high density refractory brick containment walls. The window consists of a low density body of ceramic fibers. Any radiation from residual radioactive ash within the incinerator containment and inhibited by the high density refractory brick can penetrate outward through the window of low density fiber to beyond the incinerator containment walls. A radiation detector is mounted outside the incinerator containment walls adjacent to the window of low density ceramic fiber for measuring any radiation passing out from the combustion chamber through the low density window. The amount of retained radioactive ash accumulated in the incinerator combustion chamber is indicated on the detector.

  18. Replacement textures in CAI and implications regarding planetary metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, G. P.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Armstrong, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Formation by a secondary metamorphic event, rather than primary crystallization from a melt or a sequential nebular condensation, is indicated by textural and chemical features of five coarse grained, Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAI) from the Allende meteorite which contain embayed pyroxene surrounded by melilite. It is suggested that the most probable environment for a metamorphic process (requiring the addition of Ca derived from calcite or from the introduction of a fluid phase) is that of a small planetary body, rather than the solar nebula. These results are compatible with O isotopic heterogeneities within CAI, and offer a mechanism for the production of lower temperature alteration phases, together with the rim phases found in these inclusions.

  19. CAIS standard manual. System number 32. Central cooling plants

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a specific list of components. Specific observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Central Cooling Plants.

  20. CAIS standard manual. System number 24. Natural gas distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed, including infrastructure, will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a related list of components. Detailed observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Natural Gas Distribution System.

  1. CAIS standard manual. System number 28. Central heating plants

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a specific list of components. Specific observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Central Heating Plants.

  2. CAIS standard manual. System number 27. Petroleum fuel facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed, including infrastructure, will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a related list of components. Detailed observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Industrial Gas Storage and Distribution System.

  3. The early days of incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Landfills reaching capacity, beaches fouled with trash, neighborhood residents protesting waste disposal sites in their backyards, and municipalities forced to recycle. Sound familiar? These issues might have been taken from today`s headlines, but they were also problems facing mechanical engineers a century ago. Conditions such as these were what led engineers to design the first incinerators for reducing the volume of municipal garbage, as well as for producing heat and electricity. The paper discusses these early days.

  4. 16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the left. Metal catwalk in the middle. Incinerator control panel to the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  5. 8. Front (east) side of incinerator and glove boxes. Ash ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Front (east) side of incinerator and glove boxes. Ash canning hood to the left, combustion chamber in the middle, incinerator hood to the right. Looking west. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  6. Dioxin formation from waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Shibamoto, Takayuki; Yasuhara, Akio; Katami, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    There has been great concern about dioxins-polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzo furans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-causing contamination in the environment because the adverse effects of these chemicals on human health have been known for many years. Possible dioxin-contamination has received much attention recently not only by environmental scientists but also by the public, because dioxins are known to be formed during the combustion of industrial and domestic wastes and to escape into the environment via exhaust gases from incinerators. Consequently, there is a pressing need to investigate the formation mechanisms or reaction pathways of these chlorinated chemicals to be able to devise ways to reduce their environmental contamination. A well-controlled small-scale incinerator was used for the experiments in the core references of this review. These articles report the investigation of dioxin formation from the combustion of various waste-simulated samples, including different kinds of paper, various kinds of wood, fallen leaves, food samples, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinylidene chloride, polyethylene tetraphthalate (PET), and various kinds of plastic products. These samples were also incinerated with inorganic chlorides (NaCl, KCl, CuCI2, MgCl2, MnCl2, FeCl2, CoCl2, fly ash, and seawater) or organic chlorides (PVC, chlordane, and pentachlorophenol) to investigate the role of chlorine content and/or the presence of different metals in dioxin formation. Some samples, such as newspapers, were burned after they were impregnated with NaCl or PVC, as well as being cocombusted with chlorides. The roles of incineration conditions, including chamber temperatures, O2 concentrations, and CO concentrations, in dioxin formation were also investigated. Dioxins (PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar-PCBs) formed in the exhaust gases from a controlled small-scale incinerator, where experimental waste

  7. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  8. Fundamental characteristics of input waste of small MSW incinerators in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki-In; Lee, Suk-Hui; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Osako, Masahiro

    2008-11-01

    Waste incineration in a small incinerator is a simple and convenient way of treating waste discharged from small areas or from large facilities and buildings such as business centers, marketplaces, factories, and military units. Despite their ostensible advantages, however, many small incinerators frequently suffer from serious problems, e.g., unsystematic waste feeding, unstable combustion, deficient air pollution control devices, and consequently, environmental pollution. To obtain a better understanding of the characterization of wastes in small incinerators, we investigated a series of fundamental characteristics, i.e., physical composition, bulk density, proximate and ultimate analysis, potential energy content, and so on. The main waste components in small incinerators were identified as paper and plastic; the proportion of food waste was less than that in large incinerators. Especially, a low ratio of food waste had a strong influence on other waste characteristics, e.g., lower moisture content and bulk density, and higher potential energy. On the other hand, in contrast with that of HCl, there was no distinguishable linear relationship between Cl content in waste and PCDD/DF concentration in combustion gas.

  9. Silicon Isotopic Fractionation of CAI-like Vacuum Evaporation Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, K; Kita, N; Mendybaev, R; Richter, F; Davis, A; Valley, J

    2009-06-18

    Calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are often enriched in the heavy isotopes of magnesium and silicon relative to bulk solar system materials. It is likely that these isotopic enrichments resulted from evaporative mass loss of magnesium and silicon from early solar system condensates while they were molten during one or more high-temperature reheating events. Quantitative interpretation of these enrichments requires laboratory determinations of the evaporation kinetics and associated isotopic fractionation effects for these elements. The experimental data for the kinetics of evaporation of magnesium and silicon and the evaporative isotopic fractionation of magnesium is reasonably complete for Type B CAI liquids (Richter et al., 2002, 2007a). However, the isotopic fractionation factor for silicon evaporating from such liquids has not been as extensively studied. Here we report new ion microprobe silicon isotopic measurements of residual glass from partial evaporation of Type B CAI liquids into vacuum. The silicon isotopic fractionation is reported as a kinetic fractionation factor, {alpha}{sub Si}, corresponding to the ratio of the silicon isotopic composition of the evaporation flux to that of the residual silicate liquid. For CAI-like melts, we find that {alpha}{sub Si} = 0.98985 {+-} 0.00044 (2{sigma}) for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si with no resolvable variation with temperature over the temperature range of the experiments, 1600-1900 C. This value is different from what has been reported for evaporation of liquid Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} (Davis et al., 1990) and of a melt with CI chondritic proportions of the major elements (Wang et al., 2001). There appears to be some compositional control on {alpha}{sub Si}, whereas no compositional effects have been reported for {alpha}{sub Mg}. We use the values of {alpha}Si and {alpha}Mg, to calculate the chemical compositions of the unevaporated precursors of a number of isotopically fractionated CAIs from CV chondrites whose

  10. Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure.

  11. Oxygen Isotope Variations at the Margin of a CAI Records Circulation Within the Solar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Simon, Steven B.; Matzel, Jennifer E. P.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2011-03-01

    Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen isotope compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of 16O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like isotopic composition, then shifts to extremely 16O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.

  12. Oxygen isotope variations at the margin of a CAI records circulation within the solar nebula.

    PubMed

    Simon, Justin I; Hutcheon, Ian D; Simon, Steven B; Matzel, Jennifer E P; Ramon, Erick C; Weber, Peter K; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J

    2011-03-04

    Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen isotope compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of (16)O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like isotopic composition, then shifts to extremely (16)O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.

  13. Rotary kiln incineration of dichloromethane and xylene: A comparison of incinerability characteristics under various operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Cundy, V.A.; Lu, C.; Cook, C.A.; Sterling, A.M.; Leger, C.B.; Jakway, A.L.; Montestruc, A.N.; Conway, R. ); Lester, T.W. )

    1991-08-01

    Comparisons are made, for the first time, between the combustion characteristics of dicholoromethane and xylene in an industrial rotary kiln incinerator. The comparisons are made under different operating conditions, including variable kiln rotation rate and operation both with and without turbulence air. Continuous gas composition and temperature measurements and batch gas composition measurements were obtained from two vertical locations near the exit region of the rotary kiln. The measurements show that there is significant vertical stratification at the exit of the kiln. Addition of turbulence air enhanced combustion conditions throughout the kiln during xylene processing. During dichloromethane processing, however, the addition of turbulence air had minimal effect and only promoted greater bulk mixing; chlorinated compounds transported from the lower kiln during operation with turbulence air were not efficiently processed in the upper kiln. Evolution of test liquids from the bed was not constant but rather was characterized by intermittent peaks. The field-scale data of this work suggest that the evolution rate of the test liquid was increased as kiln rotation rate increased. Many of the differences between xylene and dichloromethane processing during these experiments are explained by a simple stoichiometric analysis.

  14. 40 CFR 65.148 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerators to meet the 98 weight-percent emission reduction or 20 parts per million by volume outlet... incinerator to replace an existing recovery device that is used on a Group 2A process vent, the owner or... § 65.157(b)(1) or upon existing ranges or limits established under a referencing subpart....

  15. Some "Facts" About CAI: A Quantitative Analysis of the 1976 Index to Computer Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    1976-01-01

    Descriptive quantitative data on various aspects of CAI are reported, including subject matter, author languages, instructional strategies, level of instruction, sources, and central processors. (Author)

  16. Testing fluidized bed incinerators for energy-efficient operation for the Southtowns Sewage Treatment Agency. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Two methods for improving the energy efficiency of fluidized bed sludge incinerators were evaluated. The first method used paper pulp and polymer as conditioning agents for municipal sludge instead of lime and ferric chloride. Automatic control of the incinerator was the second method evaluated for energy savings. To evaluate the use of paper pulp and polymer as conditioning agents, varying quantities of paper pulp were added to the liquid sludge to determine the optimal sludge-to-paper pulp ratio. The effect of the paper pulp and polymer-conditioned sludge on plant operations also was evaluated. When compared to sludge conditioned with lime and ferric chloride, the paper pulp and polymer-conditioned sludge had similar cake release and feed characteristics, higher BTU values for the dry sludge solids, required less auxiliary fuel for incineration, and generated less ash for disposal. The paper pulp and polymer did not have any appreciable negative effects on the operation of the wastewater treatment plant. It was estimated that processing and incinerating the sludge conditioned with paper pulp and polymer resulted in a cost savings of up to $91.73 per dry ton of activated sludge solids. To evaluate the effect of automatic control, all the incinerator operating parameters including air flow rates, fuel oil feed rates, and sludge feed rates, were automatically monitored and controlled to minimize auxiliary fuel oil use and to keep the incinerator running at optimal conditions. Although effective, the estimated cost savings for automatic control of the incinerator were small.

  17. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIS Record Varying Composition of Protosolar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) record the O-isotope composition of Solar nebular gas from which they grew [1]. High spatial resolution O-isotope measurements afforded by ion microprobe analysis across the rims and margin of CAIs reveal systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 and suggest formation from a diversity of nebular environments [2-4]. This heterogeneity has been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir [6] and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a "planetary-like" isotopic composition [e.g., 1, 6-7], but the mechanism and location(s) where these events occur within the protoplanetary disk remain uncertain. The orientation of large and systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 reported by [3] for a compact Type A CAI from the Efremovka reduced CV3 chondrite differs dramatically from reports by [4] of a similar CAI, A37 from the Allende oxidized CV3 chondrite. Both studies conclude that CAIs were exposed to distinct, nebular O-isotope reservoirs, implying the transfer of CAIs among different settings within the protoplanetary disk [4]. To test this hypothesis further and the extent of intra-CAI O-isotopic variation, a pristine compact Type A CAI, Ef-1 from Efremovka, and a Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende were studied. Our new results are equally intriguing because, collectively, O-isotopic zoning patterns in the CAIs indicate a progressive and cyclic record. The results imply that CAIs were commonly exposed to multiple environments of distinct gas during their formation. Numerical models help constrain conditions and duration of these events.

  18. Use incineration to destroy toxic gases safely

    SciTech Connect

    Straitz, J.F. III

    1995-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are produced and released to the atmosphere during many operations that use toxic gases and liquids, or produce them as byproducts. VOCs and a wide range of objectionable gas and liquid waste streams can be destroyed in thermal oxidizers (also called incinerators, fume burners or flares). They offer a reliable, cost-effective approach, particularly in cases where the heat value of the waste is sufficient and the oxidizer can be operated without supplemental fuel. Where the heat value is not sufficient, an auxiliary fuel, such as gas, propane or fuel oil, is needed to sustain the needed destruction temperatures. Temperature is a key factor for efficient thermal oxidizer operation. A properly designed unit typically operates at a minimum temperature of 1,600 F. When the design provides adequate gas-air mixing and sufficient residence time, destruction efficiencies of 99.9% or better can be produced for most organic waste vapors and liquids. Certain compounds require higher temperatures. In some cases, thermal oxidation can be carried out at lower temperatures (to control operation expenses) with some tradeoff destruction efficiency.

  19. The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.; Bolitho, M; Higgins, D; Lu, W; Ng, W; Jeffrey, P; Rabinowitz, J; Semmelhack, M; Hughson, F; Bassler, B

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release {ge}100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anticholera treatment.

  20. IOW refuse incinerator to warm prisoners

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, D.

    1981-09-22

    Talks are underway for the possible construction of an incinerator on the Isle of Wight that would serve the prisons with heat. Construction would start in January 1985 and after a six-month trial period, the incinerator would be in full operation by 1987. Annual saving in energy terms would be as much as 1 million gallons of oil a year if a local hospital would also be linked to the heating scheme. The estimated cost of processing refuse by the incinerator is 7 pounds/tonne as opposed to the present 6 pounds/tonne by landfill disposal.

  1. Learner Control of Instructional Sequencing within an Adaptive Tutorial CAI Environment. Technical Report 75-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Robert J.; And Others

    A study to test the effects of learner control of the sequencing of instructional tasks when using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems is described. Using a series of CAI modules to teach the COBOL programing language to military personnel, students were able to control various aspects of their learning environment. Among the research…

  2. A Study of Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) over Classroom Lecture (CRL) at ICS Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaousar, Tayyeba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CAI vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with classroom lecture and computer-assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of CAI and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypotheses of…

  3. Less Equals More: Coaching/Prompting CAI as a Tool Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Ted L.

    Recent reviews of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in various journals suggest that the technological and economic barriers to its adoption and use may be overcome in the very near future, and that CAI will be feasible in a number of educational settings. Computer hardware costs have dropped dramatically in recent years, and a variety of…

  4. Student Conceptions of, and Attitudes toward, Specific Features of a CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira

    1989-01-01

    Describes study of Israeli elementary school students that examined student attitudes toward computer-assisted instruction (CAI) designed to provide drill and practice in arithmetic. Attitudes are compared in relation to students' aptitude, gender, grade level, and socioeconomic status, and implications for the design of CAI systems are discussed.…

  5. Distribution of vanadium and melting of opaque assemblages in Efremovka CAI's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casanova, I.; Grossman, L.

    1993-01-01

    A petrographic and chemical study of compact Type A CAI's from the Efremovka CV3 chondrite strongly suggests that the opaque assemblages (OA's) that they contain were molten at temperatures below the CAI silicate solidus, and that the V-rich magnetite presently observed in association with OA's formed by in situ oxidation of their FeNi.

  6. Can CAI Help? The Crisis of Content in Educational Psychology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Michael C.

    Computer technology per se is not a solution to the problem of the current "crisis in content" in teacher education programs. Computer assisted instruction (CAI) is defined as the on-line interaction of a student with a computer program for purposes of instruction. The drill-and-practice and tutorial CAI programs serve merely as a medium for…

  7. The Effects of the Locus of CAI Control Strategies on the Learning of Mathematics Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetzfried, Leslie; Hannafin, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of the locus of computer assisted instruction (CAI) strategies on low achievers' learning accuracy and efficiency were studied. Externally controlled adaptive, individually based learner control with advisement, and linear control design strategies were used. Effects were examined for CAI strategy, prior achievement, and sex of student.…

  8. Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Secondary School Students' Performance in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Afolabi, Adedeji Olufemi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on secondary school students' performance in biology. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI in individualised or cooperative learning settings package was examined. The research was a quasi experimental involving a 3 x 2 factorial…

  9. Audio-Tutorial and CAI Aids for Problem Solving in Introductory Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower, Stephen K.

    1970-01-01

    Starting from a successful audio-tutorial program, the author initiated a computer assisted tutorial program in solving chemistry problems. Discusses the advantages of computer assisted instruction (CAI) over audiotapes and the advantages of both over conventional instructional methods. Presents a flow chart of a CAI program on a calorimetry…

  10. System for the incineraton of refuse and the treatment of the incineration exhaust gasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.

    1991-09-24

    This patent describes a method for the incineration of refuse and the treatment of incineration exhaust gases, it comprises: incinerating the refuse in a fire box having air intake means, oil decomposition product removal means, and exhaust gas off take means, directing the gases from the off take means to cooling means, treating the exhaust gases in the cooling means by heat exchange with a cooling liquid, passing the exhaust gases through filtration means whereby particulates are removed from the exhaust gases, subjecting the exhaust gases to after-burning in a closed after-burner chamber, passing the exhaust gases through a wash assembly whereby the exhaust gases are passed through a water bath and subjected to a water spray, and discharging the cleaned exhaust gases to the atmosphere.

  11. Environmental impacts of post-consumer material managements: recycling, biological treatments, incineration.

    PubMed

    Valerio, F

    2010-11-01

    The environmental impacts of recycling, mechanical biological treatments (MBT) and waste-to-energy incineration, the main management strategies to respond to the increasing production of post-consumer materials are reviewed and compared. Several studies carried out according to life-cycle assessment (LCA) confirm that the lowest environmental impact, on a global scale, is obtained by recycling and by biological treatments (composting and anaerobic fermentations) if compost is used in agriculture. The available air emission factors suggest that, on a local scale, mechanical biological treatments with energy recovery of biogas, may be intrinsically safer than waste-to-energy incinerators. Several studies confirm the capability of biological treatments to degrade many toxic xenobiotic contaminating urban wastes such as dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, an important property to be improved, for safe agricultural use of compost. Further LCA studies to compare the environmental impact of MBTs and of waste-to-energy incinerators are recommended.

  12. INAA of CAIs from the Maralinga CK4 chondrite: Effects of parent body thermal metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Keller, L. P.; Martinez, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    Maralinga is an anomalous CK4 carbonaceous chondrite which contains numerous Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) unlike the other members of the CK group. These CAI's are characterized by abundant green hercynitic spinel intergrown with plagioclase and high-Ca clinopyroxene, and a total lack of melilite. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to further characterize the meteorite, with special focus on the CAI's. High sensitivity INAA was done on eight sample disks about 100-150 microns in diameter obtained from a normal 30 micron thin section with a diamond microcoring device. The CAI's are enriched by 60-70X bulk meteorite values in Zn, suggesting that the substantial exchange of Fe for Mg that made the spinel in the CAI's hercynitic also allowed efficient scavenging of Zn from the rest of the meteorite during parent body thermal metamorphism. Less mobile elements appear to have maintained their initial heterogeneity.

  13. Thermal treatment of historical radioactive solid and liquid waste into the CILVA incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Deckers, Jan; Mols, Ludo

    2007-07-01

    Since the very beginning of the nuclear activities in Belgium, the incineration of radioactive waste was chosen as a suitable technique for achieving an optimal volume reduction of the produced waste quantities. Based on the 35 years experience gained by the operation of the old incinerator, a new industrial incineration plant started nuclear operation in May 1995, as a part of the Belgian Centralized Treatment/Conditioning Facility named CILVA. Up to the end of 2006, the CILVA incinerator has burnt 1660 tonne of solid waste and 419 tonne of liquid waste. This paper describes the type and allowable radioactivity of the waste, the incineration process, heat recovery and the air pollution control devices. Special attention is given to the treatment of several hundreds of tonne historical waste from former reprocessing activities such as alpha suspected solid waste, aqueous and organic liquid waste and spent ion exchange resins. The capacity, volume reduction, chemical and radiological emissions are also evaluated. BELGOPROCESS, a company set up in 1984 at Dessel (Belgium) where a number of nuclear facilities were already installed is specialized in the processing of radioactive waste. It is a subsidiary of ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Nuclear Waste Management Agency. According to its mission statement, the activities of BELGOPROCESS focus on three areas: treatment, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste; decommissioning of shut-down nuclear facilities and cleaning of contaminated buildings and land; operating of storage sites for conditioned radioactive waste. (authors)

  14. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-05-01

    After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8×10(3) times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs, although no such relationship has been found for TEQ.

  15. Design Specification for Test and Evaluation of the NATO Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS) Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-23

    testing (i.e., testing of individual interfaces) for a critical subset of the SWG CAIS interfaces. The second category of testing activities includes...for correctness in the functionality of critical interfaces. These critical interfaces are defined in Section 2.2. The second category, usability...QUEUE-MANAGEMENT CAM-.STANDARD None CAM- DEFENITIONS CAMSJO..DEINITJONS CAI IST-MANAGEMENT CAIS.ACCESS-.CONTROL- MANAGEMENT CAIS-SCROLL-TERMNAL-10 CA1S

  16. Control efficiency determination of sudden expansion incinerator bldg 348, Kelly AFB, Texas. Final report, 19 July 1995-11 January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    Compliance emissions testing and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) destruction efficiency determination were conducted on the Sudden Expansion (SUE) Incinerator located at the Kelly AFB Fuel Accessory Test Facility, Bldg 348. The purpose of the Kelly AFB SUE Incinerator is to destroy calibration fluid vapors emitted from fuel accessory test stands located in Bldg 348. The incinerator can also be used to destroy liquid waste calibration fluid by burning it as a supplemental fuel. Emissions testing was conducted during combustion of both vapors and liquid calibration fluid. For purposes of determining the incinerator VOC destruction efficiency, monitoring for Total VOC concentration in the inlet air stream was conducted on 19-20 July 1995. Emissions testing of the incinerator exhaust was conducted on 10-11 January 1996 and included monitoring for Total VOC, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and visible emissions.

  17. Phosphate Bonded Solidification of Radioactive Incinerator Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B. W.

    1999-04-13

    The incinerator at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site burns low level radioactive and hazardous waste. Ash and scrubber system waste streams are generated during the incineration process. Phosphate Ceramic technology is being tested to verify the ash and scrubber waste streams can be stabilized using this solidification method. Acceptance criteria for the solid waste forms include leachability, bleed water, compression testing, and permeability. Other testing on the waste forms include x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  18. A technical look at the WTI incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    EPA has granted Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) temporary authorization to burn hazardous waste in its new incinerator in East Liverpool, Ohio. The approval is based on preliminary data showing that the incinerator was able to meet EPA`s emission standards for dioxins and furans in tests run this summer. WTI is allowed to continue burning waste pending final evaluation of its March 1993 performance tests. The action marks yet another hurdle cleared by WTI in its 11-year effort to construct and operate a commercial hazardous waste incinerator. The facility`s long-standing predicament as a target for environmental and public interest groups has made it the subject of numerous lawsuits and many legal reviews. In this article, however, we focus on the technical aspects of the system. The WTI incinerator is described in {open_quotes}Performance Testing of a Rotary Kiln Incinerator,{close_quotes} a paper by Alfred Sigg of Von Roll, Incorporated (Norcross, Georgia). The paper was presented at the 1993 Incineration Conference, which was held in Knoxville, Tennessee on May 3-7, 1993. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Incinerator system arrangement with dual scrubbing chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Domnitch, I.

    1987-01-13

    An incinerator arrangement is described comprising: an incinerator housing located near the lowest point in a building, the housing containing incinerator elements therein; a chute-flue having a first end in communication with the incinerator housing, a second end at the top of the building for evacuation of combustion gases to the atmosphere therethrough, and at least one intermediately located waste disposal opening through which waste is dropped into the incinerator housing; the incinerator elements including: a main combustion chamber, an opening between the main combustion chamber and the first end of the chute-flue and a flue-damper covering the opening. The flue-damper is biased in a closed position and being operable by the weight of waste to admit the waste into the combustion chamber; a scrubbing chamber located exteriorly along the top of the combustion chamber and having a first opening into the combustion chamber and a second opening into the chute-flue; and water spraying means in the scrubbing chamber for directing a water spray at the combustion gases to wash particulate matter from the gases before the gases enter the chute-flue whereby the water spraying means which are located adjacent the combustion chamber are protected against freezing and the elements.

  20. Energy recovery system for an incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Erlandsson, K.I.

    1984-12-04

    An energy recovery system for an incinerator. Hot flue gases from the incinerator are discharged into a vertical stack and the lower end of the stack is connected through an auxiliary conduit to a heat exchanger, such as a steam or hot water boiler. An induced draft fan draws the hot flue gases through the conduit and boiler to generate steam or hot water and a damper is located within the conduit. A fuel burner is connected in the conduit and operates to supply heat to the boiler during periods when the incinerator is not operating. A first flow sensing mechanism is located in the conduit upstream of the boiler, while a second flow sensing mechanism is positioned in the stack downstream of the connection of the stack and the conduit. In the incinerator mode of operation, the second flow sensing mechanism controls the damper in a manner to obtain a substantially zero flow of waste gas through the stack to the atmosphere to insure that all of the waste gas from the incinerator is directed through the conduit to the boiler. During periods when the incinerator is not operating, the burner mode of operation is established and the first flow sensing mechanism controls the damper to obtain substantially zero flow of gas upstream of the burner so that all of the heat from the burner will be directed to the boiler.

  1. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are represented by three main materials: bottom ash, fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Among them ˜80 wt% is bottom ash. All of that materials are products of high temperature (>1000° C) treatment of waste. Incineration process allows to obtain significant reduction of waste mass (up to 70%) and volume (up to 90%) what is commonly used in waste management to reduce the amount need to be landfilled or managed in other way. Incineration promote accumulation non-combustible fraction of waste, which part are metallic elements. That type of concentration is object of concerns about the incineration residues impact on the environment and also gives the possibility of attempts to recover them. Metallic elements are not equally distributed among the materials. Several factors influence the process: melting points, volatility and place and forms of metallic occurrence in the incinerated waste. To investigate metallic elements distribution in MSWI residues samples from one of the biggest MSW incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015. Chemical analysis with emphasis on the metallic elements content were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bottom ash was a SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Na2O rich material, whereas fly ash and APC residues were mostly composed of CaO and SiO2. All of the materials were rich in amorphous phase occurring together with various, mostly silicate crystalline phases. In a mass of bottom ash 11 wt% were metallic elements but also in ashes 8.5 wt% (fly ash) and ˜4.5 wt% (APC residues) of them were present. Among the metallic elements equal distribution between bottom and fly ash was observed for Al (˜3.85 wt%), Mn (770 ppm) and Ni (˜65 ppm). In bottom ash Fe (5.5 wt%), Cr (590 ppm) and Cu (1250 ppm) were concentrated. These values in comparison to fly ash were 5-fold higher for Fe, 3-fold for Cu and 1.5-fold for

  2. Evaluation of the thermal stability POHC incinerability ranking in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.; Whitworth, W.E.; Carroll, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the thermal stability-based POHC incinerability ranking. In the tests, mixtures of 12 POHCs with predicted incinerability spanning the range of most to least difficult to incinerate class were combined with a clay-based sorbent and batch-fed to the facility's pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator via a fiberpack drum ram feeder. Kiln operating conditions were varied to include a baseline operating condition, three modes of attempted incineration failure, and a worst case combination of the three failure modes. Kiln exit POHC DREs were in the 99.99 percent range for the volatile POHCs for the baseline, mixing failure (increased charge mass), and matrix failure (decreased feed H/C) tests. Semivolatile POHCs were not detected in the kiln exit for these tests; corresponding DREs were generally greater than 99.999 percent. The thermal failure (low kiln temperature) and worst case (combination of thermal, mixing, and matrix failure) tests resulted in substantially decreased kiln exit POHC DREs. These ranged from 99 percent or less for Freon 113 to greater than 99.999 percent for the less stable-ranked semivolatile POHCs. General agreement between relative kiln exit POHC DRE and predicted incinerability class was observed.

  3. Pollutant emission characteristics of rice husk combustion in a vortexing fluidized bed incinerator.

    PubMed

    Duan, Feng; Chyang, Chiensong; Chin, Yucheng; Tso, Jim

    2013-02-01

    Rice husk with high volatile content was burned in a pilot scale vortexing fluidized bed incinerator. The fluidized bed incinerator was constructed of 6 mm stainless steel with 0.45 m in diameter and 5 m in height. The emission characteristics of CO, NO, and SO2 were studied. The effects of operating parameters, such as primary air flow rate, secondary air flow rate, and excess air ratio on the pollutant emissions were also investigated. The results show that a large proportion of combustion occurs at the bed surface and the freeboard zone. The SO2 concentration in the flue gas decreases with increasing excess air ratio, while the NOx concentration shows reverse trend. The flow rate of secondary air has a significant impact on the CO emission. For a fixed primary air flowrate, CO emission decreases with the secondary air flowrate. For a fixed excess air ratio, CO emission decreases with the ratio of secondary to primary air flow. The minimum CO emission of 72 ppm is attained at the operating condition of 40% excess air ratio and 0.6 partition air ratio. The NOx and SO2 concentrations in the flue gas at this condition are 159 and 36 ppm, which conform to the EPA regulation of Taiwan.

  4. Two Generations of Sodic Metasomatism in an Allende Type B CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-Aluminum rich inclusions (CAI) in Allende, along with other chondritic compo-nents, experienced variable amounts and types of alter-ation of their mineralogy and chemistry. In CAIs, one of the principal types of alteration led to the depo-sition of nepheline and sodalite. Here we extend initial obervations of alteration in an Allende CAI, focus-ing on occurences of nepheline and a nepheline-like phase with unusally high Ca (referred to as "calcic nepheline" in this abstract). Detailed petrographic and microchemical observations of alteration phases in an Allende Type B CAI (TS4) show that two separate generations of "nepheline", with very distinct composi-tions, crystallized around the margins and in the interi-or of this CAI. We use observations of micro-faults as potential temporal markers, in order to place constraints on the timing of alteration events in Allende. These observa-tions of micro-faulting that truncate and offset one gen-eration of "nepheline" indicate that some "nepheline" crystallized before incorporation of the CAI into the Allende parent-body. Some of the sodic metasomatism in some Allende CAIs occurred prior to Allende par-ent-body assembly. The earlier generation of "calcic-nepheline" has a very distinctive, calcium-rich compo-sition, and the second generation is low in calcium, and matches the compositions of nephelines found in near-by altered chondrules, and in the Allende matrix.

  5. Energy recovery and cogeneration from an existing municipal incinerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crego, D. F.; Eller, V. L.; Stephenson, J. W.

    1982-02-01

    An existing 727 TPD incinerator burning mixed municipal refuse was deemed to be a feasible candidate for a cogeneration energy retrofit. It is indicated that equipment and construction of the retrofit will cost $17.6 million or $24,200/rated tonne in 1980 dollars; air pollution control equipment will cost 10.4 million or $14,300/tonne. Furnace temperature and gas samplings along with pilot air pollution control equipment tests were conducted. Refuse was characterized on both wet and dry seasons. Final design is based upon burning 155,000 TPY of refuse from which can be generated, sufficient steam and electricity for inhouse use and an additional amount of 64 million kWh for sale.

  6. Numerical study of radiation effect on the municipal solid waste combustion characteristics inside an incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jingfu Xue, Yanqing; Zhang, Xinxin; Shu, Xinran

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A 3-D model for the MSW incinerator with preheated air was developed. • Gas radiative properties were obtained from a statistical narrow-band model. • Non-gray body radiation model can provide more accurate simulation results. - Abstract: Due to its advantages of high degree volume reduction, relatively stable residue, and energy reclamation, incineration becomes one of the best choices for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal. However, detailed measurements of temperature and gas species inside a furnace are difficulty by conventional experimental techniques. Therefore, numerical simulation of MSW incineration in the packed bed and gas flow field was applied. In this work, a three dimensional (3-D) model of incinerator system, including flow, heat transfer, detailed chemical mechanisms, and non-gray gas models, was developed. Radiation from the furnace wall and the flame formed above the bed is of importance for drying and igniting the waste. The preheated air with high temperature is used for the MSW combustion. Under the conditions of high temperature and high pressure, MSW combustion produces a variety of radiating gases. The wavelength-depend radiative properties of flame adopted in non-gray radiation model were obtained from a statistical narrow-band model. The influence of radiative heat transfer on temperature, flow field is researched by adiabatic model (without considering radiation), gray radiation model, and non-gray radiation model. The simulation results show that taking into account the non-gray radiation is essential.

  7. Comparative evaluation of municipal solid waste incinerator designs by flow simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Shin, D.; Choi, S.

    1996-08-01

    Flow simulations have been carried out to evaluate the effects of combustion chamber design and air/combustion gas flow configuration on the overall performance of municipal solid waste incinerators. Computational results show velocity and temperature fields in the entire region of flow passage. Local recirculations and uneven distributions of flow velocity and temperature should be minimized and mixing is to be enhanced. Two parameters are proposed to help quantify the overall flow condition. The degree of mixing of different species, which enter the incinerator from the air and combustion gas inlets, is represented by the mixing parameter {alpha}. Here, {alpha} is calculated on the nodal points. The probability distribution of {alpha} in the entire computational domain is used for comparative evaluation of incinerator designs. The thermal decomposition parameter {beta} is calculated by integrating the kinetic rates along the trajectory of a fluid element. This parameter represents the portion of the unreacted materials among the total pollutants released from the bed. By employing these parameters, various incinerator design alternatives can be quantitatively analyzed from two principal viewpoints, i.e., the effectiveness in mixing and the thermal decomposition of pollutants.

  8. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Brogaard, L.K.; Riber, C.; Christensen, T.H.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Materials and energy used for the construction of waste incinerators were quantified. • The data was collected from five incineration plants in Scandinavia. • Included were six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. • The capital goods contributed 2–3% compared to the direct emissions impact on GW. - Abstract: Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000–26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000–5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7–14 kg CO{sub 2} per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO{sub 2} per tonne of waste combusted.

  9. Microstructural Investigation of a Wark-Lovering Rim on a Vigarano CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, J.; Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.; Simon, J. I.

    2015-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi-layered mineral sequences that surround many CAIs. These rim layers consist of the primary minerals found in the CAI interiors, but vary in their mineralogy. Several models for their origin have been proposed including condensation, reaction with a nebular gas, evaporation, or combinations of these. However, there still is little consensus on how and when the rims formed. Here, we describe the microstructure and mineralogy of a WL rim on a type B CAI from the Vigarano CV(sub red) chondrite using FIB/TEM to better understand the astrophysical significance of WL rim formation.

  10. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling.

    PubMed

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2013-10-15

    The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (TCd=69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required.

  11. Kiln control for incinerating waste

    SciTech Connect

    Byerly, H.L.; Kuhn, B.R.; Matter, D.C.; Vassiliou, E.

    1993-07-20

    An incinerating kiln device is described capable of controlling the viscosity of molten slag contained within and discharged from the kiln, the device comprising a rotary kiln having a substantially cylindrical shape, an outside skin, a center axis, an inlet, and an outlet opposite the inlet, the kiln being inclined so that the slag exits from the outlet at a discharge position, and wherein the center axis and a line crossing the center axis and having the direction of gravity define a plane of zero position, the distance between the discharge position and the plane of zero position being an indirect measure of the angular viscosity of the slag, the higher said distance the higher the angular viscosity; first detection means at the outlet of the kiln for detecting the distance between the discharge position and the plane of zero position, thus determining the angular viscosity of the slag; and means for correcting the viscosity of the slag, if the distance between the plane of zero position and the discharge position deviates from a desired value, by feeding an additive to the inlet of the kiln.

  12. An assessment of dioxin contamination from the intermittent operation of a municipal waste incinerator in Japan and associated remediation.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Nobuo; Takaoka, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    Significant dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs)) pollution from a municipal solid waste incinerator was discovered in 1997 in Osaka prefecture/Japan. The cause and mechanism of pollution was identified by a detailed assessment of the environment and incinerator plant. The primary sources of PCDD/PCDF pollution were high dioxin releases from an intermittently operated waste incinerator with PCDD/PCDF emissions of 150 ng-TEQ/Nm(3). PCDD/PCDF also accumulated in the wet scrubber system (3,000 μg TEQ/L) by adsorption and water recirculation in the incinerator. Scrubber water was air-cooled with a cooling tower located on the roof of the incinerator. High concentrations of dioxins in the cooling water were released as aerosols into the surrounding and caused heavy soil pollution in the area near the plant. These emissions were considered as the major contamination pathway from the plant. Decontamination and soil remediation in and around the incinerator plant were conducted using a variety of destruction technologies (including incineration, photochemical degradation and GeoMelt technology). Although the soil remediation process was successfully finished in December 2006 about 3% of the waste still remains. The case demonstrates that releases from incinerators which do not use best available technology or which are not operated according to best environmental practices can contaminate their operators and surrounding land. This significant pollution had a large impact on the Japanese government's approach toward controlling dioxin pollution. Since this incident, a ministerial conference on dioxins has successfully strengthened control measures.

  13. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► PAHs generation and distribution features of medical waste incineration are studied. ► More PAHs were found in fly ash than that in bottom ash. ► The highest proportion of PAHs consisted of the seven most carcinogenic ones. ► Increase of free oxygen molecule and burning temperature promote PAHs degradation. ► There is a moderate positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs. - Abstract: After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8 × 10{sup 3} times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between

  14. Mound cyclone incinerator. Volume I. Description and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Klingler, L.M.

    1981-12-22

    The Mound cyclone incinerator was developed to fill a need for a simple, relaible incinerator for volume reduction of dry solid waste contaminated with plutonium-238. Although the basic design of the incinerator is for batch burning of solid combustible waste, the incinerator has also been adapted to volume reduction of other waste forms. Specialized waste feeding equipment enables continuous burning of both solid and liquid waste, including full scintillation vials. Modifications to the incinerator offgas system enable burning of waste contaminated with isotopes other than plutonium-238. This document presents the design and performance characteristics of the Mound Cyclone Incinerator for incineration of both solid and liquid waste. Suggestions are included for adaptation of the incinerator to specialized waste materials.

  15. Environmental, health and safety issues: Incinerator filters nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Mark R.; Plata, Desiree L.

    2012-08-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles introduced into a full-scale incinerator are properly filtered and remain in ash residues, but other risks from nanoparticles generated or altered by incinerators should not be overlooked.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION IN CFC INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the collection of combustion emission characterization data from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) incineration. A bench scale test program to provide emission characterization data from CFC incineration was developed and performed, with emphasis on the format...

  17. 13. Southwest corner of burning hood and incinerator. North wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Southwest corner of burning hood and incinerator. North wall of scrubber cell room. Looking southwest. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  18. OBSERVATIONS ON WASTE DESTRUCTION IN LIQUID INJECTION INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various factors affecting the performance of a subscale liquid injection incinerator simulator are discussed. The mechanisms by which waste escapes incineration within the spray flame are investigated for variations in atomization quality, flame stoichiometry. and the initial was...

  19. Front (west side) and north side of building with incinerator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (west side) and north side of building with incinerator smokestack (building 615) in right background - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Incinerator Building, 540 feet East-Northeast of intersection of East Bushnell Avenue & South Van Valzah Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  20. Smokestack with incinerator building in background and unnumbered building lower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Smokestack with incinerator building in background and unnumbered building lower right - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Incinerator Smokestack, 560 feet east-northeast of intersection of East Bushnell Avenue, & South Van Valzah Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. South and east sides of building with incinerator smokestack in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South and east sides of building with incinerator smokestack in left foreground - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Incinerator Building, 540 feet East-Northeast of intersection of East Bushnell Avenue & South Van Valzah Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  2. 7. Process areas room. Incinerator and glove boxes (hoods) to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Process areas room. Incinerator and glove boxes (hoods) to the right. Filter boxes to the left. Looking south. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  3. 18. Process area room. Incinerator to the left. Filter boxes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Process area room. Incinerator to the left. Filter boxes on the right. Looking north towards change room. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  4. 1. SUBMERGED QUENCH INCINERATOR. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rocky Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SUBMERGED QUENCH INCINERATOR. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Submerged Quench Incinerator, 3940 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 930 feet West of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. Smokestack with incinerator building (building 616) to right and unnumbered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Smokestack with incinerator building (building 616) to right and unnumbered building to right - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Incinerator Smokestack, 560 feet east-northeast of intersection of East Bushnell Avenue, & South Van Valzah Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. An investigation of the efficiency of plasma incineration for destruction of aromatics in incinerator ash

    SciTech Connect

    Retarides, C.J.; Chevis, E.A.; Busch, K.L.

    1994-12-31

    Plasma incineration is being investigated as a means for the vitrification of ash from a conventional incinerator. Incinerator ash, consisting of 20% bottom ash and 80% fly ash, is introduced into a plasma incinerator operated at a power of 100 kW. The sample is vitrified, leaving a glassy material that is more dense and therefore less voluminous than the ash, for disposal. Volume reduction by up to a factor of twenty may be achieved through this process. The resulting material can be used as concrete fill or can be disposed of in a landfill at a much lower cost than the original ash. Plasma incineration should also result in the nearly complete destruction of hazardous organic compounds. Plasma temperatures commonly reach more than 3000 Kelvin resulting in the thermal destruction of most organic compounds. The extent of the destruction of organic compounds found in incinerator ash has been investigated. Plasma incineration was completed at the Georgia Tech Research Institute Plasma Research Center (GTRI). All ash vitrified product samples were obtained from GTRI.

  7. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIs Record Varying Composition of Protosolar Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, J. I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-03-01

    High-resolution O-isotopic zoning profiles obtained by NanoSIMS indicate a progressive and cyclic record of exchange between CAIs and distinct nebular gases. Numerical models are used to constrain conditions and duration of these exchange events.

  8. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  9. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  10. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  11. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  12. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  13. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  14. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  15. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  16. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  17. Recommendations for continuous emissions monitoring of mixed waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, G.P.

    1992-02-01

    Considerable quantities of incinerable mixed waste are being stored in and generated by the DOE complex. Mixed waste is defined as containing a hazardous component and a radioactive component. At the present time, there is only one incinerator in the complex which has the proper TSCA and RCRA permits to handle mixed waste. This report describes monitoring techniques needed for the incinerator.

  18. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  19. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered.

  20. Test Operation of Oxygen-Enriched Incinerator for Wastes From Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.-G.; Yang, H.cC.; Park, G.-I.; Kim, I.-T.; Kim, J.-K.

    2002-02-26

    The oxygen-enriched combustion concept, which can minimize off-gas production, has been applied to the incineration of combustible uranium-containing wastes from a nuclear fuel fabrication facility. A simulation for oxygen combustion shows the off-gas production can be reduced by a factor of 6.7 theoretically, compared with conventional air combustion. The laboratory-scale oxygen enriched incineration (OEI) process with a thermal capacity of 350 MJ/h is composed of an oxygen feeding and control system, a combustion chamber, a quencher, a ceramic filter, an induced draft fan, a condenser, a stack, an off-gas recycle path, and a measurement and control system. Test burning with cleaning paper and office paper in this OEI process shows that the thermal capacity is about 320 MJ/h, 90 % of design value and the off-gas reduces by a factor of 3.5, compared with air combustion. The CO concentration for oxygen combustion is lower than that of air combustion, while the O2 concentration in off-gas is kept above 25 vol % for a simple incineration process without any grate. The NOx concentration in an off-gas stream does not reduce significantly due to air incoming by leakage, and the volume and weight reduction factors are not changed significantly, which suggests a need for an improvement in sealing.